National Survey on Drug Use and Health The NSDUH Report Data Spotlight September 9, 2013 18 Percent of Pregnant VA60 Women Drink Alcohol during Early Pregnancy Women who drink alcohol while pregnant increase the risk that their infants will have physical, learning, and/ ...
Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang
Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844
Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin
Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052
Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki
Background In 2012, the recommendation for immediate contact and visit to obstetric institutions by pregnant women was emphasized by The Japan Obstetric Compensation System for Cerebral Palsy (JOCSC). In this study, we examined whether or not the increased awareness has led to the improvement of perinatal outcomes of placental abruption managed at private clinics. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of 38 singleton pregnant women complicated by placental abruption that developed at home, and were managed at private clinics from April 2008 through April 2016. Results The perinatal outcomes, specifically the rate of cases with ≥ 1 hour time interval between symptom onset and clinic visit, have not changed significantly after the intervention. Conclusion The provision of information regarding the early clinical symptoms associated with placental abruption in pregnant women has not been well documented in Japan. PMID:27540442
Okun, Michele L; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H
Although a substantial number of pregnant women report symptoms of insomnia, few studies have used a validated instrument to determine the prevalence in early gestation. Identification of insomnia in pregnancy is vital given the strong connection between insomnia and the incidence of depression, cardiovascular disease, or immune dysregulation. The goal of this paper is to provide additional psychometric evaluation and validation of the Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) and to establish prevalence rates of insomnia among a cohort of pregnant women during early gestation. The ISQ was evaluated in 143 pregnant women at 12 weeks gestation. The internal consistency and criterion validity of the dichotomized ISQ were compared to traditional measures of sleep from sleep diaries, actigraphy, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using indices of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV), and likelihood ratio (LR) tests. The ISQ identified 12.6% of the sample as meeting a case definition of insomnia, consistent with established diagnostic criteria. Good reliability was established with Cronbach α = 0.86. The ISQ had high specificity (most > 85%), but sensitivity, PPV, NPV, and LRs varied according to which sleep measure was used as the validating criterion. Insomnia is a health problem for many pregnant women at all stages in pregnancy. These data support the validity and reliability of the ISQ to identify insomnia in pregnant women. The ISQ is a short and cost-effective tool that can be quickly employed in large observational studies or in clinical practice where perinatal women are seen. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 593. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri
Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.
Mofidi, Mahyar; Zeldin, Leslie P; Rozier, R Gary
We explored the oral health knowledge, attitudes, and activities of Early Head Start (EHS) staff members, parents, and pregnant women, along with their suggestions related to future oral health educational interventions targeting EHS children. Nine focus groups were conducted with EHS staff, parents, and pregnant women. Audiotapes of sessions were transcribed and entered into ATLAS.ti 5.0 for coding and analysis. Attitudes about the importance of children's oral health among parents and pregnant women were mixed. Staff members voiced responsibility for children's oral health but frustration in their inability to communicate effectively with parents. Parents in turn perceived staff criticism regarding how they cared for their children's oral health. Gaps were noted in the oral health activities of EHS programs. Participants expressed confusion regarding the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS. The need for culturally sensitive, hands-on oral health education was highlighted. Tailored, theory-based interventions are needed to improve communication between EHS staff and families. Clear policies on the application of Head Start oral health performance standards to EHS are warranted. Educational activities should address the needs and suggestions of EHS participants.
Stephens, Trina V; Payne, Magdalene; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel
Adequate maternal dietary protein intake is necessary for healthy pregnancy. However, current protein intake recommendations for healthy pregnant women are based on factorial calculations of nitrogen balance data derived from nonpregnant adults. Thus, an estimate of protein requirements based on pregnancy-specific data is needed. The objective of this study was to determine protein requirements of healthy pregnant women at 11-20 (early) and 31-38 (late) wk of gestation through use of the indicator amino acid oxidation method. Twenty-nine healthy women (24-37 y) each randomly received a different test protein intake (range: 0.22-2.56 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) during each study day in early (n = 35 observations in 17 women) and late (n = 43 observations in 19 women) gestation; 7 women participated in both early and late gestation studies. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 × resting energy expenditure. Protein was given as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on egg protein composition, except phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained constant across intakes. Protein requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation rate of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 (F(13)CO2). Breath and urine samples were collected at baseline and isotopic steady state. Linear regression crossover analysis identified a breakpoint (requirement) at minimal F(13)CO2 in response to different protein intakes. The estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein in early and late gestation was determined to be 1.22 (R(2) = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.66 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) (R(2) = 0.63; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.77 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), respectively. These estimates are considerably higher than the EAR of 0.88 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to directly estimate gestational stage-specific protein requirements in healthy pregnant women and suggests that current
Benoit, Cecilia; Stengel, Camille; Marcellus, Lenora; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga; Anderson, John; MacKinnon, Karen; Phillips, Rachel; Zazueta, Pilar; Charbonneau, Sinead
The research literature indicates that problematic substance use as a form of health behaviour is poorly understood, being sometimes viewed as deviance, at other times as a disease, and most often as a combination of these states. The use of substances by women who are pregnant or new parents is often conceptualised within an individualised framework. Yet drinking alcohol and using other drugs during pregnancy and early parenthood cuts across social divisions and is shaped by socio-structural contexts including health care. There is a growing body of literature that critically examines public health interventions that are aimed at implementing harm reduction and health promotion techniques in service delivery to help pregnant and early parenting women who are identified as problem substance users. We examine qualitative data from representatives of a recent harm reduction intervention, focusing, in particular, on providers' individual conceptualisations of the problematic behaviour. Our results show that most study participants regard any substance use during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period as fundamentally unacceptable. This framing of problematic substance use is accomplished via gendered responsibilisation of women as foetal incubators and primary caregivers of infants. We discuss our results in light of the current literature and suggest policy implications. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri
Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women’s physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines effects of pregnant women’s (1) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (2) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. We used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. We also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887
Zhou, Li-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Lan, Yong-Lian; Li, Ying; Liang, Yu; Yu, Lan; Ma, Yan-Min; Jia, Chan-Wei; Wang, Shu-Yu
To determine the risk factors of the pregnant women with early spontaneous abortion in Beijing. A total of 34,417 cases of pregnant women were participated in the survey from January 2000 to December 2013. A questionnaire was informed to each woman. The content of questionnaire includes four parts: general condition, obstetrical history, past history and family history, and living environment and habits. The mental condition was evaluated with Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). A total of 32,296 questionnaires were collected. The spontaneous abortion rate in the total sample was 3.0%. There was no significant difference between the normal pregnancy group and spontaneous abortion group in terms of general condition, obstetrical and past history (P>0.05). Significant differences between the two groups were found in terms of decoration during pregnancy, keeping pets, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence, drinking during pregnancy, having a cold during pregnancy and SAS (P<0.05). Having a cold during pregnancy, decoration during pregnancy, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence, keeping pets and high SAS were determined the independent risk factors of spontaneous abortion by Logistic regression analysis. Having a cold during pregnancy, decoration, keeping pets, near mobile communication base station within 100 m around the residence and high SAS are the independent risk factors of spontaneous abortion in Beijing.
Kuo, Pi-Chao; Bowers, Beverly; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Chen, Chung-Hey; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Lee, Maw-Sheng
The aim of this study was to investigate maternal-foetal attachment at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation and to identify factors that influenced maternal-foetal attachment in Taiwanese women who conceived by in vitro fertilization. Development of maternal-foetal attachment is an important part of taking on the maternal role. However, evidence about maternal-foetal attachment after assisted conception is inconclusive. A longitudinal design with repeated measures. A prospective, longitudinal design with repeated measures was used. Over an 18-month period in 2006-2008, a convenience sample of 160 women who conceived after undergoing successful in vitro fertilization were recruited from a major infertility care centre in Taiwan. Data were collected by self-reported measures, including: (1) Maternal-Foetal Attachment Scale; (2) Symptoms Checklist; (3) Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale; (4) Social Support Apgar; (5) Chinese childbearing attitude Questionnaire; and (6) Awareness of Foetus Scale. The selected instruments to measure each variable were administered to participants at 9, 12 and 20 weeks gestation. Maternal-foetal attachment increased as pregnancy progressed from 9 to 20 weeks gestation. General linear mixed model showed predictors of maternal-foetal attachment included Chinese childbearing attitude, awareness of the foetus, and social support. Health provider awareness of cultural influences on the development of early maternal-foetal attachment of women pregnant by in vitro fertilization is needed. Prenatal education in early pregnancy might incorporate more information about foetal development to allow the mother to visualize her unborn child. Providing social support for women who were conceived by in vitro fertilization is beneficial to the development of maternal-foetal attachment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dimitrova, Mariana M
The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge pregnant women have of infant and baby's feeding as a risk factor for early childhood caries. The study included 200 pregnant women from Plovdiv and the region aged 18 to 41 with different educational backgrounds. A questionnaire was administered to all participants with question related to feeding babies and small children. The results were analysed using alternative analysis, non-parametric (chi2) test, Student t-test and graphic analysis. P < 0.05 was adopted as the level of significance of null hypothesis. The results show a low level of the knowledge pregnant women have of feeding as a potential risk factor for early childhood caries. A great percentage of the women with second and subsequent pregnancies gave wrong answers to at least one of the questions in the questionnaire. Based on the results of the study there is much reason to think that many pregnant women have inadequate knowledge of infant feeding. Introduction of educational programmes is essential with the purpose of raising the mothers' health care awareness in relation to children's dental health.
Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E
The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.
Haq, A; Mothi, B A; Al-Hussein, K; Al-Tufail, M; Hollanders, J; Jaroudi, K; Al-Waili, N; Shabani, M
Early pregnancy factor (EPF) is a pregnancy protein, which is secreted into the maternal serum 12-16 hours after fertilization. It is thought to be an immunosuppressive molecule. EPF is detected in pregnant woman's serum by the rosette inhibition assay (RIA). In this study, EPF was purified from the pregnant woman's sera by using ion exchange chromatography and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The proteins which showed a positive result with the RIA, were found to be 35 kDa and 17 kDa molecular weights. The biological activities of these proteins were stable upon heat treatment at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Proteins isolated and purified in this study might be of great significance to the field of human reproduction with particular reference to pregnancy and recurrent abortion.
Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy
Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non
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Mackenzie, Graham; Dougall, Angela
Poverty has a detrimental impact on health and wellbeing. Healthy Start food and vitamin vouchers provide support for low income families across the UK, but at least 25% of eligible women and children miss out. We set out to increase uptake, with an aim of 90% of eligible women and children (n~540 eligible, varying over time) receiving vouchers in the initial team's catchment area by December 2015. Starting with one midwife and one pregnant woman in March 2014 we used the model for improvement to identify ways to improve documentation, sign up, and referral. Weekly data on process measures and monthly data on voucher receipt were plotted on run charts. Comparing medians for January-June 2014 and March-August 2015 there was a 13.3% rise in voucher receipt in Lothian (increase from 313 to 355 women), versus an 8.4% decline for the rest of Scotland (fall from 1688 to 1546 women). Figures varied by team, influenced by staff, family, and area factors. The initial aim proved unrealistic, as signing up a woman for vouchers increases both the numerator and denominator. Accordingly, the percentage uptake has not increased at a regional level (remains at 75%), though the figure for the initiating team ("team 3" in graphs) has increased from 73.0% (January 2014) to 79.0% (November 2015). We have continued testing, achieving recent increases in the number of women referred for welfare rights advice on benefits, tax credits, employment rights, childcare, and debt, securing on average £4,500 per client during 2015/16 (£404k for 89 clients by mid September 2015). This improvement project, part of the Early Years Collaborative in Scotland, has had a measureable impact on pregnant women across Lothian. Success has relied on testing, an electronic maternity record, rapid dissemination of findings through direct engagement with clinical teams, and persistence. Our findings have relevance across the UK, particularly at a time of worsening finances for many families.
Aranha, C; Natraj, U; Iyer, K S; Shahani, S
Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)-like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women. Lymphocyte proliferation assay and 35S-methionine labeling were done to study de novo synthesis of proteins followed by autoradiography to confirm synthesis of proteins. The rosette inhibition assay was used for detection of the EPF-like molecule. Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and RPHPLC were used for purification of the EPF-like molecule. The rate of incorporation of 35S-methionine was significantly higher in the lymphocytes of pregnant women compared to those of the control, and autoradiography confirmed the synthesis of proteins during pregnancy. There is a total protein enhancement trend observed during the first trimester that declines toward term. The EPF-like molecule is observed to be synthesized during all the trimesters of pregnancy. This molecule, when purified, showed a single homogeneous biologically active peak. The results indicated that there is an enhancement of existing protein or synthesis of new proteins during pregnancy. The EPF-like molecule is one of the many proteins synthesized and secreted by lymphocytes during pregnancy that, when purified, is biologically active.
Ogawa, Kohei; Jwa, Seung-Chik; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Morisaki, Naho; Sago, Haruhiko; Fujiwara, Takeo
No previous study has shown the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in early pregnancy with consideration of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a FFQ in early pregnancy for Japanese pregnant women. We included 188 women before 15 weeks of gestation and compared estimated nutrient intake and food group intake based on a modified FFQ with that based on 3-day dietary records (DRs). Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, adjusting energy intake and attenuating within-person error, were calculated. Subgroup analysis for those with and without NVP was conducted. We also examined the degree of appropriate classification across categories between FFQ and DRs through division of consumption of nutrients and food groups into quintiles. Crude Spearman's correlation coefficients of nutrients ranged from 0.098 (sodium) to 0.401 (vitamin C), and all of the 36 nutrients were statistically significant. In 27 food groups, correlation coefficients ranged from -0.015 (alcohol) to 0.572 (yogurt), and 81% were statistically significant. In subgroup analysis, correlation coefficients in 89% of nutrients and 70% of food groups in women with NVP and 97% of nutrients and 74% of food groups in women without NVP were statistically significant. On average, 63.7% of nutrients and 60.4% of food groups were classified into same or adjacent quintiles according to the FFQ and DRs. The FFQ is a useful instrument, regardless of NVP, for assessing the diet of women in early pregnancy in Japan. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Linden, Karolina; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Berg, Marie
This paper explores well-being and diabetes management in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in early pregnancy and investigates associations among perceived well-being, diabetes management, and maternal characteristics. Questionnaires were answered by 168 Swedish women. Correlation analyses were conducted with Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs). The women reported relatively high scores of self-efficacy in diabetes management (SWE-DES-10: 3.91 (0.51)) and self-perceived health (excellent (6.5%), very good (42.3%), good (38.7%), fair (11.3%) and poor (1.2%)). Moderate scores were reported for general well-being (WBQ-12: 22.6 (5.7)) and sense of coherence (SOC-13: 68.9 (9.7), moderate/low scores for hypoglycemia fear (SWE-HFS 26.6 (11.8)) and low scores of diabetes-distress (SWE-PAID-20 27.1 (15.9)). A higher capability of self-efficacy in diabetes management showed positive correlations with self-perceived health (rs = -0.41, p < 0.0001) and well-being (rs = 0.34, p < 0.0001) as well as negative correlations with diabetes distress (rs = -0.51, p < 0.0001) and hypoglycemia worries (rs = -0.27, p = 0.0009). Women with HbA1c levels of ≤48 mmL/mol scored higher in the subscales "goal achievement" in SWE-DES (p = 0.0028) and "comprehensibility" in SOC (p = 0.016). Well-being and diabetes management could be supported by strengthening the women's capability to achieve glycemic goals and their comprehensibility in relation to the treatment. Further studies are needed to test this.
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Payne, Magdalene; Stephens, Trina; Lim, Kenneth; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel
Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in cereal proteins and is found mainly in animal-derived products. Current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations extrapolate lysine requirements during pregnancy from nonpregnant adult data, and may underestimate true requirements. Our objective is to define a quantitative lysine requirement in healthy pregnant women and to determine whether requirements vary between 2 phases of gestation. Fourteen pregnant women in early (12-19 wk) and 19 women in late (33-39 wk) gestation were studied using the indicator amino acid oxidation technique. Individual lysine intakes (6-84 mg · kg-1 · d-1, deficient to excess) were tested on each study day as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on egg protein composition. Isonitrogenous diets maintained protein intake at 1.5 g · kg-1 · d-1 and calorie intake at 1.7 times resting energy expenditure during each study day. Phenylalanine and tyrosine intakes were held constant across all lysine intakes. Breath and urine samples were collected at baseline and isotopic steady state. Lysine requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine to 13CO2 (F13CO2). Biphase linear regression crossover analysis was used to determine a breakpoint (which represents the estimated average requirement, EAR) in F13CO2. The EAR for lysine during early gestation was determined to be 36.6 mg · kg-1 · d-1 (R2 = 0.484, upper 95% CI = 46.2 mg · kg-1 · d-1), similar to an earlier adult requirement of 36 mg · kg-1 · d-1. The EAR for lysine during late gestation was determined to be 50.3 mg · kg-1 · d-1 (R2 = 0.664, upper 95% CI = 60.4 mg · kg-1 · d-1), 23% higher than the current pregnancy DRI EAR recommendation of 41 mg · kg-1 · d-1. Our results suggest that lysine requirements are higher during late gestation compared to early gestation, and that current dietary lysine recommendations during late
Berredjem, Hajira; Aouras, Hayette; Benlaifa, Meriem; Becheker, Imène; Djebar, Mohamed Reda
Acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presents a high risk of Toxoplasma transmission to the fetus. Early diagnosis is difficult, especially when serological testing for IgG/IgM antibodies fail to differentiate between a recent and a past infection. In this case, we rely on IgG avidity or PCR assays. The aim of this study was to compare conventional ELISA and IgG avidity, with PCR using B1 and P30 primers for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Sera were collected from 143 pregnant women and measured by ELISA for anti- Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG avidity. DNA was extracted from 57 peripheral blood and 14 amniotic fluid samples for PCR amplification. A total of 57 out 143 women were seropositive: 30 (52.6%) were IgG+/IgM- and 27 (43.8%) were IgG+/IgM+; IgA antibodies were positive in 7 (12.2%) cases. IgG avidity was low in 9 women suggesting an acute infection; 3 women presented an intermediate avidity. PCR detected Toxoplasma DNA in 9 women presenting low avidity and was negative for the intermediate avidity cases. PCR combined to avidity IgG performed better than ELISA IgG, IgM and/or IgA assays alone. PCR was useful in the case of intermediate avidity.
Song, Kyoung-Ju; Shin, Jong-Chul; Shin, Ho-Joon; Nam, Ho-Woo
This study was performed in order to evaluate the sero-epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant Korean women. Among 5,175 sera and 750 amniotic fluid samples obtained from pregnant women, 41 serum samples (0.79%) and 10 (1.33%) amniotic fluid samples tested positive for IgG antibodies by ELISA. Fifty one cases showing a score more than 0.25 on ELISA were tested for PCR reaction against the SAG1 gene. Only one case of the 51 ELISA positive cases exhibited a positive reaction on all tests. This case had a history of acute nephropyelitis during early pregnancy, but fortunately, had delivered a phenotypically healthy baby. In this study, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was found to be comparatively low, consistent with previous reports from Korea. However our trials, performed with a variety of diagnostic tools, were considered to be useful for the precise diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis.
Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David
Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) had their family physician's cell phone number. More women contacted their gynecologist via cell phone or email during pregnancy compared to their family physician (P = 0.005 and 0.009, resp.). Most preferred to communicate with their physician via cell phone at predetermined times, but by email at any time during the day (P < 0.0001). They would use cell phones for emergencies or unusual problems but preferred email for other matters (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Pregnant women in the Negev region do not have a preference between the use of cell phones or email for medical consultation with their gynecologist or family physician. The provision of the physician's cell phone numbers or email address together with the provision of guidelines and resources could improve healthcare services. PMID:25132848
Davidesko, Sharon; Segal, David; Peleg, Roni
Objective. To assess the use of cell phones and email as means of communication between pregnant women and their gynecologists and family physicians. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women at routine followup. One hundred and twenty women participated in the study. Results. The mean age was 27.4 ± 3.4 years. One hundred nineteen women owned a cell phone and 114 (95%) had an email address. Seventy-two women (60%) had their gynecologist's cell phone number and 50 women (42%) had their family physician's cell phone number. More women contacted their gynecologist via cell phone or email during pregnancy compared to their family physician (P = 0.005 and 0.009, resp.). Most preferred to communicate with their physician via cell phone at predetermined times, but by email at any time during the day (P < 0.0001). They would use cell phones for emergencies or unusual problems but preferred email for other matters (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Pregnant women in the Negev region do not have a preference between the use of cell phones or email for medical consultation with their gynecologist or family physician. The provision of the physician's cell phone numbers or email address together with the provision of guidelines and resources could improve healthcare services.
Elnahas, Amir; Gerais, Abd S; Elbashir, Mustafa I; Eldien, Eltoum S; Adam, Ishag
The aim of this study was to conduct a sero-epidemiological survey of toxoplasmosis in pregnant Sudanese women. Four hundred and eighty-seven pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum and Omdurman, Maternity Hospitals, Sudan during the period June through to December 2000 were counselled for socio-demographic and obstetrical risk factors for toxoplasmosis, and screened for immunoglobin G (IgG) and IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies using enzyme linked immunoassay. Immunoglobin G anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive (titre > 11 IU/ml) in 166/487 (34.1%), while 321/487(65.9%) were sero-negative. The sera of 35 women showed very high titres (>100 IU/ml), 5/35 (14.3%) were IgM-positive. The risk factors for IgG anti-toxoplasma seropositivity were; Southern ethnic origin and consumption of raw meat. Thirty (18.1%) out of 166 women who were IgG anti-toxoplasma seropositive gave history of intrauterine fetal death, while 31 (9.7%) out of 321 women who were sero-negative gave history of intrauterine fetal death, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Over 65% Sudanese women screened for anti-toxoplasma IgG antibodies were sero-negative and they were at risk of sero-conversion during pregnancy. Southers and eating raw meat were the risk factors for toxoplasmosis in Sudanese pregnant women.
Liu, Xin-yan; Bian, Xu-ming; Han, Jing-xiu; Cao, Zhao-jin; Fan, Guang-sheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Wen-li; Zhang, Shu-zhen; Sun, Xiao-guang
To study the relationship between early spontaneous abortion and living environment, and explore the risk factors of spontaneous abortion. We conducted analysis based on the interview of 200 spontaneous abortion cases and the matched control (age +/- 2 years) by using multifactor Logistic regression analysis. The proportions of watching TV > or =10 hours/week, operating computer > or =45 hours/week, using copycat, microwave oven and mobile phone, electromagnetism equipment near the dwell or work place, e. g. switch room < or =50 m and launching tower < or =500 m in the cases are significantly higher than those in the controls in single factor analysis (all P < 0.05). After adjusted the effect of other risk factors by multifactor analysis, using microwave oven and mobile phone, contacting abnormal smell of fitment material > or =3 months, having emotional stress during the first term of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion history were significantly associated with risk of spontaneous abortion. The odds ratios of these risk factors were 2.23 and 4.63, respectively. Using microwave oven and mobile phone, contacting abnormal smell of fitment material > or =3 months, having emotional stress during the first term of pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion history are risk factors of early spontaneous abortion.
... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section implements sections 1902(a)(10)(A)(i...
... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Pregnant women. (a) Basis. This section implements sections 1902(a)(10)(A)(i...
Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain
Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.
Onah, Livinus N; Dim, Cyril C; Nwagha, Uchenna I; Ozumba, Benjamin C
Early amniotomy is common in obstetric practice but, its effectiveness has not been proven. To determine the effects of early amniotomy on the duration of labour, and other maternal / neonatal outcomes of uncomplicated pregnancies in Enugu, South-east Nigeria. A randomized controlled study of 214 consenting term pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria. Intervention group received amniotomy early in active labour while the control group had their membranes conserved. Mean duration of labour for the amniotomy group (279.4 ± 53.7 minutes) was significantly lower than that of control group (354.4 ± 67.5 minutes), (t = -8.988, p <0.001). Three (3.8%) women in amniotomy group needed oxytocin augmentation as against 21 (19.6%) women in the control group RR = 0.14, (CI 95%: 0.04 - 0.46), NNT = 16. The two groups did not vary with respect to cesarean section rate, newborn Apgar scores, and need for new born special care unit admission. Early amniotomy when compared to fetal membrane conservation reduced the duration of labour and need for oxytocin augmentation among term singleton pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria. Its routine use in well selected cases may reduce prolonged labour and its complications.
Tuten, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Heather; Hochheimer, Martin; Jones, Hendree E; Chisolm, Margaret S
This study examined the impact of early patient response on treatment utilization and substance use among pregnant participants enrolled in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Treatment responders (TRs) and treatment nonresponders (TNRs) were compared on pretreatment and treatment measures. Regression models predicted treatment utilization and substance use. TR participants attended more treatment and had lower rates of substance use relative to TNR participants. Regression models for treatment utilization and substance use were significant. Maternal estimated gestational age (EGA) and baseline cocaine use were negatively associated with treatment attendance. Medication-assisted treatment, early treatment response, and baseline SUD treatment were positively associated with treatment attendance. Maternal EGA was negatively associated with counseling attendance; early treatment response was positively associated with counseling attendance. Predictors of any substance use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine use. The single predictor of any substance use at 2 months was early treatment nonresponse. Predictors of opioid use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of opioid use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine and marijuana use. Predictors of cocaine use at 1 month were early treatment nonresponse, baseline cocaine use, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of cocaine use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse and baseline cocaine use. Early treatment response predicts more favorable maternal treatment utilization and substance use outcomes. Treatment providers should implement interventions to maximize patient early response to treatment.
Salih Joelsson, L; Tydén, T; Wanggren, K; Georgakis, M K; Stern, J; Berglund, A; Skalkidou, A
Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally. Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise<2h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49). Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Aune, Ingvild; Möller, Anders
To increase our understanding of how pregnant women experience early ultrasound examination that includes a risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies and how such women perceive the test results. Qualitative study at St. Olavs Hospital in Norway. Both pre- and post-examination interviews were conducted with ten pregnant women who underwent risk assessment for chromosomal anomalies. Grounded theory was used to analyse the results. The study generated a core category (I want a choice, but I don't want to decide), which related to the conflict between choice and decision making. There were also five main categories (existential choices, search for knowledge, anxiety, feeling of guilt and counselling and care). The main categories describe the complex feelings experienced by the women regarding the risk assessment. Factors contributing to the difficulty of choice included loss of control and coping, emotional connection to the fetus and social pressure. As the women sought independent choices without any external influence, they also felt greater responsibility. The women's understanding of the actual risk varied, and they used different types of logic and methods to evaluate the risk and reach a decision. The pregnant women in this study wanted prenatal diagnostic information and easy access to specialty services. Stress-related feelings and non-transparent information about the actual and perceived risks as well as personal moral judgments made the decision-making process complicated. Improved distribution of information and frequent contact with health professionals may help such women to make informed choices in accordance with their values and beliefs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
effect of pregnancy on the workplace . Data were collected from pregnant enlisted women receiving medical care at San Diego and Tidewater area Navy...14 12. Effect of Pregnancy-related Events on the Workplace as Perceived by Pregnant Women (W) and Their Supervisors (S...detailed the following limitations for pregnant women in the workplace : women assigned to ships must be put ashore by the 20th week of pregnancy
Courts and legislatures are increasingly being called upon to restrict the autonomy of pregnant women by requiring them to behave in ways that others determine are best for the fetuses they carry. The state should not attempt to transform pregnant women into ideal baby-making machines. Pregnant women make decisions about their behavior in the context of the rest of their lives, with all the attendant complexities and pressures. Our interest in helping future children by improving prenatal care would best be furthered by helping pregnant women to make informed, less constrained choices, not by punishing women or depriving them of choices altogether.
Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N
We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.
Background Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. Methods The study was based on a review of existing literature – grey and published – and on a key informant interviews (n = 13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. Results The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Conclusions Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous
Witter, Sophie; Garshong, Bertha; Ridde, Valéry
Pregnant women were offered free access to health care through National Health Insurance (NHIS) membership in Ghana in 2008, in the latest phase of policy reforms to ensure universal access to maternal health care. During the same year, free membership was made available to all children (under-18). This article presents an exploratory qualitative analysis of how the policy of free maternal membership was developed and how it is being implemented. The study was based on a review of existing literature - grey and published - and on a key informant interviews (n = 13) carried out in March-June 2012. The key informants included representatives of the key stakeholders in the health system and public administration, largely at national level but also including two districts. The introduction of the new policy for pregnant women was seen as primarily a political initiative, with limited stakeholder consultation. No costing was done prior to introduction, and no additional funds provided to the NHIS to support the policy after the first year. Guidelines had been issued but beyond collecting numbers of women registered, no additional monitoring and evaluation have yet been put in place to monitor its implementation. Awareness of the under-18 s policy amongst informants was so low that this component had to be removed from the final study. Initial barriers to access, such as pregnancy tests, were cited, but many appear to have been resolved now. Providers are concerned about the workload related to services and claims management but have benefited from increased financial resources. Users still face informal charges, and are reported to have responded differentially, with rises in antenatal care and in urban areas highlighted. Policy sustainability is linked to the survival of the NHIS as a whole. Ghana has to be congratulated for its persistence in trying to address financial barriers. However, many themes from previous evaluations of exemptions policies in Ghana have
Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Park, Sunmin; Yoon, Hyun-Koo; Ryu, Hyun-Mee; Han, You Jung; Lee, Si Won; Park, Bo Kyung; Park, So-Young; Yim, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Sung-Hoon
The association between vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester and GDM development remains controversial in various ethnicities. We prospectively assessed whether pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during early pregnancy had an increased likelihood of GDM development or poor fetal growth or pregnancy outcomes compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels. Serum 25-OH-D measurements and fetal ultrasonograms were carried out at 12-14, 20-22, and 32-34 wk in 523 pregnant women. Each woman was screened for GDM at 24-28 wk. There were no differences in serum 25-OH-D levels at 12-14 wk or 22-24 wk of pregnancy between GDM and non-GDM women after adjusting for maternal age, BMI at prepregnancy, BMI at first visit, BMI at GDM screening, gestational age at sampling, previous history of GDM, vitamin D intake, and seasonal variation in sampling. The risk of GDM, insulin resistance, and impaired β-cell function had no association with serum 25-OH-D levels in crude or adjusted logistic regression analysis. GDM was not associated with maternal serum 25-OH-D deficiency during the first trimester or fetal growth during the first and second trimesters. Pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, Apgar 1, Apgar 5 and birth weight were independent of maternal serum 25-OH-D levels during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy. In conclusion, neither GDM prevalence nor fetal growth during pregnancy is associated with vitamin D deficiency at the first trimester in Korean women. Pregnancy outcomes are also independent of maternal vitamin D status.
Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi
ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID
Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori
The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, p<0.001) at late pregnancy, 42.5 (0-112.6, p<0.001) early postpartum and 16.1 (0-43.9, p=0.001) 1-month postpartum. Multiple regression analysis revealed that pre-delivery BNP levels were negatively correlated with BMI (p<0.001) and hemoglobin (p=0.002) and positively correlated with creatinine (p<0.001). Post-delivery BNP was positively associated with body weight change during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (p<0.001) and post-delivery hemoglobin (p=0.004). Even normal pregnancy affects plasma BNP, particularly in the early postpartum period, indicative of cardiac stress. Plasma BNP levels are affected by BMI, body weight changes, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shahoei, Roonak; Riji, Haliza Mohd; Saeedi, Zhila Abed
to gain a deeper understanding of how Kurdish pregnant women feel about their pregnancy. a qualitative study analysed by a grounded theory approach. the study was conducted among women in the third trimester of their pregnancy in either their homes or the health-care centres in Sanandaj in the western part of Iran. 22 pregnant women were recruited and interviewed. during pregnancy, women experienced a variety of feelings: 'satisfied and happy', 'unpleasant' and 'ambivalent'. it is important for midwives to ask pregnant women about their feelings concerning their current pregnancy, childbirth and future motherhood. If they express negative or ambivalent feelings, these should be discussed in greater detail and their causes identified. Special consideration should be given to primiparous women and multiparous women with negative experiences of previous pregnancies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shi, Xiaoguang; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Fan, Chenling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping
The WHO Technical Consultation recommends urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) from 250 to 499 μg/L as more-than-adequate iodine intake and UIC ≥ 500 μg/L as excessive iodine for pregnant and lactating women, but scientific evidence for this is weak. We investigated optimal and safe ranges of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region of China. Seven thousand one hundred ninety pregnant women at 4-8 weeks gestation were investigated and their UIC, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was lowest in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L, which corresponded to the lowest serum Tg concentration (10.18 μg/L). Prevalences of subclinical hypothyroidism (2.4%) and isolated hypothyroxinemia (1.7%) were lower in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that more-than-adequate iodine intake (UIC 250-499 μg/L) and excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 500 μg/L) were associated with a 1.72-fold and a 2.17-fold increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Meanwhile, excessive iodine intake was associated with a 2.85-fold increased risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia. Moreover, the prevalence of TPOAb positivity and TgAb positivity presented a U-shaped curve, ranging from mild iodine deficiency to iodine excess. The upper limit of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region should not exceed UIC 250 μg/L, because this is associated with a significantly high risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, and a UIC of 500 μg/L should not be exceeded, as it is associated with a significantly high risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia.
King, Suzanne; Kildea, Sue; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brunet, Alain; Cobham, Vanessa E; Dawson, Paul A; Harris, Mark; Hurrion, Elizabeth M; Laplante, David P; McDermott, Brett M; McIntyre, H David; O'Hara, Michael W; Schmitz, Norbert; Stapleton, Helen; Tracy, Sally K; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Dancause, Kelsey N; Kruske, Sue; Reilly, Nicole; Shoo, Laura; Simcock, Gabrielle; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Yong Ping, Erin
Retrospective studies suggest that maternal exposure to a severe stressor during pregnancy increases the fetus' risk for a variety of disorders in adulthood. Animal studies testing the fetal programming hypothesis find that maternal glucocorticoids pass through the placenta and alter fetal brain development, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, there are no prospective studies of pregnant women exposed to a sudden-onset independent stressor that elucidate the biopsychosocial mechanisms responsible for the wide variety of consequences of prenatal stress seen in human offspring. The aim of the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study is to fill this gap, and to test the buffering effects of Midwifery Group Practice, a form of continuity of maternity care. In January 2011 Queensland, Australia had its worst flooding in 30 years. Simultaneously, researchers in Brisbane were collecting psychosocial data on pregnant women for a randomized control trial (the M@NGO Trial) comparing Midwifery Group Practice to standard care. We invited these and other pregnant women to participate in a prospective, longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal maternal stress from the floods on maternal, perinatal and early childhood outcomes. Data collection included assessment of objective hardship and subjective distress from the floods at recruitment and again 12 months post-flood. Biological samples included maternal bloods at 36 weeks pregnancy, umbilical cord, cord blood, and placental tissues at birth. Questionnaires assessing maternal and child outcomes were sent to women at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. The protocol includes assessments at 16 months, 2½ and 4 years. Outcomes include maternal psychopathology, and the child's cognitive, behavioral, motor and physical development. Additional biological samples include maternal and child DNA, as well as child testosterone, diurnal and reactive cortisol. This prenatal stress study is the first of its kind, and will
Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S
Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.
Griffiths, Frances; Lowe, Pam; Boardman, Felicity; Ayre, Catherine; Gadsby, Roger
Background The risk of adverse pregnancy outcome for women with type 1 diabetes is reduced through tight diabetes control. Most women enter pregnancy with inadequate blood glucose control. Interview studies with women suggest the concept of ‘planned’ and ‘unplanned’ pregnancies is unhelpful. Aim To explore women's accounts of their journeys to becoming pregnant while living with type 1 diabetes. Design of study Semi-structured interviews with 15 women living with pre-gestational type 1 diabetes, between 20 and 30 weeks gestation and with a normal pregnancy ultrasound scan. Setting Four UK specialist diabetes antenatal clinics. Method Interviews explored women's journeys to becoming pregnant and the impact of health care. Analysis involved comparison of women's accounts of each pregnancy and a thematic analysis. Results Women's experiences of becoming pregnant were diverse. Of the 40 pregnancies described, at least one positive step towards becoming pregnant was taken by 11 women in 23 pregnancies but not in the remaining 17 pregnancies, with variation between pregnancies. Prior to and in early pregnancy, some women described themselves as experts in their diabetes but most described seeking and/or receiving advice from their usual health professionals. Three women described pre-conception counselling and the anxiety this provoked. Conclusion For women living with type 1 diabetes each pregnancy is different. The concept of planned and unplanned pregnancy is unhelpful for designing health care. Formal preconception counselling can have unintended consequences. Those providing usual care to women are well positioned to provide advice and support to women about becoming pregnant, tailoring it to the changing needs and situation of each woman. PMID:18318971
Nnatu, S N; Oluboyede, O A
Serum ferritin values have been studied in 28 indigenous Nigerian pregnant women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The mean serum ferritin value in the second trimester is higher than that in the third trimester, however, the difference is not statistically significant. When our results are related to those of Fenton and co-workers in 1977 (Fenton V, Cavill I, Fisher J: Iron stores in pregnancy. Br J Haem 37: 145, 1977) it appears that serum ferritin decreases in early pregnancy and that this decrease is maintained through the second and third trimesters and towards term, irrespective of adequate iron supplementation. It also seems that the pre-pregnancy serum ferritin level is achieved 5-8 weeks post-delivery. Our results also underline the sensitivity of serum ferritin evaluation in pregnancy, and reinforce the concept that fetal requirement for iron occurs significantly during the later half of pregnancy.
Ryu, Rachel J.; Eyal, Sara; Kaplan, Henry G.; Akbarzadeh, Arezoo; Hays, Karen; Puhl, Kristin; Easterling, Thomas R.; Berg, Stacey L.; Scorsone, Kathleen A.; Feldman, Eric M.; Umans, Jason G.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Hebert, Mary F.
Purpose Our objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of doxorubicin during pregnancy compared to previously published data from non-pregnant subjects. Methods During mid- to late-pregnancy, serial blood and urine samples were collected over 72 hours from 7 women treated with doxorubicin for malignancies. PK parameters were estimated using noncompartmental techniques. Pregnancy parameters were compared to those previously reported non-pregnant subjects. Results During pregnancy, mean (± SD) doxorubicin PK parameters utilizing 72 hour sampling were: clearance (CL), 412 ± 80 mL/min/m2; steady-state volume of distribution (Vss), 1132 ± 476 L/m2; and terminal half-life (T1/2), 40.3 ± 8.9 hr. The BSA-adjusted CL was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) and T1/2 was not different compared to non-pregnant women. Truncating our data to 48 hours, PK parameters were: CL, 499 ± 116 ml/min/m2; Vss, 843 ± 391 L/m2; and T1/2, 24.8 ± 5.9 hr. The BSA-adjusted CL in pregnancy compared to non-pregnant data was significantly decreased in 2 of 3 non-pregnant studies (p < 0.05, < 0.05, NS). Vss and T1/2 were not significantly different. Conclusions In pregnant subjects, we observed significantly lower doxorubicin CL in our 72 hour and most of our 48 hour sampling comparisons with previously reported non-pregnant subjects. However, the parameters were within the range previously reported in smaller studies. At this time, we cannot recommend alternate dosage strategies for pregnant women. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic changes during pregnancy and optimize care for pregnant women. PMID:24531558
Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Pandolfini, Chiara; Chiodini, Peter; Bonati, Maurizio
Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. We used a combination of the terms "tuberculosis" and "pregnancy", limited to human, to search for published articles. Studies reflecting original data and focusing on TB care for pregnant women were included. All references retrieved were collected using the Reference Manager software (Version 11). Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. TB prophylaxis and anti-TB therapy appeared to be safe and effective for pregnant women and their babies when suitable follow up and early initiation were present, but the compliance rate to TB prophylaxis is still low due to lack of follow up and referral services. TB care practices in the reviewed studies were in line in principle with the WHO International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Integration of TB care within prenatal care would improve TB diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women. To improve the quality of TB care, it is necessary to develop national level guidelines based on the ISTC with detailed guidelines for pregnant women.
Nordin, Steven; Broman, Daniel A; Wulff, Marianne
Previous findings indicating that pregnant women experience a shift in odor sensitivity and hedonics raise the question of whether these changes evoke adverse reactions to odorous and pungent environmental substances in daily activities, to a larger extent in pregnant than in nonpregnant women. Forty-four women in pregnancy weeks 21-23 and 44 nonpregnant women were therefore compared with respect to affective reactions to and behavioral disruptions by odorous/pungent daily environments by means of the questionnaire-based, 21-item Chemical Sensitivity Scale (CSS). This scale refers to neurasthenic and sensory/somatic symptoms and includes the 11 items of the Chemical Sensitivity Scale for Sensory Hyperreactivity (CSS-SHR). This latter scale refers predominantly to sensory/somatic symptoms. To investigate whether there is a general environmental hypersensitivity during pregnancy, the Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS) was used that is analogous to the CSS (including 11 NSS items corresponding to those of the CSS-SHR; "NSS-SHR"). Results show that the two groups were similar with respect to scores on both the CSS and NSS, whereas the pregnant women had higher scores than the nonpregnant women on the CSS-SHR, but not on the "NSS-SHR". These results suggest that pregnant women to a larger extent than nonpregnant women manifest an odor intolerance that affects their daily activities, with predominantly sensory/somatic symptoms, which appears not to be due to a general environmental hypersensitivity. This behavior may have embryo- and maternal-protective functions.
October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.
Nogayeva, Maral G; Tuleutayeva, Svetlana A
Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.
Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M
Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (<24 weeks), and late (≥24 weeks) gestation. Data are mean (SD). Morbidly obese pregnant women reported expending significantly more energy per day in early (n=140 vs 109; 3198.4 (1847.1) vs 1972.3 (10284.8) Kcal/day, p<0.0001) and late (n=104 vs 64; 3078.2 (1356.5) vs 1947.5 (652.0) Kcal/day, p<0.0001) pregnancy, and expended significantly more energy in sedentary activities, in early (816.1 (423.5) vs 540.1 (244.9) Kcal/day, p<0.0001) and late (881.6 (455.4) vs 581.1 (248.5) Kcal/day, p<0.0001) pregnancy, than lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, p<0.05), and in late (n=14 per group, obese 1223.6 (351.5) Kcal; lean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, p<0.05) pregnancy. In conclusion, non-objective and objective measures showed morbidly obese pregnant women expended more energy per day than lean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Nogayeva, Maral G.; Tuleutayeva, Svetlana A.
Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up. PMID:29138709
Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda
The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.
Does provision of point-of-care CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels affect early initiation and retention on antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive pregnant women in the context of Option B+ for PMTCT?
Mangwiro, Alexio-Zambezi; Makomva, Kudzai; Bhattacharya, Antoinette; Bhattacharya, Gaurav; Gotora, Tendai; Owen, Mila; Mushavi, Angela; Mangwanya, Douglas; Zinyowera, Sekesai; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Mugurungi, Owen; Zizhou, Simukai; Busumani, William; Masuka, Nyasha
Evidence for Elimination (E4E) is a collaborative project established in 2012 as part of the INSPIRE (INtegrating and Scaling up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch) initiative. E4E is a cluster-randomized trial with 2 arms; Standard of care and "POC Plus" [in which point-of-care (POC) CD4 devices and related counseling support are provided]; aimed at improving retention-in-care of HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers. In November 2013, Zimbabwe adopted Option B+ for HIV-positive pregnant women under which antiretroviral treatment eligibility is no longer based on CD4 count. However, Ministry of Health and Child Care guidelines still require baseline and 6-monthly CD4 testing for treatment monitoring, until viral load testing becomes widely available. Considering the current limited capacity for viral-load testing, the significant investments in CD4 testing already made and the historical reliance on CD4 by health care workers for determining eligibility for antiretroviral treatment, E4E seeks to compare the impact of the provision of POC CD4 technology and early knowledge of CD4 levels on retention-in-care at 12 months, with the current standard of routine, laboratory-based CD4 testing. The study also compares rates of initiation and time-to-initiation between the 2 arms and according to level of maternal CD4 count, the cost of retaining HIV-positive pregnant women in care and the acceptability and feasibility of POC CD4 in the context of Option B+. Outcome measures are derived from routine health systems data. E4E will provide data on POC CD4 testing and retention-in-care associated with Option B+ and serve as an early learning platform to inform implementation of Option B+ in Zimbabwe.
Shi, Wenjun; Xu, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun
To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.
Zhang, Yi; Guo, Sa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Jianjun
Aim To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors. Methods We searched hospital databases for women who were 37–41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases) from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history. Conclusion The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population. PMID:26208169
Ohida, Takashi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Harano, Satoru; Tanihata, Takeo; Takemura, Shinji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Uchiyama, Makoto
Study Objective: Pregnant women suffer from sleep disturbance, which may be aggravated by passive smoking. In this study we investigated the effects of passive smoking on sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Design: Two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002 and 2006. Setting: Clinical institutions specializing in obstetrics and gynecology that participated in the nationwide surveys: 260 in the 2002 survey and 344 in the 2006 survey. Participants: 16,396 and 19,386 pregnant women in Japan surveyed in 2002 and 2006, respectively. Intervention: N/A. Measurements and Results: Pregnant women exposed to passive smoking were likely to have sleep disturbances, such as subjective insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably. Smoking pregnant women had the same sleep disturbances and also experienced excessive daytime sleepiness and early morning awakening. The prevalence of 5 types of sleep disturbance (insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably) among nonsmokers with environmental tobacco smoke showed a mean value intermediate between that of active smokers and that of nonsmokers without environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion: Passive smoking is independently associated with increased sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Citation: Ohida T; Kaneita Y; Osaki Y; Harano S; Tanihata T; Takemura S; Wada K; Kanda H; Hayashi K; Uchiyama M. Is passive smoking associated with sleep disturbance among pregnant women? SLEEP 2007;30(9):1155-1161. PMID:17910387
Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee
Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.
Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861
Santesmases, María Jesús
Through their ability to reveal and record abnormal chromosomes, whether inherited or accidentally altered, chromosomal studies, known as karyotyping, became the basis upon which medical genetics was constructed. The techniques involved became the visual evidence that confirmed a medical examination and were configured as a material culture for redefining health and disease, or the normal and the abnormal, in cytological terms. I will show that the study of foetal cells obtained by amniocentesis led to the stabilisation of karyotyping in its own right, while also keeping pregnant women under the vigilant medical eye. In the absence of any other examination, prenatal diagnosis by foetal karyotyping became autonomous from the foetal body. Although medical cytogenetics was practiced on an individual basis, data collected about patients over time contributed to the construction of population figures regarding birth defects. I study this complex trajectory by focussing on a Unit for Cytogenetics created in 1962 at the Clínica de la Concepción in Madrid. I incorporate the work and training of the clinicians who created the unit, and worked there as well as at other units in the large new hospitals of the national health care system built in Madrid during the mid-1960s and early 1970s. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Purdy, Laura M
Purdy explores the argument that women's rights to control their bodies should be subordinated to the welfare of their fetuses. She gives examples ofinstances where women's decisions about pregnancy and childbirth have been overridden by physicians and judges. She examines the nature of the mother fetus relationship, the social context of the current conflict between maternal and fetal rights, and the extent of a woman's legally enforceable duty to her fetus. Purdy acknowledges that women may owe a reasonable duty to their fetuses to try to prevent disease or handicap. However, given the uncertainties of modern medicine, the value-laden nature of many physicians' decisions, and the lack of adequate adequate prenatal care, women should not be held responsible for situations that are due largely to society's shortcomings. Purdy concludes that it is unjust to use the law to coerce women into accepting medical advice.
Lecarpentier, Edouard; Gris, Jean Christophe; Cochery-Nouvellon, Eva; Mercier, Erick; Touboul, Cyril; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Haddad, Bassam
To evaluate whether daily low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparin prophylaxis during pregnancy alters profile of circulating angiogenic factors that have been linked with the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. This is a planned ancillary study of the Heparin-Preeclampsia trial, a randomized trial in pregnant women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia (less than 34 weeks of gestation). In the parent study, all women were treated with aspirin and then randomized to receive LMW heparin or aspirin alone. In this study, we measured serum levels of circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin by immunoassay) at the following gestational windows: 10-13 6/7 weeks, 14-17 6/7 weeks, 18-21 6/7 weeks, 22-25 6/7 weeks, 26-29 6/7 weeks, 30-33 6/7 weeks, and 34-37 6/7 weeks. Samples were available from 185 patients: LMW heparin+aspirin (n=92) and aspirin alone (n=93). The two groups had comparable baseline characteristics and had similar adverse composite outcomes (35/92 [38.0%] compared with 36/93 [38.7%]; P=.92). There were no significant differences in serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin in the participants who received LMW heparin and aspirin compared with those who received aspirin alone regardless of gestational age period. Finally, women who developed an adverse composite outcome at less than 34 weeks of gestation demonstrated significant alterations in serum angiogenic profile as early as 10-13 6/7 weeks that was most dramatic 6-8 weeks preceding delivery. Prophylactic LMW heparin therapy when beginning from before 14 weeks of gestation with aspirin during pregnancy is not associated with an improved angiogenic profile. This may provide a molecular explanation for the lack of clinical benefit noted in recent trials. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00986765.
What Is the Real Public Health Significance of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Croatia? A Population-Based Observational Study on Pregnant Women at Early Pregnancy from Eastern Croatia.
Banjari, Ines; Kenjerić, Daniela; Mandić, Milena L
Studies imply that significance of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) for pregnancy outcomes is especially highlighted in the early pregnancy. Prevalence around the world varies widely, however, no data is available up to date for Croatia or neighbouring countries. Therefore, the objective was to determine the prevalence of ID and IDA among pregnant women from Croatia at the first trimester. Also, the aim was to compare two criterions; the World Health Organization (WHO) one and the clinical one. Randomised observational population based study was set up and 265 pregnant women at the first trimester were enrolled. Based on the WHO criteria, 17.7% on haemoglobin basis and 18.5% on haematocrit basis had either ID or IDA. Clinical criteria showed that even 32.8% had either ID or IDA (transferrin saturation <20.0%). The WHO criterion shows less sensitivity, especially in detecting less severe stages of IDA. Regardless of the criteria used, ID and IDA present a mild to moderate public health problem in pregnant women population. This high share of pregnant women who are starting their pregnancy as iron deficient, presents a potentially high risk for the pregnancy outcomes, especially in terms of a newborn, and it is fully justified to treat them as diseases of public health significance. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.
Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.
Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure
Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko
Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Cross-sectional survey. South African primary public health facilities in 2012. A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was -0.030 (95% confidence interval -0.038 to -0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (-44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional-specific and age-specific bottlenecks. Future interventions need to be context
Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko
Objectives Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Design Cross-sectional survey. Settings South African primary public health facilities in 2012. Participants A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Outcome measures Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Results Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was −0.030 (95% confidence interval −0.038 to −0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (−44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Conclusions Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional
Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M
Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Bruni, Laia; Romagosa, Cleofé; Sanz, Sergi; Mabunda, Samuel; Mandomando, Inacio; Aponte, John; Sevene, Esperança; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara
There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129) were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129) of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4%) presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27-30), 29% (28-31), and 33% (31-35), respectively]. Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown
Ohida, Takashi; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Harano, Satoru; Tanihata, Takeo; Takemura, Shinji; Wada, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Kenji; Uchiyama, Makoto
Pregnant women suffer from sleep disturbance, which may be aggravated by passive smoking. In this study we investigated the effects of passive smoking on sleep disturbance during pregnancy. Two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys conducted in 2002 and 2006. Clinical institutions specializing in obstetrics and gynecology that participated in the nationwide surveys: 260 in the 2002 survey and 344 in the 2006 survey. 16,396 and 19,386 pregnant women in Japan surveyed in 2002 and 2006, respectively. N/A. Pregnant women exposed to passive smoking were likely to have sleep disturbances, such as subjective insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably. Smoking pregnant women had the same sleep disturbances and also experienced excessive daytime sleepiness and early morning awakening. The prevalence of 5 types of sleep disturbance (insufficient sleep, difficulty in initiating sleep, short sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and snoring loudly/breathing uncomfortably) among nonsmokers with environmental tobacco smoke showed a mean value intermediate between that of active smokers and that of nonsmokers without environmental tobacco smoke. Passive smoking is independently associated with increased sleep disturbance during pregnancy.
Hotelling, Barbara A.
Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687
Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund
Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.
Gyorkos, T W; Tannenbaum, T N; Abrahamowicz, M; Delage, G; Carsley, J; Marchand, S
BACKGROUND: The rationale for rubella vaccination in the general population and for screening for rubella in pregnant women is the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the prenatal rubella screening program in Quebec. METHODS: A historical cross-sectional study was designed. Sixteen hospitals with obstetric services were randomly selected, 8 from among the 35 "large" hospitals in the province (500 or more live births/year) and 8 from among the 50 "small" hospitals (fewer than 500 live births/year). A total of 2551 women were randomly selected from all mothers of infants born between Apr. 1, 1993, and Mar. 31, 1994, by means of stratified 2-stage sampling. The proportions of women screened and vaccinated were ascertained from information obtained from the hospital chart, the physician's office and the patient. RESULTS: The overall (adjusted) screening rate was 94.0%. The rates were significantly different between large and small hospitals (94.4% v. 89.6%). Five large hospitals and one small hospital had rates above 95.0%. The likelihood of not having been screened was statistically significantly higher for women who had been pregnant previously than for women pregnant for the first time (4.8% v. 1.4%; p < 0.001). Of the 200 women who were seronegative at the time of screening (8.4%), 79 had been vaccinated postpartum, had a positive serological result on subsequent testing or did not require vaccination, and 59 had not been vaccinated postpartum; for 62, subsequent vaccination status was unknown. INTERPRETATION: Continued improvement in screening practices is needed, especially in small hospitals. Because vaccination rates are unacceptably low, it is crucial that steps be taken to address this issue. PMID:9835876
Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer
The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.
Little, Margaret Olivia; Wickremsinhe, Marisha N
Despite a global need for the use of medication during pregnancy, the medical research community lacks robust evidence for safety and efficacy of treatments and preventives often taken by pregnant women. Given the biological differences between pregnant women and the rest of the population, the need to gather data on the ways in which medications behave in the pregnant body is critical to the health of pregnant women and their offspring. Three ethical reasons are central to this need: 1. Pregnant women deserve access to effective treatment, 2. Pregnant women deserve access to safe treatment, and 3. Pregnant women deserve equitable access to trials carrying the prospect of direct benefit. In this paper, we introduce and frame this Supplement Issue, which presents important conference proceedings of the 2016 Global Forum on Bioethics in Research meeting held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on the 3rd and 4th of November.
Delemotte, M; Valcarcel, J; Tramini, P
Systematic full-mouth dental examination during pregnancy is an official preventive measure recently advocated by the French Health policy. The aim of this study was firstly to evaluate the oral health related to some sociodemographic factors among pregnant women, and secondly to propose this dental examination together with the routine antenatal interview. This cross-sectional study combined several medical questionnaires with an oral examination. It concerned all pregnant women attending their routine antenatal interview in the maternity unit of the Montpellier hospital. Socioeconomic status was assessed by Epices index. So that two groups were determined : the deprived group (D), and the non-deprived group (ND). Oral examination revealed that 93% of the women were suffering from at least one oral disease, 74% had a periodontal disease (9% had a periodontitis), and 74% had at least one carious tooth. The mean Epices score was 30.5 and the mean number of carious teeth was significantly higher in the group D (3.4) than in the group ND (2.35), (p=0.02). The prevalence of periodontal disease or periodontitis were not significantly different between the two groups (p=0.81 and p=0.99 respectively). After stratification on the degree of dental hygiene knowledge, it was found that knowing about an adequate dental hygiene and specific preventive measures regarding pregnancy could reduce the gap between the oral health status of the two socioeconomic groups. This study showed that performing an oral examination, at the same time than the antenatal interview, could highly improve the knowledge about dental hygiene among pregnant women and the screening of oral diseases, especially for deprived population.
Garner, P; Gülmezoglu, A M
Malaria contributes to maternal illness and anaemia in pregnancy, especially in first-time mothers, and can harm the mother and the baby. Drugs given routinely to prevent or mitigate the effects of malaria during pregnancy are often recommended. To assess drugs given to prevent malaria infection and its consequences in pregnant women living in malarial areas. This includes prophylaxis and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT). We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (March 2006), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2006), EMBASE (1974 to March 2006), LILACS (1982 to March 2006), and reference lists. We also contacted researchers working in the field. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing antimalarial drugs given regularly with no antimalarial drugs for preventing malaria in pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas. Both authors extracted data and assessed methodological quality. Dichotomous variables were combined using relative risks (RR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) for mean values, both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sixteen trials (12,638 participants) met the inclusion criteria; two used adequate methods to conceal allocation. Antimalarials reduced antenatal parasitaemia when given to all pregnant women (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86; 328 participants, 2 trials), placental malaria (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.45; 1236 participants, 3 trials), but no effect was detected with perinatal deaths (2890 participants, 4 trials). In women in their first or second pregnancy, antimalarial drugs reduced severe antenatal anaemia (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.78; 2809 participants, 1 prophylaxis and 2 IPT trials), antenatal parasitaemia (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.44, random-effects model; 2906 participants, 6 trials), and perinatal deaths (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.99; 1986 participants, 2 prophylaxis and 1 IPT trial; mean birthweight was higher (WMD 126.70 g, 95% CI 88
Bahramian, Hoda; Mohebbi, Simin Z; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Quinonez, Rocio Beatriz
Pregnant women are vulnerable to a wide range of oral health conditions that could be harmful to their own health and future child. Despite the usefulness of regular dental service utilization in prevention and early detection of oral diseases, it is notably low among pregnant women. In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore barriers and facilitators influencing pregnant women's dental service utilization. Using a triangulation approach, we included pregnant women (n = 22) from two public health centers, midwives (n = 8) and dentists (n = 12) from 12 other public centers in Tehran (Iran). Data was gathered through face-to-face semi-structured interviewing and focus group discussion methods. The analysis of qualitative data was performed using conventional content analysis with MAXQDA10 software. Reported barriers of dental service utilization among pregnant women were categorized under emerging themes: Lack of knowledge and misbelief, cost of dental care, physiological changes, fear and other psychological conditions, time constraint, dentists' unwillingness to accept pregnant women treatment, cultural taboos and lack of interprofessional collaboration. Solutions proposed by dentists, midwives and pregnant women to improve dental care utilization during pregnancy were categorized under three themes: Provision of knowledge, financial support and establishing supportive policies. Understanding perceived barriers of dental service utilization during pregnancy can serve as baseline information for planning and formulating appropriate oral health education, financial support, and legislations tailored for lower income pregnant women, midwives and dentists in countries with developing oral health care system.
The purpose was to examine values and beliefs related to smoking, and to test the validity of a decision model based on the product of the value of smoking-related events and states, and the belief that these will occur, (in decision research labeled Expected Utility, or EU). Over a two-week period eighty women, divided into subgroups consisting of pregnant vs. non-pregnant women, and those intending vs. those not intending to quit smoking, performed evaluations of values and beliefs for the two conditions of quitting and not quitting smoking. For both pregnant and non-pregnant women expected utility of smoking was negative. Of all the four groups pregnant women not intending to quit smoking estimated the expected utility of smoking as least negative. A decision analytic approach is applicable to describe the addictive behavior of smoking. Values as well as beliefs about smoking should be stressed in smoking cessation programs, especially among pregnant women.
Cowan, James F; Micek, Mark; Cowan, Jessica F Greenberg; Napúa, Manuel; Hoek, Roxanne; Gimbel, Sarah; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth; Pfeiffer, James T; Chapman, Rachel R
Despite effective prevention strategies and increasing investments in global health, maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a significant problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2012, there were 94,000 HIV-positive pregnant women in Mozambique. Approximately 15% of these women transmitted HIV to their newborn infants, resulting in nearly 14,000 new pediatric HIV infections that year. To address this issue, in 2013, the Mozambican Ministry of Health implemented the World Health Organization-recommended "Option B+" strategy in which all newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women are counseled to initiate combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) immediately upon diagnosis regardless of CD4 count and to continue treatment for life. Given the limited experience with Option B+ in sub-Saharan Africa, few rigorous pragmatic trials have studied this new treatment strategy. This study utilizes an initial formative research process involving patient and health care provider interviews and focus groups, workforce assessments, value stream mapping, and commodity utilization assessments to understand the strengths and weaknesses in the current Option B+ care cascade. The formative research is intended to guide identification and prioritization of key workflow modifications and the development of an enhanced adherence and retention package. These two components are bundled into a defined intervention implemented and evaluated across six health facilities utilizing a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial study design. The overall objective of this trial is to develop and test a pilot intervention in central Mozambique to implement the new Option B+ guidelines with high fidelity and increase the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in target antenatal clinics (ANC) who start ART prior to delivery and are retained in care. This pragmatic study utilizes research strategies that have the potential to meaningfully improve the Option B+ care
González, Raquel; Pons-Duran, Clara; Piqueras, Mireia; Aponte, John J; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Menéndez, Clara
Background The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. One such candidate is mefloquine. Objectives To assess the effects of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women, specifically, to evaluate: the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women; and the impact of HIV status, gravidity, and use of insecticide-treated nets on the effects of mefloquine. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, and two trial registers up to 31 January 2018. In addition, we checked references and contacted study authors to identify additional studies, unpublished data, confidential reports, and raw data from published trials. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mefloquine IPT or mefloquine prophylaxis against placebo, no treatment, or an alternative drug regimen. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all records identified by the search strategy, applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when required. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RRs), count outcomes as incidence rate ratios (IRRs
Sagay, A S; Kapiga, S H; Imade, G E; Sankale, J L; Idoko, J; Kanki, P
To determine risk factors for HIV among pregnant women (N = 2657) receiving antenatal services in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. Information about potential risk factors was obtained at interview. Biological samples were collected for detection of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of HIV was 8.2%. Women aged 20-29 years had more than 4-fold increased risk of HIV. Women of Catholic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.01-2.95) and Pentecostal (AOR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.46-4.52) denominations were more likely to be HIV-infected when compared to Moslem women. The risk of HIV was also increased among women with multiple marriages and in women married to a banker/accountant. Other predictors of HIV were having a husband with other partners, perceived risk of HIV, STIs, candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Development of effective interventions, including behavioral change, expansion of perinatal HIV prevention services and STI control, should be given the highest priority.
Xavier-Júnior, José Cândido C; Dufloth, Rozany M; do Vale, Diama B; Tavares, Thalita A; Zeferino, Luiz C
To evaluate if the prevalence of cervical smear results varies between pregnant and non-pregnant women stratified by age group. Observational analytical study with a total sample of 1,336,180 pregnant and non-pregnant women, aged between 20 and 34 years, who underwent cervical cancer screening in the Primary Health Care of the national health system in the area of Campinas in Brazil during the period of 2005-2009. The source is the information system for cervical cancer screening. Data collected on abnormal cervical smears were analyzed using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test and the magnitude of the association between pregnancy and high-grade squamous epithelial lesions was analyzed by odds ratio (OR) and estimated values with confidence intervals (CI) of 95%. 15,190 pregnant women and 395,961 non-pregnant women were analyzed and fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Regardless of age, no statistical differences were observed for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion prevalence (OR 0.90; CI 0.66-1.23). Taking into account the five-year age groups, however, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was less prevalent in pregnant women aged 20-24 (OR 0.71; 0.54-0.95) and 25-29 years (OR 0.56; 0.35-0.89); also, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance was more prevalent in non-pregnant women aged 25-29 years (OR 0.72; 0.54-0.97). The study showed that the cytological prevalence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women, regardless of age. The results indicate that there are no reasons for specific approaches to cervical cancer screening for pregnant women. The examination should be carried out only on pregnant women who have not been tested according to current recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abujilban, Sanaa; Abuidhail, Jamila; Mrayan, Lina; Hatamleh, Reem
Dissatisfied pregnant women who are at higher risk of negative outcomes perinatally have not been identified in Jordan. The purposes of the researchers were to identify and compare sociodemographic characteristics of satisfied pregnant women with dissatisfied pregnant women. A non-experimental, descriptive, comparative design was employed. Jordanian pregnant women (n =203) were consecutively selected. We found that younger, better educated pregnant women with a high economic status and a small number of children were more satisfied with their lives. Practitioners can identify dissatisfied women and develop an educational and interventional package that focuses on improving satisfaction with life for pregnant mothers.
Propst, Lauren; Connor, Gwendolyn; Hinton, Megan; Poorvu, Tabitha; Dungan, Jeffrey
Expanded carrier screening (ECS) is a relatively new carrier screening option that assesses many conditions simultaneously, as opposed to traditional ethnicity-based carrier screening for a limited number of conditions. This study aimed to explore pregnant women's perspectives on ECS, including reasons for electing or declining and anxiety associated with this decision-making. A total of 80 pregnant women were surveyed from Northwestern Medicine's Clinical Genetics Division after presenting for aneuploidy screening. Of the 80 participants, 40 elected and 40 declined ECS. Trends regarding reasons for electing or declining ECS include ethnicity, desire for genetic risk information, lack of family history, perceived likelihood of being a carrier, and perceived impact on reproductive decisions. Individuals who declined ECS seemed to prefer ethnicity-based carrier screening and believed that ECS would increase their anxiety, whereas individuals who elected ECS seemed to prefer more screening and tended to believe that ECS would reduce their anxiety. These findings provide insight on decision-making with regard to ECS and can help guide interactions that genetic counselors and other healthcare providers have with patients, including assisting patients in the decision-making process.
Richter, Judith; Bittner, Antje; Petrowski, Katja; Junge-Hoffmeister, Juliane; Bergmann, Sybille; Joraschky, Peter; Weidner, Kerstin
The goal of the present investigation was to examine effects of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for pregnant women with subclinically elevated stress, anxiety and/or depression on perceived stress and salivary cortisol levels. Expectant mothers were recruited in gynaecologist practices. They participated in a screening, a standardized diagnostic interview (Munich-Composite Diagnostic Interview, M-CIDI), and were randomly assigned to an intervention (N = 21) and treatment as usual control group (N = 40). The intervention consisted of a manualized cognitive-behavioral group program for expectant mothers with subclinically elevated stress, depression, and/or anxiety symptoms. Stress questionnaire (prenatal distress (PDQ), perceived stress (PSS)) as well as diurnal salivary cortisol assessment took place at T1 (antenatal, preintervention), at T2 (antenatal, post-intervention) and T3 (3-month postpartum). Subjects that participated in the intervention exhibited a significant post-treatment change in morning cortisol (cortisol awakening response, CAR) in contrast to control subjects, F(8,51) = 2.300, p = 0.047. Intervention participants showed a smaller CAR subsequent to the intervention, displaying a lessened stress reaction. This effect was not observed in the control group. In contrast, we failed in discovering a significant difference between the research groups regarding the cortisol area under curve parameter (AUC) and the applied subjective stress questionnaires. Evaluation results were thus heterogeneous. Nevertheless, intervention effects on the CAR are promising. Our results suggest that a cognitive-behavioral intervention might lead to an improvement in the biological stress response of pregnant women with subclinically elevated stress, anxiety, or depressive symptoms.
Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.
Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p < 0.0001), fever (8.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.014), and an abnormal neurologic examination (34.7% vs 16.5%, p = 0.014). In multivariate logistic regression, elevated blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 17.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2–56.0) and a lack of headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282
Muneuchi, Jun; Yamasaki, Keiko; Watanabe, Mamie; Fukumitsu, Azusa; Kawakami, Takeshi; Nakahara, Hiromasa; Joo, Kunitaka
Pregnant women with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk of cardiovascular events during pregnancy as well as postpartum. The aim of our study is to address the feasibility of echocardiography-derived ventricular-arterial coupling during pregnancy and postpartum among women with CHD. In 31 pregnant women with CHD, we performed serial echocardiography at the first and third trimesters, early and late postpartum. The indices of contractility (single-beat determined end-systolic elastance, Ees ab ) and afterload (effective arterial elastance, Ea) were approximated on the basis of the systemic blood pressure and systemic ventricular volume. The ratio of stroke work and pressure-volume area (SW/PVA) representing ventricular efficiency was also calculated. Age at the delivery was 28 (24-31) years. ZAHARA score was 0.75 (0.75-1.50). Gestational age and birth weight of newborns were 38 (37-39) weeks and 2.73 (2.42-2.92) kg, respectively. Heart rate, systemic ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume significantly increased from the first trimester to the third trimester and reversed postpartum to the values of the first trimester. Ees ab and Ea significantly decreased from the first trimester to the third trimester (Ees ab ; 4.90 [2.86-7.14] vs 3.41 [2.53-4.61] mm Hg/ml, p = 0.0001, Ea; 2.83 [1.74-3.30] vs 2.18 [1.67-2.68] mm Hg/ml, p = 0.0012), and reversed early postpartum parallelly. Ejection fraction and SW/PVA remained unchanged throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Echocardiography-derived ventricular-arterial coupling is feasible to understand ventricular function in pregnant women with CHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban
The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Silva, Claúdia Mendes da; Alves, Regina de Souza; Santos, Tâmyssa Simões Dos; Bragagnollo, Gabriela Rodrigues; Tavares, Clodis Maria; Santos, Amuzza Aylla Pereira Dos
To learn the epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection in pregnant women. Descriptive study with quantitative approach. The study population was composed of pregnant women with HIV/AIDS residing in the state of Alagoas. Data were organized into variables and analyzed according to the measures of dispersion parameter relevant to the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (X ± S). Between 2007 and 2015, 773 cases of HIV/AIDS were recorded in pregnant women in Alagoas. The studied variables identified that most of these pregnant women were young, had low levels of education and faced socioeconomic vulnerability. It is necessary to include actions aimed at increasing the attention paid to women, once the assurance of full care and early diagnosis of HIV are important strategies to promote adequate treatment adherence and reduce the vertical transmission.
Weiss, H; Strotmeyer, S
Objectives: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of hospitalized trauma during pregnancy. Maternal injury puts the fetus at great risk, yet little is known about the incidence, risks, and characteristics of pregnant women in crashes. Setting and methods: Police reported crashes were analyzed from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Since 1995, this system recorded pregnancy/trimester status. Pregnant and non-pregnant women 15–39 years of age were compared by age, driver status, seat belt use, and treatment. Belt use and seating position were examined by trimester. Results: There were 427 pregnant occupants identified (weighted n=32 810, 2.6%, SE 12 585, rate 13/1000 person years). The mean age was 24.9 compared with 24.8 years (pregnant v non-pregnant). Cases were distributed by trimester as follows: first 29.8%, second 36.4%, and third 33.8%. Pregnant women were drivers 70% of the time compared with 71% for non-pregnant women. No belt use was 14% compared with 13% (pregnant v non-pregnant). Mean injury severity was lower for pregnant women but they were more likely to transported or hospitalized. Improper belt use decreased after the first trimester and there was little change in driver proportion by trimester. Third trimester hospitalization rates increased. Conclusions: Pregnant occupants in crashes have similar profiles of restraint use, driver status, and seat position but different treatment indicators compared to non-pregnant occupants. Trimester status has relatively little impact on crash risk, seating position or restraint use. Undercounting of pregnant cases was possible, even so, 1% of all births were reported to be involved in utero in crashes. Little research has focused on developmental outcomes to infants and children previously involved in exposure to these crashes. PMID:12226117
Basher, M S; Kabir, S; Ahmed, S; Miah, M A; Kamal, M S
The expected outcome of pregnancy is a healthy mother with a healthy child. The single most important care which could prevent the negative outcomes of pregnancy is Antenatal Care (ANC). Proper and timely antenatal care can significantly reduce the risks of maternal mortality. In pregnancy, total cost is about 80,000 Kcal, and above normal energy requirements. To find out prenatal nutrition an exploratory study was carried out in seven villages of the Ward-2 of Jamtoil Union of Kamarkhand Upazila under Sirajganj District. Thirty pregnant women of different trimesters, gravida and parity had been studied employing the methods and techniques of "Ethnographic Field Work." Mean daily calorie consumption of the Key Informants (KIs) was 1480.49 Kcal without reference to their religious affiliation, family resource base, education, occupation, gravidity, parity and duration of pregnancy. This is indicated that the mean calorie intake of the Key Informants did not meet not only their prenatal nutritional need but also their requirement during pre-pregnancy period. It was observed that food intake was in no way different from that of the non-pregnant status. Antenatal care of rural inhabitants analyzed almost exclusively from biomedical perspectives, its cultural, socio-economic, gender, ecological and other relevant perspectives are mostly ignored. In order to have safe motherhood up through compliance of prenatal advice, nutritional one in particular, these factors should be taken into consideration.
Aliyu, Muktar H; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M; Parrish, Deidra D; Audet, Carolyn M; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y; Shepherd, Bryan E; Wester, C William; Vermund, Sten H
We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both p<0.001. Pregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0-21] vs 14 days [7-49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7-42] for men; p<0.001). Cumulative incidence of LTFU during the first year post-ART initiation was high and did not differ by sex and pregnancy status. Persons who were unemployed, bedridden, had higher CD4+ counts, and/or in earlier WHO clinical stages were more likely to be LTFU. Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Aliyu, Muktar H.; Blevins, Meridith; Megazzini, Karen M.; Parrish, Deidra D.; Audet, Carolyn M.; Chan, Naomi; Odoh, Chisom; Gebi, Usman I.; Muhammad, Mukhtar Y.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wester, C. William; Vermund, Sten H.
Background We examined antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention by sex and pregnancy status in rural Nigeria. Methods We studied HIV-infected ART-naïve patients aged ≥15 years entering care from June 2009 to September 2013. We calculated the probability of early ART initiation and cumulative incidence of loss to follow-up (LTFU) during the first year of ART, and examined the association between LTFU and sex/pregnancy using Cox regression. Results The cohort included 3813 ART-naïve HIV-infected adults (2594 women [68.0%], 273 [11.8%] of them pregnant). The proportion of pregnant clients initiating ART within 90 days of enrollment (78.0%, 213/273) was higher than among non-pregnant women (54.3%,1261/2321) or men (53.0%, 650/1219), both p<0.001. Pregnant women initiated ART sooner than non-pregnant women and men (median [IQR] days from enrollment to ART initiation for pregnant women=7 days [0–21] vs 14 days [7–49] for non-pregnant women and 14 days [7–42] for men; p<0.001). Cumulative incidence of LTFU during the first year post-ART initiation was high and did not differ by sex and pregnancy status. Persons who were unemployed, bedridden, had higher CD4+ counts, and/or in earlier WHO clinical stages were more likely to be LTFU. Conclusions Pregnant women with HIV in rural Nigeria were more likely to initiate ART but were no more likely to be retained in care. Our findings underscore the importance of effective retention strategies across all patient groups, regardless of sex and pregnancy status. PMID:26012740
Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M
At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.
González, Raquel; Pons-Duran, Clara; Piqueras, Mireia; Aponte, John J; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Menéndez, Clara
The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. One such candidate is mefloquine. To assess the effects of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women, specifically, to evaluate:• the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women; and• the impact of HIV status, gravidity, and use of insecticide-treated nets on the effects of mefloquine. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, and two trial registers up to 31 January 2018. In addition, we checked references and contacted study authors to identify additional studies, unpublished data, confidential reports, and raw data from published trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mefloquine IPT or mefloquine prophylaxis against placebo, no treatment, or an alternative drug regimen. Two review authors independently screened all records identified by the search strategy, applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when required. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RRs), count outcomes as incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MDs). We have presented all
Kocyłowski, Rafał; Lewicka, Iwona; Grzesiak, Mariusz; Gaj, Zuzanna; Sobańska, Anna; Poznaniak, Joanna; von Kaisenberg, Constantin; Suliburska, Joanna
To evaluate the dietary intake of pregnant women and their nutritional status of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu, as the nutritional status of pregnant women is an important factor for the proper progression of a pregnancy and the development and health of the foetus. The study was conducted on 108 pregnant women ages 18-42, at 6-32 weeks of gestation. We used a questionnaire and a 24-h recall nutrition interview. Hair samples were taken for testing and the level of each mineral was assessed using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results were analysed using the Dietetyk and Statistica 10 software. Low levels of Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, vitamin D, and folic acid intake were seen in the pregnant women, with the use of dietary supplements significantly increasing their intake of Fe, Zn, and folic acid. The concentration of zinc and magnesium in the women's hair was shown to be affected by their age and, in the case of magnesium, by the week of pregnancy. It was observed that the diet of pregnant women is characterised by low levels of Fe, Zn, Ca, Mg, vitamin D, and folic acid. Dietary supplementation with vitamins and minerals significantly increases the daily Fe and folic acid intake in pregnant women. The concentration of Zn and Mg in hair depends on the age of pregnant women and Mg level in the hair of women decreases during pregnancy.
Hoffman, Kate; Lorenzo, Amelia; Butt, Craig M; Adair, Linda; Herring, Amy H; Stapleton, Heather M; Daniels, Julie L
Organophosphate compounds are commonly used in residential furniture, electronics, and baby products as flame retardants and are also used in other consumer products as plasticizers. Although the levels of exposure biomarkers are generally higher among children and decrease with age, relatively little is known about the individual characteristics associated with higher levels of exposure. Here, we investigate urinary metabolites of several organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in a cohort of pregnant women to evaluate patterns of exposure. Pregnant North Carolina women (n=349) provided information on their individual characteristics (e.g. age and body mass index (BMI)) as a part of the Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition Study (2002-2005). Women also provided second trimester urine samples in which six PFR metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry methods. PFR metabolites were detected in every urine sample, with BDCIPP, DHPH, ip-PPP and BCIPHIPP detected in >80% of samples. Geometric mean concentrations were higher than what has been reported previously for similarly-timed cohorts. Women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI tended to have higher levels of urinary metabolites. For example, those classified as obese at the start of pregnancy had ip-PPP levels that were 1.52 times as high as normal weight range women (95% confidence interval: 1.23, 1.89). Women without previous children also tended to have higher urinary levels of DPHP, but lower levels of ip-PPP. In addition, we saw strong evidence of seasonal trends in metabolite concentrations (e.g. higher DPHP, BDCIPP, and BCIPHIPP in summer, and evidence of increasing ip-PPP between 2002 and 2005). Our results indicate ubiquitous exposure to PFRs among NC women in the early 2000s. Additionally, our work suggests that individual characteristics are related to exposure and that temporal variation, both seasonal and annual, may exist. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoffman, Kate; Lorenzo, Amelia; Butt, Craig; Adair, Linda; Herring, Amy H.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Daniels, Julie
Background Organophosphate compounds are commonly used in residential furniture, electronics, and baby products as flame retardants and are also used in other consumer products as plasticizers. Although the levels of exposure biomarkers are generally higher among children and decrease with age, relatively little is known about the individual characteristics associated with higher levels of exposure. Here, we investigate urinary metabolites of several organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in a cohort of pregnant women to evaluate patterns of exposure. Methods Pregnant North Carolina women (n=349) provided information on their individual characteristics (e.g. age and body mass index (BMI)) as a part of the Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition Study (2002–2005). Women also provided second trimester urine samples in which six PFR metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry methods. Results PFR metabolites were detected in every urine sample, with BDCIPP, DHPH, ip-PPP and BCIPHIPP detected in >80% of samples. Geometric mean concentrations were higher than what has been reported previously for similarly-timed cohorts. Women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI tended to have higher levels of urinary metabolites. For example, those classified as obese at the start of pregnancy had ip-PPP levels that were 1.52 times as high as normal weight range women (95% confidence interval: 1.23, 1.89). Women without previous children also tended to have higher urinary levels of DPHP, but lower levels of ip-PPP. In addition, we saw strong evidence of seasonal trends in metabolite concentrations (e.g. higher DPHP, BDCIPP, and BCIPHIPP in summer, and evidence of increasing ip-PPP between 2002 and 2005). Conclusions Our results indicate ubiquitous exposure to PFRs among NC women in the early 2000s. Additionally, our work suggests that individual characteristics are related to exposure and that temporal variation, both seasonal and annual, may exist. PMID:27745946
A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly
Tansarli, G S; Skalidis, T; Legakis, N J; Falagas, M E
Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The presence of leukocytes and lactobacillary grade were evaluated to classify a condition as AVF with inflammation; subsequently, bacterial cultures were performed. A total of 761 women were included. Five hundred and seventy-nine women were diagnosed with candidiasis, BV, trichomoniasis, or other types of vaginitis in which no pathogenic bacterial growth occurred in cultures. One hundred and eighty-two women (23.9 %) were diagnosed with AVF with inflammation (116 non-pregnant, 66 pregnant). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen among these women (non-pregnant: 45.7 %, pregnant: 34.8 %). Other common pathogens were Group-B-Streptococcus (non-pregnant: 20.7 %, pregnant: 22.7 % respectively), Enterococcus faecalis (14.7 %, 18.2 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9 %, 12.1 %). The prevalence of AVF with inflammation may be high. Since inflammation criteria were applied, most cases of BV were eliminated and the majority of cases of AVF are AV. Therefore, clinicians should include AV in the differential diagnosis of vaginitis, while microbiologists should take into account the growth of aerobic bacteria in vaginal cultures originating from women with microscopic findings of AV.
Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina
The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A—women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B—women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population. PMID:23970821
Koyuncu, Kazibe; Turgay, Batuhan; Söylemez, Feride
Iodine deficiency in pregnant woman in Ankara was shown in previous studies. We aimed to conduct a study in a tertiary center to investigate for the need for iodine replacement in our population. This was a single tertiary center, non-interventional, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Data were retrieved retrospectively from 440 women who had been in first trimester in gestational age. Maternal iodine status, TSH levels, T4 levels were examined. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was calculated based on Sandell-Kolthoff reaction which is a colorimetric method. We excluded patients with previous thyroid disease or current thyroid disease. Thyroid hormones and TSH were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassays. Iodine deficiency prevalence (UI <150 μg/L) was 84.7% in first trimester of pregnancy in our population. The median UIC was 81.6 (1-450) μg/L, indicating iodine insufficiency. All the patients declared iodized salt use. None of the patients were taking iodine replacement. The mean TSH level was 1.53±1.27 mIU/l, (0.01 mIU/l-14.74 mIU/l) and mean T4 levels was 12.51±5.01 mIU/l, (7.09 mIU/l, -23.7 mIU/l,). TSH levels of 56 patients were higher than 2.5 mIU/l. According to these results 12.72% of the patients had subclinical hypothyroidism based on serum TSH and Free T4 levels. Isolated hypothyroxinemia was present in one patient. Our study demonstrated that pregnant women still suffer from iodine deficiency in Ankara despite of mandatory iodine salt use. Iodized salt use does not provide enough iodine supplement especially in pregnant women. Iodine supplementation is shown to enhance neurological development and psychomotor performance. We suggest that iodine should be a part of routine laboratory evaluation at the first prenatal visit for its importance in early pregnancy. Also, iodized salt use education should be provided to the women to eradicate iodine deficiency. Iodine supplements should be recommended to all pregnant women in addition to iodized
McCabe, Jennifer E; Arndt, Stephan
The objective of this study was to identify demographic and substance abuse trends among pregnant women entering treatment over eleven years. This study compiled the publicly available Treatment Episode Datasets from the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration from 1998 to 2008. Subjects included 1,724,479 women entering publicly funded substance abuse treatment for the first time, 81,818 of whom were pregnant. Compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were more likely to be younger, minority, never married, less educated, homeless, and on public-assistance or have no income. Referrals from health care providers (HCPs) among pregnant women entering treatment have stayed consistently low while referrals from the criminal justice system accounted for the largest portion of pregnant women entering treatment. Over the past eleven years, there has been a general decline in alcohol abuse and an increase in drug abuse among women entering treatment; this trend was more pronounced in pregnant women. Unlike their non-pregnant counterparts, pregnant women were more likely to report marijuana, not alcohol, as their primary problem substance as well as other drugs like methamphetamine and cocaine. Over the past eleven years, trends in the demographics and patterns of substance abuse among women have changed; some of these trends were unique to pregnant women. A large proportion of pregnant women entering treatment are referred by the criminal justice system. Knowledge surrounding the demographics and abuse patterns of pregnant women entering treatment can inform HCPs and community programs in their screening and outreach efforts.
Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D
Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.
Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Kilinc, Banu; Karabay, Aysun; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan
Many studies have been assigned to investigate the surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome, acquired rubella and seroprevalence in different countries to determine the new vaccination program and national vaccination schedules. Seroprevalence of rubella in Turkey is still insufficient and national immunization schedules do not include routine rubella vaccination. In this study we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of rubella at child bearing age in an unvaccinated population in Adana, southern Turkey, to help determine whether routine rubella vaccination is necessary, if so when it should be administered. Ninety-four school girls aged 12-18 years living in Adana were selected for the study and stratified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and evaluated for rubella antibodies. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-25 years and 100 pregnant women aged 26-35 years were sampled rubella antibodies. Rubella specific IgG antibody was measured qualitatively and quantitatively by using microparticule enzyme immune assay technology. Rubella specific IgG antibody was positive in 87-94 school girls (92.5%). The geometric mean rubella specific IgG antibody value was found be 148.14 IU/ml. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and rubella seropositivity (p = 0.6521). In all pregnant women rubella specific IgG antibody was found to be positive. In conclusion rubella vaccination should be considered carefully in developing countries. Because of the high seropositivity to rubella in our region we do not recommend rubella vaccination in early childhood. Yet this is a preliminary study and further studies with larger population size are needed to determine the national immunization policy for rubella.
Ratnam, A V; Chatterjee, T K; Mulenga, R C
The prevalance of sexually transmitted diseases has been known to be high in many African countries and preliminary investigations in Lusaka revealed a similar trend in Zambia. This paper presents an analysis of diagnoses made in 170 symptomatic pregnant women referred to the sexually transmitted diseases clinic and the screening results of 163 pregnant women in a routine antenatal examination. A high prevalance of gonococcal infection as well as syphilis was discovered in pregnant women. The implications of these findings on the possible complications and outcome of pregnancy are discussed and remedial measures suggested.
Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos
To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.
Can the Griess Nitrite Test and a Urinary Pus Cell Count of ≥5 Cells Per Micro Litre of Urine in Pregnant Women be Used for the Screening or the Early Detection of Urinary Tract Infections in Rural India?
Thakre, Sushama S.; Dhakne, Supriya S.; Thakre, Subhash B.; Thakre, Amol D.; Ughade, Suresh M.; Kale, Priya
Objectives Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common problem in pregnancy due to the morphological and the physiological changes that take place in the genitourinary tract during pregnancy. Screening methods may be useful, because a full bacteriological analysis could be reserved for those patients who are symptomatic or those who have positive screening test results. The exact prevalence of UTI in rural, pregnant women is unknown. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women and for ascertaining the utility of the Griess Nitrite test and the Urinary Pus Cell Count of ≥5 cells per micro litre test for the screening or the early detection of UTI in them at primary health care clinics. Occurrence of urinary complaints was compared in UTI and non UTI women. Method We conducted a study on 300 randomly selected, pregnant women from rural areas. Urine cultures, pus-cell counts and the Griess nitrite test were used for diagnosis of UTI. The screening tests for UTI were evaluated in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and the percentage of correctly classified. Results In the present study, the prevalence of UTI was found to be 29/300 (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 9.57-9.63). The specificities of the two screening tests were comparable (97.05% and 94.47%). Also, the negative predictive values of the two tests were almost similar (97.77% and 96.96%). The percentage of correctly classified by the Griess nitrite test and the urine pus cell count were found to be 95.33% and 92.33% respectively. The proportion of the women with various urinary complaints was significantly higher (P<0.00) in the UTI subjects as compared to that in the non-UTI subjects. Conclusion Urine culture remains the gold standard for the detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The Nitrite test of uncentrifuged urine was observed to be the best among the screening tests which were evaluated in
Can the Griess Nitrite Test and a Urinary Pus Cell Count of ≥5 Cells Per Micro Litre of Urine in Pregnant Women be Used for the Screening or the Early Detection of Urinary Tract Infections in Rural India?
Thakre, Sushama S; Dhakne, Supriya S; Thakre, Subhash B; Thakre, Amol D; Ughade, Suresh M; Kale, Priya
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common problem in pregnancy due to the morphological and the physiological changes that take place in the genitourinary tract during pregnancy. Screening methods may be useful, because a full bacteriological analysis could be reserved for those patients who are symptomatic or those who have positive screening test results. The exact prevalence of UTI in rural, pregnant women is unknown. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of UTI in pregnant women and for ascertaining the utility of the Griess Nitrite test and the Urinary Pus Cell Count of ≥5 cells per micro litre test for the screening or the early detection of UTI in them at primary health care clinics. Occurrence of urinary complaints was compared in UTI and non UTI women. We conducted a study on 300 randomly selected, pregnant women from rural areas. Urine cultures, pus-cell counts and the Griess nitrite test were used for diagnosis of UTI. The screening tests for UTI were evaluated in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and the percentage of correctly classified. In the present study, the prevalence of UTI was found to be 29/300 (9.6%, 95% confidence interval 9.57-9.63). The specificities of the two screening tests were comparable (97.05% and 94.47%). Also, the negative predictive values of the two tests were almost similar (97.77% and 96.96%). The percentage of correctly classified by the Griess nitrite test and the urine pus cell count were found to be 95.33% and 92.33% respectively. The proportion of the women with various urinary complaints was significantly higher (P<0.00) in the UTI subjects as compared to that in the non-UTI subjects. Urine culture remains the gold standard for the detection of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The Nitrite test of uncentrifuged urine was observed to be the best among the screening tests which were evaluated in terms of their efficiency and validity.
Kenchington, Anna L; Lamont, Ronald F
Early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal disease is preventable. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has resulted in a significant reduction in neonatal mortality and morbidity. National guidelines for the selection of women eligible for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, whether screening-based or risk-based, differ according to the local burden of disease. Despite the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, there remains a significant burden of disease, which can be resolved by better adherence to guidelines, rapid identification of maternal colonization or in the future, vaccination. Areas covered: The introduction of a vaccine to women in the third trimester is likely to further reduce the burden of disease and provide benefits beyond the prevention of early neonatal disease, including meningitis and disability following late onset disease. Development of specific polyvalent vaccines continues, but testing has challenges and may require surrogate markers or molecular-based techniques to manipulate antigenicity and immunogenicity. Expert commentary: Group B streptococcal vaccination using conjugated polyvalent vaccines against the major disease causing serotypes of Group B streptococcus, either alone, or in combination with a policy of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, may decrease the burden of Group B streptococcus beyond that achieved by current use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis alone.
Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.
García, S D; Eliseth, M Cora; Lazzo, M J; Copolillo, E; Barata, A D; de Torres, R; Vay, C A; Famiglietti, A M
Streptococcus agalactiae--group B streptococci (GBS)--is a main cause of severe neonatal infections with a high mortality rate. The detection of pregnant GBS carriers (5-35%) allows intrapartum administration of antibiotic prophylaxis to these women and prevents perinatal infection. We studied the prevalence of GBS in 259 patients between 28 and 37 weeks gestation from April 2000 to March 2002. The anorectum (AR) and vaginal introitus swabs (VI) were cultured in selective Todd-Hewitt broth containing colistin (10 micrograms/ml) and nalidixic acid (15 micrograms/ml) while vaginal swabs (VFS) were cultured following conventional methods. A total of 47 strains of EGB were isolated from 259 patients (18.15%). The prevalence in different samples were: 5.40% in VFS, 13.51% in VI, 11.58% in AR and 17.76% in VI + AR (reference method). The isolates were tested against penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. The resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GBS were determined by the double-disk test. All strains were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone and vancomycin, only one strain was erythromycin and clindamycin resistant by IMLSB mechanism. None of the isolated strains had a high resistant level to aminoglycosides. The sensitivity of cultures increased when selective broths were used as the primary detection method.
Li, Chunrong; Yang, Liu; Kong, Jinwang
The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively. The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China. The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing. Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services. Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively. Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated, which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively. This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM). The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%. Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (ORm) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-5.06), more knowledge for HIV (ORm = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women. To prevent HIV mother to children transmission, it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV, change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.
Isolation and purification of an early pregnancy factor-like molecule from culture supernatants obtained from lymphocytes of pregnant women: II. Identification of the molecule as a Fc-receptor-like molecule: a preliminary report.
Aranha, C; Bordekar, A; Shahani, S
Early pregnancy factor (EPF)-like activity from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women was characterized and identified. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay depending on the presence of "Fc" receptors on bovine spermatozoa was used to identify the EPF-like molecule purified by gel filtration and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the crude lymphocyte culture supernatant, the EPF-positive G IV fraction obtained on gel filtration, and the EPF-positive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography protein readily bound with the different concentrations of aggregated human gamma-globulin in a manner similar to that in which the standard control of aggregated human gamma-globulin binds to the bovine spermatozoa. EPF-like activity synthesized and secreted by lymphocytes during pregnancy may be a Fc-receptor-like molecule.
Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek
The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Csutak, Adrienne; Steiber, Zita; Tőzsér, József; Jakab, Attila; Berta, András; Silver, David M
Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) in tears of pregnant women was investigated at various gestation times to assess the availability of plasminogen activator for aiding potential corneal wound healing processes during pregnancy. PAA was measured by a spectrophotometric method. The analysis used 91 tear samples from pregnant and non-pregnant women, supplemented with 10 additional tear PAA measurements from non-pregnant women obtained in a previous study. Tear levels of PAA in pregnant women formed a bimodal distribution. Either the tear PAA level was zero or non-zero during pregnancy. When non-zero, the tear PAA level was dissociated from gestation time and not different than non-pregnant and post-pregnant levels. The frequency of occurrence of zero level tear PAA increased with gestation: 16%, 17% and 46% had zero tear PAA in samples taken from women in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Overall, of the tear samples taken from women during pregnancy, a total of 26% were at zero tear PAA. The remaining tear samples had non-zero tear PAA values throughout gestation equivalent to non-pregnant tear PAA values, suggesting local control of the source of PAA in tears. Given the importance of the plasminogen activator system in tears to wound healing in the cornea, and the high occurrence of zero tear PAA in our sample of pregnant women, elective corneal surgery would be contraindicated. If corneal surgery is nevertheless necessary, the tear PAA level would be worth checking and patients with low level should be closely observed during the postoperative period.
Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Fadipe, Olamide; Oyeyemi, Ifeoluwa T
Trichomoniasis poses a public health threat to pregnant women and neonatal health. This study evaluated Trichomonas vaginalis and other common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) status in pregnant women, and risk factors associated with them. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive and a total of 198 pregnant women were recruited for T. vaginalis screening by microscopic examination. Questionnaires were also administered to 108 pregnant women to access information related to socio-demography and other factors associated with STI transmission. The overall prevalence of T. vaginalis was 18.7%. While prevalence of T. vaginalis was neither age nor parity dependent (p > 0.05), women in their first trimester showed significantly higher prevalence of trichomoniasis compared to women in their second and third trimesters (p < 0.05). The frequency of STIs was lowest (18.2%) and highest (71.4%) in age groups ≥ 39 and 15-20 years, respectively. Low levels of education, multiple sexual partners, lack of knowledge on partners' STI history, and having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs were risk factors of for STIs (p < 0.05). We found a high prevalence of T. vaginalis in pregnant women, with those at an early gestational age at greater risk. The improved education of women on safe sex and the need to know partners' STI status are advocated. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi
The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices.
Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Ivarsson, Anneli; Mogren, Ingrid
Physical activity during pregnancy is generally considered safe and beneficial for both the pregnant woman and her fetus. The overall aim was to investigate pregnant women's pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy physical activity and its associations with maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant women living in northern Sweden between 2011 and 2012. Almost half of the participants (47.1%) achieved the recommended level of physical activity. Compared to the women who did not achieve the recommended level of exercise, these women had lower BMI, very good or good self-rated health, and a higher educational level. No significant associations could be established between physical activity levels and GDM, birth weight, or mode of delivery. Positively, a considerably high proportion of Swedish pregnant women achieved the recommended level of physical activity. Factors associated with recommended physical activity level were BMI ≤30 kg/m(2), very good or good self-rated health, and higher educational level. Our findings emphasize the need for health care professionals to early detect and promote fertile and pregnant women towards health-enhancing physical activity, especially those with low levels of physical activity and overweight/obesity, to improve overall health in this population. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ailes, Elizabeth C; Summers, April D; Tran, Emmy L; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Arnold, Kathryn E; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Reefhuis, Jennita
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4). To assess the effects of these recommendations, CDC analyzed the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* to examine antibiotic prescriptions filled by pregnant women with UTIs. Among 482,917 pregnancies in 2014, 7.2% of women had an outpatient UTI diagnosis during the 90 days before the date of last menstrual period (LMP) or during pregnancy. Among pregnant women with UTIs, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics during the first trimester were nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Given the potential risks associated with use of some of these antibiotics in early pregnancy and the potential for unrecognized pregnancy, women's health care providers should be familiar with the ACOG recommendations and consider the possibility of early pregnancy when treating women of reproductive age.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N
African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p <.05). Maternal child nurses should be aware that experiences of racial discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.
Brylewska-Pinda, Magdalena; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Pierzak-Sominka, Joanna; Mosiejczuk, Hanna
Lower back pain affects most pregnant women. Pain is often associated with varying degrees of functional limitations, causing a problem for pregnant women in the performance of many everyday activities. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which lumbosacral spine pain caused limitations in the daily functioning of pregnant women, and the relationship between reported restrictions and analysed variables. The study was conducted in the city of Szczecin in Poland among 81 pregnant women. Data were collected using a standardized Oswestry questionnaire survey (The Oswestry Lower Back Pain Disability Questionnaire). Results were analysed using the χ² test of independence. The signiicance level was adopted at p < 0.05. The majority of women pregnant for the second time (n = 38) had mild disability. The relationship between the degree of disability and the order of pregnancies was statistically signi icant (χ² = 40.457, p = 0.0000000085). The majority of pregnant women had minor functional limitations due to pain in the lumbosacral spine region. The degree of functional limitations depends on the trimester of pregnancy and the order of pregnancies.
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may be...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may be...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may be...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may be...
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may be...
Gomes, Melba F; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Saxena, Abha; Kuesel, Annette C
For 30 years, women have sought equal opportunity to be included in trials so that drugs are equitably studied in women as well as men; regulatory guidelines have changed accordingly. Pregnant women, however, continue to be excluded from trials for non-obstetric conditions, though they have been included for trials of life-threatening diseases because prospects for maternal survival outweighed potential fetal risks. Ebola virus disease is a life-threatening infection without approved treatments or vaccines. Previous Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak data showed 89-93% maternal and 100% fetal/neonatal mortality. Early in the 2013-2016 EBOV epidemic, an expert panel pointed to these high mortality rates and the need to prioritize and preferentially allocate unregistered interventions in favor of pregnant women (and children). Despite these recommendations and multiple ethics committee requests for their inclusion on grounds of justice, equity, and medical need, pregnant women were excluded from all drug and vaccine trials in the affected countries, either without justification or on grounds of potential fetal harm. An opportunity to offer pregnant women the same access to potentially life-saving interventions as others, and to obtain data to inform their future use, was lost. Once again, pregnant women were denied autonomy and their right to decide. We recommend that, without clear justification for exclusion, pregnant women are included in clinical trials for EBOV and other life-threatening conditions, with lay language on risks and benefits in information documents, so that pregnant women can make their own decision to participate. Their automatic exclusion from trials for other conditions should be questioned.
Bílek, Radovan; Kaňová, Nataša; Mindžáková, Veronika; Neumann, David; Jiskra, Jan; Ryšavá, Lydie; Zamrazil, Václav
Iodine deficiency is a global public health problem which is particularly noticeable in pregnant or breastfeeding women and their children. Even mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy can lead to damage to the developing brain and thus affecting the fetus intelligence, his cognitive and neurological function, embryogenesis and growth. In the period 2010-2015 was determined by spectrophotometry at the Institute of Endocrinology the basal urinary iodine in 532 pregnant women at the age of 32 ± 5 (18-44) years, which came from Prague, Hradec Kralove and Mlada Boleslav. It was located 349 women in the first trimester, 112 in the second trimester, and 71 women in the third trimester. In the monitoring of pregnant women in the first trimester 218 basal urine samples of women were determined by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS) in The National Institute of Public Health (NIPH). Women came from the 6 areas in the Czech Republic. Development of urinary iodine in the general population in the period 1994-2015 was observed in patients who underwent Institute of Endocrinology and from population studies conducted in 7 regions of the Czech Republic. It performed 52 648 spectrophotometric analysis of urinary iodine in the general population. Urinary iodine was determined by alkali melting of urine samples, followed by spectrophotometric determination of iodine in the form of iodide using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction in the Institute of Endocrinology or determination was performed by ICP-MS in the laboratory of NIPH. On average, only 21.8 % of pregnant women had urinary iodine values determined by spectrophotometry higher than 150 μg/L. The results of iodine nutrition of pregnant women in the first trimester analyzed using ICP-MS are better, but even so, only 50.5 % of pregnant women have urinary iodine higher than 150 μg/L. The results of iodine nutrition of pregnant women are alarming, on average, only 30 % of the total of 750 examined women have
Cardenas, Lina M; Ross, Damon D
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gain in knowledge of oral health after education to pregnant women on dental anticipatory guidance and to determine how much of this information pregnant women retain over time. The study consisted of 40 pregnant women. Inclusion criteria included: (1) between the ages of 21-40; (2) in 12-40th week of pregnancy; and (3) spoke English. During the first visit, all subjects were asked to complete a pre-test (24 questions), watch a ten minute presentation and complete the post-test (24 questions). During the second visit (4 weeks/1 month after the first visit), all subjects were asked to complete the follow-up test (24 questions). All of the tests (pre, post and follow-up) were scored and used to determine the changes in knowledge of the pregnant women after the presentation. The mean age for all 40 pregnant women was 26.88 (SD +/- 4.3) years and the mean number of weeks pregnant was 25.2 at the first visit. The mean overall correct scores for the pre-test was 12.9 (53.75%), post-test was 20.9 (87.08%) and follow-up test was 20.17 (84.05%). These overall scores show an improvement of 8 (33.33%, p<0.05) questions correct from the first to second test, and a digression of 0.73 (3.08%) questions correct from the second to third test. These observations indicate that in this study population pregnant women's knowledge improved after a presentation on dental anticipatory guidance. These observations also indicate that after four weeks, pregnant women were able to retain most of the information, as only a slight digression in overall scores was noticed from the follow-up test to the post-test.
Li, Hongbo; Wang, Yanling; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yancai; Huang, Dahong; Liang, Liping; Ren, Xudong; Dou, Yugui; Zhu, Xiaonan
To investigate the iodine nutritional status and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 90 pregnant women in Wuwei City from April 2009 to January 2010. The morning blood samples and random urine samples were collected, and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroid hormone (FT4), thyroglobulin antibodies (TGAb), thyroid microsomal antibodies (TMAb) in blood samples and iodine in urine samples were detected. The medians of urinary iodine were 231.49, 158.25 and 328.35 microg/L for women in early, middle and late period of pregnancy, The ratio of urinary iodine below 150 microg/L were 39.29%, 45.16% and 25.81%, respectively. The FT3, FT4 levels in the first trimester were higher than those in the third trimester (P < 0.05) and TSH level was increased, but no significant difference (P > 0.05). The positive rate of TGAb and TMAb antibody of pregnant women in different period of time were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The incidence of thyroid function disorder was significantly different in different gestation periods. Generally, the iodine nutritional status of these pregnant women was appropriate, but there was a tendency towards hypothyroid in some women. Monitoring urinary iodine and thyroid function in pregnant women should be carried out regularly.
Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu
Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.
Groth, Susan W; Stewart, Patricia A; Ossip, Deborah J; Block, Robert C; Wixom, Nellie; Fernandez, I Diana
Micronutrient intake is critical for fetal development and positive pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the adequacy of micronutrient intake in pregnant African-American women. To describe nutrient sufficiency and top food groups contributing to dietary intake of select micronutrients in low-income pregnant African-American women and determine whether micronutrient intake varies with early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cohort study of pregnant African-American women. A total of 93 women aged 18 to 36 years, <20 weeks pregnant, with early pregnancy BMIs ≥18.5 and <40.0. The study was conducted during 2008 to 2012 with participants from university-affiliated obstetrics clinics in an urban setting in the northeastern United States. Proportion of women with dietary intakes below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, folate, iron, calcium, and choline throughout pregnancy. Top food groups from which women derived these micronutrients was also determined. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and percentages. Percent of women reaching EAR or AI was calculated. The χ 2 test was used to assess micronutrient intake differences based on early pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. A large percentage of pregnant women did not achieve the EAR or AI from dietary sources alone; EAR for folate (66%), vitamin D (100%), iron (89%), and AI for choline (100%). Mean micronutrient intake varied throughout pregnancy. Top food sources included reduced-fat milk, eggs, and mixed egg dishes, pasta dishes, and ready-to-eat cereal. The majority of study participants had dietary micronutrient intake levels below EAR/AI throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that practitioners should evaluate dietary adequacy in women to avoid deficits in micronutrient intake during pregnancy. Top food sources of these micronutrients can be considered when assisting
Stewart, Patricia A.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Block, Robert C.; Wixom, Nellie; Fernandez, I Diana
Background Micronutrient intake is critical for fetal development and positive pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about adequacy of micronutrient intake in pregnant African American women. Objective To describe nutrient sufficiency and top food groups contributing to dietary intake of select micronutrients in low-income pregnant African American women and determine if micronutrient intake varies with early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain. Design Secondary analysis of data collected in a cohort study of pregnant African American women. Participants/setting A total of 93 women 18–36 years old, < 20 weeks pregnant, with early pregnancy BMIs ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 and < 40.0 kg/m2. The study was conducted during 2008–2012 with participants from university affiliated obstetrical clinics in an urban setting in Northeast USA. Main outcome measures Proportion of women with dietary intakes below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, folate, iron, calcium, and choline throughout pregnancy. Top food groups from which women derived these micronutrients. Statistical analyses performed Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations and percentages. Percent of women reaching EAR/AI was calculated. Chi-square test was used to assess micronutrient intake differences based on early pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. Results A large percentage of pregnant women did not achieve the EAR/AI from dietary sources alone; EAR for folate (66%), vitamin D (100%), iron (89%), and AI for choline (100%). Mean micronutrient intake varied throughout pregnancy. Top food sources included reduced fat milk, eggs and mixed egg dishes, pasta dishes, and ready to eat cereal. Conclusions The majority of study participants had dietary micronutrient intake levels below EAR/AI throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that practitioners should evaluate dietary adequacy in women to avoid deficits in micronutrient intake during
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Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna
Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37
Stinson, Kathryn; Boulle, Andrew; Coetzee, David; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon
To investigate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation among pregnant women and the optimum model of service delivery for integrating HAART services into antenatal care. We analysed clinic records to reconstruct a cohort of all HIV-infected pregnant women eligible for HAART at four antenatal clinics representing three service delivery models in Cape Town, South Africa. To assess HAART coverage, records of women determined to be eligible for HAART in pregnancy were reviewed at corresponding HIV treatment services. Of 13,208 pregnant women tested for HIV, 26% were HIV-infected and 15% were HAART-eligible based on a CD4 cell count of
Nwonwu, E U; Ibekwe, P C; Ugwu, J I; Obarezi, H C; Nwagbara, O C
Malaria currently is regarded as the most common and potentially the most serious infection occurring in pregnancy in many sub Saharan African countries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and malaria related anaemia among pregnant women in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria. This is a cross sectional, descriptive study conducted in two tertiary health institutions in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria (Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital And Federal Medical Centre). Using systematic sampling method, 193 pregnant women were selected from the health institutions for the study. Their blood were analysed for haemoglobin status and malaria parasite. Data were also collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. All the data were analysed using Epi info version 6 statistical software. Response rate was 100%. Twenty nine percent prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was detected, more common among primigravidae. Women with higher parity had higher frequency of anaemia in pregnancy. More than half of the pregnant women (51%) were in their second trimester at the time of booking. There was no case of severe anaemia requiring blood transfusion. Our pregnant women register late for antenatal care. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia is high in our environment as well as anaemia in pregnancy, using the standard WHO definition. It is suggested that effort should be intensified to make our women register early for antenatal care in order to identify complications early. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria should be incorporated into routine drugs for antenatal women.
Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p < .001) was more common in first-trimester pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p < .001), but not of HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.
Doubova Dubova, Svetlana Vladislavovna; Pámanes-González, Verónica; Billings, Deborah L; Torres-Arreola, Laura del Pilar
To assess factors related to partner violence against pregnant women. Data were collected from 383 pregnant women eligible attending five family medicine units of the Mexican institute of social security in Mexico City, Mexico, between September 2003 and August 2004. Data collection was carried out using a questionnaire developed for the study. Of all women interviewed, 120 (31.1%) reported that they had been exposed to psychological and/or physical and/or sexual violence perpetrated by their partners during the current pregnancy; 10% reported combined violence and 21% isolated violence. Psychological violence was most frequently reported (in 93% of the "experienced violence" group). As for their perception of violence there was not found any significant differences between those women who had experienced versus those who did not experience violence. Only about 20% of women had knowledge of centers for women victims of violence. The factors significantly associated with partner violence among pregnant women included: being single (OR=3.02; 95% CI: 1.17;7.83), being unmarried and living with a partner (OR=2.22; 95% CI: 1.11;4.42), history of violence during childhood (OR= 3.08; 95% CI: 1.62;5.85), alcohol consumption by the partner (OR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.02;3.42) and emotional distress among women (OR=4.17; 95% CI: 1.12;15.51). The study results stress other research findings that violence against pregnant Mexican women is still common.
Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.
Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.
Suzuki, Shunji; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Tanaka, Masanobu; Okai, Takashi; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Kitamura, Tadaichi
We examined the current status of syphilis-infected pregnant Japanese women, according to the results of syphilis screening and confirmation tests of women who gave birth in Japan between October, 2015 and March, 2016. We requested 2458 obstetrical facilities to provide information of syphilis screening tests and 78.1% of them responded. Considering the response rate and the rate of implementation of confirmation tests, the number of syphilis-infected pregnant Japanese women was estimated to be 250 (1/4022) per year.
Di Bartolomeo, S; Gentile, M; Priore, G; Valle, S; Di Bella, A
Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus), is the most frequent microorganism involved in neonatal infections through the mother-fetus vertical transmission. It is also responsible for infections in pregnant women, and adults with underlying diseases. The objective of this work was to know the S. agalactiae carrier prevalence in pregnant women who attended to Posadas Hospital, and to study the susceptibility pattern of the isolates to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. From 1203 pregnant women studied, S. agalactiae was recovered in 113, which means a prevalence of 9.39%. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested to 87 isolates. All of them were susceptible to penicillin, and only 2 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and clindamycin (constitutive MLS mechanism). We emphasize the importance of knowing these last resistance, in the case of beta-lactam antibiotics allergic women.
This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…
Salawu, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B
To assess the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in rural communities of southwestern Nigeria. The present cross-sectional epidemiologic survey of urogenital schistosomiasis was conducted during 2010-2011 among pregnant women in Yewa North Local Government, Ogun State, Nigeria. The women were microscopically screened for infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Of 313 volunteer participants, 20.8% tested positive for S. haematobium infection. The prevalence of infection was highest (31.5%) among women aged 20-24years. The infection intensity did not differ significantly between age groups (t=1.848, P=0.71). Primigravidae and women in the first trimester of pregnancy had the highest intensity of infection with 33.1 and 27.7 eggs/10mL of urine, respectively. There was an association between disease prevalence and parasite intensity across the age groups (χ(2)=68.82, P=0.02). The prevalence of S. haematobium was not associated with age or pregnancy trimester (P=0.06), but associations existed between intensity of infection and gravidity (P=0.001). The prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis among pregnant women in Nigeria was high, with younger women and primigravidae at the greatest risk. These data can be used to develop a schistosomiasis control program among pregnant women in the study area. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Gogacz, Małgorzata; Kobyłecka, Elzbieta; Bachanek, Teresa
Proper oral hygiene is an essential element of dental caries prophylaxis and periodontitis. The aim of the study was evaluation of the oral health state and the state of periodontal in pregnant women in relation to the status of cigarette smoking. Survey and clinical studies were conducted in the group of 100 women--80% pregnant women and 20% in the first week of puerperium remaining at the gynaecological and obstetric hospital wards in Lublin and its region. The mean age of the investigated was 27.94. Study results revealed no correlation between the frequency of pregnant women tooth-brushing and the status of cigarette smoking or non-smoking. The average oral hygiene evaluated on the basis of API index was stated essentially more frequently in the group of non-smoking women (50%) in comparison with the smoking women (24.14%),, whereas improper oral hygiene was stated essentially more frequently in the group of smoking women (31.03%) in comparison with non-smokers (11.29%) (chi = 7.82, p < 0.05). No correlation was stated between the state of periodontal in smoking and non-smoking pregnant women.
Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth
This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.
Lane, A; Goodyer, C G; Rab, F; Ashley, J M; Sharma, S; Hodgson, A; Nisker, J
Recent media reports on human studies associating brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in household products in pregnancy with urogenital anomalies in boys and endocrine disruption in both sexes. We sought to explore the perceptions of pregnant women of brominated flame retardant (BFR) exposure, in light of recent media reports on the adverse health effects of BFR exposure prenatally. Pregnant women were recruited for interviews through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics, prenatal fairs and community centres. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim for Charmaz-based qualitative analysis supported by NVIVO 10™. Theoretical sufficiency was reached after analyzing the interviews of 23 pregnant women. Themes co-constructed were: I-Lack of Awareness of BFRs; II-Factors Influencing BFR Exposure; III-Responsibility; IV-Informed Choice. Almost all participants felt it was difficult to make informed choices to avoid BFRs, and wanted communication from clinicians and regulation from governments regarding decreasing BFR exposure. Pregnant women in Canada may be unaware of the potential risks of exposure to BFRs. Professional organizations and governments should further study risk associated with BFR exposure in pregnancy and provide educational materials for pregnant women and clinicians regarding BFR exposure.
Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro
Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349
Poon, L C Y; Kametas, N; Strobl, I; Pachoumi, C; Nicolaides, K H
To determine the prevalence of blood pressure inter-arm difference (IAD) in early pregnancy and to investigate its possible association with maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional observational study. Routine antenatal visit in a university hospital. A total of 5435 pregnant women at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Blood pressure was taken from both arms simultaneously with a validated automated device. The presence of inter-arm blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more. The IAD in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10 mmHg or more in 8.3 and 2.3% of the women, respectively. Systolic IAD was found to be significantly related to systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and diastolic IAD was found to be significantly related to maternal age, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The systolic and diastolic IAD were higher in the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group and absolute IAD increased with increasing blood pressure. About 31.0 and 23.9% of cases of hypertension would have been underreported if the left arm and the right arm were used, respectively, in measuring the blood pressure. There is a blood pressure IAD in a significant proportion of the pregnant population, and its prevalence increases with increasing blood pressure. By measuring blood pressure only on one arm, there is a one in three chance of underreporting hypertension. Therefore, it would be prudent that during the booking visit blood pressure should be taken in both arms and thus provide guidance for subsequent blood pressure measurements during the course of pregnancy.
Signes-Pastor, Antonio J; Carey, Manus; Vioque, Jesus; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Rodríguez-Dehli, Cristina; Tardón, Adonina; Begoña-Zubero, Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Llop, Sabrina; Gonzalez-Palacios, Sandra; Meharg, Andrew A
Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a non-threshold human carcinogen that has been associated with several adverse health outcomes. Exposure to i-As is of particular concern among pregnant women, infants and children, as they are specifically vulnerable to the adverse health effects of i-As, and in utero and early-life exposure, even low to moderate levels of i-As, may have a marked effect throughout the lifespan. Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry detection (IC-ICP-MS) was used to analyse urinary arsenic speciation, as an exposure biomarker, in samples of 4-year-old children with relatively low-level arsenic exposure living in different regions in Spain including Asturias, Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia. The profile of arsenic metabolites in urine was also determined in samples taken during pregnancy (1st trimester) and in the children from Valencia of 7 years old. The median of the main arsenic species found in the 4-year-old children was 9.71 μg/l (arsenobetaine-AsB), 3.97 μg/l (dimethylarsinic acid-DMA), 0.44 μg/l (monomethylarsonic acid-MMA) and 0.35 μg/l (i-As). Statistically significant differences were found in urinary AsB, MMA and i-As according to the study regions in the 4-year-old, and also in DMA among pregnant women and their children. Spearman's correlation coefficient among urinary arsenic metabolites was calculated, and, in general, a strong methylation capacity to methylate i-As to MMA was observed.
Schroder, Theresa H; Sinclair, Graham; Mattman, Andre; Jung, Benjamin; Barr, Susan I; Vallance, Hilary D; Lamers, Yvonne
Maternal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been inversely associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and positively with fetal growth and infant development. South Asians, Canada's largest ethnic minority, are prone to B12 deficiency. Yet, data are lacking on B12 status in South Asian pregnant women in North America. We sought to determine B12 status, using multiple biomarkers, in 1st and 2nd trimester pregnant women of South Asian and, for comparison, European ethnicity living in Vancouver, Canada. In this retrospective cohort study, total B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA), and total homocysteine concentrations were quantified in two routinely collected (mean gestational week: 11·5 (range 8·3-13·9) and 16·5 (range 14·9-20·9)), banked serum samples of 748 healthy pregnant South Asian (n 371) and European (n 377) women. South Asian pregnant women had significantly lower B12 status than European pregnant women at both time points, as indicated by lower serum total B12 and holoTC concentrations, and higher MMA concentrations (all P≤0·001). The largest difference, which was substantial (Cohen's d≥0·5), was observed in mean serum total B12 concentrations (1st trimester: 189 (95 % CI 180, 199) v. 246 (95 % CI 236, 257) pmol/l; 2nd trimester: 176 (95 % CI 168, 185) v. 226 (95 % CI 216, 236) pmol/l). Further, South Asian ethnicity was a significant negative predictor of B12 status during pregnancy. South Asian women living in Vancouver have substantially lower B12 status during early pregnancy. Future research identifying predictors and health consequences of this observed difference is needed to allow for targeted interventions.
Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman
In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.
Lammi-Keefe, C. J.
Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202
Tosun Güleroğlu, Funda; Gördeles Beşer, Nalan
Pregnant women may avoid sexual intercourse or may unavoidably undergo problems in their sexual lives because of various complaints they suffer from. The study aims to evaluate sexual functions of the pregnant women and to determine the factors that negatively affect their sexual health. This is a descriptive research study conducted to evaluate sexual functions of pregnant women. Three hundred six pregnant women admitted to the Women Birth Polyclinics within the Women Birth and Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were included in the study. The data were gathered using a personal information form and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Kruskall-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for the statistical analysis. The main outcome is an assessment of the FSFI domains in pregnancy and relationships between pregnancy complaints and sexual functions. The results indicated that the mean age of the pregnant women was 25.6 ± 5.4 and their length of marriage was 5.93 ± 5.4 years. The study revealed that 88.9% of the pregnant women had sexual desire disorders, 86.9% had sexual arousal disorder, 42.8% had lubrication disorders, 69.6% had orgasm disorders, and 48% had sexual satisfaction disorders. Statistically significant differences were found in correlations between FSFI medians and the characteristics of the pregnant women in terms of age, educational level, length and type of marriage, and gestational week. There were also statistically significant differences in correlations between the pregnancy characteristics in terms of backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache, and cramp problems (P < 0.05). It was determined that the sexual lives of the pregnant women were negatively affected not only by factors such as old age, low educational status, arranged marriages lasting for more than 10 years, undesired pregnancy, and gestational week but also by health problems such as backache
Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha
To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.
D'Alessandro, Alessia; Napolitano, Francesco; D'Ambrosio, Antonio; Angelillo, Italo Francesco
The aims of this survey were to ascertain pregnant women's level of knowledge and acceptability on the vaccinations and to identify their associations with several characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed from December 2017 through March 2018 in the geographic area of Naples, Italy. The study used two stages cluster sampling method for selection and recruitment of participants. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with pregnant women present at the Obstetrics outpatient clinic of the selected hospitals. A total of 358 respondents agreed to be interviewed out of the 405 pregnant women selected. One-fourth knew at least one of the vaccinations recommended during pregnancy and only 2.8% correctly identified all of these. Women who had received information about the vaccinations during pregnancy from general practitioners or gynecologists or other sources and those with at least one child were more likely to know at least one of the recommended vaccinations, whereas women with middle school education were less knowledgeable. None of the women had received tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine and only 1.4% the seasonal influenza vaccination. Only 27.9% reported a positive willingness to receive all the recommended vaccinations during pregnancy. Pregnant women would be willing to get all recommended vaccinations if they had at least one child and if they needed additional information, whereas the willingness was significantly lower among women who had reported high school as the highest level of education, who were in the second trimester of pregnancy, and who felt that the recommended vaccines administered during pregnancy were less dangerous for them and for the unborn child. This study suggests important focus points to be taking into account for informing and for implementing education activities on the benefits regarding vaccinations in order to increase the level of knowledge and the uptake in pregnant women.
Reither, Margi; Germano, Elaine; DeGrazia, Michele
Obesity is associated with increased risks for adverse health outcomes during and after pregnancy in both the woman with obesity and her infant. This study was designed to investigate midwifery management of pregnant women with obesity. Certified midwives and certified nurse-midwives who were members of the American College of Nurse-Midwives were sent a survey. The survey instrument was divided into 4 sections: demographic characteristics; practice guidelines and protocols; the role of the 2015 Levels of Maternal Care guidelines for referral, including transfer to a higher level of care; and factors that influence management of pregnant women with obesity. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. In a sample of 546 midwives, 87% of respondents reported observing an increase in perinatal complications associated with obesity. Midwives reported increasing discomfort with the care of pregnant women with obesity as body mass index (BMI) increased. For pregnant women with extreme obesity, the respondents reported less frequent use of physiologic birth guidelines only and increased use of interventions, referral to physician care, and transfer to a higher level of care. Approximately half (270, 49.5%) reported having a guideline that addressed the care of women with obesity. Of these, 145 midwives (53.7%) reported that extreme obesity was the BMI threshold for identifying an increased or high risk for perinatal complications. Sixty percent (339) of midwives who participated requested guidance for management of laboring women who are obese. This study provides a greater understanding of midwifery management practices when caring for women with obesity and opportunities to improve care. The results suggest that midwifery management alters with increased BMI, specifically in the care of women with extreme obesity. Suggestions for future study include research on management of pregnant women with obesity and extreme obesity with outcome data examining management
Moynihan, Meghan; Peterson, Karen E.; Cantoral, Alejandra; Song, Peter X.K.; Jones, Andrew; Solano-González, Maritsa; Meeker, John D.; Basu, Niladri; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria
Background Cadmium is a toxic metal with modifiable exposure sources including diet. In pregnant women and children, unique dietary habits may contribute to DCd, and the relationship of diet to overall cadmium exposure can depend on specific factors during these transitional time periods. Objectives This study aimed to identify and quantify food sources of DCd, describe the distribution of UCd, and determine the relationship of DCd and intake of specific foods with UCd, stratified by maternal smoking history, among pregnant women and children in a well-characterized Mexico City birth cohort. Methods Our sample included 192 pregnant women (third trimester) and 223 children (7-15 years). DCd was calculated using FFQ and the U.S. TDS. We also measured UCd, maternal history of smoking, and additional covariates. Results Pregnant women and children had geometric mean UCd concentrations of 0.19±0.78 μg/L and 0.14±0.60 μg/L, respectively. On average, estimated daily DCd intake was 9.3±3.5 μg for women and 12.2±5.4 μg for children. Adjusted linear regression models showed a positive association between DCd and UCd among women (p=0.03) and children (p=0.03) without a maternal history of smoking. Intake of fruit and vegetables among women and potato consumption among children were positively associated with UCd. Conclusions Pregnant women and their children are exposed to cadmium at dietary and urinary levels similar to those previously reported. Higher estimated DCd for children than for women could be attributed to the different FFQs or related to dietary pattern changes between age groups. DCd contributed to UCd in those without a maternal smoking history. PMID:27707662
Pringle, Kirsty G; de Meaultsart, Celine Corbisier; Sykes, Shane D; Weatherall, Loretta J; Keogh, Lyniece; Clausen, Don C; Dekker, Gus A; Smith, Roger; Roberts, Claire T; Rae, Kym M; Lumbers, Eugenie R
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women. Non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, had higher uAGT/creatinine levels than non-Indigenous non-pregnant women (P < 0.01), and levels increased as pregnancy progressed (P < 0.001). In non-Indigenous pregnant women with pregnancy complications, uAGT/creatinine was suppressed in the third trimester (P < 0.01). In Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies, there was no change in uAGT/creatinine with gestational age and uAGT/creatinine was lower in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters than in non-Indigenous pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies (P < 0.03, P < 0.007, respectively). The uAGT/creatinine ratios of Indigenous women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies were the same. A decrease in uAGT/creatinine with advancing gestational age was associated with increased urinary albumin/creatinine, as is seen in preeclampsia, but it was not specific for this disorder. The reduced uAGT/creatinine in Indigenous pregnant women may reflect subclinical renal dysfunction which limits the ability of the kidney to maintain sodium balance and could indicate an increased risk of pregnancy complications and/or future renal
This study aims to evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises for a decreasing pain in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women were divided into two groups, a control group (followed a standard pregnancy exercise regimen) and a Pilates group (completed a Pilates exercise regimen). A pain assessment was carried out after exercise, using a visual analog scale. The Pilates group workout program lasted 70-80 min per day, once a week, for 8 weeks. The reduction in the level of pain was found to be significantly greater in the group of pregnant women who completed the Pilates workout (p < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that Pilates is an effective, healthy, and feasible method of reducing pain in pregnancy, and is therefore a beneficial alternative workout for the suppression of pain in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhong, C; Ma, K N; Wong, Y S; So, Y; Lee, P C; Yang, Y
Pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries remain prevalent in Hong Kong. The aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge and beliefs related to pregnancy gingivitis and children's oral health. An outreach survey was carried out in a clinic that provided antenatal examination. A written oral health questionnaire related to pregnancy gingivitis and early childhood caries was administered to pregnant women. Of the 106 pregnant women who enrolled in the study, 100 completed the questionnaires. Among the 100 subjects, only 39% correctly identified that hormonal changes contribute to pregnancy gingivitis. Only 36% identified red and swollen gums as signs of gingivitis. Furthermore, 53% of the surveyed pregnant women were not sure about the amount of toothpaste to administer to a child aged 18 months to 5 years. Almost 50% assumed that a replanted avulsed tooth would probably not survive within a short extra-alveolar period of less than 60 minutes. Prenatal women generally lack knowledge of a common oral disease that occurs during pregnancy and of what constitutes adequate oral health care for children. Oral health care education should be implemented as part of a prenatal care program.
Lee, Ching-Fang; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Lin, Hsien-Ming; Chi, Li-Kang; Chien, Li-Yin
Physical activity reduces the risk of maternal disorders during pregnancy. However, many pregnant women reduce their levels of physical activity while pregnant. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the physical activity (total amount, intensity, type) of Taiwanese women during each trimester. This cross-sectional survey used purposive sampling to enroll 581 Taiwanese women as participants. The physical activity of participants was measured using the Mandarin version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. The levels of household/caregiving activity and occupational activity differed significantly across trimesters. Household/caregiving (43.2%-54.5%) and occupational activity (42.0%-54.0%) accounted for the largest percentages of total energy expenditure for all three trimesters. In terms of total and household/caregiving activities, multiparous women had significantly higher mean energy expenditures than their primiparous peers. Moreover, income had a pervasive influence on all types and amounts of physical activity and energy expenditures, respectively, with the exception of sports/exercise. Further careful assessment of the types and intensities of physical activity that are suitable for pregnant women in different parity and income categories in Taiwan is necessary. Furthermore, healthcare providers should encourage pregnant women to use strategies that promote their more regular participation in enjoyable physical activities. One of these potential strategies is to do activities together with children, family members, or friends.
Bbosa, Richard Serunkuma; Ehlers, Valerie Janet
malaria causes complications during 80% of all pregnancies in Uganda. However, only 48% of Ugandan pregnant women took one dose of intermittent preventive therapy while merely 27% took the second dose during 2011. This study investigated midwives' provision of anti-malaria services in the Buikwe District of Uganda. a quantitative exploratory descriptive design was used. prenatal clinics (n=16) in the Buikwe District of Uganda RESPONDENTS: questionnaires were completed by 40 (out of a population of 45) midwives. midwives' provision of malaria-preventive services to pregnant women were associated with the midwives' education level and professional experience as well as by the availability of safe drinking water and drugs for intermittent preventive treatment. Midwives who provided frequent health education to pregnant women, cooperated with village health team members and received in-service training were likely to provide effective anti-malaria services to pregnant women. regular audits of midwives' records should identify strengths and weaknesses related to the prevention of malaria during pregnancy. Relevant in- service education should be provided. Drugs for intermittent preventive therapy and clean drinking water must be available at all prenatal clinics so that pregnant women can take these drugs under direct observation of the midwives. malaria-related health education should be provided during every prenatal clinic visit, and every pregnant women should take two doses of intermittent preventive therapy drugs during every pregnancy (as prescribed by Uganda's Ministry of Health) in order to reduce the reported impact of malaria on 80% of pregnancies in Uganda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite
To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.
Arch, Joanna J
Relatively little is known about women's anxiety-related treatment preferences and no studies have examined potential differences between pregnant versus non-pregnant women. Treatment credibility and willingness are particularly important to understand regarding exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy, the leading evidence-based treatments. A large U.S. sample of pregnant (n = 377) and matched non-pregnant (n = 399) women (total N = 776) rated overall treatment preferences and treatment credibility, concerns, and willingness to have CBT and pharmacotherapy if suffering from anxiety. Women preferred anxiety-related treatment that included psychotherapy. Preference for psychotherapy alone was stronger among pregnant (74%) than non-pregnant (47%) women, p < .001. In response to treatment descriptions, both groups rated CBT more favorably than pharmacotherapy on treatment willingness, credibility, and concerns, ps < .001, with the magnitude of this preference significantly greater among pregnant than non-pregnant women, ps < .001. Pregnancy status was unrelated to CBT ratings. Treatment credibility and to a lesser extent total concerns mediated the relationship between pregnancy status and pharmacotherapy willingness. Non-pregnant and especially pregnant women rated exposure-based CBT for anxiety more favorably than pharmacotherapy. Pregnancy status predicted general treatment preferences and pharmacotherapy, but not CBT, ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Michalowicz, Bryan S; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Novak, M John; Buchanan, William; Papapanou, Panos N; Mitchell, Dennis A; Curran, Alice E; Lupo, Virginia R; Ferguson, James E; Bofill, James; Matseoane, Stephen; Deinard, Amos S; Rogers, Tyson B
Although clinicians generally consider it safe to provide dental care for pregnant women, supporting clinical trial evidence is lacking. This study compares safety outcomes from a trial in which pregnant women received scaling and root planing and other dental treatments. The authors randomly assigned 823 women with periodontitis to receive scaling and root planing, either at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation or up to three months after delivery. They evaluated all subjects for essential dental treatment (EDT) needs, defined as the presence of moderate-to-severe caries or fractured or abscessed teeth; 351 women received complete EDT at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation. The authors used Fisher exact test and a propensity-score adjustment to compare rates of serious adverse events, spontaneous abortions/stillbirths, fetal/congenital anomalies and preterm deliveries (<37 weeks' gestation) between groups, according to the provision of periodontal treatment and EDT. Rates of adverse outcomes did not differ significantly (P> .05) between women who received EDT and those who did not require this treatment, or between groups that received both EDT and periodontal treatment, either EDT or periodontal treatment alone, or no treatment. Use of topical or local anesthetics during root planing also was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. EDT in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing serious medical adverse events or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data from larger studies and from groups with other treatment needs are needed to confirm the safety of dental care in pregnant women. This study provides evidence that EDT and use of topical and local anesthetics are safe in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation.
Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius
Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.
Fitzgerald, Elizabeth Moran
Pregnant Latina women living in the United States are a heterogeneous group represented by various countries, cultures, immigration status, and other socioeconomic factors. Although some of the literature refers to a Latina health paradox that may serve as a protective factor against smoking for recent immigrants, acculturation may increase the vulnerability of pregnant Latina women to begin smoking. Social-support treatments should be individualized based on what types of emotional, informational, or instrumental resources the woman desires. Evidence-based strategies delivered in English or Spanish by bilingual lay health educators and tailored to embrace Latina values are cost-effective and successful. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G
The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women.
Charles, Alyson M.; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Yatich, Nelly; Jolly, Pauline E.
Anemia in pregnancy is a worldwide problem, but it is most prevalent in the developing world. This research project was conducted to determine the predictors of anemia in pregnant women in Westmoreland, Jamaica. A cross-sectional study design was conducted and descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Body mass index, Mid-upper arm circumference, and the number of antenatal care visits showed a statistically significant association with anemia. Based on the results, we believe that maintaining a healthy body weight, and frequently visiting an antenatal clinic, will help to lower the prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in Westmoreland. PMID:20526925
Nguyen, Huong T T; Tran, Cuc H; Dang, Anh D; Tran, Huong G T; Vu, Thiem D; Pham, Thach N; Nguyen, Hoang V; Nguyen, Anh N K; Pieracci, Emily G; Tran, Duong N
Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. MoH found that, during 2015-2016, among 169 cases reported in Vietnam, two probable cases of rabies were reported in breastfeeding mothers and four in pregnant women, all of whom had been bitten by dogs. All six patients died. Three of the four pregnant women had cesarean deliveries. One of the three newborns died from complications believed to be unrelated to rabies; the fourth pregnant woman contracted rabies too early in pregnancy for the fetus to be viable. Two of the patients sought care from a medical provider or traditional healer; however, none sought PEP after being bitten. In each case, families reported the patient's fear of risk to the fetus or breastfed child as the primary barrier to receiving PEP. These findings highlight the need for public health messaging about the safety and effectiveness of PEP in preventing rabies among all persons with exposures, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S
Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Segall-Corrêa, Ana M; Santiago, Silvia M; Andrade, Maria da Graça G; Pèrez-Escamila, Rafael
To identify the factors associated with domestic violence against pregnant women. Interviews were conducted with 1,379 pregnant women undergoing antenatal care in basic health care units of the Brazilian Health System, within the municipality of Campinas (Southeastern Brazil). A structured questionnaire on domestic violence, validated in Brazil, was applied between July 2004 and July 2006. The first and second interviews in a cohort study were analyzed. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression analysis of the data were conducted. Psychological violence was reported by 19.1% (n=263) of the total sample of pregnant women and physical/sexual violence was reported by 6.5% (n=89) of them. The factors associated to psychological violence were: adolescent intimate partner (p<0.019) and the pregnant woman had witnessed physical aggression before she was 15 years old (p<0.001). The factors associated to physical/sexual violence were: difficulties encountered by the pregnant woman in attending her antenatal appointments (p<0.014), intimate partner uses drugs (p<0.015) and does not work (p<0.048). The factors associated to psychological and physical/ sexual violence were: low level of education of the interviewee (p<0.013 and p<0.020, respectively), the pregnant woman being responsible for the family (p<0.001 and p=0.017, respectively) pregnant woman had suffered physical aggression during childhood (p<0.029 and p<0.038, respectively), presence of common mental disorder (p<0.001) and intimate partner consumes alcoholic beverage twice or more weekly. (p<0.001). A high prevalence of different categories of domestic violence by an intimate partner during pregnancy was found as well as different factors associated with them. Appropriate mechanisms are necessary, particularly in primary health care, to identify and deal with domestic violence during pregnancy.
Cook, Cynthia A Loveland; Flick, Louise H; Homan, Sharon M; Campbell, Claudia; McSweeney, Maryellen; Gallagher, Mary Elizabeth
This study estimated the prevalence of twenty-two 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 744 low-income pregnant women and the frequency that women with psychiatric disorders received treatment. To identify psychiatric disorders, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was administered to Medicaid or Medicaid-eligible pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). The sample was stratified by the rural or urban location of the WIC sites in southeastern Missouri and the city of St. Louis. Eligible women were enrolled at each site until their numbers were proportional to the racial distribution of African American and Caucasian pregnant women served there. The 12-month prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders was 30.9%. Most common were affective disorders (13.6%), particularly major depressive disorder (8.2%) and bipolar I disorder (5.2%). Only 24.3% of those with a psychiatric disorder reported that they received treatment in the past year. Lifetime prevalence of at least one disorder was 45.6%, with affective disorders being the most frequent (23.5%). Caucasian women were more likely than African Americans to have at least one 12-month disorder, with the difference largely accounted for by nicotine dependence. Higher prevalence of lifetime disorders was also found in Caucasian women, particularly affective disorders and substance use disorders. There were no differences in the prevalence of 12-month or lifetime psychiatric disorders by the urban or rural residence of subjects. With nearly one third of pregnant women meeting criteria for a 12-month psychiatric disorder and only one fourth receiving any type of mental health treatment, comprehensive psychiatric screening during pregnancy is needed along with appropriate treatment.
Background Overweight and obesity during pregnancy raise the risk of gestational diabetes and birth complications. Lifestyle factors like physical activity may decrease these risks through beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Here we examined physical activity patterns and their relationships with measures of glucose homeostasis in late pregnancy compared to non-pregnant women. Methods Normal weight and overweight women without diabetes (N = 108; aged 25-35 years) were studied; 35 were pregnant (in gestational weeks 28-32) and 73 were non-pregnant. Insulin sensitivity and β-cell response were estimated from an oral glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured during 10-days of free-living using a combined heart rate sensor and accelerometer. Total (TEE), resting (REE), and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure were measured using doubly-labeled water and expired gas indirect calorimetry. Results Total activity was associated with reduced first-phase insulin response in both pregnant (Regression r2 = 0.11; Spearman r = -0.47; p = 0.007) and non-pregnant women (Regression r2 = 0.11 Spearman; r = -0.36; p = 0.002). Relative to non-pregnant women, pregnant women were estimated to have secreted 67% more insulin and had 10% lower fasting glucose than non-pregnant women. Pregnant women spent 13% more time sedentary, 71% less time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity, had 44% lower objectively measured total activity, and 12% lower PAEE than non-pregnant women. Correlations did not differ significantly for any comparison between physical activity subcomponents and measures of insulin sensitivity or secretion. Conclusions Our findings suggest that physical activity conveys similar benefits on glucose homeostasis in pregnant and non-pregnant women, despite differences in subcomponents of physical activity. PMID:21679399
Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver
There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.
Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María
Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area.
Han, Seong-Min; Han, Jeong Hee; Park, Jina A; Quinn, Frank A; Park, Joonseok; Oh, Eunsuk
Maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes for both the mother and child. For this reason, it is important to understand thyroid status in pregnant women. However, there are relatively few published studies that examine thyroid function tests (TFT) and thyroid autoimmunity in non-Western pregnant women. Serum samples were longitudinally collected throughout pregnancy from 108 Korean women. TFT, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab) testing was performed. The impact of gestational age on TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab levels was evaluated and gestational age-specific reference intervals for TFT were established in antibody negative women. In the first trimester, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab were positive in 13.9% and 16.7% of women, respectively. For antibody positive women, median autoantibody levels for TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab dropped from first trimester to near term (133.7-10.5 IU/mL, and 162.1-21.9 IU/mL, respectively). Antibody status influenced thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) during the first trimester, and TSH, free T4 (FT4) and total T4 (TT4) in the early second trimester. Later in gestation, no significant differences in TFT were found based on antibody status. Gestational age-specific reference intervals for TFT were calculated in antibody negative women. Laboratory evidence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is common in this population of pregnant Korean women. Antibody status influences TFT values in the first and early second trimester. Thyroid autoantibody status and titer change in an individual-specific manner throughout pregnancy. Gestational age-specific reference intervals should be utilized for interpretation of TFT results in pregnant women.
Heikkilä, A; Pyykkö, K; Erkkola, R; Iisalo, E
1. The pharmacokinetics of parenteral mecillinam (n = 27) and oral pivmecillinam (n = 12) were studied in pregnant (n = 27) and non-pregnant (n = 12) subjects. 2. In early pregnancy (9-14 weeks of gestation) the mean peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax = 19 +/- 9 micrograms ml-1) after an intravenous injection of 200 mg mecillinam was significantly lower (P less than 0.05) and the volume of distribution (V = 49 +/- 20.1) significantly larger (P less than 0.05) than in non-pregnant subjects (Cmax = 35 +/- 18 micrograms ml-1, V = 29 +/- 12.1). In late pregnancy (39-40 weeks of gestation) the plasma mean peak concentration (Cmax = (29 +/- 14 micrograms ml-1) after parenteral administration of 200 mg mecillinam was slightly lower and the volume of distribution (V = 65 +/- 29.1, V = 0.9 +/- 0.4 l kg-1) significantly larger than that in non-pregnant subjects (V = 0.4 +/- 0.3 l kg-1). Also after oral administration of 200 mg pivmecillinam, equimolar to 136.5 mg mecillinam, the mean peak plasma concentration in pregnant subjects (Cmax = 1.8 +/- 1.2 micrograms ml-1) was slightly lower than that in non-pregnant subjects (Cmax = 1.7 +/- 1.2 micrograms ml-1). 3. The mean half-life of elimination after parenteral administration of mecillinam was significantly longer during both early (t1/2,Z = 133 +/- 38 min, P less than 0.05) and late pregnancy (t1/2,Z = 107 +/- 41 min, P less than 0.05) as compared with the non-pregnant state (t1/2,Z = 75 +/- 21 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1389936
Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja
While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women.
Crivellenti, Lívia Castro; Zuccolotto, Daniela Cristina Candelas; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To develop a Diet Quality Index Adapted for Pregnant Women (IQDAG) and to evaluate its relation with the characteristics of women treated at the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS: The data on food intake come from a cross-sectional study carried out with 785 adult pregnant women in the city of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2011 and 2012. The index was based on the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, previous national dietary indexes, and the new Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population. We used the ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and chi-square tests to describe the quality of the diet according to the characteristics of the mother. RESULTS: The IQDAG has nine components, and it is represented by three food groups (in servings/1,000 kcal), five nutrients, and a moderator component. A high proportion of pregnant women reached the maximum score for the components of legumes and vegetables. However, few women reached the maximum score for consumption of fresh fruits, fiber, omega-3, calcium, folate, iron, and ultra-processed foods. We verified a better quality of diet among older and eutrophic pregnant women who reported practicing more physical activity and taking dietary supplements. We also observed the highest index score among women with higher intake of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins C, E, and A, and minerals calcium, folate, and iron, as well as among those with lower intake of total fats and saturated fats. CONCLUSIONS: This dietary index is unprecedented in incorporating the recommendation of the new Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population regarding the moderation of the consumption of ultra-processed foods. It was useful in evaluating the quality of the diet of pregnant women and we verified a higher score among older and eutrophic women who reported a healthy lifestyle. Strategies are needed to promote a higher consumption of fresh fruits, foods high in fiber, omega-3, calcium
Jun, I J; Jun, J; Kim, E M; Lee, K Y; Kim, N; Chung, M H; Choi, Y R; Choi, E M
This study set out to compare the onset and duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women receiving general anesthesia. Forty-seven pregnant (Group P) and forty-seven non-pregnant (Group C) women were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, and neuromuscular blockade was assessed with an accelerometric sensor using train-of-four stimulation (TOF-Watch® SX). Tracheal intubation was performed at maximum depression of the first twitch (T1) and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2.5% and 50% oxygen in air. We recorded the times to maximum T1 depression and 5% and 25% T1 recovery, as well as the mean arterial pressure and heart rate at baseline, injection of rocuronium, intubation, and 5% and 25% T1 recovery. The onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (time to maximum T1 depression) did not differ significantly between the groups. The duration (time to 25% T1 recovery) was significantly longer in Group P than in Group C (45.7 ± 12.9 min vs 40.6 ± 10.4 min, P <0.037). During the recovery period from the blockade, the mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in Group P than in Group C. Our data showed that the rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade did not significantly differ in onset but lasted significantly longer in second trimester pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Satoshi; Sano, Mitsue; Suzuki, Kahoru; Hiratsuka, Chiaki; Aoki, Asami; Nagai, Chiharu
Recent studies have shown that the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins can be used as biomarkers for the nutritional status of these vitamins. To determine changes in the urinary excretion levels of water-soluble vitamins during pregnant and lactating stages, we surveyed and compared levels of nine water-soluble vitamins in control (non-pregnant and non-lactating women), pregnant and lactating women. Control women (n=37), women in the 2nd (16-27 wk, n=24) and 3rd trimester of pregnancy (over 28 wk, n=32), and early- (0-5 mo, n=54) and late-stage lactating (6-11 mo, n=49) women took part in the survey. The mean age of subjects was ~30 y, and mean height was ~160 cm. A single 24-h urine sample was collected 1 d after the completion of a validated, self-administered comprehensive diet history questionnaire to measure water-soluble vitamins or metabolites. The average intake of each water-soluble vitamin was ≍ the estimated average requirement value and adequate intake for the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes in all life stages, except for vitamin B6 and folate intakes during pregnancy. No change was observed in the urinary excretion levels of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin or vitamin C among stages. Urine nicotinamide and folate levels were higher in pregnant women than in control women. Urine excretion level of vitamin B1 decreased during lactation and that of pantothenic acid decreased during pregnancy and lactation. These results provide valuable information for setting the Dietary Reference Intakes of water-soluble vitamins for pregnant and lactating women.
Kovavisarach, Ekachai; Vichaipruck, Maytina; Kanjarahareutai, Suwattana
To determine the risk factors related to asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) in pregnant women. Three hundred and sixty asymptomatic pregnant women who attended their first antenatal appointment at Rajavithi Hospital from August 1 and October 31 2005 were enrolled. Those with symptoms of urinary tract infection within one month, those who had been prescribed antibiotics during the previous seven days, and those with medical or obstetric complications, vaginal bleeding, and history of urinary tract disease were excluded. Urine specimens were collected by clean-catched midstream urine technique for culture. Several risk factors related to ABU and obstetric and demographic characteristics were recorded. The prevalence of ABU in pregnant women was 10.0%. The significant risk factors related to ABU in pregnancy was lower education level < or = grade 6 (p < 0.05) with 2.17-time risk of ABU compared with higher education level > grade 6. Maternal and gestational age, occupation, monthly income, gravidity, previous history of urinary tract infection and anemia were not statistically associated with ABU. Lower education level (< or = grade 6) should be the only significant risk factor related to ABU in Thai pregnant women under limited sample size.
Quiroga-Feuchter, Germán; Robles-Torres, Rosa Evangelina; Ruelas-Morán, Andrés; Gómez-Alcalá, Alejandro V
Urinary tract infection is a common pregnancy complication. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can trigger the development of serious complications affecting both the mother and the fetus. Determine the frequency of AB among pregnant women attending to antenatal care at the family medicine clinic number 1 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, located in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. A longitudinal study was carried out from September to December 2004. Seventy-two 72 pregnant women with gestational age of 24 weeks or less were followed up during four months. All pregnant women were selected by a non-probabilistic method. Every patient had a monthly urine culture during the follow up period. Among the 72 pregnant women, 16.7% developed symptomatic urinary infections during the follow-up and 25% had at least one positive urine culture without urinary symptoms, being classified as AB, thus receiving treatment. Frequency of positive urine cultures was common at first and fourth months of follow-up. Urine culture is an important component of prenatal care, and helps in identifying a significant number of urinary tract infections that would go otherwise undetected.
King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara
Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook
During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.
Espuña-Pons, Montserrat; Solans-Domènech, Maite; Sánchez, Emília
To estimate the frequency of double incontinence, and to identify associated risk factors during pregnancy and postpartum in previously continent nulliparous women. A cohort study in healthy, nulliparous, continent pregnant women, attending the public healthcare system of Catalonia (Spain) was designed. The field work was conducted during the control visits of pregnancy, at the time of delivery, and in the postpartum. Double incontinence was defined as a situation in which participants reported simultaneously urinary incontinence (UI) and anal incontinence with the help of a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates, and their corresponding confidence intervals (95% CI), were calculated, as well as the impact on daily life. Multivariable logistic regressions in pregnancy and postpartum were estimated to assess the association of potential risk factors. The prevalence rate of double incontinence during pregnancy was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.0-10.3). Age over 35 years, and family history of UI were associated to a higher risk of double incontinence. After delivery, the prevalence rate decreased to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.4-4.6); only 6.7% of women with double incontinence in pregnancy had a persistency of their symptoms in early postpartum. Instrumental vaginal deliveries carried 2.2 times more risk of double incontinence than spontaneous ones. Episiotomy implied a higher risk for double incontinence. Symptoms of double incontinence are prevalent during first pregnancy; age and other intrinsic factors may favor the occurrence of double incontinence throughout gestation, while instrumental delivery and episiotomy increase the risk of double incontinence in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie
Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Leonardo; Culhane, Jennifer; McCollum, Kelly; Agnew, Kathy; Nyirjesy, Paul
The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical findings and sociodemographic variables among bacterial vaginosis (BV)-positive pregnant women are associated with different microbiologic profiles. Pregnant women were assessed for BV by Nugent criteria. BV+ women were separated into 6 mutually exclusive microbiologic groups. In unadjusted analyses, we compared (1) sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, and (2) 3 clinical characteristics among BV+ women with and without Mobiluncus (M+ vs M-). Unadjusted data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the likelihood of having clinical signs of BV in women with and without Mobiluncus spp while controlling for confounders. A total of 1756 BV+ pregnant women were followed. The M+ group (n=702) was significantly more likely than the M- group (n=1054) to be non-Hispanic black (80.9% vs 66.2%; P < .0001), older than 21 years (61.7% vs 48.7%; P < .0001), and to have had more than 3 lifetime sexual partners (66.4% vs 54.9%; P < .0001). The M+ group was also more likely to have clue cells on wet mount (63.9% vs 47.2%; P < .0001) and a positive amine odor after addition of KOH (57.2% vs 45.0%; P=.001). There was no difference in other demographic variables or physician diagnosis of abnormal vaginal discharge. In the adjusted analyses for each clinical outcome, all findings were consistent with the unadjusted analyses. BV+ pregnant women with Mobiluncus spp are more likely to have clue cells present on wet mount, a positive amine odor after KOH preparation, and to be older, non-Hispanic black, and have had more lifetime sexual partners compared to BV+ women without any Mobiluncus species.
van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H
Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to
Curry, S J; McBride, C; Grothaus, L; Lando, H; Pirie, P
The authors evaluated an expanded measure of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for smoking cessation in a population-based sample of 897 pregnant smokers (500 current smokers and 397 recent quitters). The measure assessed motivation related to pregnancy and parenthood in addition to general intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions. Current smokers at baseline who quit smoking by 28 weeks of pregnancy (n = 102) had significantly higher baseline levels of pregnancy-related motivation than continuing smokers. Extrinsic and pregnancy motivation dropped between baseline and 28 weeks of pregnancy among continuing smokers. Higher levels of intrinsic relative to extrinsic motivation at baseline were associated with sustained abstinence during the first 2 months postpartum. Results suggest that both general and pregnancy-specific motivation are important for smoking cessation and relapse prevention during pregnancy. Interventions to enhance the salience of health benefits over and above those related to pregnancy and other intrinsic benefits of a greater sense of self-control could protect against postpartum relapse.
Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K; Ionete-Collard, Denisa E; Mabika-Manfoumbi, Modeste; Kendjo, Eric; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Mavoungou, Elie; Kombila, Maryvonne
In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. A total of 177 women (57%) had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%)of them were primigravidae, 38 (40%) in their second pregnancy and 180 (64%) were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.
Bø, Kari; A H Haakstad, Lene; Voldner, Nanna
The aims of the present study were to assess the number of women performing pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy and to compare the background variables in those exercising and in those who did not. Four hundred and sixty-seven pregnant women (response rate 84%), mean age 31.5 years (range 20-49), answered a questionnaire on general physical activity level during pregnancy including PFMT. The questionnaire was sent out in week 32 of gestation and answered within week 36. Twenty-four percent reported problems with urinary incontinence and 9% flatus/fecal incontinence. The percentages of pregnant women performing PFMT at least once a week before pregnancy and during trimesters 1, 2, and 3 were 7, 12.9, 17.6, and 17.4%, respectively. More women with lower prepregnancy BMI and with present and past pelvic girdle pain were performing regular PFMT. No significant differences were found in any other background variables. It is concluded that relatively few women perform regular PFMT during pregnancy. In conclusion, only 17% of pregnant Norwegian women reported performing PFMT during pregnancy.
Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H
There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.
Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K; Ionete-Collard, Denisa E; Mabika-Manfoumbi, Modeste; Kendjo, Eric; Matsiegui, Pierre-Blaise; Mavoungou, Elie; Kombila, Maryvonne
Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57%) had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%)of them were primigravidae, 38 (40%) in their second pregnancy and 180 (64%) were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population. PMID:12919637
Gogol', K N; Gotsiridze, E G; Guruli, Z V; Kintraia, N P; Tsaava, F D
Our study revealed that refugee status increases the risks and worsens the outcome of pregnancy among Georgian refugees. 125 Georgian refugee women participated in this study. The study included examinations of the psychological status of expecting mothers, clinical development of pregnancy, complications of labor, functional status of the fetus, and EEG and neuro-ultrasound data of newborns. The control group comprised 125 pregnant women who experienced no stress during pregnancy. An examination of the psycho-emotional status of pregnant refugee women revealed high percentage indicators (82%) for hypochondria, depression, psychopathy, hysteria and psychoastenia in contrast to the control group. The deterioration of psycho-emotional status and biochemical indicators in pregnant refugee women was directly proportional to the worsening of functional and clinical conditions in fetuses. Prolonged stress is the cause of increased morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and child birth in refugee women. Infants born to refugee women also faced increased risks and belong to the group of special premature care and observation.
Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort
ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.
Deren, Sherry; And Others
Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…
Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I
Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.
Osaro, Erhabor; Ladan, Malami Aisha; Zama, Isaac; Ahmed, Yakubu; Mairo, Hassan
pregnant women in the area to encourage early booking for antenatal care.
Willcox, Jane Catherine; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen Jane; Crawford, David Andrew; Wilkinson, Shelley Ann
to investigate correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge commensurate with GWG guidelines. cross sectional quantitative study. an Australian tertiary level maternity hospital. pregnant women (n=1032) following their first antenatal visit. survey to assess GWG knowledge and a range of potential correlates of knowledge including socio-economic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestation, pre-pregnancy BMI) and GWG information procurement and GWG attitudinal variables. participants (n=366; 35.4% response) averaged 32.5 years of age with 33% speaking a language other than English. One third of women reported GWG knowledge consistent with guidelines. Women overweight prior to pregnancy were less likely to underestimate appropriate GWG (RRR 0.23, 95% CI=0.09-0.59). Conversely, women in the overweight (RRR 8.80, 95% CI=4.02-19.25) and obese (RRR 19.62, 95% CI=8.03-48.00) categories were more likely to overestimate GWG recommendations, while tertiary educated women were less likely to overestimate GWG (RRR 0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.79). No associations were found between GWG knowledge and pregnancy, GWG information source or attitudinal variables. the findings highlight women's lack of GWG knowledge and the role of pre-pregnancy body mass index and women's education as correlates of GWG knowledge. Women susceptible to poor GWG knowledge should be a priority target for individual and community-based education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Balwicki, Lukasz; Smith, Danielle M; Pierucka, Magdalena; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Jedrzejczyk, Tadeusz; Strahl, Marzena; Zdrojewski, Tomasz
Smoking rates among women in Poland are high, and access to specialized smoking cessation services in rural areas are limited. The aim of this study was to assess factors related to quitting among pregnant women who smoke in rural areas of Poland. Data were collected during interviews conducted by midwives among 4512 women at various stages of their pregnancy. The interviews took place in small towns with populations having less than 8000 residents, located within 12 out of 16 voivodships (provinces). We used exhaled carbon monoxide to verify self-reported smoking status. Overall, 38% of women interviewed (n = 1578) smoked before they found out they were pregnant. Among these women, 33% quit just after they had become aware of their pregnancy. The main predictors of early quitting were: higher educational attainment among pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.81-5.68), secondary educational attainment among their partners (AOR 1.63; 95% CI = 1.06-2.48), and not having children (AOR 1.71; 95% CI = 1.31-2.24). The main barriers to early quitting were: living with at least one current smoker (AOR 0.55, 95% CI = 0.39-0.76), being single (AOR 0.45; 95% CI = 0.29-0.71), and having both parents smoke cigarettes (AOR 0.67; 95% CI = 0.46-0.97). A modest proportion of women included in this study quit after they became aware of their pregnancy. However, women faced multiple barriers to quitting, including the smoking status of their family members. The factors identified in the study can inform the design of tailored interventions for pregnant women in rural areas. Smoking rates among women in Poland are high, and access to specialized smoking cessation services in rural areas are limited. This study found that women were motivated to quit smoking, and many quit after they had become aware of their pregnancy. However, women faced multiple barriers to quitting, including the smoking status of their family members. The factors
Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M
On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent.
... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must provide...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must provide...
... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must provide...
... adverse events. 26 Mothers' Buprenorphine Treatment During Pregnancy Benefits Infants A NIDA-funded clinical trial 24 found ... Principles of Substance Abuse Prevention for Early Chil... Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Marijuana: Facts for ...
Sommer, Janine; Daus, Mariana; Smith, María; Luna, Daniel
Today, health information technologies are constantly expanding and changing, allowing more and more people to use different mobile applications to receive information and control their health condition. Based on the need to implement an application for pregnant women in the Personal Health Record (PHR) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA), an Australian survey was carried out to measure the use and utility of a pregnancy application (pregnancy app). Our results were broadly in agreement with the reference values. The survey was distributed through social networks (Facebook and Twitter) during September 2016. We obtained 235 responses from Spanish-speaking women, mostly Argentinian. In conclusion, it could be observed that a pregnancy app offers the possibility of a greater follow-up and provides reassurance to the pregnant women who use it.
Valladares, Guillermo; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Sjogren, Maria H
Hepatitis C is, at present, a worldwide health problem and is the most common cause of liver transplantation. Its prevalence in pregnant women is similar to that of the general population. In the absence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, most HCV-infected pregnant women do not have obstetric complications. Screening of pregnant women that are asymptomatic and do not have risk factors is not cost effective. A high hepatitis C viral load reportedly increases vertical transmission and is higher in women who are coinfected with HIV or who are intravenous drug users. Prolonged rupture of the membrane for more than 6 h, amniocentesis, and perineal lacerations increase the potential risk of perinatal transmission. Although the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted intrapartum, prevention by caesarean delivery is not generally indicated. The HCV virus can be found in maternal milk; however, breast feeding is not contraindicated. In conclusion, there are no antiviral treatment recommendations for HCV-infected women during pregnancy, or guidelines for the prevention of vertical transmission.
Carter, Shannon K; Guittar, Stephanie Gonzalez
previous research has examined emotional labour as an important component of the occupational work of midwives and gynaecological nurses. Fewer studies explore emotion work by women during normal pregnancy and birth, and existing studies emphasise emotion work based on the midwife-woman relationship. This study explores use of emotion work during pregnancy and birth among a sample of women. the study objective is to identify the mechanisms and purposes of emotion work among women during pregnancy and birth. data consist of 18 in-depth interviews with women regarding their pregnancy and birth experiences and seven online pregnancy journals. Data were analysed to identify themes in participant's descriptions of emotion work during pregnancy and birth. participants described four methods of emotion work that included shifting cognitive focus, exerting control, social support and using technology. Participants used emotion work for the four main purposes of maintaining their own and their babies' health, coping with negative events, managing pain, and achieving their desired birth. Although some emotion work was undertaken in relational context with the midwife or partner, much of the emotion work described took place in solitude. social support from midwives or partners was a form of emotion work that facilitated positive interpretations of the birth experience. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
Recent decisions of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the High Court of Delhi have shown how the pregnancy-related deaths of individual women have been bases on which these authoritative tribunals have held Brazil, Paraguay, and India respectively accountable for avoidable maternal mortality not only in these cases, but also among their populations more generally. The right to life is the most fundamental of women's human rights, recognized in international human rights treaties and national laws. Failure of governments to apply their resources adequately to address, respect, and protect this right violates the law of human rights. These cases show, however, that governments may fail to allocate adequate resources to women's survival of pregnancy. Tribunals can build on the failures in individual cases to set standards of performance to which governments will legally be held to achieve safe motherhood. Copyright Â© 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ntaganira, Joseph; Muula, Adamson S; Masaisa, Florence; Dusabeyezu, Fidens; Siziya, Seter; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV), defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%), slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%), kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%), throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%), and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%). HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]). Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29]), having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers), and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be made available. PMID
Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.
Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.
Abbas, Wisal; Adam, Ishag; Rayis, Duria A; Hassan, Nada G; Lutfi, Mohamed F
To assess the association between obesity and iron deficiency (ID). Pregnant women were recruited from Saad Abualila Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan, during January-April 2015. Medical history (age, parity, gestational age) was gathered using questionnaire. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Women were sub-grouped based on BMI into underweight (< 18.5 kg/m^2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m^2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m^2) and obese (≥ 30 kg/m^2). Serum ferritin and red blood indices were measured in all studied women. Two (0.5%), 126 (29.8%), 224 (53.0%) and 71 (16.8%) out of the 423 women were underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Anemia (Hb <11 g/dl), ID (ferritin <15µg/l) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were prevalent in 57.7%, 21.3% and 12.1%, respectively. Compared with the women with normal BMI, significantly fewer obese women were anemic [25 (35.2%) vs. 108 (85.7%), P < 0.001] and significantly higher number of obese women [25 (35.2) vs. 22 (17.5, P = 0.015] had iron deficiency. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant negative association between serum ferritin and BMI (- 0.010 µg/, P= 0.006). It is evident from the current findings that prevalence of anaemia and ID showed different trends about BMI of pregnant women.
Sürücü, Hamdiye Arda; Besen, Dilek Büyükkaya; Duman, Mesude; Yeter Erbil, Elif
Introduction: The stress of pregnancy itself, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) that develops during pregnancy is also a stressor, because it can cause serious maternal and fetal health problems. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the characteristics of pregnant women with GDM and their styles of coping with stress. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 pregnant women with GDM. The sample consisted of patients who applied to the diabetes mellitus training polyclinic of a training and research and university hospital in southeastern Turkey, Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality tests, Spearman's rho and Pearson Correlation analysis, the Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis- test by SPSS software (version 13.0). Results: It was determined that a planned pregnancy, a high educational level, a first pregnancy and weight gain were important factors in the women with GDM in the study who coped effectively with stress during pregnancy. Unemployment and a second or subsequent pregnancy were important factors in the women with GDM< who coped ineffectively with stress during pregnancy. In addition, it was determined that the hemoglobin HbA1c levels of the pregnant women with GDM with "optimistic" and "submissive" approaches towards coping with stress were lower. Conclusion: It was determined that pregnant women with optimistic and submissive approaches towards coping with stress had lower HbA1c levels. It is suggested that randomized controlled studies be conducted to further determine the coping styles of patients with GDM.
Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; ...
Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care. Methods: Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study was a national surveymore » of 403 women from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents. Results: In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey ( p = 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products. Conclusions: Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed.« less
Olds, G Richard
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the safest of all anti-helminthics and now forms the backbone for all national control programs against schistosomiasis (Med. Res. Rev. 3 (1983) 147-200; Bull. WHO 57 (1979) 767-771; Wegner, D.H.G, Therapeutic Drugs (1991), Churchill Livingstone; Adv. Intern. Med. 32 (1987) 193-206; Drugs 42 (1991) 379-405; Pharmac. Ther. 68 (1995) 35-85; Ann. Intern. Med. 110 (1989) 290-296). Despite its lack of known toxicity, the drug was not tested on pregnant or lactating women prior to release. It is currently listed as Pregnancy Category B by the US FDA, which is a drug presumed safe based in animal studies. Unfortunately, this has been interpreted by most national control programs and WHO (1998) to exclude lactating and pregnant women from treatment. In fact, some experts advocate excluding adolescent girls from mass treatment campaigns over this issue. As a result, a large number of women living in endemic countries are currently left untreated or have treatment significantly delayed. A review of the current known toxicology of PZQ, combined with over two decades of clinical experience with this drug, suggest very low potential for adverse effects on either the mother or her unborn child. In contrast, significant animal and human data are presented in this review that suggest both the pregnant woman and her unborn fetus suffer morbid sequella from schistosomiasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial that could resolve this issue would require a very large and expensive study and in light of the above facts might not now be ethically appropriate. The author concludes that pregnant women should be treated with PZQ, that women of childbearing age should be included in all mass treatment programs and that lactating women are not systematically excluded from treatment.
Sutter, Mary Beth; Gopman, Sarah; Leeman, Lawrence
Pregnant women affected by substance use often encounter barriers to treatment, including housing insecurity, poverty, mental health issues, social stigma, and access to health care. Providers may lack the resources needed to provide quality care. Clinicians offering prenatal care to women with substance use disorder are encouraged to support family-centered, multidisciplinary care to women and their infants, focusing on harm reduction. Collaboration between providers of maternity care, substance abuse treatment, case management, family primary care, and pediatric developmental care can improve outcomes during pregnancy and through the early years of parenting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qiu, Chunfang; Frederick, Ihunnaya O.; Sorensen, Tanya; Aurora, Sheena K.; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Williams, Michelle A.
Background Migraine is associated with sleep disturbances in men and non-pregnant women. However, relatively little is known about sleep disturbances among pregnant migraineurs. We investigated sleep disturbances among pregnant women with and without history of migraine. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,324 women who were recruited during early pregnancy. Migraine diagnoses were based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was used to evaluate sleep-related characteristics including sleep duration, sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other sleep traits. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Migraineurs were more likely than non-migraineurs to report short sleep duration (≤6 hours) (AOR=1.47, 95% CI 1.07–2.02), poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) (AOR=1.73, 95% CI 1.35–2.23), and daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness (AOR=1.51, 95% CI 1.12–2.02). Migraineurs were also more likely than non-migraineurs to report taking sleep medication during pregnancy (AOR=1.71, 95% CI 1.20–2.42). Associations were generally similar for migraine with or without aura. The odds of sleep disturbances were particularly elevated among pre-pregnancy overweight migraineurs. Conclusion Migraine headache and sleep disturbances are common co-morbid conditions among pregnant women. PMID:25633375
Qiu, Chunfang; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya; Aurora, Sheena K; Gelaye, Bizu; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A
Migraine is associated with sleep disturbances in men and non-pregnant women. However, relatively little is known about sleep disturbances among pregnant migraineurs. We investigated sleep disturbances among pregnant women with and without history of migraine. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1324 women who were recruited during early pregnancy. Migraine diagnoses were based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was used to evaluate sleep-related characteristics including sleep duration, sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other sleep traits. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Migraineurs were more likely than non-migraineurs to report short sleep duration (<6.5 hours) (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.02), poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) (AOR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.35-2.23), and daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.12-2.02). Migraineurs were also more likely than non-migraineurs to report taking sleep medication during pregnancy (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.20-2.42). Associations were generally similar for migraine with or without aura. The odds of sleep disturbances were particularly elevated among pre-pregnancy overweight migraineurs. Migraine headache and sleep disturbances are common comorbid conditions among pregnant women. © International Headache Society 2015.
Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Simard, Valérie; Saint-Onge, Kadia; Lamoureux-Tremblay, Vickie; Nielsen, Tore
Dreams are thought to respond to self- and socially-relevant situations that evoke strong emotions and require rapid adaptation. First pregnancy is such a situation during which maternal mental representations (MMR) of the unborn baby, the self and significant others undergo remodeling. Some studies suggest that dreams during pregnancy contain more MMR and are more dysphoric, but such studies contain important methodological flaws. We assessed whether dreamed MMR, like waking MMR, change from the 7th month of pregnancy to birth, and whether pregnancy–related themes and non-pregnancy characteristics are also transformed. Sixty non-pregnant and 59 pregnant women (37 early and 22 late 3rd trimester) completed demographic and psychological questionnaires and 14-day home dream logs. Dream reports were blindly rated according to four dream categories: (1) Dreamed MMR, (2) Quality of baby/child representations, (3) Pregnancy-related themes, (4) Non-pregnancy characteristics. Controlling for age, relationship and employment status, education level and state anxiety, women in both pregnant groups reported more dreams depicting themselves as a mother or with babies/children than did non-pregnant women (all p = 0.006). Baby/child representations were less specific in the late 3rd than in the early 3rd trimester (p = 0.005) and than in non-pregnant women (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups also had more pregnancy, childbirth and fetus themes (all p = 0.01). Childbirth content was higher in late than in early 3rd trimester (p = 0.01). Pregnant groups had more morbid elements than did the non-pregnant group (all p < 0.05). Dreaming during pregnancy appears to reflect daytime processes of remodeling MMR of the woman as a mother and of her unborn baby, and parallels a decline in the quality of baby/child representations in the last stage of pregnancy. More frequent morbid content in late pregnancy suggests that the psychological challenges of pregnancy are reflected in a generally more
Neonatal infection with hepatitis B virus carries a very high risk of resulting in a persistent infection. Babies born to hepatitis B carrier mothers are at risk of infection through exposure to blood and body fluids during birth. These 'at risk' babies can only be identified through screening of all mothers during pregnancy. Prevention of infection in this group is a key element in any nation's strategy to reduce the incidence and eventually eliminate hepatitis B infection in its population as the persistently infected infants are a reservoir of infection throughout their lives. The infected adult carries a relatively low risk of becoming a chronic carrier (< 10%). Various strategies for screening in pregnancy have been adopted. These include attempts to identify women with a history of 'risk behaviour', testing only women who were born in areas of high endemicity, pooling of sera and universal antenatal screening. The advantages and disadvantages of the various strategies will be discussed.
Uptake and performance of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and early infant diagnosis in pregnant HIV-infected women and their exposed infants at seven health centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Girma, Marshet; Wendaferash, Rahel; Shibru, Hailu; Berhane, Yemane; Hoelscher, Michael; Kroidl, Arne
To assess the uptake of WHO-recommended PMTCT procedures in Ethiopia's health services. Prospective observational study of HIV-positive pregnant mothers and their newborns attending PMTCT services at seven health centres in Addis Ababa. Women were recruited during antenatal care and followed up with their newborns at delivery, Day 6 and Week 6 post-partum. Retention to PMCTC procedures, self-reported antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and HIV infant outcome were assessed. Turnaround times of HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) procedures were extracted from health registers. Of 494 women enrolled, 4.9% did not complete PMTCT procedures due to active denial or loss to follow-up. HIV was first diagnosed in 223 (45.1%) and ART initiated in 321 (65.0%) women during pregnancy. ART was initiated in a median of 1.3 weeks (IQR 0-4.3) after HIV diagnosis. Poor self-reported treatment adherence was higher post-partum than during pregnancy (12.5% vs. 7.0%, P = 0.002) and significantly associated with divorced/separated marital status (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8), low family income (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.1), low CD4 count (RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0) and ART initiation during delivery (RR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.6). Of 435 infants born alive, 98.6% received nevirapine prophylaxis. The mother-to-child HIV transmission rate was 0.7% after a median of 6.7 weeks (IQR 6.4-10.4), but EID results were received for only 46.6% within 3 months of birth. High retention in PMTCT services, triple maternal ART and high infant nevirapine prophylaxis coverage were associated with low mother-to-child HIV transmission. Declining post-partum ART adherence and challenges of EID linkage require attention. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, Amanda Savage; Fernhoff, Paul M; Waisbren, Susan E; Frazier, Dianne M; Singh, Rani; Rohr, Fran; Morris, Jill M; Kenneson, Aileen; MacDonald, Pia; Gwinn, Marta; Honein, Margaret; Rasmussen, Sonja A
The teratogenic effects of maternal PKU are preventable, yet affected babies continue to be born. This study's purpose was to identify barriers to successful dietary control among pregnant women with PKU. An interview-based study was conducted of women with PKU who were known to metabolic disease clinics in three states and pregnant during 1998 to 2000. Medical records were used to document timing of metabolic control. Of 24 women in the study, only 8 (33%) initiated the diet before pregnancy. Of 22 medical records received, only 12 (55%) indicated control of blood phenylalanine levels before 10 weeks' gestation. Risk factors for late dietary control included young age and belief that treatment costs complicated the diet. Although all of the women expressed confidence in the metabolic clinic staff, few perceived their obstetricians were knowledgeable about the maternal PKU diet. Of 13 women enrolled in state-based assistance programs, 9 (69%) reported proof of pregnancy was required for eligibility. Many women using private insurance reported their insurers were unwilling to pay for medical foods. When the data were stratified according to state of residence, differences were observed in the rate of live-born infants, prepregnancy medical food use, average travel time to the metabolic clinic, and gestational week when metabolic control was achieved. Our study's findings may be used to target educational messages to women with PKU and to direct future research directions. For example, obstetric knowledge of maternal PKU needs further evaluation. Discrepancies should be resolved between maternal PKU medical recommendations and the policies of third party-payers. The disparities in financial assistance and services available to pregnant women with PKU residing in different states should be examined further.
Dennis, A; Hardy, L
Early warning systems (EWS), used to identify deteriorating hospitalised patients, are based on measurement of vital signs. When the patients are pregnant, most EWS still use non-pregnant reference ranges of vital signs to determine trigger thresholds. There are no published reference ranges for all vital signs in pregnancy. We aimed to define vital signs reference ranges for term pregnancy in the preoperative period, and to determine the appropriateness of EWS trigger criteria in pregnancy. We conducted a one-year retrospective study in a tertiary referral obstetric hospital. The study sample was healthy term women undergoing planned caesarean section (CS). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and temperature were all measured automatically and data was extracted from the medical record. Two hundred and fifty-eight women met inclusion criteria. Results were (mean ± SD [standard deviation]) SBP 118 ± 11.2 mmHg, DBP 75 ± 10.3 mmHg, HR 84 ± 10.2 /minute, respiratory rate 18 ± 1.5 /minute, SpO 2 99% ± 1.0% and temperature 36.4°C ± 0.43°C. The reference ranges (mean ± 2SD) determined were SBP 96-140 mmHg, DBP 54-96 mmHg, HR 64-104/minute, RR 15-21 /minute, SpO 2 97%-100% and temperature 35.5°C-37.3°C. This study defined a reference range for vital signs in healthy term pregnant women undergoing CS. Study findings suggest that currently used criteria for EWS triggers, based on non-pregnant values, may be too extreme for timely detection of deteriorating pregnant patients. Further research examining the modified HR triggers of ≤50 and ≥110 /minute in pregnant women and their relationship to clinical outcomes is required.
Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie M W; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J
To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. A prospective study. Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin < 15 ng/ml, sTfR > 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0.001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks' gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.
Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie MW; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, JJ
Objective To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. Design A prospective study. Setting Republic of Seychelles. Subjects Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Results Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin<15 ng/ml, sTfR>28 nmol/l) was present in 6% of subjects at enrolment and in 20% at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P<0·001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks’ gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Conclusions Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted. PMID:19706210
Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.
Özdemir, Abdurrahman Avar; Ercan Gündemir, Yasemin; Küçük, Mustafa; Yıldıran Sarıcı, Deniz; Elgörmüş, Yusuf; Çağ, Yakup; Bilek, Günal
Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is a serious health problem despite a general improvement in socio-economic status in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal vitamin D status and its effect on neonatal vitamin D concentrations after a support programme for pregnant women was introduced. A second aim was to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in a district of İstanbul. Methods: A total of 97 pregnant women and 90 infants were included in this study, conducted between January and October 2016. The demographic data, risk factors and daily vitamin intake were recorded. Serum levels of vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in all subjects were measured. The mothers and newborns were divided into groups based on their vitamin D levels. The relationship between vitamin D levels and risk factors was analyzed. Results: Mean ± standard deviation vitamin D levels for the women and their infants were found to be 14.82±11.45 and 13.16±7.16 ng/mL, respectively. The number of mothers and infants was significantly higher in the deficient group, and their mean vitamin D levels significantly lower (9.02±1.34 and 8.80±1.06 ng/mL, respectively) (p<0.001, p<0.001). Only 14.4% of pregnant women took 1000-1200 IU/day of vitamin D. When the mother groups were evaluated in terms of risk factors, there were significant differences in daily vitamin intake and clothing style (p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their infants is still a serious health problem in Turkey, although a vitamin D support programme during pregnancy has been launched by the department of health. PMID:28901944
Cha, Susan; Malik, Tasneem; Abara, Winston E; DeSimone, Mia S; Schumann, Bernadette; Mallada, Esther; Klemme, Michael; Aguon, Vince; Santos, Anne Marie; Peterman, Thomas A; Bolan, Gail; Kamb, Mary L
Prenatal screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can prevent adverse perinatal outcomes. In Guam, the largest of the three U.S. territories in the Pacific, primary and secondary syphilis rates among women increased 473%, from 1.1 to 6.3 per 100,000 during 2009-2013 (1). In 2013, the first congenital syphilis case after no cases since 2008 was reported (1,2). Little is known about STI screening coverage and factors associated with inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam. This study evaluated the prevalence of screening for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chlamydia, and gonorrhea, and examined correlates of inadequate screening among pregnant women in Guam. Data came from the medical records of a randomly selected sample of mothers with live births in 2014 at a large public hospital. Bivariate analyses and multivariable models using Poisson regression were conducted to determine factors associated with inadequate screening for syphilis and other STIs. Although most (93.5%) women received syphilis screening during pregnancy, 26.8% were not screened sufficiently early to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. Many women were not screened for HIV infection (31.1%), chlamydia (25.3%), or gonorrhea (25.7%). Prenatal care and insurance were important factors affecting STI screening during pregnancy. Prenatal care providers play an important role in preventing congenital infections. Policies and programs increasing STI and HIV services for pregnant women and improved access to and use of prenatal care are essential for promoting healthy mothers and infants.
Kıssal, Aygül; Çevik Güner, Ümran; Batkın Ertürk, Döndü
This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy. We conducted number, percentage, chi-square analyses. It was determined that 47.3% of the women had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy; the relationship between education level, working status, family structure, and status of herbal product use is statistically significant (p<0.05). Linden, peppermint-lemon, ginger are the first three herbs used due to common cold-influenza frequently in pregnancy during 1st and 2nd trimesters. More than half of the pregnants stated that they had started herbal product use without any suggestions from anyone, and profoundly low healthcare professional suggestion was detected. Our study has showed that almost half of women use at least one herbal product during pregnancy. So few healthcare professionals give information to pregnants thereabout. Thus, providing information in general health education to pregnant women about benefits and damages of herbal product use, planning researchers on effectiveness of herbal products, assessment of healthcare professionals relating to the matter and provision of available guidelines and in-service education relating to herbal products that can be used during pregnancy may be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders; Bollgren, Ingela; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
Previous research has indicated a link between coeliac disease (CD) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of UTI and repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy in women with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD. A national registry-based cohort study restricted to pregnant women was used in this investigation, with linkage between the Swedish National Medical Birth Registry and the National Inpatient Registry. We analysed the risk of UTI during pregnancy from 1973 to 1989 in 212 pregnancies to women who had received a diagnosis of CD prior to giving birth and in 786 pregnancies to women diagnosed after giving birth. We also assessed the risk of repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy according to data in the national birth records of 1990-2001 in 617 women with CD diagnosed prior to giving birth and 109 women diagnosed after giving birth. UTI during pregnancy: UTI occurred during 19,139/1,678,304 pregnancies to women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, compared with in 12/786 pregnancies to women with undiagnosed CD (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=0.78-2.43; p=0.276) and in 0/212 pregnancies to women with diagnosed CD (AOR=0.06; 95% CI=0.00-8.94; p=0.277) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality and calendar period). Repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy: among 692,991 women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, 74,776 reported repeated episodes of UTI, compared with 14/101 women with undiagnosed CD (AOR=1.39; 95% CI=0.79-2.45; p=0.255) and 69/566 women with diagnosed CD (AOR=1.02; 95% CI=0.79-1.32; p=0.864) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality, calendar period and civil status). Adjustment for smoking in a subset of patients with available data did not change the risk estimates. It cannot be ruled out that undiagnosed CD in pregnant women is associated with a small, increased risk of UTI. In pregnant women with diagnosed CD, there seems to be no
Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Moos, Merry-K; Polinkovsky, Margaret; El-Khorazaty, Jill; Lorenz, Carol
Racial or ethnic and economic disparities exist in terms of oral diseases among pregnant women and children. The authors hypothesized that women of a racial or ethnic minority have less oral health knowledge than do women not of a racial or ethnic minority. Therefore, the authors conducted a study to assess and compare maternal oral health knowledge and beliefs and to determine if maternal race and ethnicity or other maternal factors contributed to women's knowledge or beliefs. The authors administered a written oral health questionnaire to pregnant women. The authors calculated the participants' knowledge and belief scores on the basis of correct answers or answers supporting positive oral health behaviors. They conducted multivariable analysis of variance to assess associations between oral health knowledge and belief scores and characteristics. The authors enrolled 615 women in the study, and 599 (97.4 percent) completed the questionnaire. Of 599 participants, 573 (95.7 percent) knew that sugar intake is associated with caries. Almost one-half (295 participants [49.2 percent]) did not know that caries and periodontal disease are oral infections. Median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores were 6.0 (5.5-7.0) and 6.0 (5.0-7.0), respectively. Hispanic women had median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores significantly lower than those of white or African American women (6.0 [4.0-7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0-7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0-7.0], respectively [P < .001]; and 5.0 [4.0-6.0] versus 6.0 [5.0-7.0] versus 6.0 [5.0-7.0], respectively [P < .001]). Multivariable analysis of variance results showed that being of Hispanic ethnicity was associated significantly with a lower knowledge score, and that an education level of eighth grade or less was associated significantly with a lower belief score. Pregnant women have some oral health knowledge. Knowledge varied according to maternal race or ethnicity, and beliefs varied according to maternal education
Moore, Brioni R; Salman, Sam; Davis, Timothy M E
With increasing parasite drug resistance, the WHO has updated treatment recommendations for falciparum malaria including in pregnancy. This review assesses the evidence for choice of treatment for pregnant women. Relevant studies, primarily those published since 2010, were identified from reference databases and were used to identify secondary data sources. Expert commentary: WHO recommends use of intravenous artesunate for severe malaria, quinine-clindamycin for uncomplicated malaria in first trimester, and artemisinin combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in second/third trimesters. Because fear of adverse outcomes has often excluded pregnant women from conventional drug development, available data for novel therapies are usually based on preclinical studies and cases of inadvertent exposure. Changes in antimalarial drug disposition in pregnancy have been observed but are yet to be translated into specific treatment recommendations. Such targeted regimens may become important as parasite resistance demands that drug exposure is optimized.
Pluess, Michael; Wurmser, Harald; Buske-Kirschbaum, Angelika; Papousek, Mechthild; Pirke, Karl-Martin; Hellhammer, Dirk; Bolten, Margarete
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with problematic child development. According to the fetal programming hypothesis adverse experiences during pregnancy increase maternal cortisol, which is then assumed to exert a negative effect on fetal development. Recent studies in non-pregnant women report significant associations between positive emotionality and low cortisol levels. We tested in a sample of 60 pregnant women whether both negative and positive life events independently predicted third-trimester baseline awakening cortisol levels. While the effect of negative life events proved unrelated positive life events significantly predicted lower cortisol levels. These findings suggest that positive experiences are of relevance regarding maternal morning cortisol levels in pregnancy reflecting a resource with potentially beneficial effects for the mother and the developing fetus. It might be promising for psychological intervention programs to focus on increasing positive experiences of the expecting mother rather than exclusively trying to reduce maternal stress during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C
The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Jones, H.E.; Martin, P.R.; Heil, S.H.; Stine, S.M.; Kaltenbach, K.; Selby, P.; Coyle, M.G.; O’Grady, K.E.; Arria, A.M.; Fischer, G.
This paper addresses common questions that clinicians face when treating pregnant women with opioid dependence. Guidance is provided to aid clinical decision-making, based on both research evidence and the collective clinical experience of the authors which include investigators in the Maternal Opioid Treatment: Human Experimental Research (MOTHER) project. MOTHER is a double-blind, double-dummy, flexible–dosing, parallel-group clinical trial examining the comparative safety and efficacy of methadone and buprenorphine for the opioid dependence treatment among pregnant women and their neonates. The paper begins with a discussion of appropriate assessment during pregnancy, and then addresses clinical management stages, including maintenance medication selection, induction and stabilization, opioid agonist medication management before, during and after delivery, pain management, breast-feeding, and transfer to aftercare. Lastly, other important clinical issues including managing co-occurring psychiatric disorders and medication interactions are discussed. PMID:18248941
Borisov, I; Dimitrova, V; Mazneĭkova, V; Shopova, E
The study comprises 128 pregnant women examined at different gestational weeks. The diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was made using: a) the complex clinical criteria--vaginal discharge, vaginal pH, amine test and "clue cells" b) Nugent scoring system c) Spiegel criteria. Two therapeutic regimens were compared--intravaginal 2% clindamycin creme (Dalacin V) 5 g three consecutive days and intravaginal metronidazole (Flagyl) 500 mg once daily for 5 consecutive days. Control examination was carried out 5-7 days after completion of therapy using the same protocol. 28 women from the first group and 31 women from the second group had the control examination. Bacterial vaginosis was eradicated in 93% of women using intravaginal clindamycin and in 87% of women using intravaginal metronidazole. Both regimes were more effective compared to treatment with oral ampicillin for 7 days, where the cure rate was 62%.
Kolawole, Olatunji M; Wahab, Abideen A; Adekanle, Daniel A; Sibanda, Timothy; Okoh, Anthony I
The transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is parenteral, sexual and perinatal. Prevention of vertical transmission of HBV is extremely important because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier State. A descriptive seroepidemiological study of hepatitis B virus and its effects on hematological parameters was investigated in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. 200 venous samples were subjected to full blood count and its sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of surface antigen of hepatitis B virus. Prevalence rate of 16.5% was obtained for hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women. The highest HBsAg prevalence rate recorded was 23.3% for pregnant women between aged 30-34 years while the lowest recorded was zero percent for those aged greater than 40 years. RBC, WBC, neutrophil, hemoglobin lymphocyte and platelet counts have no significant effects on HBsAg positivity of pregnant women (p=0.801). There was no significant difference in HBsAg positivity in relation to maternal age, gravidity, gestational age, family type, level of education and occupation (p=0.073). Among the potential risk factors, there was significant difference in HBsAg positivity in the pregnant women in relation to their history of HBV vaccination (p=0.039). We advocate universal free screening of pregnant women as the endemicity of HBV infections is thus being propagated.
Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M
This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shahoei, Roonak; Riji, Haliza Mohd; Saeedi, Zhila Abed
This article is a report of a grounded theory study of the influence of emotions on women's selection of a method of childbirth. There is substantial evidence to indicate that a pregnant woman's emotions play an important role in the decision-making process of selecting a child delivery method. Despite this, however, there is a notable lack of research about the relationship between pregnant women's emotions and their choice of a childbirth method in developing countries. A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach was conducted. The data were collected from 22 Iranian Kurdish pregnant women in their third trimester using semi-structured interviews. Concurrent data collection and analysis took place between 2008 and 2009. A cumulative process of theoretical sampling and constant comparison was used to identify concepts and then expand, validate, and clarify them. The substantive grounded theory that was identified from data analysis was 'safe passage'. 'Safe passage' involved five phases that were not mutually exclusive in their occurrence. The five phases of the 'safe passage' theory that were identified from the data analysis were: 'safety of baby', 'fear', 'previous experience', 'social support' and 'faith'. The goal of 'safe passage' was to achieve a healthy delivery and to ensure the health of the newborn. 'Safe passage' was a process used to determine how the emotions of pregnant Iranian Kurdish women influenced their choice of the mode of child delivery. More research is needed in this field to develop a body of knowledge beneficial to midwifery education and practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
in the management of pregnancy in the Navy workplace . Because Navy pregnancy policy must cover many different types of work centers, it is vague about...posuhkle. Finally the intenvewers discussed th& project with the POCs, eliciting their opinions on the issues covered by the study. Several commanding...supervisms who had hazards in their work environment, over 50% reported that they had obtained information about hazards for pregnant women in the workplace
Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan
To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1
Boatin, Adeline Adwoa; Wylie, Blair Johnson; Goldfarb, Ilona; Azevedo, Robin; Pittel, Elena; Ng, Courtney; Haberer, Jessica Elizabeth
To test the functionality and acceptability of a wireless vital sign monitor in an inpatient obstetric unit. Pregnant women at a U.S. tertiary-care hospital wore a wireless vital sign sensor that captures heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature. Measurements were compared with vital signs obtained by standard devices. We defined continuous capture of vital signs for 30 min with wireless data transfer to a central monitor as functional success. Acceptability was assessed per the pregnant women and nurses observing the device. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to assess agreement between the wireless sensor and standard measurements. Thirty of 32 enrolled pregnant women had successful monitoring; 2 cases were stopped early for non-study-related reasons. Comparing wireless sensor and standard measurements, the mean difference (limits of agreement) values at the 25th and 75th percentiles were 1.6 (±13.2) and 4.2 (±18.6) heartbeats/min, 4.2 (±6.1) and 0.7 (±5.4) respirations/min, and 0.02°C (±1.5) and 0.5°C (±1.8), respectively. Most pregnant women found the device comfortable, likeable, and useful (78%, 81%, and 97%, respectively); 80% of nurses found the monitor easy to use, and 84% would recommend it to a patient. We successfully obtained maternal vital signs using a simple wireless monitor with high acceptability. Well-validated monitors of this nature could significantly alleviate the human resource burden of monitoring during labor and confer greatly desired mobility to laboring pregnant women, although incorporation of blood pressure monitoring will be critical.
Lorenz, Alyson N.; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Narksen, Warangkana; Srinual, Niphan; Barr, Dana B.; Riederer, Anne M.
An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure. PMID:23202693
Yeo, SeonAe; Cisewski, Jessi; Lock, Eric F.; Marron, J. S.
Background It is not well understood how sedentary women who wish to engage in regular exercise adhere to interventions during pregnancy and what factors may influence adherence over time. Objective To examine longitudinal patterns of pregnant women’s adherence to exercise. Methods Exploratory secondary data analyses were carried out with 124 previously sedentary pregnant women (ages 31 ± 5 years; 85% non-Hispanic White) from a randomized controlled trial. Daily exercise logs (n = 92) from 18 through 35 weeks of gestation were explored using linear regression, functional data, and principal component analyses. Results Adherence decreased as gestation week increased (p < .001); the top adherers maintained levels of adherence, and the bottom adherers decreased levels of adherence; and adherence pattern was influenced by types of exercise throughout the study period. Discussion Exercise behavior patterns were explored in a randomized controlled trial study, using chronometric data on exercise attendance. A new analytic approach revealed that sedentary pregnant women may adopt exercise habits differently from other populations. PMID:20585224
Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Kornacka, Maria K; Koroniak, Henryk; Wolna, Malgorzata; Król, Anna
Tobacco smoke contain few thousands of chemical compounds, among them heavy metals. From toxicological point of view most important are lead, cadmium and radioactive polonium 210. The aim of the study was determination of cadmium in urine of tobacco smoking pregnant woman and checking if there is a correlation between the concentration of cadmium and cotinine, the most frequently used tobacco smoke biomarker. The study showed that concentration of cotinine in urine of smoking women was 702.5 +/- 1131.4 ng/mg creatinine and ranged from 50 to more than 6000 ng/mg creatinine. Cadmium concentration in smokers was 1.6 +/- 2.6 ng/ml and ranged from 0 to 11.5 ng/ml. In urine of woman who do not smoke and are not exposure to ETS was 1.1 +/- 2.2 ng/ml in the range 0-2.5 ng/ml and was not statistically different from concentration of cadmium in urine of smoking pregnant woman. In any one non-smoking woman, concentration of cadmium was not higher than 5 ng/ml, but in 11.8% of smoking women this level was exceeded. Calculations showed a weak correlation between concentration of cadmium and cotinine in urine of smoking pregnant women.
Martínez Torres, Javier; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson
to examine the factors associated with regular consumption of soft drinks in Colombian pregnant. a cross-sectional study was conducted of data from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey of Colombia (ENSIN 2010), in 1.865 pregnant women aged between 13 and 49 years. Soft drink consumption and associated factors (pregnancy trimester, age, ethnicity, urbanicity, academic level, SISBEN score, and geographic region) were collected by structured questionnaire. Associations were established through a multivariable regression model. we found the 17% of pregnant women consume at least a daily soft drink. To be between 13 to 17 years old, belonging to an ethnic groups (afro-Colombian), being in the first pregnancy trimester and to belong to Sisbén level II showed the highest daily consumption pattern (23.8%, 22.8%, 21.4% and 20.9%). Regression models show that being between 13 to 17 years old OR 1.92 (IC95% 1.04-3.55); to reside in the eastern area OR 1.85 (IC95% 1.05-3.27), or central OR 1.73 (IC95% 1.01- 2.96), and being in the first pregnancy trimester OR 1.59 (IC95% 1.01-2.52); were associated with soft drinks daily consumption. the women studied show a high prevalence of daily consumption of soft drinks. Comprehensive interventions involving both nutritional and educational components are required. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
El-Gozamy, Bothina R; Mohamed, Sabry Abdel-fattah; Mansour, Hadil Ahmad M
This study was conducted between August 2007 and October 2008 to identify the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women of different ages and stages of gestation. Latex agglutination test was used as screening test. ELISA-IgG & IgM tests measured for the Toxo-Latex positive cases to identify toxoplasmosis clinical status. The results indicated that the prevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women was relatively high in the rural (57.6%) than urban (46.5%) areas. The positivity was correlated, in general, with age as it was higher in the older age groups. No specific clinical pictures were noticed in different patients with variable proportions, as well as a less marked correlation between Toxo-latex positive cases and having toxoplasmic congenital babies. But, neither correlation was detected between the history of congenital toxoplasmosis, or contact with cats and the Toxo-latex out-come results. An acute newly infected pregnant women during their first trimester of pregnancy that represents the rate of incidence of T. gondii in which ELISA-IgM positive and ELISA-IgG negative, was 23 cases (27.05%) and v.v. was 20 (23.54). The interpretation of IgM and IgG was given.
Patil, Avinash S; Sheng, Jessica; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Schmoll, Maria S; Onslow, Mitchell; Pierson, Rebecca C
Medication use is common in pregnancy, yet for most medications the optimal formulation and dosage have not been described specifically for pregnant women. Often, adverse effects are only discovered anecdotally or after extensive off-label use occurs. Since pharmacologic research that includes pregnant women is sparse and animal studies are often not applicable to the human fetus, providers must use knowledge of drug behavior and normal physiologic changes of pregnancy to personalize treatment for pregnant women. In this review, we present an overview of the basic concepts of clinical pharmacology: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics. The normal physiologic changes of pregnancy are presented as a framework to understand alterations in drug behavior. A clinical vignette that addresses 4 pregnancy scenarios involving medications-preterm birth, vaccination, herpes simplex virus infection, and codeine toxicity-is provided to illustrate application of core clinical pharmacologic concepts. Discussion of relevant literature illustrates the challenges of offering individualized pharmacologic therapy in pregnancy. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Groth, Susan W.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Meng, Ying
Objective To gain insight into how low-income, pregnant African-American women viewed their weight gain while pregnant and how they managed their weight during pregnancy. Design Descriptive study using three focus groups. Setting Women were recruited from urban prenatal care sites and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) services in a medium-sized urban Northeastern city. Participants Twenty-six adult, low-income, pregnant African-American women, aged 18–39; the majority were within the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. Methods Three focus groups were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to pregnancy weight gain. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Analysis focused on meaning, intention and context. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within and between group levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how women viewed their pregnancy weight gain and managed weight gain during pregnancy: (a) pregnancy weight gain: no matter how much means a healthy baby; (b) weight retention: it happens; (c) there is a limit: weight gain impact on appearance; and (d) watching and waiting: plans for controlling weight. Conclusion Low-income African-American women, though cognizant of the likelihood of retention of weight following pregnancy, are not focused on limiting their gestational weight gain. The cultural acceptance of a larger body size along with the belief that gaining more weight is indicative of a healthy infant present challenges for interventions to limit excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:22789036
Baldwin, Melody A; Swamy, Geeta K; Wheeler, Sarahn M
Objectives Despite the morbidity associated with late preterm and early-term births, there is limited data on pregnant women's perception of neonatal risk based on gestational age (GA). Therefore, our objective was to determine pregnant women's perception of neonatal risks at varying GAs. Method Through an anonymous 24-question survey, pregnant women were asked to designate the GA at delivery that is desirable, safe, and defined as full term. Responses were compared based on race, history of preterm birth, and medical comorbidities. Results Among the 233 survey respondents, the majority (62.9%) desired delivery at 36 to 39 weeks' gestation. Black women were more likely to desire delivery at 28 to 35 weeks compared with other racial/ethnic groups ( p = 0.005). Women with a history of preterm birth or medical complications were less likely to desire delivery at 40 weeks. More than 40% of respondents thought delivery at 8 months of pregnancy was safe and 40.3% responded that 37 weeks' gestation is considered term. Conclusion Misconceptions surrounding the definition of a term pregnancy are pervasive and vary by race, obstetric history, and medical comorbidities. Our findings highlight the need for patient education about appropriate gestational length, especially in minority and high-risk populations.
Myers, Kristin M.; Vink, Joy Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Hendon, Christine P.
The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue’s structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1—the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2—the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant. PMID:27898677
Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Massey, Katie E; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B; Lorenz, Carol
Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors' objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used chi2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n=497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n=141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, P<.001). Seventy-four percent (n=442) of the participants reported having received no routine dental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, P<.001). The authors found that being older than 36 years, being of Hispanic race or ethnicity, having an annual income of less than $30,000, flossing infrequently and receiving no dental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service
... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant...
... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant...
... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant...
... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant...
... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional protections for pregnant...
Tevdorashvili, G; Tevdorashvili, D; Andghuladze, M; Tevdorashvili, M
Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are encapsulated gram-positive cocci belonging to Lancefield group B, that frequently colonizes the human genital and gastrointestinal tracts. It is an important cause of illness in three categories of population: infants, pregnant women, and adults with underlying medical conditions. In pregnant women and postpartum women, GBS is a frequent cause of asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, upper genital tract infection (i.e. intraamniotic infection or chorioamnionitis), postpartum endometritis (8%), pneumonia (2%), puerperal sepsis (2%), and bacteremia without a focal site (31%). It also can cause focal infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and endocarditis, albeit rarely. Invasive maternal infection with GBS is associated with pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. Prior to the widespread use of maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, maternal colonization with GBS conferred an increased risk of chorioamnionitis, and early postpartum infection. The serotype distribution of invasive GBS infection in pregnant women is similar to that of early-onset neonatal disease. The most common GBS serotypes causing invasive disease in adults and neonates are Ia, Ib, III, and V. Vaccination of adolescent women is considered an ideal solution. However, recent reports (April 2015) have shown that serotype IV GBS is emerging in pregnant carriers and causing infections in neonates and adults. This emergence is of concern because GBS conjugate vaccines that are being developed to prevent invasive disease may protect only against serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, or combinations thereof. Though research for the development of such a vaccine is underway, a good candidate vaccine has yet to surface.
Bath, Sarah C.; Rayman, Margaret P.
Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study, using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio < 150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required. PMID:25663363
Bath, Sarah C; Rayman, Margaret P
Iodine, as a component of the thyroid hormones, is crucial for brain development and is therefore especially important during pregnancy when the brain is developing most rapidly. While randomised controlled trials of pregnant women in regions of severe iodine deficiency have shown that prenatal iodine deficiency causes impaired cognition, less is known of the effects in regions of mild deficiency. This is relevant to the UK as the World Health Organisation now classifies the UK as mildly iodine deficient, based on a national study of 14-15 year old schoolgirls in 2011. We have previously published a study using samples and data from the UK-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) that found an association between low iodine status in early pregnancy (urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio <150 μg/g) and lower verbal IQ and reading scores in the offspring. Though the women in ALSPAC were recruited in the early 1990s, the results of the study are still relevant as their iodine status was similar to that reported in recent studies of UK pregnant women. This review discusses the evidence that mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has deleterious effects on child neurodevelopment and relates that evidence to the data on iodine status in the UK. It has highlighted a need for nationwide data on iodine status of pregnant women and that a randomised controlled trial of iodine supplementation in pregnant women in a region of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency with child outcomes as the primary endpoint is required.
Eden, Karen B; Perrin, Nancy A; Vesco, Kimberly K; Guise, Jeanne-Marie
Evaluate tools to help pregnant women with prior cesareans make informed decisions about having trials of labor. Randomized comparative trial. A research assistant with a laptop met the women in quiet locations at clinics and at health fairs. Pregnant women (N = 131) who had one prior cesarean and were eligible for vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) participated one time between 2005 and 2007. Women were randomized to receive either an evidence-based, interactive decision aid or two evidence-based educational brochures about cesarean delivery and VBAC. Effect on the decision-making process was assessed before and after the interventions. Compared to baseline, women in both groups felt more informed (F = 23.8, p < .001), were more clear about their birth priorities (F = 9.7, p = .002), felt more supported (F = 9.8, p = .002, and overall reported less conflict (F = 18.1, p < 0.001) after receiving either intervention. Women in their third trimesters reported greater clarity around birth priorities after using the interactive decision aid than women given brochures (F = 9.8, p = .003). Although both decision tools significantly reduced conflict around the birth decision compared to baseline, more work is needed to understand which format, the interactive decision aid or paper brochures, are more effective early and late in pregnancy. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J
Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank.
Potchoo, Yao; Redah, Datouda; Gneni, Malick A; Guissou, Innocent P
To assess the trends in prescription drugs and the potential repercussions to newborns among pregnant women who attended prenatal consultations and gave birth in the Department of Gynaecology of Tokoin's University Hospital, Lome (Togo). A retrospective study of the registers of prenatal visits and deliveries of the eligible population was performed. In total, 184 different drugs were prescribed to 627 pregnant women attending prenatal consultations. The profile of pharmacotherapeutic groups prescribed was: anti-anaemics (33.33%), antimalarial drugs (24.75%), vitamins +/- mineral salts, amino acids and appetite stimulants (14.96%) and antispasmodics and anti-emetics (7.22%). The median proportion of prescriptions for each pharmacotherapeutic group increased significantly from the first to third trimester (9.72, 25.17 and 64.00 respectively; P < 0.05). The median number of drugs prescribed did not vary significantly (P = 0.051) with the age groups, parity (P = 0.068) or obstetrical-gynaecological history (P = 0.401); it did, however, increase significantly with the medical-surgical history (P < 0.05). There were complications associated with deliveries that had no obvious cause related to drug prescription, including four cases of minor defects, 28 stillborns, 65 cases of low birth weight and 27 hospitalised newborns for neonatal diseases. Some interventions were needed for safeguarding the health of the mother, the foetus and the newborn. The trends in obtaining prescription drugs and the consumption of drugs by pregnant women can be assessed using multiple parameters. We limited our study to age groups, gestational age, parity and the medical history of the pregnant woman, profile of pharmacotherapeutic groups, median number of drugs prescribed and the potential risks of the drugs used. The results of our retrospective study were not alarming in terms of neonatal outcomes.
Thurman, Andrea Ries; Steed, Lisa L; Hulsey, Thomas; Soper, David E
The purpose of this study was to compare the following outcome variables in pregnant patients with sickle cell trait and matched pregnant control patients: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis, urinary pathogens that were present, and pyelonephritis. This was a retrospective cohort study that was conducted at a university clinic. Pregnant patients with sickle cell trait (n = 455) were matched with control patients (n = 448) for race, age, gestational age at entry into prenatal care, and number of prenatal visits. Women with sickle cell trait received urine testing significantly more often. There was no difference in the incidence of positive urine cultures, urinary pathogens, or asymptomatic bacteriuria among the comparison groups. Sickle cell trait carriers had significantly higher rates of pyelonephritis, but many affected patients had risk factors, such as previous pyelonephritis or noncompliance with therapy. Sickle cell trait carriers were no more susceptible to acute cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria than were the control patients. On the basis of these data, we outline recommendations for urinary screening and pyelonephritis prevention in pregnant patients with sickle cell trait.
Douamba, Zoenabo; Bisseye, Cyrille; Djigma, Florencia W; Compaoré, Tegwinde R; Bazie, Valérie Jean Telesphore; Pietra, Virginio; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Simpore, Jacques
Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT) and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.
The emergence of the novel influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (pH1N1) strain in 2009 required a coordinated public health response, especially among high-risk populations. Because pregnant women were at increased risk for influenza-related complications and hospitalization compared with the general population, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended pregnant women receive both the pH1N1 vaccine and the annual seasonal vaccine during the 2009-10 influenza season as a safe and effective way of protecting both mother and infant. To describe acceptance, predictors, and barriers to influenza vaccination among pregnant women in Massachusetts during the 2009-10 influenza season, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) analyzed data from supplemental influenza questions on the Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey. The results indicated that 67.5% of residents who had live births in Massachusetts during September 2009-May 2010 received the seasonal vaccine, and 57.6% received the pH1N1 vaccine. Women who were non-Hispanic blacks, aged <25 years, Medicaid beneficiaries, or lived in a household with an income at or below the federal poverty level were significantly less likely to receive the seasonal vaccine. For the pH1N1 vaccine, only being non-Hispanic black was associated with being less likely to have been vaccinated. Vaccination rates were significantly higher among women whose provider offered or recommended the seasonal (75.8%) and pH1N1 (68.1%) vaccines compared with those who did not receive a recommendation (32.4% and 8.6%, respectively). Coverage in Massachusetts was among the highest of 29 PRAMS sites and might have reflected strategic efforts by MDPH to support vaccine education and equity across the state.
Vitalis, Deborah; Hill, Zelee
The Caribbean region has the second highest HIV prevalence after Sub-Saharan Africa. Guyana's adult HIV prevalence is 1.9% among pregnant women, with women accounting for an estimated 58% of all persons living with HIV. However, there are few studies on ART adherence in the Caribbean, none from Guyana, and none focusing on adherence in pregnancy and the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore the perspectives of HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women and healthcare providers in Guyana about barriers and facilitators to ART adherence. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews with 24 HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women and nine healthcare professionals at five clinics between February and April 2012. The Framework Method for analysing qualitative data identified facilitators and barriers related to five core themes: (i) Concern for wellbeing of children; (ii) ART-related factors; (iii) Disclosure; (iv) Socio-economic issues; and (v) Religious and cultural beliefs. Non-disclosure did not adversely affect adherence, contrary to other studies in the literature. Two broad categories emerged from the lived experiences of women in Guyana. The first is related to the act of actually taking their medication where their tenacity is displayed in efforts made to ensure ART is taken. The second relates to the significance of ART to them in terms of reduced risk of MTCT, and the possibility of better health for themselves to enable them to care for their children. However, issues related to poverty, food insecurity and side effects reduced adherence need to be adequately addressed.
McMahon, Adrienne B; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J; Harper, Bridgette D; LoBello, Steven G
It was recently reported that pregnant women were more likely to have minor depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 depression scale (PHQ-8), (as reported by Kroenke and Spitzer (Psychiatr Ann 32(9):1-7, 2002), and Kroenke et al. (J Affect 114(1-3):163-173, 2009)) compared to women who were not pregnant (as reported by Ashley et al. (Arch Womens Ment Health 19(2):395-400, 2015)). The present study is designed to investigate if somatic symptoms (energy level, appetite, sleep) associated with both pregnancy and depression were responsible for this increased prevalence of minor depression. A sample of pregnant women (n = 404) was compared to women who were not pregnant (n = 6754). Both groups scored within the minor depression range on the PHQ-8 and comparisons were based on participants' responses to PHQ-8 items. Results indicate that of the somatic symptoms of depression, only changes in energy level accounted for the elevated prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women compared to women who are not pregnant. Removing the decreased energy item from the score determination reduces the prevalence of minor depression among pregnant women to a level significantly below that of women who are not pregnant. Emotional symptoms such as feeling down and feeling like a failure were less likely to be reported by pregnant women compared to women who were not pregnant. Implications for depression screening during pregnancy are discussed.
Abbas, Wisal; Adam, Ishag; Rayis, Duria A.; Hassan, Nada G.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.
AIM: To assess the association between obesity and iron deficiency (ID). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from Saad Abualila Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan, during January–April 2015. Medical history (age, parity, gestational age) was gathered using questionnaire. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Women were sub-grouped based on BMI into underweight (< 18.5 kg/m^2), normal weight (18.5–24.9 kg/m^2), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m^2) and obese (≥ 30 kg/m^2). Serum ferritin and red blood indices were measured in all studied women. RESULTS: Two (0.5%), 126 (29.8%), 224 (53.0%) and 71 (16.8%) out of the 423 women were underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese, respectively. Anemia (Hb <11 g/dl), ID (ferritin <15µg/l) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) were prevalent in 57.7%, 21.3% and 12.1%, respectively. Compared with the women with normal BMI, significantly fewer obese women were anemic [25 (35.2%) vs. 108 (85.7%), P < 0.001] and significantly higher number of obese women [25 (35.2) vs. 22 (17.5, P = 0.015] had iron deficiency. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant negative association between serum ferritin and BMI (– 0.010 µg/, P= 0.006). CONCLUSION: It is evident from the current findings that prevalence of anaemia and ID showed different trends about BMI of pregnant women PMID:28698743
Wang, Yanling; Sun, Wei; Zhu, Xiaonan; Cao, Yongqin; Ge, Pengfei
To assess the iodine nutrition and thyroid function of pregnant women during different periods of pregnancy, to provide evidence for guiding iodine supplementation for them. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 215 pregnant women in Yongjing couty from May to June 2013. Samples of blood and random urine were collected, and serum thyrotrophin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin ( anti-TG)and urinary iodine were measured. The medians of urinary iodine from the three groups of pregnant women(first, second and third trimester) were 189.8 µg/L, 152.5 µg/L and 144.9 µg/L respectively. With the exception of pregnant women in the third trimester, the urinary iodine medians of pregnant women in the first and second trimesters were within the 150-249 µg/L range which was defined as optimal by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. With the increase of gestational age, the level of FT3 decreased (P < 0.05), with the FT3 levels in the first trimester were higher than those in the second or third trimester (P < 0.05). The difference of TSH levels among the three groups of pregnant women was statistically significant (P < 0.01), with a U-shaped curve seen between the iodine TSH levels and the gestational age. The medians of anti-TG and anti-TPO appeared the lowest in the first trimester, and remained at a high level in women at second and third trimesters. Significant difference was seen in anti-TG, anti-TPO levels of the three groups of pregnant women (first, second and third trimester) (P < 0.01). The incidence of thyroid function disorder was 1.86%, including subclinical hypothyroidism accounted for 1.40%, and hypothyroidism accounted for 0.47%. The incidence of thyroid function disorder mainly appeared in the early pregnancy. Abnormal FT3, TSH, positive anti-TG and anti-TPO were mainly seen during early pregnancy. The changes of TSH, FT3, FT4, anti-TG and anti-TPO along with the changes of urine iodine levels
Singh, Harneet; Samal, Sunita; Mahapatro, Akshaya; Ghose, Seetesh
Background: Maternal and neonatal outcome is an index of quality of health and life in human society. To predict serious outcomes in pregnancy various parameters are being researched so that pregnant women who are at risk are identified early and measures taken to ensure a good outcome of pregnancy. Studies have shown an association between microalbuminuria and adverse pregnancy outcome. This study was undertaken to compare obstetric outcome in pregnant women with and without microalbuminuria. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed on 69 pregnant women between 20 and 28 weeks of gestation. Urine tests for albuminuria and creatinine measurements were performed in all women and the albumin to creatinine ratio was calculated. The women with microalbuminuria and those without microalbuminuria were monitored until the end of their pregnancy and compared for pregnancy outcome. Results: The age distribution in the two groups was found to be similar and comparable. Preterm labor was strongly associated with microalbuminuria group (P = 0.001**)strongly significant. Incidence of maternal complications were more with microalbuminuria group (P < 0.001**). Fetal complications were significantly more in terms of intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity, low birth weight, low Apgar score and more incidence of neonatal intensive care unit admission with microalbuminuria group (P = 0.010*)moderately significant. Conclusion: It was found that fetal complications were more associated with babies of pregnant women with microalbuminuria. Though maternal complications were more associated with microalbuminuria group, individual events like premature rupture of membrane, preterm premature rupture of membrane had no statistically significant association with microalbuminuria except preterm labor. However, occurrence of pre-eclampsia was more with microalbuminuria, though it didn’t carry any statistical significance. PMID:25810648
DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping
Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937
Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L
Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.
Kaim, Irena; Sochacka-Tatara, Elzbieta; Pac, Agnieszka; Basta, Antoni; Jedrychowski, Wiesław
The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional status of pregnant women influences the birth outcome. A prospective study, conducted in Krakow, in 382 non-smoking, no obese pregnant women between the ages of 18 - 35. The course of pregnancy was uncomplicated, finished with natural labor, in biological time limits. The impact of mother's nutritional status before pregnancy and weight gain on newborns weight, length and head circumference was estimated by multivariate linear regression. The infant birth weight depended on mothers nutritional status before pregnancy and was lower in the group of underweight subjects (3381.6 g vs. 3479.9 g, p = 0.022). Women with low increase in body mass during pregnancy delivered newborns with lower anthropometrics parameters. The increase in body weight of one category resulted in statistically significant increase of birth weight by 140.9 g, increase of length by 0.51 cm and in head circumference by 0.27 cm. Increase in body mass during pregnancy is particularly important in the group of women underweight before pregnancy. Change of nutritional habits before and in the course of pregnancy may have beneficial effects for intrauterine fetal development.
Vasiliauskiene, Ingrida; Milciuviene, Simona; Bendoraitiene, Egle; Narbutaite, Julija; Slabsinskiene, Egle; Andruskeviciene, Vilija
The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of the applied preventive measures during pregnancy and to improve oral health status to pregnant women. Oral health status of 180 pregnant women was determined according to WHO criteria (WHO: Basic methods, 1997). Dental caries prevalence, DMF-T and DMF-S were evaluated. Gingival status was estimated according to Silness-Loe (GI) index. Women were asked about tooth brushing frequency; oral hygiene was evaluated according to Green-Vermilion (OHI-S) index. Participants were divided into test (89) and control (91) groups. During pregnancy, the following preventive measures were applied to the test group: fluoride varnish applications, mouthrinsing with 0.12% chlorhexine digluconate, professional oral hygiene. Oral health status was evaluated three times during pregnancy. Reduction in dental caries increment of the test group was 56.25% in comparison with the control group. The periodontal status has improved, oral hygiene index (OHI-S) has decreased from 1.48+/-0.05 to 0.94+/-0.06 in the test group, and from 1.49+/-0.06 to 1.9+/-0.06 in the control group. Results of the study showed that selected dental caries preventive measures were effective and significantly improved women's oral health during pregnancy.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.
This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946
Liu, Jufen; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Le; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Linlin; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tea consumption and plasma folate concentration in populations with high and low prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in China. Cross-sectional survey was conducted in three cities/counties in China, in which 1724 pregnant women during early second trimester were recruited and interviewed about tea consumption and folic acid use in 2011 to 2012. A total of 5-ml nonfasting blood sample was collected and plasma folate concentration was determined by microbiological assay. Approximately 16.2% of the women reported that they had ever drank tea during and before the current pregnancy, women with higher educational level, and those who resided in urban were more likely to drink tea. Most of them prefer green tea (55.2%); 13.6% of women drank tea ">6 times/week," and 29.0% of them drank "less than once a week." The median of plasma folate concentration was 48.7 nmol/L in women who drank tea while it is 45.2 nmol/L in women who did not drink tea, with no statistical difference. The results showed there was no association between tea drinking and plasma folate concentration in Chinese pregnant women stratified by folic acid supplementation and other selected characteristics. Low level of tea drinking is not associated with decreased plasma folate concentration in the Chinese populations with high and low prevalence of NTDs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Niţulescu, Adina; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernad, Elena
The paper presents an integrated monitoring system for pregnant women in the third trimester using a mobile cardiotocograph and body sensors. The medical staff has a useful tool to detect abnormalities and prevent unfortunate events in time. The mobile cardiotocograph sends data in real time to a Smartphone that communicates the information in a cloud. The physician accesses the data using the hospital ObgGyn application. The advantage of using this system is that the pregnant woman can follow her pregnancy status evolution from home, and the physician receives alarms from the system if the data is not in normal range and has available information about the health status at any time and location.
Henninger, Michelle L; Irving, Stephanie A; Thompson, Mark; Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Ball, Sarah W; Shifflett, Pat; Naleway, Allison L
This observational study followed a cohort of pregnant women during the 2010-2011 influenza season to determine factors associated with vaccination. Participants were 1105 pregnant women who completed a survey assessing health beliefs related to vaccination upon enrollment and were then followed to determine vaccination status by the end of the 2010-2011 influenza season. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses to explore factors associated with vaccination status and a factor analysis of survey items to identify health beliefs associated with vaccination. Sixty-three percent (n=701) of the participants were vaccinated. In the univariate analyses, multiple factors were associated with vaccination status, including maternal age, race, marital status, educational level, and gravidity. Factor analysis identified two health belief factors associated with vaccination: participant's positive views (factor 1) and negative views (factor 2) of influenza vaccination. In a multivariate logistic regression model, factor 1 was associated with increased likelihood of vaccination (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.72-2.78), whereas factor 2 was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR=0.36; 95% CI=0.28-0.46). After controlling for the two health belief factors in multivariate analyses, demographic factors significant in univariate analyses were no longer significant. Women who received a provider recommendation were about three times more likely to be vaccinated (aOR=3.14; 95% CI=1.99-4.96). Pregnant women's health beliefs about vaccination appear to be more important than demographic and maternal factors previously associated with vaccination status. Provider recommendation remains one of the most critical factors influencing vaccination during pregnancy.
Daundasekara, Sajeevika Saumali; Beasley, Anitra Danielle; O'Connor, Daniel Patrick; Sampson, McClain; Hernandez, Daphne; Ledoux, Tracey
Pre-pregnancy maladaptive eating behaviors have predicted inadequate or excess gestational weight gain and poor dietary intake during pregnancy, but little is known about effects of pre-pregnancy adaptive eating behaviors on pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to produce a valid and reliable measure of adaptive pre-pregnancy eating behaviors for pregnant women using the Intuitive Eating Scale. Data were collected from 266 pregnant women, aged 18 and older who were attending a private prenatal clinic at Texas Children's Hospital Pavilion for Women in Houston, TX using self-administered questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the factor structure of the Intuitive Easting Scale (IES). Concurrent validity was determined using correlations between the three subscale scores [unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical not emotional reasons (EPR), and relying on hunger/satiety cues (RIH)], perinatal depression status (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported height and weight. After discarding 6 items, the second order model did not fit the data, however, the first order model with three latent factors had reasonable fit (RMSEA = 0.097, CFI = 0.961, TLI = 0.951 and WRMR = 1.21). The internal consistency of the scale was confirmed by Cronbach's alphas (UPE = 0.781, EPR = 0.878 and RIH = 0.786). All subscale scores were inversely related to perinatal depression status. EPR and RIH subscale scores were inversely related to pre-pregnancy BMI, supporting the measure's validity. Among pregnant women, the revised 15 item pre-pregnancy IES (IES-PreP) should be used to evaluate pre-pregnancy adaptive eating behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302
Koumans, Emilia H; Lane, Sandra D; Aubry, Richard; Demott, Kathleen; Webster, Noah; Levandowski, Brooke A; Berman, Stuart; Markowitz, Lauri E
Randomized trials of bacterial vaginosis (BV) treatment among pregnant women to reduce preterm birth have had mixed results. Among non-pregnant women, BV recurs frequently after treatment. Randomized trials of early BV treatment for pregnant women in which recurrence was retreated have shown promise in reducing preterm birth. Syracuse's Healthy Start (SHS) program began in 1997; in 1998 prenatal care providers for pregnant women living in high infant mortality zip codes were encouraged to screen for abnormal vaginal flora at the first prenatal visit. Vaginal swabs were sent to a referral hospital laboratory for Gram staining and interpretation. SHS encouraged providers to treat and rescreen women with bacterial vaginosis or abnormal flora (BV). We abstracted prenatal and hospital charts of live births between January 2000 and March 2002 for maternal conditions and treatments. We merged abstracted data with local electronic data. We evaluated the effect of BV screening before 22 weeks gestation, treatment, and rescreening using a retrospective cohort study design. Among 838 women first screened before 22 weeks, 346 (41%) had normal flora and 492 (59%) women had BV at a mean of 13 weeks gestation; 202 (24%) did not have treatment documented and 290 (35%) received treatment at a mean of 15 weeks gestation; 267 (92%) of those treated were re-screened. Among pregnant women with early BV, 42 (21%) untreated women and 28 (10%) treated women delivered preterm (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-0.7)). After adjustment for age, race, prior preterm birth and other possible confounders, treatment remained associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth compared to no treatment (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9); the aOR for women with normal flora was not significantly different. Screening, treatment, and rescreening for BV/abnormal flora between the first prenatal visit and 22 weeks gestation showed promise in reducing preterm births and deserves further study.
Donders, G G
Testing for and treating sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in pregnant women deserves special attention. Treatment possibilities are limited because of potential risks for the developing fetus, and because effects can differ in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women, re-infection may be missed because of the intrinsic delicacy of contact-tracing during pregnancy and because pregnant women are more reluctant to take the prescribed medication in its full dose, if at all. However, the devastating effects of some of these genital infections far outweigh any potential adverse effects of treatment. Although active syphilis has become a rarity in most Western countries, it is still prevalent in South America, Africa and South-East Asia. Benzathine benzylpenicillin (2.4 million units once or, safer, twice 7 days apart) is the treatment of choice, although patients with syphilis of longer standing require 3 weekly injections as well as extensive investigation into whether there has been any damage due to tertiary syphilis. Despite declining rates of gonorrhea, the relative rate of penicillinase-producing strains is increasing, especially in South-East Asia. The recommended treatment is intramuscular ceftriaxone (125 or 250 mg) or oral cefixime 400 mg. Despite good safety records after accidental use, fluoroquinolones are contraindicated during pregnancy. An alternative to a fluoroquinolone in pregnant women with combined gonorrhea and chlamydial infection is oral azithromycin 1 or 2 g. Azithromycin as a single 1 g dose is also preferable to a 7 day course of erythromycin 500 mg 4 times a day for patients with chlamydial infection. Eradication of Haemophilus ducreyi in patients with chancroid can also be achieved with these regimens or intramuscular ceftriaxone 250 mg. Trichomonas vaginalis, which is often seen as a co-infection, has been linked to an increased risk of preterm birth. Patients infected with this parasite should therefore received metronidazole 500 mg
Ameh, N; Shittu, S O; Abdul, M A
To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship to adverse obstetric outcomes amongst pregnant women who deliver at a tertiary level hospital in Zaria, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 310 women who delivered at the labour ward. Questionnaires were administered to parturient women. Details of their socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric outcome were compiled and the relationship to experiences of domestic violence studied. The prevalence of domestic violence was 28.4%. There was positive relationship between domestic violence during pregnancy, non-supervision of pregnancy and poor attendances to antenatal clinic (p<0.05). There was however, no statistically significant relationship between domestic violence, and complications of labour and neonatal outcome (p>0.05). The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy is high in this environment. Poor attendances to the antenatal clinic is a significant association.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Martínez-Ramírez, Lucio; Pérez-Álamos, Alma Rosa; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto
Cytomegalovirus causes congenital infections all around the world. The seroepidemiology of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico; and to determine seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women. Through a cross-sectional study design, 343 pregnant women were examined for anti-cytomegalovirus IgG and IgM antibodies in Durango City, Mexico. We used a standardized questionnaire to obtain the general characteristics of the pregnant women. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association of cytomegalovirus infection with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 225 (65.6%) and in none of the 343 pregnant women studied, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that CMV exposure was associated with increasing age (OR = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.01-2.76; P = 0.04). Other women characteristics including socioeconomic status, education, blood transfusion, transplantation, sexual promiscuity and number of previous pregnancies or deliveries did not show an association with CMV exposure. This is the first seroepidemiology study of CMV infection in pregnant women in Mexico. A number of known factors associated with CMV infection were not associated with CMV exposure in the women studied. Further studies to determine routes of CMV infection in pregnant women in Mexico are needed.
Palatnik, Anna; Rinella, Mary E
To evaluate clinical characteristics and obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with liver cirrhosis. This was a retrospective matched cohort study of women with liver cirrhosis between January 2005 and January 2016 in a university hospital. Women in a case group were matched to women in a control group according to year of delivery, age, body mass index, and parity in a 1:4 ratio. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the prevalence of the primary composite outcome, which included any one of the following: fetal or neonatal demise, placental abruption, preeclampsia, preterm delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation, and small-for-gestational age neonate between women in the case group and those in the control group. During the study period, the number of deliveries was approximately 110,000. Of these, 33 women with liver cirrhosis were identified, yielding an estimated frequency of cirrhosis of 1 per 3,333 pregnancies [95% confidence interval (CI) 3,313-3,353]. Thirty-one of these 33 women met all inclusion criteria. The most common etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic liver disease. The rate of the primary outcome was 61% in women with cirrhosis and 12% in women in the control group. There were no cases of maternal death, and the livebirth rate was 97%. Women with cirrhosis were more likely to be non-Hispanic black, have chronic hypertension, and use alcohol. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that cirrhosis in pregnancy was associated with the composite outcome (adjusted odds ratio 9.4, 95% CI 3.4-26.2). Despite lower rates of maternal and fetal mortality compared with earlier studies, pregnancy in women with liver cirrhosis is still associated with a high risk of adverse obstetric outcomes.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Templin, Thomas
Purpose This study examined the relationships among father of the baby involvement during pregnancy, depressive symptoms and psychological well-being in African American women. Study Design and Methods Using a prospective study design, a sample of 95 pregnant African American women receiving prenatal care at a medical center in Chicago completed the self-report instruments about father of the baby involvement, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being twice during pregnancy; once at between 15-25 and once between 25-37 weeks. Results Eighty percent of women reported that the father of the baby was involved during their pregnancy. Twenty-eight percent of women had clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CES-D scores ≥16) at the first data collection and 25% of women had clinically relevant depressive symptoms at the second data collection. Compared with women who reported no father involvement during pregnancy, women who reported father involvement during pregnancy had lower levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of psychological well-being. Clinical Implications Fathers' involvement is important during pregnancy; nurses should encourage fathers to participate at prenatal visits and ask questions and educate fathers on pregnancy process and procedures during prenatal care. PMID:26488855
Giurgescu, Carmen; Templin, Thomas N
This study examined the relationships among father of the baby involvement during pregnancy, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being in African American women. Using a prospective study design, a sample of 95 pregnant African American women receiving prenatal care at a medical center in Chicago completed the self-report instruments about father of the baby involvement, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being twice during pregnancy, once at between 15 and 25 weeks and once between 25 and 37 weeks. Eighty percent of women reported that the father of the baby was involved during their pregnancy. Twenty-eight percent of women had clinically relevant depressive symptoms (CES-D scores ≥16) at the first data collection and 25% of women had clinically relevant depressive symptoms at the second data collection. Compared with women who reported no father involvement during pregnancy, women who reported father involvement during pregnancy had lower levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of psychological well-being. Fathers' involvement is important during pregnancy; nurses should encourage fathers to participate at prenatal visits and ask questions, and educate fathers on pregnancy process and procedures during prenatal care.
Reyes, Laura; Garcia, Ronald; Ruiz, Silvia; Dehghan, Mahshid; López-Jaramillo, Patricio
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritional status of women can lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes this entity. The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional status of women with PE with healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. A multicenter case-control study was carried out. Between September 2006 and July 2009, 201 women with PE were compared with 201 pregnant, and 201 non-pregnant aged-matched women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases. A clinical history and physical examination was performed. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum glucose and lipid profile. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The average age of women was 26.6 ± 7.2 years. Compared to healthy pregnant controls, women with PE had a higher body mass index, higher fasting blood glucose levels, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Women with PE had a higher intake of carbohydrates, energy intake and cereal compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant controls. A conditional logistic regression demonstrated that carbohydrate and sodium intake are associated with PE development. Diets of women with PE were characterized by higher energy and carbohydrate intake compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. This suggests that higher carbohydrate and sodium intake increases the risk of PE among women in Colombia. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Brasil, P.; Pereira, J.P.; Moreira, M.E.; Nogueira, R.M. Ribeiro; Damasceno, L.; Wakimoto, M.; Rabello, R.S.; Valderramos, S.G.; Halai, U.-A.; Salles, T.S.; Zin, A.A.; Horovitz, D.; Daltro, P.; Boechat, M.; Gabaglia, C. Raja; de Sequeira, P. Carvalho; Pilotto, J.H.; Medialdea-Carrera, R.; da Cunha, D. Cotrim; de Carvalho, L.M. Abreu; Pone, M.; Siqueira, A. Machado; Calvet, G.A.; Baião, A.E. Rodrigues; Neves, E.S.; de Carvalho, P.R. Nassar; Hasue, R.H.; Marschik, P.B.; Einspieler, C.; Janzen, C.; Cherry, J.D.; de Filippis, A.M. Bispo; Nielsen-Saines, K.
BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. METHODS We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. RESULTS A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (P<0.001). Rates of fetal death were 7% in both groups; overall adverse outcomes were 46% among offspring of ZIKV-positive women versus 11.5% among offspring of ZIKV-negative women (P<0.001). Among 117 live infants born to 116 ZIKV-positive women, 42% were found to have grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings or both, including 4 infants with microcephaly. Adverse outcomes were noted regardless of the trimester during which the women were infected with ZIKV (55% of pregnancies had adverse outcomes after maternal infection in the first trimester, 52% after infection in the second trimester, and 29% after infection in the third trimester
Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (P<0.001). Rates of fetal death were 7% in both groups; overall adverse outcomes were 46% among offspring of ZIKV-positive women versus 11.5% among offspring of ZIKV-negative women (P<0.001). Among 117 live infants born to 116 ZIKV-positive women, 42% were found to have grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings or both, including 4 infants with microcephaly. Adverse outcomes were noted regardless of the trimester during which the women were infected with ZIKV (55% of pregnancies had adverse outcomes after maternal infection in the first trimester, 52% after infection in the second trimester, and 29% after infection in the third trimester). Despite mild clinical symptoms in
Krzystanek, Marek; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena
Bright light therapy (BLT) is a new method of biological treatment in psychiatry. Good tolerance makes it an attractive method used not only in seasonal affective disorder. An episode of depression during pregnancy may be a new indication. The study aimed to describe effects of treatment of depression in 3 pregnant women. The women were out-patients in their 6-th, 7-th and 8-th months of pregnancy and diagnosed with depression according to ICD-10 criteria. The treatment was a morning exposure to 1 hour 5 000 LUX bright light from Monday to Friday. The antidepressant effect was assessed after the 2nd and 4th week of BLT. Side effects of BLT were monitored over the whole BLT treatment period. The mean improvement of depressive symptoms after 2 and 4 weeks of BLT was 33% and 55%, respectively. Side effects were not observed in any of the patients. Morning BLT seems to be an effective and a very well tolerated mode of treatment of pregnant women suffering from non-seasonal depression. The manner and length of BLT maintenance treatment requires further studies.
Okun, Michele L.; Tolge, Madeline; Hall, Martica
Objective To evaluate the effect of socioeconomic status on measures of sleep quality, continuity, and quantity in a large cohort of pregnant women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants One hundred seventy (170) pregnant women at 10-20 weeks gestation. Methods Sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Sleep duration and continuity (sleep fragmentation index [SFI]) were assessed with actigraphy at 10-12, 14-16, and 18-20 weeks gestation. Since sleep did not significantly differ across time, averages across all three time points were used in analyses. Socioeconomic status (SES) was defined by self-reported annual household income. Linear regression analyses were used to model the independent associations of SES on sleep after adjusting for age, race, parity, marital status, body mass index (BMI), perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and financial strain. Results On average, women reported modestly poor sleep quality (M = 5.4, SD= 2.7), short sleep duration (391 (55.6) min) and fragmented sleep (SFI M = 33.9, SD= 10.4. A household income < $50,000/year was associated with poorer sleep quality (β = -.18, p < .05) and greater sleep fragmentation (β= -.18, p < .05) following covariate adjustment. Conclusions Low SES was associated with poorer sleep quality and fragmented sleep, even after statistical adjustments. Perceived stress and financial strain attenuated SES-sleep associations indicating that psychosocial situations preceding pregnancy are also important to consider. PMID:24617761
Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Écija Gallardo, Carmen
To analyze the change of childbirth expectations over the course of pregnancy as well as their relation to socio-demographic and clinical variables. The study of expectations in pregnant women is gaining more interest from a biopsychosocial approach because of its consequences on pregnant women's wellbeing. To our knowledge there are no previous studies analyzing the evolution of childbirth expectations over the course of pregnancy. Longitudinal study (first trimester and third trimester). Women were evaluated for childbirth expectations in their first trimester (n=285) and third trimester (n=122) of pregnancy. They also completed questionnaires collecting socio-demographic information. Childbirth expectations appear to remain more or less stable over the course of pregnancy, although they tend to become slightly negative at the end of gestation, specifically referring to personal control and delivery circumstances. Multiparity and planned pregnancy are associated with higher positive expectations. It seems essential to explore and to try to adjust childbirth expectations to more realistic ones, in order for them to be fulfilled. Midwives and other maternity healthcare providers play a key role in this regard. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban
Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p <0.05). In multiple logistic regression models only the contact with animals remained as independent and robust risk factor (odds ratio 5.21; 95 % CI: 1.88-13.75; p = 0.001) for seropositivity. Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.
Suhail, Mohd; Patil, Shridhar; Khan, Salma; Siddiqui, Sana
Inconsistent reports are available in the literature regarding the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity during the pathogenesis of gestational diabetes. Present study was aimed to evaluate oxidative stress during the development of gestational diabetes and to evaluate antioxidant capability in non-pregnant (control), pregnant and gestational diabetics. The study consisted of non-pregnant, healthy pregnant and patients suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Each group consisted of 23 women. We compared their oxidative and anti-oxidative system in blood. Their blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant vitamins (C, E, A) were determined and compared to evaluate the oxidative status and anti-oxidative capacity of these groups. We have also compared the osmotic fragility profiles of the erythrocytes of these groups. Plasma MDA content in pregnant was significantly higher compared to non-pregnant (p < 0.001, 67.5%) and even in gestational diabetics; its value was found significantly further elevated (p = 0.001, 13.8%) compared to healthy pregnant. There was significant decline (p < 0.001, 41.9%) in the level of vitamin C in pregnant as compared to non-pregnant. Although in GDM the decrease was significant (p = 0.025, 20.6%) but comparatively lesser when compared to healthy pregnant. Vitamin E showed the increase of 9.6% during pregnancy, although this alteration was non-significant (p = 0.09), but the level was found to decline significantly (p < 0.001, 25.5%) in GDM compared to pregnant group. Vitamin A contents were also decreased in pregnant (p = 0.002, 17.4%) compared to non-pregnant and in GDM (p = 0.012, 11.2%) compared to pregnant group. Osmotic fragility (O.F.) profiles showed insignificant (p = 0.325) enhanced mean erythrocyte fragility (MEF) in pregnant but this increase was significant (p = 0.003) in case of GDM. The O.F. profiles of pregnant and GDM erythrocytes got shifted to the right side of the control one. Our findings indicate highly
Costa, Elisa Miranda; Azevedo, Juliana Aires Paiva de; Martins, Rafiza Félix Marão; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pereira; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca
Introduction Anemia is a very frequent event among pregnant women. There are evidences of differences in the incidence of dental caries between pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the relationship between salivary iron (Fe) and serum markers of anemia and caries development has not been investigated. Objective To evaluate the correlation between salivary (Fe) and serum iron (Fe, ferritin and hemoglobin) parameters in pregnant women with the development of dental caries. Methods A prospective cohort was conducted with 59 women. The outcome of interest was represented by new dental caries lesions during pregnancy, using the Nyvad criteria. Pregnant women were evaluated at three clinical times: up to the 16th week of gestational age (GA) (T1), in the last trimester of pregnancy (T2), and postpartum (T3), at the Mother and Child Unit of University Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Maranhão. A stimulated saliva sample was collected for biochemical analysis of salivary Fe, and a blood sample was collected early in the morning. The correlation between salivary and serum Fe was evaluated through the Pearson correlation test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the means of anemia parameters at different times. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the anemia parameters between the groups of pregnant women (with and without new caries lesions). Results Serum Fe concentrations were higher in the first trimester of pregnancy and lower after delivery ( p = 0.036). It was also observed that the ferritin concentrations were higher in the first trimester and lower at the end of gestation ( p = 0.011). There was no association between the expositions of salivary iron and anemia, and the development of dental caries. There was a positive correlation between serum Fe in T1 and salivary Fe in T2 ( p < 0.05). Conclusion The serum markers of anemia were more prevalent in the last trimester of
Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L
Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.
Datner, Elizabeth M.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Nelson, Deborah B.
The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent…
Fealy, Shanna; Hure, Alexis; Browne, Graeme; Prince, Carol
Obesity in pregnancy is associated with an increased incidence of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality, from conditions like preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth and stillbirth. Between 20% and 25% of pregnant women in Australia are presenting to their first antenatal appointment with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2), defined as obesity in pregnancy. These figures are concerning for midwifery and obstetric staff directly involved in the clinical care of these women and their families. In the absence of national or state clinical practice guidelines for managing the risks for obese pregnant women, a local quality improvement project was conducted. To plan, implement, and evaluate the impact of an alternative clinical care pathway for pregnant women with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) at their first antenatal visit. The project was undertaken in the antenatal clinic of a rural referral hospital in NSW, Australia. Eighty-two women with a BMI ≥ 35 kg/m(2) were eligible for the alternative care pathway, offered between January and December 2010. The alternative care pathway included the following options, in addition to usual care: written information on obesity in pregnancy, referral to a dietitian, early plus repeat screening for gestational diabetes, liver and renal function pathology tests, serial self-weighing, serial foetal growth ultrasounds, and a pre-labour anaesthetic consultation. Despite being educated on the risk associated with obesity in pregnancy, women did not take up the offers of dietetic support or self-weighing at each antenatal visit. Ultrasounds were well received and most women underwent gestational diabetes screening. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Melo, Victor Hugo; Botelho, Ana Paula Machado; Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Correa, Mário Dias; Pinto, Jorge Andrade
To determine if illicit drug use increases the vertical transmission of HIV, to identify the risk factors involved in mother and child health and the prevalence of illicit drug use among these pregnant women. Sixty-four (7.6%) of 845 pregnant women from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, attended in the service between October 1997 and February 2012 reported the use of illicit drugs. Cases were HIV-positive drug users (n=64) and controls were women who did not use drugs (n=192). Three controls were selected for each case. Several conditions of exposure were considered in the control group such as tobacco use, alcohol use, alcohol and tobacco use, maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and marital status. Problems during the prenatal period, delivery and postpartum, vertical HIV transmission and neonatal outcomes were also investigated. Univariate analysis showed as significant variables: maternal age, tobacco use, number of prenatal care visits, antiretroviral therapy, mode of infection, and viral load at delivery. Logistic regression revealed as significant variables: maternal age (less than 25 years); tobacco use, and number of prenatal care visits (less than 6). The vertical transmission of HIV was 4,8% (95%CI 1.7-13.3) among drug users and 2,1% (95%CI 0.8-5.2) in the control group, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Neonatal complications were more frequent among drug users, but also with no statistically significant difference between groups. The use of illicit drug is frequent during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. The approach to illicit drug use should be routine during prenatal care visits. These women are more discriminated against and tend to deny their habits or do not seek prenatal care. There was no difference in vertical virus transmission between groups, probably indicating adherence to antiretroviral use for antiretroviral therapies during pregnancy.
English, L L; Mugyenyi, G; Nightingale, I; Kiwanuka, G; Ngonzi, J; Grunau, B E; MacLeod, S; Koren, G; Delano, K; Kabakyenga, J; Wiens, M O
Introduction The prevalence of ethanol use in many Sub-Saharan African countries is high, but little research exists on use during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of ethanol use among pregnant women in Southwestern Uganda. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in the maternity ward at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). All pregnant women giving birth at MRRH between September 23, 2013 and November 23, 2013 were eligible for enrollment. The primary outcome was the proportion of women with ethanol use during pregnancy as determined by self-report. Secondary outcomes included the proportion with positive fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) results (indicating ethanol use) and positive TWEAK questionnaire results (indicating possible problem drinking). Predictors of ethanol use were assessed and stratified by patterns of ethanol intake. Results Overall, 505 mother-child dyads enrolled in the study. The proportion of women who reported any ethanol use during pregnancy was 16 % (n = 81, 95 % CI 13-19 %) and the prevalence of heavy drinking 6.3 % (n = 32, 95 % CI 3.8-7.9 %). The strongest predictor of use during pregnancy was pre-pregnancy use, with maternal education as a protective factor. Few neonates (n = 11, 2 %) tested positive for FAEE > 2.00 nmol/g in meconium. The TWEAK questionnaire captured 75 % of women who reported moderate/heavy drinking and aligned more with self-reported ethanol use than meconium results. Conclusions The substantial prevalence and clear predictors of ethanol use suggest that legislative action and educational interventions to increase awareness of potential harms could assist in efforts to decrease use during pregnancy in Southwestern Uganda.
Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C
Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146
Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregnant and non-pregnant women seems very limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the GBS molecular capsular serotype and genotype distribution of pregnant and non-pregnant carrier women at Yazd university hospital, in Iran.. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 GBS strains isolated from 237 pregnant and 413 non-pregnant women were investigated for molecular capsular serotypes and surface protein genes using the multiplex PCR assay. The Chi-square method was used for statistical analysis. Out of 650 samples, 100 (15.4%) were identified as GBS, with a predominance of capsular serotypes III (50%) [III-1 (49), III-3 (1)], followed by II (25%), Ia (12%), V (11%), and Ib (2%), which was similar with another study conducted in Tehran, Iran, but they had no serotype Ia in their report. The surface protein antigen genes distribution was rib (53%), epsilon (38%), alp2/3 (6%), and alpha-c (3%). The determination of serotype and surface proteins of GBS strains distribution would be relevant for the future possible formulation of a GBS vaccine.
Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Somers, Emily C; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Maria Téllez-Rojo, Martha
Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, and urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4 μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7 μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8 μg/L, 0.6 μg/g, and 0.9 μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5 μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.
Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957
Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N
Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.
Basu, Niladri; Tutino, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Cantonwine, David E.; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Somers, Emily C.; Rodriguez, Lauren; Schnaas, Lourdes; Solano, Maritsa; Mercado, Adriana; Peterson, Karen; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria
Background Mercury is a global contaminant of concern though little is known about exposures in México. Objectives To characterize mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and commonly consumed seafood samples. Methods Use resources of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohorts to measure total mercury levels in archived samples from 348 pregnant women (blood from three trimesters and cord blood), 825 offspring (blood, hair, urine) and their mothers (hair), and 91 seafood and canned tuna samples from Mexico City. Results Maternal blood mercury levels correlated across three trimesters and averaged 3.4μg/L. Cord blood mercury averaged 4.7μg/L and correlated with maternal blood from trimester 3 (but not trimesters 1 and 2). In children, blood, hair and urine mercury levels correlated and averaged 1.8μg/L, 0.6μg/g, and 0.9μg/L, respectively. Hair mercury was 0.5μg/g in mothers and correlated with child's hair. Mean consumption of canned tuna, fresh fish, canned sardine, and shellfish was 3.1, 2.2, 0.5, and 1.0 times per month respectively in pregnant women. Mean mercury content in 7 of 23 seafood species and 5 of 9 canned tuna brands purchased exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance value of 0.3 μg/g. Conclusions Mercury exposures in pregnant women and children from Mexico City, via biomarker studies, are generally 3-5 times greater than values reported in population surveys from the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere. In particular, mercury levels in 29-39% of the maternal participants exceeded the biomonitoring guideline associated with the U.S. EPA reference dose for mercury. PMID:25262076
Kingston, Dawn; Austin, Marie-Paule; McDonald, Sheila W; Vermeyden, Lydia; Heaman, Maureen; Hegadoren, Kathleen; Lasiuk, Gerri; Kingston, Joshua; Sword, Wendy; Jarema, Karly; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; McDonald, Sarah D; Biringer, Anne
A widely held concern of screening is that its psychological harms may outweigh the benefits of early detection and treatment. This study describes pregnant women's perceptions of possible harms and benefits of mental health screening and factors associated with identifying screening as harmful or beneficial. This study analyzed a subgroup of women who had undergone formal or informal mental health screening from our larger multi-site, cross-sectional study. Pregnant women >16 years of age who spoke/read English were recruited (May-December 2013) from prenatal classes and maternity clinics in Alberta, Canada. Descriptive statistics were generated to summarize harms and benefits of screening and multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with reporting at least one harm or affirming screening as a positive experience (January-December 2014). Overall study participation rate was 92% (N = 460/500). Among women screened for mental health concerns (n = 238), 63% viewed screening as positive, 69% were glad to be asked, and 87% took it as evidence their provider cared about them. Only one woman identified screening as a negative experience. Of the 6 harms, none was endorsed by >7% of women, with embarrassment being most cited. Women who were very comfortable (vs somewhat/not comfortable) with screening were more likely to report it as a positive experience. Women were largely Caucasian, well-educated, partnered women; thus, findings may not be generalizable to women with socioeconomic risk. Most women perceived prenatal mental health screening as having high benefit and low harm. These findings dispel popular concerns that mental health screening is psychologically harmful.
Ng, Angie T; Duan, Lewei; Win, Theresa; Spencer, Hillard T; Lee, Ming-Sum
The goal of this study is to report the prevalence, aetiology and clinical outcome of pregnant women with heart failure. This is a retrospective community-based cohort study that included pregnant women in the Kaiser Permanente Health System between 2003 and 2014. Women with heart failure were identified using International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes. Medical records were manually reviewed to confirm diagnosis and adjudicate outcomes. In a cohort of 385 935 pregnancies, 488 (0.13%) had a diagnosis of heart failure, corresponding to 126 cases per 100 000 pregnancies. Peripartum cardiomyopathy was the most common cause of heart failure, accounting for 333 (68.2%) cases. Preterm birth and caesarean delivery were more common in patients with heart failure. Neonatal death rate was higher in the heart failure group (1.0% vs 0.4%, p=0.03). Infants delivered to women with heart failure had lower birth weights (3112.0±774.0 g vs 3331.9±575.5 g, p<0.001) and lower Apgar score at 1 min (7.9±1.5 vs 8.3±1.1, p<0.001). Median follow-up was 6.2 years (IQR 3.2-9.2). During follow-up, 7 (1.4%) in the heart failure group and 423 (0.11%) in the control group died. Heart failure was associated with a 7.7-fold increase risk of death (adjusted HR 7.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 16.4, p<0.001). Heart failure during pregnancy is associated with unfavourable fetal outcomes including prematurity and low birth weight. While the overall mortality rate was low, pregnant women with heart failure carried an excess risk of death compared with controls. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Käser, Annina K; Arguin, Paul M; Chiodini, Peter L; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P; Schlagenhauf, Patricia
Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done using data from 1991 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. National malaria reference centres as well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 631 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum (78.5% of cases). Among the 542 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 464 (85.6%) did not use chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was "visiting friends and relatives" VFR (57.8%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (57.4%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome were limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia
Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740
... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for an... RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant...
... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for an... RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for an... RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant...
... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for an... RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant...
... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for an... RICO, AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.120 Qualified pregnant...
Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos
Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P<0.05 and P<0.01) and a decrease in ascorbic acid levels and the total content of sulfhydryl (P<0.05 and P<0.001). Additionally, when the pro-oxidant system was investigated we found an increase (P<0.01) in malondialdehyde and no significant change (P>0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.
Hebl, Michelle R; King, Eden B; Glick, Peter; Singletary, Sarah L; Kazama, Stephanie
A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) applicants and more benevolent behavior (e.g., touching, overfriendliness) toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) customers. A second experiment revealed that pregnant women are especially likely to encounter hostility (from both men and women) when applying for masculine as compared with feminine jobs. The combination of benevolence toward pregnant women in traditional roles and hostility toward those who seek nontraditional roles suggests a system of complementary interpersonal rewards and punishments that may discourage pregnant women from pursuing work that violates gender norms. (c) 2007 APA
Messerer, L; Bouzbid, S; Gourbdji, E; Mansouri, R; Bachi, F
The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the department of Annaba, Algeria. We performed a cross-sectional study with analytical purposes. The study was collaboration between the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine of Annaba and Parasite Biology Department at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. A total of 1028 pregnant women who underwent prenatal diagnosis/visit were included over a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2009. Immunoglobulin G and M were assayed, using the microparticle enzyme method. The avidity test was used to determine the date of contamination according to age of pregnancy. Search for the parasite was made by inoculation of the placenta and cord blood in white mice. The study compared mother-to-child serological profiles using Western Blot (WB) IgG and IgM. Direct (not well-cooked meat) and indirect (presence of cat, gardening) indicators were recorded to search for parasite exposure. Seroprevalence was 47.8 % (95 % CI: 44.8 to 51.0) and the rate of active toxoplasmosis was 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.6 to 1.8). According to their immune status, this was the first serology for 41 % (CI95 %: 38.0-44.0) of women; 12 % (CI95 %: 10.5-14.6) of primiparous women had only one serology test during their entire pregnancy. Major risk factors were consumption of poorly-cooked meat and exposure to cats. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious issue and an effective prevention program is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Popovski, N; Popovski, K; Nedelkovski, V
Vaginal infections /VI/ represent some of the most common diseases by infection of FGS. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Polygynax in the treatment of vaginal infections and to take into account the correlation between the results of microbiological controls and reduction of clinical symptoms. The study included 100 patients, including 50 pregnant and non-pregnant 50 for a period of 3 months. All of them was diagnosed with vaginitis clinical examination, taken material from vagina for microbiological testing. The studied women was conducted targeted therapy Polygynax 12 capsules, in the form of vaginal capsules for 12 days, after which the sample control microbiology. Behind the subjective complaints of the patient and to reduce them as a result of treatment. The effective implementation of Polygynax 12 capsules is equally good as in non-pregnant and pregnant women. In a summary of the survey data to make relevant analyzes and conclusions from the results.
Velkoska Nakova, V; Krstevska, B; Dimitrovski, Ch; Simeonova, S; Hadzi-Lega, M; Serafimoski, V
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal thyroid function and antithyroid antibodies during pregnancy in women with diabetes type 1 and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The study group included 83 pregnant women who attended the Outpatient Department of the Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Clinic in the period from 05.2009 to 11.2009. The one hundred-g. oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on the pregnant women except for women with diabetes type 1. Thyroid functions were evaluated in all the pregnant women. After routine screening for GDM, thirty of the pregnant women were healthy and GDM was diagnosed in forty of them. The rest, thirteen women, had diabetes type 1. The women who developed GDM showed a mean free thyroxin concentration (fT4) significantly lower than that observed in the healthy pregnant women and women with diabetes type 1. Among the pregnant women with GDM, 10 women or 25% had fT4 concentrations below the lower cut-off with normal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (TSH). A statistically significant difference was found in the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO) between the (30%) women with diabetes type 1 and (10%) healthy pregnant women (p<0.05). In the women positive for anti-TPO, TSH was significantly higher (p<0.05). The significantly higher prevalence of hypothyroxinemia in GDM pregnancies and anti-TPO titres in pregnancies with diabetes type 1, than in healthy pregnant women warrants routine screening for thyroid abnormalities in these groups of pregnant women.
Harm, Sarah K.; Yazer, Mark H.
Background The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in common red blood cell (RBC) indices and platelet concentrations during pregnancy and to establish if any observed differences in these parameters were based on the patient's ethnicity. Methods From an electronic perinatal database which stores laboratory and clinical information on a large number of births at a regional hospital specializing in obstetrical care, RBC index and platelet concentration data were retrospectively analyzed at various time points throughout pregnancy. RBC index data was collected from 8,277 pregnant women (5,802 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,475 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Platelet concentration data was available from 8252 pregnant women (5,784 Caucasian pregnant women and 2,468 non-Caucasian pregnant women). Results Hemoglobin (HGB) levels were significantly higher amongst Caucasian women compared to non-Caucasian women (P at least <0.01) starting at 27 weeks gestation and proceeding until term. There was no significant difference in the mean PLT counts between Caucasian and non-Caucasian pregnant women at any point during gestation. Conclusion There are ethnic differences in HGB levels, but not the platelet concentrations, during pregnancy. Based on this finding it would be reasonable to conduct formal prospective studies to determine the clinical significance of this difference and to establish the threshold for diagnosing gestational anemia, especially in pregnant non-Caucasian women. PMID:22783361
Sabour, Sahar; Arzanlou, Mohsen; Vaez, Hamid; Rahimi, Giti; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Khademi, Farzad
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a vaginal disorder which occurs either symptomatic or asymptomatic because of an imbalance between H 2 O 2 -producing Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis in the vagina. This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to determine the prevalence of BV in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Iran. We used national (SID, Irandoc, Iranmedex and Magiran) and international (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and ISI web of knowledge) electronic databases to systematically search and collect available studies using related keywords (up to 1 December 2017). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to select eligible studies. The overall prevalence of BV among Iranian women was 18.9% (95% CI 14-25). Gardnerella vaginalis was the most prevalent isolated bacteria. The prevalence of BV in non-pregnant women was 28% (95% CI 15.1-45.9) which was higher compared with pregnant women who had a prevalence of 16.5% (95% CI 12.5-21.6). The present review revealed a high prevalence of BV in non-pregnant women. Given that BV is associated with a series of reproductive complications such as infertility, taking preventive measures such as awareness of patients as well as monitoring and controlling of syndrome are essential.
Background This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. Results A retrospective case–control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted using pyrosequencing to characterize the structure and stability of the vaginal microbiota. Linear mixed effects models and generalized estimating equations were used to identify the phylotypes whose relative abundance was different between the two study groups. The vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women was different from that of non-pregnant women (higher abundance of Lactobacillus vaginalis, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii and lower abundance of 22 other phylotypes in pregnant women). Bacterial community state type (CST) IV-B or CST IV-A characterized by high relative abundance of species of genus Atopobium as well as the presence of Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardnerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobiluncus and other taxa previously shown to be associated with bacterial vaginosis were less frequent in normal pregnancy. The stability of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal pregnancy. Differences in the composition and stability of the microbial community between pregnant and non-pregnant women were observed. Lactobacillus spp. were the
Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine
During pregnancy, the need for certain nutrients increases. This study assessed the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with dietary supplement use in a representative sample of pregnant women in Colombia. Data for this study were obtained from a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey (ENSIN, 2010). A total of 1856 pregnant women, 13-49 years of age, were recruited. The use of prenatal dietary supplements (Vitamins A, C or E) was treated as a binary outcome (used at some time or never sued during pregnancy when prescribed by a doctor) in multinomial analyses. Sociodemographic data and associated factors were assessed by computer-assisted personal interview technology. Of the sample, 1123 women (68.6%) reported taking prenatal dietary supplements at some stage during their pregnancy. Most users had a high socioeconomic level (79.5%), were in their third trimester of pregnancy (79.5%), were 30-49 years of age (74.0%), and lived in the central region of Colombia (73.8%). The multivariate logistic regression showed that third trimester of pregnancy (OR 6.2;95% CI 4.0 to 9.3), high educational level (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.4), high socioeconomic level -SISBEN IV or more- (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to 2.8), residence in the Atlantic region (north) (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.6), Eastern region (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.1), central region (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.9), Pacific region (west) (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.3), and belonging to the mestizo (others) ethnic group (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.6), were all associated with a higher probability of dietary supplement intake. The prevalence of prenatal dietary supplements in pregnant women in Colombia was found to be substantial. The variables significantly associated with their use were educational level, socioeconomic level, trimester of pregnancy, geographic level and ethnic group. These results indicate the necessity of implementing new health policies that guarantee uniform access to nutritional
Golding, Jean; Steer, Colin D; Gregory, Steven; Lowery, Tony; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Taylor, Caroline M
There is curiosity concerning the source of mercury that is absorbed into the mother's blood and which may affect the developing fetus. This study therefore sets out to determine the extent to which dental amalgam (DA) may contribute to total blood mercury (TBHg) levels of pregnant women in the UK. Whole blood samples and information on diet and socio-demographic factors were collected from pregnant women (n = 4484) enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The whole blood samples were assayed for total mercury levels using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS), and the women were retrospectively asked about features of their dental care during the pregnancy. Linear regression was used to estimate the relative contributions of DA to TBHg levels (log-transformed) based on R(2) values, compared to the results from dietary and socio-demographic variables. The contribution to the variance of the mothers' TBHg levels by dental variables was 6.47%, a figure comparable to the 8.75% shown for seafood consumption in this population. Dietary and dental variables explained 20.16% of the variance, with socio-demographic variables contributing only a further 3.40%. The number of amalgams in the mouth at the start of pregnancy accounted for most of the variance in dental variables. Dental amalgam contributes a comparable amount of variance in TBHg to seafood consumption in this population. However, because the measures of DA exposure were imprecise, these findings are likely to be an underestimate. There is no evidence to date in the literature that fetal exposures to mercury from maternal DAs have adverse effects on the developing child, but long-term studies are warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p < 0.001). Low birth weight (2,620 g versus 3,333 g on average, p < 0.001) and maternal syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Connolly, Christopher P; Coe, Dawn P; Kendrick, Jo M; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L
To determine the step count accuracy of three pedometers and one accelerometer in pregnant women during treadmill walking. Participants were 30 women in the second or third trimester (20-34 wk) who were screened for pregnancy-related risk factors. Each participant was fitted with a belt containing three physical activity monitors: Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 (DW), New Lifestyles NL 2000 (NL), and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (ACT). The Omron HJ-720ITC (HJ) was placed in the pants' front pocket. Participants walked at 54, 67, 80, and 94 m · min for 2 min each. Actual steps were determined by an investigator using a hand-tally counter. The mean percent of steps recorded was calculated for each device at each speed and compared. Pearson correlations were used to determine the effect of body mass index and tilt angle on pedometer accuracy. There was a significant interaction between speed and device (F9,20 = 7.574, P < 0.001). Across all speeds, the NL and HJ had the lowest error. The ACT and DW underestimated the actual steps taken, particularly at the slower walking speeds. At 54 m · min, the ACT averaged 77.5% of steps and the DW averaged 56.9% of steps. Significant differences in the mean percent of steps recorded were found between devices at all speeds. Body mass index was only significantly correlated with percent of steps recorded by the NL, and there were no significant correlations between steps recorded and tilt angle. In pregnant women, the ACT and DW had more error than the NL and HJ. On the basis of these results, the NL and HJ should be considered for use in further research studies and physical activity programs that focus on walking during pregnancy.
Meador, Kimford J.; Hartzema, Abraham
Objective: The study aims were to investigate secular trends in antiepileptic drug (AED) use in women during pregnancy, and to compare the use of first- and second-generation AEDs. Methods: Study participants consisted of female Florida Medicaid beneficiaries, older than 15 years, and pregnant within the time period 1999 to 2009. Fifteen AEDs were categorized into first and second generation of AEDs. Continuous use of AEDs was defined as at least 2 consecutive AED prescriptions totaling more than a 30-day supply. Polytherapy was defined as 2 or more AEDs continuously used for at least 30 overlapping days. Annual prevalence was estimated and compared. Results: We included 2,099 pregnant women who were enrolled in Florida Medicaid from 1999 to 2009 and exposed to AEDs during pregnancy. Although there were fluctuations, overall AED use in the study cohort did not increase from 2000 to 2009 (β ± standard error [SE]: −0.07 ± 0.06, p = 0.31). The use of first-generation AEDs decreased (β ± SE: −6.21 ± 0.47, p < 0.0001), whereas the use of second-generation AEDs increased (β ± SE: 6.27 ± 0.52, p < 0.0001) from 2000 to 2009. AED use in polytherapy did not change through the study period. Valproate use reduced from 23% to 8% in the study population (β ± SE: −1.61 ± 0.36, p = 0.0019), but this decrease was only for women receiving an AED for epilepsy and was not present for other indications. Conclusion: The second-generation AEDs are replacing first-generation AEDs in both monotherapy and polytherapy. Valproate use has declined for epilepsy but not other indications. Additional changes in AED use are expected in future years. PMID:25653296
Wen, Xuerong; Meador, Kimford J; Hartzema, Abraham
The study aims were to investigate secular trends in antiepileptic drug (AED) use in women during pregnancy, and to compare the use of first- and second-generation AEDs. Study participants consisted of female Florida Medicaid beneficiaries, older than 15 years, and pregnant within the time period 1999 to 2009. Fifteen AEDs were categorized into first and second generation of AEDs. Continuous use of AEDs was defined as at least 2 consecutive AED prescriptions totaling more than a 30-day supply. Polytherapy was defined as 2 or more AEDs continuously used for at least 30 overlapping days. Annual prevalence was estimated and compared. We included 2,099 pregnant women who were enrolled in Florida Medicaid from 1999 to 2009 and exposed to AEDs during pregnancy. Although there were fluctuations, overall AED use in the study cohort did not increase from 2000 to 2009 (β ± standard error [SE]: -0.07 ± 0.06, p = 0.31). The use of first-generation AEDs decreased (β ± SE: -6.21 ± 0.47, p < 0.0001), whereas the use of second-generation AEDs increased (β ± SE: 6.27 ± 0.52, p < 0.0001) from 2000 to 2009. AED use in polytherapy did not change through the study period. Valproate use reduced from 23% to 8% in the study population (β ± SE: -1.61 ± 0.36, p = 0.0019), but this decrease was only for women receiving an AED for epilepsy and was not present for other indications. The second-generation AEDs are replacing first-generation AEDs in both monotherapy and polytherapy. Valproate use has declined for epilepsy but not other indications. Additional changes in AED use are expected in future years. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.
Yao, Tingting; Lee, Anita H; Mao, Zhengzhong
Smoke-free policies in public places have become more common in China. Little is known, however, about the potential unintended consequences of such policies on pregnant women. The study was conducted in 2006 in Chengdu, China. Nonsmoking pregnant women (N=55) whose husband were smokers participated in a study of their knowledge about secondhand smoke and smoke-free policies, their exposure to secondhand smoke, and their husbands' smoking status at home. This study presents descriptive statistics, analyses based on family income and pregnant women's education level, and the findings of focus group discussions that examined the potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies on pregnant women. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home was reported by 69.1% of the pregnant women. Both family income and the education level of the pregnant women had a significant (p<0.05) association with exposure to secondhand smoke. The four main potential unintended consequences of the smoke-free policies were: (1) increased exposure of pregnant women to secondhand smoke at home; (2) reduced work efficiency; (3) adverse effect on family harmony; and (4) poor air quality at home. Education is needed to increase knowledge of secondhand smoke among smokers and nonsmokers alike. When the smoking location is shifted from public places and workplaces to home, women, and in particular pregnant women, become the victims. Policymakers should recognize such potential unintended consequences and take necessary measures to increase awareness about the harms of secondhand smoke.
Faherty, Laura J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Lurie, Nicole
Science preparedness, or the ability to conduct scientific research early in a public health emergency, is essential to increase the likelihood that important research questions regarding pregnant women will be addressed during future public health emergencies while the window of opportunity for data collection is open. Science preparedness should include formulation and human subject approval of generic protocols, which could be rapidly updated at the time of the public health emergency; development of a preexisting study network to coordinate time-sensitive research during a public health emergency; and identification of mechanisms for funding these studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eszes, Noémi; Bikov, András; Lázár, Zsófia; Bohács, Anikó; Müller, Veronika; Stenczer, Balázs; Rigó, János; Losonczy, György; Horváth, Ildikó; Tamási, Lilla
Asthma is a common chronic disease complicating pregnancy with a risk for perinatal complications. Control of airway inflammation in the asthmatic pregnancy improves pregnancy outcomes. Our aim was to evaluate pH of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), a non-invasive method for the assessment of asthmatic airway inflammation, in healthy and asthmatic pregnancies. Cross-sectional study. Hungarian university clinics. Seventeen healthy pregnant women, 21 asthmatic pregnant women, 23 healthy non-pregnant women and 22 asthmatic non-pregnant women. EBC samples were collected using a portable condenser, EBC pH was measured after argon deaeration. EBC pH. EBC pH (mean ± SD) of healthy non-pregnant and asthmatic non-pregnant women was similar (7.75 ± 0.27 vs. 7.54 ± 0.57; p = 0.118), probably indicating an optimal control of airway inflammation in asthmatic women. On the other hand, EBC pH was higher in healthy pregnant women compared with healthy non-pregnant women (8.02 ± 0.43 vs. 7.75 ± 0.27; p = 0.017). Higher EBC pH accompanying healthy pregnancy was absent in asthmatic pregnant patients whose EBC pH was lower (7.65 ± 0.38) than that of healthy pregnant women (p = 0.006), and it was similar to that in asthmatic and healthy non-pregnant women (p = 0.470 and p = 0.300, respectively). The EBC pH in asthmatic pregnant women correlated positively with birthweight (r = 0.49, p = 0.047) and negatively with forced vital capacity (r = 0.45, p = 0.039). EBC pH was not related to blood pH. EBC pH is higher in healthy pregnant women but not in asthmatic pregnant women compared with data from healthy non-pregnant women, indicating that oxidative inflammatory processes induced by asthma may compromise the regulatory mechanisms causing alkaline pH in the airways during pregnancy. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Claesson, Ing-Marie; Klein, Sofia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann
the objective of the study was to compare the differences in psychological well-being and quality of life during pregnancy and post partum of obese physically active women and obese physically inactive women enroled in a weight gain restriction programme. We also wanted to explore whether physical activity influences weight change or health status during pregnancy. a prospective intervention study. antenatal care clinic. a total of 74 obese pregnant women in a physically active group and 79 obese women in a physically inactive group. the women kept diaries of their physical activity during pregnancy and answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Medical Study Short-Form Health Survey in gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks post partum. Physical activity was measured in metabolic equivalents. the physically active women experienced fewer depressive symptoms and estimated an improved quality of life during their pregnancies as measured by physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems and general mental health as compared with the physically inactive women. There were no differences between the groups in gestational weight gain or weight change from early pregnancy to post partum or in prevalence of complications. physical activity among obese pregnant women provides better psychological well-being and improved quality of life, but does not prevent weight change. staff at Antenatal Care Clinics that face obese pregnant women, should encourage and emphasise the benefits of being physically active throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katz, Gregory; Mills, Antonia; Garcia, Joan; Hooper, Karen; McGuckin, Colin; Platz, Alexander; Rebulla, Paolo; Salvaterra, Elena; Schmidt, Alexander H; Torrabadella, Marta
This study explores pregnant women's awareness of cord blood stem cells and their attitude regarding banking options in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Questionnaires were distributed in six maternities. This anonymous and self-completed questionnaire included 29 multiple-choice questions based on: 1) sociodemographic factors, 2) awareness and access to information about cord blood banking, 3) banking option preferences, and 4) donating cord blood units (CBUs) to research. A total of 79% of pregnant women had little awareness of cord blood banking (n = 1620). A total of 58% of women had heard of the therapeutic benefits of cord blood, of which 21% received information from midwives and obstetricians. A total of 89% of respondents would opt to store CBUs. Among them, 76% would choose to donate CBUs to a public bank to benefit any patient in need of a cord blood transplant. Twelve percent would choose a mixed bank, and 12%, a private bank. A total of 92% would donate their child's CBU to research when it is not suitable for transplantation. The study reveals a strong preference for public banking in all five countries, based on converging values such as solidarity. Attitudes of pregnant women are not an obstacle to the rapid expansion of allogeneic banking in these EU countries. Banking choices do not appear to be correlated with household income. The extent of commercial marketing of cord blood banks in mass media highlights the importance for obstetric providers to play a central role in raising women's awareness early during their pregnancy with evidence-based medical information about banking options. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Friedman, Lauren E.; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta B.; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Peterlin, B. Lee; Williams, Michelle A.
Background Suicide is a leading cause of maternal death globally, and suicide prevalence rates have been shown to be increased in those with migraine. No previous study has examined the association between migraine and suicidal ideation during pregnancy. Objective To examine the association between migraine and suicidal ideation among a cohort of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3,372 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Suicidal ideation and depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale during early pregnancy. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Suicidal ideation was more common among those with migraine (25.6%) as compared to those with probable migraine (22.1%, p<0.001) or non-migraineurs (12.3%, p<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, including depression, those with migraine or probable migraine had a 78% increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR=1.78; 95%CI: 1.46–2.17), as compared with non-migraineurs. Women with both migraine and depression had a 4.14-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR=4.14; 95%CI: 3.17–5.42) compared to those with neither condition. Conclusion Migraine is associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation in pregnant women even when controlling for depression. These findings support the consideration of screening women with comorbid migraine and depression for suicidal behavior during pregnancy. PMID:27016264
Friedman, Lauren E; Gelaye, Bizu; Rondon, Marta B; Sanchez, Sixto E; Peterlin, B Lee; Williams, Michelle A
Suicide is a leading cause of maternal death globally, and suicide prevalence rates have been shown to be increased in those with migraine. No previous study has examined the association between migraine and suicidal ideation during pregnancy. To examine the association between migraine and suicidal ideation among a cohort of pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 3372 pregnant women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru. Suicidal ideation and depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale during early pregnancy. Migraine classification (including migraine and probable migraine) was based on International Classification of Headache Disorders-III beta criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Suicidal ideation was more common among those with migraine (25.6%) as compared to those with probable migraine (22.1%, P < .001) or non-migraineurs (12.3%, P < .001). After adjusting for confounders, including depression, those with migraine or probable migraine had a 78% increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.46-2.17), as compared with non-migraineurs. Women with both migraine and depression had a 4.14-fold increased odds of suicidal ideation (OR = 4.14; 95% CI: 3.17-5.42) compared to those with neither condition. Migraine is associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation in pregnant women even when controlling for depression. These findings support the consideration of screening women with comorbid migraine and depression for suicidal behavior during pregnancy. © 2016 American Headache Society.
Audi, Celene Aparecida Ferrari; Corrêa, Ana Maria Segall; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro; Santiago, Silvia Maria; Andrade, Maria da Graça Garcia; Rodrigues, Maria Socorro Pereira
This study sought to compare the perception of domestic violence of women, victims of this kind of violence, with the perception of pregnant women, victims or not of domestic violence, as well as to search for elements allowing for the planning and execution of a cohort study on domestic violence among pregnant women. A qualitative exploratory research was conducted using the technique of convenience sampling for selecting a focal group. The subjects were twenty four women divided into two groups: (1) thirteen women from a follow-up group from a Referral Center for victims of domestic violence, and (2) eleven pregnant women that were participating in the pre-natal care program in a primary care unit, selected independently of suffering domestic violence or not. The data collected were transcribed, conceptually decoded and qualified for qualitative analysis. The contents of the women's discourse were analyzed on the basis of thematic categories. It was observed that domestic violence was perceived in a similar way by both studied groups, independently from the fact of having or not experienced a situation of this kind. The understanding and discussion of the topics proposed for the groups allowed developing a more appropriate approach to the studied women. The way the questions were formulated in the questionnaire was considered of easy understanding by both groups of women.
In South Africa, the better educated women have a responsibility to help out less fortunate women. The possibilities for action could include the following: literacy classes for adult women with the help of teachers, librarians, social workers, development program workers, and among church groups and adult literacy groups; and promotion campaigns to encourage mothers to keep their children in school as long as possible. Women and teenagers could be educated about the complications of teenage births and parental responsibilities. Child spacing should be encouraged as a means of achieving better health and a higher standard of living. Women must be motivated to attend family planning clinics and health education programs. Income generation programs for women could be established. Community improvement projects and new housing projects could be instrumental in improving living conditions. Leadership courses and job creation for women must be provided. These activities would highlight women as assets, such as the UN Population Fund described in its 1992 report of The State of the World. Women's high status has been found to be directly related to economic growth and higher quality of life. 7-9% of a child's mortality risk might be reduced for each year of maternal education. In Africa, the ratio of girls to boys in school attendance averages 80 girls to 100 boys in primary school and 47 girls to 100 boys in secondary school. Almost 66% of adult illiterates were women in 1985: 949 million. Early marriage and childbearing perpetuates the cycle of low status and high fertility. Where human resource development has been high, such as in Asian countries, there have been as many as 78% of women active in the labor force. In South Africa, rural women have had as many as 7 children. The growth rate was 2.3% and population has been doubling every 32 years. At the present rate, greater numbers of women will be poor and illiterate, and their children will continue the cycle.
Willcox, Jane C; Campbell, Karen J; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A
Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women's GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women's sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Consecutive women (n = 1032) received a mailed questionnaire after their first antenatal visit to a public maternity hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Recalled provision of GWG guidelines by doctors and midwives, recalled provided GWG goals, and the obtaining of GWG information and information sources were assessed. Participants (n = 368; 35.7% response) averaged 32.5 years of age and 20.8 weeks gestation, with 33.7% speaking a language other than English. One in ten women recalled receiving GWG guidelines from doctors or midwives, of which half were consistent with Institute of Medicine guidelines. More than half the women (55.4%) had actively sought GWG information. Nulliparous (OR 7.07, 95% CI = 3.91-12.81) and obese (OR 1.96, 95% CI = 1.05-3.65) women were more likely to seek information. Underweight (OR 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09-0.97) women and those working part time (OR 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28-0.97) were less likely to seek information. Most frequently reported GWG sources included the internet (82.7%), books (55.4%) and friends (51.5%). The single most important sources were identified as the internet (32.8%), general practitioners (16.9%) and books (14.9%). More than half of women were seeking GWG guidance and were more likely to consult non-clinician sources. The small numbers given GWG targets, and the dominance of non-clinical information sources, reinforces that an important opportunity to provide evidence based advice and guidance in the antenatal care setting is currently being missed.
Angrand, Ruth C; Sperling, Rhoda; Roccobono, Kinga; Osborne, Lauren M; Jao, Jennifer
"Depression (as noted in chart by a physician)" was compared between HIV infected pregnant women and controls. Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV), non-perinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV), and HIV-uninfected (HIV-U) pregnant women were all compared using a logistic regression model. Overall, HIV-infected women had higher rates of depression than HIV-U, with PHIV women demonstrating a clinically and statistically significant increased risk compared to HIV-U women [adjusted OR: 15.9, 95% CI = 1.8-143.8]. Future studies in larger populations are warranted to confirm these findings and further elucidate mental health outcomes of PHIV and NPHIV pregnant women.
Wang, Yun-Hui; Wu, Hui-Hua; Ding, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Feng; Zhang, Jian-Ping
The aim of this study was to observe insulin resistance and β-cell function changes among women diagnosed with gestational impaired glucose tolerance or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in mid-pregnancy. Sixty-four pregnant women receiving prenatal care underwent an oral glucose tolerance test at 20-24 weeks of gestation and an insulin release test. The GDM group included 34 pregnant women diagnosed with gestational impaired glucose tolerance or GDM, and the subjects with normal blood glucose were the control group. Insulin resistance and islet β-cell function changes were observed with the oral glucose tolerance test and insulin release test. The homeostatic model assessment-β levels in late pregnancy were higher than those in mid-pregnancy for both groups, and the primary time effect was statistically significant. The early insulin secretion index (ΔI(30)/ΔG(30)) values in mid- and late pregnancy were lower in the GDM group. The values of the area under the curve of blood glucose in mid- and late pregnancy were higher in the GDM group than those in the control group. Insulin resistance was higher in GDM patients than in normal pregnant women. Insulin resistance was aggravated, and β-cell's ability to compensate for the increased insulin resistance by modulating insulin secretion was aggravated, as gestational week increased in women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnant women. Insulin resistance in women with GDM is higher than in pregnant women with normal metabolism of glucose. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy
Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…
Laken, Marilyn Poland; Hutchins, Ellen
According to current estimates, approximately 5.5 percent of all American pregnant women use an illicit drug during pregnancy. National concern for drug-exposed infants prompted interest in the needs of substance using pregnant women and in the development of drug treatment programs for them. A total of 147 comprehensive programs have been funded…
Lima, Daniela Pereira; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Jardim, Elerson Gaetti; Okamoto, Ana Cláudia
To verify the presence of Socransky Red Complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia) and P. intermedia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in periodontally healthy pregnant women and pregnant women with periodontal disease, as well as its relation to arterial blood pressure and capillary glycaemia. This case control study included 86 pregnant women, including 50 pregnant women with healthy periodontium, 27 with gingivitis and 9 with periodontitis. Arterial blood pressure and glycaemia were evaluated and recorded. Clinical specimens from the gingival crevice or periodontal pockets were gathered with sterile absorbent paper cones. DNA extraction was accomplished using the Easy-DNA Kit test and the presence of bacteria was detected by PCR with primers and specific probes for each microorganism. The arterial pressure of all pregnant women was found to be within normal levels and 51% presented with hyperglycaemia, these two variables were not associated with periodontal conditions and/or presence of microorganisms. Socransky Red Complex was not present in pregnant women with healthy periodontium; however, it was present in pregnant women with gingivitis (3.7%) and in a higher percentage of pregnant women with periodontitis (33.3%). Socransky Red Complex was found only in cases of periodontal diseases and is not related to blood pressure and/or high levels of blood glucose.
M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith
The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…
Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt
The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women.
Stoner, Julie A.; Dao, Hanh Dung; Stephens, Lancer; Goodman, Jean R.; Maynard, John; Lyons, Timothy J.
Context: Minority communities are disproportionately affected by diabetes, and minority women are at an increased risk for glucose intolerance (dysglycemia) during pregnancy. Objectives: In pregnant American Indian women, the objectives of the study were to use current criteria to estimate the prevalence of first-trimester (Tr1) dysglycemia and second-trimester (Tr2) incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to explore new candidate measures and identify associated clinical factors. Design: This was a prospective cohort study. In Tr1 we performed a 75-g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to determine the following: fasting insulin; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol; noninvasive skin autofluorescence (SCOUT). We defined dysglycemia by American Diabetes Association and Endocrine Society criteria and as HbA1c of 5.7% or greater. In Tr2 in an available subset, we performed a repeat OGTT and SCOUT. Participants: Pregnant American Indian women (n = 244 at Tr1; n = 114 at Tr2) participated in the study. Outcomes: The prevalence of dysglycemia at Tr1 and incidence of GDM at Tr2 were measured. Results: At Tr1, one woman had overt diabetes; 36 (15%) had impaired glucose tolerance (American Diabetes Association criteria and/or abnormal HbA1c) and 59 (24%) had GDM-Tr1 (Endocrine Society criteria). Overall, 74 (30%) had some form of dysglycemia. Associated factors were body mass index, hypertension, waist/hip circumferences, SCOUT score, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At Tr2, 114 of the Tr1 cohort underwent a repeat OGTT and SCOUT, and 26 (23%) had GDM. GDM-Tr2 was associated with increased SCOUT scores (P = .029) and Tr1 body mass index, waist/hip circumferences, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels. Overall, dysglycemia at Tr1 and/or Tr2 affected 38% of the women. Conclusions: Dysglycemia at some point during
Azar, Madona; Stoner, Julie A; Dao, Hanh Dung; Stephens, Lancer; Goodman, Jean R; Maynard, John; Lyons, Timothy J
Minority communities are disproportionately affected by diabetes, and minority women are at an increased risk for glucose intolerance (dysglycemia) during pregnancy. In pregnant American Indian women, the objectives of the study were to use current criteria to estimate the prevalence of first-trimester (Tr1) dysglycemia and second-trimester (Tr2) incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to explore new candidate measures and identify associated clinical factors. This was a prospective cohort study. In Tr1 we performed a 75-g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) to determine the following: fasting insulin; homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol; noninvasive skin autofluorescence (SCOUT). We defined dysglycemia by American Diabetes Association and Endocrine Society criteria and as HbA1c of 5.7% or greater. In Tr2 in an available subset, we performed a repeat OGTT and SCOUT. Pregnant American Indian women (n = 244 at Tr1; n = 114 at Tr2) participated in the study. The prevalence of dysglycemia at Tr1 and incidence of GDM at Tr2 were measured. At Tr1, one woman had overt diabetes; 36 (15%) had impaired glucose tolerance (American Diabetes Association criteria and/or abnormal HbA1c) and 59 (24%) had GDM-Tr1 (Endocrine Society criteria). Overall, 74 (30%) had some form of dysglycemia. Associated factors were body mass index, hypertension, waist/hip circumferences, SCOUT score, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At Tr2, 114 of the Tr1 cohort underwent a repeat OGTT and SCOUT, and 26 (23%) had GDM. GDM-Tr2 was associated with increased SCOUT scores (P = .029) and Tr1 body mass index, waist/hip circumferences, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, and triglyceride levels. Overall, dysglycemia at Tr1 and/or Tr2 affected 38% of the women. Dysglycemia at some point during pregnancy was common among American Indian women. It was associated with
Qian, Xueya; Jiang, Yanmin; Liu, Lei; Shi, Shao-Qing; Garfield, Robert E; Liu, Huishu
The objective of this study is to estimate changes in the surface area of the ectocervix (CA) in women during pregnancy and compare this to postpartum and non-pregnant states. CA was evaluated in 210 normal nulliparous women divided into groups from early to late gestation, 40 postpartum women, and 25 non-pregnant women. CA in cm(2) was estimated from analysis of images taken with an endoscope of the cervical face and an mm scale. An mm scale was also used to determine fornix length and fornix area computed. The face, fornix, and total areas of the CA of non-pregnant and postpartum groups are significantly smaller (p < 0.001) than these areas in groups during pregnancy. Generally, the CA of the face, fornix, and total area are also less in early pregnancy compared with late gestation (p < 0.01 to <0.001). Total CA correlates with gestational age (r = 0.196, p < 0.004). (1) During pregnancy, CA slowly and progressively increases to >75% area compared with CA of non-pregnant patients and then reverts back to low CA postpartum. (2) Increases in CA during pregnancy occur in both the face and fornix areas. (3) Increases in CA reflect enlargement in cervical volume and remodeling during pregnancy.
Kaul, Subuhi; Yadav, Savita; Dogra, Sunil
Dermatophytic infection of the skin and its appendages is a common occurrence. Though usually straightforward, treatment of dermatophytosis becomes notably challenging in certain population groups – pregnant women, children, and elderly. Treatment with topical azoles/allylamines alone is effective in limited cutaneous disease in all three groups. Terbinafine is the preferred oral agent in elderly population for treatment of extensive cutaneous disease and onychomycosis due to its lack of cardiac complications and lower propensity for drug interactions. If required, additional physical/mechanical modalities can be employed for symptomatic onychomycosis. Data for systemic therapy in children mainly pertains to the treatment of tinea capitis. At present, very little data exists regarding the safety of systemic antifungals in pregnancy and there is an effort to restrict treatment to topical therapies because of their negligible systemic absorption. PMID:28979861
Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria; Balaguer, Albert; Cavallé, Pere; Canals, Josefa
The emotional states of pregnant women affect the course of their pregnancies, their deliveries and the behaviour and development of their infants. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of positive and negative maternal emotional states on neonatal behaviour at 2-3 days after birth. A sample of 163 healthy full-term newborns was evaluated using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Maternal anxiety, perceived stress, and emotional stability during pregnancy were evaluated in the immediate postpartum period with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale. Moderate levels of anxiety during pregnancy alter infant orientation and self-regulation. These aspects of infant behaviour could lead to later attachment, behavioural and developmental problems. Maternal emotional stability during pregnancy improves infant self-regulation and several aspects of infant behaviour that may predispose them to better interactions with their parents.
Background The transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is parenteral, sexual and perinatal. Prevention of vertical transmission of HBV is extremely important because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier State. Methods A descriptive seroepidemiological study of hepatitis B virus and its effects on hematological parameters was investigated in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. 200 venous samples were subjected to full blood count and its sera were subjected to enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of surface antigen of hepatitis B virus. Results Prevalence rate of 16.5% was obtained for hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women. The highest HBsAg prevalence rate recorded was 23.3% for pregnant women between aged 30–34 years while the lowest recorded was zero percent for those aged greater than 40 years. RBC, WBC, neutrophil, hemoglobin lymphocyte and platelet counts have no significant effects on HBsAg positivity of pregnant women (p = 0.801). There was no significant difference in HBsAg positivity in relation to maternal age, gravidity, gestational age, family type, level of education and occupation (p = 0.073). Among the potential risk factors, there was significant difference in HBsAg positivity in the pregnant women in relation to their history of HBV vaccination (p = 0.039). Conclusions We advocate universal free screening of pregnant women as the endemicity of HBV infections is thus being propagated. PMID:23268985
Karunajeewa, Harin A; Salman, Sam; Mueller, Ivo; Baiwog, Francisca; Gomorrai, Servina; Law, Irwin; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Rogerson, Stephen; Siba, Peter; Ilett, Kenneth F; Davis, Timothy M E
To determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of sulfadoxine (SDOX) and pyrimethamine (PYR) when administered as intermittent presumptive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria, 30 Papua New Guinean women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and 30 age-matched nonpregnant women were given a single dose of 1,500 mg of SDOX plus 75 mg of pyrimethamine PYR. Blood was taken at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 48, and 72 h and at 7, 10, 14, 28, and 42 days posttreatment in all women. Plasma samples were assayed for SDOX, N-acetylsulfadoxine (NASDOX), and PYR by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed using NONMEM v6.2.0. Separate user-defined mamillary models were fitted to SDOX/NASDOX and PYR. When the covariate pregnancy was applied to clearance, there was a significant improvement in the base model for both treatments. Pregnancy was associated with a significantly lower area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity for SDOX (22,315 versus 33,284 mg x h/liter), NASDOX (801 versus 1,590 mg x h/liter), and PYR (72,115 versus 106,065 microg x h/liter; P < 0.001 in each case). Because lower plasma concentrations of SDOX and PYR could compromise both curative efficacy and posttreatment prophylaxis in pregnant patients, IPTp regimens incorporating higher mg/kg doses than those recommended for nonpregnant patients should be considered.
Kurnatowska, Anna; Stankiewicz, Anna
The aim of the study was to evaluate condition of the periodontium in pregnant women with pathological progress of the pregnancy, clinically and to compare it to periodontium in pregnant women in good health. Over the last years, the studies have described that periodontitis caused by dental plaque, could be the risk factor for preterm birth and low birth weight. This study was performed in 80 pregnant women, 40 with pathologic pregnancy and 40 with normal pregnancy in it. Periodontal Indexes were used to evaluate periodontium. In the searching group gingivitis gravidarum haemorrhagica diffusa and hyperplastica generalisata were dominating. In the control group gingivitis gravidatum simplex and hyperplastica localisata were observed. More severe manifestation of gingivitis gravidarum was noticed in pregnant women with risk of preterm low birth. We did not prove correlation between amount of bacterial dental plaque in pregnant women and risk of preterm low birth weight.
Tugut, N; Tirkes, D; Demirel, G
The aim of the study was to identify knowledge and fear related to childbirth and the postpartum period in pregnant women. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women. It was determined that pregnant women had insufficient levels of knowledge related to childbirth and the postpartum period. The Fear of Childbirth and Postpartum Anxiety Scale score for childbirth and the postpartum period related to 'fear regarding the action of childbirth', was found to be the highest. The highest causes for concern were determined to be 'infant-related anxiety' and 'fear regarding infant and puerperal health'. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the perceived sufficiency of the knowledge of pregnant women in terms of maintaining their own health and care, and their mean childbirth and postpartum period concern score. These findings indicate that the level of concern among pregnant women with relation to the postpartum period and childbirth is rather high.
Küllenberg de Gaudry, Daniela; Grede, Nina; Motschall, Edith; Lins, Sabine
To evaluate nutrition brochures for pregnant women in Germany based on evidence-based patient information (EBPI) criteria. Nutrition brochures for pregnant women in Germany were collected. Brochures addressing the risk of salmonellosis, toxoplasmosis or listeriosis were analyzed by two researchers independently. Fifty brochures reporting any information on the risk of infection were analyzed. Most brochures did not include literature citations and only few brochures gave a risk description, predominantly verbally, which usually leads to an overestimation of the actual risk. Advertisement was present in 22% of the brochures. German nutrition brochures for pregnant women should be adapted to comply with evidence-based patient information (EBPI) criteria for achieving a better quality of the disseminated information. The findings highlight the need of high quality nutrition brochures for pregnant women, which are relevant not only for pregnant women, but also to those responsible for creating brochures, and to physicians in charge of patient information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laboudi, Majda; Sadak, Abderrahim
The diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women during the early first trimester of pregnancy is very important for preventing congenital infection of the fetus; it will not only prevent the risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus but it will also enable to give these women a preventive treatment. In this study, the avidity test was performed on pregnant women during their first prenatal visit at the National Institute of Hygiene in Rabat, Morocco. One hundred and twenty-eight sera samples were collected from 128 pregnant women between August 2015 and June 2016; these women were chosen retrospectively and were in their first four months of pregnancy. The samples were screened using the specific anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies and were subjected to an IgG avidity test. After the serological screening, only 54 women (42.4%) were tested positive for IgG antibodies and five women (3.9%) were tested positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Four IgM-negative women had low-avidity antibodies. However, none of the IgG-avidity test had detected low-avidity antibodies in the five IgM-positive women; three women (60%) had high-avidity antibodies, indicating that the infection was acquired in the distant past. The avidity test is a helpful tool to exclude a recently acquired toxoplasmosis infection within IgM-positive serum samples in pregnant women during their first trimester of pregnancy. Thus, allowing to perform an appropriate therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Milman, Nils; Taylor, Christine L; Merkel, Joyce; Brannon, Patsy M
Understanding the iron status in pregnant women in Europe provides a foundation for considering the role of iron screening and supplementation. However, available reports and studies have used different approaches that challenge the devising of overall summaries. Moreover, data on pregnant women are limited, and thus, data on women of reproductive age provide useful background information including baseline iron stores in pregnant women. This review considered data that are available from >15 European countries including national surveys and relevant clinical studies. In European women of reproductive age, median or geometric mean serum ferritin (SF) concentrations were estimated at 26-38 μg/L. Approximately 40-55% of this population had small or depleted iron stores (i.e., SF concentration ≤30 μg/L), and 45-60% of this population had apparently replete iron stores. The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was 10-32% and 2-5%, respectively, depending on the cutoffs used. Approximately 20-35% of European women of reproductive age had sufficient iron stores (SF concentration >70 μg/L) to complete a pregnancy without supplementary iron. During pregnancy, European women in controlled supplementation trials who were not receiving iron supplements displayed increasing prevalences of ID and IDA during pregnancy, which peaked in the middle to late third trimester. Available evidence has suggested that, in gestational weeks 32-39, the median or geometric mean SF concentrations were 6-21 μg/L, and prevalences of ID and IDA were 28-85% and 21-35%, respectively. Women who were taking iron supplements had higher iron status and lower prevalences of ID and IDA, which were dependent on the dose of iron and compliance. The data suggest that, in Europe, the iron status of reproductive-aged women varies by region and worsens in pregnancy without iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
van der Zande, Indira S E; van der Graaf, Rieke; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M
There is ambiguity with regard to what counts as an acceptable level of risk in clinical research in pregnant women and there is no input from stakeholders relative to such research risks. The aim of our paper was to explore what stakeholders who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women deem an acceptable level of risk for pregnant women in clinical research. Accordingly, we used the APOSTEL VI study, a low-risk obstetrical randomised controlled trial, as a case-study. We conducted a prospective qualitative study using 35 in-depth semi-structured interviews and one focus group. We interviewed healthcare professionals, Research Ethics Committee members (RECs) and regulators who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women, in addition to pregnant women recruited for the APOSTEL VI case-study in the Netherlands. Three themes characterise the way stakeholders view risks in clinical research in pregnant women in general. Additionally, one theme characterises the way healthcare professionals and pregnant women view risks with respect to the case-study specifically. First, ideas on what constitutes an acceptable level of risk in general ranged from a preference for zero risk for the foetus up to minimal risk. Second, the desirability of clinical research in pregnant women in general was questioned altogether. Third, stakeholders proposed to establish an upper limit of risk in potentially beneficial clinical research in pregnant women in order to protect the foetus and the pregnant woman from harm. Fourth and finally, the case-study illustrates that healthcare professionals' individual perception of risk may influence recruitment. Healthcare professionals, RECs, regulators and pregnant women are all risk adverse in practice, possibly explaining the continuing underrepresentation of pregnant women in clinical research. Determining the acceptable levels of risk on a universal level alone is insufficient
Jiang, S; Pang, X H; Duan, Y F; Bi, Y; Wang, J; Yin, S A; Yang, L C; Yang, Z Y
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of anemia and related risk factors for pregnant women in China. Method: Based on Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance 2010-2012, a total of 3 501 pregnant women were investigated from 150 counties of 31 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China, using a multi-stage stratified cluster randomization sampling method. General information of pregnant women, health status, and food intake during the gestation, was collected through a questionnaire investigation. 6 ml fasting venous blood was collected for the determination of hemoglobin concentration. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to investigate the prevalence of anemia and the related influencing factors. Results: The 605 of 3 501 pregnant women had anemia. The prevalence of anemia was 17.2%; and mild anemia accounted for about 61.0% (369/605). Compared with the pregnant women living in the large cities, the OR (95% CI ) of those living in the poor rural areas was 1.46 (1.08-1.98). Compared with the pregnant women living in the south area of China, the OR (95% CI ) of those living in the north area of China was 1.39 (1.15-1.68); Compared with the pregnant women in the first trimester, the OR (95% CI ) of those in the second trimester and the third trimester were 1.79 (1.33-2.43) and 2.11 (1.56-2.85), respectively. The OR (95% CI ) of pregnant women who had used folic acid supplementation within the 6 months prior to gestation was 0.76 (0.63-0.93) compared with those who had not used. Conclusion: From 2010 to 2012, the epidemic characteristics of anemia was mild for the pregnant women in China, and pregnant women residential areas, periods of pregnancy and whether to take folic acid were related to anemia.
Efetie, E R; Salami, H A
Violence against women is a human rights violation, which is increasingly becoming a serious public health issue. When it occurs in pregnant women, victims are recognised to be at higher risk of complications of pregnancy. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out over a 3-month period from May to July 2005 to document the prevalence, knowledge and perception of domestic violence (DV) on pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the National Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. The mean age of the respondents was 31.5 +/- 4.25 years, with a range of 20 - 42 years. Most (85.2%) had attained tertiary education. While most (92.9%) were aware of DV in pregnancy, 125 women (37.4%) had experienced DV. Psychological abuse ranked highest with 66.4%, while physical and sexual abuse accounted for 23.4% and 10.2% of the group. Of this group, 21.2% required medical treatment as a result of DV, and all were aware of possible pregnancy complications, such as abortion, premature labour and depression. Most (81.9%) of the respondents felt DV was illegal. A majority (29.7%) kept their DV secret with a few numbers reporting to family, doctors, clergy or close friends. With higher educational status, the experience of DV was greater, although this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Similarly with increasing parity, although this tended to reverse after parity of 3. The prevalence of DV found in Abuja, the centrally located capital city of Nigeria is higher than that from the study in Zaria, northern Nigeria (28%). This is cause for concern, and points to a rising trend in the northern region of the country although the centres are different. Similarly, the husband/spouse was the most common offender; responsible here for 74.2% of cases. This may give justification to recent calls for paternal educational classes for spouses. Increasing public awareness remains the key, through education and public enlightenment campaigns, with more emphasis on the identified
Kamuhabwa, Appolinary AR; Gordian, Richard; Mutagonda, Ritah F
causing poor implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for prevention of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women. Conclusion There is a need to continue sensitization of pregnant women and communities about the importance of early attendance to the ANCs for testing of HIV and provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Availability of co-trimoxazole in the health facilities, regular training, and sensitization of health care providers are necessary for effective implementation of this policy. PMID:28008284
Kamuhabwa, Appolinary Ar; Gordian, Richard; Mutagonda, Ritah F
-trimoxazole prophylaxis for prevention of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women. There is a need to continue sensitization of pregnant women and communities about the importance of early attendance to the ANCs for testing of HIV and provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Availability of co-trimoxazole in the health facilities, regular training, and sensitization of health care providers are necessary for effective implementation of this policy.
Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J
Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality.
Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona; Mirembe, Florence
Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) in pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda. We assessed Hb levels of 2436 pregnant women at 28+ weeks of gestation at six health facilities, who were approached to participate in a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial of antenatal distribution of misoprostol (for self-administration after home birth or when oxytocin is not available). Women were administered a questionnaire and their baseline blood haemoglobin was examined using portable HemoCueR Hb 301 system. Predictors of anaemia were estimated using linear and logistic regression analysis. The mean Hb was 11.5 (± 1.38) g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) was 32.5% (95% CI 30.6%, 34.3%). After adjusting for measured confounders, factors associated with increased risk of anaemia in pregnancy were malaria infection (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), Human Immuno-deficiency Virus infection (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.90) and lack of iron supplementation (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.03). Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria, maternal age and parity showed a weak association with anaemia in pregnancy The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in our setting highlights the need to put more effort in the fight against malaria and HIV, and also ensure that pregnant women access iron supplements early in pregnancy.
Ren, Y T; Jia, Q Z; Zhang, X D; Guo, B S; Zhang, F F; Cheng, X T; Wang, Y P
early pregnancy, mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy was 16.26, 14.22 and 14.80 pmol/L, respectively, and the median serum TSH was 1.74, 1.91 and 2.38 mIU/L, respectively. In high iodine area, the serum FT(4) level in early pregnancy was higher than that in mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy, and the serum TSH level was lower than that in mid-pregnancy and late pregnancy, the difference was statistically significant (FT(4): Z =-2.174, -2.238, P <0.05; TSH: Z =-2.985, -1.978, P <0.05). There were no significant differences in the positive rates of serum thyroid autoantibodies among the four groups of women and women in different periods of pregnancy ( P >0.05). The morbidity rates of subclinical hyperthyroidism in pregnant women and lactating women in high iodine area were obviously higher than those in proper iodine areas, the difference was statistically significant ( χ (2)=5.363, 5.007, P <0.05). Conclusions: Excessive iodine intake might increase the risk of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnant women and lactating women. It is suggested to strengthen the iodine nutrition and thyroid function monitoring in women, pregnant women and lactating women in areas with high environmental iodine.
Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Shrestha, Shikhar; Garrison, Laura; Leeman, Lawrence; Rayburn, William F; Stephen, Julia M
Prenatal care programs for women with opioid use disorder (OUD) often focus treatment/counseling plans around illicit substances, while concurrent use of alcohol might present an equal or greater risk to the fetus. This study evaluated self-reported prevalence of alcohol use in patients participating in a comprehensive prenatal care program for women with substance use disorder (SUD; n = 295), of which 95% are treated for OUD, and pregnant women being served through general obstetrical clinics at the University of New Mexico (n = 365). During the screening phase of a prospective study, patients were asked to report alcohol use in the periconceptional period, and between the last menstrual period and pregnancy recognition. The screening interview was conducted at 22.3 (median = 22; Q1 = 16; Q3 = 29) gestational weeks. Among patients screened at the SUD clinic, 28.8% and 24.1% reported at least one binge drinking episode in the periconceptional period and in early pregnancy, respectively. The prevalence of binge drinking was similar in the general obstetrics population (24.7% and 24.4%, respectively). Among those who reported drinking in early pregnancy, median number of binge drinking episodes was higher among patients screened at the SUD clinic (median = 3; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 10) compared to the general obstetrics group (median = 1; Q1 = 1; Q3 = 3; p < 0.001). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of prenatal alcohol use in early pregnancy in both groups, while patients with SUD/OUD consume more alcohol. These findings underscore the need for targeted screening and intervention for alcohol use in all pregnant women, especially those with SUD/OUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Todorova, K; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Genova, M
The pregnancies in women with Diabetes mellitus are in condition of increased glucooxidative stress, which could be toxic for the developing embryo. END-POINTS: To evaluate the levels of selenium and glutation peroxidase in pregnant women with Diabetes mellitus type 1 in the first trimester of pregnancy and to establish whether there is a correlation between the diabetic glycemic control and occurrence of spontaneous abortions. Prospective study of 75 women for 1 year period. he pregnant women were divided in 3 groups as follows: 1st group--30 pregnant women with Diabetes mellitus type 1 with normal outcome; 2nd group--16 pregnant women with Diabetes mellitus type 1 with spontaneous abortion; 3rd group--29 healthy pregnant controls. The activity of GI-Px in red blood cells was measured in hemolysat of EDTA plasma in Germany. The levels of glucosylated haemoglobin were also evaluated. 1. In all pregnant women the levels of selenium were lower without significant difference between them 1st group--0.12 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, 2ndd group 0.13 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, 3rd group 0.13 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (P > 0.05). 2. There is an increase in the activity of GI-Px, which is statistically significant in the healthy pregnant women 47.8 +/- 13.3 U/g Hb and diabetic pregnant women with normal outcome 48. 6 +/- 8.4 U/g Hb. There is no statistically significant difference in the activity of GI-Px in diabetic pregnant women with spontaneous abortions and the healthy controls (P > 0. 05). 3. Negative correlation between the levels of selenium and the activity of GI-Px was proved in healthy pregnant women (r = - 0.4; P < 0.05). No correlation was found between the level of the selenium and the activity of GI-Px into the two groups of diabetic pregnant women. 4. There is a correlation in the levels of diabetic pregnant women with spontaneous abortions (r = -0.38; P < 0.001). The increased activity of GI-Px in diabetic pregnant women with spontaneous abortions is a result of increased antioxidative
Eaton, Lisa A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria N
South Africa has the highest rate of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the world. While efforts have been made to curb the high rate of FAS, little is known about situational factors that may contribute to alcohol use during pregnancy. In the current paper, we focus on the role of food insecurity and its relationship to alcohol use among pregnant women. Women completed computer-assisted interviews. Generalized linear modeling was used in all analyses. Women attending alcohol-serving establishments in a township in Cape Town, South Africa were recruited for the study. Five hundred sixty women were sampled and 95 women reported being pregnant. High levels of alcohol use were reported among pregnant women: 65 % of women consumed alcohol at least every month and 29 % consumed alcohol as often as two to three times per week. Thirty-four percent of the women reported having six or more drinks per occasion on at least a weekly basis. The majority (87 %) of pregnant women reported experiencing some form of food insecurity (e.g., food unavailable, eating less) in the past month. Alcohol use was significantly associated with food insecurity, even when controlling for relevant demographic variables. Intervention with pregnant women who consume alcohol is urgently needed. Future research should focus on understanding the intersection of food insecurity and alcohol, and how the experience of food insecurity may contribute to greater rates of alcohol use and abuse among pregnant women.
Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Llopis-González, Agustín; González-Candela, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Garin, Olatz; Castro, Ady; Galan, Juan Carlos; Soldevila, Nuria; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martin, Vicente; Mayoral, Jose María; Pumarola, Tomas; Quintana, José Maria; Tamames, Sonia; Rubio-López, Nuria; Dominguez, Angela
The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15-44 yr old). We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning.
MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela
Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911
Fawole, O I; Abass, L W A; Fawole, A O
Women are at risk of violence at all stages of their life, including during pregnancy. Using a interviewer-administered questionnaire, 306 pregnant women were interviewed in two public secondary health facilities in Ibadan to compare prevalence and risk factors of VAW before and during pregnancy. Prevalence ofVAW a year before current pregnancy was 41.5% compared to 17.7% during pregnancy. Perpetrators before pregnancy were mostly relatives (22%), while during pregnancy, partners (64%). Major reasons for violence were "not obeying instructions" (33.3%) and "misbehaving" (26%). Education (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.83) and polygamous union (OR 9.56; 95% CI 3.71-24.63) and consumption of alcohol (OR 7.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.53) were statistically significant a year before pregnancy. Mothers occupation (OR 0.19; 95% CI 1.05-4.49); type of union (OR14.13; 95% CI 6.13-32.59), alcohol consumption by partner (OR 6.06; 95% CI 0.05-0.54); and not wanting pregnancy (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.20-9.30) were statistically significant in the index pregnancy. Hemorrhage (7.4% vs. 4.8%), abortion (1.9% vs. 1.2%), intrauterine death (3.7% vs. 1.2%) and premature labour (9.3% vs. 3.2%) were more often found in women who experienced VAW than those who did not, the latter was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Violence avoidance strategies included 'playing along' (51.3%) and 'praying' (21%). Pregnancy was protective against VAW. Empowerment of women through education and employment is crucial. Counselling on planning of families is also necessary. Screening for violence in pregnancy and close monitoring of the abused to ensure good obstetric outcome is recommended.
Parackal, S M; Parackal, M K; Harraway, J A
Women of child bearing age that regularly drink alcohol are at risk for drinking in early pregnancy. Evidence indicates a majority of women stop alcohol consumption on pregnancy recognition. However, there is a dearth of studies reporting on patterns and correlates of drinking in early pregnancy prior to stopping on pregnancy recognition, which the current study aims to address. In 2005, a New Zealand nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 1,256 women aged 16-40 years. Data were collected via an interviewer-administered questionnaire using a web-assisted telephone interviewing system. Of the 1,256 women who participated, 127 (10 %) were currently pregnant and 425 women (34 %) were previously pregnant. Half of currently pregnant women and 37 % of previously pregnant women reported that they ceased drinking on recognising pregnancy. Women categorised as "risky drinkers" and those aged 16-24 years had higher odds to drink and binge drink in early pregnancy, compared with non-risky drinkers and women of other age categories respectively. A majority of women stop alcohol consumption on pregnancy recognition but prior to this, drink at levels posing a risk for the developing foetus. Women most at risk for drinking and binge drinking in early pregnancy were younger in age and exhibited risky drinking behaviour prior to pregnancy. A targeted intervention to reduce the risk for an alcohol exposed pregnancy is warranted for sexually active younger women in New Zealand and elsewhere.
Hsia, Jason; Tu, Xiaoming; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Lihong; Bi, Zhenqiang; Liu, Hongyan; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
Introduction Smoking prevalence is high among men in China. One result is that a large number of nonsmoking Chinese women may be exposed daily to secondhand smoke (SHS). Exposure is particularly problematic for pregnant women because of potential adverse reproductive effects. To determine the extent of this exposure and to summarize existing intervention studies designed to reduce SHS exposure in China, a systematic review of the literature published from 1995 through 2012 was conducted. Methods We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies published from 1995 through 2012 using various search terms including SHS, pregnant women, and China. Only articles on prevalence of SHS exposure and interventions to reduce exposure to SHS were selected. Results We identified 132 studies during the initial searches. Eight of 13 eligible studies reported the prevalence of SHS exposure among pregnant women; estimates ranged from 38.9% to 75.1%. Few SHS prevention interventions among pregnant women in China have been studied; we found only 5 such studies. The interventions primarily focused on changing husbands’ smoking behaviors; some interventions focused on women’s avoidance behaviors. Conclusion Prevalence of exposure to SHS among pregnant women is high in China. Information is limited on effective interventions to protect pregnant women from exposure. The results of this review can provide the basis for the design and evaluation of interventions to help pregnant women avoid SHS exposure. PMID:25789496
Laraia, Barbara A.; Adler, Nancy; Vieten, Cassandra; Thomas, Melanie; Epel, Elissa
Introduction Recruiting participants for research studies can be challenging. Many studies fall short of their target or must prolong recruitment to reach it. We examined recruitment and retention strategies and report lessons learned in a behavioral intervention developmental trial to encourage healthy pregnancy weight gain and stress reduction in low-income overweight pregnant women. Methods In the San Francisco Bay area from February 2010 through March 2011, we used direct and indirect strategies to recruit English-speaking overweight and obese pregnant women who were aged 18 to 45, were in the early stages of pregnancy, and who had an annual household income less than 500% of the federal poverty guidelines. Eligible women who consented participated in focus groups or an 8-week behavioral intervention. We identified successful recruiting strategies and sites and calculated the percentage of women who were enrolled and retained. Results Of 127 women screened for focus group participation, 69 were eligible and enrolled. A total of 57 women participated in 9 focus groups and 3 women completed individual interviews for a completion rate of 87%. During recruitment for the intervention, we made contact with 204 women; 135 were screened, 33% were eligible, and 69.1% of eligible women enrolled. At 1 month postpartum, 82.6% of eligible women completed an assessment. Recruiting at hospital-based prenatal clinics was the highest-yielding strategy. Conclusion The narrow window of eligibility for enrolling early stage pregnant women in a group intervention presents obstacles. In-person recruitment was the most successful strategy; establishing close relationships with providers, clinic staff, social service providers, and study participants was essential to successful recruitment and retention. PMID:23469765
Eaton, Jeffrey W; Rehle, Thomas M; Jooste, Sean; Nkambule, Rejoice; Kim, Andrea A; Mahy, Mary; Hallett, Timothy B
National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. Serial population-based household surveys in 13 SSA countries. We calculated HIV prevalence trends among all women aged 15-49 years and currently pregnant women between surveys conducted from 2003 to 2008 (period 1) and 2009 to 2012 (period 2). Log-binomial regression was used to test for a difference in prevalence trend between the two groups. Prevalence among pregnant women was age-standardized to represent the age distribution of all women. Pooling data for all countries, HIV prevalence declined among pregnant women from 6.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.9%] to 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.6%) between periods 1 and 2, whereas it remained unchanged among all women at 8.4% (95% CI 8.0-8.9%) in period 1 and 8.3% (95% CI 7.9-8.8%) in period 2. Prevalence declined by 18% (95% CI -9-38%) more in pregnant women than nonpregnant women. Estimates were similar in Western, Eastern, and Southern regions of SSA; none were statistically significant (P>0.05). HIV prevalence decreased significantly among women aged 15-24 years while increasing significantly among women 35-49 years, who represented 29% of women but only 15% of pregnant women. Age-standardization of prevalence in pregnant women did not reconcile the discrepant trends because at older ages prevalence was lower among pregnant women than nonpregnant women. As HIV prevalence in SSA has shifted toward older, less-fertile women, HIV prevalence among pregnant women has declined more rapidly than prevalence in women overall. Interpretation of ANC prevalence data to inform national HIV estimates should account for both age-specific fertility patterns and HIV-related sub-fertility.
Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan
This study investigated the serum concentration of soluble CD30 (sCD30) in pregnant women with isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction, in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia with and without accompanying intrauterine growth restriction, and in normotensive healthy pregnant controls. Lower serum concentrations of sCD30 were observed in the group of normotensive pregnant women with a growth-restricted fetus in comparison with the group of healthy pregnant controls, and also in comparison with both preeclamptic groups of pregnant women with and without fetal growth restriction. The concentration of sCD30 in maternal serum from preeclamptic women did not differ in comparison with values from healthy controls or pregnancies complicated by isolated fetal intrauterine growth restriction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoshida, Atsumi; Watanabe, Kazushi; Iwasaki, Ai; Kimura, Chiharu; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between placental oxidative stress and maternal endothelial function in pregnant women with normotensive fetal growth restriction (FGR). We examined serum concentrations of oxygen free radicals (d-ROMs), maternal angiogenic factor (PlGF), and sFlt-1, placental oxidative DNA damage, and maternal endothelial function in 17 women with early-onset preeclampsia (PE), 18 with late-onset PE, 14 with normotensive FGR, and 21 controls. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was assessed as a marker of maternal endothelial function. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to measure the proportion of placental trophoblast cell nuclei staining positive for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage. Maternal serum d-ROM, sFlt-1 concentrations, and FMD did not significantly differ between the control and normotensive FGR groups. The proportion of nuclei staining positive for 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the normotensive FGR group relative to the control group. Our findings demonstrate that, despite the presence of placental oxidative DNA damage as observed in PE patients, pregnant women with normotensive FGR show no increase in the concentrations of sFlt-1 and d-ROMs, or a decrease in FMD.
Suzuki, Shunji; Shinmura, Hiroki; Kato, Masahiko
Background We examined the risk of hypertensive disorders in relation to maternal depressive and anxiety disorders which were diagnosed before or during early pregnancy in Japanese women. Methods We reviewed the obstetric records of all Japanese singleton deliveries at ≥ 22 weeks’ gestation managed at the Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between 2009 and 2014. Potential risk factors for hypertensive disorders with maternal depressive and anxiety disorders were selected as follows: maternal age, parity, medications, self-interruption of medications and economic problems. Results The incidence of hypertensive disorders did not increase in the pregnant women with depressive disorders compared with that in the normal control pregnant women (P = 0.96). However, the incidence of hypertensive disorders in the women with anxiety disorders was higher than that in the control women (odds ratio (OR): 2.61, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4 - 5.0, P < 0.01). In the women with anxiety disorders, 19% performed self-interruption of medications during pregnancy, and it was associated with the increased risk of hypertensive disorders (vs. no medication group, OR: 7.50, 95% CI: 1.5 - 38, P = 0.03; vs. medication group, OR: 16.0, 95% CI: 2.4 - 110, P < 0.01). Conclusions Maternal uncontrolled anxiety disorders due to self-interruption of medications seemed to be associated with the increased risk of hypertensive disorders in Japanese pregnant women. PMID:26346308
Chłapowska, Joanna; Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna
The study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pregnant women to fluoride on the basis of diet preferences and hygienic habits revealed with a questionnaire. The group included 59 women aged 22-39, living in a large urban agglomeration. Questions concerned sources of fluoride such as diet (tap water, tea, fish, poultry), use of fluoride-containing preparations for oral hygiene and substances containing fluoride for additional prophylaxis. The oral health status was clinically examined and caries intensity was assessed with the mean DMF-t index. According to the clinical examination, the mean DMF-t index was 13.64 and ranged from 1 to 23. Consumption of tap water averaged 0.73 L (max. 2.5 L), including 0.55 L (max. 2.5 L) of tea. Poultry was a regular part of the diet in only 14 of the respondents (24%) and only 3 (5%) sporadically (once a week) ate ocean fish. All the respondents used toothpaste containing fluoride, but only 15.3% applied professional prophylaxis with fluoride preparations. As far as the diet is concerned, individual differences in the intake of fluorides were significant. Interestingly, despite the declared everyday use of fluorine-containing toothpaste, the caries intensity index was rather high, suggesting the need for special dental care in this group of patients.
Ferszt, Ginette G; Palmer, Michelle; McGrane, Christine
Pregnant incarcerated women have been identified as a particularly high-risk group and among the most vulnerable women in the United States. The use of shackling or restraints poses health risks to pregnant women and their fetuses. Currently, only 22 states have legislation prohibiting or limiting the shackling of pregnant women. Here we provide an overview of the potential negative health outcomes that can result from shackling pregnant women, especially during labor and birth, and suggest strategies for nurses who wish to promote optimal health care for incarcerated women and to advocate for anti-shackling legislation in their states. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Chan, Ko Ling; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Leung, Wing Cheong; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Ho, Pak Chung
This study examines correlates of in-law conflict with intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women in a cohort of Chinese pregnant women who visited antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. This was a territory-wide, cross-sectional study of 3,245 pregnant women recruited from seven hospitals in Hong Kong. Participants were invited to complete…
... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned to...
... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women...
... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women...
... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...
... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women...
... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...
..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i) for...
..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i) for...
... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned to...
... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare Department of Health... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned to...
... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program § 403.82 In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...
..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i) for...
... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned to...
..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... individuals who are single parents, displaced homemakers, or single pregnant women only to— (a) Provide...
Maurici, Massimo; Dugo, Valentina; Zaratti, Laura; Paulon, Luca; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Baiocco, Elisa; Rizzo, Giuseppe; Franco, Elisabetta
The study was conducted to explore the knowledge of pregnant women about influenza, influenza vaccine during pregnancy and the attitudes regarding immunization. A questionnaire based on the model proposed by Yudin in 2009 was translated, adapted and administered to 309 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy between October 1 and December 1, 2013 at San Giovanni Calibita Fatebenefratelli hospital of Rome (Italy). Most of the interviewed women (68.9%) answered that influenza is highly contagious, 34.6% of them believed that pregnant women have the same risk of complications as non-pregnant women. Only 5.8% were aware that the vaccine is recommended for women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy and only 14.2% of women answered that the vaccine is safe during pregnancy. Only 3/309 women reported recommendation and offer of vaccination during current pregnancy, but none of them was vaccinated. Overall, knowledge regarding influenza, implications during pregnancy and influenza vaccine was poor among pregnant women. In Italy, the National Vaccine Prevention Plan 2012-2014 recommends influenza vaccine during pregnancy, but only 18/309 were aware of this recommendation. These results suggest that in order to increase influenza vaccine acceptance it is necessary to improve pregnant women knowledge about influenza and to offer education to healthcare providers.
Johansson, Kjell Arne; Pedersen, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Andersson, Anna-Karin
Recent global advances in available technology to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission necessitate a rethinking of contemporary and previous ethical debates on HIV testing as a means to preventing vertical transmission. In this paper, we will provide an ethical analysis of HIV-testing strategies of pregnant women. First, we argue that provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing seems to be the most effective HIV test strategy. The flip-side of an opt-out strategy is that it may end up as involuntary testing in a clinical setting. We analyse this ethical puzzle from a novel perspective, taking into account the moral importance of certain hypothetical preferences of the child, as well as the moral importance of certain actual preferences of the mother. Finally, we balance the conflicting concerns and try to arrive at an ethically sound solution to this dilemma. Our aim is to introduce a novel perspective from which to analyse testing strategies, and to explore the implications and possible benefits of our proposal. The conclusion from our analysis is that policies that recommend provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing of pregnant mothers, with a risk of becoming involuntary testing in a clinical setting, are acceptable. The rationale behind this is that the increased availability of very effective and inexpensive life-saving drugs makes the ethical problems raised by the possible intrusiveness of HIV testing less important than the child's hypothetical preferences to be born healthy. Health care providers, therefore, have a duty to offer both opt-out HIV testing and available PMTCT (preventing mother-to-child transmission) interventions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Forinash, Alicia B; Yancey, Abigail; Chamness, Danielle; Koerner, Jamie; Inteso, Christina; Miller, Collin; Gross, Gilad; Mathews, Katherine
Smoking during pregnancy has detrimental effects on mother and fetus. Text messaging has been utilized to improve patient care. To evaluate the impact of text messaging on smoking cessation rates among pregnant women in addition to standard of care (SOC) smoking cessation services. Our SOC includes pharmacist-driven education with or without nicotine patch or bupropion. This randomized, open-label, prospective trial was conducted at a maternal fetal care center from May 2014 to January 2016. Pregnant patients in the preparation stage of change were randomized to text messaging or SOC. The primary outcome was smoking cessation verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (eCO) 2 weeks from quit date. All received clinical pharmacist weekly calls for 3 weeks and biweekly visits until pharmacotherapy completion. The text messaging group also received predetermined motivational messages. Of 49 randomized patients, 13 withdrew, and 6 were lost to follow-up. The remaining included 14 texting and 16 SOC patients. eCO-verified cessation was achieved by 57.1% in the texting group versus 31.3% in the control ( P = 0.153). Overall, 64.3% of the texting group achieved an eCO below 8 ppm at ≥1 visit versus 37.5% in the control group ( P = 0.143). No difference was found in birth outcomes. The study was underpowered because of slow enrollment and high drop-out rates. Text messaging had minimal impact on improving smoking cessation rates in the obstetric population. However, further research is warranted because of the underpowered nature of this trial. Given the detrimental effects of smoking in pregnancy, more comprehensive cessation strategies are warranted.
Rick, Anne-Marie; Aguilar, Angie; Cortes, Rosita; Gordillo, Remei; Melgar, Mario; Samayoa-Reyes, Gabriela; Frank, Daniel N; Asturias, Edwin J
Infection causes 1 of every 5 neonatal deaths globally. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most significant pathogen, although little is known about its epidemiology and risk in low-income countries. A cross-sectional study in 2015 at a public hospital in Guatemala City enrolled women ≥35 weeks' gestation. Vaginal and rectal swabs were processed using Lim broth and GBS CHROMagar then agglutination testing. Risk factors were assessed using multivariate analysis. Vaginal microbiota were profiled by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid sequencing in a subset of 94 women. Of 896 pregnant women, 155 (17.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.9-19.9) were GBS colonized. Colonization was associated with history of previous infant with poor outcome (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% CI, 1.15-3.27) and increasing maternal age (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09). Multiparity was protective (OR, .39; 95% CI, .21-.72). Four (6%) GBS-exposed infants had early-onset neonatal sepsis. Vaginal microbiome composition was associated with previous antibiotic exposure ( P = .003) and previous low birth weight infant ( P = .03), but not GBS colonization ( P = .72). Several individual taxa differed in abundance between colonized and noncolonized women. Group B Streptococcus is prevalent in pregnant women from Guatemala with different risk factors than previously described. Although the vaginal microbiome was not altered significantly in GBS-colonized women, use of antibiotics had an effect on its composition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto
Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439
Lindqvist, Maria; Lindkvist, Marie; Eurenius, Eva; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid
Pregnant women are generally more motivated to change their lifestyle habits compared with non-pregnant women. However, the ability to change these habits depends on the motivation to change. This study describes pregnant women's self-reported motivation and ability to change lifestyle habits and their relation to body mass index (BMI), self-rated health, educational level and country of origin. This cross-sectional study combined data from the Maternal Health Care Register in Västerbotten (MHCR-VB) and the Salut Programme Register (Salut-R). Data were collected from 3,868 pregnant residents in Västerbotten County (northern Sweden) between 2011 and 2012. Chi-square test, two independent samples t-test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Most of the pregnant women (61.3%) were satisfied with their self-reported lifestyle habits irrespective of BMI, self-rated health, educational level, and country of origin. Many reported that they wanted to increase their physical activity, improve their dietary habits, and reduce their weight. In general, they estimated their ability to change their lifestyle habits as equal to their motivation of change. Women who reported a large or very large motivation to change their lifestyle habits were characterized by higher BMI and higher educational level. Most of the participating pregnant women were satisfied with their lifestyle habits, although they reported being further motivated to change some of them. Health care professionals encountering fertile and pregnant women may have a unique opportunity to support and promote lifestyle changes, taking into account women's motivation for change. Future research should focus on factors that motivate pregnant women to change their lifestyle, explore barriers for change of lifestyle and how support best may be provided to pregnant women. In addition, studies on lifestyle and motivation for lifestyle change from non-Nordic countries are called for. Copyright
Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Paul, Anindita
Introduction Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) includes Gestational hypertension, Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia and is one of the most common obstetric complication. Worldwide about 76,000 pregnant women die each year from pre-eclampsia and related hypertensive disorders. The aetiology of Pre-eclampsia is unknown but it is thought to be related to abnormal development of placenta. Several studies have shown the presence of reduced endothelial function in pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction is also a feature of atherosclerosis. Aim To assess fasting lipid profile and atherogenic indices in women diagnosed with pre-eclampsia as well as in women with normal pregnancy and to correlate the findings of pre-eclamptic women with that of normal pregnant women, in an attempt to utilize the data for the development of a new clinical approach for early recognition and prevention of risk of future cardiovascular diseases in women with PIH. Materials and Methods This case-control study was conducted on 50 pre-eclampsia patients who were in third trimester of pregnancy (Case group). A control group of 50 age and gestational age matched normal pregnant women was taken. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were followed. Fasting Lipid profile parameters were assessed and used to calculate the atherogenic indices namely Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), Cardiac risk ratio (CRR) and Atherogenic coefficient (AC). Statistical Analysis was done by using student’s t-test. Mann-Whitney U-test was used wherever applicable and correlations between the variables were estimated by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results There was an extremely significant (p<0.0001) increase in Atherogenic indices (AIP, CRR and AC) in case group as compared to the control group. A positive and significant correlation of systolic blood pressure with AIP (r=0.3583), CRR (r=0.3137), AC (r=0.3193) was found in cases. There was a positive and significant correlation between gestational age
Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa de; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz
Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 36,713 included women, 35,444 (96.6%) were tested for HIV during delivery admission. The overall HIV prevalence was of 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.48), and it was highest in: the 30 to 39 year-old age group (0.60% [0.40-0.88]), in the Southern region of Brazil (0.79% [0.59-1.04]), among women who had not completed primary (0.63% [0.30-1.31]) or secondary (0.67% [0.49-0.97]) school education, and among women who self-reported as Asian (0.94% [0.28-3.10]). The HIV testing coverage during prenatal care was of 86.6% for one test and of 38.2% for two tests. Overall, 98.5% of women attended at least 1 ANC visit, 90.4% attended at least 4 visits, 71% attended at least 6 visits, and 51.7% received ANC during the 1st trimester. HIV testing coverage and ANC uptake indicators increased with increasing age and education level of education, and were highest in the Southern region. Conclusions Brazil presents an HIV prevalence of less than 1% and almost universal coverage of ANC. However, gaps in HIV testing and ANC during the first trimester challenge the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. More efforts are needed to address regional and social disparities. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Elden, Helen; Lundgren, Ingela; Robertson, Eva
Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a universally disabling condition affecting three of 10 pregnant women. Qualitative studies on the subject are lacking. To describe pregnant women's experiences of PGP as related to daily life. In all, 27 women with PGP participating in a randomised controlled study were interviewed during 2010-2011. Qualitative content analysis was used. Five main categories emerged: PGP affects the ability to cope with everyday life; Coping with motherhood; Relationships between partners often reached the breaking point; Questioning one's identity as defined by profession and work, and Lessons learned from living with PGP. The categories illustrate how women's everyday lives were interrupted. Their inability to meet their own and others' expectations put a strain on their lives causing disappointment, sadness and frustration. It made them question and doubt their roles and identities as mothers, partners and professionals, and kept them from looking forward to future pregnancies, in the absence of effective treatment for PGP. Knowledge gained was that women with PGP should seek help immediately, listen to their bodies, and acknowledge their limitations. PGP severely affects pregnant women's everyday lives. There appears to be a lack of knowledge and awareness in general, as well as among caregivers and employers of PGP that needs to be highlighted and rectified. There is also a great need to learn how to support those suffering from it. Appropriate support during this important and rare phase in a woman's life is highly warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.
Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…
Limoncin, Erika; Ciocca, Giacomo; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Cellerino, Alessandro; Mennucci, Andrea; Di Sante, Stefania; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A
There is evidence that women's preferences for facial characteristics in men's faces change according to menstrual phase and sexual hormones. Literature indicates that the pregnancy is characterized by a specific sexual hormonal pattern with respect to all other physiological conditions concerning the sexual hormone status during the reproductive age, configuring this physiological condition as an excellent surrogate to study how the sexual hormones may affect many of the aspects concerning the sexual behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate pregnancy as a model of hormonal influence on women's facial preferences in short-term and long-term relationships and compare the choices of pregnant women with those of nonpregnant women. Measurement of women's preferences for synthetic men's faces, morphed from hyper-masculine to hypomasculine shape. Forty-six women in the third trimester of pregnancy, and 70 nonpregnant women took part in the study. All women were shown a composite male face. The sexual dimorphism of the images was enhanced or reduced in a continuous fashion using an open-source morphing program that produced a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. Pregnant women's choices differed significantly from those of nonpregnant women. In fact, in the context of both a hypothetical short- (M = -0.4 ± 0.11) and long-term relationship (M = -0.4 ± 0.07) pregnant women showed a clear preference for a less masculine man's face than the other group (short-term: M = 0.15 ± 0.13; long-term: M = -0.06 ± 0.15; P < 0.0001). Women in the third trimester of pregnancy clearly prefer more feminine men's faces, distancing themselves from the choices of women in other physiological conditions concerning the sexual hormonal status during the reproductive age. However, other psychosocial variables may explain this interesting finding. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Jallo, Nancy; Elswick, R K; Kinser, Patricia; Masho, Saba; Price, Sarah Kye; Svikis, Dace S
African American women may be especially vulnerable to antepartum depression, a major health concern during pregnancy. This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of depressive symptoms in a sample of African American women who were between 14-17 weeks pregnant, a timeframe that is typically thought to be a time of general well-being. Two-thirds reported a CES-D score ≥ 16 indicative of depressive symptomatology. Age, perceived stress (as measured by the Perceived Stress Scale [PSS]), and anxiety (as measured by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) predicted depressive symptoms; the interaction between PSS and STAI scores was also a significant predictor. Our study findings suggest that early identification of stress and anxiety, in addition to depressive symptoms, is vital for intervention with this group.
Llenas-García, Jara; Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Hobbins, Michael; Mussa, Manuel Aly; Ehmer, Jochen; Keiser, Olivia; Mbofana, Francisco; Wandeler, Gilles
In 2013, Mozambique adopted Option B+, universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and lactating women, as national strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We analysed retention in care of pregnant and lactating women starting Option B+ in rural northern Mozambique. We compared ART outcomes in pregnant ('B+ pregnant'), lactating ('B+ lactating') and non-pregnant non-lactating women of childbearing age starting ART according to clinical and/or immunological criteria ('own health') between July 2013 and June 2014. Lost to follow-up was defined as no contact >180 days after the last visit. Multivariable competing risk models were adjusted for type of facility (type 1 vs. peripheral type 2 health centre), age, WHO stage and time from HIV diagnosis to ART. Over 333 person-years of follow-up (243 'B+ pregnant', 65'B+ lactating' and 317 'own health' women), 3.7% of women died and 48.5% were lost to follow-up. 'B+ pregnant' and 'B+ lactating' women were more likely to be lost in the first year (57% vs. 56.9% vs. 31.6%; P < 0.001) and to have no follow-up after the first visit (42.4% vs. 29.2% vs. 16.4%; P < 0.001) than 'own health' women. In adjusted analyses, risk of being lost to follow-up was higher in 'B+ pregnant' (adjusted subhazard ratio [asHR]: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18-3.50; P < 0.001) and 'B+ lactating' (asHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.37-2.74; P < 0.001). Type 2 health centre was the only additional significant risk factor for loss to follow-up. Retention among PLW starting option B+ ART was poor and mainly driven by early losses. The success of Option B+ for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural settings with weak health systems will depend on specific improvements in counselling and retention measures, especially at the beginning of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yang, Ying; Mao, Jing; Ye, Zhiying; Zeng, Xiaoli; Zhao, Huimin; Liu, Yueting; Li, Jie
Sleep disturbances are common during pregnancy, yet few studies are currently available regarding the determinants of sleep quality among pregnant women in China. This study aimed to: (a) calculate the prevalence of sleep disorder during pregnancy, (b) examine the difference in sleep quality among three trimesters, and (c) identify determinants of sleep quality in pregnant women. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Five hundred pregnant women were recruited at the outpatient department of obstetrics and gynecology of two teaching hospitals in central China. Five selfreport questionnaires were used for gathering data, including information of sample characteristics, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), prenatal depression (the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), and perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)). A total of 454 pregnant women participated in the study between September 2016 and April 2017. Eighty-seven percent pregnant women experienced sleep disorder (PSQI score >5). Poorer global sleep quality, subjective sleep quality, lower sleep efficiency and sleep disturbances were most prevalent during third trimester. The significant contributors to sleep quality for pregnant women were prenatal depression, maternal age, and gestational age. Sleep disorder is very common in pregnant women from China. Depressive symptoms, increased maternal age, and gestational age are determinants of sleep quality. These determinants can assist healthcare professionals in preventative intervention.
Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.; Martina, S. J.; Syarifah, S.
The gestation period is the period that determines the quality of human resources in the future because the development of the child is determined from the time of the fetus in utero. The most common nutrition problems suffered by pregnant women in Indonesi