Science.gov

Sample records for early prevention efforts

  1. Bangladesh intensifies prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Dr. Michael H. Merson, Executive Director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Program on AIDS, at an AIDS seminar July 12, called for concerted and coordinated action to prevent a major AIDS epidemic in Bangladesh. Although the WHO office in Bangladesh claims that AIDS prevention efforts have intensified over the past year, initial measures were slow in coming. Bangladesh has only recently viewed AIDS prevention as a priority and is beginning to commit resources and political will; nongovernmental, community, professional, and private organizations are also rising to the occasion. Of particular importance is the interparty censuses on AIDS which has developed and the broad involvement in the national AIDS committee. A Woman's Committee is also studying how to convey AIDS prevention messages to women.

  2. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christoph Kueffer,; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This report documents these achievements and experiences and provides a range of perspectives on how to further develop prevention, early detection and containment of invasive species in Hawaii. The report is based on a symposium and workshop held at the 2008 Hawaii Conservation Conference in Honolulu on 31 July 2008.

  3. NCI Awards 18 Grants to Continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) Biomarkers Effort | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has awarded 18 grants to continue the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), a national infrastructure that supports the integrated development, validation, and clinical application of biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. The awards fund 7 Biomarker Developmental Laboratories, 8 Clinical Validation Centers, 2 Biomarker Reference Laboratories, and a Data

  4. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  5. The Moderating Effects of School Climate on Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research…

  6. Leverage front-line expertise to maximize trauma prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    2012-06-01

    The trauma prevention program at Geisinger Wyoming Valley (GWV) Medical Center in Wilkes-Barre, PA, has enlisted the assistance of an experienced paramedic and ED tech to spend part of his time targeting prevention education toward populations that have been experiencing high rates of traumatic injuries. While community outreach has long been a priority for the trauma prevention program, the new position is enabling GWV to boost the magnitude of its prevention efforts, and to reach out to referring facilities as well. Program administrators say a similar outreach effort aimed at EMS providers has strengthened relationships and helped to improve trauma care at the facility. The new trauma injury prevention outreach coordinator has focused his first efforts on fall prevention and curbing motor vehicle accidents among very young and very mature driving populations. Data from GWV's trauma registry suggest that its fall prevention efforts are having an effect. The incidence of falls among patients over the age 65 is down by about 10% at the facility since it began targeting education at the community's senior population. Administrators say a monthly lecture series aimed at the prehospital community has gone a long way toward nurturing ties with EMS providers. Called "EMS Night Out," the series covers a range of topics, but the most popular programs involve case reviews.

  7. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  8. Black Churches in Substance Use and Abuse Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Diane R.; Scott, Wilma; Lacey, Krim; Blount, Joan; Roman, Dorothy; Brown, Doreen

    2006-01-01

    In light of their historical role in African American communities, faith-based organizations are uniquely positioned to offer substance use prevention programs to urban African American youth. This article describes the efforts of a university-based program to provide training and technical assistance to faith-based organizations in the…

  9. Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana

    2017-03-20

    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.

  10. Engaging local businesses in HIV prevention efforts: the consumer perspective.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J

    2011-07-01

    Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.

  11. Update on worldwide efforts to prevent type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Skyler, Jay S

    2008-12-01

    This paper reviews worldwide efforts to interdict the type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease process, during the stage of evolution of the disease prior to the time of disease onset. The goal of intervention before disease onset is to arrest immune destruction and thus prevent or delay clinical disease. In this regard, there have been several large-scale multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials designed to prevent T1D. These have tested nicotinamide, parenteral insulin, oral insulin, nasal insulin, and the elimination of cow's milk from infant feeding.

  12. Effortful Control, Social Information Processing, and the Prevention of Aggression in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Alan Reid

    2012-01-01

    Early aggression is a problem in its own right and a risk factor for further developmental problems. Although both effortful control and social information processing (SIP) skills are negatively associated with aggression and are targeted by aggression prevention programs, little is known about the relation between them or about their joint…

  13. Federal Agency Efforts to Advance Media Literacy in Substance Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…

  14. Early Prevention of Childhood Disability in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeonsson, Rune J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a disability prevention framework for community-based rehabilitation services, by conceptualizing early intervention in terms of primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of prevention. The framework views prevention as the effort to reduce a disability's expression, duration, or extended impact. (Author/JDD)

  15. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  16. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Improving substance use prevention efforts with executive function training.

    PubMed

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Warren, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    Executive function (EF) includes emotional regulation, planning and decision-making, and behavioral impulse control. Improving youth substance use (SU) prevention by targeting EF poses challenges including determining whether specific sub-domains of EF are more associated with SU than others, whether EF is related to some types of SU more than others, and whether EF programs might be enhanced by inclusion of mindfulness training. Data were drawn from two studies from the Pathways to Health project: a randomized controlled trial of 4th-6th graders and a cross-sectional pilot study of the relationship of EF to specific types of SU in a sample of 7th graders. Survey measures included assessment of the EF subdomains of inhibitory control (IC), emotional control, working memory, organization/planning, lifetime SU (tobacco and alcohol use), and mindfulness. Analyses included multivariate and multiple group path analysis. Results suggested that the EF sub-domain of IC was the strongest and most consistent predictor of SU, particularly cigarette and e-cigarette use, though emotional control was predictive of alcohol use among late-elementary school students. In the 7th grade sample, IC was predictive of alcohol, cigarette, and e-cigarette use only among students in the low 75% of mindfulness. Findings from the present studies suggest that improvements in SU prevention efforts may result from increased curricular emphasis on IC and its application to multiple substance use prevention, and systematically integrating mindfulness with EF skills training. Future research should examine whether EF-SU relationships vary across patterns of SU and types of measures used to assess EF. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D... Effort and Early Intervening Services LEAs that seek to reduce their local maintenance of effort in accordance with § 300.205(d) and use some of their Part B funds for early intervening services under § 300...

  19. Promoting Good Mental Health from Primary to Early Secondary Grades--Preventive Interventions in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Ferone, Louise

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a four-year research effort aimed at developing preventive educational interventions for children with behavior problems in inner city schools. The implications of switching the emphasis from early secondary to primary preventive programs are discussed. (Author)

  20. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    PubMed

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. How active resisters and organizational constipators affect health care-acquired infection prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Saint, Sanjay; Kowalski, Christine P; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Forman, Jane; Damschroder, Laura; Krein, Sarah L

    2009-05-01

    As of October 2008, hospitals in the United States no longer receive Medicare reimbursement for certain types of health care-associated infection (HAI), thereby heightening the need for effective prevention efforts. The mere existence of evidence-based practices, however, does not always result in the use of such practices because of the complexities inherent in translating evidence into practice. A qualitative study was conducted to determine the barriers to implementing evidence-based practices to prevent HAI, with a specific focus on the role played by hospital personnel. In-depth phone and in-person interviews were conducted between October 2006 and September 2007 with 86 participants (31 physicians) including chief executive officers, chiefs of staff, hospital epidemiologists, infection control professionals, intensive care unit directors, nurse managers, and frontline physicians and nurses, in 14 hospitals. Active resistance to evidence-based practice change was pervasive. Successful efforts to overcome active resisters included benchmarking infection rates, identifying effective champions, and participating in collaborative efforts. Organizational constipators-mid- to high-level executives who act as insidious barriers to change-also increased the difficulty in implementing change. Recognizing the presence of constipators is often the first step in addressing the problem but can be followed with including the organizational constipator early in group discussions to improve communication and obtain buy-in, working around the individual, and terminating the constipator's employment. Two types of personnel-active resistors and organizational constipators-impeded HAI prevention activities, and several approaches were used to overcome those barriers. Hospital administrators and patient safety leaders can use the findings to more successfully structure activities that prevent HAI in their hospitals.

  2. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094

  3. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  4. Mechanisms of Biliary Plastic Stent Occlusion and Efforts at Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Lehman, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary stenting via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has greatly improved the quality of patient care over the last 30 years. Plastic stent occlusion limits the life span of such stents. Attempts to improve plastic stent patency duration have mostly failed. Metal stents (self-expandable metal stents [SEMSs]) have therefore replaced plastic stents, especially for malignant biliary strictures. SEMS are at least 10 times more expensive than plastic stents. In this focused review, we will discuss basic mechanisms of plastic stent occlusion, along with a systematic summary of previous efforts and related studies to improve stent patency and potential new techniques to overcome existing limitations. PMID:27000422

  5. Standardizing economic analysis in prevention will require substantial effort.

    PubMed

    Guyll, Max

    2014-12-01

    It is exceedingly difficult to compare results of economic analyses across studies due to variations in assumptions, methodology, and outcome measures, a fact which surely decreases the impact and usefulness of prevention-related economic research. Therefore, Crowley et al. (Prevention Science, 2013) are precisely correct in their call for increased standardization and have usefully highlighted the issues that must be addressed. However, having made the need clear, the questions become what form the solution should take, and how should it be implemented. The present discussion outlines the rudiments of a comprehensive framework for promoting standardized methodology in the estimation of economic outcomes, as encouraged by Crowley et al. In short, a single, standard, reference case approach should be clearly articulated, and all economic research should be encouraged to apply that standard approach, with results from compliant analyses being reported in a central archive. Properly done, the process would increase the ability of those without specialized training to contribute to the body of economic research pertaining to prevention, and the most difficult tasks of predicting and monetizing distal outcomes would be readily completed through predetermined models. These recommendations might be viewed as somewhat forcible, insomuch as they advocate for prescribing the details of a standard methodology and establishing a means of verifying compliance. However, it is unclear that the best practices proposed by Crowley et al. will be widely adopted in the absence of a strong and determined approach.

  6. Prioritizing the School Environment in School Violence Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Jessica Griffin; Gielen, Andrea Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between characteristics of the school environment and the likelihood of school violence. However, little is known about the relative importance of various characteristics of the school environment or their differential impact on multiple violence outcomes. Methods Primarily African-American students (n=27) from Baltimore City high schools participated in concept mapping sessions, which produced interpretable maps of the school environment's contribution to school violence. Participants generated statements about their school environment's influence on school violence and with the assistance of quantitative methods grouped these statements according to their similarity. Participants provided information about the importance of each of these statements for the initiation, cessation, and severity of the violence that occurs at school. Results More than half of the 132 statements generated by students were rated as school environment characteristics highly important for the initiation, cessation, and/or severity of school violence. Participants identified students' own actions, expectations for disruptive behavior, and the environment outside the school as characteristics most important for the initiation and increased severity of violence that occurs in school. Participants had a more difficult time identifying school environment characteristics important for the cessation of school violence. Conclusion This study provides support from students for the role of the school environment in school violence prevention, particularly in preventing the initiation and reducing the severity of school violence. Schools can utilize the information presented in this paper to begin discussions with students and staff about prioritizing school environment changes to reduce school violence. PMID:21592128

  7. Attachment and Effortful Control: Relationships With Maladjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylen, Joke; Vasey, Michael W.; Dujardin, Adinda; Vandevivere, Eva; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Bosmans, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Based on former research, it can be assumed that attachment relationships provide a context in which children develop both the effortful control (EC) capacity and the repertoire of responses to regulate distress. Both are important to understand children's (mal)adjustment. While the latter assumption has been supported in several studies, less is…

  8. Prioritizing the school environment in school violence prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom; Burke, Jessica G; Gielen, Andrea C

    2011-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between characteristics of the school environment and the likelihood of school violence. However, little is known about the relative importance of various characteristics of the school environment or their differential impact on multiple violence outcomes. Primarily African-American students (n = 27) from Baltimore City high schools participated in concept mapping sessions, which produced interpretable maps of the school environment's contribution to school violence. Participants generated statements about their school environment's influence on school violence and, with the assistance of quantitative methods, grouped these statements according to their similarity. Participants provided information about the importance of each of these statements for the initiation, cessation, and severity of the violence that occurs at school. More than half of the 132 statements generated by students were rated as school environment characteristics highly important for the initiation, cessation, and/or severity of school violence. Participants identified students' own actions, expectations for disruptive behavior, and the environment outside the school as the characteristics most important for the initiation and increased severity of violence that occurs in school. Participants had a more difficult time identifying school environment characteristics important for the cessation of school violence. This study provides support from students for the role of the school environment in school violence prevention, particularly in preventing the initiation and reducing the severity of school violence. Schools can utilize the information presented in this article to begin discussions with students and staff about prioritizing school environment changes to reduce school violence. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  9. Early Intervention To Prevent Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda

    2000-01-01

    This publication summarizes five works exploring the key role schools can play in dealing with emotionally disturbed students, in part because teachers are more reliable sources of information about troubled youths. The importance of interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) skills is analyzed in "Preventing Violence the Problem Solving…

  10. Understanding Motivators and Challenges to Involving Urban Parents as Collaborators in HIV Prevention Research Efforts.

    PubMed

    McKay, Mary M; Pinto, Rogério M; Bannon, William M; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the experiences of urban parents in their role as Collaborative Board members as part of the CHAMP (Collaborative HIV prevention and Adolescent Mental health Project) Family Program Study. The CHAMP Collaborative Board is comprised of urban parents, representatives from schools and community-based agencies and university-based researchers and is charged with overseeing the design, delivery and testing of a family-based HIV prevention program for pre and early adolescent youth. The current qualitative study, guided by the Theory of Unified Behavior Change, is meant to elucidate: (1) pathways to involvement by urban parents; (2) benefits and costs of participating in this collaborative HIV prevention research effort; and (3) the role of social relationships in influencing initial and ongoing participation by parent participants. Twenty-nine parent Collaborative Board members were interviewed for this study. In-depth interviews were audio recorded and ranged from 30 to 90 minutes in length. Transcripts were coded and analyzed using NUD*IST, computerized software used for examining narratives. Findings include community parent members identifying social support and learning opportunities as major reasons for involvement with the Collaborative Board. Prior involvement with other community-based projects and knowledge of at least one other person on the Board also influenced members to join the Board and remain involved over time. Further, recommendations for future collaborative partnerships are made. Findings have direct implication for participatory HIV prevention research activities.

  11. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  12. Early Childhood Violence Prevention. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Marilyn S.

    Noting that all Americans are stakeholders in the quest to prevent violence in the critical early years, this Digest focuses on preventing violence in children's lives and suggests ways caregivers, parents, and teachers can reduce the damaging effects of violence. Even before a child is born, violence can have a profound effect upon its life.…

  13. Early Intervention Methods for Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    A longitudinal study was made of a prevention-oriented early intervention program intended to help parents who had insufficient and inappropriate childrearing abilities. The program was designed for young parents with fewer than 5 years of childrearing experience; participants were referred from a child protection agency following investigation of…

  14. Exploring the Identity-Theft Prevention Efforts of Consumers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jacquelyne L.

    2011-01-01

    Identity theft is quite expensive and devastating for victims; unfortunately, it is also a rapidly growing crime. Much of the prior research on identity theft has focused on legislative efforts that may prevent the crime. However, limited research exists on what consumers perceive as identity prevention and the measures they take to prevent…

  15. Drug Abuse Prevention. Further Efforts Needed to Identify Programs that Work.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Depart- ment of Education, the Office of Substance Abuse Prevention within HHS, and AMTON were the primary beneficiaries of the increased federal effort... Abuse ( SAi Office of Substance Abuse and Prevention VISTA Volunteers in Service to America Page 8 GAO’ HRDN-W26 Drug Abuse Preven tion Programs...osAP held a national strategy conference attended by substance abuse prevention experts who provided guidance and recom- mendations to help osAP refine

  16. Early efforts of blacks in the fight against heart disease and stroke.

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, L. J.

    1999-01-01

    This article highlighted the early efforts of some individuals whose vision and dedication helped to set the stage for later progress in the fight against heart disease, who forged links to those who eagerly took up the cause of creating an appropriate place for minority participation in the specialty of cardiovascular diseases, and to contribute to efforts to establish programs for the reduction of morbidity and mortality and for prevention in African Americans. This is only one view of what was an exciting period of fitful progress and controversy. Dr Wilson reviewed the still deplorable state of affairs in regard to minorities and the medical profession in 1986, stating: A meaningful role for minorities will not exist until there is access to academic postgraduate training programs that will lead to faculty positions and research opportunities for minorities to serve as role models for future students. The Association of Academic Minority Physicians was established to foster greater progress in this regard across disciplines. Again, while much has been accomplished, including Donald Wilson's becoming the first African-American dean of a nonminority medical school, much remains to be done as we approach the end of the 20th century. PMID:10628126

  17. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Warner, Carrie Masia; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate…

  18. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts early: prevention must also.

    PubMed

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S

    2014-06-01

    Nearly one in four breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. This study follows the literature review methods and format. Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman's long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors is related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention.

  19. Breast cancer risk accumulation starts earlyPrevention must also

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A; Bohlke, Kari; Berkey, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 1 in 4 breast cancers is diagnosed before the age of 50, and many early-stage premalignant lesions are present but not yet diagnosed. Therefore, we review evidence to support the strategy that breast cancer prevention efforts must begin early in life. Methods Literature review Results Exposures during childhood and adolescence affect a woman’s long-term risk of breast cancer, but have received far less research attention than exposures that occur later in life. Breast tissue undergoes rapid cellular proliferation between menarche and first full-term pregnancy, and risk accumulates rapidly until the terminal differentiation that accompanies first pregnancy. Evidence on childhood diet and growth in height, and adolescent alcohol intake, among other adolescent factors are related to breast cancer risk and risk of premalignant proliferative benign lesions. Conclusion Breast cancer prevention efforts will have the greatest effect when initiated at an early age and continued over a lifetime. Gaps in knowledge are identified and deserve increase attention to inform prevention. PMID:24820413

  20. Prevention of food allergy - Early dietary interventions.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Canadian effort to prevent and control hypertension: can other countries adopt Canadian strategies?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C; Sheldon, Tobe

    2010-07-01

    To indicate the key elements of current Canadian programs to treat and control hypertension. In the early 1990s Canada had a hypertension treatment and control rate of 13%. A Canadian strategy to prevent and control hypertension was developed and a coalition of national organizations and volunteers formed to develop increasingly extensive programs. The Canadian effort was largely based on annually updated hypertension management recommendations, an integrated and extensive hypertension knowledge translation program and an increasingly comprehensive outcomes assessment program. After the start of the annual process in 1999, there were very large increases in diagnosis and hypertension treatment coupled with dropping rates of cardiovascular disease. More recent initiatives include an extensive education program for the public and people with hypertension, a program to reduce dietary salt and a funded leadership position. The treatment and control rate increased to 66% when last assessed (2007-2009). The study describes important aspects of the Canadian hypertension management programs to aid those wishing to develop similar programs. Many of the programs could be fully or partially implemented by other countries.

  2. Implications of the 2015 World Health Organization isoniazid preventive therapy recommendations on tuberculosis prevention efforts in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Oloo, Stella Anne

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization recently released guidelines recommending 36-month use of isoniazid preventive therapy in adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Namibia continues to grapple with one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Implementation of these guidelines requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence. This article explores the challenges Namibia currently faces in its fight against TB and the implications of the new guidelines on Namibian TB prevention efforts.

  3. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  4. The Role of Social-Emotional Learning in Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian H.; Low, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how social emotional learning contributes to bullying prevention efforts in schools. Bullying behavior is impacted by multiple levels of the social-ecology of schools. Social emotional learning (SEL) is a structured way to improve a wide range of students' social and emotional competencies and impact bullying at the…

  5. Parenting and the development of effortful control from early childhood to early adolescence: A transactional developmental model.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kerr, David C R; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C; Owen, Lee

    2016-08-01

    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13-14 years, involving five time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11-12 to 13-14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. The findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children's effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children's development of effortful control from middle childhood to early adolescence.

  6. Parenting and the Development of Effortful Control from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence: A Transactional Developmental Model

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Bertrand, Maria; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving 5 time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study-Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. Findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children’s effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children’s development of effortful control from midchildhood to early adolescence. PMID:27427809

  7. Assessing the success of invasive species prevention efforts at changing the behaviors of recreational boaters.

    PubMed

    Cole, Ellen; Keller, Reuben P; Garbach, Kelly

    2016-12-15

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS) pose major conservation challenges in freshwater ecosystems. In response, conservation organizations invest considerable resources in outreach to encourage AIS prevention behaviors among recreational boaters. Despite this, remarkably little is known about whether these efforts catalyze significant changes in boaters' perceptions, or whether they cause changes in behaviors that reduce AIS risk. We interviewed managers at the 14 Illinois organizations active in AIS outreach to determine regional priorities for, and investment in, AIS outreach. The results show a network of collaboration that reinforces a limited set of conservation messages. Next, we surveyed 515 recreational boaters to evaluate access to outreach, knowledge of AIS, and consistency of prevention behavior. Boater recognition of prevention slogans and knowledge of AIS and AIS prevention behavior was similar across Illinois regions despite large regional differences in investment in outreach. Most boaters (94%) report never intentionally moving organisms among waterbodies. Fewer reported that they Always perform recommended actions to reduce risk of AIS spread on their boat interior (68%), boat exterior (63%), or fishing tackle (47%). Recognition of prevention slogans and the number of AIS recognized were significantly, positively, associated with Always performing AIS prevention behavior on the vectors of the boat exterior, and fishing tackle, respectively. Our results suggest that increasing knowledge may be a necessary condition for higher adoption of AIS prevention behaviors, but that this alone may not be sufficient. Instead, efforts targeted at boaters who do not currently practice the recommended actions are likely to be necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Schools must include faculty and staff in sexual violence prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented campus climate surveys. At Emory, we decided to survey faculty and staff as well as students, motivated by our use of an ecological framing of campus sexual violence. Faculty and staff are long-term members of the community, and can provide stability and continuity that reinforces prevention efforts prioritized for students. We recommend that schools use a trauma-informed approach to guide the involvement of faculty and staff in prevention. We encourage colleges and universities to consider the experiences and needs of their faculty and staff, as professionals who serve as leaders on campus and as those who guide students through their academic experiences.

  9. Towards an Early Software Effort Estimation Based on Functional and Non-Functional Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassab, Mohamed; Daneva, Maya; Ormandjieva, Olga

    The increased awareness of the non-functional requirements as a key to software project and product success makes explicit the need to include them in any software project effort estimation activity. However, the existing approaches to defining size-based effort relationships still pay insufficient attention to this need. This paper presents a flexible, yet systematic approach to the early requirements-based effort estimation, based on Non-Functional Requirements ontology. It complementarily uses one standard functional size measurement model and a linear regression technique. We report on a case study which illustrates the application of our solution approach in context and also helps evaluate our experiences in using it.

  10. Prevention and Early Detection of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, Jack; Thorat, Mangesh A.; Andriole, Gerald; Brawley, Otis W.; Brown, Powel H.; Culig, Zoran; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Ford, Leslie G.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Ilic, Dragan; Key, Timothy J.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lilja, Hans; Marberger, Michael; Meyskens, Frank L.; Minasian, Lori M.; Parker, Chris; Parnes, Howard L.; Perner, Sven; Rittenhouse, Harry; Schalken, Jack; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schmitz-Dräger, Bernd J.; Schröder, Fritz H.; Stenzl, Arnulf; Tombal, Bertrand; Wilt, Timothy J.; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and the global burden of this disease is rising. Lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation, exercise and weight control offer opportunities to decrease the risk of developing prostate cancer. Early detection of prostate cancer by PSA screening remains controversial; yet, changes in PSA threshold, frequency of screening, and addition of other biomarkers have potential to minimise overdiagnosis associated with PSA screening. Several new biomarkers appear promising in individuals with elevated PSA levels or those diagnosed with prostate cancer, these are likely to guide in separating individuals who can be spared of aggressive treatment from those who need it. Several pharmacological agents like 5α-reductase inhibitors, aspirin etc. have a potential to prevent development of prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss the current evidence and research questions regarding prevention, early detection of prostate cancer and management of men either at high risk of prostate cancer or diagnosed with low-grade prostate cancer. PMID:25281467

  11. Interdisciplinary action supporting sexual assault prevention efforts in rural elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Hayward, K S; Pehrsson, D E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if knowledge is gained by rural, elementary school-aged children of sexual assault prevention concepts following implementation of an interdisciplinary prevention program. Rural children (N = 294 pretest and N = 301 posttest) were tested before and after delivery of a theater program developed for teaching sexual assault prevention concepts. The program was delivered to children enrolled in the 3rd and 4th grades of 3 rural elementary schools. Analysis of variance results indicate an increase in knowledge gained in all age groups. Significant difference in knowledge gained occurred in concept areas related to touch by authority figures, secrets, uncomfortable touch by individuals known to them, strangers, and boys' risk of abuse. Results support the need for ongoing interdisciplinary efforts to teach children sexual assault prevention concepts.

  12. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance of...

  13. Interrupted: The roles of distributed effort and incubation in preventing fixation and generating problem solutions.

    PubMed

    Sio, Ut Na; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Cagan, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Fixation on inappropriate concepts is a key barrier to problem solving. Previous research has shown that continuous work is likely to cause repeated retrieval of those concepts, resulting in increased fixation. Accordingly, distributing effort across problems through multiple, brief, and interlaced sessions (distributed effort) should prevent such fixation and in turn enhance problem solving. This study examined whether distributed effort can provide an advantage for problem solving, particularly for problems that can induce fixation (Experiment 1), and whether and how incubation can be combined with distributed effort to further enhance performance (Experiment 2). Remote Associates Test (RAT) problems were used as the problem-solving tasks. Half of them (i.e., misleading RAT) were more likely to mislead individuals to fixate on incorrect associates than the other half. Experiments revealed a superiority of distributed over massed effort on misleading RAT performance and a differing time course of incubation for the massed and distributed groups. We conclude that distributed effort facilitates problem solving, most likely via overcoming fixation. Cognitive mechanisms other than the commonly posited forgetting of inappropriate ideas may occur during incubation to facilitate problem solving. The experiments in this article offer support for the occurrence of spreading activation during incubation.

  14. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  15. Impact of Fathers’ Alcohol Problems on the Development of Effortful Control in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, Sarah E.; Grohman, Kerry; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth; Orrange-Torchia, Toni; Peterson, Ellen; Eiden, Rina D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the association between fathers’ alcohol problems and children’s effortful control during the transition from middle childhood to early adolescence (fourth to sixth grade). Additionally, we examined the role of two potential moderators of this association, fathers’ antisocial behavior and child gender. Method: The sample consisted of 197 families (102 nonalcoholic [NA]; 95 father alcoholic [FA], in which only the father met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence). The sample was recruited from New York State birth records when the children were 12 months old. This analysis focused on 12-month alcohol problem data and child effortful control data measured in the fourth and sixth grades. Results: Structural equation modeling revealed that FA status was associated with lower effortful control on the Stroop Color and Word and Tower of London tasks in the sixth grade, but antisocial behavior did not moderate this association. Multiple group analysis revealed that FA status was associated with higher Stroop interference scores in fourth and sixth grade and lower move scores on the Tower of London task for boys but not girls. Conclusions: The association between FA status and effortful control may be attenuated in middle childhood (fourth grade) but emerge again in early adolescence (sixth grade). The results indicate that sons of alcoholics may be particularly vulnerable to poor self-regulatory strategies and that early adolescence may be an important time for intervening with these families to facilitate higher self-regulation before the transition to high school. PMID:23948526

  16. Recruitment for a Diabetes Prevention Program translation effort in a worksite setting.

    PubMed

    Taradash, J; Kramer, M; Molenaar, D; Arena, V; Vanderwood, K; Kriska, Andrea M

    2015-03-01

    The success of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention has led to community-based translation efforts in a variety of settings. One community setting which holds promise for the delivery of prevention intervention is the worksite; however, information regarding recruitment in this setting is limited. The current effort describes the initial processes surrounding provision of an adapted DPP lifestyle intervention at a corporate worksite. Investigators and key management at the worksite collaborated to develop and implement a recruitment plan for the intervention focusing on 1) in-person onsite activities and 2) implementation of a variety of media recruitment tools and methods. Adult, non-diabetic overweight/obese employees and family members with pre-diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome were eligible for the study. Telephone pre-screening was completed for 176 individuals resulting in 171 eligible for onsite screening. Of that number, 160 completed onsite screening, 107 met eligibility criteria, and 89 enrolled in the study. Support from worksite leadership, an invested worksite planning team and a solid recruitment plan consisting of multiple strategies were identified as crucial elements of this effective workplace recruitment effort. A worksite team successfully developed and implemented a recruitment plan using existing mechanisms appropriate to that worksite in order to identify and enroll eligible individuals. The results of this effort indicate that employee recruitment in a worksite setting is feasible as the first step in offering onsite behavioral lifestyle intervention programs as part of a widespread dissemination plan to prevent diabetes and lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Informing HIV prevention efforts targeting Liberian youth: a study using the PLACE method in Liberia.

    PubMed

    McCarraher, Donna R; Chen, Mario; Wambugu, Sam; Sortijas, Steve; Succop, Stacey; Aiyengba, Bolatito; Okigbo, Chinelo C; Pack, Allison

    2013-10-09

    Preventing HIV infection among young people is a priority for the Liberian government. Data on the young people in Liberia are scarce but needed to guide HIV programming efforts. We used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method to gather information on risk behaviors that young people (ages 14 to 24) engage in or are exposed to that increase their vulnerability for HIV infection. Community informants identified 240 unique venues of which 150 were visited and verified by research staff. 89 of the 150 venues comprised our sampling frame and 571 females and 548 males were interviewed in 50 venues using a behavioral survey. Ninety-one percent of females and 86% of males reported being sexually active. 56% of females and 47% of males reported they initiated sexual activity before the age of 15. Among the sexually active females, 71% reported they had received money or a gift for sex and 56% of males reported they had given money or goods for sex. 20% of females and 6% males reported that their first sexual encounter was forced and 15% of females and 6% of males reported they had been forced to have sex in the past year. Multiple partnerships were common among both sexes with 81% females and 76% males reporting one or more sex partners in the past four weeks. Less than 1% reported having experiences with injecting drugs and only 1% of males reporting have sex with men. While knowledge of HIV/AIDS was high, prevention behaviors including HIV testing and condom use were low. Youth-focused HIV efforts in Liberia need to address transactional sex and multiple and concurrent partnerships. HIV prevention interventions should include efforts to meet the economic needs of youth.

  18. Informing HIV prevention efforts targeting Liberian youth: a study using the PLACE method in Liberia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preventing HIV infection among young people is a priority for the Liberian government. Data on the young people in Liberia are scarce but needed to guide HIV programming efforts. Methods We used the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method to gather information on risk behaviors that young people (ages 14 to 24) engage in or are exposed to that increase their vulnerability for HIV infection. Community informants identified 240 unique venues of which 150 were visited and verified by research staff. 89 of the 150 venues comprised our sampling frame and 571 females and 548 males were interviewed in 50 venues using a behavioral survey. Results Ninety-one percent of females and 86% of males reported being sexually active. 56% of females and 47% of males reported they initiated sexual activity before the age of 15. Among the sexually active females, 71% reported they had received money or a gift for sex and 56% of males reported they had given money or goods for sex. 20% of females and 6% males reported that their first sexual encounter was forced and 15% of females and 6% of males reported they had been forced to have sex in the past year. Multiple partnerships were common among both sexes with 81% females and 76% males reporting one or more sex partners in the past four weeks. Less than 1% reported having experiences with injecting drugs and only 1% of males reporting have sex with men. While knowledge of HIV/AIDS was high, prevention behaviors including HIV testing and condom use were low. Conclusion Youth-focused HIV efforts in Liberia need to address transactional sex and multiple and concurrent partnerships. HIV prevention interventions should include efforts to meet the economic needs of youth. PMID:24107301

  19. A model to estimate cost-savings in diabetic foot ulcer prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Barshes, Neal R; Saedi, Samira; Wrobel, James; Kougias, Panos; Kundakcioglu, O Erhun; Armstrong, David G

    2017-04-01

    Sustained efforts at preventing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and subsequent leg amputations are sporadic in most health care systems despite the high costs associated with such complications. We sought to estimate effectiveness targets at which cost-savings (i.e. improved health outcomes at decreased total costs) might occur. A Markov model with probabilistic sensitivity analyses was used to simulate the five-year survival, incidence of foot complications, and total health care costs in a hypothetical population of 100,000 people with diabetes. Clinical event and cost estimates were obtained from previously-published trials and studies. A population without previous DFU but with 17% neuropathy and 11% peripheral artery disease (PAD) prevalence was assumed. Primary prevention (PP) was defined as reducing initial DFU incidence. PP was more than 90% likely to provide cost-savings when annual prevention costs are less than $50/person and/or annual DFU incidence is reduced by at least 25%. Efforts directed at patients with diabetes who were at moderate or high risk for DFUs were very likely to provide cost-savings if DFU incidence was decreased by at least 10% and/or the cost was less than $150 per person per year. Low-cost DFU primary prevention efforts producing even small decreases in DFU incidence may provide the best opportunity for cost-savings, especially if focused on patients with neuropathy and/or PAD. Mobile phone-based reminders, self-identification of risk factors (ex. Ipswich touch test), and written brochures may be among such low-cost interventions that should be investigated for cost-savings potential. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents’ effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23–25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students’ past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  1. Sociodemographic Risk, Parenting, and Effortful Control: Relations to Salivary Alpha-amylase and Cortisol in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; VanSchyndel, Sarah K.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Huynh, Jacqueline; Sulik, Michael J.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Early sociodemographic risk, parenting, and temperament were examined as predictors of the activity of children’s (N = 148; 81 boys, 67 girls) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Demographic risk was assessed at 18 months (T1), intrusive-overcontrolling parenting and effortful control were assessed at 30 months (T2), and salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were collected at 72 (T3) months of age. Demographic risk at T1 predicted lower levels of children’s effortful control and higher levels of mothers’ intrusive-overcontrolling parenting at T2. Intrusive-overcontrolling parenting at T2 predicted higher levels of children’s cortisol and alpha-amylase at T3, but effortful control did not uniquely predict children’s cortisol or alpha-amylase. Findings support the open nature of stress responsive physiological systems to influence by features of the early caregiving environment and underscore the utility of including measures of these systems in prevention trials designed to influence child outcomes by modifying parenting behavior. PMID:22949301

  2. Are labour-intensive efforts to prevent pressure ulcers cost-effective?

    PubMed

    Mathiesen, Anne Sofie Mølbak; Nørgaard, Kamilla; Andersen, Marie Frederikke Bruun; Møller, Klaus Meyer; Ehlers, Lars Holger

    2013-10-01

    Pressure ulcers are a major problem in Danish healthcare with a prevalence of 13-43% among hospitalized patients. The associated costs to the Danish Health Care Sector are estimated to be €174.5 million annually. In 2010, The Danish Society for Patient Safety introduced the Pressure Ulcer Bundle (PUB) in order to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by a minimum of 50% in five hospitals. The PUB consists of evidence-based preventive initiatives implemented by ward staff using the Model for Improvement. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers in the Danish Health Care Sector, comparing the PUB with standard care. A decision analytic model was constructed to assess the costs and consequences of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers during an average hospital admission in Denmark. The model inputs were based on a systematic review of clinical efficacy data combined with local cost and effectiveness data from the Thy-Mors Hospital, Denmark. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was conducted to assess the uncertainty. Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by implementing labour-intensive effects according to the PUB was cost-saving and resulted in an improved effect compared to standard care. The incremental cost of the PUB was -€38.62. The incremental effects were a reduction of 9.3% prevented pressure ulcers and 0.47% prevented deaths. The PSAs confirmed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)'s dominance for both prevented pressure ulcers and saved lives with the PUB. This study shows that labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers on hospital wards can be cost-effective and lead to savings in total costs of hospital and social care. The data included in the study regarding costs and effects of the PUB in Denmark were based on preliminary findings from a pilot study at Thy-Mors Hospital and literature.

  3. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010-2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts.

    PubMed

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie; Langley, Ricky

    2017-08-06

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released.

  4. North Carolina Toxic Substance Incidents Program 2010–2015: Identifying Areas for Injury Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Eiffert, Samantha; Etienne, Suze; Hirsch, Annie

    2017-01-01

    The National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP) is a surveillance system designed to capture acute toxic substance releases, factors contributing to the release, and any associated injuries. North Carolina has participated since 2010, when NTSIP was established. This article will present a descriptive statistical summary from 2010 to 2015 focused on releases that resulted in injuries in order to identify areas for public health prevention efforts. Of the 1690 toxic releases in North Carolina, 155 incidents resulted in injuries and 500 people were injured. Carbon monoxide injured the greatest number of people. Of the incidents that resulted in injuries, 68 occurred at private vehicles or residences (44%), injuring 124 people (25%). Over half of events where at least one responder was injured occurred at private vehicles or residences. Events occurring at private residences did not have a significant relationship between evacuations and injuries, while for industry-related events, the odds of an evacuation being ordered were 8.18 times greater (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 5.19, 12.89) when there were injuries associated with an event. Intervention efforts should focus on preventing responder injuries while responding to private residence releases and educating the general public on how to prevent injuries by self-evacuating areas where hazardous chemicals have been released. PMID:29051448

  5. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  6. The Obesity Prevention Initiative: A Statewide Effort to Improve Child Health in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexandra K; Christens, Brian; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Remington, Patrick L; Lindberg, Sara; Schoeller, Dale

    2016-11-01

    Obesity rates have increased dramatically, especially among children and disadvantaged populations. Obesity is a complex issue, creating a compelling need for prevention efforts in communities to move from single isolated programs to comprehensive multisystem interventions. To address these issues, we have established a childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative) for Wisconsin. This Initiative seeks to test community change frameworks that can support multisystem interventions and provide data for local action as a means for influencing policies, systems, and environments that support individuals’ healthy eating and physical activity. The Initiative is comprised of three components: (1) infrastructure to support a statewide obesity prevention and health promotion network with state- and local-level public messaging and dissemination of evidence-based solutions (healthTIDE); (2) piloting a local, multisetting community-led intervention study in 2 Wisconsin counties; and (3) developing a geocoded statewide childhood obesity and fitness surveillance system. This Initiative is using a new model that involves both coalition action and community organizing to align resources to achieve health improvement at local and state levels. We expect that it will help lead to the implementation of cohesive and sustainable policy, system, and environment health promotion and obesity prevention strategies in communities statewide, and it has the potential to help Wisconsin become a national model for multisetting community interventions to address obesity. Addressing individual-level health through population-level changes ultimately will result in reductions in the prevalence of childhood obesity, current and future health care costs, and chronic disease mortality.

  7. The Obesity Prevention Initiative: A Statewide Effort to Improve Child Health in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexandra K; Christens, Brian; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Remington, Patrick L; Lindberg, Sara; Schoeller, Dale

    2016-11-01

    Obesity rates have increased dramatically, especially among children and disadvantaged populations. Obesity is a complex issue, creating a compelling need for prevention efforts in communities to move from single isolated programs to comprehensive multisystem interventions. To address these issues, we have established a childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative) for Wisconsin. This Initiative seeks to test community change frameworks that can support multisystem interventions and provide data for local action as a means for influencing policies, systems, and environments that support individuals' healthy eating and physical activity. The Initiative is comprised of three components: (1) infrastructure to support a statewide obesity prevention and health promotion network with state- and local-level public messaging and dissemination of evidence-based solutions (healthTIDE); (2) piloting a local, multisetting community-led intervention study in 2 Wisconsin counties; and (3) developing a geocoded statewide childhood obesity and fitness surveillance system. This Initiative is using a new model that involves both coalition action and community organizing to align resources to achieve health improvement at local and state levels. We expect that it will help lead to the implementation of cohesive and sustainable policy, system, and environment health promotion and obesity prevention strategies in communities statewide, and it has the potential to help Wisconsin become a national model for multisetting community interventions to address obesity. Addressing individual-level health through population-level changes ultimately will result in reductions in the prevalence of childhood obesity, current and future health care costs, and chronic disease mortality.

  8. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the U.S. to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55% of local agencies and 90% of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60% of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies. PMID:24068596

  9. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  10. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  11. Early Detection | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    [[{"fid":"171","view_mode":"default","fields":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_file_image_title_text[und][0][value]":"Early Detection Research Group Homepage Logo","field_folder[und]":"15"},"type":"media","field_deltas":{"1":{"format":"default","field_file_image_alt_text[und][0][value]":"Early

  12. Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: National Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This report provides a description of a national consultation that was undertaken in 2001-2002 to provide feedback on two companion national policy documents: "National Action Plan for Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health 2000" and "Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: A…

  13. Enhancing Peer Cultures of Academic Effort and Achievement in Early Adolescence: Promotive Effects of the Seals Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Lambert, Kerrylin; Gravelle, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Peer cultures of effort and achievement influence early adolescents' academic adjustment. A randomized controlled trials design was used to test the extent to which aspects of peer cultures of effort and achievement were enhanced following teachers' participation in the Supporting Early Adolescents' Learning and Social Success…

  14. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Results Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). Conclusion The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge. PMID:26740839

  15. Misconceptions about Ebola seriously affect the prevention efforts: KAP related to Ebola prevention and treatment in Kouroussa Prefecture, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata

    2015-01-01

    Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge.

  16. Are current health behavioral change models helpful in guiding prevention of weight gain efforts?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen W; Nicklas, Theresa; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Janice

    2003-10-01

    Effective procedures are needed to prevent the substantial increases in adiposity that have been occurring among children and adults. Behavioral change may occur as a result of changes in variables that mediate interventions. These mediating variables have typically come from the theories or models used to understand behavior. Seven categories of theories and models are reviewed to define the concepts and to identify the motivational mechanism(s), the resources that a person needs for change, the processes by which behavioral change is likely to occur, and the procedures necessary to promote change. Although each model has something to offer obesity prevention, the early promise can be achieved only with substantial additional research in which these models are applied to diet and physical activity in regard to obesity. The most promising avenues for such research seem to be using the latest variants of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Social Ecology. Synergy may be achieved by taking the most promising concepts from each model and integrating them for use with specific populations. Biology-based steps in an eating or physical activity event are identified, and research issues are suggested to integrate behavioral and biological approaches to understanding eating and physical activity behaviors. Social marketing procedures have much to offer in terms of organizing and strategizing behavioral change programs to incorporate these theoretical ideas. More research is needed to assess the true potential for these models to contribute to our understanding of obesity-related diet and physical activity practices, and in turn, to obesity prevention.

  17. A brief history of the global effort to develop a preventive HIV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Esparza, José

    2013-08-02

    Soon after HIV was discovered as the cause of AIDS in 1983-1984, there was an expectation that a preventive vaccine would be rapidly developed. In trying to achieve that goal, three successive scientific paradigms have been explored: induction of neutralizing antibodies, induction of cell mediated immunity, and exploration of combination approaches and novel concepts. Although major progress has been made in understanding the scientific basis for HIV vaccine development, efficacy trials have been critical in moving the field forward. In 2009, the field was reinvigorated with the modest results obtained from the RV144 trial conducted in Thailand. Here, we review those vaccine development efforts, with an emphasis on events that occurred during the earlier years. The goal is to provide younger generations of scientists with information and inspiration to continue the search for an HIV vaccine. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The development of prosociality from adolescence to early adulthood: the role of effortful control.

    PubMed

    Luengo Kanacri, Bernadette P; Pastorelli, Concetta; Eisenberg, Nancy; Zuffianò, Antonio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2013-06-01

    The present longitudinal study examined the development of self-reported prosociality (i.e., the tendency to enact prosocial behaviors) from adolescence to early adulthood and its prediction from teacher-reported effortful control (i.e., dispositional regulation) at age 13. Participants were 573 (276 girls) Italian adolescents aged approximately 13 (M = 12.98, SD = 0.80) at the first assessment and 21 (M = 21.23, SD = 0.67) at the last assessment. The study used three different cohorts recruited across ten years (from 1994 to 2004) from a larger longitudinal project with a multiple-cohort design. Latent growth curve modeling indicated that the overall level of prosociality declined until approximately age 17 with a subsequent slight rebound until age 21. Significant inter-individual variability in developmental trends of prosociality in males and females was observed. Youths' effortful control was related to a lesser decline of prosociality in adolescence. Being able to regulate one's own emotions and behaviors in early adolescence may not only affect the tendency to behave prosocially, but also counter the self-centered tendencies observed across this phase of development. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Report: Pollution Prevention: Effectiveness of EPA’s Efforts to Encourage Purchase of Recycled Goods Has Not Been Demonstrated

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2003-P-00013, Sept 22, 2003. In an effort to prevent pollution and conserve natural resources and virgin materials, Congress requires that the Federal Government’s purchasing power be used to steer materials away from disposal toward recycling.

  20. Why Do We Report Suicides and How Can We Facilitate Suicide Prevention Efforts?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and thoughts about such reporting. Aims To understand Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. Method We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers’ interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. Conclusion We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion. PMID:24322824

  1. American Indian Substance Abuse Prevention Efforts: A Review of Programs, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Margaret L; Baldwin, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the review was to assess substance abuse prevention (SAP) efforts in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities from 2003-2013. In the past, many SAP programs were unable to meet the unique cultural needs of AI/AN communities adequately. It has been suggested that a disconnect may exist between the theories that are used to guide development of prevention programs in AI/AN communities and culturally appropriate theoretical constructs of AI/AN worldviews. To explore this possible disconnect further, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to assess a total of 18 articles (N = 31 programs) on program location and method, participant characteristics, described program cultural elements, use of theory, program outcomes, program measures, and future recommendations. Results indicated that SAP programs in AI/AN communities vary widely in their use of theory, implementation strategies, view and definition of cultural constructs, overall evaluational rigor, and reporting methods. Future research is needed to integrate appropriate theory and cultural elements into SAP programs to tie them to measurable outcomes for AI/AN communities.

  2. Bankruptcy Prevention: New Effort to Reflect on Legal and Social Changes.

    PubMed

    Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia

    2018-04-01

    Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.

  3. Interacting effects of early dietary conditions and reproductive effort on the oxidative costs of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that oxidative damage accumulation can mediate the trade-off between reproduction and lifespan has recently been questioned. However, in captive conditions, studies reporting no evidence in support of this hypothesis have usually provided easy access to food which may have mitigated the cost of reproduction. Here, I test the hypothesis that greater investment in reproduction should lead to oxidative damage accumulation and telomere loss in domestic zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Moreover, since the change or fluctuation in diet composition between early and late postnatal period can impair the ability to produce antioxidant defences in zebra finches, I also tested if early nutritional conditions (constant vs fluctuating early diet) influenced the magnitude of any subsequent costs of reproduction (e.g., oxidative damage and/or telomere shortening). In comparison to pairs with reduced broods, the birds that had to feed enlarged broods showed a higher level of oxidative DNA damage (8-OHdG), but brood size had no effect on telomeres. Fluctuating early diet composition reduced the capacity to maintain the activity of endogenous antioxidants (GPx), particularly when reproductive costs were increased (enlarged brood). The decline in GPx in birds feeding enlarged broods was accompanied by a change in bill colouration. This suggests that birds with lower endogenous antioxidant defences might have strategically increased the mobilization of antioxidants previously stored in other tissues (i.e., bill and liver) and thus, preventing an excessive accumulation of damage during reproduction. PMID:28316895

  4. PM Program Prevents Early AM Repairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, David

    1974-01-01

    Discusses how to initiate a preventive maintenance (PM) program: (1) make inventory of equipment that needs a PM program; (2) gather data about each piece of equipment; and (3) set maintenance goals. (Author/PG)

  5. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Piasta, Shayne B; Logan, Jessica A R; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators' provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children ( n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children's math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children's learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age.

  6. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  7. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  8. Preventing Early Reading Failure: An Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Across the pendulum-like changes in beginning reading instruction over the past 30 years, three interrelated ideas emerge as the key to preventing reading failure in kindergarten and first grade: (1) an interesting, carefully-leveled book curriculum; (2) a leveled phonics curriculum; and (3) a well-trained teacher who knows how to integrate guided…

  9. Early Detection Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Early school competence: the roles of sex-segregated play and effortful control.

    PubMed

    Fabes, Richard A; Martin, Carol Lynn; Hanish, Laura D; Anders, Mary C; Madden-Derdich, Debra A

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the role that young children's same-sex peer interactions play in influencing early school competence. The authors also examined the degree to which effortful control (EC) moderated these relations. The same-sex play preferences of 98 young children (50 boys and 48 girls; mean age = 54.77 months) were observed during the fall semester. At the end of the fall semester, one set of teachers reported on children's EC, and at the end of the following springsemester, another set reported on children's school competence (social, academic, and perceptual-motor). Results revealed that EC moderated the relations of children's same-sex play to their school competence. These patterns differed for boys and girls such that same-sex play was positively related to school outcomes for boys high in EC and for girls low in EC.

  11. Bullying Prevention Strategies in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem that affects the young children's well being. Early childhood educators find it difficult to manage bullying in the classroom. Preschool is the first environment outside of the home setting where children encounter difficulties when they socially interact with their peers. Based on the principles of protecting and…

  12. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M.; Melde, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. Methods. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit’s investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Results. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. Conclusions. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:26270315

  13. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    PubMed

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  14. Early Violence Prevention: Tools for Teachers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, Ronald G.; And Others

    Based on the latest knowledge about early violence prevention and effective teaching strategies, this book describes practical ways for early childhood educators to handle children's aggression and shows how to help children become assertive, nonviolent problem solvers. The book's repertoire of proven approaches includes teaching children how to…

  15. Moving from Science to Service: Transposing and Sustaining the Early Risers Prevention Program in a Community Service System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Michael L.; August, Gerald J.; Horowitz, Jason L.; Lee, Susanne S.; Jensen, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes an effort to transpose and sustain the evidence-based Early Risers "Skills for Success" conduct problems prevention program in a real world community service system. The Early Risers program had previously been implemented by a local agency within the context of research-based operations. In the current initiative,…

  16. Empathy and Effortful Control Effects on Early Adolescents' Aggression: When Do Students' Perceptions of Their School Climate Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena; Loukas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the social emotional learning framework, this study examined whether early adolescents' social awareness (empathic concern, perspective taking) and self-management (effortful control) would uniquely contribute to early adolescents' subsequent forms of aggression, and whether perceptions of their school climate (friction, cohesion,…

  17. Preventing urinary tract infections in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Williams, Gabrielle J; Craig, Jonathan C; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in children, causes them considerable discomfort, as well as distress to parents and has a tendency to recur. Approximately 20% of those children who experience one infection will have a repeat episode. Since 1975, 11 trials of long-term antibiotics compared with placebo or no treatment in 1,550 children have been published. Results have been heterogeneous, but the largest trial demonstrated a small reduction (6% absolute risk reduction, risk ratio 0.65) in the risk of repeat symptomatic UTI over 12 months of treatment. This effect was consistent across sub groups of children based upon age, gender, vesicoureteric reflux status and number of prior infections. Trials involving re-implantation surgery (and antibiotics compared with antibiotics alone) for the sub-group of children with vesicoureteric reflux have not shown a reduction in repeat UTI, with the possible exception of a very small benefit for febrile UTI. Systematic reviews have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of repeat infection but 111 circumcisions would need to be performed to prevent one UTI in unpredisposed boys. Given the need for anaesthesia and the risk of surgical complication, net clinical benefit is probably restricted to those who are predisposed (such as those with recurrent infection). Many small trials in complementary therapies have been published and many suggest some benefit, however inclusion of children is limited. Only three trials involving 394 children for cranberry products, two trials with a total of 252 children for probiotics and one trial with 24 children for vitamin A are published. Estimates of efficacy vary widely and imprecision is evident. Multiple interventions to prevent UTI in children exist. Of those, long-term low dose antibiotics has the strongest evidence base, but the benefit is small. Circumcision in boys reduces the risk substantially, but should be restricted to those at risk. There is little evidence of benefit of

  18. Guilt and Effortful Control: Two Mechanisms that Prevent Disruptive Developmental Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Jimenez, Natasha B.; Hollatz, Amanda L.; Woodard, Jarilyn

    2009-01-01

    Children's guilt associated with transgressions and their capacity for effortful control are both powerful forces that inhibit disruptive conduct. We examined how guilt and effortful control, repeatedly observed from toddler to preschool age, jointly predict children's disruptive outcomes in two multi-method multi-trait longitudinal studies (N's 57 and 99). Disruptive outcomes were rated by mothers at 73 months (Study 1) and mothers, fathers, and teachers at 52 and 67 months (Study 2). In both studies, guilt moderated effects of effortful control: For highly guilt-prone children, variations in effortful control were unrelated to future disruptive outcomes, but for children who were less guilt prone, effortful control predicted such outcomes. Guilt may inhibit transgressions through an automatic response due to negative arousal triggered by memories of past wrongdoing, regardless of child capacity for deliberate inhibition. Effortful control that engages a deliberate restraint may offset risk for disruptive conduct conferred by low guilt. PMID:19634978

  19. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  20. Strategies to Build Readiness in Community Mobilization Efforts for Implementation in a Multi-Year Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enforcement Alert: EPA Enforcement Efforts Focus on Prevention of Chemical Accidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Alert is intended to inform the industry that companies must take responsibility to prevent accidental releases of dangerous chemicals like anhydrous ammonia through compliance with CAA’s Chemical Accident Prevention Program.

  2. Schools Must Include Faculty and Staff in Sexual Violence Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…

  3. A quarter-century of HIV prevention intervention efforts among children and adolescents across the globe

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    In 1988 a group of pediatricians, developmental, clinical, child and social psychologists, anthropologists and health educators began researching in Baltimore, Maryland, on an Human Immunodefiency Virus (HIV) prevention intervention, Focus on Youth (FOY). Over the next 25 years, the questions being addressed by FOY reflected those of the global HIV research experience. During the first phase, the questions being addressed by the broader research community included: Can HIV risk behaviors be purposefully impacted by behavioral interventions? If so, how do successful interventions differ from those that are not effective? Are theory-based interventions more likely to be effective than information-only-based interventions? Can theories be translated into culturally and developmentally appropriate interventions including those that are appropriate for children and adolescents? Should parents be involved – and if so, how? During its next phase, the FOY team increasingly became concerned with a disturbing reality. A large number of interventions had been developed and some had been shown to have evidence of impact. But virtually all of these interventions had been conducted in the USA or Europe. The questions facing researchers included: With the global burden of HIV disproportionately impacting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), especially those in southern Africa, the Caribbean and parts of Asia, what is known about the effectiveness of western-based interventions in these culturally, racially and economically disparate settings? With the exciting proliferation of interventions, federal agencies in the USA and international agencies including Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS realized the importance of assessing the research portfolio and developing metrics of effectiveness. The questions during this phase included: What is an “effective” intervention? How are effective interventions implemented in a new setting? This phase merged with the next

  4. Prevention of early childhood caries: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, J A

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes strategies for preventing early childhood caries (ECC), preferably for the greatest number of children at the lowest cost. Population-based, public health approaches are more likely to reach the target population groups at risk of developing ECC than individual, private practice-based approaches. Different prevention and early intervention strategies are discussed and the following recommendations are made: 1) Continue to promote community water fluoridation. 2) Evaluate the effectiveness of other public health oriented measures to prevent ECC. 3) Develop a national ECC and rampant caries registry. 4) Link oral health screening and easily implemented, low-cost interventions with immunization schedules and public health nursing activities. 5) Increase opportunities for community-based interventions conducted by dental hygienists. 6) Change insurance reimbursement schedules to provide incentives for dentists to prevent disease. 7) Include dentistry in new child health insurance legislation for children as well as parents of infants and preschool children.

  5. Efforts Toward an Early Warning Crop Monitor for Countries at Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budde, M. E.; Verdin, J. P.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Magadzire, T.; Galu, G.; Rodriguez, M.; Jayanthi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing crop growing conditions is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. One of the core components of the Group on Earth Observations - Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) targets monitoring Countries at Risk (component 3). The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of utilizing remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pest infestation, and climate change in some of the world's most at risk countries. FEWS NET scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of Maryland Department of Geography have undertaken efforts to address component 3, by promoting the development of a collaborative Early Warning Crop Monitor (EWCM) that would specifically address Countries at Risk. A number of organizations utilize combinations of satellite earth observations, field campaigns, network partner inputs, and crop modeling techniques to monitor crop conditions throughout the world. Agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) provide agricultural monitoring information and reporting across a broad number of areas at risk and in many cases, organizations routinely report on the same countries. The latter offers an opportunity for collaboration on crop growing conditions among agencies. The reduction of uncertainty and achievement of consensus will help strengthen confidence in decisions to commit resources for mitigation of acute food insecurity and support for resilience and development programs. In addition, the development of a collaborative global EWCM will provide each of the partner agencies with the ability to quickly gather crop condition information for areas where they may not typically work or have access to local networks. Using a framework

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  7. Early childhood caries: risk-based disease prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai; Chase, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC), common in preschoolers, can lead to pain and infection if left untreated. Yet, ECC is largely preventable, and if it is identified early and the responsible risk factors are addressed, its progression can be halted or slowed. This article reviews the rationale for a first dental visit by age 1 year, caries risk assessment, and risk-based prevention and management of ECC and discusses strategies for providers to implement these contemporary evidence-based concepts into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2007-05-11

    The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1) analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2) when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  9. Bullying Prevention: A Call for Collaborative Efforts between School Nurses and School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kub, Joan; Feldman, Marissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying among children and adolescents is recognized as a significant global public health problem, as it has serious health consequences. Schools are important sites in which to address violence prevention, specifically bullying prevention, and to promote positive youth development. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion outlines five action…

  10. Facing Fears: The Feasibility of Anxiety Universal Prevention Efforts with Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lynn D.

    2008-01-01

    A few comprehensive reviews of the effectiveness of prevention programs of mental disorders in school-age children ((Greenberg et al., 2003) and (Weisz et al., 2005)) conclude that while several well-designed studies demonstrate the potential of preventive intervention, greater attention and ongoing rigorous research is critical. The benefits and…

  11. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  12. Infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the local government clinic of Kuta Baro Aceh Besar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andika, Fauziah; Syahputra, Muhammad Yusrizal; Marniati

    2017-09-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the infectious diseases that has been known and is still the leading cause of death in the world. It is an old disease which is a global problem in the world and estimated that a third of the world's population has been infected by this bacterium. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the local goverment clinic of Kuta Baro Aceh Besar. This research is descriptive analytic survey using cross sectional design. It used univariate analysis to see the frequency distribution and the percentage of each variable. Meanwhile, the bivariate analysis used chi square test with CI (Confident Interval) of 95%. The samples in this study are 34 people. The research results obtained with good infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis is 41.2%, 5.9% for teenagers, 47.1% for knowledgeable people, 17.6% for people who do not work and 44.1% for those who have a positive behavior. The results of the bivariate obtained there is correlation between the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis infection with age (p = 0.087), Occupation (p = 0.364), knowledge (p = 0.006) and behavior (p = 0.020). To conclude, there is a correlation between knowledge and behaviors with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and there is no correlation between age and occupation with infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. It is expected that the respondents to hold consultations to health officials about a mechanism of prevention to avoid the disease.

  13. Recent sexually transmitted disease prevention efforts and their implications for AIDS health education.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M Z; DeJong, W

    1986-01-01

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) educational and social marketing efforts to reduce the transmission of Human T-lymphotropic type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) are currently our best hope for controlling the disease. Since 1983, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has funded a series of research studies to determine whether education efforts can successfully motivate the adoption of key behaviors relevant to the control of a variety of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Analysis of the first two studies which are now completed, and preliminary data from a third study, have documented dramatic changes in behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among clients in inner-city public health clinics. The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS health education efforts.

  14. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  15. Selective Prevention Approaches to Build Protective Factors in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2014-01-01

    Young children with disabilities may be at elevated risk for behavior problems as well as maltreatment. preventive approaches that can be infused into early intervention services are needed to support parents, build competencies among young children, and enhance protective factors that may temper risk. Two interventions--Stepping Stones Triple P,…

  16. Volume-controlled Ventilation Does Not Prevent Injurious Inflation during Spontaneous Effort.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Nakahashi, Susumu; Nakamura, Maria Aparecida Miyuki; Koyama, Yukiko; Roldan, Rollin; Torsani, Vinicius; De Santis, Roberta R; Gomes, Susimeire; Uchiyama, Akinori; Amato, Marcelo B P; Kavanagh, Brian P; Fujino, Yuji

    2017-09-01

    Spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation increases transpulmonary pressure and Vt, and worsens lung injury. Intuitively, controlling Vt and transpulmonary pressure might limit injury caused by added spontaneous effort. To test the hypothesis that, during spontaneous effort in injured lungs, limitation of Vt and transpulmonary pressure by volume-controlled ventilation results in less injurious patterns of inflation. Dynamic computed tomography was used to determine patterns of regional inflation in rabbits with injured lungs during volume-controlled or pressure-controlled ventilation. Transpulmonary pressure was estimated by using esophageal balloon manometry [Pl(es)] with and without spontaneous effort. Local dependent lung stress was estimated as the swing (inspiratory change) in transpulmonary pressure measured by intrapleural manometry in dependent lung and was compared with the swing in Pl(es). Electrical impedance tomography was performed to evaluate the inflation pattern in a larger animal (pig) and in a patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Spontaneous breathing in injured lungs increased Pl(es) during pressure-controlled (but not volume-controlled) ventilation, but the pattern of dependent lung inflation was the same in both modes. In volume-controlled ventilation, spontaneous effort caused greater inflation and tidal recruitment of dorsal regions (greater than twofold) compared with during muscle paralysis, despite the same Vt and Pl(es). This was caused by higher local dependent lung stress (measured by intrapleural manometry). In injured lungs, esophageal manometry underestimated local dependent pleural pressure changes during spontaneous effort. Limitation of Vt and Pl(es) by volume-controlled ventilation could not eliminate harm caused by spontaneous breathing unless the level of spontaneous effort was lowered and local dependent lung stress was reduced.

  17. Where Are the Young Men in HIV Prevention Efforts? Comments on HIV Prevention Programs and Research from Young Men Who Sex with Men in Los Angeles County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…

  18. Suicide Prevention: Efforts To Increase Research and Education in Palliative Care. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    Currently, the extent of palliative care instruction varies considerably across and within the three major phases of the physician education and training process. This analysis of current educational efforts in palliative care is based on information obtained from a survey conducted of all United States medical schools, surveys conducted on United…

  19. Prevention of overweight and obesity in early life.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, Julie

    2018-05-29

    Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Once established, obesity is difficult to reverse, likely to persist into adult life and is associated with increased risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Preventing obesity is therefore of high importance. However, its development is multi-factorial and prevention is a complex challenge. Modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as diet and physical activity are the most well-known determinants of obesity. More recently, early-life factors have emerged as key influencers of obesity in childhood. Understanding risk factors and how they interact is important to inform interventions that aim to prevent obesity in early childhood. Available evidence supports multi-component interventions as effective in obesity prevention. However, relatively few interventions are available in the UK and only one, TrimTots, has been evaluated in randomised controlled trials and shown to be effective at reducing obesity risk in preschool children (age 1-5 years). BMI was lower in children immediately after completing TrimTots compared with waiting list controls and this effect was sustained at long-term follow-up, 2 years after completion. Developing and evaluating complex interventions for obesity prevention is a challenge for clinicians and researchers. In addition, parents encounter barriers engaging with interventions. This review considers early-life risk factors for obesity, highlights evidence for preventative interventions and discusses barriers and facilitators to their success.

  20. Community-based efforts to prevent obesity: Australia-wide survey of projects.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program

  1. Temporal Dynamics of Sensorimotor Networks in Effort-Based Cost-Benefit Valuation: Early Emergence and Late Net Value Integration.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alison; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-07-06

    Although physical effort can impose significant costs on decision-making, when and how effort cost information is incorporated into choice remains contested, reflecting a larger debate over the role of sensorimotor networks in specifying behavior. Serial information processing models, in which motor circuits simply implement the output of cognitive systems, hypothesize that effort cost factors into decisions relatively late, via integration with stimulus values into net (combined) value signals in dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC). In contrast, ethology-inspired approaches suggest a more active role for the dorsal sensorimotor stream, with effort cost signals emerging rapidly after stimulus onset. Here we investigated the time course of effort cost integration using event-related potentials in hungry human subjects while they made decisions about expending physical effort for appetitive foods. Consistent with the ethological perspective, we found that effort cost was represented from as early as 100-250 ms after stimulus onset, localized to dorsal sensorimotor regions including middle cingulate, somatosensory, and motor/premotor cortices. However, examining the same data time-locked to motor output revealed net value signals combining stimulus value and effort cost approximately -400 ms before response, originating from sensorimotor areas including dmFC, precuneus, and posterior parietal cortex. Granger causal connectivity analysis of the motor effector signal in the time leading to response showed interactions between these sensorimotor regions and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a structure associated with adjusting behavior-response mappings. These results suggest that rapid activation of sensorimotor regions interacts with cognitive valuation systems, producing a net value signal reflecting both physical effort and reward contingencies. Although physical effort imposes a cost on choice, when and how effort cost influences neural correlates of decision

  2. School Connectedness Buffers the Effects of Negative Family Relations and Poor Effortful Control on Early Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Roalson, Lori A.; Herrera, Denise E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and interactive contributions of school connectedness, negative family relations, and effortful control to subsequent early adolescent conduct problems. Data were collected from 476 adolescents when they were initially in the 6th and 7th grades and again 1 year later. Results from hierarchical regression analyses…

  3. Quality Improvement Efforts among Early Childhood Education Programs Participating in Iowa's Quality Rating System. REL 2017-244

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Laura E.; Faria, Ann-Marie; Bouacha, Nora; Lee, Dong Hoon; Metzger, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the quality improvement efforts of early childhood education programs participating in Iowa's Quality Rating System (QRS). It identifies supports and barriers to quality improvement and examines how quality improvement supports and activities relate to changes in program quality ratings across time. The study team developed…

  4. An institutional analysis of HIV prevention efforts by the nation's outpatient drug abuse treatment units.

    PubMed

    D'Aunno, T; Vaughn, T E; McElroy, P

    1999-06-01

    Drawing from an institutional-theory perspective on innovations in organizations, this paper examines the use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention practices by the nation's outpatient substance abuse treatment units during a critical period from 1988 to 1995. An institutional perspective argues that organizations adopt new practices not only for technical reasons, but also because external actors actively promote or model the use of particular practices. We examine the extent to which treatment units use several practices to prevent HIV infection among their clients and among drug-users not in treatment. Results from random-effects regression analyses of national survey data show that treatment units significantly increased their use of HIV prevention practices from 1988 to 1995. Further, the results show that treatment units' use of prevention practices was related to clients' risk for HIV infection, unit resources available to support these practices, and organizational support for the practices. Implications are discussed for an institutional view of organizational innovation as well as for research on HIV prevention.

  5. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  6. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency During Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency, effortful control, and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age (Ns = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted effortful control a year later, over and above earlier levels. Effortful control at 30 months mediated the negative relation between 18-month intrusive parenting and ego-resiliency at 42 months when controlling for stability of the variables. Ego-resiliency did not predict effortful control. The findings suggest that intrusive parenting may have a negative effect on children’s personality resiliency through its effects on the abilities to regulate attention and behavior. PMID:23379965

  7. Feasibility of using a pediatric call center as part of a quality improvement effort to prevent hospital readmission.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Sallie Davis; Wilson, Lauren S; Harkins, Michelle; Albin, Dawn; Del Beccaro, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this intervention was to assess the feasibility of using call center nurses who are experts in telephone triage to conduct post discharge telephone calls, as part of a quality improvement effort to prevent hospital readmission. Families of patients with bronchiolitis were called between 24 and 48 hours after discharge. The calls conducted by the nurses were efficient (average time was 12 minutes), and their assessments helped to identify gaps in inpatient family education. Overall, the project demonstrated the efficacy in readmission prevention by using nurses who staff a call center to conduct post-hospitalization telephone calls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trajectories of risk for early sexual activity and early substance use in the Fast Track prevention program.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Children who exhibit early-starting conduct problems are more likely than their peers to initiate sexual activity and substance use at an early age, experience pregnancy, and contract a sexually-transmitted disease [STD], placing them at risk for HIV/AIDS. Hence, understanding the development of multi-problem profiles among youth with early-starting conduct problems may benefit the design of prevention programs. In this study, 1,199 kindergarten children (51% African American; 47% European American; 69% boys) over-sampled for high rates of aggressive-disruptive behavior problems were followed through age 18. Latent class analyses (LCA) were used to define developmental profiles associated with the timing of initiation of sexual activity, tobacco and alcohol/drug use and indicators of risky adolescent sex (e.g. pregnancy and STD). Half of the high-risk children were randomized to a multi-component preventive intervention (Fast Track). The intervention did not significantly reduce membership in the classes characterized by risky sex practices. However, additional analyses examined predictors of poor outcomes, which may inform future prevention efforts.

  9. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  10. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  11. Education Department Effort to Prevent Colleges from Releasing Crime Records Suffers Setback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Education has suffered legal defeats in Missouri and Arkansas in its campaign to prevent colleges from publicly releasing names of students arrested by campus security. Controversy involves interpretation of a 1974 privacy-protection law, the Buckley Amendment. College officials are unsure about how to deal with the issue. (MSE)

  12. Extension's Efforts to Help Kids Be SAFE: Evaluation of a Statewide Bullying Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Adrienne; Norton, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation reported in this article examined the effectiveness of a statewide bullying prevention program, Be SAFE. Be SAFE involves use of a positive youth development approach to influence peer groups rather than individual bullies or victims. Through the use of pre- and postprogram questionnaires, we found increases in youths' knowledge of…

  13. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  14. Effort and Potential Efficiencies for Aquatic Non-native Species Early Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript is based on the early aquatic non-native species detection research in the Duluth-Superior harbor. The problem of early detection is essentially that of a "needle in a haystack" - to detect a newly arrived and presumably rare non-native species with a high probabi...

  15. Efforts by the American Academy of Pediatrics to prevent and reduce violence and its effects on children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Comerci, G D

    1996-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of 53,000 pediatricians committed to the attainment of optimal physical, mental, and social health for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Recognizing the major impact that violence has on children and youth, the AAP has been working to prevent and reduce violence and its effects on the pediatric population. This article will describe AAP efforts intended to help pediatricians, other professionals, and the public to combat the problem.

  16. Home visitation programs: An untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention

    PubMed Central

    Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; de la Haye, Kayla; Galama, Titus; Goran, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: 1) short duration and low intensity; 2) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; 3) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and 4) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. Objective This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. Conclusion The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (1) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health due to socio-economic and structural conditions; (2) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (3) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. PMID:27911984

  17. Home visitation programs: an untapped opportunity for the delivery of early childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Salvy, S-J; de la Haye, K; Galama, T; Goran, M I

    2017-02-01

    Extant obesity efforts have had limited impact among low-income underserved children, in part because of limitations inherent to existing programs: (i) short duration and low intensity; (ii) late timing of implementation, when children are already overweight or obese; (iii) intervention delivery limiting their accessibility and sustainability; and (iv) failure to address barriers such as a lack of culturally competent services, poverty and housing instability, which interfere with healthy lifestyle changes. This concept paper proposes an innovative model of obesity prevention implemented in infancy and sustained throughout early childhood to address the limitations of current obesity prevention efforts. Specifically, we propose to integrate sustained, weekly, in-home obesity prevention as part of the services already delivered by ongoing Home Visitation Programs, which currently do not target obesity prevention. The home visiting structure represents an ideal model for impactful obesity prevention as home visitation programs: (i) already provide comprehensive services to diverse low-income infants and families who are most at risk for obesity and poor health because of socio-economic and structural conditions; (ii) services are initiated in infancy and sustained throughout critical developmental periods for the formation of healthy/unhealthy behaviors; and (iii) have been in place for more than 40 years, with a widespread presence across the United States and nationwide, which is critical for the scalability and sustainability of obesity prevention. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Alzheimer's disease prevention: from risk factors to early intervention.

    PubMed

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Minguillón, Carolina; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis

    2017-09-12

    Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant.In this manuscript, we review current strategies for AD prevention, from primary prevention strategies based on identifying risk factors and risk reduction, to secondary prevention initiatives based on the early detection of the pathophysiological hallmarks and intervention at the preclinical stage of the disease. Firstly, we summarize the evidence on several AD risk factors, which are the rationale for the establishment of primary prevention programmes as well as revising current primary prevention strategies. Secondly, we review the development of public-private partnerships for disease prevention that aim to characterize the AD continuum as well as serving as platforms for secondary prevention trials. Finally, we summarize currently ongoing clinical trials recruiting participants with preclinical AD or a higher risk for the onset of AD-related cognitive impairment.The growing body of research on the risk factors for AD and its preclinical stage is favouring the development of AD prevention programmes that, by delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia for only a few years, would have a huge impact on public health.

  19. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, effortful control, and parenting as predictors of children's sympathy across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children's effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children's sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children's subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children's effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children's sympathy.

  20. Learning from communities: overcoming difficulties in dissemination of prevention and promotion efforts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robin L; Shinn, Marybeth

    2005-06-01

    The model of prevention science advocated by the Institute of Medicine (P. J. Mrazek & R. J. Haggerty, 1994) has not lead to widespread adoption of prevention and promotion programs for four reasons. The model of dissemination of programs to communities fails to consider community and organizational capacity to implement programs, ignores the need for congruence in values between programs and host sites, displays a pro-innovation bias that undervalues indigenous practices, and assumes a simplistic model of how community organizations adopt innovations. To address these faults, researchers should locate, study, and help disseminate successful indigenous programs that fit community capacity and values. In addition, they should build on theoretical models of how locally developed programs work to make existing programs and polices more effective.

  1. Where are the young men in HIV prevention efforts? Comments on HIV prevention programs and research from young men who sex with men in Los Angeles county.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Cederbaum, Julie A; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven

    2012-12-01

    Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M(age) = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention programs. Summative content analyses were used to evaluate transcribed field notes from these interviews. Results showed that 28.0 % of all participants had previously attended an HIV prevention program, and that 21.3 % of those who were also asked if they had ever participated in any research pertaining to HIV prevention had done so. A significantly higher percentage of those who had participated in HIV prevention programs had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months compared to those who had not (p < .05). The most frequently mentioned barriers to participation in such a program were being too busy to attend (12.0 %), not perceiving themselves to be at risk for HIV infection (14.0 %), and believing that they already knew everything they needed to know about HIV transmission (23.0 %). YMSM suggested that future interventions should use technology (e.g., the Internet, mobile devices), engage their social networks, and highlight HIV prevention as a means for community connection. Collectively, these results provide some explanations for why YMSM account for a minority of HIV prevention program participants and offer possible directions for future HIV prevention efforts that target YMSM.

  2. Parenting and Child "DRD4" Genotype Interact to Predict Children's Early Emerging Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Heather J.; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Olino, Thomas M.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Durbin, C. Emily; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Singh, Shiva M.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Effortful control (EC), or the trait-like capacity to regulate dominant responses, has important implications for children's development. Although genetic factors and parenting likely influence EC, few studies have examined whether they interact to predict its development. This study examined whether the "DRD4" exon III variable number tandem…

  3. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  4. Substance Use Progression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: Effortful Control in the Context of Friendship Influence and Early-Onset Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 998 ethnically diverse adolescents, a multiagent, multimethod approach to the measurement of adolescent effortful control, adolescent substance use, and friendship influence was used to predict escalations to early-adult tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use by ages 22-23. Structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent…

  5. Cost-effectiveness model for prevention of early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gomez, F J; Shepard, D S

    1999-07-01

    This study presents and illustrates a model that determines the cost-effectiveness of three successively more complete levels of preventive intervention (minimal, intermediate, and comprehensive) in treating dental caries in disadvantaged children up to 6 years of age. Using existing data on the costs of early childhood caries (ECC), the authors estimated the probable cost-effectiveness of each of the three preventive intervention levels by comparing treatment costs to prevention costs as applied to a typical low-income California child for five years. They found that, in general, prevention becomes cost-saving if at least 59 percent of carious lesions receive restorative treatment. Assuming an average restoration cost of $112 per surface, the model predicts cost savings of $66 to $73 in preventing a one-surface, carious lesion. Thus, all three levels of preventive intervention should be relatively cost-effective. Comprehensive intervention would provide the greatest oral health benefit; however, because more children would receive reparative care, overall program costs would rise even as per-child treatment costs decline.

  6. Climate Change and Implications for Prevention. California's Efforts to Provide Leadership.

    PubMed

    Balmes, John R

    2018-04-01

    The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and the temperature of the earth's surface have been rising in parallel for decades, with the former recently reaching 400 parts per million, consistent with a 1.5°C increase in global warming. Climate change models predict that a "business as usual" approach, that is, no effort to control CO 2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels, will result in a more than 2°C increase in annual average surface temperature by approximately 2034. With atmospheric warming comes increased air pollution. The concept of a "climate gap" in air quality control captures the decreased effectiveness of regulatory policies to reduce pollution with a hotter climate. Sources of greenhouse gases and climate-forcing aerosols ("black carbon") are the same sources of air pollutants that harm health. California has adopted robust climate change mitigation policies that are also designed to achieve public health cobenefits by improving air quality. These policies include advanced clean car standards, renewable energy, a sustainable communities strategy to limit suburban sprawl, a low carbon fuel standard, and energy efficiency. A market-based mechanism to put a price on CO 2 emissions is the cap-and-trade program that allows capped facilities to trade state-issued greenhouse gas emissions allowances. The "cap" limits total greenhouse gas emissions from all covered sources, and declines over time to progressively reduce emissions. An alternative approach is a carbon tax. California's leadership on air quality and climate change mitigation is increasingly important, given the efforts to slow or even reverse implementation of such policies at the U.S. national level.

  7. Retaining clients in an outcome monitoring evaluation study: HIV prevention efforts in community settings.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Kalayil, Elizabeth J; Patel-Larson, Alpa; Chen, Brenda; Vaughan, Marla

    2012-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) conducted outcome monitoring studies on evidence-based interventions (EBIs) provided by CDC-funded community-based organizations (CBOs). Critical to the success of outcome monitoring was the ability of CBOs to recruit and retain clients in evaluation studies. Two EBIs, Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) and Healthy Relationships, were evaluated using repeated measure studies, which require robust follow-up retention rates to increase the validity and usefulness of the findings. The retention rates were high for both VOICES/VOCES CBOs (95.8% at 30 days and 91.1% at 120 days), and Healthy Relationships CBOs (89.5% at 90 days and 83.5% at 180 days). This paper presents an overview of the retention of clients, challenges to follow-up, and strategies developed by CBOs to achieve high retention rates. These strategies and rates are discussed within the context of the CBOs' target populations and communities. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Coping with youth suicide and overdose: one community's efforts to investigate, intervene, and prevent suicide contagion.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Karen; Collins, Jessica; Gross-Young, Leni; Almeida, Stephanie; Burke, Noreen

    2008-01-01

    From 2000-2005, Somerville, MA, experienced a number of youth overdoses and suicides. The community response followed CDC recommendations for contagion containment. A community coalition, Somerville Cares About Prevention, became a pivotal convener of community partners and a local research organization, the Institute for Community Health, provided needed expertise in surveillance and analysis. Mayoral leadership provided the impetus for action while community activists connected those at risk with mental health resources. Using a variety of data sources (including death certificates, youth risk surveys, 911 call data, and hospital discharges) overdose and suicide activity were monitored. Rates of suicide and overdose for 10-24-year-olds were higher than in previous years. Using case investigation methods, the majority of suicide victims were found to be linked through common peer groups and substance abuse. Subsequent community action steps included: a community-based trauma response team, improved media relationships, focus groups for suicide survivors, and prevention trainings to community stakeholders. Youth suicide and overdose activity subsided in May of 2005. The community partnerships were critical elements for developing a response to this public health crisis. This collaborative approach to suicide contagion used existing resources and provides important lessons learned for other communities facing similar circumstances.

  9. Efforts of Uzbekistan to prevent nuclear terrorism and smuggling of radioactive and nuclear materials.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V D; Karimov, Yu N; Podkovirin, A I; Shipilov, N N; Yuldashev, B S; Fazylov, M I

    2005-01-01

    Uzbekistan is located on the cross-roads from the north--Russia, Western Europe--to the south--Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq and others. The appearance of terrorist organizations urged some Asian countries to make the nuclear weapons, the making the task of stopping the transportation of nuclear materials and technologies from the north (from countries possessing nuclear weapon) to the south (to countries desiring to have weapons and its components) a reality. To resolve this problem, on the main transportation routes, "Yantar" stationary radiation monitors of Russian production were installed, and development and production of monitors of our own make was started. This paper covers these works as well as those on preventing possible terrorist attacks on nuclear objects of Uzbekistan.

  10. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  11. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdian, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing…

  12. Context, Challenges, and Tensions in Global Efforts to Engage Men in the Prevention of Violence against Women: An Ecological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Fraguela-Rios, Cathlyn; Kimball, Ericka; Neugut, Tova B.; Tolman, Richard M.; Edleson, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    As gender-based violence prevention programs around the world increasingly include efforts to engage men and boys as antiviolence allies, both the profound benefits and the inherent complexities of these efforts are emerging. Acknowledging and exploring tensions associated with engaging men is an important element of thoughtfully fostering men’s antiviolence ally movements so as to both respectfully invite men into anti-violence work and create effective, gender-equitable prevention programming. To this end, this study presents descriptive findings regarding challenges associated with men’s engagement programming from in-depth interviews with twenty-nine representatives of organizations that engage men and boys in preventing violence against women and girls in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America. Programs reported negotiating complex issues related to gender, the intersectional nature of men’s identities, and establishing legitimacy and sustainability within communities while maintaining ideological focus and consistency. Additionally, programs reported that these tensions manifest across ecological layers of analysis, and impact both the participation of individual men and the programs’ experiences in community and national contexts. PMID:25568612

  13. Prevention of skin cancer in primary healthcare: an evaluation of three different prevention effort levels and the applicability of a phototest.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Anderson, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The high skin cancer incidence in western society, and its known association with sun exposure habits, makes the area an important target for prevention. We investigated, in a primary healthcare setting, differentiated levels of prevention efforts directed at the propensity of the patient to change his/her sun habits, sun protection behaviour, and attitudes, after information intervention. Additionally, the impact of the performance of a phototest to determine individual sun sensitivity was evaluated. 308 patients visiting a primary healthcare centre in southern Sweden completed a questionnaire concerning sun habits, sun protection behaviour, and attitudes, and were randomized into one of three groups, representing increasing levels of prevention effort in terms of resources. Feedback on their questionnaire and general preventive sun protection advice was given, in the first group by means of a letter, and in the second and third groups by a doctor's consultation. Group 3 also underwent a phototest, with a self-reading assessment and a written follow-up of the phototest result. Change of sun habits, behaviour, and attitudes, based on the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change and on Likert scale scorings, was evaluated after 6 months, by a repeated questionnaire. Prevention mediated by a doctor's consultation had a clearly better impact on the subjects. The addition of a phototest did not further reinforce this effect in the group as a whole, but it did for a subgroup of individuals with high ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, as determined by the phototest itself, suggesting that this might actually be a tool to improve outcome in this high-risk group. A personal doctor's consultation is a valuable tool in the effective delivery of preventive information in the general practice setting. In individuals with high UV-sensitivity and thus high risk for skin cancer the performance of a photo-test reinforces a positive outcome in habits, behaviour and attitudes.

  14. Engaging Minority Youth in Diabetes Prevention Efforts Through a Participatory, Spoken-Word Social Marketing Campaign.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean

    2017-07-01

    To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ 2 test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.

  15. Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ashkan; Villa, Christopher R; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-04-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut plays a key role in immunological and metabolic pathways impacting human health. Since the maturation of the gut microbiota coincides with early life development, failure to develop a health compatible microbiota composition may result in pathology and disease in later life. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Maternal transfer of microorganisms is possible during pregnancy and lactation, and the mother's diet and microbiota can influence that of her offspring. Furthermore, pre-term birth, Caesarean section birth, formula feeding, antibiotic use, and malnutrition have been linked to dysbiosis, which in turn is associated with several pathologies such as necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, antibiotic associated diarrhea, colic, and allergies. Thus, early life should represent a preferred stage of life for probiotic interventions. In this context, they could be regarded as a means to 'program' the individual for health maintenance, in order to prevent pathologies associated with dysbiosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of probiotic administration, pre-clinical studies have been conducted and found an array of positive results such as improved microbial composition, intestinal maturation, decreased pathogenic load and infections, and improved immune response. Moreover, specific probiotic strains administered during the perinatal period have shown promise in attenuating severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. The mechanisms elucidated suggest that probiotic interventions in early life can be envisaged for disease prevention in both healthy offspring and offspring at risk of chronic disease.

  16. Parent-Child Interaction, Self-Regulation, and Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged.

  17. Understanding social and sexual networks of sexual minority men and transgender women in Guatemala city to improve HIV prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Tucker, C; Arandi, C Galindo; Bolaños, J Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G; Barrington, C

    2014-11-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties.

  18. The State of the Summer: a Review of Child Summer Weight Gain and Efforts to Prevent It.

    PubMed

    Tanskey, Lindsay A; Goldberg, Jeanne; Chui, Kenneth; Must, Aviva; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that children in the USA gain weight more rapidly during the summer, when school is not in session. This narrative review spanning 2007 to 2017 summarizes efforts to characterize the problem, identify key determinants, and intervene to prevent excess summer weight gain. Summer weight gain remains a concern for elementary-age youth. Few studies have examined its determinants, but unfavorable summertime shifts in diet, physical activity, sedentary time, screen media use, and sleep have been reported. Increased structure is thought to protect against summer weight gain. Interventions to support physical activity and nutrition during the summer show promise, though large-scale impact on weight outcomes remains to be seen. Supporting health behaviors during the summer remains a priority for obesity prevention researchers, practitioners, and policymakers. Strategies to expand access to structured programs and reach beyond such programs to improve behaviors at home are of particular importance.

  19. The early days of the multi channel cochlear implant: efforts and achievement in France.

    PubMed

    Chouard, C H

    2015-04-01

    On September 10th 2013, the clinical medical research Lasker award winners were rewarded for their work on multichannel cochlear implant. It has been my pleasure to see that such a major topic had caught the attention of the Members of the Jury for this prestigious award. That is why I accepted an invitation to participate in a special issue of Hearing Research devoted to the three winners. Here I highlight four scientific contributions made by the French team in late 1970s and early 1980s to modern multichannel cochlear implant development. 1) Chouard and MacLeod plotted an approximate frequency map of the whole length of the human cochlea, including its "hidden face" corresponding to speech frequencies. Moreover MacLeod suggested a sequential display of electrical stimulation as a function of each electrode, a precursor to today's electrodogram and interleaved stimulation. 2) Chouard performed total cochlear implantation in a deaf adult male with 8 electrically independent electrodes that were evenly distributed along the cochlea. 3) Chouard and MacLeod described in a patent detailed sound signal processing for a functional multichannel cochlear implant and reported speech discrimination without help of lip reading in some totally deafened patients. 4) Chouard experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig the advantage of early cochlear implantation in treating profound neonatal deafness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early administration of trimetazidine may prevent or ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wenmeng, Wang; Qizhu, Tang

    2011-02-01

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiac dysfunction resulting from diabetes, independent of vascular or valvular pathology. It clinically manifests initially as asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction and then progresses to symptomatic heart failure. Two major contributors to the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy, which are unique to diabetes, are hyperglycemia and diabetes-related alterations in myocardial metabolism. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by reduced glucose and lactate metabolism and enhanced fatty acid metabolism, which are the early consequences of the disease. Studies on the effect of intensive glucose control on heart failure events in patients with diabetes have been conducted with neutral results. However, no study on the effect of metabolic modulators on the prevention of heart failure has been reported. Trimetazidine, a 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolase (3-KAT) inhibitor, shifts cardiac energy metabolism from free fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation by inhibiting mitochondrial long-chain 3-KAT, and is used clinically as an effective antianginal agent. Studies have shown that trimetazidine improves heart function in patients with idiopathic cardiomyopathy and in diabetic patients with cardiac ischemia or heart failure. In addition to being effective, trimetazidine has only mild side effects. Therefore, instead of routine administration of trimetazidine for the treatment of diabetic cardiomyopathy, we hypothesize that the early application of trimetazidine may prevent or ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy. In addition to life style modifications, ACEI, ARB, and beta-blockers, which have been recommended in the past, trimetazidine should be administered to those patients with impaired glucose tolerance or patients in the early course of diabetes. In this way, we may reduce the prevalence of heart failure and improve the long-term survival of patients with diabetes through early normalization of the myocardial substrate metabolism

  1. Early Identification of Student Performance and Effort Using an Online Homework System: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdian, David C.

    2013-10-01

    Two distinct student groups, in terms of academic performance, were identified early in the semester as either being under-performing students or over-performing students using an online homework system. The students who are identified as under-performing received, on average, lower grades than their fellow students but spent more time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for targeted advertisement of student resources such as tutoring services. The students who are identified in the over-performing student population received higher grades than their fellow students, but spent less time completing the homework assignments. These students are great candidates for honors programs, independent research projects, and peer-tutoring programs. Incorporating these evaluation criteria to online homework systems will allow instructors to quickly identify students in these academic student populations.

  2. Improvement of early detection of breast cancer through collaborative multi-country efforts: Medical physics component.

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Faulkner, Keith; Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Gershan, Vesna; Kausik, Aruna; Zdesar, Urban; Brandan, María-Ester; Kurt, Serap; Davidović, Jasna; Salama, Dina H; Aribal, Erkin; Odio, Clara; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Sabih, Zahida; Vujnović, Saša; Paez, Diana; Delis, Harry

    2018-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through a Coordinated Research Project on "Enhancing Capacity for Early Detection and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer through Imaging", brought together a group of mammography radiologists, medical physicists and radiographers; to investigate current practices and improve procedures for the early detection of breast cancer by strengthening both the clinical and medical physics components. This paper addresses the medical physics component. The countries that participated in the CRP were Bosnia and Herzegovina, Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Kenya, the Frmr. Yug. Rep. of Macedonia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Slovenia, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom and Zambia. Ten institutions participated using IAEA quality control protocols in 9 digital and 3 analogue mammography equipment. A spreadsheet for data collection was generated and distributed. Evaluation of image quality was done using TOR MAX and DMAM2 Gold phantoms. QC results for analogue equipment showed satisfactory results. QC tests performed on digital systems showed that improvements needed to be implemented, especially in thickness accuracy, signal difference to noise ratio (SDNR) values for achievable levels, uniformity and modulation transfer function (MTF). Mean glandular dose (MGD) was below international recommended levels for patient radiation protection. Evaluation of image quality by phantoms also indicated the need for improvement. Common activities facilitated improvement in mammography practice, including training of medical physicists in QC programs and infrastructure was improved and strengthened; networking among medical physicists and radiologists took place and was maintained over time. IAEA QC protocols provided a uniformed approach to QC measurements. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relations among maternal socialization, effortful control, and maladjustment in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Silva, Kassondra M.; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Smith, Cynthia L.; Gaertner, Bridget M.; Kupfer, Anne; Popp, Tierney; Michalik, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 18-, 30-, and 42-month-olds, the relations among parenting, effortful control (EC), and maladjustment were examined. Parenting was assessed with mothers’ reports and observations; EC was measured with mothers’ and caregivers’ reports, as well as a behavioral task; and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed with parents’ and caregivers’ reports. Although 18-month unsupportive (vs. supportive) parenting negatively predicted EC at 30 months, when the stability of these variables was taken into account, there was no evidence of additional potentially causal relations between these two constructs. Although EC was negatively related to both internalizing and externalizing problems within all three ages as well as across 1 year, EC did not predict maladjustment once the stability of the constructs and within time covariation between the constructs were taken into account. In addition, externalizing problems at 30 months negatively predicted EC at 42 months, and internalizing problems at 30 months positively predicted EC at 42 months, but only when the effects of externalizing on EC were controlled. The findings are discussed in terms of the reasons for the lack of causal relations over time. PMID:20576175

  4. Relations among maternal socialization, effortful control, and maladjustment in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie M; Silva, Kassondra M; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Smith, Cynthia L; Gaertner, Bridget M; Kupfer, Anne; Popp, Tierney; Michalik, Nicole

    2010-08-01

    In a sample of 18-, 30-, and 42-month-olds, the relations among parenting, effortful control (EC), and maladjustment were examined. Parenting was assessed with mothers' reports and observations; EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, as well as a behavioral task; and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed with parents' and caregivers' reports. Although 18-month unsupportive (vs. supportive) parenting negatively predicted EC at 30 months, when the stability of these variables was taken into account, there was no evidence of additional potentially causal relations between these two constructs. Although EC was negatively related to both internalizing and externalizing problems within all three ages as well as across 1 year, EC did not predict maladjustment once the stability of the constructs and within time covariation between the constructs were taken into account. In addition, externalizing problems at 30 months negatively predicted EC at 42 months, and internalizing problems at 30 months positively predicted EC at 42 months, but only when the effects of externalizing on EC were controlled. The findings are discussed in terms of the reasons for the lack of causal relations over time.

  5. Preventive intervention for anxious preschoolers and their parents: strengthening early emotional development.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy K; Masia Warner, Carrie; Lerner, Amy B; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-08-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3-5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children's anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children's ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent-child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety.

  6. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent–child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent–child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3–5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children’s anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children’s ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent–child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety. PMID:22331442

  7. Externalizing symptoms, effortful control, and intrusive parenting: A test of bidirectional longitudinal relations during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Taylor, Zoe E; Widaman, Keith F; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-11-01

    At approximately 30, 42, and 54 months of age (N = 231), the relations among children's externalizing symptoms, intrusive maternal parenting, and children's effortful control (EC) were examined. Both intrusive parenting and low EC have been related to psychopathology, but children's externalizing problems and low EC might affect the quality of parenting and one another. Mothers' intrusive behavior with their children was assessed with observations, children's EC was measured with mothers' and caregivers' reports, and children's externalizing symptoms were assessed with mothers', fathers', and caregivers' reports. In a structural equation panel model, bidirectional relations between intrusive parenting and EC were found: EC at 30 and 42 months predicted low levels of intrusive parenting a year later, controlling for prior levels of parenting and vice versa. Moreover, high levels of children's externalizing problems at both 30 and 42 months negatively predicted EC a year later, controlling for prior levels of EC. Although externalizing problems positively predicted high EC over time, this appeared to be a suppression effect because these variables had a strong negative pattern in the zero-order correlations. Moreover, when controlling for the stability of intrusive parenting, EC, and externalizing (all exhibited significant stability across time) and the aforementioned cross-lagged predictive paths, EC and externalizing problems were still negatively related within the 54-month assessment. The findings are consistent with the view that children's externalizing behavior undermines their EC and contributes to intrusive mothering and that relations between intrusive parenting and EC are bidirectional across time. Thus, interventions that focus on modifying children's externalizing problems (as well as the quality of parenting) might affect the quality of parenting they receive and, hence, subsequent problems with adjustment.

  8. Trajectories of child externalizing problems between ages 3 and 10 years: Contributions of children's early effortful control, theory of mind, and parenting experiences.

    PubMed

    Olson, Sheryl L; Choe, Daniel Ewon; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2017-10-01

    Preventing problem behavior requires an understanding of earlier factors that are amenable to intervention. The main goals of our prospective longitudinal study were to trace trajectories of child externalizing behavior between ages 3 and 10 years, and to identify patterns of developmentally significant child and parenting risk factors that differentiated pathways of problem behavior. Participants were 218 3-year-old boys and girls who were reassessed following the transition to kindergarten (age 5-6 years) and during the late school-age years (age 10). Mothers contributed ratings of children's externalizing behavior at all three time points. Children's self-regulation abilities and theory of mind were assessed during a laboratory visit, and parenting risk (frequent corporal punishment and low maternal warmth) was assessed using interview-based and questionnaire measures. Four developmental trajectories of externalizing behavior yielded the best balance of parsimony and fit with our longitudinal data and latent class growth analysis. Most young children followed a pathway marked by relatively low levels of symptoms that continued to decrease across the school-age years. Atypical trajectories marked chronically high, increasing, and decreasing levels of externalizing problems across early and middle childhood. Three-year-old children with low levels of effortful control were far more likely to show the chronic pattern of elevated externalizing problems than changing or low patterns. Early parental corporal punishment and maternal warmth, respectively, differentiated preschoolers who showed increasing and decreasing patterns of problem behavior compared to the majority of children. The fact that children's poor effortful regulation skills predicted chronic early onset problems reinforces the need for early childhood screening and intervention services.

  9. George Papanicolaou's Efforts to Develop Novel Cytologic Methods for the Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Austin, R Marshall

    2017-01-01

    Toward the end of his career, Dr. George Papanicolaou became interested in human endometrial explants placed into tissue culture. The initial focus of his studies was on phagocytic cells emanating from endometrial explants and their role in cleansing the uterine cavity after each menstrual cycle and in sterilizing the uterine cavity in the face of infection. Papanicolaou also observed that growth rates of explanted normal and pathologic endometrial tissues differed considerably. Explants of endometrial malignancies exhibited not only increased growth rates but also visible proliferation of cells with readily identifiable cytologic features of malignancy. Acknowledging that cytologic screening for early diagnosis of intrauterine malignancies had up to that point not proven to be reliable as screening for cervical cancer, he hoped that the tissue culture explant technique could prove to be a new adjunctive diagnostic method for the diagnosis of endometrial and other female genital tract malignancies not readily detectible by other diagnostic procedures. Papanicolaou's untimely death in 1962 cut short his progress in this area of study. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. The Wisconsin Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative: An Example of Statewide Collective Impact.

    PubMed

    Meinen, Amy; Hilgendorf, Amy; Korth, Amy L; Christens, Brian D; Breuer, Catherine; Joyner, Hilary; Polzin, Molle; Adams, Alexandra; Wolfe, Daithi; Braun, Abbe; Hoiting, Jill; Paulson, Jeanette; Cullen, Bridget; Stader, Kelli

    2016-11-01

    The Wisconsin Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative), established in 2007, seeks to address and prevent obesity in the early care and education system through nutrition and physical activity environmental and policy changes. The collaborative includes professionals from 3 state of Wisconsin Departments, the University of Wisconsin-Extension, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and public health and early care and education organizations. This paper explores the efforts of the Initiative to advance our understanding of collective impact in practice and its value to health promotion efforts. Evaluators conducted a mixed methods case study to evaluate the application of collective impact principles by the Initiative. This included a survey of Initiative partners, review of archival documents, and qualitative interviews with Initiative leaders. Initiative partners noted progress in establishing the conditions for collective impact. Archival documents and interviews describe both formal and informal practices that helped set a common agenda, align and coordinate partner activities, and promote communication among Initiative leaders. Results also detail the important current and potential roles of “backbone” staff from healthTIDE to support the Initiative. Additionally, results suggest particularly challenging aspects of the Initiative’s impact model related to shared measurement and broader stakeholder communication. While the Initiative is still setting in place the conditions for collective impact, it has achieved significant policy, systems, and environment changes since its formation. Inclusion of nutrition and physical activity criteria in the state’s quality rating improvement system for child care centers is one of its outcomes. This case study offers several important insights about the application of collective impact in health promotion efforts, particularly in relation to the transition from previous collaborative activities, the

  11. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  12. Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury: Prevention, Early Recognition, and Supportive Measures.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Zaccaria; Ronco, Claudio

    2018-06-26

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of both cardiac and major non-cardiac surgery. AKI is independently associated with morbidity, mortality, and long-term adverse events including chronic kidney disease in postsurgical patients. Since specific treatment options for kidney failure are very limited, early identification, diagnosis, and renal support strategies are key steps to improve patients' outcome. According to current Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, AKI diagnosis is based on 2 functional markers, serum creatinine increase and urine output decrease, that are not renal-specific and have important limitations. However, preoperative risk stratification for postoperative AKI and/or early diagnosis after surgery could be the best way to apply preventive or timely supportive therapeutic measures. Clinical prediction scores, renal functional reserve assessment, and new biomarkers of kidney stress (suppression of tumorigenicity-2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2) may help the clinicians to identify patients at risk of AKI and that could benefit from the application of nephroprotective bundles suggested by the KDIGO guidelines. In severe AKI patients with oligoanuria and fluid accumulation, renal replacement therapy is the only supportive measure even if mode and timing remain open to investigation. Key messages: Perioperative AKI is an important and underdiagnosed complication. Identifying patients at high risk of AKI and diagnosing AKI early are major goals. Preventive interventions are mainly based on the KDIGO guidelines and bundles. Furthermore, a personalized multidisciplinary approach should always be considered to minimize the progression of disease and the complications related to kidney damage. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Oral cancer. Practical prevention and early detection for the dental team.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A Ross; Cruz, Gustavo D

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 2,000 patients a year are diagnosed with oral cancer in New York State. In an effort to control this deadly disease, Governor George Pataki has taken a leadership role in the United States by mandating and funding training for dentists in the prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The purpose of this article is to highlight the epidemiology of oral cancer, to show how the dental profession can contribute to the health of the citizens of New York State, and to provide practical guidelines for both tobacco cessation intervention and utilization of existing technology for the early detection of oral cancer and precancerous conditions in the general dental practice setting.

  14. Why do we report suicides and how can we facilitate suicide prevention efforts? Perspectives of Hong Kong media professionals.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S F

    2014-01-01

    The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and thoughts about such reporting. To understand Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers' interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion.

  15. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  16. Engaging partners to initiate evaluation efforts: tactics used and lessons learned from the prevention research centers program.

    PubMed

    Wright, Demia Sundra; Anderson, Lynda A; Brownson, Ross C; Gwaltney, Margaret K; Scherer, Jennifer; Cross, Alan W; Goodman, Robert M; Schwartz, Randy; Sims, Tom; White, Carol R

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program underwent a 2-year evaluation planning project using a participatory process that allowed perspectives from the national community of PRC partners to be expressed and reflected in a national logic model. The PRC Program recognized the challenge in developing a feasible, useable, and relevant evaluation process for a large, diverse program. To address the challenge, participatory and utilization-focused evaluation models were used. Four tactics guided the evaluation planning process: 1) assessing stakeholders' communication needs and existing communication mechanisms and infrastructure; 2) using existing mechanisms and establishing others as needed to inform, educate, and request feedback; 3) listening to and using feedback received; and 4) obtaining adequate resources and building flexibility into the project plan to support multifaceted mechanisms for data collection. Participatory methods resulted in buy-in from stakeholders and the development of a national logic model. Benefits included CDC's use of the logic model for program planning and development of a national evaluation protocol and increased expectations among PRC partners for involvement. Challenges included the time, effort, and investment of program resources required for the participatory approach and the identification of whom to engage and when to engage them for feedback on project decisions. By using a participatory and utilization-focused model, program partners positively influenced how CDC developed an evaluation plan. The tactics we used can guide the involvement of program stakeholders and help with decisions on appropriate methods and approaches for engaging partners.

  17. Health Literacy: Cancer Prevention Strategies for Early Adults.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-01

    Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Childhood Caries: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Sukumaran; Anand, Pradeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is major oral health problem, mainly in socially disadvantaged populations. ECC affects infants and preschool children worldwide. The prevalence of ECC differs according to the group examined, and a prevalence of up to 85% has been reported for disadvantaged groups. ECC is the presence of one or more decayed, missing, or filled primary teeth in children aged 71 months (5 years) or younger. It begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors along the margin of the gingiva. If the disease continues, caries can progress, leading to complete destruction of the crown. The main risk factors in the development of ECC can be categorized as microbiological, dietary, and environmental risk factors. Even though it is largely a preventable condition, ECC remains one of the most common childhood diseases. The major contributing factors for the for the high prevalence of ECC are improper feeding practices, familial socioeconomic background, lack of parental education, and lack of access to dental care. Oral health plays an important role in children to maintain the oral functions and is required for eating, speech development, and a positive self-image. The review will focus on the prevalence, risk factors, and preventive strategies and the management of ECC. PMID:28770188

  19. Assessing School-Based Gang Prevention Efforts in Urban Centers: Are These Programs Reaching Those Students Who May Benefit the Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Hector

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, schools have become a focal point for general delinquency and gang prevention programs for a variety of reasons. One premise behind this approach is that schools can serve as ideal settings for providing delinquency and intervention services because youths spend so much time there. School-based gang prevention efforts are supposed…

  20. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Overview of the SMAP Applications and the SMAP Early Adopters Program - NASA's First Mission-Directed Outreach Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Delgado Arias, S.; Nearing, G.; Entekhabi, D.; Njoku, E.; Yueh, S.; Doorn, B.; Reichle, R.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite data provide global observations of many of the earths system processes and features. These data are valuable for developing scientific products that increase our understanding of how the earths systems are integrated. The water, energy and carbon cycle exchanges between the land and atmosphere are linked by soil moisture. NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission provides soil moisture and freeze thaw measurements from space and allows scientists to link the water energy and carbon cycles. In order for SMAP data to be best integrated into decision support systems, the mission has engaged with the stakeholder community since 2009 and has attempted to scale the utility of the data to the thematic societal impacts of the satellite product applications. The SMAP Mission, which launched on January 31, 2015, has actively grown an Early Adopter (EA) community as part of its applications effort and worked with these EAs to demonstrate a scaled thematic impact of SMAP data product in societally relevant decision support applications. The SMAP mission provides global observations of the Earths surface soil moisture, providing high accuracy, resolution and continuous global coverage. Through the Early Adopters Program, the SMAP Applications Team will spend the next 2 years after launch documenting and evaluating the use of SMAP science products in applications related to weather forecasting, drought, agriculture productivity, floods, human health and national security.

  2. High and low neurobehavior disinhibition clusters within locales: implications for community efforts to prevent substance use disorder.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Ty A; Reynolds, Maureen; Ahlqvist, Ola; Zhai, Zu Wei; Kirisci, Levent; Vanyukov, Michael M; Tarter, Ralph E

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge of where substance use and other such behavioral problems frequently occur has aided policing, public health, and urban planning strategies to reduce such behaviors. Identifying locales characterized by high childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), a strong predictor of substance use and consequent disorder (SUD), may likewise improve prevention efforts. The distribution of ND in 10-12-year olds was mapped to metropolitan Pittsburgh, PA, and tested for clustering within locales. The 738 participating families represented the population in terms of economic status, race, and population distribution. ND was measured using indicators of executive cognitive function, emotion regulation, and behavior control. Innovative geospatial analyzes statistically tested clustering of ND within locales while accounting for geographic barriers (large rivers, major highways), parental SUD severity, and neighborhood quality. Clustering of youth with high and low ND occurred in specific locales. Accounting for geographic barriers better delineated where high ND is concentrated, areas which also tended to be characterized by greater parental SUD severity and poorer neighborhood quality. Offering programs that have been demonstrated to improve inhibitory control in locales where youth have high ND on average may reduce youth risk for SUD and other problem behaviors. As demonstrated by the present results, geospatial analysis of youth risk factors, frequently used in community coalition strategies, may be improved with greater statistical and measurement rigor.

  3. Preventing growth in amphetamine use: long-term effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) from early adolescence to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the long-term effect of an early adolescent substance abuse prevention program on trajectories and initiation of amphetamine use into early adulthood. Eight middle schools were assigned randomly to a program or control condition. The randomized controlled trial followed participants through 15 waves of data, from ages 11-28 years. This longitudinal study design includes four separate periods of development from early adolescence to early adulthood. The intervention took place in middle schools. A total of 1002 adolescents from one large mid-western US city were the participants in the study. The intervention was a multi-component community-based program delivered in early adolescence with a primary emphasis on tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use. At each wave of data collection participants completed a self-report survey that included questions about life-time amphetamine use. Compared to a control group, participants in the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) intervention condition had reduced growth (slope) in amphetamine use in emerging adulthood, a lower amphetamine use intercept at the commencement of the early adulthood and delayed amphetamine use initiation. The pattern of results suggests that the program worked first to prevent amphetamine use, and then to maintain the preventive effect into adulthood. Study findings suggest that early adolescent substance use prevention programs that focus initially on the 'gateway' drugs have utility for long-term prevention of amphetamine use. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Toward Primary Prevention of Asthma. Reviewing the Evidence for Early-Life Respiratory Viral Infections as Modifiable Risk Factors to Prevent Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy S.; He, Yuan; Moore, Martin L.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2015-01-01

    A first step in primary disease prevention is identifying common, modifiable risk factors that contribute to a significant proportion of disease development. Infant respiratory viral infection and childhood asthma are the most common acute and chronic diseases of childhood, respectively. Common clinical features and links between these diseases have long been recognized, with early-life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) being strongly associated with increased asthma risk. However, there has long been debate over the role of these respiratory viruses in asthma inception. In this article, we systematically review the evidence linking early-life RSV and RV LRTIs with asthma inception and whether they could therefore be targets for primary prevention efforts. PMID:25369458

  5. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few

  6. Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting.

    PubMed

    Natale, Ruby; Scott, Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah, Sarah E; Schrack, Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Delamater, Alan

    2013-01-28

    Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children's nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity

  7. Recruitment for health disparities preventive intervention trials: the early childhood caries collaborating centers.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Tamanna; Casciello, Alana; Gansky, Stuart A; Henshaw, Michelle; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Rasmussen, Margaret; Garcia, Raul I; Albino, Judith; Batliner, Terrence S

    2014-08-07

    Four trials of interventions designed to prevent early childhood caries are using community-engagement strategies to improve recruitment of low-income, racial/ethnic minority participants. The trials are being implemented by 3 centers funded by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and known as the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers (EC4): the Center for Native Oral Health Research at the University of Colorado, the Center to Address Disparities in Children's Oral Health at the University of California San Francisco, and the Center for Research to Evaluate and Eliminate Dental Disparities at Boston University. The community contexts for the EC4 trials include urban public housing developments, Hispanic communities near the US-Mexican border, and rural American Indian reservations. These communities have a high prevalence of early childhood caries, suggesting the need for effective, culturally acceptable interventions. Each center's intervention(s) used community-based participatory research approaches, identified community partners, engaged the community through various means, and developed communication strategies to enhance recruitment. All 3 centers have completed recruitment. Each center implemented several new strategies and approaches to enhance recruitment efforts, such as introducing new communication techniques, using media such as radio and newspapers to spread awareness about the studies, and hosting community gatherings. Using multiple strategies that build trust in the community, are sensitive to cultural norms, and are adaptable to the community environment can enhance recruitment in underserved communities.

  8. Universal prevention efforts should address eating disorder pathology across the weight spectrum: Implications for screening and intervention on college campuses.

    PubMed

    Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E

    2017-04-01

    Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Universal prevention efforts should address eating disorder pathology across the weight spectrum: Implications for screening and intervention on college campuses

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Andrea E.; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P.; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Balantekin, Katherine N.; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C. Barr; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. Methods 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Results Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Conclusions Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. PMID:27090854

  10. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available

  11. Prevention and early treatment of influenza in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Demicheli, V; Jefferson, T; Rivetti, D; Deeks, J

    2000-01-06

    We present three systematic reviews carried out within the Cochrane Collaboration, focusing on a different influenza intervention in healthy adults: Vaccines; Ion Channel Inhibitor antivirals and Neuraminidase Inhibitor (NIs) antivirals. The objectives were to identify, retrieve and assess all studies evaluating the effects of these interventions in prophylaxis and early treatments of influenza and the frequency of adverse events. Additionally we present the results of the economic evaluation of effective alternatives in order to define the most cost-effective intervention. The economic evaluation is set in the context of the British Army. Studies were identified using a standard Cochrane search strategy. Any randomised or quasi-randomised studies in healthy individuals aged 14-60 years were considered for inclusion in the systematic review. Those which met inclusion criteria were assessed for quality and their data meta-analysed. The economic model was constructed using Cost-effectiveness and Cost-utility study designs. Live aerosol vaccines reduced cases of clinical influenza A with virological confirmation (by serology and/or viral isolation) by 48% (95%CI: 24-64%), whilst recommended inactivated parenteral vaccines have an efficacy of 68% (95%CI: 49-79%). Vaccine effectiveness in reducing clinical influenza cases (i.e. without virological confirmation) was lower, with efficacies of 13 and 24% respectively. Use of the vaccine significantly reduced time off work, but only by 0.4 days (95%CI: 0. 1-0.8 days). Analysis of vaccines matching the circulating strain gave higher estimates of efficacy, whilst inclusion of all other vaccines reduced the efficacy. When compared to placebo for the prevention of influenza, oral amantadine was 61% (95%CI: 51-69%) efficacious (RR 0.39 - 95%CI: 0.31-0.49), and oral rimantadine was 64% (95%CI: 41-78%) efficacious (RR 0.36 -95%CI: 0.22-0.59). When compared to placebo for the treatment of influenza, oral amantadine significantly

  12. The patients' library movement: an overview of early efforts in the United States to establish organized libraries for hospital patients.

    PubMed Central

    Panella, N M

    1996-01-01

    The patients' library movement in the United States, a dynamic, cohesive drive begun and sustained by librarians and physicians, strove to promote placement of organized libraries for patients in hospitals. It took shape in the early years of this century, evolving from its proponents' deeply held conviction that books and reading foster the rehabilitation of sick people. The American Library Association's World War I service to hospitalized military personnel dramatically reinforced the conviction; the post-World War I institution of public library extension services to general hospitals explicitly reflected it. Enormous energy was infused into the patients' library movement. Throughout the first half of this century, there were sustained efforts not only to establish organized libraries for hospitalized people but also to expand and systematically study bibliotherapy and to shape patients' librarianship as a professional specialty. The movement's achievements include the establishment of patients' library committees within national and international associations; impetus for development of academic programs to train patients' librarians; and publication, from 1944 through 1970, of successive sets of standards for hospital patients' libraries. The first of these remain the first standards written and issued by a professional library association for a hospital library. PMID:8938330

  13. The Early Impact Program: An Early Intervention and Prevention Program for Children and Families At-Risk of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry

    2007-01-01

    The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…

  14. The impact of indicated prevention and early intervention on co-morbid eating disorder and depressive symptoms: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    Depressive and eating disorder symptoms are highly comorbid. To date, however, little is known regarding the efficacy of existing programs in decreasing concurrent eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We conducted a systematic review of selective and indicated controlled prevention and early intervention programs that assessed both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. We identified a total of 26 studies. The large majority of identified interventions (92%) were successful in decreasing eating disorder symptoms. However fewer than half (42%) were successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms. Intervention and participant characteristics did not predict success in decreasing depressive symptoms. Indicated prevention and early intervention programs targeting eating disorder symptoms are limited in their success in decreasing concurrent depressive symptoms. Further efforts to develop more efficient interventions that are successful in decreasing both eating disorder and depressive symptoms are warranted.

  15. New Directions and Challenges in Preventing Conduct Problems in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Taraban, Lindsay E

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we review advances in developing and preventing conduct problems in early childhood and identify challenges. Among the topics we address are expanding the targets of prevention programs beyond improving parenting skills, implementing family-based interventions during early childhood for families living in impoverished communities, making greater use of community platforms that serve young children at risk for early conduct problems, and incorporating techniques such as motivational interviewing to improve families' engagement in nontraditional mental health settings.

  16. Obesity Prevention in Early Adolescence: Student, Parent, and Teacher Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…

  17. Prevention of Bullying in Early Educational Settings: Pedagogical and Organisational Factors Related to Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repo, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that bullying behaviour begins at an early age (three to six years) and that preventive practices should target early educational settings. However, no previous studies focus on early educational settings (kindergartens) as an arena for bullying behaviour. The aim of this study was to find what kind of organisational and…

  18. Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) is a component of the PLCO Trial. By collecting biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before the diagnosis of disease, PLCO EEMS adds substantial value to the trial, providing a resource for cancer research, focused, in particular, on cancer etiology and early markers. Etiologic studies investigate

  19. Summit on the National Effort To Prevent Mental Retardation and Related Disabilities. Summit Proceedings (Washington, D.C., February 6-7, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    This document reports the proceedings of a summit to assess the adequacy of the U.S. effort to prevent mental retardation and related disabilities and to chart the course for future strategies to reduce the incidence and ameliorate the effects of these disabilities, particularly when caused by socioeconomic conditions. The document contains…

  20. Trends in College Binge Drinking during a Period of Increased Prevention Efforts. Findings from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study Surveys: 1933-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Kuo, Meichun; Seibring, Mark; Nelson, Toben F.; Lee, Hang

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed students at colleges that had participated in college alcohol surveys between 1993-99 to examine trends in binge drinking, related problems, and prevention efforts. Binge drinking rates remained constant, with shifts in drinking behavior among subgroups. Immoderate drinking and harm among drinkers increased. More students lived in…

  1. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C

    2016-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.

  2. Prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of substance use in young people.

    PubMed

    Stockings, Emily; Hall, Wayne D; Lynskey, Michael; Morley, Katherine I; Reavley, Nicola; Strang, John; Patton, George; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-03-01

    We did a systematic review of reviews with evidence on the effectiveness of prevention, early intervention, harm reduction, and treatment of problem use in young people for tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis, opioids, amphetamines, or cocaine). Taxation, public consumption bans, advertising restrictions, and minimum legal age are effective measures to reduce alcohol and tobacco use, but are not available to target illicit drugs. Interpretation of the available evidence for school-based prevention is affected by methodological issues; interventions that incorporate skills training are more likely to be effective than information provision-which is ineffective. Social norms and brief interventions to reduce substance use in young people do not have strong evidence of effectiveness. Roadside drug testing and interventions to reduce injection-related harms have a moderate-to-large effect, but additional research with young people is needed. Scarce availability of research on interventions for problematic substance use in young people indicates the need to test interventions that are effective with adults in young people. Existing evidence is from high-income countries, with uncertain applicability in other countries and cultures and in subpopulations differing in sex, age, and risk status. Concerted efforts are needed to increase the evidence base on interventions that aim to reduce the high burden of substance use in young people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mistrusting Companies, Mistrusting the Tobacco Industry: Clarifying the Context of Tobacco Prevention Efforts that Focus on the Tobacco Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Campaigns to prevent adolescent smoking increasingly depict the tobacco industry as deceitful and exploitative. This study was undertaken to determine how adolescents' expectations about the trustworthiness of companies, in general, influence the pathway through which anti-tobacco industry campaigns prevent smoking. Structural equation modeling…

  4. Emerging inequality in effort: A longitudinal investigation of parental involvement and early elementary school-aged children's learning time in Japan.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Ryoji; Nakamuro, Makiko; Inui, Tomohiko

    2015-11-01

    While studies on effort (e.g., Carbonaro, 2005; Kariya, 2000, 2013) have revealed relationships among students' effort (e.g., self-reported learning time), socioeconomic status, and school-related factors (e.g., tracking) through secondary education data, whether and how the effort gap emerges and widens in the early years of compulsory education have not been researched. This study investigates the beginning of inequality in effort by using four waves (from first- to fourth-grade students) of the Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century, collected in Japan. The results indicate that college-educated parents tend to employ parenting practices that directly and indirectly shape children's learning time; inequality in effort exists, and it becomes exacerbated partly because of parenting differences in a society with a relatively equal elementary education system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention and early recognition: the role of family pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Carlo; Foltran, Francesca

    2012-05-14

    Even if it is empirically evident that pediatricians play a key role in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of FB injuries, almost all studies have focused on the subset of injured children who receive medical care in the hospital or in the Emergency Department; moreover, a lack of scientific interest to improve information about pediatric injuries in primary care seems to exist. Primary care physicians can play an important role if they promptly identify suspect unrecognized FB aspiration in children. Moreover, prevention is a cornerstone of pediatric practice, and pediatricians, as reliable sources of information, may be efficacious in promoting injury prevention message. Given the paucity of works finalized to evaluate the role of injury preventive strategies in primary care it is arduous to identify an ideal approach to implement counseling strategies. However, evidences obtained elsewhere have suggested that effective preventive strategy origins from an effective communication technique, moreover, the probability of success is greater when the attention toward the problem is greater; particularly, the postpartum period is a time of tremendous change, increased health problems, and emotional upheaval for new parents. General practitioners are in an ideal position to assist families during this period and may consider a sooner rather than later, approach to injury prevention education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban Flood Prevention and Early Warning System in Jinan City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shiyuan; Li, Qingguo

    2018-06-01

    The system construction of urban flood control and disaster reduction in China is facing pressure and challenge from new urban water disaster. Under the circumstances that it is difficult to build high standards of flood protection engineering measures in urban areas, it is particularly important to carry out urban flood early warning. In Jinan City, a representative inland area, based on the index system of early warning of flood in Jinan urban area, the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation was adopted to evaluate the level of early warning. Based on the cumulative rainfall of 3 hours, the CAflood simulation results based on cellular automaton model of urban flooding were used as evaluation indexes to realize the accuracy and integration of urban flood control early warning.

  7. Efforts and Programs of the Department of Defense Relating to the Prevention, Mitigation, and Treatment of Blast Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Combat Critical Care Engineering: Evaluation of Closed Loop Control of Ventilation and Oxygen Flow During Resuscitation in the Compensatory and...Decompensatory Phases of Hemorrhagic Shock: This effort evaluated closed loop control of ventilation and oxygen flow during resuscitation in the...Cerebral Injury Volume, Cerebral Edema, Cerebral Blood Flow and Reactivity, and Histopathology in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic

  8. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  9. Active Early Detection Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  12. Early Prevention of Severe Neurodevelopmental Behavior Disorders: An Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Stephen R.; Courtemanche, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    There is a very substantial literature over the past 50 years on the advantages of early detection and intervention on the cognitive, communicative, and social-emotional development of infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delay due to premature birth or social disadvantage. Most of these studies excluded children with severe delays or…

  13. Early Intervention and Prevention--Issues and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopfstein, Rosalind

    This paper reviews the American Association on Mental Retardation's (AAMR's) presentation of issues surrounding the field of early intervention. AAMR's publications are the primary sources of information in the paper. Specific sections address: (1) the impact of public laws on the rights of children and families to a free and appropriate public…

  14. Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/EDRN is a collaborative network that maintains comprehensive infrastructure and resources critical to the discovery, development and validation of biomarkers for cancer risk and early detection. The program comprises a public/private sector consortium to accelerate the development of biomarkers that will change medical practice, ensure data

  15. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  16. Reported Systems Changes and Sustainability Perceptions of Three State Departments of Health Implementing Multi-Faceted Evidence-Based Fall Prevention Efforts.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Schneider, Ellen C; Byers, Imani N; Shubert, Tiffany E; Wilson, Ashley D; Towne, Samuel D; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-01-01

    Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH) that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of "before funding" and "after funding was received"). Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of "during funding" and "after funding ends." Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.

  17. [Colonoscopy for early detection and prevention of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Niv, Yaron

    2010-08-01

    Colonoscopy has a limited success in the prevention of colorectal cancer of the right colon. Thus, there is place for improvement. The potential reasons for colonoscopy failure are the different biology of polyps on the right side of the colon or procedure quality. Preparation, withdrawal time, detection of all polyps and their removal using the best technique will overcome this problem. Furthermore, the implementation of a computerized database and report that includes quality assurance fields, will improve colonoscopy success rates.

  18. Using Systematic Screening Procedures to Identify Students Who Are Nonresponsive to Primary Prevention Efforts: Integrating Academic and Behavioral Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Menzies, Holly Mariah

    2010-01-01

    Many school systems are adopting three-tiered models of prevention (e.g., Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior Support) to support an increasingly diverse student population (Sugai, Horner, & Gresham, 2002). A central feature of these models is that data are monitored to determine responsiveness. We offer this paper as a guide for…

  19. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  20. Youth Illicit Drug Use Prevention: DARE Long-Term Evaluations and Federal Efforts To Identify Effective Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanof, Marjorie E.

    The most widely used school-based substance abuse prevention program in the United States is the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program, which is funded by a variety of sources, including private, federal, and other public entities. DAREs primary mission is to provide children with the information and skills they need to live drug- and…

  1. Afghanistans Oil, Gas, and Minerals Industries: $488 Million in U.S. Efforts Show Limited Progress Overall, and Challenges Prevent Further Investment and Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    488 Million in U.S. Efforts Show Limited Progress Overall, and Challenges Prevent Further Investment and Growth SIGAR 16-11-AR/Afghanistan’s...of revenue for the Afghan government. WHAT SIGAR FOUND Most TFBSO and USAID assistance to Afghanistan’s extractive industries has been directed ...toward developing capacity at the MoMP and its component organizations, and toward making regulatory reforms to attract private sector investment

  2. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Effortful Control, and Parenting as Predictors of Children’s Sympathy Across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children’s sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children’s effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children’s sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children’s subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children’s effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children’s sympathy. PMID:25329555

  3. Sports and Marfan Syndrome: Awareness and Early Diagnosis Can Prevent Sudden Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salim, Mubadda A.; Alpert, Bruce S.

    2001-01-01

    Physicians who work with athletes play an important role in preventing sudden death related to physical activity in people who have Marfan syndrome. Flagging those who have the physical stigmata and listening for certain cardiac auscultation sounds are early diagnostic keys that can help prevent deaths. People with Marfan syndrome should be…

  4. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  5. The Early Risers Preventive Intervention: Testing for Six-year Outcomes and Mediational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…

  6. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  7. Safe Start: How Early Experiences Can Help Reduce Violence. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Noting that many communities have overlooked a promising approach to reducing violence in the United States, this report examines early risk factors for violence and discusses the potential of prevention and intervention programs for children ages birth to 5 years. The report defines violence and discusses the importance of early experiences in…

  8. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  9. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  10. Preventability of early vs. late readmissions in an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kelly L.; Dike, Ogechi; Doctoroff, Lauren; Jupiter, Marisa; Vanka, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear if the 30-day unplanned hospital readmission rate is a plausible accountability metric. Objective Compare preventability of hospital readmissions, between an early period [0–7 days post-discharge] and a late period [8–30 days post-discharge]. Compare causes of readmission, and frequency of markers of clinical instability 24h prior to discharge between early and late readmissions. Design, setting, patients 120 patient readmissions in an academic medical center between 1/1/2009-12/31/2010 Measures Sum-score based on a standard algorithm that assesses preventability of each readmission based on blinded hospitalist review; average causation score for seven types of adverse events; rates of markers of clinical instability within 24h prior to discharge. Results Readmissions were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [median preventability sum score 8.5 vs. 8.0, p = 0.03]. There were significantly more management errors as causative events for the readmission in the early compared to the late period [mean causation score [scale 1–6, 6 most causal] 2.0 vs. 1.5, p = 0.04], and these errors were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [mean preventability score 1.9 vs 1.5, p = 0.03]. Patients readmitted in the early period were significantly more likely to have mental status changes documented 24h prior to hospital discharge than patients readmitted in the late period [12% vs. 0%, p = 0.01]. Conclusions Readmissions occurring in the early period were significantly more preventable. Early readmissions were associated with more management errors, and mental status changes 24h prior to discharge. Seven-day readmissions may be a better accountability measure. PMID:28622384

  11. Application of nanotechnology in cancers prevention, early detection and treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shraddha P; Patel, Parshottambhai B; Parekh, Bhavesh B

    2014-01-01

    Use of nanotechnology in medical science is a rapidly developing area. New opportunities of diagnosis, imaging and therapy have developed due to recent rapid advancement by nanotechnology. The most common areas to be affected are diagnostic, imaging and targeted drug delivery in gastroenterology, oncology, cardiovascular medicine, obstetrics and gynecology. Mass screening with inexpensive imaging might be possible in the near future with the help of nanotechnology. This review paper provides an overview of causes of cancer and the application of nanotechnology in cancer prevention, detection and treatment.

  12. Unremarked or Unperformed? Systematic Review on Reporting of Validation Efforts of Health Economic Decision Models in Seasonal Influenza and Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Pieter T; Frederix, Geert W J; Feenstra, Talitha L; Vemer, Pepijn

    2016-09-01

    Transparent reporting of validation efforts of health economic models give stakeholders better insight into the credibility of model outcomes. In this study we reviewed recently published studies on seasonal influenza and early breast cancer in order to gain insight into the reporting of model validation efforts in the overall health economic literature. A literature search was performed in Pubmed and Embase to retrieve health economic modelling studies published between 2008 and 2014. Reporting on model validation was evaluated by checking for the word validation, and by using AdViSHE (Assessment of the Validation Status of Health Economic decision models), a tool containing a structured list of relevant items for validation. Additionally, we contacted corresponding authors to ask whether more validation efforts were performed other than those reported in the manuscripts. A total of 53 studies on seasonal influenza and 41 studies on early breast cancer were included in our review. The word validation was used in 16 studies (30 %) on seasonal influenza and 23 studies (56 %) on early breast cancer; however, in a minority of studies, this referred to a model validation technique. Fifty-seven percent of seasonal influenza studies and 71 % of early breast cancer studies reported one or more validation techniques. Cross-validation of study outcomes was found most often. A limited number of studies reported on model validation efforts, although good examples were identified. Author comments indicated that more validation techniques were performed than those reported in the manuscripts. Although validation is deemed important by many researchers, this is not reflected in the reporting habits of health economic modelling studies. Systematic reporting of validation efforts would be desirable to further enhance decision makers' confidence in health economic models and their outcomes.

  13. Blocking the benefit of group-based HIV-prevention efforts during adolescence: the problem of HIV-related stigma.

    PubMed

    Barker, David H; Swenson, Rebecca R; Brown, Larry K; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Diclemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to impede HIV-antibody testing and safer sexual practices in adults. Less is known about its effects on prevention programs among at-risk youth. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between HIV-stigma and HIV-knowledge following completion of a validated group-based intervention. Data were provided by 1,654 African-American adolescents who participated in a large multi-city prevention trial (Project iMPACCS). Participants were randomly assigned to an empirically-validated skill-based intervention or a general health promotion control group. Both stigma and knowledge were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results suggested that adolescents participating in the intervention showed improvements in knowledge and decreases in stigma when compared to controls. Improvements in stigma appeared to be partly driven by improvements in knowledge. Higher baseline stigma was shown to reduce gains in knowledge in both the treatment and control groups. Results suggest that HIV-stigma can interfere with how youth identify with and internalize messages from group-based prevention trials.

  14. A Qualitative Study of Acculturation and Diabetes Risk among Urban, Immigrant Latinas: Implications for Diabetes Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew J.; Shuman, Sara J.; Barrios, Dulce M.; Alos, Victor A.; Whitaker, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how acculturation influences diabetes risk among urban, immigrant Latinas (Hispanic women). Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 26 urban, immigrant Latinas who were at high clinical risk for developing diabetes. The focus group sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The authors independently analyzed transcripts using an inductive method of open coding, and themes were established by consensus among authors. Results All of the participants were foreign-born and had low levels of acculturation. During the acculturation process, they noted changes in their lifestyle behaviors and the family context in which those behaviors are shaped. They reported that since living in the U.S., their improved economic circumstances led to increased consumption of less healthy foods and beverages and a more sedentary lifestyle. They also described changing family roles and responsibilities, including working outside the home, which constrained healthy food choices. However, they perceived that their position of influence within the family offered opportunities to help family members prevent diabetes. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in Latinas should address their acculturation experiences, which impact family functioning and health behaviors related to diabetes risk. For example, given the perceived link between Latinas’ improved economic circumstances and their diabetes risk, prevention programs should incorporate strategies to help Latinas avoid adopting less healthy lifestyle behaviors that become affordable during the acculturation process. PMID:24872386

  15. Patterns of condom use among students at historically Black colleges and universities: implications for HIV prevention efforts among college-age young adults.

    PubMed

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Sutton, Madeline Y; Hardnett, Felicia P; Jones, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Over 1.1 million Americans are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and African-American youth and young adults are disproportionately affected. Condoms are the most effective prevention tool, yet data regarding condom use patterns for African-American college youth are lacking. To inform and strengthen HIV prevention strategies with African-American college-age youth, we surveyed students attending 24 historically Black colleges and universities regarding condom use patterns. Students were administered anonymous questionnaires online to explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to condom use during last sexual intercourse (LSI). Among 824 sexually active respondents (51.8% female, median age 20 years, 90.6% heterosexuals), 526 (63.8%) reported condom use during LSI. Students who used condoms for disease prevention, whose mothers completed high school or had some college education or completed college were more likely to have used a condom during LSI. Spontaneity of sexual encounters, not feeling at risk of HIV, and partner-related perceptions were associated with condom non-use during LSI (p<0.05). Over a third of our college youth sample did not use a condom during LSI and may benefit from increased condom education efforts. These efforts should highlight condoms' effectiveness in protection from HIV. Future HIV education and prevention strategies with similar groups of young adults should explore the implications of maternal education, clarify perceptions of HIV risk, and consider strategies that increase consistent condom use to interrupt sexual transmission of HIV.

  16. [Practice and experience in early clinical education of dental students in preventive dentistry].

    PubMed

    Tao, Dan-ying; Shu, Chen-bin; Pan, Ying; Feng, Xi-ping

    2013-02-01

    To help dental students acquaint the medical environment, doctor-patient communication and relationship, early clinic education was arranged in our college of stomatology. The interesting topics were chosen to enhance the learning enthusiasm of the students in the teaching practice of preventive dentistry. Students were encouraged to practice the skill of doctor-patient communication. To obtain the satisfactory teaching effect and aim, it was important to pay attention to the aspects in the groups and clinical practice. Early clinic education in preventive dentistry help the students understand the specialty of preventive dentistry.

  17. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Effortful Control, and Parenting as Predictors of Children's Sympathy across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54%…

  18. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: a joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans.

    PubMed

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Carbone, Pietro; Curran, Rhonda; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Khoshnood, Babak; Irgens, Lorentz; Mantovani, Alberto; Martínez-Frías, Maria Luisa; Neville, Amanda; Rißmann, Anke; Ruggeri, Stefania; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention to an integrated preventive strategy has led to the prevalence of CA remaining relatively stable in recent decades. The 2 European projects, EUROCAT and EUROPLAN, have joined efforts to provide the first science-based and comprehensive set of recommendations for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover, consideration is given to topics specifically related to CA (e.g. folate status, teratogens) as well as of broad public health impact (e.g. obesity, smoking) which call for specific attention to their relevance in the pre- and periconceptional period. The recommendations, reported entirely in this paper, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Corruption Early Prevention: Decision Support System for President of the Republic of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmoko; Widhoyoko, S. A.; Ariyanto, S.; Indrianti, Y.; Noerlina; Muqsith, A. M.; Alamsyah, M.

    2017-01-01

    Corruption is an extraordinary crime, and then the prevention must also be extraordinary, simultaneously (national) in the form of early warning that involves all elements; government, industry, and society. To realize it the system needs to be built which in this study is called the Corruption Early Prevention (CEP) as a Decision Support System for President of the Republic of Indonesia. This study aims to examine 1) how is the construct of the Corruption Early Prevention as a Decision Support System for President of the Republic of Indonesia?, and 2) how is the design form of the system of Corruption Early Prevention as a Decision Support System for President of Republic of Indonesia? The research method is using Neuro-Research which is the collaboration of qualitative and quantitative research methods and the model development of Information Technology (IT). The research found that: 1) the construct of CEP is theoretically feasible, valid and reliable by content to be developed in the context of the prevention of corruption in Indonesia as an early prevention system that diagnoses Indonesia simultaneously and in real time, and 2) the concept of system design and business process of CEP is predicted to be realized in the IT-based program.

  20. Generative Mechanisms in Early Childhood Interventions: A Confirmatory Research Framework for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the Five-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion.

  1. Generative Mechanisms in Early Childhood Interventions: A Confirmatory Research Framework for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches, and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the 5-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion. PMID:26497315

  2. Promoting and sustaining a historical and global effort to prevent sepsis: the 2018 World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign.

    PubMed

    Martischang, Romain; Pires, Daniela; Masson-Roy, Sarah; Saito, Hiroki; Pittet, Didier

    2018-04-13

    Sepsis is estimated to affect more than 30 million patients with potentially five million deaths every year worldwide. Prevention of sepsis, as well as early recognition, diagnosis and treatment, can't be overlooked to mitigate this global public health threat. World Health Organization (WHO) promotes hand hygiene in health care through its annual global campaign, SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands campaign on 5 May every year. The 2018 campaign targets sepsis with the overall theme "It's in your hands; prevent sepsis in health care".

  3. Outcomes Associated With Early Preventive Dental Care Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children in Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Morrisey, Michael A.; Sen, Bisakha

    2017-01-01

    Importance There is a recommendation for children to have a dental home by 6 months of age, but there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of early preventive dental care or whether primary care providers (PCPs) can deliver it. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of preventive dental care in reducing caries-related treatment visits among Medicaid enrollees. Design, Setting, and Participants High-dimensional propensity scores were used to address selection bias for a retrospective cohort study of children continuously enrolled in coverage from the Alabama Medicaid Agency from birth between 2008 and 2012, adjusting for demographics, access to care, and general health service use. Exposures Children receiving preventive dental care prior to age 2 years from PCPs or dentists vs no preventive dental care. Main Outcome and Measures Two-part models estimated caries-related treatment and expenditures. Results Among 19 658 eligible children, 25.8% (n = 3658) received early preventive dental care, of whom 44% were black, 37.6% were white, and 16.3% were Hispanic. Compared with matched children without early preventive dental care, children with dentist-delivered preventive dental care more frequently had a subsequent caries-related treatment (20.6% vs 11.3%, P < .001), higher rate of visits (0.29 vs 0.15 per child-year, P < .001), and greater dental expenditures ($168 vs $87 per year, P < .001). Dentist-delivered preventive dental care was associated with an increase in the expected number of caries-related treatment visits by 0.14 per child per year (95% CI, 0.11-0.16) and caries-related treatment expenditures by $40.77 per child per year (95% CI, $30.48-$51.07). Primary care provider–delivered preventive dental care did not significantly affect caries-related treatment use or expenditures. Conclusions and Relevance Children with early preventive care visits from dentists were more likely to have subsequent dental care, including caries

  4. Initial Weight Loss Response as an Indicator for Providing Early Rescue Efforts to Improve Long-term Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Unick, Jessica L; Pellegrini, Christine A; Demos, Kathryn E; Dorfman, Leah

    2017-09-01

    There is a large variability in response to behavioral weight loss (WL) programs. Reducing rates of obesity and diabetes may require more individuals to achieve clinically significant WL post-treatment. Given that WL within the first 1-2 months of a WL program is associated with long-term WL, it may be possible to improve treatment outcomes by identifying and providing additional intervention to those with poor initial success (i.e., "early non-responders"). We review the current literature regarding early non-response to WL programs and discuss how adaptive interventions can be leveraged as a strategy to "rescue" early non-responders. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive interventions, specifically stepped care approaches, offer promise for improving outcomes among early non-responders. Future studies need to determine the optimal time point and threshold for intervening and the type of early intervention to employ. Clinicians and researchers should consider the discussed factors when making treatment decisions.

  5. A WIC-based intervention to prevent early childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Shannon E; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis of variance tests showed that the intervention had a small but significant impact on TV watching and fruit intake. The intervention was most protective for children younger than 2 years of age. Although the impact of the intervention was relatively small and limited to the youngest children served by WIC, findings suggest that the WIC setting is appropriate for improving healthful behaviors that are linked to reducing the rates of early childhood overweight. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. German tobacco industry's successful efforts to maintain scientific and political respectability to prevent regulation of secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Bornhäuser, A; McCarthy, J; Glantz, S A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the tactics the tobacco industry in Germany used to avoid regulation of secondhand smoke exposure and to maintain the acceptance of public smoking. Methods Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available on the internet between June 2003 and August 2004. Results In West Germany, policymakers were, as early as the mid 1970s, well aware of the fact that secondhand smoke endangers non‐smokers. One might have assumed that Germany, an international leader in environmental protection, would have led in protecting her citizens against secondhand smoke pollution. The tobacco manufacturers in Germany, however, represented by the national manufacturing organisation “Verband” (Verband der Cigarettenindustrie), contained and neutralised the early debate about the danger of secondhand smoke. This success was achieved by carefully planned collaboration with selected scientists, health professionals and policymakers, along with a sophisticated public relations programme. Conclusions The strategies of the tobacco industry have been largely successful in inhibiting the regulation of secondhand smoke in Germany. Policymakers, health professionals, the media and the general public should be aware of this industry involvement and should take appropriate steps to close the gap between what is known and what is done about the health effects of secondhand smoke. PMID:16565444

  7. The Fruitless Effort of Growing a Fruitless Tree: Early Morpho-Orthographic and Morpho-Semantic Effects in Sentence Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amenta, Simona; Marelli, Marco; Crepaldi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    In this eye-tracking study, we investigated how semantics inform morphological analysis at the early stages of visual word identification in sentence reading. We exploited a feature of several derived Italian words, that is, that they can be read in a "morphologically transparent" way or in a "morphologically opaque" way…

  8. Possible prevention of chronic hepatitis B by early interferon therapy.

    PubMed

    Trépo, C; Chemin, I; Petit, M A; Chossegros, P; Zoulim, F; Chevallier, P; Sepetjan, M

    1990-01-01

    A study is currently underway to investigate the efficacy of interferon therapy in patients with prolonged (greater than or equal to 10 weeks but less than 6 months) hepatitis B infection. To date, a total of 15 patients have been enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to receive either placebo for 24 weeks (n = 8) or interferon 5 million units subcutaneously 3 times a week for 24 weeks (n = 7), with follow up for 1 year. Thirteen patients have completed the follow-up period: seven patients in the placebo group and six in the treated group. Five of the six treated patients completely eradicated the infection during interferon therapy, with clearance of hepatitis B e and surface antigens, and seroconversion to antibody positivity in each case. Two of the eight placebo patients seroconverted during the placebo period. Clearance of hepatitis B e antigen was associated with a sudden rise in serum transaminase levels and an exacerbation of hepatitis, a phenomenon that has also been reported in chronic hepatitis B patients who have responded well to interferon therapy. Therapy was well tolerated in all cases. Our results suggest that interferon treatment of patients with prolonged hepatitis B infection may prevent progression to chronicity. If confirmed by further study, they should trigger more vigilant screening for patients with raised serum transaminase levels and viral markers of hepatitis B infection.

  9. Locating the Places People Meet New Sexual Partners in a Southern US City to Inform HIV/STI Prevention and Testing Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maria R.; Tisdale, Caroline; Norcott, Kathy; Duncan, Jesse; Kaplan, Andrew M.; Weir, Sharon S.

    2012-01-01

    Places where people meet new sex partners can be venues for the delivery of individual and environmental interventions that aim to reduce transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Using the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) methodology we identified and characterized venues where people in a southeastern US city with high prevalence of both HIV and STI go to meet new sexual partners. A total of 123 community informants identified 143 public, private and commercial venues where people meet sex partners. Condoms were available at 14% of the venues, although 48% of venue representatives expressed a willingness to host HIV prevention efforts. Interviews with 373 people (229 men, 144 women) socializing at a random sample of 54 venues found high rates of HIV risk behaviors including concurrent sexual partnerships, transactional sex and illicit substance abuse. Risk behaviors were more common among those at certain venue types including those that may be overlooked by public health outreach efforts. The systematic methodology used was successful in locating venues where risky encounters are established and reveal opportunities for targeted HIV prevention and testing programs as well as research. PMID:20614175

  10. A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity--Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program).

    PubMed

    Sobko, Tanja; Svensson, Viktoria; Ek, Anna; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Karlsson, Håkan; Johansson, Elin; Cao, Yingting; Hagströmer, Maria; Marcus, Claude

    2011-05-18

    Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC) within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse). The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity/reduced sedentary behaviors and normalizing

  11. Bloodstream infection rates in outpatient hemodialysis facilities participating in a collaborative prevention effort: a quality improvement report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priti R; Yi, Sarah H; Booth, Stephanie; Bren, Virginia; Downham, Gemma; Hess, Sally; Kelley, Karen; Lincoln, Mary; Morrissette, Kathy; Lindberg, Curt; Jernigan, John A; Kallen, Alexander J

    2013-08-01

    Bloodstream infections (BSIs) cause substantial morbidity in hemodialysis patients. In 2009, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sponsored a collaborative project to prevent BSIs in outpatient hemodialysis facilities. We sought to assess the impact of a set of interventions on BSI and access-related BSI rates in participating facilities using data reported to the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Quality improvement project. Patients in 17 outpatient hemodialysis facilities that volunteered to participate. Facilities reported monthly event and denominator data to NHSN, received guidance from the CDC, and implemented an evidence-based intervention package that included chlorhexidine use for catheter exit-site care, staff training and competency assessments focused on catheter care and aseptic technique, hand hygiene and vascular access care audits, and feedback of infection and adherence rates to staff. Crude and modeled BSI and access-related BSI rates. Up to 12 months of preintervention (January 2009 through December 2009) and 15 months of intervention period (January 2010 through March 2011) data from participating centers were analyzed. Segmented regression analysis was used to assess changes in BSI and access-related BSI rates during the preintervention and intervention periods. Most (65%) participating facilities were hospital based. Pooled mean BSI and access-related BSI rates were 1.09 and 0.73 events per 100 patient-months during the preintervention period and 0.89 and 0.42 events per 100 patient-months during the intervention period, respectively. Modeled rates decreased 32% (P = 0.01) for BSIs and 54% (P < 0.001) for access-related BSIs at the start of the intervention period. Participating facilities were not representative of all outpatient hemodialysis centers nationally. There was no control arm to this quality improvement project. Facilities participating in a collaborative successfully decreased their BSI and

  12. Transdermal Nitroglycerin Therapy May Not Prevent Early Postmenopausal Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J.; Grimes, Julia P.; Wilson, Alan C.; Hoover, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Osteoporosis is common among postmenopausal women; animal studies and human pilot studies support the concept of nitric oxide (NO) donors reducing bone mineral density loss. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether NO donor, nitroglycerin, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. Design: This was a 3-yr randomized, double blinded, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: The single-center study was conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (New Brunswick, NJ). Participants: Participants included 186 postmenopausal women aged 40–65 yr, with lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores of 0 to −2.5. Intervention: Women, stratified by lumbar T-score (<−1.50 and ≥−1.50) and years since menopause (≤5 and >5 yr), were randomized to receive nitroglycerin ointment (22.5 mg as Nitro-Bid) or placebo ointment received daily for 3 yr. Both groups took 630 mg daily calcium plus 400 IU vitamin D supplements. Measurements: BMD was measured at 6 months and annually by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Percent change in lumbar vertebrae BMD was the primary outcome. Hip BMD, total body bone mineral content, and height were secondary outcomes. Results: After 36 months of therapy, changes of −2.1% in the active group (n = 88) and −2.5% in the placebo group (n = 82) in lumbar spine BMD were seen (P = 0.59; 95% confidence interval −1.001, 1.975). Secondary outcomes also did not differ by intervention arm. The active group reported more headaches compared with the placebo group (57 vs. 14%, P < 0.001). Other adverse and serious adverse events were not different. Conclusions: BMD changes did not substantially differ between postmenopausal women who received the dose of nitroglycerin tested, in comparison with a placebo. Once-daily dosing with 22.5 mg of transdermal-administered nitroglycerin was not effective (compliance adjusted dose was only ∼16 mg/d); a sub-therapeutic dose. PMID

  13. Findings and lessons learned from a multi-partner collaboration to increase cervical cancer prevention efforts in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Analia R; Espey, David; Glenn, Jeffrey; Lara-Prieto, Elisa; Moreno, Amanda; Nuñez, Fernando; Padilla, Haydee; Waxman, Alan; Flowers, Lisa; Santos, Carlos; Soria, Milton; Luciani, Silvana; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among women in Bolivia, where cytology based screening has not performed well due to health-systems constraints. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Pan American Health Organization partnered with the Bolivian Ministry of Health and the Peruvian Cancer Institute (INEN) to build capacity in Bolivia for the use of visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy. Four 5-day courses on basic clinical skills to perform these procedures, provide related counseling, and manage side effects and infections were conducted from September 2010 to December 2012 for 61 Bolivian nurses and physicians. Of these courses, two were conducted by Bolivian trainers that were certified through a Training-of-Trainers course taught by the INEN. Classroom didactic sessions included lectures and practice with anatomic models followed by clinical practice sessions to provide trainees with practical experience in VIA and cryotherapy. Pre- and post-training evaluations were administered to ascertain knowledge gained. Evaluation of competency was conducted during simulation exercises in the classroom and during supervised performances of procedures in clinical settings. This report summarizes findings and lessons learned that will be useful for planning the supervision and monitoring phase of this project as well as for future partnerships in the Latin American and the Caribbean region.

  14. Point-Counterpoint: Active surveillance for carriers of toxigenic Clostridium difficile should be performed to guide prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    McDonald, L Clifford; Diekema, Daniel J

    2018-05-16

    In 2017, we published a point-counterpoint on laboratory diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). At that time, Drs Ferric Fang, Christopher Polage, and Mark Wilcox discussed the strategies for diagnosing Clostridium difficile colitis in symptomatic patients. Since that manuscript new guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of American and the Society for Health Care Epidemiology have been published (1) and healthcare systems have begun to explore screening asymptomatic patients for C. difficile colonization. The theory behind screening selected patient populations for C. difficile colonization is that these patients represent a substantial reservoir of the bacteria and can transfer the bacteria to other patients. Hospital administrators are taking note of institutional CDI rates because they are publicly reported. They have become an important metric impacting hospital safety ratings and value-based purchasing where hospitals may have millions of dollars of reimbursement at risk. In this point-counterpoint, Cliff McDonald, of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, will discuss the value of asymptomatic C. difficile screening, while Dan Diekema, of the University of Iowa, will discuss why caution should be used. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  15. An Examination of Participants Who Develop an Eating Disorder Despite Completing an Eating Disorder Prevention Program: Implications for Improving the Yield of Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n=20) to those who did not (n=216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.08), negative affect (η2=0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η2=0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η2=0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre–post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026

  16. Tracking the Evolution of HIV/AIDS in China from 1989–2009 to Inform Future Prevention and Control Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ray Y.; Li, Dongmin; Wang, Lan; Qin, Qianqian; Ding, Zhengwei; Ding, Guowei; Zang, Chunpeng; Wang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. Methods and Principal Findings A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989–2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44%) and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women) as well as among permanent (36%) and urban residents (33%). Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. Conclusions/Significance Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants. PMID:21998679

  17. Early behavioral intervention, brain plasticity, and the prevention of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Advances in the fields of cognitive and affective developmental neuroscience, developmental psychopathology, neurobiology, genetics, and applied behavior analysis have contributed to a more optimistic outcome for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These advances have led to new methods for early detection and more effective treatments. For the first time, prevention of ASD is plausible. Prevention will entail detecting infants at risk before the full syndrome is present and implementing treatments designed to alter the course of early behavioral and brain development. This article describes a developmental model of risk, risk processes, symptom emergence, and adaptation in ASD that offers a framework for understanding early brain plasticity in ASD and its role in prevention of the disorder.

  18. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and testing of a novel survey to assess Stakeholder-driven Community Diffusion of childhood obesity prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Korn, Ariella R; Hennessy, Erin; Hammond, Ross A; Allender, Steven; Gillman, Matthew W; Kasman, Matt; McGlashan, Jaimie; Millar, Lynne; Owen, Brynle; Pachucki, Mark C; Swinburn, Boyd; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D

    2018-05-31

    Involving groups of community stakeholders (e.g., steering committees) to lead community-wide health interventions appears to support multiple outcomes ranging from policy and systems change to individual biology. While numerous tools are available to measure stakeholder characteristics, many lack detail on reliability and validity, are not context specific, and may not be sensitive enough to capture change over time. This study describes the development and reliability of a novel survey to measure Stakeholder-driven Community Diffusion via assessment of stakeholders' social networks, knowledge, and engagement about childhood obesity prevention. This study was completed in three phases. Phase 1 included conceptualization and online survey development through literature reviews and expert input. Phase 2 included a retrospective study with stakeholders from two completed whole-of-community interventions. Between May-October 2015, 21 stakeholders from the Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp interventions recalled their social networks, knowledge, and engagement pre-post intervention. We also assessed one-week test-retest reliability of knowledge and engagement survey modules among Shape Up Somerville respondents. Phase 3 included survey modifications and a second prospective reliability assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed in May 2016 among 13 stakeholders involved in ongoing interventions in Victoria, Australia. In Phase 1, we developed a survey with 7, 20 and 50 items for the social networks, knowledge, and engagement survey modules, respectively. In the Phase 2 retrospective study, Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp networks included 99 and 54 individuals. Pre-post Shape Up Somerville and Romp & Chomp mean knowledge scores increased by 3.5 points (95% CI: 0.35-6.72) and (- 0.42-7.42). Engagement scores did not change significantly (Shape Up Somerville: 1.1 points (- 0.55-2.73); Romp & Chomp: 0.7 points (- 0.43-1.73)). Intraclass correlation

  20. Assessment of a lecture on cancer prevention and the early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Banner, William P; Booroojian, Stefani; Hernandez, Lori; Lopez, Brad; Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2002-01-01

    Cancer prevention and the early detection can affect morbidity and mortality. Through educational programs, recommendations for beneficial lifestyle changes and cancer screening may be introduced to the public. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a videotaped lecture concerning cancer prevention and early detection is of educational value. College students in a health science class participated in the study. The students' comprehension of the subject matter was assessed immediately before and a week after they viewed the lecture. The students' scores on the second test were significantly better as measured by a paired-difference experiment. This videotaped lecture has merit as an educational program.

  1. Effect of training pediatricians and family physicians in early childhood caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the effect of postresidency early childhood caries prevention training on physicians' oral health knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns and to identify variations by type of training. We conducted pre- and post-training surveys of pediatricians and family physicians in Florida. Paired t test and repeated-measures ANOVA analyses were used to compare physicians with no oral health training, those with applied in-office training, and those with another type of training on 5 composite measures: fluoride knowledge, nonfluoride oral health knowledge, confidence in advising parents, confidence in conducting oral health screening and caries risk assessment, and frequency in performing recommended oral health practices. The final sample included 229 physicians (162 pediatricians and 67 family physicians). The interaction in the repeated-measures ANOVA between group (training category) and time (pre- and post-training) was significant for the nonfluoride knowledge [F(2, 225) = 4.1, P = .02] and confidence in screening [F(2, 224) = 4.1, P = .02] composite measures, lending support for a positive treatment effect of training on these domains. Greater gains were observed among physicians with in-office training compared with those who received another type of training. A statistically significant treatment effect on oral health practices was not detected. Efforts to engage physicians in oral health training and to incorporate applied components in training curricula may improve physicians' oral health knowledge and increase their confidence in conducting oral health screenings and caries risk assessments. Additional research is needed to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of different training modalities on specific oral health practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  3. Comparison of the Effects of the US Clean Air Act and of Smoking Prevention and Cessation Efforts on the Risk of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Felicia; Lioy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We used 2 approaches based on published information to compare the impacts on leukemia incidence and benzene exposure of the 1990 US Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments and smoking prevention and cessation efforts. Methods. We extrapolated leukemia mortality related to community air pollution levels and to cigarette smoking from data from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Surgeon General. We also estimated relative decline in total exposures to benzene (a known human leukemogen) owing to the CAA amendments and to smoking prevention and cessation efforts. Results. We estimated that because of the CAA, there will be approximately 300 fewer leukemia deaths in the United States during the period 2000 through 2020. During the closest comparable period (1987–2007), we estimated that decline in cigarette smoking led to 7120 fewer leukemia deaths, of which 1282 to 3702 were attributable to benzene. Similarly, the decline in smoking led to about a tenfold greater decrease in total-population benzene exposure than did the 1990 CAA amendments. Conclusions. Both the CAA and smoking cessation activities contribute to a decrease in leukemia incidence. Smoking cessation activities have had a greater effect in the past. PMID:22021318

  4. Comparison of the effects of the US Clean Air Act and of smoking prevention and cessation efforts on the risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Bernard D; Liu, Yan; Wu, Felicia; Lioy, Paul

    2011-12-01

    We used 2 approaches based on published information to compare the impacts on leukemia incidence and benzene exposure of the 1990 US Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments and smoking prevention and cessation efforts. We extrapolated leukemia mortality related to community air pollution levels and to cigarette smoking from data from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Surgeon General. We also estimated relative decline in total exposures to benzene (a known human leukemogen) owing to the CAA amendments and to smoking prevention and cessation efforts. We estimated that because of the CAA, there will be approximately 300 fewer leukemia deaths in the United States during the period 2000 through 2020. During the closest comparable period (1987-2007), we estimated that decline in cigarette smoking led to 7120 fewer leukemia deaths, of which 1282 to 3702 were attributable to benzene. Similarly, the decline in smoking led to about a tenfold greater decrease in total-population benzene exposure than did the 1990 CAA amendments. Both the CAA and smoking cessation activities contribute to a decrease in leukemia incidence. Smoking cessation activities have had a greater effect in the past.

  5. Integrating Early Child Development and Violence Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C.; Wuermli, Alice J.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2018-01-01

    Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in…

  6. Cross-National Perspectives on Early Adolescence: Implications and Strategies for Public Health Prevention and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swahn, Monica H.

    2012-01-01

    The current special issue brings together intriguing and important cross-country comparisons of issues pertinent to early adolescence that can inform the design and implementation of broader and relevant public health prevention strategies. The findings illustrate the importance of cross-country analyses for better understanding a range of…

  7. Obesity Prevention Interventions in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings with Parental Involvement: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie

    2015-01-01

    Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…

  8. School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances: Early Preventative Interventions. Psychosocial Stress Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Kathleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…

  9. Feedback Facilitated Relaxation Training as Primary Prevention of Drug Abuse in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Richard

    1977-01-01

    As a means of primary prevention this paper suggests the use of relaxation training to develop self-esteem and reduce drug abuse. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of relaxation training and electromyography and focus this approach on the needs of early adolescents. (Author)

  10. Developing a Framework of System Change between Diametric and Concentric Spaces for Early School Leaving Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A "spatial turn" is observed as taking place across a range of disciplines. This article discusses the relevance of this "spatial turn" to the issue of early school leaving prevention and engagement of marginalised students and their parents within the educational system and other support services. Building on…

  11. Aligning HIV/AIDS communication with the oral tradition of Africans: a theory-based content analysis of songs' potential in prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design.

  12. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    PubMed

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  13. Preventing Marketing Efforts That Bomb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    In a marketplace overwhelmed with messages, too many institutions waste money on ineffective marketing. Highlights five common marketing errors: limited definition of marketing; unwillingness to address strategic issues; no supporting data; fuzzy goals and directions; and unrealistic expectations, time lines, and budgets. Though trustees are not…

  14. Prevention and Early Detection of Occupational Cancers - a View of Information Technology Solutions.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Azadmanjir, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of people die each year from cancer due to occupational causes. To reduce cancer in workers, preventive strategies should be used in the high-risk workplace. The effective prevention of occupational cancer requires knowledge of carcinogen agents. Like other areas of healthcare industry, occupational health has been affected by information technology solutions to improve prevention, early detection, treatment and finally the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the healthcare system. Information technology solutions are thus an important issue in the healthcare field. Information about occupational cancer in information systems is important for policy makers, managers, physicians, patients and researchers; because examples that include high quality data about occupational cancer patients and occupational cancer causes are able to determine the worker groups which require special attention. As a result exposed workers who are vulnerable can undergo screening and be considered for preventive interventions.

  15. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-09-13

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention.

  16. Effects of early prevention programs on adult criminal offending: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deković, Maja; Slagt, Meike I; Asscher, Jessica J; Boendermaker, Leonieke; Eichelsheim, Veroni I; Prinzie, Peter

    2011-06-01

    This meta-analysis investigated the long term effects of prevention programs conducted during early and middle childhood on criminal offending during adulthood. The analyses included 3611 participants in 9 programs. The effect size for adult criminal offending was significant, but small in magnitude (OR=1.26; 95% CI=1.06-1.50, p=.011). The effects of the programs on positive outcomes (academic attainment and involvement in productive activity, such as being engaged in school or work) were somewhat larger and more consistent than effects on crime (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.20-1.55, p<.001). Several participant and program characteristics moderated the effectiveness of (early) prevention. Children who were more at-risk and those from a lower SES benefited more. Shorter, but more intensive programs, and programs that focus on social and behavioral skills, rather than on academic skills or family support, tend to produce larger effects. Taken together, these results indicate that early prevention programs can help put children on a more positive developmental trajectory that is maintained into adulthood, but there is still no convincing evidence that they can prevent adult crime. Implications of the findings for research, policy and clinical practice are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic Evaluation of Obesity Prevention in Early Childhood: Methods, Limitations and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Döring, Nora; Mayer, Susanne; Rasmussen, Finn; Sonntag, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Despite methodological advances in the field of economic evaluations of interventions, economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood are seldom conducted. The aim of the present study was to explore existing methods and applications of economic evaluations, examining their limitations and making recommendations for future cost-effectiveness assessments. A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane Library, the British National Health Service Economic Evaluation Databases and EconLit. Eligible studies included trial-based or simulation-based cost-effectiveness analyses of obesity prevention programmes targeting preschool children and/or their parents. The quality of included studies was assessed. Of the six studies included, five were intervention studies and one was based on a simulation approach conducted on secondary data. We identified three main conceptual and methodological limitations of their economic evaluations: Insufficient conceptual approach considering the complexity of childhood obesity, inadequate measurement of effects of interventions, and lack of valid instruments to measure child-related quality of life and costs. Despite the need for economic evaluations of obesity prevention programmes in early childhood, only a few studies of varying quality have been conducted. Moreover, due to methodological and conceptual weaknesses, they offer only limited information for policy makers and intervention providers. We elaborate reasons for the limitations of these studies and offer guidance for designing better economic evaluations of early obesity prevention. PMID:27649218

  18. Maternal sensitivity and effortful control in early childhood as predictors of adolescents' adjustment: The mediating roles of peer group affiliation and social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-06-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent behaviors via childhood social behaviors and peer group affiliation. Data at 54 months, Grade 3 (M age = 9.03, SD = .31), Grade 6 (M age = 11.95, SD = .34), and Grade 9 (M age = 15.57, SD = .78) from the NICHD SECCYD longitudinal investigation of 1,364 participants (52% boys) was analyzed. Overall, results yielded evidence that maternal sensitivity and child temperament at 54 months of age predicted prosocial, aggressive, and delinquent outcomes at age 15. Affiliation with peer groups (especially with prosocial peers) and social behaviors in childhood mediated the aforementioned paths for effortful control, but not for maternal sensitivity. Discussion focuses on the implications for understanding the long-term effects of early childhood predictors on behavioral outcomes in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Pressure Ulcer Preventive Device Use Among Elderly Patients Early in the Hospital Stay

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Shayna E.; Shardell, Michelle; Margolis, David; Baumgarten, Mona

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines for the prevention of pressure ulcers advise that pressure-reducing devices should be used for all patients at risk of or with pressure ulcers and that all pressure ulcers should be documented in the patient record. Adherence to these guidelines among elderly hospital patients early in the hospital stay has not been examined in prior studies. Objective The objective of this study was to examine adherence to guidelines by determining the frequency and correlates of use of preventive devices early in the hospital stay of elderly patients and by determining the frequency and correlates of recording pressure ulcers in the patient record. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 792 patients aged 65 years or older admitted through the emergency department to the inpatient medical service at two teaching hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, between 1998 and 2001. Patients were examined by a research nurse on Hospital Day 3 (median of 48 hours after admission) to determine the use of preventive devices, presence of pressure ulcers, and risk of pressure ulcers (by Norton scale). Data on additional risk factors were obtained from the admission nursing assessment in the patient record. Data on documentation of pressure ulcers were obtained by chart abstraction. Results Only 15% of patients had any preventive devices in use at the time of the examination. Among patients considered at risk of pressure ulcers (Norton score ≤14), only 51% had a preventive device. In multivariable analyses, high risk of pressure ulcers was associated with use of preventive devices (odds ratio = 41.8, 95% confidence interval = 14.0–124.6), whereas the type and stage of pressure ulcer were not. Documentation of a pressure ulcer was present for only 68% of patients who had a pressure ulcer according to the research examination. Discussion Use of preventive devices and documentation of pressure ulcers are suboptimal even among patients at high risk. PMID

  20. Comparison Of Efficacy Of Phenytoin And Levetiracetam For Prevention Of Early Post Traumatic Seizures.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Bhatti, Sajid Nazir; Khan, Aftab Alam; Khan Afridi, Ehtisham Ahmed; Muhammad, Gul; Gul, Nasim; Zadran, Khalid Khan; Alam, Sudhair; Aurangzeb, Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of early post-traumatic seizures after civilian traumatic brain injury ranges 4-25%. The control of early post-traumatic seizure is mandatory because these acute insults may add secondary damage to the already damaged brain with poor outcome. Prophylactic use of anti-epileptic drugs have been found to be have variable efficacy against early post-traumatic seizures. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of Phenytion and Levetiracetam in prevention of early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad from March, 2012 to March 2013. The patients with moderate to severe head injury were randomly allocated in two groups. Patients in group A were given phenytoin and patients in group B were given Levetiracetam. Patients were followed for one week to detect efficacy of drug in terms of early post traumatic seizures. The 154 patients included in the study were equally divided into two groups. Out of 154 patients 115 (74.7%) were male while 29 (25.3%) were females. Age of patients ranges from 7-48 (24.15±9.56) years. Ninety one (59.1%) patients had moderate head injury while 63 (40.9%) patients had severe head injury. Phenytoin was effective in preventing early post traumatic seizures in 73 (94.8%) patients whereas Levetiracetam effectively controlled seizures in 70 (90.95%) cases (p-value of .348). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy of Phenytoin and Levetiracetam in prophylaxis of early posttraumatic seizures in cases of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

  1. Prevention and early intervention for behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Einfeld, Stewart L; Tonge, Bruce J; Clarke, Kristina S

    2013-05-01

    To review the recent evidence regarding early intervention and prevention studies for children with developmental disabilities and behaviour problems from 2011 to 2013. Recent advances in the field are discussed and important areas for future research are highlighted. Recent reviews and studies highlight the utility of antecedent interventions and skills training interventions for reducing behaviour problems. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of parent training interventions when delivered in minimally sufficient formats or in clinical settings. Two recent studies have demonstrated the utility of behavioural interventions for children with genetic causes of disability. Various forms of behavioural and parent training interventions are effective at reducing the behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities. However, research on prevention and early intervention continues to be relatively scarce. Further large-scale dissemination studies and effectiveness studies in clinical or applied settings are needed.

  2. Mental health: early intervention and prevention in children and young people.

    PubMed

    Membride, Heather

    It is estimated that 10% of children and young people have mental health problems so significant that they impact not only on their day-to-day life but, if left untreated, they will continue into adulthood. In this article, the author discusses mental health issues affecting children and young people and examines evidence-based early intervention and prevention programmes that have been shown to support better outcomes for children, young people and their families.

  3. Are both early egg introduction and eczema treatment necessary for primary prevention of egg allergy?

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Mori, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Celine; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa

    2018-06-01

    The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy (LEAP) study proved that early introduction of peanut significantly prevented the development of peanut allergy. However, in regard to similar attempts to prevent egg allergy through early egg introduction, the Prevention of Egg Allergy in High-risk Infants with Eczema (PETIT) study is the only randomized intervention trial to show a statistically significant effect. Meta-analysis of those studies indicated that neither the total amount nor pretreatment of egg showed any effect on egg allergy at the age of 12 months. However, raw egg powder resulted in a significantly higher prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction, whereas use of boiled egg was much safer. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis/eczema at introduction of egg correlated significantly with the subsequent prevalence of allergic reactions at initial introduction. In addition, the prevalence of egg allergy in the late introduction group correlated significantly with the prevalence of atopic dermatitis at introduction, even when the atopic dermatitis was proactively treated with a topical corticosteroid ointment. It is definitely true that the number of trials and number of participants in each trial are insufficient for drawing firm conclusions, especially regarding the optimal dose, raw versus boiled, when to start, and for whom to intervene. Therefore we propose various studies that should be performed to generate stronger data and conclusions. However, on the basis of the most recent results, we postulate that simultaneous intervention by both early boiled egg introduction and eczema treatment is probably indispensable for primary prevention of egg allergy. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Uric acid lowering to prevent kidney function loss in diabetes: the preventing early renal function loss (PERL) allopurinol study.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Caramori, Luiza; Cherney, David Z I; Galecki, Andrzej T; Gao, Chuanyun; Jalal, Diana; Perkins, Bruce A; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Rossing, Peter; Mauer, Michael; Doria, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic kidney disease causes significant morbidity and mortality among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive glucose and blood pressure control have thus far failed to adequately curb this problem and therefore a major need for novel treatment approaches exists. Multiple observations link serum uric acid levels to kidney disease development and progression in diabetes and strongly argue that uric acid lowering should be tested as one such novel intervention. A pilot of such a trial, using allopurinol, is currently being conducted by the Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Consortium. Although the PERL trial targets T1D individuals at highest risk of kidney function decline, the use of allopurinol as a renoprotective agent may also be relevant to a larger segment of the population with diabetes. As allopurinol is inexpensive and safe, it could be cost-effective even for relatively low-risk patients, pending the completion of appropriate trials at earlier stages.

  5. Preventing Weight Gain and Obesity: Indirect Effects of the Family Check-Up in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Montaño, Zorash; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2014-01-01

    The early signs of obesity are observable in early childhood. Although the most promising prevention approaches are family centered, few relevant early prevention programs exist. This study evaluated the effects of an evidence-based, home-visiting intervention, the Family Check-Up (FCU), on the trajectory of children’s weight gain. The FCU was designed to prevent the development of behavior problems by improving family management practices; children’s weight has not been an explicit target. On the basis of previous research and conceptual models, we hypothesized that intervention effects on parenting practices, specifically caregivers’ use of positive behavior support (PBS) strategies in toddlerhood, would mediate improvements in children’s weight trajectories. A total of 731 indigent caregiver–child dyads from a multisite randomized intervention trial were examined. Observational assessment of parenting and mealtime behaviors occurred from age 2 to 5. The child’s body mass index (BMI) was assessed yearly from age 5 to 9.5. Path analysis with a latent growth model revealed a significant indirect effect of the FCU on the trajectory of BMI in later childhood. Improvements in caregivers’ PBS in toddlerhood, which was related to the nutritional quality of the meals caregivers served to the child during the mealtime task, served as the intervening process. Further, findings indicate that the FCU prevents progression to overweight and obese status amongst at-risk children. These study results add to existing evidence that has demonstrated that family-based interventions aimed at improving general family management skills are effective at preventing weight gain. Future directions are discussed. PMID:25263212

  6. Impact of early complications on outcomes in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Ascoeta, Maria Soledad; Marijon, Eloi; Defaye, Pascal; Klug, Didier; Beganton, Frankie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Gras, Daniel; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique; Bordachar, Pierre; Sadoul, Nicolas; Boveda, Serge; Piot, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    The lifesaving benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) has been demonstrated. Their use has increased considerably in the past decade, but related complications have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and effect on outcomes of early (≤30 days) complications after ICD implantation for primary prevention in a large French population. We analyzed data from 5539 patients from the multicenter French DAI-PP (Défibrillateur Automatique Implantable-Prévention Primaire) registry (2002-2012) who had coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy and were implanted with an ICD for primary prevention. Overall, early complications occurred in 707 patients (13.5%), mainly related to lead dislodgment or hematoma (57%). Independent factors associated with occurrence of early complications were severe renal impairment (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.37, P = .02), age ≥75 years (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, P = .03), cardiac resynchronization therapy (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.17, P = .01), and anticoagulant therapy (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.61, P = .03). During a mean ± SD follow-up of 3.1 ± 2.3 years, 824 (15.8%) patients experienced ≥1 late complication (>30 days), and 782 (14.9%) patients died. After adjustment, early complications remained associated with occurrence of late complications (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.73-2.66, P < .0001) and mortality (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.34-2.17, P = .003). Early complications are common after ICD implantation for primary prevention, occurring in 1 in 7 patients, and are associated with an increased risk of late complications and overall mortality. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of such associations. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of the Preschool Version of the First Step to Success Early Intervention Program for Preventing Antisocial Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, Seçil; Arikan, Azru; Diken, Ibrahim H.; Aksoy, Funda; Çolak, Aysun; Tomris, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    Preventing antisocial behaviors appearing at an early age--before they become chronic--through effective early intervention programs, has become an important issue in recent years. In Turkey, the increase in the number of children at risk of antisocial behavior makes it necessary to get these behaviors under control at an early age through some…

  8. Effortful echolalia.

    PubMed

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  9. Falls and Fall Prevention in Older Adults With Early-Stage Dementia: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Lach, Helen W; Harrison, Barbara E; Phongphanngam, Sutthida

    2017-05-01

    Older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage dementia have an increased risk of falling, with risks to their health and quality of life. The purpose of the current integrative review was to evaluate evidence on fall risk and fall prevention in this population. Studies were included if they examined falls or fall risk factors in older adults with MCI or early-stage dementia, or reported interventions in this population; 40 studies met criteria. Evidence supports the increased risk of falls in individuals even in the early stages of dementia or MCI, and changes in gait, balance, and fear of falling that may be related to this increased fall risk. Interventions included exercise and multifactorial interventions that demonstrated some potential to reduce falls in this population. Few studies had strong designs to provide evidence for recommendations. Further study in this area is warranted. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(03):139-148.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. An Imbalance of Approach and Effortful Control Predicts Externalizing Problems: Support for Extending the Dual-Systems Model into Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Katherine; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2018-01-25

    Although the association between deficits in effortful control and later externalizing behavior is well established, many researchers (Nigg Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3-4), 395-422, 2006; Steinberg Developmental Review, 28(1), 78-106, 2008) have hypothesized this association is actually the product of the imbalance of dual systems, or two underlying traits: approach and self-regulation. Very little research, however, has deployed a statistically robust strategy to examine that compelling model; further, no research has done so using behavioral measures, particularly in longitudinal studies. We examined the imbalance of approach and self-regulation (effortful control, EC) as predicting externalizing problems. Latent trait models of approach and EC were derived from behavioral measures collected from 102 children in a community sample at 25, 38, 52, and 67 months (2 to 5 ½ years), and used to predict externalizing behaviors, modeled as a latent trait derived from parent-reported measures at 80, 100, 123, and 147 months (6 ½ to 12 years). The imbalance hypothesis was supported: Children with an imbalance of approach and EC had more externalizing behavior problems in middle childhood and early preadolescence, relative to children with equal levels of the two traits.

  11. Cyclooxygenase inhibition targets neurons to prevent early behavioural decline in Alzheimer’s disease model mice

    PubMed Central

    Woodling, Nathaniel S.; Colas, Damien; Wang, Qian; Minhas, Paras; Panchal, Maharshi; Liang, Xibin; Mhatre, Siddhita D.; Brown, Holden; Ko, Novie; Zagol-Ikapitte, Irene; van der Hart, Marieke; Khroyan, Taline V.; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Priyam, Prachi G.; Milne, Ginger L.; Rassoulpour, Arash; Boutaud, Olivier; Manning-Boğ, Amy B.; Heller, H. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Identifying preventive targets for Alzheimer’s disease is a central challenge of modern medicine. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2, reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease in normal ageing populations. This preventive effect coincides with an extended preclinical phase that spans years to decades before onset of cognitive decline. In the brain, COX-2 is induced in neurons in response to excitatory synaptic activity and in glial cells in response to inflammation. To identify mechanisms underlying prevention of cognitive decline by anti-inflammatory drugs, we first identified an early object memory deficit in APP Swe -PS1 ΔE9 mice that preceded previously identified spatial memory deficits in this model. We modelled prevention of this memory deficit with ibuprofen, and found that ibuprofen prevented memory impairment without producing any measurable changes in amyloid-β accumulation or glial inflammation. Instead, ibuprofen modulated hippocampal gene expression in pathways involved in neuronal plasticity and increased levels of norepinephrine and dopamine. The gene most highly downregulated by ibuprofen was neuronal tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase ( Tdo2 ), which encodes an enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine. TDO2 expression was increased by neuronal COX-2 activity, and overexpression of hippocampal TDO2 produced behavioural deficits. Moreover, pharmacological TDO2 inhibition prevented behavioural deficits in APP Swe -PS1 ΔE9 mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate broad effects of cyclooxygenase inhibition on multiple neuronal pathways that counteract the neurotoxic effects of early accumulating amyloid-β oligomers. PMID:27190010

  12. Using the Science of Psychology to Target Perpetrators of Racism and Race-Based Discrimination For Intervention Efforts: Preventing Another Trayvon Martin Tragedy

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Vickie M.; Johnson, Denise; Coles, Courtney N.; Gellene, Denise; Cochran, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological science offers a variety of methods to both understand and intervene when acts of potential racial or ethnic racism, bias or prejudice occur. The Trayvon Martin killing is a reminder of how vulnerable African American men and boys, especially young African American men, are to becoming victims of social inequities in our society. We examine several historical events of racial bias (the Los Angeles civil disturbance after the Rodney King verdict, the federal government’s launch of a “War on Drugs” and the killing of Trayvon Martin) to illustrate the ways in which behaviors of racism and race-based discrimination can be viewed from a psychological science lens in the hopes of eliminating and preventing these behaviors. If society is to help end the genocide of African American men and boys then we must broaden our focus from simply understanding instances of victimization to a larger concern with determining how policies, laws, and societal norms serve as the foundation for maintaining implicit biases that are at the root of race-based discrimination, prejudice, bias and inequity. In our call to action, we highlight the contributions that psychologists, particularly racial and ethnic minority professionals, can make to reduce the negative impact of racial and ethnic bias through their volunteer/pro bono clinical efforts. PMID:23885310

  13. "Greenlight study": a controlled trial of low-literacy, early childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lee M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L

    2014-06-01

    Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician-parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. “Greenlight Study”: A Controlled Trial of Low-Literacy, Early Childhood Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician–parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. PMID:24819570

  15. Documentary effort.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This spring, Virtua Health, the largest health system in Southern New Jersey, launched an innovative campaign aimed at raising overall awareness of its facilities by documenting real-life patients undergoing a variety of experiences (e.g., breast cancer, high-risk pregnancy, spine surgery, and minimally-invasive knee replacement surgery). The effort, called "The Virtua Experience" became a 30-minute hospital documentary that aired on Philadelphia's NBC affiliate this summer.

  16. Long-term consequences of nutrition and growth in early childhood and possible preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutritional deficiencies and excesses during pregnancy, and faster infant weight gain in the first 2 years of life are associated with increased risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. The first 1,000 days of life (from conception until the child reaches age 2 years) represent a vulnerable period for programming of NCD risk, and are an important target for prevention of adult disease. This paper takes a developmental perspective to identify periconception, pregnancy, and infancy nutritional stressors, and to discuss mechanisms through which they influence later disease risk with the goal of informing age-specific interventions. Low- and middle-income countries need to address the dual burden of under- and overnutrition by implementing interventions to promote growth and enhance survival and intellectual development without increasing chronic disease risk. In the absence of good evidence from long-term follow-up of early life interventions, current recommendations for early life prevention of adult disease presume that interventions designed to optimize pregnancy outcomes and promote healthy infant growth and development will also reduce chronic disease risk. These include an emphasis on optimizing maternal nutrition prior to pregnancy, micronutrient adequacy in the preconception period and during pregnancy, promotion of breastfeeding and high-quality complementary foods, and prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. © 2014 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Does hopelessness of Turkish women affect their behavior regarding cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Taşçi-Duran, Emel; Unsal-Atan, Şenay

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate attitudes women of towards cervical cancer prevention applications and early diagnosis, and whether or not their hopelessness levels had any influence. The present study was carried out in Isparta with a descriptive design. A sample of 251 individuals was recruited from January 2011 through May 2011 in the largest tea garden (restaurant- cafe). The data collection tool consisted of two parts: a "Questionnaire Form" identifying women; and the "Beck Hopelessness Scale". Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version 16.0 for Windows for the numerical and percentage distribution, average, standard deviation with the ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests. Some 70.2 % of the woman indicated that they had not taken the Pap test. There was a significant relationship between the hopelessness level and women believing that they could protect themselves from getting cervical cancer (F=10.11 p=0.00). There was a significant relationship between hopelessness levels and believing whether or not early diagnosis tests are deterministic (F=8.781 p=0.00). Our study concluded that the hopelessness level of women had an effect on their thoughts about cervical cancer prevention and early diagnosis.

  18. Prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder by early treatment: results from the Jerusalem Trauma Outreach And Prevention study.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Arieh Y; Ankri, Yael; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Peleg, Tamar; Adessky, Rhonda; Freedman, Sara

    2012-02-01

    Preventing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pressing public health need. To compare early and delayed exposure-based, cognitive, and pharmacological interventions for preventing PTSD. Equipoise-stratified randomized controlled study. Hadassah Hospital unselectively receives trauma survivors from Jerusalem and vicinity. Consecutively admitted survivors of traumatic events were assessed by use of structured telephone interviews a mean (SD) 9.61 (3.91) days after the traumatic event. Survivors with symptoms of acute stress disorder were referred for clinical assessment. Survivors who met PTSD symptom criteria during the clinical assessment were invited to receive treatment. Twelve weekly sessions of prolonged exposure (PE; n = 63), or cognitive therapy (CT; n = 40), or double blind treatment with 2 daily tablets of either escitalopram (10 mg) or placebo (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/placebo; n = 46), or 12 weeks in a waiting list group (n = 93). Treatment started a mean (SD) 29.8 (5.7) days after the traumatic event. Waiting list participants with PTSD after 12 weeks received PE a mean (SD) 151.8 (42.4) days after the traumatic event (delayed PE). Proportion of participants with PTSD after treatment, as determined by the use of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) 5 and 9 months after the traumatic event. Treatment assignment and attendance were concealed from the clinicians who used the CAPS. At 5 months, 21.6% of participants who received PE and 57.1% of comparable participants on the waiting list had PTSD (odds ratio [OR], 0.21 [95% CI, 0.09-0.46]). At 5 months, 20.0% of participants who received CT and 58.7% of comparable participants on the waiting list had PTSD (OR, 0.18 [CI, 0.06-0.48]). The PE group did not differ from the CT group with regard to PTSD outcome (OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.29-2.62]). The PTSD prevalence rates did not differ between the escitalopram and placebo subgroups (61.9% vs 55.6%; OR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.21-2.77]). At 9

  19. A Mixed Methods Evaluation of Early Childhood Abuse Prevention Within Evidence-Based Home Visiting Programs.

    PubMed

    Matone, M; Kellom, K; Griffis, H; Quarshie, W; Faerber, J; Gierlach, P; Whittaker, J; Rubin, D M; Cronholm, P F

    2018-05-31

    Objectives In this large scale, mixed methods evaluation, we determined the impact and context of early childhood home visiting on rates of child abuse-related injury. Methods Entropy-balanced and propensity score matched retrospective cohort analysis comparing children of Pennsylvania Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), Parents As Teachers (PAT), and Early Head Start (EHS) enrollees and children of Pennsylvania Medicaid eligible women from 2008 to 2014. Abuse-related injury episodes were identified in medical assistance claims with ICD-9 codes. Weighted frequencies and logistic regression odds of injury within 24 months are presented. In-depth interviews with staff and clients (n = 150) from 11 programs were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The odds of a healthcare encounter for early childhood abuse among clients were significantly greater than comparison children (NFP: 1.32, 95% CI [1.08, 1.62]; PAT: 4.11, 95% CI [1.60, 10.55]; EHS: 3.15, 95% CI [1.41, 7.06]). Qualitative data illustrated the circumstances of and program response to client issues related to child maltreatment, highlighting the role of non-client caregivers. All stakeholders described curricular content aimed at prevention (e.g. positive parenting) with little time dedicated to addressing current or past abuse. Clients who reported a lack of abuse-related content supposed their home visitor's assumption of an absence of risk in their home, but were supportive of the introduction of abuse-related content. Approach, acceptance, and available resources were mediators of successfully addressing abuse. Conclusions for Practice Home visiting aims to prevent child abuse among high-risk families. Adequate home visitor capacity to proactively assess abuse risk, deliver effective preventive curriculum with fidelity to caregivers, and access appropriate resources is necessary.

  20. Early adolescent peer leader development in HIV prevention using youth-adult partnership with schools approach.

    PubMed

    Fongkaew, Warunee; Fongkaew, Kangwan; Suchaxaya, Prakin

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of an HIV prevention program developed for early adolescents through participatory action research. The HIV prevention program included a curriculum that was delivered by trained younger youth leaders through a youth and adult partnership with 10 schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The curriculum used participatory learning experiences, "edutainment" approaches, and skills-building strategies for enhancing youth leaders' capacities. Results of the evaluation showed that the senior-junior peer education program was effective in leadership role preparation, in improving youth leaders' ability to share sexual and reproductive health knowledge, and in promoting positive attitudes toward themselves. Success also rested on the fact that adults took a critical role in providing the opportunities, assistance, and guidance so that young people could develop their leadership capacity in an atmosphere of trust and respect.

  1. Oral cancer prevention and early detection knowledge and practices of Illinois dentists--a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Lehew, Charles W; Kaste, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess Illinois dentists' self-reported knowledge and practices concerning oral cancer prevention, early detection, and management as a baseline prior to conducting interventions designed to increase dentists' capacity to detect and manage oral cancers and counsel their patients about risk reduction. A weighted sample to represent licensed dentists in 19 counties yielded 518 dentists who responded to a 38-item mailed survey in 2004. Over 92 percent of the dentists reported providing oral cancer exams. However, many are not doing them properly or at frequent intervals. Over two-thirds had oral cancer continuing education, but 40 percent had it more than 2 years prior to the survey. Training in risk counseling was rare. Interventions are needed to assure appropriate skill and knowledge levels for oral cancer early detection, management, and risk counseling by Illinois dentists.

  2. [Mexican adolescentes' goals as determinants in the prevention of early pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Atienzo, Erika E; Campero, Lourdes; Lozada, Ana Lilia; Herrera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore adolescents' intentions related to the early formation of a family. We administered a survey to students in eight schools in Morelos and Mexico City, in 2010. We analyzed intentions of marrying or having a child and fitted an exploratory path model to assess predictors of the intentions of having a child before the age of 20 (n=2974). Around 77% of adolescents expect to have their first child at 20 years or later; 21% show ambivalence or incongruence regarding this, whereas 2% expect to have a child before the age of 20. Parents' expectations for their child's education influence the importance that adolescents give to education. The latter promotes the idea of postponing childbearing until 20 years or later (β=0.13). In order to prevent early pregnancies, interventions and programs should encourage the construction of personal and professional goals.

  3. Early-Life Obesity Prevention: Critique of Intervention Trials During the First One Thousand Days.

    PubMed

    Reilly, John J; Martin, Anne; Hughes, Adrienne R

    2017-06-01

    To critique the evidence from recent and ongoing obesity prevention interventions in the first 1000 days in order to identify evidence gaps and weaknesses, and to make suggestions for more informative future intervention trials. Completed and ongoing intervention trials have had fairly modest effects, have been limited largely to high-income countries, and have used relatively short-term interventions and outcomes. Comparison of the evidence from completed prevention trials with the evidence from systematic reviews of behavioral risk factors shows that some life-course stages have been neglected (pre-conception and toddlerhood), and that interventions have neglected to target some important behavioral risk factors (maternal smoking during pregnancy, infant and child sleep). Finally, while obesity prevention interventions aim to modify body composition, few intervention trials have used body composition measures as outcomes, and this has limited their sensitivity to detect intervention effects. The new WHO Healthy Lifestyles Trajectory (HeLTI) initiative should address some of these weaknesses. Future early obesity prevention trials should be much more ambitious. They should, ideally: extend their interventions over the first 1000 days; have longer-term (childhood) outcomes, and improved outcome measures (body composition measures in addition to proxies for body composition such as the BMI for age); have greater emphasis on maternal smoking and child sleep; be global.

  4. Intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage prevents parathyroid gland growth

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Masatomo; Tokumoto, Masanori; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Hirakata, Hideki; Iida, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    Background. Both the phenotypic alterations of parathyroid (PT) cells, e.g. down-regulation of the calcium-sensing receptor, and the increase of the PT cell number in nodular hyperplasia are the main causes of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism. It is of great importance to prevent PT growth in an early stage. Methods. To examine a more effective method of calcitriol therapy for the prevention of PT hyperplasia, we randomized haemodialysis patients with mild hyperparathyroidism to receive either daily orally administered calcitriol (n = 33) or intravenous calcitriol (n = 27) over a 12-month study period. Calcitriol was modulated so as to keep the serum intact PTH level between 100 and 150 pg/ml. Results. Both groups showed similar reductions of the serum PTH level and similar increases in serum calcium. In both groups, there were no significant changes in the serum phosphate level. Long-term daily oral calcitriol therapy failed to prevent the increase of both maximum PT volume and total volume, as assessed by ultrasonography; however, intravenous calcitriol therapy successfully suppressed this progression. In the daily, oral group, both the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and the N-telopeptide cross-linked of type I collagen (NTX) significantly decreased, which was probably due to the PTH suppression. However, these bone metabolism markers remained stable in the intravenous group. The total dosage of calcitriol during the study was comparable in both groups. Conclusions. These data indicate that intravenous calcitriol therapy in an early stage of secondary hyperparathyroidism is necessary to prevent PT growth and to keep a good condition of bone metabolism. PMID:18515308

  5. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Buchanan, Natasha D.

    2018-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice. PMID:27940972

  6. The clinical profile of women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain. More effort is needed in secondary prevention. SIRENA study.

    PubMed

    Gámez, J M; Ripoll, T; Barrios, V; Anguita, M; Pedreira, M; Madariaga, I

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for women, especially ischaemic heart disease, which is still considered a man's disease. In Spain, there are various registries on ischaemic heart disease, although none are exclusively for women. The objectives of the SIRENA study were to describe the clinical profile of women with ischaemic heart disease treated in cardiology consultations, to estimate its prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and understand its clinical management. A multicentre observational study was conducted with a sample of 631 women with stable ischaemic heart disease, consecutively included during cardiology consultations. Forty-one researchers from all over Spain participated in the study. The mean age was 68.5 years. The clinical presentation was in the form of acute coronary syndrome in up to 67.2% of the patients. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high (77.7% of the patients had hypertension, 40.7% had diabetes and 68% had dyslipidaemia), with 30.7% having uncontrolled hypertension, 78.4% having LDL-cholesterol levels higher than 70mg/dL and 49.2% having HbA1c levels greater than 7%. The considerable majority of the patients underwent optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and hypolipidaemic agents. Coronary angiography was performed for 88.3% of the patients, and 63.4% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain initially present some form of acute coronary syndrome and a high prevalence of inadequately controlled cardiovascular risk factors, despite undergoing optimal medical therapy. A high percentage of these women undergo coronary revascularisation. Increased efforts are required for secondary prevention in women with stable ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Early prevention of pressure ulcers among elderly patients admitted through emergency departments: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Ba'; Teague, Laura; Mahoney, James; Goodman, Laurie; Paulden, Mike; Poss, Jeff; Li, Jianli; Ieraci, Luciano; Carcone, Steven; Krahn, Murray

    2011-11-01

    Every year, approximately 6.2 million hospital admissions through emergency departments (ED) involve elderly patients who are at risk of developing pressure ulcers. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of pressure-redistribution foam mattresses on ED stretchers and beds for early prevention of pressure ulcers in elderly admitted ED patients. Using a Markov model, we evaluated the incremental effectiveness (quality-adjusted life-days) and incremental cost (hospital and home care costs) between early prevention and current practice (with standard hospital mattresses) from a health care payer perspective during a 1-year time horizon. The projected incidence of ED-acquired pressure ulcers was 1.90% with current practice and 1.48% with early prevention, corresponding to a number needed to treat of 238 patients. The average upgrading cost from standard to pressure-redistribution mattresses was $0.30 per patient. Compared with current practice, early prevention was more effective, with 0.0015 quality-adjusted life-days gained, and less costly, with a mean cost saving of $32 per patient. If decisionmakers are willing to pay $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year gained, early prevention was cost-effective even for short ED stay (ie, 1 hour), low hospital-acquired pressure ulcer risk (1% prevalence), and high unit price of pressure-redistribution mattresses ($3,775). Taking input uncertainty into account, early prevention was 81% likely to be cost-effective. Expected value-of-information estimates supported additional randomized controlled trials of pressure-redistribution mattresses to eliminate the remaining decision uncertainty. The economic evidence supports early prevention with pressure-redistribution foam mattresses in the ED. Early prevention is likely to improve health for elderly patients and save hospital costs. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Storytelling for promoting colorectal cancer prevention and early detection among Latinos.

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda K; Gonzalez, Julie

    2007-08-01

    Health promotion efforts directed at Latinos may be more effective when culturally adapted methods are used. Our study was designed to test a novel communication modality for promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and screening messages among Latinos. We compared a culturally aligned, brief storytelling educational intervention (ST) to a numeric risk tool intervention (NR) based on the Harvard Cancer Risk Index. Both interventions included risk factor information and recommendations for primary prevention and screening for CRC. Sixty-four Latinos (mean age 46.8, 86% female) were randomized and completed pre- and post-tests. Participants in ST indicated intent to add significantly more servings of vegetables (p=.030) and more minutes of exercise (p=.018) to daily routines than those in NR. Most respondents (ST and NR) reported intentions to recommend CRC screening to friends and relatives. These data provide support for storytelling's potential to promote health behavior change with cultural relevance for Latinos. Storytelling shows promise as an effective method for reaching one of the historically underserved ethnic groups with cancer prevention and screening information.

  9. Early detection and prevention of diabetic nephropathy: a challenge calling for mandatory action for Mexico and the developing world.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; González-Michaca, Luis

    2005-09-01

    During the last decades, developing countries have experienced an epidemiologic transition characterized by a reduction of infectious diseases and an increase of chronic degenerative diseases. This situation is generating tormenting public health, financial, and social consequences. Of particular relevance is type 2 diabetes mellitus and its chronic complications, particularly cardiovascular disease and diabetic nephropathy, because mortality of the patient with diabetes is, in most instances, related to these complications. There is a clear need to implement diagnostic and treatment strategies to reduce risk factors for development of diabetes (primary prevention), to detect risk factors of chronic complications in early stages of diabetes (secondary prevention), and to prevent further progression of those that already have renal injury (tertiary prevention). Microalbuminuria is an early marker of renal injury in diabetes, and its early detection can help the timely use of renal preventive measures, which would avoid the extremely high costs of renal replacement treatment for end-stage renal disease as well as that of other cardiovascular complications. Preventive strategies are of very little or no impact, if the primary physician has limited knowledge about the natural history of diabetic nephropathy, the beneficial effect of early preventive maneuvers for delaying its progression, and the social and economic impact of end-stage renal disease. It is therefore imperative to assure in our health systems that general practitioners have the ability and commitment to detect early diabetes complications, in order to promote actions that support regression or retard highly morbid cardiovascular and renal conditions.

  10. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict.

    PubMed

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S

    2000-01-01

    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  11. Classification tree analyses reveal limited potential for early targeted prevention against childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Beyerlein, Andreas; Kusian, Dennis; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele; Schaffrath-Rosario, Angelika; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2014-02-01

    Whether specific combinations of risk factors in very early life might allow identification of high-risk target groups for overweight prevention programs was examined. Data of n = 8981 children from the German KiGGS study were analyzed. Using a classification tree approach, predictive risk factor combinations were assessed for overweight in 3-6, 7-10, and 11-17-year-old children. In preschool children, the subgroup with the highest overweight risk were migrant children with at least one obese parent, with a prevalence of 36.6 (95% confidence interval or CI: 22.9, 50.4)%, compared to an overall prevalence of 10.0 (8.9, 11.2)%. The prevalence of overweight increased from 18.3 (16.8, 19.8)% to 57.9 (46.6, 69.3)% in 7-10-year-old children, if at least one parent was obese and the child had been born large-for-gestational-age. In 11-17-year-olds, the overweight risk increased from 20.1 (18.9, 21.3)% to 63.0 (46.4, 79.7)% in the highest risk group. However, high prevalence ratios were found only in small subgroups, containing <10% of all overweight cases in the respective age group. Our results indicate only a limited potential for early targeted preventions against overweight in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. Tactile stimulation partially prevents neurodevelopmental changes in visual tract caused by early iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Gibb, Robbin; Kolb, Bryan; Bray, Douglas; Lachat, Joao-Jose

    2017-02-15

    Iron deficiency has a critical impact on maturational mechanisms of the brain and the damage related to neuroanatomical parameters is not satisfactorily reversed after iron replacement. However, emerging evidence suggest that enriched early experience may offer great therapeutic efficacy in cases of nutritional disorders postnatally, since the brain is remarkably responsive to its interaction with the environment. Given the fact that tactile stimulation (TS) treatment has been previously shown to be an effective therapeutic approach and with potential application to humans, here we ask whether exposure to TS treatment, from postnatal day (P) 1 to P32 for 3min/day, could also be employed to prevent neuroanatomical changes in the optic nerve of rats maintained on an iron-deficient diet during brain development. We found that iron deficiency changed astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber, and myelinated fiber density, however, TS reversed the iron-deficiency-induced alteration in oligodendrocyte, damaged fiber and myelinated fiber density, but failed to reverse astrocyte density. Our results suggest that early iron deficiency may act by disrupting the timing of key steps in visual system development thereby modifying the normal progression of optic nerve maturation. However, optic nerve development is sensitive to enriching experiences, and in the current study we show that this sensitivity can be used to prevent damage from postnatal iron deficiency during the critical period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parent Participation within Community Center or In-Home Outreach Delivery Models of the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Michael L; August, Gerald J.; Lee, Susanne S.; Piehler, Timothy F.; Jensen, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    A variety of predictors of parent participation in prevention programming have been identified in past research, but few studies have investigated how those predictors may vary by implementation context. Patterns of parent participation were examined in the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program using two family-focused service delivery…

  14. Prevention of and Early Intervention for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Systems to Support Data-Based Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Mitchell, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are at great risk for long-term negative outcomes. Researchers and practitioners alike acknowledge the need for evidence-based, preventive, and early intervention strategies. Accordingly, in this chapter an expanded view of prevention is presented as a series of data driven decisions to guide…

  15. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  16. A Look at Uganda's Early HIV Prevention Strategies Through a Moderate 'African' Communitarian Lens.

    PubMed

    Wathuta, Jane

    2018-06-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the benefits of prioritizing moderate African communitarian principles as partly demonstrated in the HIV prevention strategies implemented in Uganda in the late 1980s. Pertinent lessons could be drawn so as to achieve the HIV prevention targets envisioned in the post-2015 development era. Communitarianism emphasizes the importance of communities as part of healthy human existence. Its core ethical values include the virtues of generosity, compassion, and solidarity. Persuasion through communication, consensus through dialogue, and the awareness and commitment to responsibilities towards other members of the community, are chief practices relied upon to achieve appropriate social behaviour. All these elements signify individual rootedness in communities and contribute to the healthy existence of its members. Communitarianism is usually classified as either authoritarian/radical or responsive/moderate, depending on the primacy given to either community interests or the individual will and rights. Moderate communitarianism recognizes the individual's capacity for moral reasoning, virtue and free choice. The ensuing form of society is deemed more ethical as it relies on education in the virtues, moral persuasion and informal social controls, without stifling individual identity, agency, and capacity for self-determination. If moderate African communitarianism, in particular, can to a certain extent be associated with the significant aspects of Uganda's HIV prevention strategies in the stated period, then its present-day relevance for HIV prevention and other public health interventions may be emphasized accordingly. This applies especially in view of the ongoing efforts to achieve a balance between individual and collective interests in bioethics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The Prevention of Early-Onset Neonatal Group B Streptococcal Disease.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Allen, Victoria M

    2016-12-01

    To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use. Neonatal outcomes of rates of early-onset group B streptococcal infections are evaluated. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to July 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (group B streptococcus, antibiotic therapy, infection, prevention). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The recommendations in this guideline are designed to help clinicians identify and manage pregnancies at risk for neonatal group B streptococcal disease to optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes. No cost-benefit analysis is provided. There is good evidence based on randomized control trial data that in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term who are colonized with group B streptococcus, rates of neonatal infection are

  18. Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, opinions and practices regarding dental caries prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Clovis, Joanne B; Horowitz, Alice M; Kleinman, Dushanka V; Wang, Min Qi; Massey, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Maryland dental hygienists' knowledge, practices and opinions regarding dental caries prevention and early detection. A 30 item survey was mailed to 1,258 Maryland dental hygienists. Two follow-up mailings and email reminders were sent. The response rate was 43% (n=540). Nearly all respondents were female (98%), and 58% practiced in solo settings. Knowledge and certainty of knowledge were moderate: sealants are needed regardless of topical fluoride use (55% certain, 40% less certain), newly erupted permanent molars are the best candidates for sealants (54%, 36%) and professionally applied fluorides are desirable in areas without fluoridated water (55%, 36%). Fewer were certain that incipient lesions can be remineralized before cavitation (23%, 69%), and dilute, frequently administered fluorides are more effective in caries prevention than concentrated, less frequently administered fluorides (6%, 24%). Opinions regarding effectiveness of protocols for 2 age groups from 6 months to 6 years, the challenges of early childhood caries (ECC), prevention practices regarding sealant and topical fluoride applications varied widely. Eighty-nine percent reported routinely assessing dental caries risk factors of child patients and 90% were interested in continuing education courses. There were no significant differences between different types of practice settings, year of graduation, race/ethnicity or gender. Knowledge of recommended guidelines for fluoride and sealant application support clinical decision-making and self-care counseling. Misinformation and lack of understanding of current research and recommendations identify a need for educational interventions in undergraduate dental hygiene programs and through continuing education for practicing hygienists.

  19. Orthodontic findings in the deciduous and early mixed dentition--inferences for a preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Franka; Grabowski, Rosemarie

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present epidemiologic study was to obtain representative basic data on the frequency, extent and age-dependence of malocclusions in the deciduous and early mixed dentition. The developmental tendencies of specific malocclusions were investigated from the aspect of orthodontic prevention. The collective comprised 8,864 preschool and school-aged children, of whom 1,225 were in the deciduous dentition (mean age 4.5 years) and 7,639 in the mixed dentition (mean age 8.9 years). The orthodontic data were clinically assessed as sagittal, transversal, or vertical single-arch and occlusal findings. In addition, the malocclusions were classified according to their primary symptoms. Early infantile habits, tongue dysfunctions, speech defects and incompetent lip closure were registered separately. 57% of the children were found to have malocclusions, with the frequency rising statistically significantly in dependence on age from the deciduous to the mixed dentition (p < or = 0.001). The mean extent of excessive overjet increased significantly from the deciduous to the mixed dentition. Crossbite with mandibular midline discrepancies were observed significantly more frequently in the deciduous dentition. Although the frequency of anterior open bite underwent a significant decline from the deciduous to the mixed dentition, open bite was the malocclusion most frequently associated with dysfunction in both groups. The significant increase in traumatic deep bite in the mixed dentition indicates an unfavorable developmental tendency in this anomaly until after the eruption of the permanent incisors. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy and for the intensified application of interceptive and early treatment measures is stressed in view of the high number of malalignments and malocclusions in the deciduous and mixed dentition and the tendency for some forms of malocclusion to deteriorate as the dentition develops.

  20. Follow-Up Review to Determine the Extent to Which the Department of Health and Human Services has Implemented the Recommendations in Our Report: ’Increased Federal Efforts Needed to Better Identify, Treat, and Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect’.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-18

    34Increased Federal Efforts Needed to Better Identify, Treat, and Prevent Child Abuse and Neglect7 ’(HRD-80-66, Apr. 29, 1980) (HRD-81-153) On December 2...and 4, 1980, the Subcommittee held oversight hearings on title I of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. That...legislation amended and extended the provisions of the Child Abuse and Treatment Act of 1974. The 1974 act established the National Center on Child

  1. Early neuromodulation prevents the development of brain and behavioral abnormalities in a rodent model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hadar, R; Bikovski, L; Soto-Montenegro, M L; Schimke, J; Maier, P; Ewing, S; Voget, M; Wieske, F; Götz, T; Desco, M; Hamani, C; Pascau, J; Weiner, I; Winter, C

    2018-04-01

    The notion that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which neuropathologies evolve gradually over the developmental course indicates a potential therapeutic window during which pathophysiological processes may be modified to halt disease progression or reduce its severity. Here we used a neurodevelopmental maternal immune stimulation (MIS) rat model of schizophrenia to test whether early targeted modulatory intervention would affect schizophrenia's neurodevelopmental course. We applied deep brain stimulation (DBS) or sham stimulation to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adolescent MIS rats and respective controls, and investigated its behavioral, biochemical, brain-structural and -metabolic effects in adulthood. We found that mPFC-DBS successfully prevented the emergence of deficits in sensorimotor gating, attentional selectivity and executive function in adulthood, as well as the enlargement of lateral ventricle volumes and mal-development of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmission. These data suggest that the mPFC may be a valuable target for effective preventive treatments. This may have significant translational value, suggesting that targeting the mPFC before the onset of psychosis via less invasive neuromodulation approaches may be a viable preventive strategy.

  2. Aligning policy to promote cascade genetic screening for prevention and early diagnosis of heritable diseases.

    PubMed

    George, Rani; Kovak, Karen; Cox, Summer L

    2015-06-01

    Cascade genetic screening is a methodology for identifying and testing close blood relatives of individuals at increased risk for heritable conditions and follows a sequential process, minimizing testing costs and the number of family members who need to be tested. It offers considerable potential for cost savings and increased awareness of heritable conditions within families. CDC-classified Tier 1 genomic applications for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Lynch Syndrome (LS), and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are recommended for clinical use and support the use of cascade genetic screening. Most individuals are unaware of their increased risk for heritable conditions such as HBOC, LS, and FH. Consistent implementation of cascade genetic screening could significantly increase awareness and prevention of heritable conditions. Limitations to effective implementation of cascade genetic screening include: insufficient genetic risk assessment and knowledge by a majority of healthcare providers without genetics credentials; a shortage of genetic specialists, especially in rural areas; a low rate of reimbursement for comprehensive genetic counseling services; and an individual focus on prevention by clinical guidelines and insurance coverage. The family-centric approach of cascade genetic screening improves prevention and early diagnosis of heritable diseases on a population health level. Cascade genetic screening could be better supported and augmented through changes in health policy.

  3. Lactobacillus salivarius Ren prevent the early colorectal carcinogenesis in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Zhu, C; Ge, S; Zhang, M; Jiang, L; Cui, J; Ren, F

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Lactobacillus salivarius Ren (LS) on modulating colonic micro flora structure and influencing host colonic health in a rat model with colorectal precancerous lesions. Male F344 rats were injected with 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and treated with LS of two doses (5 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(10) CFU kg(-1) body weight) for 15 weeks. The colonic microflora profiles, luminal metabolites, epithelial proliferation and precancerous lesions [aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] were determined. A distinct segregation of colonic microflora structures was observed in LS-treated group. The abundance of one Prevotella-related strain was increased, and the abundance of one Bacillus-related strain was decreased by LS treatment. These changes were accompanied by increased short-chain fatty acid levels and decreased azoreductase activity. LS treatment also reduced the number of ACF by c. 40% and suppressed epithelial proliferation. Lactobacillus salivarius Ren improved the colonic microflora structures and the luminal metabolisms in addition preventing the early colorectal carcinogenesis in DMH-induced rat model. Colonic microflora is an important factor in colorectal carcinogenesis. Modulating the structural shifts of microflora may provide a novel option for preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. This study suggested a potential probiotic-based approach to modulate the intestinal microflora in the prevention of colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  5. National plan for prevention, early detection, and cancer control in Peru.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Peru currently is executing an ambitious plan for cancer control: its first nationwide program of cancer prevention and cancer control, and the first such program launched in Latin America. The adequate strategies were identified from previous experience developing smaller initiatives and from knowledge of our epidemiology and priorities. The geographic landscape and sociocultural differences, in which inequalities play a significant role in access to quality education and specialized cancer care, are the main challenges to elaborate strategies to diminish our burden of advanced disease. Challenges were not only identified for the poorest people, but for other sectors of the population. With a growing Peruvian economy in a globalized market context, emerging sectors are being exposed to new risk factors for cancer and educational strategies were implemented. The development of the National Plan for Cancer Control was launched involving not only technical efforts by a multidisciplinary team, but also political concertation.

  6. Maternal low intensity physical exercise prevents obesity in offspring rats exposed to early overnutrition.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Pavanello, Audrei; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Prates, Kelly Valério; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Alves, Vander Silva; de Almeida, Douglas Lopes; Moreira, Veridiana Mota; Palma-Rigo, Kesia; Vieira, Elaine; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; da Silva Rodrigues, Marcos Ricardo; Rinaldi, Wilson; Malta, Ananda; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2017-08-09

    Low intensity exercise during pregnancy and lactation may create a protective effect against the development of obesity in offspring exposed to overnutrition in early life. To test these hypotheses, pregnant rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups: Sedentary and Exercised, low intensity, on a rodent treadmill at 30% VO 2Max /30-minute/session/3x/week throughout pregnancy and the lactation. Male offspring were raised in small litters (SL, 3 pups/dam) and normal litters (NL, 9 pups/dam) as models of early overnutrition and normal feed, respectively. Exercised mothers showed low mesenteric fat pad stores and fasting glucose and improved glucose-insulin tolerance, VO 2max during lactation and sympathetic activity. Moreover, the breast milk contained elevated levels of insulin. In addition, SL of sedentary mothers presented metabolic dysfunction and glucose and insulin intolerance and were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic in adulthood. SL of exercised mothers showed lower fat tissue accretion and improvements in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia and glycemia. The results suggest that maternal exercise during the perinatal period can have a possible reprogramming effect to prevent metabolic dysfunction in adult rat offspring exposed to early overnutrition, which may be associated with the improvement in maternal health caused by exercise.

  7. Tumstatin peptide, an inhibitor of angiogenesis, prevents glomerular hypertrophy in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Maeshima, Yohei; Kitayama, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shinji; Takazawa, Yuki; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Makino, Hirofumi

    2004-07-01

    In the early stage of diabetic nephropathy (one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes) glomerular hyperfiltration and hypertrophy are observed. It is clinically important to regulate glomerular hypertrophy for preventing glomerulosclerosis. The number of glomerular endothelial cells is known to be increased in diabetic nephropathy associated with enlarged glomerular tufts, suggesting that the mechanism is similar to that of angiogenesis. Tumstatin peptide is an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from type IV collagen and inhibits in vivo neovascularization induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the mediators of glomerular hypertrophy in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we show the effect of tumstatin peptide in inhibiting alterations in early diabetic nephropathy. Glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, and albuminuria were suppressed by tumstatin peptide (1 mg/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Glomerular matrix expansion, the increase of total glomerular cell number and glomerular endothelial cells (CD31 positive), and monocyte/macrophage accumulation was inhibited by tumstatin peptide. Increase in renal expression of VEGF, flk-1, and angiopoietin-2, an antagonist of angiopoietin-1, was inhibited by tumstatin treatment in diabetic mice. Alteration of glomerular nephrin expression, a podocyte protein crucial for maintaining glomerular filtration barrier, was recovered by tumstatin in diabetic mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential use of antiangiogenic tumstatin peptide as a novel therapeutic agent in early diabetic nephropathy.

  8. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C

    2002-03-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.

  9. Light adaptation does not prevent early retinal abnormalities in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kur, Joanna; Burian, Michael A.; Newman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology of diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, remains controversial. One hypothesis holds that retinal hypoxia, exacerbated by the high O2 consumption of rod photoreceptors in the dark, is a primary cause of DR. Based on this prediction we investigated whether early retinal abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats are alleviated by preventing the rods from dark adapting. Diabetic rats and their non-diabetic littermates were housed in a 12:12 hour light-dim light photocycle (30 lux during the day and 3 lux at night). Progression of early retinal abnormalities in diabetic rats was assessed by monitoring the ERG b-wave and oscillatory potentials, Müller cell reactive gliosis, and neuronal cell death, as assayed by TUNEL staining and retinal thickness at 6 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction. Maintaining diabetic animals in a dim-adapting light did not slow the progression of these neuronal and glial changes when compared to diabetic rats maintained in a standard 12:12 hour light-dark photocycle (30 lux during the day and 0 lux at night). Our results indicate that neuronal and glial abnormalities in early stages of diabetes are not exacerbated by rod photoreceptor O2 consumption in the dark. PMID:26852722

  10. Early results from an effort to downscale a global dissolved inorganic nitrogen model to achieve a regional assessment of nitrogen dynamics in the Columbia River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. C.; Harrison, J.

    2013-12-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) export to coastal systems has increased dramatically since the early 20th century. The increase in N has been linked to significant environmental impacts such as eutrophication, fish kills, and harmful algal blooms and is caused in part by the increasing use and quantity of synthetic fertilizer on farmland. Significant portions of both the Willamette River Valley in Oregon and the Palouse region of eastern Washington are agricultural land, approximately 20% and 57% respectively. Nitrogen in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) can leach from farms and pasture land into ground and surface water systems. This leaching, combined with DIN in runoff, contributes to the environmental degradation of both waterways (i.e. streams, rivers) and coastal estuaries. Because of this it is important to understand what effects changes in DIN application will have on water quality and DIN export to the coast. DIN export data, retrieved from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System, was analyzed for 23 major subbasins in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) and estimates DIN export (per area yield) ranging from 5.0 to 883.1 kg N km-2 yr-1. Here we present early results from our effort to downscale the Global Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (Global NEWS) DIN model for application within the Columbia River Basin (CRB). This first attempt at downscaling Global NEWS is missing some key higher-resolution N inputs for the model as well as accurate dam retention and runoff factors which could account for the low correlation between model output and observed data (R2 = 0.21).Our regional model predicts DIN yields ranging from 7.9 to 1146.6 kg N km-2 yr-1. Both the model output and observed data predict the highest per area DIN yields occurring in the Willamette river subbasin. Total DIN export to the coast was modeled as 0.06 Tg N yr-1 compared to 0.07 Tg N yr-1 calculated from the measured data. Based on current model inputs biological N2

  11. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: Population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety) will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. Methods/Design This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500) with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework) will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively) to compare outcomes between the trial arms

  12. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Jordana K; Rapee, Ronald M; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Clifford, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-01-05

    The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety) will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500) with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework) will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively) to compare outcomes between the trial arms. This trial addresses gaps

  13. Preventing Teen Pregnancy: Coordinating Community Efforts. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.

    The Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations of the House of Representatives Committee on Government Reform and Oversight met to consider the causes of and solutions to teen pregnancy and the role of community organizations in prevention efforts. Opening remarks by Representative Christopher Shays were followed by statements…

  14. Integrating Early Child Development and Violence Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Efevbera, Yvette; McCoy, Dana C; Wuermli, Alice J; Betancourt, Theresa S

    2018-03-01

    Limited evidence describes promoting development and reducing violence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a missed opportunity to protect children and promote development and human capital. This study presents a systematic literature review of integrated early childhood development plus violence prevention (ECD+VP) interventions in LMICs. The search yielded 5,244 unique records, of which N = 6 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions were in Chile, Jamaica, Lebanon, Mexico, Mozambique, and Turkey. Five interventions were parent education programs, including center-based sessions (n = 3) and home visiting (n = 2), while one intervention was a teacher education program. All but one study reported improvements in both child development and maltreatment outcomes. The dearth of evidence on ECD+VP interventions suggests additional research is needed. Integrated ECD+VP interventions may improve multiple child outcome domains while leveraging limited resources in LMICs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Why Early Prevention of Childhood Obesity Is More Than a Medical Concern: A Health Economic Approach.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are a non-deniable health concern with increasing economic attention. International studies provide robust evidence about substantial lifetime excess costs due to childhood obesity, thereby underscoring the urgent need to implement potent obesity prevention programs in early childhood. Fortunately, this is happening more and more, as evidenced by the increase in well-conducted interventions. Nevertheless, an important piece of the puzzle is often missing, that is, health economic evaluations. There are 3 main reasons for this: an insufficient number of economic approaches which consider the complexity of childhood obesity, a lack of (significant) long-term effect sizes of an intervention, and inadequate planning of health economic evaluations in the design phase of an intervention. Key Messages: It is advisable to involve health economists during the design phase of an intervention. Equally necessary is the development of a tailored toolbox for efficient data acquisition. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Methods for evaluating a mature substance abuse prevention/early intervention program.

    PubMed

    Becker, L R; Hall, M; Fisher, D A; Miller, T R

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe methods for work in progress to evaluate four workplace prevention and/or early intervention programs designed to change occupational norms and reduce substance abuse at a major U.S. transportation company. The four programs are an employee assistance program, random drug testing, managed behavioral health care, and a peer-led intervention program. An elaborate mixed-methods evaluation combines data collection and analysis techniques from several traditions. A process-improvement evaluation focuses on the peer-led component to describe its evolution, document the implementation process for those interested in replicating it, and provide information for program improvement. An outcome-assessment evaluation examines impacts of the four programs on job performance measures (e.g., absenteeism, turnover, injury, and disability rates) and includes a cost-offset and employer cost-savings analysis. Issues related to using archival data, combining qualitative and quantitative designs, and working in a corporate environment are discussed.

  17. The Benefits of Exercise and Metabolic Interventions for the Prevention and Early Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Cyna, Ewelina; Lynch, Madelaine; Oore, Jonathan Jordan; Nagy, Paul Michael; Aubert, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal degeneration, vascular pathology and cognitive decline. Furthermore, deficits in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin resistance are being increasingly recognized in AD. Many lifestyle-modifying approaches, including diet and exercise, have yielded promising results in modulating brain morphology and function for the prevention and early treatment of AD. This review focuses on the effects of physical exercise on rescuing cognition and limiting the progression of AD pathology. Specifically, the impact of exercise, in human and animal models of AD, on the stimulation and preservation of cognition, neurotransmission, neurogenesis, vasculature, glucose metabolism and insulin signaling is discussed. Studies have highlighted the potential of physical activity to improve overall brain health, which could delay or lessen AD-related cognitive deficits and pathology. Physical activity influences cognitive function, vascular health and brain metabolism, which taken together offers benefits for the aging population, including AD patients.

  18. Early Implantation of Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Severe Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Bloom, Jason; Taylor, Andrew; Mariani, Justin

    2016-09-01

    Primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in selected patients with severe systolic dysfunction. Current guidelines suggest a 3- to 6-month waiting period before implantation. We retrospectively studied 29 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) who underwent primary prevention ICD implantation within 6 months of diagnosis between January 2008 and April 2014. Cardiac MRI (CMR) evaluated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional fibrosis preimplant. The primary end point was "failure to qualify for an ICD at 12 months postimplant," either due to LVEF ≥ 35% or deterioration necessitating mechanical support or transplantation, without appropriate ICD therapy. Secondary end points were appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapy. Baseline mean age was 44.2 ± 14.8 years and median LVEF 16.4%. Median time from diagnosis to implant was 32 days. At 12 months, 17 patients (58.6%) no longer qualified for an ICD, mainly due to LVEF improvement. At follow-up (mean 32.0 ± 20.6 months), three patients received appropriate therapy (one for ventricular fibrillation). All three had CMR late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) preimplant. Cardiac resynchronization at implant predicted LVEF improvement. Early appropriate therapy, particularly for ventricular fibrillation, is infrequent for patients with very severe NICM who have ICDs implanted within 6 months of diagnosis. The majority of these patients would not qualify for an ICD at 12 months postinsertion. In the absence of a multimodality risk score, early ICD insertion should only be considered in selected cases (presence of LGE and NSVT). Wearable cardioverter defibrillators may have a role as a bridge to ICD decision. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Allocating cancer-directed expenditures: tensions between prevention, early detection and treatment is unnecessary.

    PubMed

    Hillner, Bruce E; Smith, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    In most countries, the allocation of financial resources for cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment come from different nonrelated "silos." Primary prevention benefits have the greatest economic return since the cancer benefits are intertwined with other major health conditions. Smoking alone accounts for about one-third cancer deaths. In most affluent countries, vaccines for selected viral caused cancers are (wisely) widely available if not optimally utilized. Estimating the additional cancer burden from obesity is still evolving. Age-targeted, less frequent but higher rates of participation in early detection of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer will likely be prudent expenditures.The last 20 years in high-income countries, there has seen an explosion in demand and the costs of cancer drug or biologic therapy, a modest growth in some forms of radiation, yet minimal or declining surgical costs for primary disease control. Expenditures for cancer drugs are now the world leader of any medication category. While a few have truly led to marked benefits, all have been priced at levels that strain or break budgets. We comment on ten steps or principles that can be applied in most countries that can meaningfully reduce cancer care costs with minimal impact on survival and maintain or enhance quality of patient's life especially with advanced disease. We emphasize limiting systemic therapies for metastatic disease to fully ambulatory patients, those who previously responded to therapy, and earlier initiation of palliative care. Changing behaviors, incentives, expectations, and the framing of treatment effects are necessary to "bend" the current unrelenting cancer care cost curve.

  20. [Case finding in early prevention networks - a heuristic for ambulatory care settings].

    PubMed

    Barth, Michael; Belzer, Florian

    2016-06-01

    One goal of early prevention is the support of families with small children up to three years who are exposed to psychosocial risks. The identification of these cases is often complex and not well-directed, especially in the ambulatory care setting. Development of a model of a feasible and empirical based strategy for case finding in ambulatory care. Based on the risk factors of postpartal depression, lack of maternal responsiveness, parental stress with regulation disorders and poverty a lexicographic and non-compensatory heuristic model with simple decision rules, will be constructed and empirically tested. Therefore the original data set from an evaluation of the pediatric documentary form on psychosocial issues of families with small children in well-child visits will be used and reanalyzed. The first diagnostic step in the non-compensatory and hierarchical classification process is the assessment of postpartal depression followed by maternal responsiveness, parental stress and poverty. The classification model identifies 89.0 % cases from the original study. Compared to the original study the decision process becomes clearer and more concise. The evidence-based and data-driven model exemplifies a strategy for the assessment of psychosocial risk factors in ambulatory care settings. It is based on four evidence-based risk factors and offers a quick and reliable classification. A further advantage of this model is that after a risk factor is identified the diagnostic procedure will be stopped and the counselling process can commence. For further validation of the model studies, in well suited early prevention networks are needed.

  1. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (p<0.05). Plasma volume decreased in the WT group and increased in the EC group but a significant difference was not observed in the final value. Aldosterone concentration tended to be less in the EC group than in the WT group. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage in the early stage of high altitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  2. Early or late antibiotic intervention prevents Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric cancer in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songhua; Lee, Dong Soo; Morrissey, Rhiannon; Aponte-Pieras, Jose R; Rogers, Arlin B; Moss, Steven F

    2014-12-01

    H. pylori infection causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Eradicating H. pylori prevents ulcers, but to what extent this prevents cancer remains unknown, especially if given after intestinal metaplasia has developed. H. pylori infected wild-type (WT) mice do not develop cancer, but mice lacking the tumor suppressor p27 do so, thus providing an experimental model of H. pylori-induced cancer. We infected p27-deficient mice with H. pylori strain SS1 at 6-8 weeks of age. Persistently H. pylori-infected WT C57BL/6 mice served as controls. Mice in the eradication arms received antimicrobial therapy (omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin) either "early" (at 15 weeks post infection, WPI) or "late" at 45 WPI. At 70 WPI, mice were euthanized for H. pylori determination, histopathology and cytokine/chemokine expression. Persistently infected mice developed premalignant lesions including high-grade dysplasia, whereas those given antibiotics did not. Histologic activity scores in the eradication groups were similar to each other, and were significantly decreased compared with controls for inflammation, epithelial defects, hyperplasia, metaplasia, atrophy and dysplasia. IP-10 and MIG levels in groups that received antibiotics were significantly lower than controls. There were no significant differences in expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α or MIP-1β among the three groups. Thus, H. pylori eradication given either early or late after infection significantly attenuated gastric inflammation, gastric atrophy, hyperplasia, and dysplasia in the p27-deficient mice model of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, irrespective of the timing of antibiotic administration. This was associated with reduced expression of IP-10 and MIG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure: background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study.

    PubMed

    Alings, M; Smit, M D; Moes, M L; Crijns, H J G M; Tijssen, J G P; Brügemann, J; Hillege, H L; Lane, D A; Lip, G Y H; Smeets, J R L M; Tieleman, R G; Tukkie, R; Willems, F F; Vermond, R A; Van Veldhuisen, D J; Van Gelder, I C

    2013-07-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control for prevention of Early AF in heart failure (RACE 3) study hypothesises that aggressive upstream rhythm control increases persistence of sinus rhythm compared with conventional rhythm control in patients with early AF and mild-to-moderate early systolic or diastolic heart failure undergoing electrical cardioversion. RACE 3 is a prospective, randomised, open, multinational, multicenter trial. Upstream rhythm control consists of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and/or angiotensin receptor blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, statins, cardiac rehabilitation therapy, and intensive counselling on dietary restrictions, exercise maintenance, and drug adherence. Conventional rhythm control consists of routine rhythm control therapy without cardiac rehabilitation therapy and intensive counselling. In both arms, every effort is made to keep patients in the rhythm control strategy, and ion channel antiarrhythmic drugs or pulmonary vein ablation may be instituted if AF relapses. Total inclusion will be 250 patients. If upstream therapy proves to be effective in improving maintenance of sinus rhythm, it could become a new approach to rhythm control supporting conventional pharmacological and non-pharmacological rhythm control.

  4. Dendrobium officinale Prevents Early Complications in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shao-zhen; Liang, Chu-yan; Liu, Hua-zhen; Zhu, Dong-mei; Wu, Ya-yun; Liang, Jian; Zhao, Ya; Guo, Jian-ru; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background. Dendrobium officinale (DO) Kimura et Migo is a precious Chinese herb that is considered beneficial for health due to its antioxidant and antidiabetes properties, and so on. In this research, we try to determine the preventive effect of DO on the early complications of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Type 1 diabetic rats were produced with a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (50 mg/kg). DO (1 g/kg/day) was then orally administered for 5 weeks. Blood glucose, TC, TG, BUN, CREA, and GSH-PX levels were determined, and electroretinographic activity and hypoalgesia were investigated. Pathological sections of the eyes, hearts, aortas, kidneys, and livers were analyzed. Results. Treatment with DO significantly attenuated the serum levels of TC, TG, BUN, and CREA, markedly increased the amplitudes of ERG a- and b-waves and Ops, and reduced the hypoalgesia and histopathological changes of vital organs induced by hyperglycemia. The protective effect of DO in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidant activity, as evidenced by the marked increase in the serum level of glutathione peroxidase. However, DO had no significant effect on blood glucose levels and bodyweight of diabetic rats. Conclusions. DO supplementation is an effective treatment to prevent STZ-induced diabetic complications. PMID:27034693

  5. Continuous irrigation with suction started at early days after pancreatic surgery prevents severe complications.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeaki; Yamagishi, Fuminori; Suzuki, Syuuichiro; Matsuoha, Jiro; Arai, Hideki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    The management of pancreatic leakage is important after pancreatic resection because such leakagge can be associated with additional complications. In this paper, we present a new therapy "irrigation with suction" after pancreatic surgery. The addition of suction permits the start of irrigation early after surgery and prevents severe post-operative complications. Between January 1995 and June 2003, 29 consecutive patients underwent surgical treatment of the pancreas for a variety of indications. Among them, 18 patients were treated with continuous irrigation with suction prophylactically. In these 29 patients, we did not encounter any additional complications such as intraabdominal hemorrhage or abscess formation. A representative case report demonstrates the application of this treatment. The irrigation with suction therapy was started on the first post-operative day after the pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with left lobectomy of the liver. CT with irrigation of contrast reagent showed that the reagent did not spread to the uninvolved abdominal area, and the patient did not develop hemorrhage or abscess. It seems that continuous irrigation with suction therapy was effective in preventing additional serious complications after pancreatic resection.

  6. Need for Early Interventions in the Prevention of Pediatric Overweight: A Review and Upcoming Directions

    PubMed Central

    Dattilo, Anne M.; Birch, Leann; Krebs, Nancy F.; Lake, Alan; Taveras, Elsie M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is currently one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues among industrialized countries and of international priority. The global prevalence of obesity poses such a serious concern that the World Health Organization (WHO) has described it as a “global epidemic.” Recent literature suggests that the genesis of the problem occurs in the first years of life as feeding patterns, dietary habits, and parental feeding practices are established. Obesity prevention evidence points to specific dietary factors, such as the promotion of breastfeeding and appropriate introduction of nutritious complementary foods, but also calls for attention to parental feeding practices, awareness of appropriate responses to infant hunger and satiety cues, physical activity/inactivity behaviors, infant sleep duration, and family meals. Interventions that begin at birth, targeting multiple factors related to healthy growth, have not been adequately studied. Due to the overwhelming importance and global significance of excess weight within pediatric populations, this narrative review was undertaken to summarize factors associated with overweight and obesity among infants and toddlers, with focus on potentially modifiable risk factors beginning at birth, and to address the need for early intervention prevention. PMID:22675610

  7. Technology to Augment Early Home Visitation for Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Ondersma, Steven J; Martin, Joanne; Fortson, Beverly; Whitaker, Daniel J; Self-Brown, Shannon; Beatty, Jessica; Loree, Amy; Bard, David; Chaffin, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Early home visitation (EHV) for child maltreatment prevention is widely adopted but has received inconsistent empirical support. Supplementation with interactive software may facilitate attention to major risk factors and use of evidence-based approaches. We developed eight 20-min computer-delivered modules for use by mothers during the course of EHV. These modules were tested in a randomized trial in which 413 mothers were assigned to software-supplemented e-Parenting Program ( ePP), services as usual (SAU), or community referral conditions, with evaluation at 6 and 12 months. Outcomes included satisfaction, working alliance, EHV retention, child maltreatment, and child maltreatment risk factors. The software was well-received overall. At the 6-month follow-up, working alliance ratings were higher in the ePP condition relative to the SAU condition (Cohen's d = .36, p < .01), with no differences at 12 months. There were no between-group differences in maltreatment or major risk factors at either time point. Despite good acceptability and feasibility, these findings provide limited support for use of this software within EHV. These findings contribute to the mixed results seen across different models of EHV for child maltreatment prevention.

  8. An Effective Psychoeducational Intervention for Early Childhood Caries Prevention: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308

  9. The microbial environment and its influence on asthma prevention in early life.

    PubMed

    von Mutius, Erika

    2016-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that the environmental microbiome plays a significant role in asthma development. The very low prevalence of asthma in populations highly exposed to microbial environments (farm children and Amish populations) highlights its preventive potential. This microbial diversity might be necessary to instruct a well-adapted immune response and regulated inflammatory responses to other inhaled and ingested environmental elements, such as allergens, particles, and viruses. Like the internal gut microbiome, which is increasingly recognized as an important instructor of immune maturation, the external environmental microbiome might shape immune responses on the skin, airway mucosal surfaces, and potentially also the gut early in life. The diversity of the external microbial world will ensure that of the many maladapted pathways leading to asthma development, most, if not all, will be counterbalanced. Likewise, important contributors to asthma, such as allergen sensitization and allergic manifestations early in life, are being suppressed. Thus the facets of innate immunity targeted by microbes and their compounds and metabolites might be the master switch to asthma and allergy protection, which has been found in environments rich in microbial exposures. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention

    PubMed Central

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. Methods: A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. Results: The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. Conclusions: The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood—and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks—should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children. PMID:19477880

  11. Exposure to interparental violence and psychosocial maladjustment in the adult life course: advocacy for early prevention.

    PubMed

    Roustit, C; Renahy, E; Guernec, G; Lesieur, S; Parizot, I; Chauvin, P

    2009-07-01

    Early family-level and social-level stressors are both assumed to be the components of two main path models explaining the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and its long-term consequences on mental health explored through life-course epidemiological studies. To investigate the association between exposure to interparental violence in childhood and mental health outcomes in adulthood when taking into account early family and social stressors. A retrospective French cohort study of 3023 adults representative of the general population in the Paris metropolitan area was conducted in 2005 through at-home, face-to-face interviews. The outcomes measures were current depression and lifetime suicide attempt, intimate partner violence, violence against children and alcohol dependence. The adults exposed to interparental violence during childhood had a higher risk of psychosocial maladjustment. After adjusting for family- and social-level stressors in childhood, this risk was, respectively, 1.44 (95% CI 1.03 to 2.00) for depression, 3.17 (1.75 to 5.73) for conjugal violence, 4.75 (1.60 to 14.14) for child maltreatment and 1.75 (1.19 to 2.57) for alcohol dependence. The adult consequences of parental violence in childhood-and this independently of the other forms of domestic violence and the related psychosocial risks-should lead to intensifying the prevention of and screening for this form of maltreatment of children.

  12. Carrier diagnostics and prevention of hemoglobinopathies in early pregnancy in The Netherlands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giordano, P C; Plancke, A; Van Meir, C A; Janssen, C A H; Kok, P J M J; Van Rooijen-Nijdam, I H; Tanis, B C; van Huisseling, J C M; Versteegh, F G A

    2006-08-01

    We have offered, for the first time in The Netherlands, carrier diagnostics for hemoglobinopathies (HbP) to early pregnant women. The aim of this study was to establish whether carrier analysis would be welcome by the public and feasible at the outpatient level. One hundred and thirty-nine randomly selected women were informed and offered basic carrier diagnostics at the first pregnancy control. Carrier diagnostics was accepted by 136 women (97.8%). The population consisted of 31% of recent immigrants and 69% of native Dutch. One carrier of HbS and one of beta-thalassemia were found, both among the group of the recent immigrants. In both cases, partners were tested excluding a couple at risk. In addition, five carriers of alpha(+)-thalassemia were diagnosed at the molecular level, one of them in the native Dutch population. Basic carrier analysis was done both at the Hospital Laboratory and at the Reference Laboratory. No discrepancies were found. This pilot study shows that (1) as predicted the prevalence of risk-related HbP and of alpha(+)-thalassemia is high in the immigrant population. (2) The compliance with carrier analysis in both native Dutch and immigrants is virtually total and (3) carrier diagnosis in early pregnancy and partner analysis in Hospital Laboratories is possible and is an effective tool for primary prevention of HbP in The Netherlands.

  13. Emergency medical service providers' role in the early heart attack care program: prevention and stratification strategies.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, G S; Steiner, S R

    1997-01-01

    Emergency Medical Services-Early Heart Attack Care (EMS-EHAC) is a community-based program where paramedics increase the consumer's awareness about early chest pain symptom recognition. EMS-EHAC prevention, along with seamless chest pain care (between the paramedic and chest pain emergency department) can be the basis for an outcome-based study to examine the impact of advanced life support EMS. Studies that show the impact of care given by paramedics on the outcome of patient care must be designed to demonstrate the value and the cost benefit of providing advanced life support (ALS). Third party payers are going to examine if there are significant quality differences between ALS and basic life support (BLS) services. If significant benefits of ALS care cannot be demonstrated, the cost differences could potentially place the future of advanced life support paramedic programs in jeopardy. A positive outcome resulting in a lower acute cardiac event, and the realization of the cost benefits from the EMS-EHAC program could be utilized by EMS management to justify or expand advanced life support programs.

  14. Implementing three evidence-based program models: early lessons from the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of organophosphate-induced chronic epilepsy by early benzodiazepine treatment.

    PubMed

    Shrot, Shai; Ramaty, Erez; Biala, Yoav; Bar-Klein, Guy; Daninos, Moshe; Kamintsky, Lyn; Makarovsky, Igor; Statlender, Liran; Rosman, Yossi; Krivoy, Amir; Lavon, Ophir; Kassirer, Michael; Friedman, Alon; Yaari, Yoel

    2014-09-02

    Poisoning with organophosphates (OPs) may induce status epilepticus (SE), leading to severe brain damage. Our objectives were to investigate whether OP-induced SE leads to the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs), the hallmark of chronic epilepsy, and if so, to assess the efficacy of benzodiazepine therapy following SE onset in preventing the epileptogenesis. We also explored early changes in hippocampal pyramidal cells excitability in this model. Adult rats were poisoned with the paraoxon (450μg/kg) and immediately treated with atropine (3mg/kg) and obidoxime (20mg/kg) to reduce acute mortality due to peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Electrical brain activity was assessed for two weeks during weeks 4-6 after poisoning using telemetric electrocorticographic intracranial recordings. All OP-poisoned animals developed SE, which could be suppressed by midazolam. Most (88%) rats which were not treated with midazolam developed SRSs, indicating that they have become chronically epileptic. Application of midazolam 1min following SE onset had a significant antiepileptogenic effect (only 11% of the rats became epileptic; p=0.001 compared to non-midazolam-treated rats). Applying midazolam 30min after SE onset did not significantly prevent chronic epilepsy. The electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells, assessed electrophysiologically in hippocampal slices, were not altered by OP-induced SE. Thus we show for the first time that a single episode of OP-induced SE in rats leads to the acquisition of chronic epilepsy, and that this epileptogenic outcome can be largely prevented by immediate, but not delayed, administration of midazolam. Extrapolating these results to humans would suggest that midazolam should be provided together with atropine and an oxime in the immediate pharmacological treatment of OP poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analgesia for early-life pain prevents deficits in adult anxiety and stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Nicole C; Karom, Mary C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in rats have established that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth (P0) decreases sensitivity to acute noxious, anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli. However, to date, the impact of early-life pain on adult responses to chronic stress is not known. Further, the ability of morphine, administered at the time of injury, to mitigate changes in adult behavioral and hormonal responses to acute or chronic stressors has not been examined. P0 male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were given an intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan or handled in an identical manner in the presence or absence of morphine. As adults, rats that experienced early-life pain displayed decreased sensitivity to acute stressors, as indicated by increased time in the inner area of the Open Field, and increased latency to immobility and decreased time immobile in the Forced Swim Test (FST). An accelerated return of corticosterone to baseline was also observed. Morphine administration at the time of injury completely reversed this 'hyporesponsive' phenotype. By contrast, following 7 days of chronic variable stress, injured animals displayed a 'hyperresponsive' phenotype in that they initiated immobility and spent significantly more time immobile in the FST than controls. Responses to chronic stress were also rescued in animals that received morphine at the time of injury. These data suggest that analgesia for early-life pain prevents adult hyposensitivity to acute anxiety- and stress-provoking stimuli and increased vulnerability to chronic stress, and have important clinical implications for the management of pain in infants. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Early postnatal soluble FGFR3 therapy prevents the atypical development of obesity in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sarrazy, Vincent; Dumas, Karine; Authier, Florence; Sore, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Gennero, Isabelle; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Gouze, Elvire

    2018-01-01

    Background Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication. Methods and findings To achieve this, we have first fully characterized the metabolic deregulations in these patients by conducting a longitudinal retrospective study, in children with achondroplasia Anthropometric, densitometric measures as well as several blood parameters were recorded and compared between three age groups ranging from [0–3], [4–8] and [9–18] years old. Our results show unexpected results with the development of an atypical obesity with preferential fat deposition in the abdomen that is remarkably not associated with classical complications of obesity such as diabetes or hypercholosterolemia. Because it is not associated with diabetes, the atypical obesity has not been studied in the past even though it is recognized as a real problem in these patients. These results were validated in a murine model of achondroplasia (Fgfr3ach/+) where similar visceral adiposity was observed. Unexpected alterations in glucose metabolism were highlighted during high-fat diet. Glucose, insulin or lipid levels remained low, without the development of diabetes. Very interestingly, in achondroplasia mice treated with soluble FGFR3 during the growth period (from D3 to D22), the development of these metabolic deregulations was prevented in adult animals (between 4 and 14 weeks of age

  18. Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-08-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (P<.001) without significant differences in trend. PTSD at 12 months was diagnosed in 4.7% of controls and 4.4% of intervention group patients. There were no group differences on anxiety or depressive symptoms over time. Post hoc analyses using latent growth mixture modeling showed a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms in a subgroup of patients with severe initial symptoms (n=20) (P<.001). Our results do

  19. Early postnatal soluble FGFR3 therapy prevents the atypical development of obesity in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Saint-Laurent, Celine; Garcia, Stephanie; Sarrazy, Vincent; Dumas, Karine; Authier, Florence; Sore, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Gual, Philippe; Gennero, Isabelle; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Gouze, Elvire

    2018-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease is characterized by abnormal bone development and early obesity. While the bone aspect of the disease has been thoroughly studied, early obesity affecting approximately 50% of them during childhood has been somewhat neglected. It nevertheless represents a major health problem in these patients, and is associated to life-threatening complications including increasing risk of cardiovascular pathologies. We have thus decided to study obesity in patients and to use the mouse model to evaluate if soluble FGFR3 therapy, an innovative treatment approach for achondroplasia, could also impact the development of this significant complication. To achieve this, we have first fully characterized the metabolic deregulations in these patients by conducting a longitudinal retrospective study, in children with achondroplasia Anthropometric, densitometric measures as well as several blood parameters were recorded and compared between three age groups ranging from [0-3], [4-8] and [9-18] years old. Our results show unexpected results with the development of an atypical obesity with preferential fat deposition in the abdomen that is remarkably not associated with classical complications of obesity such as diabetes or hypercholosterolemia. Because it is not associated with diabetes, the atypical obesity has not been studied in the past even though it is recognized as a real problem in these patients. These results were validated in a murine model of achondroplasia (Fgfr3ach/+) where similar visceral adiposity was observed. Unexpected alterations in glucose metabolism were highlighted during high-fat diet. Glucose, insulin or lipid levels remained low, without the development of diabetes. Very interestingly, in achondroplasia mice treated with soluble FGFR3 during the growth period (from D3 to D22), the development of these metabolic deregulations was prevented in adult animals (between 4 and 14 weeks of age). The lean-over-fat tissues ratio was

  20. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Background To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. Methods In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18–23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. Results One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43–0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53–5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18–14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. Conclusion To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care

  1. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2015-01-01

    To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18-23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53-5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18-14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care.

  2. Reducing Youth Violence. Coordinated Federal Efforts and Early Intervention Strategies Could Help. Statement of Gregory J. McDonald, Director of Human Services, Policy and Management Issues, Human Resources Division. Testimony before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The testimony presented in this document discusses the extent of the problem of youth violence, risk factors, type of approach required, federal prevention efforts, and conclusions. It is suggested that young people at risk of later violence tend to: come from families that are abusive, neglectful, and otherwise dysfunctional; show an early…

  3. Maternal Sensitivity and Effortful Control in Early Childhood as Predictors of Adolescents' Adjustment: The Mediating Roles of Peer Group Affiliation and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laible, Deborah; Carlo, Gustavo; Davis, Alexandra N.; Karahuta, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal links between early childhood temperament, maternal sensitivity, and adolescents' adjustment have been proposed and found in several longitudinal studies, but the mechanisms of influence have not been explored. The authors examined the paths from maternal sensitivity and temperament in early childhood to adolescents' prosocial,…

  4. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah M; Dobson, Simon

    2004-09-01

    To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use. Neonatal outcomes of rates of early-onset group B streptococcal infections are evaluated. A review of the literature through MEDLINE from January 1980 to December 2003, relating to neonatal group B streptococcal infection and a review of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the Infectious Diseases Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) under the leadership of the principal authors, and recommendations were made according to guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Offer all women screening for group B streptococcal disease at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation with culture done from one swab first to the vagina then to the rectal area. (II-1)2. Treat the following women intrapartum at time of labour or rupture of membranes with IV antibiotics: -all women positive by GBS culture screening done at 35 to 37 weeks (II-2) - any women with an infant previously infected with GBS (II-3) - any women with documented GBS bacteriuria (regardless of level of colony-forming units per mL) in this pregnancy (II-2) 3. Treat women at less than 37 weeks' gestation with IV antibiotics unless there has been a negative GBS vaginal/rectal swab culture within 5 weeks. (II-3) 4. Treat women with intrapartum fever with IV antibiotics (i.e., chorioamnionitis must be treated, but broader spectrum antibiotics would be advised). (II-2) 5. If a woman is GBS-positive by culture screening or by history of bacteriuria, with prelabour rupture of membranes at term, treat with GBS antibiotic prophylaxis and initiate induction of

  5. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions

    PubMed Central

    TESTI, D.; NARDONE, M.; MELONE, P.; CARDELLI, P.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%–90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before “sexual puberty”. The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:27555904

  6. HPV and oral lesions: preventive possibilities, vaccines and early diagnosis of malignant lesions.

    PubMed

    Testi, D; Nardone, M; Melone, P; Cardelli, P; Ottria, L; Arcuri, C

    2015-01-01

    The importance of HPV in world healthy is high, in fact high-risk HPV types contribute significantly to viral associated neoplasms. In this article we will analyze vary expression of HPV in oral cavity both benign and malignant, their prevalence and the importance in early diagnosis and prevention. The classical oral lesions associated with human papillomavirus are squamous cell papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris and focal epithelial hyperplasia. Overall, HPV types 2, 4, 6, 11, 13 and 32 have been associated with benign oral lesions while HPV types 16 and 18 have been associated with malignant lesions, especially in cancers of the tonsils and elsewhere in the oropharynx. Transmission of the virus can occur with direct contact, genital contact, anal and oral sex; latest studies suggest a salivary transmission and from mother to child during delivery. The number of lifetime sexual partners is an important risk factor for the development of HPV-positive head-neck cancer. Oral/oropharyngeal cancer etiologically associated with HPV having an increased survival and a better prognostic (85%-90% to five years). There is no cure for the virus. There are two commercially available prophylactic vaccines against HPV today: the bivalent (16 and 18) Cervarix® and the tetravalent (6, 11, 16 and 18) Gardasil® and new vaccine Gardasil 9 (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) was approved in the United States. To be effective, such vaccination should start before "sexual puberty". The vaccine could be an important preventive strategy, in fact the scientific community is in agreement on hypothesis that blocking the contagion it may also limit the distance complications as the oropharyngeal cancer.

  7. Caregiver acceptability and preferences for early childhood caries preventive treatments for Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sally H; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries in young Hispanic children. We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of, and preferences for, five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, and xylitol in food for children, and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment, photograph/video clip, and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0-4). All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however, there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman chi-square = 23.4, P < 0.001). Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and varnish were most acceptable, not different from each other, but more acceptable than xylitol in food (P < 0.05). Summed treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman chi-square = 128.2, P < 0.001). Fluoride varnish (2.6) and toothbrushing (2.5) were most highly preferred, and differences between preferences for xylitol in food (1.4), xylitol gum (1.5), and chlorhexidine (2.1) were all significant (P < 0.001). Preferences for chlorhexidine were also significantly greater than those for the xylitol products (P < 0.001). All five treatments were highly acceptable, however, when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments.

  8. Strength of obesity prevention interventions in early care and education settings: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ward, Dianne S; Welker, Emily; Choate, Ashley; Henderson, Kathryn E; Lott, Megan; Tovar, Alison; Wilson, Amanda; Sallis, James F

    2017-02-01

    2010-2015; INTERNATIONAL: Given the high levels of obesity in young children, numbers of children in out-of-home care, and data suggesting a link between early care and education (ECE) participation and overweight/obesity, obesity prevention in ECE settings is critical. As the field has progressed, a number of interventions have been reviewed yet there is a need to summarize the data using more sophisticated analyses to answer questions on the effectiveness of interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity prevention interventions in center-based ECE settings published between 2010 and 2015. Our goal was to identify promising intervention characteristics associated with successful behavioral and anthropometric outcomes. A rigorous search strategy resulted in 43 interventions that met inclusion criteria. We developed a coding strategy to assess intervention strength, used a validated study quality assessment tool, and presented detailed descriptive information about interventions (e.g., target behaviors, intervention strategies, and mode of delivery). Intervention strength was positively correlated with reporting of positive anthropometric outcomes for physical activity, diet, and combined interventions, and parent engagement components increased the strength of these relationships. Study quality was modestly related to percent successful healthy eating outcomes. Relationships between intervention strength and behavioral outcomes demonstrated negative relationships for all behavioral outcomes. Specific components of intervention strength (number of intervention strategies, potential impact of strategies, frequency of use, and duration of intervention) were correlated with some of the anthropometric and parent engagement outcomes. The review provided tentative evidence that multi-component, multi-level ECE interventions with parental engagement are most likely to be effective with anthropometric outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Replication RCT of Early Universal Prevention Effects on Young Adult Substance Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol

    2014-01-01

    Objective For many substances, more frequent and problematic use occurs in young adulthood; these types of use are predicted by the timing of initiation during adolescence. We replicated and extended an earlier study examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal preventive interventions implemented in middle school, reduces problematic use in young adulthood. Method Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10–14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires were collected at 11 time points, including four during young adulthood. The intercept (average level) and rate of change (slope) in young adult frequency measures (drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) across ages 19–22 were modeled as outcomes influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Analyses entailed testing a two-step hierarchical latent growth curve model; models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction. Results Analyses showed significant indirect intervention effects on the average levels of all young adult outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors, along with intervention by risk interaction effects favoring the higher-risk subsample. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed in some cases. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher-risk subsample at age 22, ranging from 5.8% to 36.4% on outcomes showing significant intervention effects. Conclusions Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance use and associated problems, into young adulthood. PMID:24821095

  10. “Caregiver Acceptability and Preferences for Early Childhood Caries Preventive Treatments for Hispanic Children”

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sally H.; Hyde, Susan; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine caregiver treatment acceptability and preferences for five preventive dental treatments for early childhood caries (ECC) in young Hispanic children. Methods We interviewed 211 parents/caregivers of Hispanic children attending Head Start programs regarding their acceptability of and preferences for five standard preventive dental treatments for young children. Treatments assessed were: toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish, xylitol in food for children; and xylitol gum and chlorhexidine rinse for mothers. The interview assessment included presentation of: illustrated cards with verbal description of treatment; picture/video clip; and treatment samples. Parents rated the acceptability of each treatment (1-5 scale) and treatment preferences within each of 10 possible pairs. Individual treatment preferences were summed to create overall preference scores (range 0–4). Results All treatments were rated as highly acceptable, however there were differences (range 4.6-4.9; Friedman Chi Square = 23.4, p< 0.001). Chlorhexidine, toothbrushing, and varnish were most acceptable, not different from each other, but more acceptable than xylitol in food (p< 0.05). Summed treatment preferences revealed greater variability (means ranged 1.4-2.6; Friedman Chi Square=128.2, p< 0.001). Fluoride varnish (2.6) and toothbrushing (2.5) were most highly preferred, and differences between preferences for xylitol in food (1.4), xylitol gum (1.5) and chlorhexidine (2.1) were all significant, p < 0.001. Preferences for chlorhexidine were also significantly greater than those for the xylitol products (p < 0.001). Conclusions All 5 treatments were highly acceptable, however when choosing among treatments overall, fluoride varnish and toothbrushing were favored over other treatments. PMID:19486461

  11. Early Probiotic Supplementation for Eczema and Asthma Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Cabana, Michael D; McKean, Michelle; Caughey, Aaron B; Fong, Lawrence; Lynch, Susan; Wong, Angela; Leong, Russell; Boushey, Homer A; Hilton, Joan F

    2017-09-01

    To determine if probiotic administration during the first 6 months of life decreases childhood asthma and eczema. We conducted a randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) supplementation on the cumulative incidence of eczema (primary end point) and asthma and rhinitis (secondary end points) in high-risk infants. For the first 6 months of life, intervention infants ( n = 92) received a daily dose of 10 billion colony-forming units of LGG and 225 mg of inulin (Amerifit Brands, Cromwell, CT), and control infants ( n = 92) received 325 mg of inulin alone. We used survival analysis methods to estimate disease incidences in the presence or absence of LGG and to estimate the efficacy of LGG in delaying or preventing these diseases. Infants were accrued over a 6-year period (median follow-up: 4.6 years; 95% retention rate at 2 years). At 2 years of age, the estimated cumulative incidence of eczema was 30.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.4%-40.4%) in the control arm and 28.7% (95% CI, 19.4%-38.0%) in the LGG arm, for a hazard ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.59-1.53) (log-rank P = .83). At 5 years of age, the cumulative incidence of asthma was 17.4% (95% CI, 7.6%-27.1%) in the control arm and 9.7% (95% CI, 2.7%-16.6%) in the LGG arm, for a hazard ratio of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.41-1.87) (log-rank P = .25). For high-risk infants, early LGG supplementation for the first 6 months of life does not appear to prevent the development of eczema or asthma at 2 years of age. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Pathogenesis and prevention of early pancreatic infection in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Foitzik, T; Fernández-del Castillo, C; Ferraro, M J; Mithöfer, K; Rattner, D W; Warshaw, A L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors test antibiotic strategies aimed at either mitigating bacterial translocation from the gut or delivering antibiotics specifically concentrated by the pancreas for prevention of early secondary infection after acute necrotizing pancreatitis. BACKGROUND: Infection currently is the principal cause of death after severe pancreatitis. The authors have shown that the risk of bacterial infection correlates directly with the degree of tissue injury in a rodent model of pancreatitis. Bacteria most likely arrive by translocation from the colon. METHODS: Severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in rats by a combination of low-dose controlled intraductal infusion of glycodeoxycholic acid superimposed on intravenous cerulein hyperstimulation. At 6 hours, animals were randomly allocated to five treatment groups: controls, selective gut decontamination (oral antibiotics and cefotaxime), oral antibiotics alone, cefotaxime alone, or imipenem. At 96 hours, surviving animals were killed for quantitative bacterial study of the cecum, pancreas, and kidney. RESULTS: The 96-hour mortality (35%) was unaffected by any treatment regimen. Cecal gram-negative bacteria were significantly reduced only by the oral antibiotics. Pancreatic infection was significantly reduced by full-gut decontamination and by imipenem, but not by oral antibiotics or by cefotaxime alone. Renal infection was reduced by both intravenous antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Early pancreatic infection after acute necrotizing pancreatitis can be reduced with a full-gut decontamination regimen or with an antibiotic concentrated by the pancreas (imipenem) but not by unconcentrated antibiotics of similar spectrum (cefotaxime) or by oral antibiotics alone. These findings suggest that 1) both direct bacterial translocation from the gut and hematogenous seeding interplay in pancreatic infection while hematogenous seeding is dominant at extrapancreatic sites and 2) imipenem may be useful in clinical

  13. EARLY STABILIZING ALVEOLAR VENTILATION PREVENTS ARDS- A NOVEL TIMING-BASED VENTILATORY INTERVENTION TO AVERT LUNG INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Shreyas; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Gatto, Louis; Marx, William; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A.; Kuhn, Michael; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary; Habashi, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Background Established ARDS is often refractory to treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated modest treatment effects, and mortality remains high. Ventilator strategies must be developed to prevent ARDS. Hypothesis Early ventilatory intervention will block progression to ARDS if the ventilator mode: 1) maintains alveolar stability and 2) reduces pulmonary edema formation. Methods Yorkshire Pigs (38–45kg) were anaesthetized and subjected to "2-hit" Ischemia-Reperfusion and Peritoneal Sepsis. Following injury, animals were randomized into two groups: Early Preventative Ventilation (Airway Pressure Release Ventilation- APRV) vs. Non-Preventative Ventilation (NPV) and followed for 48hr. All animals received anesthesia, antibiotics, and fluid/vasopressor therapy per Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Ventilation parameters: 1) NPV Group - Tidal volume (Vt): 10cc/kg + PEEP- 5 cm/H2O volume-cycled mode, 2) APRV Group - Vt: 10–15 cc/kg; Phigh, Plow, Thigh, Tlow were titrated for optimal alveolar stability. Physiologic data and plasma were collected throughout the 48hr study period, followed by BAL and necropsy. Results APRV prevented development of ARDS (p<0.001 vs NPV) by PaO2/FiO2 ratio. Quantitative histological scoring showed APRV prevented lung tissue injury (p<0.001 vs. NPV). BALF showed APRV lowered total protein and IL-6, while preserving surfactant proteins A & B (p<0.05 vs. NPV). APRV significantly lowered lung water (p<0.001 vs. NPV). Plasma IL-6 concentrations were similar between groups. Conclusions Early preventative mechanical ventilation with APRV blocked ARDS development, preserved surfactant proteins, and reduced pulmonary inflammation and edema, despite systemic inflammation similar to NPV. These data suggest early preventative ventilation strategies stabilizing alveoli and reducing pulmonary edema can attenuate ARDS after ischemia-reperfusion-sepsis. PMID:22846945

  14. Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Students. Final Report, from July 1978 to June 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Betty R.; And Others

    This report presents results of a project to provide useful information for planning pregnancy prevention programs. It focuses on five project objectives: (1) identification of factors associated with adolescent sexual behavior, contraceptive behavior, and pregnancy; (2) development of instructional objectives or skills associated with pregnancy…

  15. Relationships between the Family Environment and School-Based Obesity Prevention Efforts: Can School Programs Help Adolescents Who Are Most in Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…

  16. Venue-based Network Analysis to Inform HIV Prevention Efforts Among Young Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Rice, Eric; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates continue to increase among young gay, bisexual and other men have sexual intercourse with men. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) indicate interest in HIV prevention programming that is implemented in the social venues that they frequent when they want to socialize with other men. We sought to understand YMSM venues as a networked space to provide insights into venue-based HIV prevention intervention delivery. Methods The present study used survey data reported by 526 YMSM (ages 18–24) in 2005 to conduct a venue-based social network analysis. The latter sought to determine if the structure and composition of the networks in Los Angeles could be used to facilitate the delivery of HIV prevention messages to YMSM. Degree of person sharing between venues was used to demonstrate interconnectivity between venues classified as low-risk (e.g., coffee shops) and high-risk (e.g., bars, clubs) by a Community Advisory Board. Results Sixty-five percent of the 110 venues nominated were bars and clubs. Nearly all YMSM were connected by a single venue and over 87% were connected by the 6 most central venues. A handful of highly connected low-risk venues were central to the venue network and connected to popular high-risk venues. Conclusions Venue-based network analysis can inform tailored HIV prevention messaging for YMSM. Targeted delivery of prevention messaging at low-risk centralized venues may lead to widespread diffusion among venue-attending YMSM. PMID:24464324

  17. Venue-based network analysis to inform HIV prevention efforts among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Rice, Eric; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates continue to increase among young gay, bisexual, and other men have sexual intercourse with men. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) indicate interest in HIV prevention programming that is implemented in the social venues that they frequent when they want to socialize with other men. We sought to understand YMSM venues as a networked space to provide insights into venue-based HIV prevention intervention delivery. The present study used survey data reported by 526 YMSM (ages 18-24) in 2005 to conduct a venue-based social network analysis. The latter sought to determine if the structure and composition of the networks in Los Angeles could be used to facilitate the delivery of HIV prevention messages to YMSM. Degree of person sharing between venues was used to demonstrate interconnectivity between venues classified as low risk (e.g., coffee shops) and high risk (e.g., bars and clubs) by a Community Advisory Board. Sixty-five percent of the 110 venues nominated were bars and clubs. Nearly all YMSM were connected by a single venue and over 87 % were connected by the six most central venues. A handful of highly connected low-risk venues was central to the venue network and connected to popular high-risk venues. Venue-based network analysis can inform tailored HIV prevention messaging for YMSM. Targeted delivery of prevention messaging at low-risk centralized venues may lead to widespread diffusion among venue-attending YMSM.

  18. New Round of Studies Begin in Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Division of Cancer Prevention’s Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program, also known as the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, is beginning a new round of studies in the effort toward systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents for people at increased risk of developing cancer. |

  19. An 'Early Warning System' for the prevention of dredging potential impacts on sensitive areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Viviana; Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Bonamano, Simone; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Albani, Marta; Stefanì, Chiara; Madonia, Alice; Fersini, Giorgio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine ecosystems are increasingly subject to multiple pressures and stressors produced by the effects of human activities. Intense and frequent disturbances which affect marine environment can derive from dredging activity, which is a fundamental management for most ports and harbours. The potential environmental effects of dredging procedures are generally due to the excavation of material from the sea bottom and the relocation elsewhere for disposal, overflow from the dredger and loss of material from pipelines during transport. Depending on the location and the intensity of these activities the marine environment, particularly sensitive areas, may be affected by dredging. The main environmental effects can be associated with suspended sediments and increases in turbidity into the water column, which can have adverse effects on marine animals and plants by reducing light penetration and by physical disturbance. For this reason it is fundamental to implement a real time monitoring system to control and prevent negative effects, enabling a rapid response to adverse water quality conditions and a fast activation of mitigation procedures, in agreement with all the reference authorities. In this work we present the development of an innovative 'Early Warning System' based on fixed stations, ad hoc in situ surveys and forecasting models, which was applied to a dredging activity carried out in the Gulf of Gaeta (Latium, Italy). It represents an extension of the C-CEMS (Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System) network, which is operative in the Tyrrhenian sea since 2005.

  20. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P < 0.05). Twenty-four percent of group 1 had cavitated lesions in any permanent molar versus 12.8 percent in groups 2 and 3 combined (P > 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  1. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. Methods The evaluation includes children in three conditions: (1) three times per school year topical fluoride varnish; (2) varnish plus twice per day toothbrushing; and (3) intervention 2 plus three times per day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. Results One year after project implementation, mean deft was 10.3 (SD=4.3) teeth for group 1 and 8.2 (SD=4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (p<.05). Twenty-four percent of group 1 had cavitated lesions in any permanent molar versus 12.8 percent in groups 2 and 3 combined (p>.05). Conclusions Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish. PMID:19486466

  2. Validation of the content of the prevention protocol for early sepsis caused by Streptococcus agalactiaein newborns

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fabiana Alves; Vidal, Cláudia Fernanda de Lacerda; de Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to validate the content of the prevention protocol for early sepsis caused by Streptococcus agalactiaein newborns. Method: a transversal, descriptive and methodological study, with a quantitative approach. The sample was composed of 15 judges, 8 obstetricians and 7 pediatricians. The validation occurred through the assessment of the content of the protocol by the judges that received the instrument for data collection - checklist - which contained 7 items that represent the requisites to be met by the protocol. The validation of the content was achieved by applying the Content Validity Index. Result: in the judging process, all the items that represented requirements considered by the protocol obtained concordance within the established level (Content Validity Index > 0.75). Of 7 items, 6 have obtained full concordance (Content Validity Index 1.0) and the feasibility item obtained a Content Validity Index of 0.93. The global assessment of the instruments obtained a Content Validity Index of 0.99. Conclusion: the validation of content that was done was an efficient tool for the adjustment of the protocol, according to the judgment of experienced professionals, which demonstrates the importance of conducting a previous validation of the instruments. It is expected that this study will serve as an incentive for the adoption of universal tracking by other institutions through validated protocols. PMID:26444165

  3. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864.

    .

  4. Helicobacter pylori Eradication for Prevention of Metachronous Recurrence after Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bang, Chang Seok; Baik, Gwang Ho; Shin, In Soo; Kim, Jin Bong; Suk, Ki Tae; Yoon, Jai Hoon; Kim, Yeon Soo; Kim, Dong Joon

    2015-06-01

    Controversies persist regarding the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the development of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC for the prevention of metachronous gastric cancer. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted using the core databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The rates of development of metachronous gastric cancer between the Helicobacter pylori eradication group vs. the non-eradication group were extracted and analyzed using risk ratios (RRs). A random effect model was applied. The methodological quality of the enrolled studies was assessed by the Risk of Bias table and by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Publication bias was evaluated through the funnel plot with trim and fill method, Egger's test, and by the rank correlation test. Ten studies (2 randomized and 8 non-randomized/5,914 patients with EGC or dysplasia) were identified and analyzed. Overall, the Helicobacter pylori eradication group showed a RR of 0.467 (95% CI: 0.362-0.602, P < 0.001) for the development of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic resection of EGC. Subgroup analyses showed consistent results. Publication bias was not detected. Helicobacter pylori eradication after endoscopic resection of EGC reduces the occurrence of metachronous gastric cancer.

  5. Preventing maternal and early childhood obesity: the fetal flaw in Australian perinatal care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Margaret; Hearn, Lydia; van der Pligt, Paige; Wilcox, Jane; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of Australian women of child-bearing age are overweight or obese, with a rate of 30-50% reported in early pregnancy. Maternal adiposity is a costly challenge for Australian obstetric care, with associated serious maternal and neonatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain is an important predictor of offspring adiposity into adulthood and higher maternal weight later in life. Current public health and perinatal care approaches in Australia do not adequately address excess perinatal maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This paper argues that the failure of primary health-care providers to offer systematic advice and support regarding women's weight and related lifestyle behaviours in child-bearing years is an outstanding 'missed opportunity' for prevention of inter-generational overweight and obesity. Barriers to action could be addressed through greater attention to: clinical guidelines for maternal weight management for the perinatal period, training and support of maternal health-care providers to develop skills and confidence in raising weight issues with women, a variety of weight management programs provided by state maternal health services, and clear referral pathways to them. Attention is also required to service systems that clearly define roles in maternal weight management and ensure consistency and continuity of support across the perinatal period.

  6. [Social network analysis of interdisciplinary cooperation and networking in early prevention and intervention. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Künster, A K; Knorr, C; Fegert, J M; Ziegenhain, U

    2010-11-01

    Child protection can only be successfully solved by interdisciplinary cooperation and networking. The individual, heterogeneous, and complex needs of families cannot be met sufficiently by one profession alone. To guarantee efficient interdisciplinary cooperation, there should not be any gaps in the network. In addition, each actor in the network should be placed at an optimal position regarding function, responsibilities, and skills. Actors that serve as allocators, such as pediatricians or youth welfare officers, should be in key player positions within the network. Furthermore, successful child protection is preventive and starts early. Social network analysis is an adequate technique to assess network structures and to plan interventions to improve networking. In addition, it is very useful to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions like round tables. We present data from our pilot project which was part of "Guter Start ins Kinderleben" ("a good start into a child's life"). Exemplary network data from one community show that networking is already quite effective with a satisfactory mean density throughout the network. There is potential for improvement in cooperation, especially at the interface between the child welfare and health systems.

  7. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    PubMed

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with.

  8. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2013-10-12

    , irrespective of the location of the wound and whether or not the wound was dressed. We excluded trials if they included patients with contaminated, dirty or infected wounds and those that included open wounds. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials, cohort studies and case-control studies. We extracted data on the characteristics of the patients included in the trials, risk of bias in the trials and outcomes from each trial. For binary outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous variables we planned to calculate the mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI. For count data outcomes, we planned to calculate the rate ratio (RaR) with 95% CI. We used RevMan 5 software for performing these calculations. Only one trial was identified for inclusion in this review. This trial was at a high risk of bias. This trial included 857 patients undergoing minor skin excision surgery in the primary care setting. The wounds were sutured after the excision. Patients were randomised to early post-operative bathing (dressing to be removed after 12 hours and normal bathing resumed) (n = 415) or delayed post-operative bathing (dressing to be retained for at least 48 hours before removal and resumption of normal bathing) (n = 442). The only outcome of interest reported in this trial was surgical site infection (SSI). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients who developed SSIs between the two groups (857 patients; RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.48). The proportions of patients who developed SSIs were 8.5% in the early bathing group and 8.8% in the delayed bathing group. There is currently no conclusive evidence available from randomised trials regarding the benefits or harms of early versus delayed post-operative showering or bathing for the prevention of wound complications, as the confidence intervals around the point estimate are wide, and, therefore, a clinically significant increase

  9. Early versus delayed post-operative bathing or showering to prevent wound complications.

    PubMed

    Toon, Clare D; Sinha, Sidhartha; Davidson, Brian R; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan

    2015-07-23

    their wounds, irrespective of the location of the wound and whether or not the wound was dressed. We excluded trials if they included patients with contaminated, dirty or infected wounds and those that included open wounds. We also excluded quasi-randomised trials, cohort studies and case-control studies. We extracted data on the characteristics of the patients included in the trials, risk of bias in the trials and outcomes from each trial. For binary outcomes, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous variables we planned to calculate the mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI. For count data outcomes, we planned to calculate the rate ratio (RaR) with 95% CI. We used RevMan 5 software for performing these calculations. Only one trial was identified for inclusion in this review. This trial was at a high risk of bias. This trial included 857 patients undergoing minor skin excision surgery in the primary care setting. The wounds were sutured after the excision. Patients were randomised to early post-operative bathing (dressing to be removed after 12 hours and normal bathing resumed) (n = 415) or delayed post-operative bathing (dressing to be retained for at least 48 hours before removal and resumption of normal bathing) (n = 442). The only outcome of interest reported in this trial was surgical site infection (SSI). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients who developed SSIs between the two groups (857 patients; RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.62 to 1.48). The proportions of patients who developed SSIs were 8.5% in the early bathing group and 8.8% in the delayed bathing group. There is currently no conclusive evidence available from randomised trials regarding the benefits or harms of early versus delayed post-operative showering or bathing for the prevention of wound complications, as the confidence intervals around the point estimate are wide, and, therefore, a clinically

  10. Examining the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing Early Intervention Program to Prevent High School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Rogelberg, Sandra; Terry, John David; Lutz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Aspire, a new motivational interviewing (MI) early intervention program designed to prevent dropout among students repeating the ninth grade, and then examines the feasibility and acceptability of this program through a mixed-methods approach. The Aspire program is a nine-lesson curriculum grounded in MI with an emphasis on…

  11. Domestic Violence and Abuse Prevention Programmes in the Early Years Classroom: A Pastoral, Academic and Financial Priority?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Mason, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programmes underpin every child's right to "feel" safe and to "be" safe from all forms of harm. Delivered in schools across the globe, they aim to equip children with knowledge about safety and the skills to seek help early. By drawing upon international prevalence and impact research, as well as the legal, policy…

  12. Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Fisher, Philip A

    2006-01-01

    A major focus in developmental psychopathology is on understanding developmental mechanisms and, armed with this information, intervening to improve children's outcomes. Translational research attempts to bridge the distance between understanding and intervention. In the collaborations that have formed the core of our research network on early experience, stress, and prevention science, we have focused on translating basic research on early experiences and stress neurobiology into preventive interventions for neglected and abused children. Our experiences in attempting to move from bench to bedside have led us to recognize the many challenges that face translational researchers. This review provides a brief synopsis of the animal model literature on early experience and stress neurobiology from which we glean several key bridging issues. We then review what is currently known about the impact of childhood neglect and abuse on stress neurobiology in human adults and children. Next, we describe how this work has informed the evaluation of our preventive interventions with maltreated children. Finally, we discuss several considerations that should facilitate a more complete integration of basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology into preventive intervention strategies.

  13. Indicated Prevention and Early Intervention for Childhood Anxiety: A Randomized Trial with Caucasian and Hispanic/Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This trial of a randomized indicated anxiety prevention and early intervention explored initial program effects as well as the role of ethnicity and language on measured outcomes. Method: A total of 88 youth (M = 10.36 years; 45 girls, 52 Latino) received 1 of 2 protocols with varying degrees of parent involvement, and response was…

  14. Gender-Specific HIV Prevention with Urban Early-Adolescent Girls: Outcomes of the Keepin' It Safe Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Keepin' It Safe, a theory-based, gender-specific, CD-ROM-mediated HIV prevention program for urban, early adolescent girls. Intervention effects were examined in a randomized, pretest-posttest wait-list control-group design. Changes in HIV/AIDS knowledge, protective attitudes, and skills for reducing HIV…

  15. Evaluation of California's Statewide Mental Health Prevention and Early Intervention Programs: Summary of Key Year 2 Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberhart, Nicole K.; Burnam, M. Audrey; Berry, Sandra H.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Ebener, Patricia A.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Stein, Bradley D.; Woodbridge, Michelle W.

    2015-01-01

    In California, the passage of Proposition 63 set aside funds for prevention and early intervention (PEI) and allowed for local and statewide activities. Recognizing the importance of including evidence-based PEI approaches into a comprehensive spectrum of care for mental disorders, the California Mental Health Services Authority (CalMHSA)--a…

  16. Early cystic fibrosis lung disease: Role of airway surface dehydration and lessons from preventive rehydration therapies in mice.

    PubMed

    Mall, Marcus A; Graeber, Simon Y; Stahl, Mirjam; Zhou-Suckow, Zhe

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease starts in the first months of life and remains one of the most common fatal hereditary diseases. Early therapeutic interventions may provide an opportunity to prevent irreversible lung damage and improve outcome. Airway surface dehydration is a key disease mechanism in CF, however, its role in the in vivo pathogenesis and as therapeutic target in early lung disease remains poorly understood. Mice with airway-specific overexpression of the epithelial Na(+) channel (βENaC-Tg) recapitulate airway surface dehydration and phenocopy CF lung disease. Recent studies in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice demonstrated that airway surface dehydration produces early mucus plugging in the absence of mucus hypersecretion, which triggers airway inflammation, promotes bacterial infection and causes early mortality. Preventive rehydration therapy with hypertonic saline or amiloride effectively reduced mucus plugging and mortality in neonatal βENaC-Tg mice. These results support clinical testing of preventive/early rehydration strategies in infants and young children with CF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Berkeley's New Approach to Global Engagement: Early and Current Efforts to Become More International. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.12.15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Nicholas B.; Gilman, Nils

    2015-01-01

    This essay discusses past and current thinking about the globalization of higher education (from a U.S. point of view in particular) and a new model we are attempting to develop at the University of California, Berkeley. This essay begins with a brief narrative of the historical evolution of efforts to internationalize education, from the…

  18. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    PubMed

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian

    2010-05-16

    Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.

  19. Early stabilizing alveolar ventilation prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome: a novel timing-based ventilatory intervention to avert lung injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shreyas; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Gatto, Louis A; Marx, William; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A; Kuhn, Michael; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary; Habashi, Nader

    2012-08-01

    Established acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often refractory to treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated modest treatment effects, and mortality remains high. Ventilator strategies must be developed to prevent ARDS. Early ventilatory intervention will block progression to ARDS if the ventilator mode (1) maintains alveolar stability and (2) reduces pulmonary edema formation. Yorkshire pigs (38-45 kg) were anesthetized and subjected to a "two-hit" ischemia-reperfusion and peritoneal sepsis. After injury, animals were randomized into two groups: early preventative ventilation (airway pressure release ventilation [APRV]) versus nonpreventative ventilation (NPV) and followed for 48 hours. All animals received anesthesia, antibiotics, and fluid or vasopressor therapy as per the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Titrated for optimal alveolar stability were the following ventilation parameters: (1) NPV group--tidal volume, 10 mL/kg + positive end-expiratory pressure - 5 cm/H2O volume-cycled mode; (2) APRV group--tidal volume, 10 to 15 mL/kg; high pressure, low pressure, time duration of inspiration (Thigh), and time duration of release phase (Tlow). Physiological data and plasma were collected throughout the 48-hour study period, followed by BAL and necropsy. APRV prevented the development of ARDS (p < 0.001 vs. NPV) by PaO₂/FIO₂ ratio. Quantitative histological scoring showed that APRV prevented lung tissue injury (p < 0.001 vs. NPV). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed that APRV lowered total protein and interleukin 6 while preserving surfactant proteins A and B (p < 0.05 vs. NPV). APRV significantly lowered lung water (p < 0.001 vs. NPV). Plasma interleukin 6 concentrations were similar between groups. Early preventative mechanical ventilation with APRV blocked ARDS development, preserved surfactant proteins, and reduced pulmonary inflammation and edema despite systemic inflammation similar to NPV. These data suggest that early preventative ventilation

  20. Prevention

    Treesearch

    Barbara Illman; Gary Man

    2010-01-01

    Prevention is considered the most cost-effective element of the Forest Service Invasive Species Strategy (USDA Forest Service 2004). What makes prevention difficult is the desire to maximize free trade and the resulting benefits to society while, at the same time, protecting natural resources. The role of science is to first identify which commodities pose an...

  1. Early amniotomy and early oxytocin for prevention of, or therapy for, delay in first stage spontaneous labour compared with routine care

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuqin; Wo, Bi Lan; Qi, Hui-Ping; Xu, Hairong; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Roy, Chantal; Fraser, William D

    2014-01-01

    Background Caesarean section rates are over 20% in many developed countries. The main diagnosis contributing to the high rate in nulliparae is dystocia or prolonged labour. The present review assesses the effects of a policy of early amniotomy with early oxytocin administration for the prevention of, or the therapy for, delay in labour progress. Objectives To estimate the effects of early augmentation with amniotomy and oxytocin for prevention of, or therapy for, delay in labour progress on the caesarean birth rate and on indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (15 February 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 15 February 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 15 February 2012), CINAHL (1982 to 15 February 2012), MIDIRS (1985 to February 2012) and contacted authors for data from unpublished trials. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared oxytocin and amniotomy with expectant management. Data collection and analysis Three review authors extracted data independently. We stratified the analyses into ’Prevention Trials’ and ’Therapy Trials’ according to the status of the woman at the time of randomization. Participants in the ’Prevention Trials’ were unselected women, without slow progress in labour, who were randomized to a policy of early augmentation or to routine care. In ’Treatment Trials’ women were eligible if they had an established delay in labour progress. Main results For this update, we have included a further two new clinical trials. This updated review includes 14 trials, randomizing a total of 8033 women. The unstratified analysis found early intervention with amniotomy and oxytocin to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of caesarean section; however, the confidence interval (CI) included the null effect (risk ratio (RR) 0.89; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.01; 14 trials; 8033 women). In prevention trials, early augmentation was

  2. Early (< 8 days) systemic postnatal corticosteroids for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lex W; Cheong, Jeanie L; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Halliday, Henry L

    2017-10-24

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to prevent or treat bronchopulmonary dysplasia because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To examine the relative benefits and adverse effects of systemic postnatal corticosteroids commenced within the first seven days of life for preterm infants at risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. For the 2017 update, we used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 1); MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); Embase (January 2013 to 21 February 2017); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 2013 to 21 February 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials. For this review, we selected RCTs examining systemic postnatal corticosteroid treatment within the first seven days of life (early) in high-risk preterm infants. Most studies evaluated the use of dexamethasone, but we also included studies that assessed hydrocortisone, even when used primarily for management of hypotension. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence.We extracted and analysed data regarding clinical outcomes that included mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, failure to extubate, complications during primary hospitalisation, and long-term health outcomes. We included 32 RCTs enrolling a total of 4395 participants. The overall risk of bias of included studies was probably low, as all were RCTs, and most trials used rigorous methods. Investigators reported significant benefits for the following outcomes overall: lower rates of failure to extubate, decreased

  3. Long-term outcome of early interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Arieh Y; Ankri, Yael; Gilad, Moran; Israeli-Shalev, Yossi; Adessky, Rhonda; Qian, Meng; Freedman, Sara

    2016-05-01

    Failing to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has major clinical and public health consequences. This work evaluates the 3-year outcome of offering early interventions to survivors with acute PTSD. Adults admitted consecutively to the hospital with acute DSM-IV PTSD were randomized, between June 2003 and October 2007, to 12 weeks of prolonged exposure (n = 63) or cognitive therapy (n = 40) or concealed SSRI (escitalopram; n = 23) versus placebo (n = 23). Eighty-two participants who declined treatment were followed as well. Treatment started 1 month after the traumatic event, and participants were reassessed 5 and 36 months later. Assessors were blinded to treatment allocation and acceptance. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) evaluated PTSD and PTSD symptoms. Self-reported symptoms, general functioning, and employment status were secondary outcomes. Participants lost to follow-up were missing completely at random. Prolonged exposure and cognitive therapy significantly reduced PTSD and PTSD symptoms between 1 and 5 months (mean CAPS total scores [95% CI] at 1 month: prolonged exposure = 73.59 [68.21-78.96] and cognitive therapy = 71.78 [66.92-78.93]; mean CAPS total scores [95% CI] at 5 months: prolonged exposure = 28.59 [21.89-35.29] and cognitive therapy = 29.48 [21.32-37.95], P < .001), and their results remained stable. At 3 years, however, the study groups had similar levels of PTSD symptoms (mean CAPS total scores [95% CI]: prolonged exposure = 31.51 [20.25-42.78]; cognitive therapy = 32.08 [20.74-43.42]; SSRI = 34.31 [16.54-52.07]; placebo = 32.13 [20.15-44.12]; and no intervention = 30.59 [19.40-41.78]), similar prevalence of PTSD (28.6%-46.2%), and similar secondary outcomes. Early prolonged exposure and cognitive therapy accelerated the recovery from acute PTSD. Their effect remained stable, however, without reducing the 3-year prevalence of the disorder. The lingering prevalence of PTSD, despite efficient interventions, illustrates a

  4. What role can child-care settings play in obesity prevention? A review of the evidence and call for research efforts.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne S; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-09-01

    Given the widespread use of out-of-home child care and an all-time high prevalence of obesity among US preschool-aged children, it is imperative to consider the opportunities that child-care facilities may provide to reduce childhood obesity. This review examines the scientific literature on state regulations, practices and policies, and interventions for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, and for preventing obesity in preschool-aged children attending child care. Research published between January 2000 and July 2010 was identified by searching PubMed and MEDLINE databases, and by examining the bibliographies of relevant studies. Although the review focused on US child-care settings, interventions implemented in international settings were also included. In total, 42 studies were identified for inclusion in this review: four reviews of state regulations, 18 studies of child-care practices and policies that may influence eating or physical activity behaviors, two studies of parental perceptions and practices relevant to obesity prevention, and 18 evaluated interventions. Findings from this review reveal that most states lack strong regulations for child-care settings related to healthy eating and physical activity. Recent assessments of child-care settings suggest opportunities for improving the nutritional quality of food provided to children, the time children are engaged in physical activity, and caregivers' promotion of children's health behaviors and use of health education resources. A limited number of interventions have been designed to address these concerns, and only two interventions have successfully demonstrated an effect on child weight status. Recommendations are provided for future research addressing opportunities to prevent obesity in child-care settings. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal Relations among Parents' Reactions to Children's Negative Emotions, Effortful Control, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = 0.39 year) across kindergarten through…

  6. Relationships between the family environment and school-based obesity prevention efforts: can school programs help adolescents who are most in need?

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in physical activity (PA), television use, dietary intake, body mass index (BMI) and body composition during participation in New Moves, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity and other weight-related problems. Adolescent girls in the intervention condition of New Moves (n = 135), and one parent of each girl, were included in the current analysis. At baseline, parents completed surveys assessing the family environment. At baseline and follow-up, 9–12 months later, girls' behaviors were self-reported, height and weight were measured by study staff and body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results showed few associations between family environment factors and girls' likelihood of improving behavior, BMI or body composition. These findings suggest that in general, school-based interventions offer similar opportunities for adolescent girls to improve their PA, dietary intake, and weight, regardless of family support. PMID:21536714

  7. Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Chi, Donald L; Tut, Ohnmar; Milgrom, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of supervised tooth-brushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and reduce mutans streptococci. In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 196 four- to five-year-old children in four Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400 ppm/31 percent fluoride xylitol or 1,450 ppm fluoride sorbitol toothpaste. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was the surface-level primary molar caries increment (d(2-3)mfs) after six months. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children), and two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d(2-3)mfs. The mean d(2-3)mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d(2-3)mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% confidence interval: -0.17, 2.37; P=.07). No adverse effects were reported. After six months, brushing with a low-strength xylitol/fluoride tooth-paste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride-only toothpaste in a high caries-risk child population.

  8. Outcomes of an early feeding practices intervention to prevent childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Lynne Allison; Mallan, Kimberley Margaret; Nicholson, Jan Maree; Battistutta, Diana; Magarey, Anthea

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate outcomes of a universal intervention to promote protective feeding practices that commenced in infancy and aimed to prevent childhood obesity. The NOURISH randomized controlled trial enrolled 698 first-time mothers (mean ± SD age: 30.1 ± 5.3 years) with healthy term infants (51% female) aged 4.3 ± 1.0 months at baseline. Mothers were randomly allocated to self-directed access to usual care or to attend two 6-session interactive group education modules that provided anticipatory guidance on early feeding practices. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after completion of the second information module, 20 months from baseline and when the children were 2 years old. Maternal feeding practices were self-reported by using validated questionnaires and study-developed items. Study-measured child height and weight were used to calculate BMI z scores. Retention at follow-up was 78%. Mothers in the intervention group reported using responsive feeding more frequently on 6 of 9 subscales and 8 of 8 items (all, P ≤ .03) and overall less controlling feeding practices (P < .001). They also more frequently used feeding practices (3 of 4 items; all, P < .01) likely to enhance food acceptance. No statistically significant differences were noted in anthropometric outcomes (BMI z score: P = .10) nor in prevalence of overweight/obesity (control 17.9% vs intervention 13.8%; P = .23). Evaluation of NOURISH data at child age 2 years found that anticipatory guidance on complementary feeding, tailored to developmental stage, increased use by first-time mothers of "protective" feeding practices that potentially support the development of healthy eating and growth patterns in young children.

  9. Cluster-randomized xylitol toothpaste trial for early childhood caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Milgrom, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing with xylitol toothpaste to prevent early childhood caries (ECC) and to reduce mutans streptococci (MS). Methods In this cluster-randomized efficacy trial, 4 Head Start classrooms in the Marshall Islands were randomly assigned to supervised toothbrushing with 1,400ppm/31% fluoride-xylitol (Epic Dental, Provo, UT) or 1,450ppm fluoride-sorbitol toothpaste (Colgate-Palmolive, New York, NY) (N=196 children, ages 4–5 yrs). We hypothesized no difference in efficacy between the two types of toothpaste. The primary outcome was primary molar d2-3mfs increment after 6 mos. A single examiner was blinded to classroom assignments. Two classrooms were assigned to the fluoride-xylitol group (85 children) and 2 classrooms to the fluoride-sorbitol group (83 children). The child-level analyses accounted for clustering. Results There was no difference between the two groups in baseline or end-of-trial mean d2-3mfs. The mean d2-3mfs increment was greater in the fluoride-xylitol group compared to the fluoride-sorbitol group (2.5 and 1.4 d2-3mfs, respectively), but the difference was not significant (95% CI:−0.17, 2.37;P=0.07). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusion After 6 mos, brushing with a low strength xylitol/fluoride toothpaste is no more efficacious in reducing ECC than a fluoride only toothpaste in a high caries risk child population. PMID:24709430

  10. Factors preventing early case detection for women affected by leprosy: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Price, Victoria Grace

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although leprosy can affect both sexes equally, it is globally reported that men are affected, or simply report, more often than females at the average ratio of 2:1. If cases are simply not being reported, women may be suffering in silence more often than men, and, therefore, understanding the social reasons for this in a number of countries could support the prevention of long-term disabilities caused as a result of leprosy. Objectives: The objective of this review is to recognise the current academic literature surrounding the potential factors for late diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, giving possible explanations for the 2:1 gender disparity observed in case detection globally. It is hoped that health practitioners will become more equipped to recognise these barriers and ensure they are doing whatever possible to encourage women to report the early symptoms of leprosy. Methods: The review used a systematic search process in order to identify gender-related publications using robust research, useful for gleaning a cross-cultural perception of issues women may confront on the prospect of a diagnosis of leprosy. Results: Identifying 12 publications from just five countries, the review found there to be four overarching areas which may be considered barriers more often faced by women: societal stigma; women’s dependence and low status; self-stigmatising attitudes; and the gender insensitivity of leprosy services. Conclusion: Stigma surrounding leprosy experienced from these four overarching areas can all be attributed to the later diagnosis of women affected by leprosy, in relation to their male counterparts. The need for future research surrounding the specific experience of women affected by leprosy is pressing. PMID:28853325

  11. The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Allen, Victoria M

    2013-10-01

    To review the evidence in the literature and to provide recommendations on the management of pregnant women in labour for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The key revisions in this updated guideline include changed recommendations for regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis, susceptibility testing, and management of women with pre-labour rupture of membranes. Maternal outcomes evaluated included exposure to antibiotics in pregnancy and labour and complications related to antibiotic use. Neonatal outcomes of rates of early-onset group B streptococcal infections are evaluated. Published literature was retrieved through searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library from January 1980 to July 2012 using appropriate controlled vocabulary and key words (group B streptococcus, antibiotic therapy, infection, prevention). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to May 2013. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The recommendations in this guideline are designed to help clinicians identify and manage pregnancies at risk for neonatal group B streptococcal disease to optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes. No cost-benefit analysis is provided. There is good evidence based on randomized control trial data that in women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term who are colonized with group B streptococcus, rates of neonatal infection are

  12. Early Predictors of First-Year Academic Success at University: Pre-University Effort, Pre-University Self-Efficacy, and Pre-University Reasons for Attending University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Herpen, Sanne G. A.; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Severiens, Sabine E.; Arends, Lidia R.

    2017-01-01

    Given the large number of dropouts in the 1st year at university, it is important to identify early predictors of 1st-year academic success. The present study (n = 453 first-year students) contributes to literature on the transition from secondary to higher education by investigating how the non-cognitive factors "pre-university" effort…

  13. Trends in hospitalised sport/leisure injuries in New South Wales, Australia--implications for the targetting of population-focussed preventive sports medicine efforts.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane

    2011-01-01

    Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  15. Early erythropoietin for preventing red blood cell transfusion in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, A; Aher, S M

    2006-07-19

    long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not significantly change by the administration of EPO. Early administration of EPO reduces the use one or more red blood cell transfusions, the volume of red blood cells transfused, and the number of donors and transfusions the infant is exposed to following study entry. The small reductions are of limited clinical importance. Any donor exposure is likely not avoided as most studies included infants, who had received red cell transfusions prior to trial entry. There was a significant increase in the rate of ROP (stage >3). Animal data and observational studies in humans support a possible association between treatment with EPO and the development of ROP. EPO does not significantly decrease or increase any of the other important neonatal adverse outcomes including mortality. The incidence of ROP should be ascertained in the studies that have already been conducted but did not report on this outcome. Any ongoing research should deal with the issue of ROP and evaluate the current clinical practice that will limit donor exposure through satellite units. Research efforts should focus on limiting donor exposure (to as few donors as possible) during the first few days of life in sick neonates, when red blood cell transfusions are most likely to be required and cannot be prevented by early (or late) EPO treatment. Due to the limited benefits and the increased risk of ROP, early administration of EPO is not recommended.

  16. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351

  17. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001); psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.

  18. A Little Effort Can Withstand the Hardship: Fielding an Internet-Based Intervention to Prevent Depression among Urban Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents in a Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Bansa, Melishia; Brown, Darryl; DeFrino, Daniela; Mahoney, Nicholas; Saulsberry, Alexandria; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Gladstone, Tracy R G; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2018-04-01

    This study explored the implementation of Chicago Urban Resiliency Building (CURB), a randomized clinical trial designed as an Internet-based primary care depression prevention intervention for urban African American and Latino adolescents. We utilized a mixed methods analysis to explore four aims. First, we estimated the percent of at-risk adolescents that were successfully screened. Second, we examined clinic site factors and performance. Third, primary care providers (n = 10) and clinic staff (n = 18) were surveyed to assess their knowledge and attitudes about the intervention. Fourth, clinic staff (nursing and medical assistant) interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to gather perspectives of the implementation process. We found that the estimated percent of at-risk adolescents who were successfully screened in each clinic varied widely between clinics with a mean of 14.48%. Daily clinic communication was suggestive of greater successful screening. Feasibility of screening was high for both primary care providers and clinic staff. Clinic staff exit interviews indicated the presence of community barriers that inhibited successful implementation of the intervention. This study shares the challenges and successes for depression screening and implementing Internet-based mental health interventions for urban racial/ethnic minority adolescents in primary care settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Psychological distress, health protection, and sexual practices among young men who have sex with men: Using social action theory to guide HIV prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001); psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128

  20. Improved patient safety through reduced airway infection rates in a paediatric cystic fibrosis programme after a quality improvement effort to enhance infection prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Savant, Adrienne P; O'Malley, Catherine; Bichl, Stacy; McColley, Susanna A

    2014-04-01

    To reduce the risk of pathogen transmission between patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and decrease the rate of acquisition of new CF pathogens in our patients. Using the Model for Improvement, we developed a new process for infection prevention and control in our outpatient CF clinics. Paediatric CF programme at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago; approximately 180 paediatric patients aged birth to 21 years. All paediatric patients enrolled in the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Data Registry at this institution. Implemented contact precautions with all patients, regardless of respiratory tract culture results. Respiratory tract culture rates of specific pathogens by quarter were compared prior to and after implementation. Our percentage of patients with a positive respiratory tract culture for Pseudomonas aeruginosa dropped from 30% to 21% (p<0.0001) and for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) dropped from 10.8% to 8.7% (p=0.008). Use of contact precautions by all care providers, for all patients, regardless of respiratory tract culture results resulted in decreased P aeruginosa and MRSA infection rates.

  1. Prevention and Treatment of Esophageal Stenosis after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Early Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Lu, Zhongsheng; Liu, Qingsen

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for the treatment of esophageal mucosal lesions is associated with a risk of esophageal stenosis, especially for near-circumferential or circumferential esophageal mucosal defects. Here, we review historic and modern studies on the prevention and treatment of esophageal stenosis after ESD. These methods include prevention via pharmacological treatment, endoscopic autologous cell transplantation, endoscopic esophageal dilatation, and stent placement. This short review will focus on direct prevention and treatment, which may help guide the way forward. PMID:25386186

  2. Selective intestinal decontamination with fluoroquinolones for the prevention of early bacterial infections after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    San-Juan, Rafael; Aguado, Jose M; Lumbreras, Carlos; Fortun, Jesus; Len, Oscar; Munoz, Patricia; Montejo, Miguel; Moreno, Asunción; Cordero, Elisa; Blanes, Marino; Ramos, Antonio; Torre-Cisneros, Julian; López-Medrano, Francisco; Carratala, Jordi; Moreno, Enrique

    2011-08-01

    The role of selective intestinal decontamination with fluoroquinolones (FQ-SID) in the prevention of early bacterial infections (EBIs) in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is unknown. We used the online database of the Spanish Network of Infection in Transplantation/Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases, which prospectively analyzed 1010 LTRs from 12 Spanish hospitals from September 2003 to February 2005. We compared the incidence and etiology of EBIs (30 days after transplantation) in 415 LTRs from 4 centers that used FQ-SID (>7 days) and in 595 LTRs from 8 hospitals that did not use FQ-SID. A multivariate logistic regression analysis (including an adjustment for the transplant center factor) was performed to evaluate the potential protective factor of FQ-SID in the development of EBIs. We reported 266 EBI episodes in 252 LTRs (incidence = 24.9%). There were no differences in the incidence of EBIs between patients in the FQ-SID group and patients not in the FQ-SID group [109/415 (26.3%) versus 143/595 (24%), P = 0.9]. Although LTRs who received FQ-SID had a lower incidence of infections due to enteric bacteria (2.7% versus 6.5%, P = 0.007) and a higher incidence of infections due to nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (6.6% versus 2.6%, P = 0.004), these findings could not be confirmed after an adjustment by the center factor in the multivariate models. We found no significant differences in the incidence of enterococcal infections (3.4% with FQ-SID versus 3.9% without FQ-SID, P = 0.5). Multivariate analysis did not confirm any protective effect of FQ-SID against the development of EBIs by enteric bacteria. In conclusion, FQ-SID does not reduce the incidence of EBIs in LTRs and could be withheld from this group of patients. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Early light reduction for preventing retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Eliane C; Jorge, Edson N; El Dib, Regina P

    2013-08-06

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a complex condition of the developing retinal blood vessels and is one of the leading causes of preventable childhood blindness. Several risk factors for ROP have been studied over the past 50 years. Among them, general immaturity (low birth weight and low gestational age) and prolonged oxygen therapy have been consistently related to disease onset. However, it is understood that the progression of the disease is multifactorial and may be associated with others risk factors, such as multiple gestation, apnoea, intracranial haemorrhage, anaemia, sepsis, prolonged mechanical ventilation, multiple transfusions and light exposure. Furthermore, the precise role of these individual factors in the development of the disease has not yet been well established. To determine whether the reduction of early environmental light exposure reduces the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or poor ROP outcomes among very low birth weight infants. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Neonatal Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, Science Citation Index Database, CANCERLIT, the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials and www.clinicaltrials.gov. We also searched previous reviews including cross-references, abstracts, conference and symposia proceedings, and contacted expert informants. This search was updated in October 2012. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that reduced light exposure to premature infants within the first seven days following birth were considered for this review. We also considered cluster-randomised controlled trials. Data on clinical outcomes including any acute ROP and poor ROP outcome were extracted by both review authors independently and consensus reached. We conducted data analysis according to the standards of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Data from four randomised trials with a total of 897 participants failed to show any

  4. [Efficiency of early diagnosis and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in industrial workers (prospective observation results)].

    PubMed

    Bobrov, S V; Shpagina, L A; Kuznetsova, G V; Burganova, M R

    2011-01-01

    Examination of workers engaged into major industrial enterprises of Novosibirsk demonstrated high prevalence of bronchial obstruction in individuals contacting industrial aerosol. The workers with long length of service proved high level of tobacco addiction and marked psychologic dependence on smoking. Based on the data obtained, the authors specified a program for early diagnosis and prevention of occupational bronchitis among the workers of major industrial enterprises.

  5. Using formative research to lay the foundation for community level HIV prevention efforts: an example from the AIDS Community Demonstration Projects.

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, D L; O'Reilly, K; Tashima, N; Crain, C; Beeker, C; Goldbaum, G; Elifson, C S; Galavotti, C; Guenther-Grey, C

    1996-01-01

    The AIDS Community Demonstration Projects provided community-level HIV prevention interventions to historically hard-to-reach groups at high risk for HIV infection. The projects operated under a common research protocol which encompassed formative research, intervention delivery, process evaluation, and outcome evaluation. A formative research process specifically focusing on intervention development was devised to assist project staff in identifying, prioritizing, accessing, and understanding the intervention target groups. This process was central to the creation of interventions that were acceptable and unique to the target populations. Intended to be rapid, the process took 6 months to complete. Drawn from the disciplines of anthropology, community psychology, sociology, and public health, the formative research process followed distinct steps which included (a) defining the populations at high-risk for HIV; (b) gathering information about these populations through interviews with persons who were outside of, but who had contact with, the target groups (such as staff from the health department and alcohol and drug treatment facilities, as well as persons who interacted in an informal manner with the target groups, such as clerks in neighborhood grocery stores and bartenders); (c) interviewing people with access to the target populations (gatekeepers), and conducting observations in areas where these high-risk groups were reported to gather (from previous interviews); (d) interviewing members of these groups at high risk for HIV infection or transmission; and (e) systematically integrating information throughout the process. Semistructured interview schedules were used for all data collection in this process. This standardized systematic method yielded valuable information about the focal groups in each demonstration project site. The method, if adopted by others, would assist community intervention specialists in developing interventions that are culturally

  6. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.

  7. Early Fatherhood: A Mapping of the Evidence Base Relating to Pregnancy Prevention and Parenting Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivedi, D.; Brooks, F.; Bunn, F.; Graham, M.

    2009-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual…

  8. The Effect of a Depression Prevention Program on Negative Cognitive Style Trajectories in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindt, Karlijn C. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2016-01-01

    As restructuring a negative cognitive style is a central skill taught in many depression prevention programs, we tested whether a universal prevention program evoked a change in negative cognitive style in adolescents. In addition, we examined distinct developmental trajectories of negative cognitive styles and assessed whether research condition…

  9. Preventing Early Mathematics Difficulties: The Feasibility of a Rigorous Kindergarten Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chard, David J.; Baker, Scott K.; Clarke, Ben; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Davis, Karen; Smolkowski, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Concern about poor mathematics achievement in U.S. schools has increased in recent years. In part, poor achievement may be attributed to a lack of attention to early instruction and missed opportunities to build on young children's early understanding of mathematics. This study examined the development and feasibility testing of a kindergarten…

  10. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  11. GP-delivered secondary prevention cardiovascular disease programme; early predictors of likelihood of patient non-adherence.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia; Lonergan, Moira; Collins, Claire; Daly, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how routinely recorded data could predict early the likelihood of patient non-adherence to a primary care-delivered secondary prevention programme for established coronary heart disease (CHD), with patients with CHD (10,851) invited to attend four times per year. Non-adherence was defined as attending no more than three GP visits ever. The study sample was selected to allow a possible two-year recorded follow-up period in which patients could take up invitations. Administrative recordings of visit dates and intervals between visits, baseline results of key parameters and early changes were examined using logistic regression to determine independent predictors of non-adherence. Longer interval between early visits, no family history of CHD, smoking and being outside target for exercise at baseline were independently associated with non-adherence. Early identification by GPs of those who fail to attend on time or who defer appointments, in addition to persistence of lifestyle factors unchanged by a prior serious cardiac event should serve as a warning sign that targeted interventions to maintain adherence in primary care-delivered secondary prevention programmes are necessary.

  12. Early detection versus primary prevention in the PLCO flexible sigmoidoscopy screening trial: Which has the greatest impact on mortality?

    PubMed

    Doroudi, Maryam; Schoen, Robert E; Pinsky, Paul F

    2017-12-15

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) with flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) has been shown to reduce CRC mortality. The current study examined whether the observed mortality reduction was due primarily to the prevention of incident CRC via removal of adenomatous polyps or to the early detection of cancer and improved survival. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial randomized 154,900 men and women aged 55 to 74 years. Individuals underwent FS screening at baseline and at 3 or 5 years versus usual care. CRC-specific survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and proportional hazards modeling. The authors estimated the percentage of CRC deaths averted by early detection versus primary prevention using a model that applied intervention arm survival rates to CRC cases in the usual-care arm and vice versa. A total of 1008 cases of CRC in the intervention arm and 1291 cases of CRC in the usual-care arm were observed. Through 13 years of follow-up, there was no significant difference noted between the trial arms with regard to CRC-specific survival for all CRC (68% in the intervention arm vs 65% in the usual-care arm; P =.16) or proximal CRC (68% vs 62%, respectively; P = .11) cases; however, survival in distal CRC cases was found to be higher in the intervention arm compared with the usual-care arm (77% vs 66%; P<.0001). Within each arm, symptom-detected cases had significantly worse survival compared with screen-detected cases. Overall, approximately 29% to 35% of averted CRC deaths were estimated to be due to early detection and 65% to 71% were estimated to be due to primary prevention. CRC-specific survival was similar across arms in the PLCO trial, suggesting a limited role for early detection in preventing CRC deaths. Modeling suggested that approximately two-thirds of avoided deaths were due to primary prevention. Future CRC screening guidelines should emphasize primary prevention via the identification and removal of precursor

  13. Effect of chiropractic treatment on primary or early secondary prevention: a systematic review with a pedagogic approach.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Guillaume; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    The chiropractic vitalistic approach to the concept of 'subluxation' as a cause of disease lacks both biological plausibility and possibly proof of validity. Nonetheless, some chiropractors purport to prevent disease in general through the use of chiropractic care. Evidence of its effect is needed to be allowed to continue this practice. The objective of this systematic review was therefore to investigate if there is any evidence that spinal manipulations/chiropractic care can be used in primary prevention (PP) and/or early secondary prevention in diseases other than musculoskeletal conditions. We searched PubMed, Embase, Index to Chiropractic Literature , and some specialized chiropractic journals, from inception to October 2017, using terms including: "chiropractic", "subluxation", "wellness", "prevention", "spinal manipulation", "mortality". Included were English language articles that indicated that they studied the clinical preventive effec t of or benefit from manipulative therapy/chiropractic treatment in relation to PP and/or early treatment of physical diseases/morbidity in general, other than musculoskeletal disorders. Also, population studies were eligible. Checklists were designed in relation to the description of the reviewed articles and some basic quality criteria. Outcomes of studies were related to their methodological quality, disregarding results from those unable to answer the research questions on effect of treatment. Of the 13.099 titles scrutinized, 13 articles were included (eight clinical studies and five population studies). These studies dealt with various disorders of public health importance such as diastolic blood pressure, blood test immunological markers, and mortality. Only two clinical studies could be used for data synthesis. None showed any effect of spinal manipulation/chiropractic treatment. We found no evidence in the literature of an effect of chiropractic treatment in the scope of PP or early secondary prevention for

  14. Adolescent alcohol use: social determinants and the case for early family-centered prevention. Family-focused prevention of adolescent drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Schor, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the use of alcohol by children and adolescents, yet preventive interventions rarely focus on the family. Early drinking and much subsequent use of alcohol by children and adolescents is sanctioned and sometimes encouraged by their families. Unlike experimentation with alcohol, problem drinking is associated with low levels of family social support and with dysfunctional coping strategies of families that may lead children to use drinking as an adaptive behavior. While risk-factor research has advanced understanding of alcohol use by children and youth, the poor predictive power of individual risks has limited its contribution to successful interventions. On the other hand, protective factors, provided by relationships within and outside the family, can be preventive and health promoting. Parents influence their children's drinking through family interactions, modeling and reinforcing standards, and attitudes that children learn and use to guide their behavior in new situations. Thus, parental influences endure. This article argues that interventions to prevent alcohol abuse should be designed to help parents to carry out their parental functions. This can be accomplished by providing social support, resources, and education for parents, as well as developing extra-familial sources of social support and socialization for children and adolescents. PMID:8982525

  15. Early Detection and Prevention of Mental Health Problems: Developmental Epidemiology and Systems of Support.

    PubMed

    Costello, E Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the role of developmental epidemiology in the prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders and the implications for systems of support. The article distinguishes between universal or primary prevention, which operates at the level of the whole community to limit risk exposure before the onset of symptoms, and secondary or targeted prevention, which operates by identifying those at high risk of developing a disorder. It discusses different aspects of time as it relates to risk for onset of disease, such as age at first exposure, duration of exposure, age at onset of first symptoms, and time until treatment. The study compares universal and targeted prevention, describing the systems needed to support each, and their unintended consequences.

  16. An economic case for early adoption of preventative practices for management of grapevine trunk diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The trunk diseases Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback, significantly decrease yields and vineyard longevity in California. Despite high disease prevalence and substantial yield impacts, most growers routinely wait to adopt preventative practices until vineyards are ...

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practices of women in maldives related to the risk factors, prevention and early detection of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Basu, Partha; Hassan, Salma; Fileeshia, Fathmath; Mohamed, Sizna; Nahoodha, Aminath; Shiuna, Aminath; Sulaiman, Asma Ibrahim; Najeeb, Nazeera; Saleem, Fathmath Jeehan

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cervical cancer screening program using visual inspection with acetic acid was launched in Maldives in 2014. Our study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of women in relation to risk factors of cervical cancer, early detection of the disease and its prevention. The questionnaire based survey was conducted among 20 to 50 year old women, systematically sampled to represent three regions of Maldives. Trained investigators interviewed a total of 2,845 women at home. The prevalence of the risk factors of cervical cancer like early age at marriage and childbirth, multiple marriages, multiple marriages of the husbands, and multiple pregnancies was high. More women knew about breast cancer than cervical cancer. Even among the small number of women who knew of cervical cancer, only 34.6% had the knowledge of at least one early symptom. Very few women knew that the cancer could be prevented by any test. Only 6.2% of the women reported having ever undergone a Pap smear. Many women had the misconception that cervical cancer was infectious. In Maldives the younger women have high literacy rate due to the policy of universal free education and those with higher levels of education had improved knowledge of cervical cancer and its risk factors. The prevalence of risk factors also reduced with improved literacy. Awareness about risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer is limited among Maldivian women in spite of having high exposure to some of the risk factors. A universal literacy program in the country has helped to improve the knowledge of cervical cancer prevention and to reduce the exposure to various risk factors in the younger population.

  18. Have clinical studies demonstrated diabetes prevention or delay of diabetes through early treatment?

    PubMed

    Southwood, Robin L

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes continues to increase at alarming rates. Prediabetes is a state of abnormal glycemic values that are not abnormal enough to result in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Significant interest in the prevention of diabetes has resulted in trials evaluating pharmacologic intervention and lifestyle intervention to prevent the development of diabetes. Controversy exists over the exact definition of diabetes prevention. Agents might possibly delay diagnosis of diabetes via pharmacologic lowering of blood glucose. Goals of diabetes prevention include decreased cardiovascular disease. Trials assessing diabetes prevention should assess 1) Impact of the study drug upon the incidence of diabetes, 2) Impact of the study drug upon diagnosis of diabetes after post-treatment washout phase, 3) Assessment of insulin sensitivity/@-cell function/insulin secretion and blood glucose, 4) Assessment of confounding factors, 5) Impact of the study drug on the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. The published studies were reviewed using these criteria. Six studies evaluating seven agents have been were reviewed. Six of the seven agents reduced diagnosis of diabetes during use, but only two demonstrated effect after washout phase. One of the two agents has been withdrawn from the market. The second agent had a short follow-up period making the results difficult to interpret. Assessment of insulin secretion at entry to trial was common, however ongoing reassessment was uncommon. All studies attempted to assess confounding factors, however stratification of drug benefit relative to amount of lifestyle modification benefit was not reported in trials. Cardiovascular benefit in the form of reduced hypertension was documented with three agents. Pharmacologic prevention of type 2 diabetes remains unproven, due in part to the difficulty distinguishing between prevention and delay. Reduction in cardiovascular benefit is unproven with most agents studied. Larger

  19. Attitudes and decision-making about early-infant versus early-adolescent male circumcision: Demand-side insights for sustainable HIV prevention strategies in Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sgaier, Sema K; Sharma, Sunny; Eletskaya, Maria; Prasad, Ram; Mugurungi, Owen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Nanga, Alice; Gumede-Moyo, Sehlulekile; Kretschmer, Steve

    2017-01-01

    As countries approach their scale-up targets for the voluntary medical male circumcision program for HIV prevention, they are strategizing and planning for the sustainability phase to follow. Global guidance recommends circumcising adolescent (below 14 years) and/or early infant boys (aged 0-60 days), and countries need to consider several factors before prioritizing a cohort for their sustainability phase. We provide community and healthcare provider-side insights on attitudes and decision-making process as a key input for this strategic decision in Zambia and Zimbabwe. We studied expectant parents, parents of infant boys (aged 0-60 days), family members and neo-natal and ante-natal healthcare providers in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Our integrated methodology consisted of in-depth qualitative and quantitative one-on-one interviews, and a simulated-decision-making game, to uncover attitudes towards, and the decision-making process for, early adolescent or early infant medical circumcision (EAMC or EIMC). In both countries, parents viewed early infancy and early adolescence as equally ideal ages for circumcision (38% EIMC vs. 37% EAMC in Zambia; 24% vs. 27% in Zimbabwe). If offered for free, about half of Zambian parents and almost 2 in 5 Zimbabwean parents indicated they would likely circumcise their infant boy; however, half of parents in each country perceived that the community would not accept EIMC. Nurses believed their facilities currently could not absorb EIMC services and that they would have limited ability to influence fathers, who were seen as having the primary decision-making authority. Our analysis suggests that EAMC is more accepted by the community than EIMC and is the path of least resistance for the sustainability phase of VMMC. However, parents or community members do not reject EIMC. Should countries choose to prioritize this cohort for their sustainability phase, a number of barriers around information, decision-making by parents, and supply side

  20. Attitudes and decision-making about early-infant versus early-adolescent male circumcision: Demand-side insights for sustainable HIV prevention strategies in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Sgaier, Sema K.; Sharma, Sunny; Eletskaya, Maria; Prasad, Ram; Mugurungi, Owen; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa; Ncube, Getrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Nanga, Alice; Gumede-Moyo, Sehlulekile; Kretschmer, Steve

    2017-01-01

    As countries approach their scale-up targets for the voluntary medical male circumcision program for HIV prevention, they are strategizing and planning for the sustainability phase to follow. Global guidance recommends circumcising adolescent (below 14 years) and/or early infant boys (aged 0–60 days), and countries need to consider several factors before prioritizing a cohort for their sustainability phase. We provide community and healthcare provider-side insights on attitudes and decision-making process as a key input for this strategic decision in Zambia and Zimbabwe. We studied expectant parents, parents of infant boys (aged 0–60 days), family members and neo-natal and ante-natal healthcare providers in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Our integrated methodology consisted of in-depth qualitative and quantitative one-on-one interviews, and a simulated-decision-making game, to uncover attitudes towards, and the decision-making process for, early adolescent or early infant medical circumcision (EAMC or EIMC). In both countries, parents viewed early infancy and early adolescence as equally ideal ages for circumcision (38% EIMC vs. 37% EAMC in Zambia; 24% vs. 27% in Zimbabwe). If offered for free, about half of Zambian parents and almost 2 in 5 Zimbabwean parents indicated they would likely circumcise their infant boy; however, half of parents in each country perceived that the community would not accept EIMC. Nurses believed their facilities currently could not absorb EIMC services and that they would have limited ability to influence fathers, who were seen as having the primary decision-making authority. Our analysis suggests that EAMC is more accepted by the community than EIMC and is the path of least resistance for the sustainability phase of VMMC. However, parents or community members do not reject EIMC. Should countries choose to prioritize this cohort for their sustainability phase, a number of barriers around information, decision-making by parents, and supply side

  1. Glycomics Laboratory for the Early Detection of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Ovarian cancer is a silent killer with few early symptoms and advanced disease present at the time of diagnosis. This cancer is the most lethal of all gynecologic malignancies with over 20,000 new cases diagnosed each year. The 5 year survival rates for ovarian cancer dramatically improve when the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. Therefore, the long term goal of the

  2. Early water intake restriction to prevent inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following transsphenoidal surgery: low BMI predicts postoperative SIADH.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Junko; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Koh; Ohashi, Genichiro; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the incidence of and risk factors for the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in patients following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and to validate the effectiveness of early prophylactic restriction of water intake. Retrospective analysis was performed for 207 patients who had undergone TSS, including 156 patients not placed on early prophylactic water restriction. Sixty-four patients received treatment for SIADH. We compared the incidence of SIADH between patients with and without early water intake restriction, and analyzed various risk factors for SIADH using statistical analyses. BMI was significantly lower for patients with SIADH than for those patients without SIADH. Statistical analysis revealed that the threshold BMI predicting SIADH was 26. Serum sodium levels on postoperative days 5-10 and daily urine volumes on postoperative days 5-10 were significantly lower in patients with SIADH than in those without SIADH. Postoperative body weight loss on days 6, 8, 10, and 11 was significantly higher in patients with SIADH. The incidence of SIADH after starting prophylactic water intake restriction (14%) was significantly lower than the rate before early water restriction (38%; P<0.05). SIADH is relatively common after TSS, and serum sodium concentrations and daily urine volumes should be carefully monitored. Patients with low preoperative BMI should be closely observed, as this represented a significant preoperative risk factor for SIADH. Early prophylactic water intake restriction appears effective at preventing postoperative SIADH. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Reicks, Marla; Banna, Jinan; Cluskey, Mary; Gunther, Carolyn; Hongu, Nobuko; Richards, Rickelle; Topham, Glade; Wong, Siew Sun

    2015-01-01

    Among early adolescents (10–14 years), poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA) children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions. PMID:26506384

  4. Early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care reduce the hospitalization time and duration of tube feeding and prevent early obesity in PWS infants.

    PubMed

    Bacheré, N; Diene, G; Delagnes, V; Molinas, C; Moulin, P; Tauber, M

    2008-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the impact of very early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care on the evolution and care of infants presenting with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). 19 infants diagnosed with PWS before the second month of life were followed by a multidisciplinary team. Median age at the time of analysis was 3.1 years [range 0.4-6.5]. The data were compared with data collected in 1997 from 113 questionnaires filled out by members of the French PWS Association. The patients from this latter data set were 12.0 years [range 4 months to 41 years] at the time of analysis, with a median age of 36 months at diagnosis. The duration of their hospitalization time was significantly reduced from 30.0 [range 0-670] to 21 [range 0-90] days (p = 0.043). The duration of gastric tube feeding was significantly reduced from 30.5 [range 0-427] to 15 [range 0-60] days (p = 0.017). Growth hormone treatment was started at a mean age of 1.9 +/- 0.5 years in 10 infants and L-thyroxine in 6 infants. Only 1 infant became obese at 2.5 years. Early diagnosis combined with multidisciplinary care decreases the hospitalization time, duration of gastric tube feeding and prevents early obesity in PWS infants. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Factors Influencing Parental Engagement in an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program Implemented at Scale: The Infant Program.

    PubMed

    Love, Penelope; Laws, Rachel; Litterbach, Eloise; Campbell, Karen J

    2018-04-19

    The ‘early years’ is a crucial period for the prevention of childhood obesity. Health services are well placed to deliver preventive programs to families, however, they usually rely on voluntary attendance, which is challenging given low parental engagement. This study explored factors influencing engagement in the Infant Program : a group-based obesity prevention program facilitated by maternal and child health nurses within first-time parent groups. Six 1.5 h sessions were delivered at three-month intervals when the infants were 3⁻18 months. A multi-site qualitative exploratory approach was used, and program service providers and parents were interviewed. Numerous interrelated factors were identified, linked to two themes: the transition to parenthood, and program processes. Personal factors enabling engagement included parents’ heightened need for knowledge, affirmation and social connections. Adjusting to the baby’s routine and increased parental self-efficacy were associated with diminished engagement. Organisational factors that challenged embedding program delivery into routine practice included aspects of program promotion, referral and scheduling and workforce resources. Program factors encompassed program content, format, resources and facilitators, with the program being described as meeting parental expectations, although some messages were perceived as difficult to implement. The study findings provide insight into potential strategies to address modifiable barriers to parental engagement in early-year interventions.

  6. Factors Influencing Parental Engagement in an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program Implemented at Scale: The Infant Program

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Rachel; Litterbach, Eloise; Campbell, Karen J.

    2018-01-01

    The ‘early years’ is a crucial period for the prevention of childhood obesity. Health services are well placed to deliver preventive programs to families, however, they usually rely on voluntary attendance, which is challenging given low parental engagement. This study explored factors influencing engagement in the Infant Program: a group-based obesity prevention program facilitated by maternal and child health nurses within first-time parent groups. Six 1.5 h sessions were delivered at three-month intervals when the infants were 3–18 months. A multi-site qualitative exploratory approach was used, and program service providers and parents were interviewed. Numerous interrelated factors were identified, linked to two themes: the transition to parenthood, and program processes. Personal factors enabling engagement included parents’ heightened need for knowledge, affirmation and social connections. Adjusting to the baby’s routine and increased parental self-efficacy were associated with diminished engagement. Organisational factors that challenged embedding program delivery into routine practice included aspects of program promotion, referral and scheduling and workforce resources. Program factors encompassed program content, format, resources and facilitators, with the program being described as meeting parental expectations, although some messages were perceived as difficult to implement. The study findings provide insight into potential strategies to address modifiable barriers to parental engagement in early-year interventions. PMID:29671815

  7. Prevention of Early Substance Use Mediates, and Variation at SLC6A4 Moderates, SAAF Intervention Effects on OXTR Methylation.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Philibert, Robert A

    2018-01-01

    The Strong African American Family (SAAF) program has been shown to have a variety of short and long-term benefits for participating youth and families. However, biological mechanisms potentially influencing long-term effects on resilience in young adulthood have not been examined. In the current investigation, we examine the effects of SAAF on methylation of the OXTR gene in young adulthood, focusing on a regulatory region previously identified to be both responsive to stress and implicated in resilience. Using the subsample of participants from the original study for whom methylation data was available (N = 388), we replicated the previously reported G × E effect on prevention of early substance use and then examined whether there would also be a moderated effect on OXTR methylation in early adulthood, with "s" allele carriers, but not "LL" participants, showing a significant indirect effect of SAAF on OXTR methylation. Results suggest that for susceptible youth (i.e., "s" allele carriers), preventive intervention may "get under the skin," in a manner potentially beneficial for long-term outcomes. Implications for examination of OXTR methylation in future prevention research are discussed.

  8. Bringing skin assessments to life using human patient simulation: an emphasis on cancer prevention and early detection.

    PubMed

    Kuhrik, Marilee; Seckman, Christy; Kuhrik, Nancy; Ahearn, Tina; Ercole, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, with about 1,000,000 people developing the disease each year. The incidence of melanoma has rapidly increased in young white women between the ages of 15-34 over the last three decades. While melanoma accounts for approximately 3% of skin cancers, it causes more than 75% of skin cancer deaths. Thorough skin assessments and awareness of new or changing appearance of skin lesions are critical to early detection and treatment of skin cancer, as well as teaching sun-protective behaviors. Educators created a novel approach to "bring to life" skin cancer assessment skills to promote awareness of prevention and early detection of skin cancer using moulage in a human patient simulation lab. Through the use of moulage-like lesions, simulated patients were evaluated and taught skin cancer prevention and early detection principles by baccalaureate nursing students. The average age of study participants (n = 104) was 26.50 years. The majority of responders were female. At the end of the lab, students' average responses to an evaluation based on program goals were very positive. Anecdotal comments affirmed positive student perceptions of their simulation experience. Data analyses indicated item means were consistently higher for upper-division students. The age and gender of students who participated in this study align with the NCI statistics on age and gender of the population with increased incidence of melanoma.

  9. The effect of a depression prevention program on negative cognitive style trajectories in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kindt, Karlijn C M; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2016-10-01

    As restructuring a negative cognitive style is a central skill taught in many depression prevention programs, we tested whether a universal prevention program evoked a change in negative cognitive style in adolescents. In addition, we examined distinct developmental trajectories of negative cognitive styles and assessed whether research condition (intervention versus control) predicted these trajectories. Young adolescents (n = 1343; Mean age = 13.4 years; SD = 0.77; 52.3% girls) were randomly allocated to a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based depression prevention program or a care as usual control condition. A negative cognitive style was assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 6- and 12-months follow-up. Adolescents who received the intervention did not differ in their negative cognitive style from the control group at any time-point. We found four distinctive trajectories of negative cognitive style: normative, increasing, decreasing and stable high, which were not predicted by intervention condition and were not moderated by gender. Yet, the results revealed a trend, which indicated that adolescents who followed the program tended to show an increasing than a normative developmental pattern. We concluded that the CBT-based depression prevention program did not reduce or prevent an increase in negative cognitive style. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178

  11. Social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in early life: a review.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-03-01

    The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  12. Fire Prevention Efforts in the Northwest

    Treesearch

    A.W. Lindenmuth; J.J. Keetch

    1952-01-01

    The frequency of forest fires in 13 northeastern states dropped about one-half from 1943 to 1950, exclusive of the fluctuations due to weather. The average downward trend and the annual observations from which the trend is determined are shown graphically in the lower chart on the other side of this page. Each dot on the chart is the ratio of fire occurrence (actual...

  13. Efforts to Prevent Concussions Target Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    The number of sports-related concussions reported by young athletes is on the rise, prompting awareness campaigns from athletic and medical groups, as well as proposed federal legislation to set minimum standards for concussion management in public schools. Concussions are caused by a jolt to the body or a blow to the head that causes the head to…

  14. School-Based Efforts to Prevent Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2012-01-01

    While bullying historically has occurred within or in close proximity to the school, advances in communication technologies have allowed would-be bullies to extend their reach. Cyberbullying--as it is termed--has become a significant concern among adolescents and adults alike. As a result, parents, school professionals, law enforcement, and youth…

  15. Exploring implications of Medicaid participation and wait times for colorectal screening on early detection efforts in Connecticut--a secret-shopper survey.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vatsal B; Nahar, Richa; Murray, Betty; Salner, Andrew L

    2013-04-01

    Routine colorectal screening, decreases in incidence, and advances in treatment have lowered colorectal cancer mortality rates over the past three decades. Nevertheless, it remains the second most common cause of cancer death amongst men and women combined in U.S. Most cases of colon cancer are diagnosed at a late stage leading to poor survival outcomes for patients. After extensive research of publically available data, it would appear that the state of Connecticut does not have available state-wide data on patient wait times for routine colonoscopy screening. Furthermore, there are no publicly available, or Connecticut-specific, reports on Medicaid participation rates for colorectal screening amongst gastroenterologists (GI) in Connecticut. In 2012, the American Cancer Society report on Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates confirmed barriers to health-care access and disparities in health outcomes and survival rates for colon cancer patients based on race, ethnicity, and low socioeconomic status. Given this information, one could conjecture that low Medicaid participation rates among GIs could potentially have a more severe impact on health-care access and outcomes for underserved populations. At present, funding and human resources are being employed across the state of Connecticut to address bottlenecks in colorectal cancer screening. More specifically, patient navigation and outreach programs are emerging and expanding to address the gaps in services for hard-to-reach populations and the medically underserved. Low Medicaid participation rates and increased wait times for colonoscopy screening may impair the efficacy of colorectal cancer patient navigation and outreach efforts and potentially funding for future interventions. In this study, we report the results of our secret-shopper telephone survey comprising of 93 group and independent gastroenterologist (GI) practices in different counties of Connecticut. Reviewing online resources and yellow pages

  16. Brief Report: HIV Drug Resistance in Adults Failing Early Antiretroviral Treatment: Results From the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 Trial.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Jessica M; Hudelson, Sarah E; Ou, San-San; Hart, Stephen; Wallis, Carole; Morgado, Mariza G; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Tripathy, Srikanth; Hovind, Laura; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Sabin, Devin; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Zhang, Xinyi C; Eron, Joseph J; Gallant, Joel E; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Makhema, Joseph; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Hakim, James; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Akelo, Victor; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Santos, Breno R; Godbole, Sheela V; Pilotto, Jose H; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Panchia, Ravindre; Mayer, Kenneth H; Chen, Ying Q; Cohen, Myron S; Eshleman, Susan H

    2016-07-01

    Early initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces HIV transmission and has health benefits. HIV drug resistance can limit treatment options and compromise use of ART for HIV prevention. We evaluated drug resistance in 85 participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial who started ART at CD4 counts of 350-550 cells per cubic millimeter and failed ART by May 2011; 8.2% had baseline resistance and 35.3% had resistance at ART failure. High baseline viral load and less education were associated with emergence of resistance at ART failure. Resistance at ART failure was observed in 7 of 8 (87.5%) participants who started ART at lower CD4 cell counts.

  17. Front-loading with clopidogrel plus aspirin followed by dual antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of early stroke recurrence.

    PubMed

    Censori, Bruno

    2014-07-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin plus clopidogrel is not recommended for secondary stroke prevention because of lack of effectiveness and increased hemorrhagic risk. Recent studies show that in patients with a very recent transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke loading with 300 mg clopidogrel plus aspirin, followed by clopidogrel 75 mg plus aspirin once daily for up to 90 days significantly decreases the rate of recurrent stroke, especially strokes that occur within few days from the event that led to medical attention, without an increase in severe bleedings. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel, focusing on loading doses, and summarizes the results of the studies that have shown the effectiveness of the front-loading approach in the early secondary prevention of stroke.

  18. Engaging pregnant and parenting teens: early challenges and lessons learned from the Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Asheer, Subuhi; Berger, Amanda; Meckstroth, Alicia; Kisker, Ellen; Keating, Betsy

    2014-03-01

    This article draws on data from the ongoing federal Evaluation of Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Approaches to discuss the early implementation experiences of two new and innovative programs intended to delay rapid repeat pregnancy among teen mothers: (1) AIM 4 Teen Moms, in Los Angeles County, California; and (2) Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy (T.O.P.P.), in Columbus, Ohio. Program staff report common challenges in working with teen mothers, particularly concerning recruitment and retention, staff capacity and training, barriers to participation, and participants' overarching service needs. Lessons learned in addressing these challenges provide useful guidance to program developers, providers, policy makers, and stakeholders working with similar populations. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying economic hurdles to early adoption of trunk disease preventative practices in California winegrape vineyards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trunk diseases poses a serious threat to winegrape growers. Despite high prevalence and substantial consequences, growers routinely wait to adopt field-tested, preventative practices (delayed pruning, double pruning, or application of pruning wound protectant) until symptomatic vines appear (~10 yea...

  20. Modelling the economics and efficacy of early adoption of preventative practices for managing trunk diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trunk diseases pose one of the most significant threats to vineyard longevity, since the introduction of Phylloxera. Research on resistant germplasm and detection tools will help in the long term. In the short term, we aim to promote preventative practices. Experimental trials show three practices t...

  1. Making the case for early adoption of preventative practices for management of grapevine trunk diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Experimental trials on prevention of trunk diseases Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, and Eutypa dieback have shown that delayed pruning, double pruning, and applications of the pruning-wound protectant thiophanate-methyl (Topsin) can reduce pruning-wound infections by 25-75%. Despite this biological e...

  2. An Evaluation of the Early Implementation of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter Errichetti, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background: A quarter of U.S. children are bullied annually. State legislatures have responded to high profile media exposure of bullying and increased public concern by passing legislation aimed at preventing bullying among school children. Methods: The RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was used to…

  3. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  4. Early detection of ovarian cancer by serum marker and targeted ultrasound imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    We propose to test the validity and specificity of our targeted ultrasound imaging probes in detecting early stage ovarian cancer (OVCA) by transvaginal ultrasound imaging (TVUS). We then test the predictive validity of these probes in a longitudinal study using the laying hen – the only widely available animal model of spontaneous OVCA. OVCA is a fatal gynecological

  5. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  6. Role of non-Invasive Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Speaker | Dr. Nickolas Papadopoulos will present "Role of non-Invasive Tests for the Early Detection of Cancers". Date: June 5, 2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove, Conference Room: Seminar 110 Terrace Level East

  7. Moderators of Outcome in a Brief Family-Centered Intervention for Preventing Early Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Frances; Connell, Arin; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated moderators of change in an empirically supported family-centered intervention (the Family Check-Up) for problem behavior in early childhood. Participants were 731 2- to 3-year-olds (49% girls; 28% African American, 50% European American, 13% biracial) from low-income families and had been screened for risk of family stress…

  8. A Dynamic Learning Concept in Early Years' Education: A Possible Way to Prevent Schoolification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    In early childhood education and care, Nordic social pedagogy approach is challenged by a learning orientation that often results in unproductive "either/or" thinking. Therefore, based on the two approaches and by analysing several dimensions of Froebel's ideas and prevailing social-historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces…

  9. Validating a mouse model of ovarian cancer for early detection through imaging | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Despite advances in treatment strategies, ovarian cancer remains the deadliest gynecological malignancy and the 5th largest cancer killer in women. Located deep in the body, with few early symptoms and no effective screening technique, ovarian cancer has remained stubbornly difficult to understand, much less effectively combat. Ovarian cancer is almost always discovered at an

  10. A Model for Early Detection and Primary Prevention of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forness, Steven R.; Serna, Loretta A.; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Lambros, Katina; Hale, Mary Johnell; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes an example of the use of early detection of emotional/behavioral disorders and a self-determination curriculum in the Head Start Program of Youth Development Incorporated in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The rationale for this approach is discussed and preliminary data on the program's effectiveness are presented. (Contains…

  11. The Effects of Varying Group Size on the Reading Recovery Approach to Preventive Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Sandra; Tunmer, William E.; Chapman, James W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an early intervention program based on the Reading Recovery (RR) format could be developed for pairs of struggling readers that would allow them to make accelerated progress similar to that experienced in the 1-to-1 RR tutorial. A preliminary pilot study showed that the RR lesson format could be…

  12. Evaluation of an interdisciplinary preventive programme for early childhood caries: findings of a regional German birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Yvonne; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this prospective birth cohort study was to evaluate the effect of the interdisciplinary preventive programme (PP) for early childhood caries in 3-year-old children in Germany. From July 2009 to October 2010, all parents of newborns (n = 1162) were visited after birth by the communal newborn visiting service of Jena, Thuringia, and advised on general and dental health. In the first year of life, children were invited to a dental examination in Jena University Hospital. Participating children were included in a risk-related recall system with continuous oral care over 3 years. Caries-risk assessment tool of the AAPD was used for risk categorizing. High-risk children received fluoride varnish biannual. In 2013, the total birth cohort (participants and non-participants) was invited to evaluate the PP. Dental caries was scored using WHO diagnostic criteria expanded to d1-level without radiography. Data were analysed statistically (multivariate logistic regression). Seven hundred fifty-five children (mean age 3.26 ± 0.51 years) were examined. Children in the PP (n = 377) showed significantly lower caries prevalence and experience than non-participants (15.6 vs. 37.8 %, 0.9 ± 3.3 d 1-4 mfs vs. 2.6 ± 5.2 d 1-4 mfs). Lack of vitamin D supplements (OR = 1.9, CI 0.99-3.51), familial caries experience (OR = 2.2, CI 1.27-3.73) and visible plaque on teeth (OR = 6.5, CI 4.41-9.43) were significant risk factors for caries development, whereas regular dental care (OR = 0.5, CI 0.38-0.79) had a protective effect. The PP was an effective interdisciplinary approach for preventing early childhood caries in small children. Early dental visits with caries-risk-related preventive dental care are necessary to prevent early childhood caries (ECC). German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00003438, https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00003438.

  13. [Influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Tao; Wanggou, Siyi; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Xingjun; Peng, Zefeng; Yuan, Xianrui

    2016-10-28

    To explore the influence of preventive use of vasopressin tannate on diabetes insipidus and serum sodium at the early postoperation of craniopharyngioma.
 Methods: The data of 83 patients, who underwent unilateral sub-frontal approach resection of craniopharyngioma between 2010 and 2014 by the same senior neurosurgeon, were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into a vasopressin tannate group (used group) and a control group. The diabetes insipidus and serum sodium changes were compared between the two groups.
 Results: Compared with the control group, the incidence of diabetes insipidus decreased at the early postoperation in the vasopressin tannate group (P<0.05). There was high incidence of diabetes insipidus in patients with pituitary stalk excision and tumor close adhesion to the third ventricle floor at the early postoperation (P<0.05). Under such conditions, the incidence of diabetes insipidus in the vasopressin tannate group was decreased compared with the control group (P<0.05). Postoperative hypernatremia occurred in 37 patients (44.6%), and hyponatremia occurred in 60 patients (72.3%), the average time of the occurrence of hpernatremia and hyponatremia was 1.4 and 3.7 days after surgery. Postoperative high serum sodium and low serum sodium appeared alternately in 19 patients (22.9%). There was significant difference in the serum sodium distribution in the first day after surgery in both groups (P<0.05), and the percent of hpernatremia in the vasopressin tannate group was significantly less than that in the control group (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Preventive use of vasopressin tannate can effectively reduce diabetes insipidus and hypernatremia incidence at the early postoperative stage after microsurgery for craniopharyngioma.

  14. HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P

    2013-06-01

    Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.

  15. Project Northland: outcomes of a communitywide alcohol use prevention program during early adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, C L; Williams, C L; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Toomey, T L; Komro, K A; Anstine, P S; McGovern, P G; Finnegan, J R; Forster, J L; Wagenaar, A C; Wolfson, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Project Northland is an efficacy trial with the goal of preventing or reducing alcohol use among young adolescents by using a multilevel, communitywide approach. METHODS. Conducted in 24 school districts and adjacent communities in northeastern Minnesota since 1991, the intervention targets the class of 1998 (sixth-grade students in 1991) and has been implemented for 3 school years (1991 to 1994). The intervention consists of social-behavioral curricula in schools, peer leadership, parental involvement/education, and communitywide task force activities. Annual surveys of the class of 1998 measure alcohol use, tobacco use, and psychosocial factors. RESULTS. At the end of 3 years, students in the intervention school districts report less onset and prevalence of alcohol use than students in the reference districts. The differences were particularly notable among those who were nonusers at baseline. CONCLUSIONS. The results of Project Northland suggest that multilevel, targeted prevention programs for young adolescents are effective in reducing alcohol use. PMID:8669519

  16. Preventing Genocide: How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    the Commission have been endorsed by all Commissioners. Reports to the Commission are published as a service to scholars, practitioners, and the...its normal complement of combat and service support would provide a foundation for an effective intervention force. For example, the Division Ready...recognize that their services will be in demand. This is not to say that only Western democracies can, should, or will perform the bulk of preventive

  17. Pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes: parental determinants, breastfeeding, and early childhood nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Sarah; Freemark, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Among the factors predisposing to type 2 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults, the health and behavior of both the mother and father are critical. Prevention and treatment of parental nutritional disorders (including obesity and malnutrition), promotion of breastfeeding, and avoidance of overfeeding of young children are essential for childhood health and metabolic function. Focusing research and policy on parental influences on childhood health should reduce the risks of obesity and type 2 diabetes in future generations.

  18. Prevention of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    burden of ovarian cancer through prevention. Finally, it is important to note that clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous carcinomas are clinically...were cut onto PEN membrane slides (Leica), and immediately stored on dry ice. An entire cross-section of fallopian tubes for each case underwent LCM...containing BRCA1, BRCA2 and non-BRCA cases, utilizing the following exclusion criteria: o Systemic steroid treatment for other conditions (ie SLE/ankylosing

  19. Design of a Digital-Based, Multicomponent Nutrition Guidance System for Prevention of Early Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M.; Saavedra, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parenting focused modifiable factors to prevent obesity and promote healthy growth in the first 1000 days of life are needed. Scale-up of interventions to global populations is necessary to reverse trends in weight status among infants and toddlers, and large scale dissemination will require understanding of effective strategies. Utilizing nutrition education theories, this paper describes the design of a digital-based nutrition guidance system targeted to first-time mothers to prevent obesity during the first two years. The multicomponent system consists of scientifically substantiated content, tools, and telephone-based professional support delivered in an anticipatory and sequential manner via the internet, email, and text messages, focusing on educational modules addressing the modifiable factors associated with childhood obesity. Digital delivery formats leverage consumer media trends and provide the opportunity for scale-up, unavailable to previous interventions reliant on resource heavy clinic and home-based counseling. Designed initially for use in the United States, this system's core features are applicable to all contexts and constitute an approach fostering healthy growth, not just obesity prevention. The multicomponent features, combined with a global concern for optimal growth and positive trends in mobile internet use, represent this system's future potential to affect change in nutrition practice in developing countries. PMID:27635257

  20. ACA-mandated elimination of cost sharing for preventive screening has had limited early impact.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Shivan J; Polsky, Daniel; Zhu, Jingsan; Lewis, James D; Kolstad, Jonathan T; Loewenstein, George; Volpp, Kevin G

    2015-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act eliminated patient cost sharing for evidence-based preventive care, yet the impact of this policy on colonoscopy and mammography rates is unclear. We examined the elimination of cost sharing among small business beneficiaries of Humana, a large national insurer. This was a retrospective interrupted time series analysis of whether the change in cost-sharing policy was associated with a change in screening utilization, using grandfathered plans as a comparison group. We compared beneficiaries in small business nongrandfathered plans that were required to eliminate cost sharing (intervention) with those in grandfathered plans that did not have to change cost sharing (control). There were 63,246 men and women aged 50 to 64 years eligible for colorectal cancer screening, and 30,802 women aged 50 to 64 years eligible for breast cancer screening. The primary outcome variables were rates of colonoscopy and mammography per person-month, with secondary analysis of colonoscopy rates coded as preventive only. There was no significant change in the level or slope of colonoscopy and mammography utilization for intervention plans relative to the control plans. There was also no significant relevant change among those colonoscopies coded as preventive. The results suggest that the implementation of the policy is not having its intended effects, as cost sharing rates for colonoscopy and mammography did not change substantially, and utilization of colonoscopy and mammography changed little, following this new policy approach.

  1. Prediction and prevention of failure: an early intervention to assist at-risk medical students.

    PubMed

    Winston, Kalman A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2014-01-01

    Consistent identification and prevention of failure for at-risk medical students is challenging, failing courses is costly to all stakeholders, and there is need for further research into duration, timing and structure of interventions to help students in difficulty. To verify the value of a new exam two weeks into medical school as a predictor of failure, and explore the requirements for a preventative intervention. Students who failed the two-week exam were invited to a series of large-group workshops and small-group follow-up meetings. Participants' subsequent exam performance was compared with non-participants. About 71% of students who performed poorly in the new exam subsequently failed a course. Attendance at the workshops made no difference to short- or long-term pass rates. Attendance at more than three follow-up small group sessions significantly improved pass rates two semesters later, and was influenced by teacher experience. Close similarity between predictor task and target task is important for accurate prediction of failure. Consideration should be given to dose effect and class size in the prevention of failure of at-risk students, and we recommend a systemic approach to intervention/remediation programmes, involving a whole semester of mandatory, weekly small group meetings with experienced teachers.

  2. Early fatherhood: a mapping of the evidence base relating to pregnancy prevention and parenting support.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, D; Brooks, F; Bunn, F; Graham, M

    2009-12-01

    Teenage pregnancy prevention programmes targeted at young women have received considerable attention from researchers and programme developers. However, to date, relatively limited information is available on preventing teenage fatherhood or improving outcomes for young fathers. A notable gap is concerned with understanding the forms of sexual health programmes that are most effective from the perspective of young men. We conducted a systematic mapping to identify studies involving young men aimed at preventing teenage pregnancy, improving outcomes for teenage fathers or exploring the perspectives of young men around pregnancy and fatherhood. We searched a wide range of electronic databases from January 1996 to August 2008. Three quantitative and 15 qualitative studies were identified, of which nine were UK based. Key themes related to the inappropriateness of current sexual health promotion to respond to the needs of young men. While young men often possessed very similar ideals to young women, existing programmes were problematic when they negatively stereotyped young men and ineffectively addressed models of masculinity or the difficulties young men may have forming meaningful relationships. Further investigations are required on programme development for young men, particularly on sexual health promotion interventions for 'looked-after' young men and those from unstable childhoods.

  3. Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-Risk Infants.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Sicherer, Scott; Greenhawt, Matthew; Campbell, Dianne; Chan, Edmond; Muraro, Antonella; Halken, Susanne; Katz, Yitzhak; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon; Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Bahnson, Henry; Feeney, Mary; Hourihane, Jonathan; Spergel, Jonathan; Young, Michael; As'aad, Amal; Allen, Katrina; Prescott, Susan; Kapur, Sandeep; Saito, Hirohisa; Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A; Arshad, Hasan; Beyer, Kirsten; Dubois, Anthony; Eigenmann, Philippe; Fernandez-Rivas, Monserrat; Grimshaw, Kate; Hoffman-Sommergruber, Karin; Host, Arne; Lau, Susanne; O'Mahony, Liam; Mills, Clare; Papadopoulos, Nikolaus; Venter, Carina; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Kessel, Aaron; Antaya, Richard; Drolet, Beth; Rosenwasser, Lanny

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence regarding potential benefits of supporting early rather than delayed peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Japanese Society for Allergology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology, and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2015 the Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Yaacov B

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by teachers but are known to students. The second and third studies were based on qualitative (n = 30) and quantitative methods (n = 524) and revealed the factors that explain students' willingness to report or seek help from their teachers. The findings highlight the role of victims as a source of information regarding perpetrators and suggest a new perspective for early identification of severe violence in schools. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  6. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. METHODS A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013–March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18–70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. RESULTS Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women’s ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class. PMID:27789957

  7. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…

  8. Breast Cancer Awareness and Prevention Behavior Among Women of Delhi, India: Identifying Barriers to Early Detection.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhojit; Sharma, Surabhi; Mishra, Arti; Krishnan, Suneeta; Govil, Jyotsna; Dhillon, Preet K

    2016-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC. A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged ≥18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach. Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms. Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Women's ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.

  9. Prevention of Ovarian High Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating Its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    tissue sections for studies related to study early tumor development in ovarian cancer. This information will be shared with science community. 15...fallopian tube. IMPACT ON SOCIETY BEYOND SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: The findings will help to educate the society about the origins of ovarian...A Team-based Science Approach This project will help to plan the scientific and leadership aspects of the Ovarian Cancer Academy. It will also

  10. Prevention of Ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma by Elucidating its Early Changes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    We will determine the early molecular changes in STIC and their biological significance in developing high-grade serous carcinoma. marker selection...and sample preparation will begin in the next coming months. Project 2 We will evaluate whether the presence of a STIC is associated with different...clinical manifestations and/or outcome compare to those patients in whom a STIC was not identified. Molecular profiling will be initiated after quality

  11. Evaluation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    We retrospectively assessed the medical records of pregnant women who delivered at Asahikawa Kosei Hospital during a period of 3 years between January 2009 and December 2011 and their neonates. Our prophylactic measures against group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection are based on the Japanese guidelines. More specifically, we performed screening by examining bacterial cultures of vaginal-perianal swabs from pregnant women between gestational weeks 33 and 37. Then, sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was given at a dose of 1.5 g through a drip intravenous infusion at delivery if pregnant women were screened positive for GBS. For neonates born to GBS carrier women, bacterial cultures of pharyngeal swabs, vernix caseosa, stool, and gastric juice were performed at birth. There were 2,399 deliveries and 2,499 births at our hospital. In 169 of the deliveries (175 of the births), GBS was isolated from specimens obtained from gestational weeks 33-37. According to delivery mode, there were 42 cases of cesarean section (45 births) and 127 cases of vaginal delivery (130 births). The GBS-positive neonates accounted for 4.1 % of all deliveries in pregnant women who tested positive for GBS at gestational weeks 33-37. In neonates born by vaginal delivery, the GBS-positive rate was 5.5 %. Of the 2,499 neonates born at our hospital during a period of 3 years, early-onset GBS infection occurred in 1 neonate. The incidence of early-onset GBS infection was 0.40 per 1,000 live births. From 1997 to 2001 (routine GBS screening of mothers was not performed), there were 2,097 deliveries and 2,166 births. Early-onset GBS infection occurred in 1 neonate during this period; thus, the incidence of early-onset GBS infection was 0.46 per 1,000 live births. There were no significant differences in the two periods. The present prophylactic measures such as screening of maternal GBS carriers and intrapartum antibiotic administration are inadequate to decrease the occurrence of early-onset GBS

  12. Influence of pre- or intraoperational use of tramadol (preemptive or preventive analgesia) on tramadol requirement in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Wordliczek, Jerzy; Banach, Marcin; Garlicki, Jarosław; Jakowicka-Wordliczek, Joanna; Dobrogowski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of iv tramadol on opioid requirement in the early postoperative period. The subjects were 90 patients scheduled for colon surgery (hemicolectomy) who received general anesthesia using the (N2O/O2) isoflurane technique. Thirty patients (group I) were administered 100 mg of tramadol iv before induction of general anesthesia (preemptive analgesia). Group II (30 patients) was administered 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after peritoneal closure (preventive analgesia) and control group (30 patients) received 100 mg of tramadol iv immediately after operation. Following the operation, all patients were administered tramadol in the PCA-iv mode in order to treat postoperative pain. In the postoperative period, the following parameters were measured: pain intensity (using VAS), total consumption of tramadol, time until the first PCA activation, and frequency of side effects (drowsiness, nausea, vomiting). In patients of groups I and II who had received preemptive or preventive analgesia, a significantly lower total consumption of tramadol, as compared with control group, was observed in the early postoperative period. However, the time until the first PCA activation was significantly shorter in group I as compared to the other two groups. No significant differences between the groups were found regarding pain intensity and frequency of side effects.

  13. The Sense of School Belonging and Implementation of a Prevention Program: Toward Healthier Interpersonal Relationships Among Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle; Ducharme, Daphne; Leblanc, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to pave the way for the establishment of healthy interpersonal relations by facilitating an understanding of the impacts of Lions Quest Skills for Adolescence as perceived by adolescents and teachers who took part in it. Lions Quest has become recognized as an evidence-based program for preventing alcohol and drug use through the development of social skills and the promotion of meaningful engagement in the school community (Lions Clubs International, Overview of Skills for Adolescence 2013). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7th and 8th grade Francophone and Anglophone adolescents from three schools in Eastern Ontario who had participated in Lions Quest . Deductive and inductive analysis of interview transcripts clearly underscored that the positive perceptions of those early adolescents on the quality of their relationships with friends outweigh the negative impression that can be created by peer pressures at this age. It is through such a filter that these adolescents came to appreciate the impact of Lions Quest. Their need to be part of a circle of friends also comes to the fore as a crucial component of a sense of school belonging (Faircloth and Hamm (2005) J Youth Adolesc 34:293-309), highlighting the need to incorporate more of this form of positive social norm into interventions and prevention geared toward early adolescents. The data also underline the complementary importance attributed to having positive relationships with supportive adults.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    PubMed

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  15. Feasibility and acceptability of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention: results from the healthy homes, healthy families pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keita, Akilah Dulin; Risica, Patricia M; Drenner, Kelli L; Adams, Ingrid; Gorham, Gemma; Gans, Kim M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children's health behaviors. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years) to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. 39 (78%) parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P = 0.001) and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P = 0.036). Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P < 0.01) and also reduced weekend TV time. In addition, the number of homes with TV sets in the child's bedroom also decreased (P < 0.0013). The findings indicate that a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.

  16. The Preventative Effects of a Brief, Early Intervention for Preschool-Aged Children at Risk for Internalising: Follow-up into Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapee, Ronald M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are few evaluations of very early intervention for the prevention of internalising disorders and those that exist generally evaluate outcomes to a maximum of 12 months. The current study evaluated the very long term effects (11 years) of a brief internalising prevention program presented to parents of preschool aged children.…

  17. Preschool Multi-Tier Prevention-Intervention Model for Language and Early Literacy (Pre-3T): Development Summary and Implementation Guide. CYFS Working Paper No. 2014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Brandy L.; Knoche, Lisa L.; Abbott, Mary I.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Carta, Judith J.; Sjuts, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this development study was to develop and pilot a three-tiered prevention model (universal, targeted, individualized) in early education for children at risk of reading difficulties. The aims of this study were to: (1) Define and develop a Pre-3T model to address the early literacy and language needs of young children in…

  18. Strengthening malaria prevention and control: integrating West African militaries' malaria control efforts. The inaugural meeting of the West African Malaria Task Force, April 24-26, 2013, Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Refaat; Halbach, Alaina C; Cummings, James F

    2015-01-01

    From April 24 to 26, 2013, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center and the U.S. Africa Command cosponsored the inaugural meeting of the West Africa Malaria Task Force in Accra, Ghana. The meeting's purpose was to identify common challenges, explore regional and transcontinental collaborations, and to share knowledge about best practices in the fight against malaria in West Africa. Military representatives from Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo participated in the Task Force; various U.S. Government agencies were also represented, including the Department of Defense, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Agency for International Development. African nation participants presented brief overviews of their military's malaria prevention and control measures, surveillance programs, diagnostic capabilities, and treatment regimens emphasizing gaps within existing programs. Representatives from U.S. agencies discussed activities and capabilities relevant for the region, challenges and lessons learned regarding malaria, and highlighted opportunities for enhanced partnerships to counter malaria in West Africa. This article summarizes the major conclusions of the Task Force meeting, identifies relevant focus areas for future Task Force activities, and outlines opportunities for further inclusion of West African militaries to improve regional malaria surveillance and control efforts. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Modeling early sexual initiation among young adolescents using quantum and continuous behavior change methods: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinguang; Lunn, Sonja; Harris, Carole; Li, Xiaoming; Deveaux, Lynette; Marshall, Sharon; Cottrell, Leslie; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral research and prevention intervention science efforts have largely been based on hypotheses of linear or rational behavior change. Additional advances in the field may result from the integration of quantum behavior change and catastrophe models. Longitudinal data from a randomized trial for 1241 pre-adolescents 9-12 years old who self-described as virgin were analyzed. Data for 469 virgins in the control group were included for linear and cusp catastrophe models to describe sexual initiation; data for the rest in the intervention group were added for program effect assessment. Self-reported likelihood to have sex was positively associated with actual initiation of sex (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.43-2.06, R² = 0.13). Receipt of a behavioral prevention intervention based on a cognitive model prevented 15.6% (33.0% vs. 48.6%, OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.24-1.11) of the participants from initiating sex among only those who reported 'very likely to have sex.' The beta coefficients for the cubic term of the usp assessing three bifurcating variables (planning to have sex, intrinsic rewards from sex and self-efficacy for abstinence) were 0.0726, 0.1116 and 0.1069 respectively; R² varied from 0.49 to 0.54 (p < 0.001 for all). Although an intervention based on a model of continuous behavior change did produce a modest impact on sexual initiation, quantum change has contributed more than continuous change in describing sexual initiation among young adolescents, suggesting the need for quantum change and chaotic models to advance behavioral prevention of HIV/AIDS.

  20. Preventing breast cancer in LMICs via screening and/or early detection: The real and the surreal

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Subhojit

    2014-01-01

    To review the present status of breast cancer (BC) screening/early detection in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and identify the way forward, an open focused search for articles was undertaken in PubMed, Google Scholar and Google, and using a snowball technique, further articles were obtained from the reference list of initial search results. In addition, a query was put up on ResearchGate to obtain more references and find out the general opinion of experts on the topic. Experts were also personally contacted for their opinion. Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women in the world. The rise in incidence is highest in LMICs where the incidence has often been much lower than high-income countries. In spite of more women dying of cancer than pregnancy or childbirth related causes in LMICs, most of the focus and resources are devoted to maternal health. Also, the majority of women in LMICs present at late stages to a hospital to initiate treatment. A number of trials have been conducted in various LMICs regarding the use of clinical breast examination and mammography in various combinations to understand the best ways of implementing a population level screening/early detection of BC; nevertheless, more research in this area is badly needed for different LMIC specific contexts. Notably, very few LMICs have national level programs for BC prevention via screening/early detection and even stage reduction is not on the public health agenda. This is in addition to other barriers such as lack of awareness among women regarding BC and the presence of stigma, inappropriate attitudes and lack of following proper screening behavior, such as conducting breast self-examinations. The above is mixed with the apathy and lack of awareness of policy makers regarding the fact that BC prevention is much more cost-effective and humane than BC treatment. Implementation of population level programs for screening/early detection of BC, along with use of ways to improve