Science.gov

Sample records for early progenitor cell

  1. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL2 Mediates Notch and Kit Signals in Early T Cell Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michihiro; Nabinger, Sarah C; Bai, Yunpeng; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Yao, Chonghua; Dong, Yuanshu; Zhang, Lujuan; Rodriguez, Sonia; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Pear, Warren S; Carlesso, Nadia; Yoder, Mervin C; Kapur, Reuben; Kaplan, Mark H; Daniel Lacorazza, Hugo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The molecular pathways regulating lymphoid priming, fate, and development of multipotent bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that continuously feed thymic progenitors remain largely unknown. While Notch signal is indispensable for T cell specification and differentiation, the downstream effectors are not well understood. PRL2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and self-renewal, is highly expressed in murine thymocyte progenitors. Here we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL2 and receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit are critical downstream targets and effectors of the canonical Notch/RBPJ pathway in early T cell progenitors. While PRL2 deficiency resulted in moderate defects of thymopoiesis in the steady state, de novo generation of T cells from Prl2 null hematopoietic stem cells was significantly reduced following transplantation. Prl2 null HSPCs also showed impaired T cell differentiation in vitro. We found that Notch/RBPJ signaling upregulated PRL2 as well as c-Kit expression in T cell progenitors. Further, PRL2 sustains Notch-mediated c-Kit expression and enhances stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling in T cell progenitors, promoting effective DN1-DN2 transition. Thus, we have identified a critical role for PRL2 phosphatase in mediating Notch and c-Kit signals in early T cell progenitors. Stem Cells 2017;35:1053-1064. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  2. WDR62 Regulates Early Neural and Glial Progenitor Specification of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Antonic, Ana; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in WD40-repeat protein 62 (WDR62) are commonly associated with primary microcephaly and other developmental cortical malformations. We used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) to examine WDR62 function during human neural differentiation and model early stages of human corticogenesis. Neurospheres lacking WDR62 expression showed decreased expression of intermediate progenitor marker, TBR2, and also glial marker, S100β. In contrast, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling during hPSC neural differentiation induced upregulation of WDR62 with a corresponding increase in neural and glial progenitor markers, PAX6 and EAAT1, respectively. These findings may signify a role of WDR62 in specifying intermediate neural and glial progenitors during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation. PMID:28690640

  3. Immunohistochemical Markers of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Early Embryonic Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, L.; Ravarino, A.; Fanos, V.; Naccarato, A.G.; Senes, G.; Gerosa, C.; Bevilacqua, G.; Faa, G.; Ambu, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the human central nervous system represents a delicate moment of embryogenesis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of multiple immunohistochemical markers in the stem/progenitor cells in the human cerebral cortex during the early phases of development. To this end, samples from cerebral cortex were obtained from 4 human embryos of 11 weeks of gestation. Each sample was formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded and immunostained with several markers including GFAP, WT1, Nestin, Vimentin, CD117, S100B, Sox2, PAX2, PAX5, Tβ4, Neurofilament, CD44, CD133, Synaptophysin and Cyclin D1. Our study shows the ability of the different immunohistochemical markers to evidence different zones of the developing human cerebral cortex, allowing the identification of the multiple stages of differentiation of neuronal and glial precursors. Three important markers of radial glial cells are evidenced in this early gestational age: Vimentin, Nestin and WT1. Sox2 was expressed by the stem/progenitor cells of the ventricular zone, whereas the postmitotic neurons of the cortical plate were immunostained by PAX2 and NSE. Future studies are needed to test other important stem/progenitor cells markers and to better analyze differences in the immunohistochemical expression of these markers during gestation. PMID:26972711

  4. Pluripotent cell models of fanconi anemia identify the early pathological defect in human hemoangiogenic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoya M; Niwa, Akira; Yabe, Miharu; Hira, Asuka; Okada, Chihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Heike, Toshio; Takata, Minoru; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Saito, Megumu K

    2015-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder of genomic instability characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. Although various consequences in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have been attributed to FA-BMF, the quest to identify the initial pathological event is still ongoing. To address this issue, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of six patients with FA and FANCA mutations. An improved reprogramming method yielded iPSC-like colonies from all patients, and iPSC clones were propagated from two patients. Quantitative evaluation of the differentiation ability demonstrated that the differentiation propensity toward the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages is already defective in early hemoangiogenic progenitors. The expression levels of critical transcription factors were significantly downregulated in these progenitors. These data indicate that the hematopoietic consequences in FA patients originate from the early hematopoietic stage and highlight the potential usefulness of iPSC technology for elucidating the pathogenesis of FA-BMF. ©AlphaMed Press.

  5. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development

    PubMed Central

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends on pancreas developmental stage. Using temporal genetic labeling approaches we examined the dynamic of endocrine progenitor differentiation and explored the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells throughout development. We found that Neurog3+ progenitors develop into hormone-expressing cells in a fast process taking less then 10h. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies in heterozygote (Neurog3CreERT/+) and Neurog3-deficient (Neurog3CreERT/CreERT) embryos revealed that Neurog3-induced cells have different potential over time. At the early bud stage, failed endocrine progenitors can adopt acinar or ductal fate, whereas later in the branching pancreas they do not contribute to the acinar lineage but Neurog3-deficient cells eventually differentiate into duct cells. Thus these results provide evidence that the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells becomes restricted during development. Furthermore these data suggest that during the secondary transition endocrine progenitor cells arise from single bipotent progenitor already committed to the duct/endocrine lineages and not from domain of cells having both potentialities. PMID:22056785

  6. Decursin inhibits vasculogenesis in early tumor progression by suppression of endothelial progenitor cell differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seok Yun; Choi, Jin Hwa; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Masuda, Haruchika; Asahara, Takayuki; Lee, You-Mie

    2012-05-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to the tumor vasculature during tumor progression. Decursin isolated from the herb Angelica gigas is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, we reported that decursin is a novel candidate for an angiogenesis inhibitor [Jung et al., 2009]. In this study, we investigated whether decursin regulates EPC differentiation and function to inhibit tumor vasculogenesis. We isolated AC133+ cells from human cord blood and decursin significantly decreased the number of EPC colony forming units of human cord blood-derived AC133+ cells that produce functional EPC progenies. Decursin dose-dependently decreased the cell number of EPC committing cells as demonstrated by EPC expansion studies. Decursin inhibited EPC differentiation from progenitor cells into spindle-shaped EPC colonies. Additionally, decursin inhibited proliferation and migration of early EPCs isolated from mouse bone marrow. Furthermore, decursin suppressed expression of angiopoietin-2, angiopoietin receptor Tie-2, Flk-1 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in mouse BM derived EPCs in a dose-dependent manner. Decursin suppressed tube formation ability of EPCs in collaboration with HUVEC. Decursin (4 mg/kg) inhibited tumor-induced mobilization of circulating EPCs (CD34 + /VEGFR-2+ cells) from bone marrow and early incorporation of Dil-Ac-LDL-labeled or green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ EPCs into neovessels of xenograft Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in wild-type- or bone-marrow-transplanted mice. Accordingly, decursin attenuated EPC-derived endothelial cells in neovessels of Lewis lung carcinoma tumor masses grown in mice. Together, decursin likely affects EPC differentiation and function, thereby inhibiting tumor vasculogenesis in early tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    SciT

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytesmore » and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.« less

  8. Reduced survival in patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer is associated with high pleural endothelial progenitor cell levels.

    PubMed

    Pirro, Matteo; Cagini, Lucio; Mannarino, Massimo R; Andolfi, Marco; Potenza, Rossella; Paciullo, Francesco; Bianconi, Vanessa; Frangione, Maria Rosaria; Bagaglia, Francesco; Puma, Francesco; Mannarino, Elmo

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells are capable of contributing to neovascularization in tumours. In patients with either malignant or transudative pleural effusion, we tested the presence of pleural endothelial progenitor cells. We also measured the number of endothelial progenitor cells in post-surgery pleural drainage of either patients with early non-small-cell lung cancer or control patients with benign lung disease undergoing pulmonary resection. The prospective influence of post-surgery pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cells on cancer recurrence/survival was investigated. Pleural endothelial progenitor cell levels were quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis in pleural effusion of 15 patients with late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer with pleural involvement and in 15 control patients with congestive heart failure. Also, pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cells were measured in pleural-drainage fluid 48 h after surgery in 64 patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer and 20 benign lung disease patients undergoing pulmonary resection. Cancer recurrence and survival was evaluated in patients with high pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels. The number of pleural endothelial progenitor cells was higher in non-small-cell lung cancer pleural effusion than in transudative pleural effusion. Also, pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels were higher in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer than in patients with benign lung disease undergoing pulmonary resection (P < 0.05). Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with high pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels had a significantly 4.9 higher rate of cancer recurrence/death than patients with lower pleural-drainage endothelial progenitor cell levels, irrespective of confounders. Endothelial progenitor cells are present in the pleural effusion and are higher in patients with late-stage non-small-cell lung cancer with pleural involvement than in

  9. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  10. Competence of failed endocrine progenitors to give rise to acinar but not ductal cells is restricted to early pancreas development.

    PubMed

    Beucher, Anthony; Martín, Mercè; Spenle, Caroline; Poulet, Martine; Collin, Caitlin; Gradwohl, Gérard

    2012-01-15

    During mouse pancreas development, the transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in uncommitted pancreas progenitors is required to determine endocrine destiny. However it has been reported that Neurog3-expressing cells can eventually adopt acinar or ductal fates and that Neurog3 levels were important to secure the islet destiny. It is not known whether the competence of Neurog3-induced cells to give rise to non-endocrine lineages is an intrinsic property of these progenitors or depends on pancreas developmental stage. Using temporal genetic labeling approaches we examined the dynamic of endocrine progenitor differentiation and explored the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells throughout development. We found that Neurog3(+) progenitors develop into hormone-expressing cells in a fast process taking less then 10h. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies in heterozygote (Neurog3(CreERT/+)) and Neurog3-deficient (Neurog3(CreERT/CreERT)) embryos revealed that Neurog3-induced cells have different potential over time. At the early bud stage, failed endocrine progenitors can adopt acinar or ductal fate, whereas later in the branching pancreas they do not contribute to the acinar lineage but Neurog3-deficient cells eventually differentiate into duct cells. Thus these results provide evidence that the plasticity of Neurog3-induced cells becomes restricted during development. Furthermore these data suggest that during the secondary transition, endocrine progenitor cells arise from bipotent precursors already committed to the duct/endocrine lineages and not from domain of cells having distinct potentialities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fos Promotes Early Stage Teno-Lineage Differentiation of Tendon Stem/Progenitor Cells in Tendon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jialin; Zhang, Erchen; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zeyu; Lu, Ping; Zhu, Ting; Yin, Zi; Backman, Ludvig J; Liu, Huanhuan; Chen, Xiao; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2017-11-01

    Stem cells have been widely used in tendon tissue engineering. The lack of refined and controlled differentiation strategy hampers the tendon repair and regeneration. This study aimed to find new effective differentiation factors for stepwise tenogenic differentiation. By microarray screening, the transcript factor Fos was found to be expressed in significantly higher amounts in postnatal Achilles tendon tissue derived from 1 day as compared with 7-days-old rats. It was further confirmed that expression of Fos decreased with time in postnatal rat Achilles tendon, which was accompanied with the decreased expression of multiply tendon markers. The expression of Fos also declined during regular in vitro cell culture, which corresponded to the loss of tendon phenotype. In a cell-sheet and a three-dimensional cell culture model, the expression of Fos was upregulated as compared with in regular cell culture, together with the recovery of tendon phenotype. In addition, significant higher expression of tendon markers was found in Fos-overexpressed tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs), and Fos knock-down gave opposite results. In situ rat tendon repair experiments found more normal tendon-like tissue formed and higher tendon markers expression at 4 weeks postimplantation of Fos-overexpressed TSPCs derived nonscaffold engineering tendon (cell-sheet), as compared with the control group. This study identifies Fos as a new marker and functional driver in the early stage teno-lineage differentiation of tendon, which paves the way for effective stepwise tendon differentiation and future tendon regeneration. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:2009-2019. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  12. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals developmental heterogeneity among early lymphoid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Alberti-Servera, Llucia; von Muenchow, Lilly; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Capoferri, Giuseppina; Eschbach, Katja; Beisel, Christian; Ceredig, Rhodri; Ivanek, Robert; Rolink, Antonius

    2017-12-15

    Single-cell RNA sequencing is a powerful technology for assessing heterogeneity within defined cell populations. Here, we describe the heterogeneity of a B220 + CD117 int CD19 - NK1.1 - uncommitted hematopoietic progenitor having combined lymphoid and myeloid potential. Phenotypic and functional assays revealed four subpopulations within the progenitor with distinct lineage developmental potentials. Among them, the Ly6D + SiglecH - CD11c - fraction was lymphoid-restricted exhibiting strong B-cell potential, whereas the Ly6D - SiglecH - CD11c - fraction showed mixed lympho-myeloid potential. Single-cell RNA sequencing of these subsets revealed that the latter population comprised a mixture of cells with distinct lymphoid and myeloid transcriptional signatures and identified a subgroup as the potential precursor of Ly6D + SiglecH - CD11c - Subsequent functional assays confirmed that B220 + CD117 int CD19 - NK1.1 - single cells are, with rare exceptions, not bipotent for lymphoid and myeloid lineages. A B-cell priming gradient was observed within the Ly6D + SiglecH - CD11c - subset and we propose a herein newly identified subgroup as the direct precursor of the first B-cell committed stage. Therefore, the apparent multipotency of B220 + CD117 int CD19 - NK1.1 - progenitors results from underlying heterogeneity at the single-cell level and highlights the validity of single-cell transcriptomics for resolving cellular heterogeneity and developmental relationships among hematopoietic progenitors. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Early loss of Crebbp confers malignant stem cell properties on lymphoid progenitors.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah J; Giotopoulos, George; Yun, Haiyang; Vohra, Shabana; Sheppard, Olivia; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Rashid, Mamunur; Clipson, Alexandra; Chan, Wai-In; Sasca, Daniel; Yiangou, Loukia; Osaki, Hikari; Basheer, Faisal; Gallipoli, Paolo; Burrows, Natalie; Erdem, Ayşegül; Sybirna, Anastasiya; Foerster, Sarah; Zhao, Wanfeng; Sustic, Tonci; Petrunkina Harrison, Anna; Laurenti, Elisa; Okosun, Jessica; Hodson, Daniel; Wright, Penny; Smith, Ken G; Maxwell, Patrick; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Du, Ming Q; Adams, David J; Huntly, Brian J P

    2017-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, binding protein (CREBBP) are prevalent in lymphoid malignancies. However, the tumour suppressor functions of CREBBP remain unclear. We demonstrate that loss of Crebbp in murine haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) leads to increased development of B-cell lymphomas. This is preceded by accumulation of hyperproliferative lymphoid progenitors with a defective DNA damage response (DDR) due to a failure to acetylate p53. We identify a premalignant lymphoma stem cell population with decreased H3K27ac, which undergoes transcriptional and genetic evolution due to the altered DDR, resulting in lymphomagenesis. Importantly, when Crebbp is lost later in lymphopoiesis, cellular abnormalities are lost and tumour generation is attenuated. We also document that CREBBP mutations may occur in HSPCs from patients with CREBBP-mutated lymphoma. These data suggest that earlier loss of Crebbp is advantageous for lymphoid transformation and inform the cellular origins and subsequent evolution of lymphoid malignancies.

  14. IL-4/IL-13 Signaling Inhibits the Potential of Early Thymic Progenitors To Commit to the T Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Barik, Subhasis; Miller, Mindy M; Cattin-Roy, Alexis N; Ukah, Tobechukwu K; Chen, Weirong; Zaghouani, Habib

    2017-10-15

    Early thymic progenitors (ETPs) are endowed with diverse potencies and can give rise to myeloid and lymphoid lineage progenitors. How the thymic environment guides ETP commitment and maturation toward a specific lineage remains obscure. We have previously shown that ETPs expressing the heteroreceptor (HR) comprising IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα1 give rise to myeloid cells but not T cells. In this article, we show that signaling through the HR inhibits ETP maturation to the T cell lineage but enacts commitment toward the myeloid cells. Indeed, HR + ETPs, but not HR - ETPs, exhibit activated STAT6 transcription factor, which parallels with downregulation of Notch1, a critical factor for T cell development. Meanwhile, the myeloid-specific transcription factor C/EBPα, usually under the control of Notch1, is upregulated. Furthermore, in vivo inhibition of STAT6 phosphorylation restores Notch1 expression in HR + ETPs, which regain T lineage potential. In addition, upon stimulation with IL-4 or IL-13, HR - ETPs expressing virally transduced HR also exhibit STAT6 phosphorylation and downregulation of Notch1, leading to inhibition of lymphoid, but not myeloid, lineage potential. These observations indicate that environmental cytokines play a role in conditioning ETP lineage choice, which would impact T cell development. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p < 0.05) and improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Nitric oxide production of EPCs was substantially increased after exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with

  16. Isolation and characterization of progenitor cells from surgically created - early healing alveolar defects in humans. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Sant'Ana, Adriana Campos Passanezi; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Martinez, Maria Alejandra Frias; Valdivia, Maria Alejandra Medina; Karam, Paula Stefânia Hage; de Oliveira, Flavia Amadeu; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso; Gasparoto, Thais Helena; Campanelli, Ana Paula; Zangrando, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti; de Rezende, Maria Lúcia Rubo; Greghi, Sebastião Luiz Aguiar; Passanezi, Euloir

    2018-05-30

    The granulation tissue (GT) present in surgically-created early healing sockets has been considered as a possible source of osteoprogenitor cells for periodontal regeneration, as demonstrated in animal studies. However, the in vitro osteogenic properties of tissue removed from human surgically-created early healing alveolar defects (SC-EHAD) remains to be established, being that the aim of this study. Surgical defects were created in the edentulous ridge of two systemically healthy adults. The healing tissue present in these defects was removed 21 days later for the establishment of primary culture. The in vitro characteristics of the cultured cells were determined by Armelin method, MTT assay, immunohistochemistry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization assay and flow cytometry for detection of stem cells/osteoprogenitor cell markers. Cells were able to adhere to the plastic and assumed spindle-shaped morphology at earlier passages, changing to a cuboidal one with increasing passages. Differences in the proliferation rate were observed with increasing passages, suggesting osteogenic differentiation. ALP and mineralization activities were detected in conventional and osteogenic medium. Fresh samples of SC-EHAD tissue exhibited CD34 - and CD45 - phenotypes. Cells at later passages (14 th ) exhibited CD34 - , CD45 - , CD105 - , CD166 - and collagen type I + phenotype. Tissue removed from SC-EHAD is a possible source of progenitor cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  17. Portal inflammation during NAFLD is frequent and associated with the early phases of putative hepatic progenitor cell activation.

    PubMed

    Carotti, Simone; Vespasiani-Gentilucci, Umberto; Perrone, Giuseppe; Picardi, Antonio; Morini, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether portal tract inflammation observed in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic progenitor cell compartment activation, as thoroughly evaluated with different markers of the staminal lineage. Fifty-two patients with NAFLD were studied. NAFLD activity score, fibrosis and portal inflammation were histologically evaluated. Putative hepatic progenitor cells, intermediate hepatobiliary cells and bile ductules/interlobular bile ducts were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin (CK)-7, CK-19 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and a hepatic progenitor cell compartment score was derived. Hepatic stellate cell and myofibroblast activity was determined by immunohistochemistry for α-smooth muscle actin. Portal inflammation was absent in a minority of patients, mild in 40% of cases and more than mild in about half of patients, showing a strong correlation with fibrosis (r=0.76, p<0.001). Portal inflammation correlated with CK-7-counted putative hepatic progenitor cells (r=0.48, p<0.001), intermediate hepatobiliary cells (r=0.6, p<0.001) and bile ductules/interlobular bile ducts (r=0.6, p<0.001), and with the activity of myofibroblasts (r=0.5, p<0.001). Correlations were confirmed when elements were counted by immunostaining for CK-19 and EpCAM. Lobular inflammation, ballooning, myofibroblast activity and hepatic progenitor cell compartment activation were associated with portal inflammation by univariate analysis. In the multivariate model, the only variable independently associated with portal inflammation was hepatic progenitor cell compartment activation (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6). Portal inflammation is frequent during NAFLD and strongly associated with activation of putative hepatic progenitor cells since the first steps of their differentiation, portal myofibroblast activity and fibrosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  18. Morphological and proteomic analysis of early stage of osteoblast differentiation in osteoblastic progenitor cells

    SciT

    Hong, Dun; Orthopedic Department, Taizhou Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Linhai, Zhejiang 317000; Chen, Hai-Xiao, E-mail: Hxchen-1@163.net

    Bone remodeling relies on a dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption, mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. Under certain stimuli, osteoprogenitor cells may differentiate into premature osteoblasts and further into mature osteoblasts. This process is marked by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation. In this study, we induced osteoblast differentiation in mouse osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells and divided the process into three stages. In the first stage (day 3), the MC3T3-E1 cell under osteoblast differentiation did not express ALP or deposit a mineralized nodule. In the second stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell expressed ALP but did not formmore » a mineralized nodule. In the third stage, the MC3T3-E1 cell had ALP activity and formed mineralized nodules. In the present study, we focused on morphological and proteomic changes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation - a period when premature osteoblasts transform into mature osteoblasts. We found that mean cell area and mean stress fiber density were increased in this stage due to enhanced cell spreading and decreased cell proliferation. We further analyzed the proteins in the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton using a proteomic approach and found upregulation of IQGAP1, gelsolin, moesin, radixin, and Cfl1. After analyzing the focal adhesion signaling pathway, we found the upregulation of FLNA, LAMA1, LAMA5, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL4A6, and COL5A2 as well as the downregulation of COL4A1, COL4A2, and COL4A4. In conclusion, the signaling pathway of regulation of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesion play critical roles in regulating cell spreading and actin skeleton formation in the early stage of osteoblast differentiation.« less

  19. Interleukin-6 inhibits early differentiation of ATDC5 chondrogenic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shoko; Naruto, Takuya; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Mori, Masaaki; Nishimaki, Shigeru; Yokota, Shumpei

    2009-08-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a causative agent of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), a chronic inflammatory disease complicated with severe growth impairment. Recent trials of anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, tocilizumab, indicated that tocilizumab blocks IL-6/IL-6 receptor-mediated inflammation, and induces catch-up growth in children with sJIA. This study evaluates the effects of IL-6 on chondrogenesis by ATDC5 cells, a clonal murine chondrogenic cell line that provides an excellent model for studying endochondral ossification at growth plate. ATDC5 cells were examined for the expression of IL-6 receptor and gp130 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Recombinant murine IL-6 was added to ATDC5 cultures to observe cell differentiation, using a quantitative RT-PCR for the chondrogenic differentiation markers type II collagen, aggrecan, and type X collagen. To block IL-6, the anti-mouse IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody MR16-1 was added. As a result, the cells expressed IL-6 receptor and gp130. The expression of chondrogenic differentiation marker gene was reduced by IL-6, but this was abrogated by MR16-1. We conclude that IL-6 inhibits early chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells suggesting that IL-6 may affect committed stem cells at a cellular level during chondrogenic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes, and that IL-6 may be a cellular-level factor in growth impairment in sJIA.

  20. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A S; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an amino-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we show that this protein plays an important role in the control of B-cell development by inhibiting the activity of early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1), a master factor in B-lineage specification. In particular, our data demonstrate that: (1) ZNF521 binds to EBF1 via its carboxyl-terminal portion and this interaction is required for EBF1 inhibition; (2) NuRD complex recruitment by ZNF521 is not essential for the inhibition of transactivation of EBF1-dependent promoters; (3) ZNF521 represses EBF1 target genes in a human B-lymphoid molecular context; and (4) RNAi-mediated silencing of ZNF521/Zfp521 in primary human and murine hematopoietic progenitors strongly enhances the generation of B-lymphocytes in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that ZNF521 can antagonize B-cell development and lend support to the notion that it may contribute to conserve the multipotency of primitive lympho-myeloid progenitors by preventing or delaying their EBF1-driven commitment toward the B-cell lineage.

  1. Demonstration of early functional compromise of bone marrow derived hematopoietic progenitor cells during bovine neonatal pancytopenia through in vitro culture of bone marrow biopsies.

    PubMed

    Laming, Eleanor; Melzi, Eleonora; Scholes, Sandra F E; Connelly, Maira; Bell, Charlotte R; Ballingall, Keith T; Dagleish, Mark P; Rocchi, Mara S; Willoughby, Kim

    2012-10-30

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP) is a syndrome characterised by thrombocytopenia associated with marked bone marrow destruction in calves, widely reported since 2007 in several European countries and since 2011 in New Zealand. The disease is epidemiologically associated with the use of an inactivated bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD) vaccine and is currently considered to be caused by absorption of colostral antibody produced by some vaccinated cows ("BNP dams"). Alloantibodies capable of binding to the leukocyte surface have been detected in BNP dams and antibodies recognising bovine MHC class I and β-2-microglobulin have been detected in vaccinated cattle. In this study, calves were challenged with pooled colostrum collected from BNP dams or from non-BNP dams and their bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) cultured in vitro from sternal biopsies taken at 24 hours and 6 days post-challenge. Clonogenic assay demonstrated that CFU-GEMM (colony forming unit-granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte; pluripotential progenitor cell) colony development was compromised from HPCs harvested as early as 24 hour post-challenge. By 6 days post challenge, HPCs harvested from challenged calves failed to develop CFU-E (erythroid) colonies and the development of both CFU-GEMM and CFU-GM (granulocyte/macrophage) was markedly reduced. This study suggests that the bone marrow pathology and clinical signs associated with BNP are related to an insult which compromises the pluripotential progenitor cell within the first 24 hours of life but that this does not initially include all cell types.

  2. Extended flow cytometry characterization of normal bone marrow progenitor cells by simultaneous detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase and early hematopoietic antigens: implication for erythroid differentiation studies

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Peppino; Di Noto, Rosa; Lo Pardo, Catia; Morabito, Paolo; Abate, Giovanna; Gorrese, Marisa; Raia, Maddalena; Pascariello, Caterina; Scalia, Giulia; Gemei, Marica; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    Background Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is a cytosolic enzyme highly expressed in hematopoietic precursors from cord blood and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor mobilized peripheral blood, as well as in bone marrow from patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia. As regards human normal bone marrow, detailed characterization of ALDH+ cells has been addressed by one single study (Gentry et al, 2007). The goal of our work was to provide new information about the dissection of normal bone marrow progenitor cells based upon the simultaneous detection by flow cytometry of ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens, with particular attention to the expression of ALDH on erythroid precursors. To this aim, we used three kinds of approach: i) multidimensional analytical flow cytometry, detecting ALDH and early hematopoietic antigens in normal bone marrow; ii) fluorescence activated cell sorting of distinct subpopulations of progenitor cells, followed by in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation; iii) detection of ALDH+ cellular subsets in bone marrow from pure red cell aplasia patients. Results In normal bone marrow, we identified three populations of cells, namely ALDH+CD34+, ALDH-CD34+ and ALDH+CD34- (median percentages were 0.52, 0.53 and 0.57, respectively). As compared to ALDH-CD34+ cells, ALDH+CD34+ cells expressed the phenotypic profile of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells, with brighter expression of CD117 and CD133, accompanied by lower display of CD38 and CD45RA. Of interest, ALDH+CD34- population disclosed a straightforward erythroid commitment, on the basis of three orders of evidences. First of all, ALDH+CD34- cells showed a CD71bright, CD105+, CD45- phenotype. Secondly, induction of differentiation experiments evidenced a clear-cut expression of glycophorin A (CD235a). Finally, ALDH+CD34- precursors were not detectable in patients with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). Conclusion Our study, comparing surface antigen expression of ALDH+/CD34+, ALDH

  3. Heparan sulfates and the decrease of N-glycans promote early adipogenic differentiation rather than myogenesis of murine myogenic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Grassot, Vincent; Bouchatal, Amel; Da Silva, Anne; Chantepie, Sandrine; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Maftah, Abderrahman; Gallet, Paul-François; Petit, Jean-Michel

    In vitro, extracted muscle satellite cells, called myogenic progenitor cells, can differentiate either in myotubes or preadipocytes, depending on environmental factors and the medium. Transcriptomic analyses on glycosylation genes during satellite cells differentiation into myotubes showed that 31 genes present a significant variation of expression at the early stages of murine myogenic progenitor cells (MPC) differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of 383 glycosylation related genes during murine MPC differentiation into preadipocytes and compared the data to those previously obtained during their differentiation into myotubes. Fifty-six glycosylation related genes are specifically modified in their expression during early adipogenesis. The variations correspond mainly to: a decrease of N-glycans, and of alpha (2,3) and (2,6) linked sialic acids, and to a high level of heparan sulfates. A high amount of TGF-β1 in extracellular media during early adipogenesis was also observed. It seems that the increases of heparan sulfates and TGF-β1 favor pre-adipogenic differentition of MPC and possibly prevent their myogenic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. GATA-3 is required for early T lineage progenitor development

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Tomonori; Kuroha, Takashi; Moriguchi, Takashi; Cummings, Dustin; Maillard, Ivan; Lim, Kim-Chew

    2009-01-01

    Most T lymphocytes appear to arise from very rare early T lineage progenitors (ETPs) in the thymus, but the transcriptional programs that specify ETP generation are not completely known. The transcription factor GATA-3 is required for the development of T lymphocytes at multiple late differentiation steps as well as for the development of thymic natural killer cells. However, a role for GATA-3 before the double-negative (DN) 3 stage of T cell development has to date been obscured both by the developmental heterogeneity of DN1 thymocytes and the paucity of ETPs. We provide multiple lines of in vivo evidence through the analysis of T cell development in Gata3 hypomorphic mutant embryos, in irradiated mice reconstituted with Gata3 mutant hematopoietic cells, and in mice conditionally ablated for the Gata3 gene to show that GATA-3 is required for ETP generation. We further show that Gata3 loss does not affect hematopoietic stem cells or multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, we demonstrate that Gata3 mutant lymphoid progenitors exhibit neither increased apoptosis nor diminished cell-cycle progression. Thus, GATA-3 is required for the cell-autonomous development of the earliest characterized thymic T cell progenitors. PMID:19934022

  5. Large-scale generation of human iPSC-derived neural stem cells/early neural progenitor cells and their neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    D'Aiuto, Leonardo; Zhi, Yun; Kumar Das, Dhanjit; Wilcox, Madeleine R; Johnson, Jon W; McClain, Lora; MacDonald, Matthew L; Di Maio, Roberto; Schurdak, Mark E; Piazza, Paolo; Viggiano, Luigi; Sweet, Robert; Kinchington, Paul R; Bhattacharjee, Ayantika G; Yolken, Robert; Nimgaonka, Vishwajit L; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to perform high-throughput screening of novel drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Such screenings require a robust and scalable method for generating large numbers of mature, differentiated neuronal cells. Currently available methods based on differentiation of embryoid bodies (EBs) or directed differentiation of adherent culture systems are either expensive or are not scalable. We developed a protocol for large-scale generation of neuronal stem cells (NSCs)/early neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) and their differentiation into neurons. Our scalable protocol allows robust and cost-effective generation of NSCs/eNPCs from iPSCs. Following culture in neurobasal medium supplemented with B27 and BDNF, NSCs/eNPCs differentiate predominantly into vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) positive neurons. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that iPSC-derived neurons express ligand-gated channels and other synaptic proteins and whole-cell patch-clamp experiments indicate that these channels are functional. The robust and cost-effective differentiation protocol described here for large-scale generation of NSCs/eNPCs and their differentiation into neurons paves the way for automated high-throughput screening of drugs for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Successful In Vitro Expansion and Differentiation of Cord Blood Derived CD34+ Cells into Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells Reveals Highly Differential Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Topcic, Denijal; Haviv, Izhak; Merivirta, Ruusu-Maaria; Agrotis, Alexander; Leitner, Ephraem; Jowett, Jeremy B.; Bode, Christoph; Lappas, Martha; Peter, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be purified from peripheral blood, bone marrow or cord blood and are typically defined by a limited number of cell surface markers and a few functional tests. A detailed in vitro characterization is often restricted by the low cell numbers of circulating EPCs. Therefore in vitro culturing and expansion methods are applied, which allow at least distinguishing two different types of EPCs, early and late EPCs. Herein, we describe an in vitro culture technique with the aim to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically defined early EPCs from human cord blood. Characterization of EPCs was done by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, colony forming unit (CFU) assay and endothelial tube formation assay. There was an average 48-fold increase in EPC numbers. EPCs expressed VEGFR-2, CD144, CD18, and CD61, and were positive for acetylated LDL uptake and ulex lectin binding. The cells stimulated endothelial tube formation only in co-cultures with mature endothelial cells and formed CFUs. Microarray analysis revealed highly up-regulated genes, including LL-37 (CAMP), PDK4, and alpha-2-macroglobulin. In addition, genes known to be associated with cardioprotective (GDF15) or pro-angiogenic (galectin-3) properties were also significantly up-regulated after a 72 h differentiation period on fibronectin. We present a novel method that allows to generate high numbers of phenotypically, functionally and genetically characterized early EPCs. Furthermore, we identified several genes newly linked to EPC differentiation, among them LL-37 (CAMP) was the most up-regulated gene. PMID:21858032

  7. Early patterning and specification of cardiac progenitors in gastrulating mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Devine, W Patrick; Wythe, Joshua D; George, Matthew; Koshiba-Takeuchi, Kazuko; Bruneau, Benoit G

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian heart development requires precise allocation of cardiac progenitors. The existence of a multipotent progenitor for all anatomic and cellular components of the heart has been predicted but its identity and contribution to the two cardiac progenitor ‘fields’ has remained undefined. Here we show, using clonal genetic fate mapping, that Mesp1+ cells in gastrulating mesoderm are rapidly specified into committed cardiac precursors fated for distinct anatomic regions of the heart. We identify Smarcd3 as a marker of early specified cardiac precursors and identify within these precursors a compartment boundary at the future junction of the left and right ventricles that arises prior to morphogenesis. Our studies define the timing and hierarchy of cardiac progenitor specification and demonstrate that the cellular and anatomical fate of mesoderm-derived cardiac cells is specified very early. These findings will be important to understand the basis of congenital heart defects and to derive cardiac regeneration strategies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03848.001 PMID:25296024

  8. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

    PubMed

    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  9. Circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients affected by Chornobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Bilko, N M; Dyagil, I S; Russu, I Z; Bilko, D I

    2016-12-01

    High radiation sensitivity of stem cells and their ability to accumulate sublethal radiation damage provides the basis for investigation of hematopoietic progenitors using in vivo culture methodology. Unique samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow were derived from the patients affected by Chornobyl accident during liquidation campaign. To investigate functional activity of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells from peripheral blood and bone marrow of cleanup workers in early and remote periods after the accident at Chornobyl nuclear power plant (CNPP). The assessment of the functional activity of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells was performed in samples of peripheral blood and bone marrow of 46 cleanup workers, who were treated in the National Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine alongside with 35 non radiated patients, who served as a control. Work was performed by culturing peripheral blood and bone marrow mononuclear cells in the original gel diffusion capsules, implanted into the peritoneal cavity of CBA mice. It was shown that hematopoietic progenitor cells could be identified in the peripheral blood of liquidators of CNPP accident. At the same time the number of functionally active progenitor cells of the bone marrow was significantly decreased and during the next 10 years after the accident, counts of circulating progenitor cells in the peripheral blood as well as functionally active hematopoietic cells in bone marrow returned to normal levels. It was shown that hematopoietic progenitor cells are detected not only in the bone marrow but also in the peripheral blood of liquidators as a consequence of radiation exposure associated with CNPP accident. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled "The Chornobyl Nuclear Accident: Thirty Years After".

  10. Loss of Citron Kinase Affects a Subset of Progenitor Cells That Alters Late but Not Early Neurogenesis in the Developing Rat Retina

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Devi Krishna Priya; Chhaya, Nisarg; Lemoine, Christopher; Congdon, Sean; Black, Amye; Kanadia, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand how loss of citron kinase (CitK) affects retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in the developing rat retina. Methods. We compared knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) retinae by immunohistochemistry. The TdT-mediated dUTP terminal nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to determine cell death. Pulse-chase experiments using 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU) were carried out to interrogate RPC behavior and in turn neurogenesis. Results. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that CitK was expressed at embryonic day (E)12 and was turned off at approximately postnatal day (P)4. Immunohistochemistry showed CitK being localized as puncta at the apical end of the outer neuroblastic layer (ONBL). Analyses during embryonic development showed that the KO retina was of comparable size to that of WT until E13. However, by E14, there was a reduction in the number of S-phase RPCs with a concomitant increase in TUNEL+ cells in the KO retina. Moreover, early neurogenesis, as reflected by retinal ganglion cell production, was not affected. Postnatal analysis of the retina showed that ONBL in the KO retina was reduced to half the size of that in WT and showed further degeneration. Immunohistochemistry revealed absence of Islet1+ bipolar cells at P2, which was further confirmed by EdU pulse-chase experiments. The CitK KO retinae underwent complete degeneration by P14. Conclusions. Our study showed that CitK is not required for a subset of RPCs before E14, but is necessary for RPC survival post E14. This in turn results in normal early embryonic neurogenesis, but severely compromised later embryonic and postnatal neurogenesis. PMID:25593024

  11. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Nikos; Kosiol, Sonja; Schiegl, Tobias; Ahlers, Patrick; Walenta, Katrin; Link, Andreas; Böhm, Michael; Nickenig, Georg

    2005-09-08

    Endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow are believed to support the integrity of the vascular endothelium. The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells correlate inversely with cardiovascular risk factors, but the prognostic value associated with circulating endothelial progenitor cells has not been defined. The number of endothelial progenitor cells positive for CD34 and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) was determined with the use of flow cytometry in 519 patients with coronary artery disease as confirmed on angiography. After 12 months, we evaluated the association between baseline levels of endothelial progenitor cells and death from cardiovascular causes, the occurrence of a first major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, hospitalization, revascularization, or death from cardiovascular causes), revascularization, hospitalization, and death from all causes. A total of 43 participants died, 23 from cardiovascular causes. A first major cardiovascular event occurred in 214 patients. The cumulative event-free survival rate increased stepwise across three increasing baseline levels of endothelial progenitor cells in an analysis of death from cardiovascular causes, a first major cardiovascular event, revascularization, and hospitalization. After adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk factors, and other relevant variables, increased levels of endothelial progenitor cells were associated with a reduced risk of death from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.63; P=0.001), a first major cardiovascular event (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.89; P=0.002), revascularization (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.95; P=0.02), and hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.94; P=0.01). Endothelial progenitor-cell levels were not predictive of myocardial infarction or of death from all causes. The level of

  12. The synergistic effects of saxagliptin and metformin on CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells in early type 2 diabetes patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dore, Fiona J; Domingues, Cleyton C; Ahmadi, Neeki; Kundu, Nabanita; Kropotova, Yana; Houston, Sara; Rouphael, Carol; Mammadova, Aytan; Witkin, Linda; Khiyami, Anamil; Amdur, Richard L; Sen, Sabyasachi

    2018-05-03

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease. CD34+ endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are responsible for endothelial repair and neo-angiogenesis and can be used as a cardiovascular disease risk biomarker. This study investigated whether the addition of saxagliptin, a DPP-IV inhibitor, to metformin, may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in addition to improving glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes patients. In 12 week, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial, 42 subjects already taking metformin 1-2 grams/day were randomized to placebo or saxagliptin 5 mg. Subjects aged 40-70 years with diabetes for < 10 years, with no known cardiovascular disease, BMI 25-39.9, HbA1C 6-9% were included. We evaluated EPCs number, function, surface markers and gene expression, in addition to arterial stiffness, blood biochemistries, resting energy expenditure, and body composition parameters. A mixed model regression to examine saxagliptin vs placebo, accounting for within-subject autocorrelation, was done with SAS (p < 0.05). Although there was no significant increase in CD34+ cell number, CD31+ cells percentage increased. Saxagliptin increased migration (in response to SDF1α) with a trend of higher colony formation count. MNCs cytometry showed higher percentage of CXCR4 double positivity for both CD34 and CD31 positive cells, indicating a functional improvement. Gene expression analysis showed an upregulation in CD34+ cells for antioxidant SOD1 (p < 0.05) and a downregulation in CD34- cells for IL-6 (p < 0.01). For arterial stiffness, both augmentation index and systolic blood pressure measures went down in saxagliptin subjects (p < 0.05). Saxagliptin, in combination with metformin, can help improve endothelial dysfunction in early diabetes before macrovascular complications appear. Trial registration Trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02024477.

  13. Derivation and characterization of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongxin; Chen, Song; Cai, Jun; Guo, Yushan; Song, Zhihua; Che, Jie; Liu, Chun; Wu, Chen; Ding, Mingxiao; Deng, Hongkui

    2009-07-31

    The derivation of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells is of value both in the study of early human liver organogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for hepatocyte transplantation therapy. Here, we report for the first time the generation of hepatic progenitor cells derived from hES cells. Hepatic endoderm cells were generated by activating FGF and BMP pathways and were then purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting using a newly identified surface marker, N-cadherin. After co-culture with STO feeder cells, these purified hepatic endoderm cells yielded hepatic progenitor colonies, which possessed the proliferation potential to be cultured for an extended period of more than 100 days. With extensive expansion, they co-expressed the hepatic marker AFP and the biliary lineage marker KRT7 and maintained bipotential differentiation capacity. They were able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which expressed ALB and AAT, and into cholangiocyte-like cells, which formed duct-like cyst structures, expressed KRT19 and KRT7, and acquired epithelial polarity. In conclusion, this is the first report of the generation of proliferative and bipotential hepatic progenitor cells from hES cells. These hES cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells could be effectively used as an in vitro model for studying the mechanisms of hepatic stem/progenitor cell origin, self-renewal and differentiation.

  14. Early accelerated senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in premature coronary artery disease patients in a developing country - a case control study.

    PubMed

    Vemparala, Kranthi; Roy, Ambuj; Bahl, Vinay Kumar; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Nath, Neera; Sinha, Subrata; Nandi, Pradipta; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Manhapra, Ajay; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan

    2013-11-19

    The decreased number and senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are considered markers of vascular senescence associated with aging, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease (CAD) in elderly. In this study, we explore the role of vascular senescence in premature CAD (PCAD) in a developing country by comparing the numerical status and senescence of circulating EPCs in PCAD patients to controls. EPCs were measured by flow cytometry in 57 patients with angiographically documented CAD, and 57 controls without evidence of CAD, recruited from random patients ≤ 50 years of age at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. EPC senescence as determined by telomere length (EPC-TL) and telomerase activity (EPC-TA) was studied by real time polymerase chain reaction (q PCR) and PCR- ELISA respectively. The number of EPCs (0.18% Vs. 0.039% of total WBCs, p < 0.0001), and EPC-TL (3.83 Vs. 5.10 kb/genome, p = 0.009) were markedly lower in PCAD patients compared to controls. These differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking and medications. EPC-TA was reduced in PCAD patients, but was statistically significant only after adjustment for confounding factors (1.81 Vs. 2.20 IU/cell, unadjusted p = 0.057, adjusted p = 0.044). We observed an association between increased vascular cell senescence with PCAD in a sample of young patients from India. This suggests that early accelerated vascular cell senescence may play an important mechanistic role in CAD epidemic in developing countries like India where PCAD burden is markedly higher compared to developed countries.

  15. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    SciT

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusionmore » and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a

  16. Characterization of Reversibly Immortalized Calvarial Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Shenaq, Deana S; Teven, Chad M; Seitz, Iris A; Rastegar, Farbod; Greives, Matthew R; He, Tong-Chuan; Reid, Russell R

    2015-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play a sentinel role in osteoblastic differentiation, and their implementation into clinical practice can revolutionize cranial reconstruction. Preliminary data suggest a therapeutic role of adenoviral gene delivery of BMPs in murine calvarial defect healing. Poor transgene expression inherent in direct adenoviral therapy prompted investigation of cell-based strategies. To isolate and immortalize calvarial cells as a potential progenitor source for osseous tissue engineering. Cells were isolated from murine skulls, cultured, and transduced with a retroviral vector bearing the loxP-flanked SV40 large T antigen. Immortalized calvarial cells (iCALs) were evaluated via light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry to determine whether the immortalization process altered cell morphology or progenitor cell profile. Immortalized calvarial cells were then infected with adenoviral vectors encoding BMP-2 or GFP and assessed for early and late stages of osteogenic differentiation. Immortalization of calvarial cells did not alter cell morphology as demonstrated by phase contrast microscopy. Mesenchymal progenitor cell markers CD166, CD73, CD44, and CD105 were detected at varying levels in both primary cells and iCALs. Significant elevations in alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin mRNA transcription, and matrix mineralization were detected in BMP-2 treated iCALs compared with GFP-treated cells. Gross and histological analyses revealed ectopic bone production from treated cells compared with controls in an in vivo stem cell implantation assay. We have established an immortalized osteoprogenitor cell line from juvenile calvarial cells that retain a progenitor cell phenotype and can successfully undergo osteogenic differentiation upon BMP-2 stimulation. These cells provide a valuable platform to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying intramembranous bone formation and to screen for factors/small molecules that can

  17. Imparting regenerative capacity to limbs by progenitor cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gufa; Chen, Ying; Slack, Jonathan M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The frog Xenopus can normally regenerate its limbs at early developmental stages but loses the ability during metamorphosis. This behavior provides a potential gain-of-function model for measures that can enhance limb regeneration. Here we show that frog limbs can be caused to form multidigit regenerates after receiving transplants of larval limb progenitor cells. It is necessary to activate Wnt/β -catenin signaling in the cells, and to add Sonic hedgehog, FGF10 and thymosin β4. These factors promote survival and growth of the grafted cells and also provide pattern information. The eventual regenerates are not composed solely of donor tissue; the host cells also make a substantial contribution despite their lack of regeneration-competence. Cells from adult frog legs or from regenerating tadpole tails do not promote limb regeneration, demonstrating the necessity for limb progenitor cells. These findings have obvious implications for the development of a technology to promote limb regeneration in mammals. PMID:23273877

  18. Endothelial progenitor cells--an evolving story.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jeremy D

    2010-05-01

    The first description of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in 1997 led rapidly to substantial changes in our understanding of angiogenesis, and within 5 years to the first clinical studies in humans using bone marrow derived EPC to enhance coronary neovascularisation and cardiac function after myocardial ischemia. However, to improve the success of this therapy a clearer understanding of the biology of EPC is needed. This article summarises recent data indicating that most EPC are not, in fact, endothelial progenitors but can be better described as angiogenic monocytes, and explores the implications this has for their future therapeutic use. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. KDR (VEGFR2) identifies a conserved human and murine hepatic progenitor and instructs early liver development

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Orit; Han, Songyan; Sourrisseau, Marion; Dziedzic, Noelle; Hamou, Wissam; Corneo, Barbara; D’Souza, Sunita; Sato, Thomas; Kotton, Darrell N.; Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Kalir, Tamara; Jacobs, Adam; Evans, Todd; Evans, Matthew J.; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the fetal hepatic niche is essential for optimizing the generation of functional hepatocyte-like (hepatic) cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Here, we show that KDR (VEGFR2), previously assumed to be mostly restricted to mesodermal lineages, marks a hESC-derived hepatic progenitor. hESC-derived endoderm cells do not express KDR, but when cultured in media supporting hepatic differentiation, generate KDR+ hepatic progenitors and KDR- hepatic cells. KDR+ progenitors require active KDR signaling both to instruct their own differentiation into hepatic cells, and to support non-cell-autonomously the functional maturation of co-cultured KDR- hepatic cells. Analysis of human fetal livers suggests that similar progenitors are present in human livers. Lineage tracing in mice provides in vivo evidence of a KDR+ hepatic progenitor for fetal hepatoblasts and subsequently adult hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Altogether, our findings reveal that KDR is a conserved marker for endoderm-derived hepatic progenitors, and a functional receptor instructing early liver development. PMID:23746980

  20. Characterization of human pancreatic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Jackson, Andrew; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Chujo, Daisuke; Takita, Morihito; Kobayashi, Naoya; Onaca, Nicholas; Hayashi, Shuji; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    β-Cell replacement therapy via islet transplantation is an effective treatment for diabetes mellitus, but its widespread use is severely limited by the shortage of donor organs. Because pancreatic stem/progenitor cells are abundantly available in the pancreas of these patients and in donor organs, the cells could become a useful target for β-cell replacement therapy. We previously established a mouse pancreatic stem cell line without genetic manipulation. In this study, we used the techniques to identify and isolate human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. The cells from a duct-rich population were cultured in 23 kinds of culture media, based on media for mouse pancreatic stem cells or for human embryonic stem cells. The cells in serum-free media formed "cobblestone" morphologies, similar to a mouse pancreatic stem cell line. On the other hand, the cells in serum-containing medium and the medium for human embryonic stem cells formed "fibroblast-like" morphologies. The cells divided actively until day 30, and the population doubling level (PDL) was 6-10. However, the cells stopped dividing after 30 days in any culture conditions. During the cultures, the nucleus/cytoplasm (N/C) ratio decreased, suggesting that the cells entered senescence. Exendin-4 treatment and transduction of PDX-1 and NeuroD proteins by protein transduction technology into the cells induced insulin and pancreas-related gene expression. Although the duplications of these cells were limited, this approach could provide a potential new source of insulin-producing cells for transplantation.

  1. Transfusion Support for ABO-Incompatible Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kopko, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary ABO-incompatible transplants comprise up to 50% of allogeneic progenitor cell transplants. Major, minor and bidirectional ABO-incompatible transplants each have unique complications that can occur, including hemolysis at the time of progenitor cell infusion, hemolysis during donor engraftment, passenger lymphocyte syndrome, delayed red blood cell engraftment, and pure red cell aplasia. Appropriate transfusion support during the different phases of the allogeneic progenitor cell transplant process is an important part of ABO-incompatible transplantation. PMID:27022318

  2. Evaluation of oral keratinocyte progenitor and T-lymphocite cells response during early healing after augmentation of keratinized gingiva with a 3D collagen matrix - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Darian; Calenic, Bogdan; Greabu, Maria; Kralev, Alexander; Boariu, Marius; Bojin, Florina; Anghel, Simona; Paunescu, Virgil; Vela, Octavia; Calniceanu, Horia; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan

    2016-07-07

    The aim of the present study is to analyze the behavior of selected populations of oral keratinocytes and T-lymphocytes, responsible for re-constructing and maintaining the oral epithelial tissue architecture, following augmentation of the keratinized oral mucosa using a 3D-collagen matrix. Different groups of oral keratinocytes were isolated from biopsies harvested from 3 patients before the surgical procedure, as well as 7 and 14 days after the augmentation procedure. T-lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood at same timepoints. Keratinocytes were characterized for stem and differentiation markers, such as p63, cytokeratin 10 and 14, and in vitro parameters, such as cell viability, cell size and colony-forming efficiency. T-lymphocytes were analyzed for viability and the expression of various cluster of differentiation markers. The methods included magnetic separation of cell populations, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and histology of oral biopsies. Both at 7 and 14 days, the majority of cells that repopulate the matrix were actively proliferating/progenitor oral keratinocytes with the phenotype integrin alfa6beta4 + CD71+. These cells display in vitro characteristics similar to the progenitor cells analyzed before the matrix placement. T-lymphocytes expressed CD8 and CD69 markers, while CD25 was absent. The study shows that two weeks after the collagen membrane placement, the healing process appeared to be histologically complete, with no abnormal immune response induced by the matrix, however, with a higher than usual content of active proliferating cells, the majority of keratinocytes being characterized as transit amplifying cells.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Semo, Ma'ayan; Haamedi, Nasrin; Stevanato, Lara; Carter, David; Brooke, Gary; Young, Michael; Coffey, Peter; Sinden, John; Patel, Sara; Vugler, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPC) using established rodent models. Methods Efficacy of hRPC was tested initially in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporine/dexamethasone. Due to adverse effects of dexamethasone, this drug was omitted from a subsequent dose-ranging study, where different hRPC doses were tested for their ability to preserve visual function (measured by optokinetic head tracking) and retinal structure in RCS rats at 3 to 6 months after grafting. Safety of hRPC was assessed by subretinal transplantation into wild type (WT) rats and NIH-III nude mice, with analysis at 3 to 6 and 9 months after grafting, respectively. Results The optimal dose of hRPC for preserving visual function/retinal structure in dystrophic rats was 50,000 to 100,000 cells. Human retinal progenitor cells integrated/survived in dystrophic and WT rat retina up to 6 months after grafting and expressed nestin, vimentin, GFAP, and βIII tubulin. Vision and retinal structure remained normal in WT rats injected with hRPC and there was no evidence of tumors. A comparison between dexamethasone-treated and untreated dystrophic rats at 3 months after grafting revealed an unexpected reduction in the baseline visual acuity of dexamethasone-treated animals. Conclusions Human retinal progenitor cells appear safe and efficacious in the preclinical models used here. Translational Relevance Human retinal progenitor cells could be deployed during early stages of retinal degeneration or in regions of intact retina, without adverse effects on visual function. The ability of dexamethasone to reduce baseline visual acuity in RCS dystrophic rats has important implications for the interpretation of preclinical and clinical cell transplant studies. PMID:27486556

  4. Identification and isolation of adult liver stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Hepatoblasts are considered to be liver stem/progenitor cells in the fetus because they propagate and differentiate into two types of liver epithelial cells, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In adults, oval cells that emerge in severely injured liver are considered facultative hepatic stem/progenitor cells. However, the nature of oval cells has remained unclear for long time due to the lack of a method to isolate them. It has also been unclear whether liver stem/progenitor cells exist in normal adult liver. Recently, we and others have successfully identified oval cells and adult liver stem/progenitor cells. Here, we describe the identification and isolation of mouse liver stem/progenitor cells by utilizing antibodies against specific cell surface marker molecules.

  5. Nucleostemin rejuvenates cardiac progenitor cells and antagonizes myocardial aging.

    PubMed

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Quijada, Pearl; Mohsin, Sadia; Joyo, Anya; Samse, Kaitlen; Monsanto, Megan; De La Torre, Andrea; Avitabile, Daniele; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael J; Tsai, Emily J; Sussman, Mark A

    2015-01-20

    Functional decline in stem cell-mediated regeneration contributes to aging associated with cellular senescence in c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Clinical implementation of CPC-based therapy in elderly patients would benefit tremendously from understanding molecular characteristics of senescence to antagonize aging. Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein regulating stem cell proliferation and pluripotency. This study sought to demonstrate that NS preserves characteristics associated with "stemness" in CPCs and antagonizes myocardial senescence and aging. CPCs isolated from human fetal (fetal human cardiac progenitor cell [FhCPC]) and adult failing (adult human cardiac progenitor cell [AhCPC]) hearts, as well as young (young cardiac progenitor cell [YCPC]) and old mice (old cardiac progenitor cell [OCPC]), were studied for senescence characteristics and NS expression. Heterozygous knockout mice with 1 functional allele of NS (NS+/-) were used to demonstrate that NS preserves myocardial structure and function and slows characteristics of aging. NS expression is decreased in AhCPCs relative to FhCPCs, correlating with lowered proliferation potential and shortened telomere length. AhCPC characteristics resemble those of OCPCs, which have a phenotype induced by NS silencing, resulting in cell flattening, senescence, multinucleated cells, decreased S-phase progression, diminished expression of stemness markers, and up-regulation of p53 and p16. CPC senescence resulting from NS loss is partially p53 dependent and is rescued by concurrent silencing of p53. Mechanistically, NS induction correlates with Pim-1 kinase-mediated stabilization of c-Myc. Engineering OCPCs and AhCPCs to overexpress NS decreases senescent and multinucleated cells, restores morphology, and antagonizes senescence, thereby preserving phenotypic properties of "stemness." Early cardiac aging with a decline in cardiac function, an increase in senescence markers p53 and p16, telomere attrition

  6. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem/progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be key to...cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing, meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...common underlying cause of post- traumatic osteoarthritis . This is particularly striking in young, healthy individuals such as military personnel

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea and endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Qi; Feng, Jing; Sun, Xin

    2013-10-18

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women in the general population, and the prevalence is even higher in specific patient groups. OSA is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial injury could be the pivotal determinant in the development of cardiovascular pathology in OSA. Endothelial damage ultimately represents a dynamic balance between the magnitude of injury and the capacity for repair. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) within adult peripheral blood present a possible means of vascular maintenance that could home to sites of injury and restore endothelial integrity and normal function. We summarized pathogenetic mechanisms of OSA and searched for available studies on numbers and functions of EPCs in patients with OSA to explore the potential links between the numbers and functions of EPCs and OSA. In particular, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the effects of OSA on EPCs. Intermittent hypoxia cycles and sleep fragmentation are major pathophysiologic characters of OSA. Intermittent hypoxia acts as a trigger of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and sympathetic activation. Sleep fragmentation is associated with a burst of sympathetic activation and systemic inflammation. In most studies, a reduction in circulating EPCs has emerged. The possible mechanisms underlying the decrease in the number or function of EPCs include prolonged inflammation response, oxidative stress, increased sympathetic activation, physiological adaptive responses of tissue to hypoxia, reduced EPC mobilization, EPC apoptosis, and functional impairment in untreated OSA. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for OSA affects the mobilization, apoptosis, and function of EPCs through preventing intermittent hypoxia episodes, improving sleep quality, and reducing systemic inflammation, oxidative stress levels, and sympathetic overactivation. To improve

  8. TWEAK induces liver progenitor cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Aniela; Ambrose, Christine; Parr, Michael; Lincecum, John M.; Wang, Monica Z.; Zheng, Timothy S.; Browning, Beth; Michaelson, Jennifer S.; Baestcher, Manfred; Wang, Bruce; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Burkly, Linda C.

    2005-01-01

    Progenitor (“oval”) cell expansion accompanies many forms of liver injury, including alcohol toxicity and submassive parenchymal necrosis as well as experimental injury models featuring blocked hepatocyte replication. Oval cells can potentially become either hepatocytes or biliary epithelial cells and may be critical to liver regeneration, particularly when hepatocyte replication is impaired. The regulation of oval cell proliferation is incompletely understood. Herein we present evidence that a TNF family member called TWEAK (TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis) stimulates oval cell proliferation in mouse liver through its receptor Fn14. TWEAK has no effect on mature hepatocytes and thus appears to be selective for oval cells. Transgenic mice overexpressing TWEAK in hepatocytes exhibit periportal oval cell hyperplasia. A similar phenotype was obtained in adult wild-type mice, but not Fn14-null mice, by administering TWEAK-expressing adenovirus. Oval cell expansion induced by 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) was significantly reduced in Fn14-null mice as well as in adult wild-type mice with a blocking anti-TWEAK mAb. Importantly, TWEAK stimulated the proliferation of an oval cell culture model. Finally, we show increased Fn14 expression in chronic hepatitis C and other human liver diseases relative to its expression in normal liver, which suggests a role for the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway in human liver injury. We conclude that TWEAK has a selective mitogenic effect for liver oval cells that distinguishes it from other previously described growth factors. PMID:16110324

  9. WT1 controls antagonistic FGF and BMP-pSMAD pathways in early renal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Fariba Jian; Badro, Danielle A; Clarkson, Michael; Lecca, M Rita; Bradford, Stephen T; Buske, Fabian A; Saar, Kathrin; Hübner, Norbert; Brändli, André W; Schedl, Andreas

    2014-07-17

    Kidney organogenesis requires the tight control of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of renal progenitor cells. How the balance between these cellular decisions is achieved remains elusive. The Wilms' tumour suppressor Wt1 is required for progenitor survival, but the molecular cause for renal agenesis in mutants is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that lack of Wt1 abolishes fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and induces BMP/pSMAD signalling within the metanephric mesenchyme. Addition of recombinant FGFs or inhibition of pSMAD signalling rescues progenitor cell apoptosis induced by the loss of Wt1. We further show that recombinant BMP4, but not BMP7, induces an apoptotic response within the early kidney that can be suppressed by simultaneous addition of FGFs. These data reveal a hitherto unknown sensitivity of early renal progenitors to pSMAD signalling, establishes FGF and pSMAD signalling as antagonistic forces in early kidney development and places WT1 as a key regulator of pro-survival FGF signalling pathway genes.

  10. Acquisition of granule neuron precursor identity is a critical determinant of progenitor cell competence to form Hedgehog-induced medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Schüller, Ulrich; Heine, Vivi M.; Mao, Junhao; Kho, Alvin T.; Dillon, Allison K.; Han, Young-Goo; Huillard, Emmanuelle; Sun, Tao; Ligon, Azra H.; Qian, Ying; Ma, Qiufu; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; McMahon, Andrew P.; Rowitch, David H.; Ligon, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    Origins of the brain tumor, medulloblastoma, from stem cells or restricted progenitor cells are unclear. To investigate this, we activated oncogenic Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in multipotent and lineage-restricted CNS progenitors. We observed that normal unipotent cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNP) derive from hGFAP+ and Olig2+ RL progenitors. Hh activation in a spectrum of early and late stage CNS progenitors generated similar medulloblastomas, but not other brain cancers, indicating that acquisition of CGNP identity is essential for tumorigenesis. We show in human and mouse medulloblastoma that cells expressing the glia-associated markers Gfap and Olig2 are neoplastic and that they retain features of embryonic-type granule lineage progenitors. Thus, oncogenic Hh signaling promotes medulloblastoma from lineage-restricted granule cell progenitors. PMID:18691547

  11. Endothelial progenitor cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Russell P.; Parikh, Megha A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Shimbo, Daichi; Austin, John H. M.; Smith, Benjamin M.; Hueper, Katja; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Lima, Joao; Gomes, Antoinette; Watson, Karol; Kawut, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial injury is implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD and emphysema; however the role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a marker of endothelial cell repair, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs), a marker of endothelial cell injury, in COPD and its subphenotypes is unresolved. We hypothesized that endothelial progenitor cell populations would be decreased in COPD and emphysema and that circulating endothelial cells would be increased. Associations with other subphenotypes were examined. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis COPD Study recruited smokers with COPD and controls age 50–79 years without clinical cardiovascular disease. Endothelial progenitor cell populations (CD34+KDR+ and CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells) and circulating endothelial cells (CD45dimCD31+CD146+CD133-) were measured by flow cytometry. COPD was defined by standard spirometric criteria. Emphysema was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on CT. Full pulmonary function testing and expiratory CTs were measured in a subset. Among 257 participants, both endothelial progenitor cell populations, and particularly CD34+KDR+ endothelial progenitor cells, were reduced in COPD. The CD34+KDR+CD133+ endothelial progenitor cells were associated inversely with emphysema extent. Both endothelial progenitor cell populations were associated inversely with extent of panlobular emphysema and positively with diffusing capacity. Circulating endothelial cells were not significantly altered in COPD but were inversely associated with pulmonary microvascular blood flow on MRI. There was no consistent association of endothelial progenitor cells or circulating endothelial cells with measures of gas trapping. These data provide evidence that endothelial repair is impaired in COPD and suggest that this pathological process is specific to emphysema. PMID:28291826

  12. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    pluripotent stem cells for osteoarthritis drug screening . Arthritis Rheumatol. 66, 3062–3072. Xia, Y., Zheng, S., Bidthanapally, A., 2008. Depth-dependent...the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem /progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...biology to develop a profile of repair cells in the adult meniscus, track meniscal stem /progenitor cell (MSPC) behavior within meniscus as function of

  13. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem/progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing, meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...changes that occur after injury. As a result, meniscal injuries are a common underlying cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis . This is particularly

  14. Mutually exclusive signaling signatures define the hepatic and pancreatic progenitor cell lineage divergence

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Seguel, Elisa; Mah, Nancy; Naumann, Heike; Pongrac, Igor M.; Cerdá-Esteban, Nuria; Fontaine, Jean-Fred; Wang, Yongbo; Chen, Wei; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Spagnoli, Francesca M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how distinct cell types arise from multipotent progenitor cells is a major quest in stem cell biology. The liver and pancreas share many aspects of their early development and possibly originate from a common progenitor. However, how liver and pancreas cells diverge from a common endoderm progenitor population and adopt specific fates remains elusive. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), we defined the molecular identity of liver and pancreas progenitors that were isolated from the mouse embryo at two time points, spanning the period when the lineage decision is made. The integration of temporal and spatial gene expression profiles unveiled mutually exclusive signaling signatures in hepatic and pancreatic progenitors. Importantly, we identified the noncanonical Wnt pathway as a potential developmental regulator of this fate decision and capable of inducing the pancreas program in endoderm and liver cells. Our study offers an unprecedented view of gene expression programs in liver and pancreas progenitors and forms the basis for formulating lineage-reprogramming strategies to convert adult hepatic cells into pancreatic cells. PMID:24013505

  15. Biology and flow cytometry of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors cells.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jonathan A; Erzurum, Serpil; Asosingh, Kewal

    2015-01-01

    During development, hematopoiesis and neovascularization are closely linked to each other via a common bipotent stem cell called the hemangioblast that gives rise to both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. In postnatal life, this functional connection between the vasculature and hematopoiesis is maintained by a subset of hematopoietic progenitor cells endowed with the capacity to differentiate into potent proangiogenic cells. These proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitors comprise a specific subset of bone marrow (BM)-derived cells that homes to sites of neovascularization and possess potent paracrine angiogenic activity. There is emerging evidence that this subpopulation of hematopoietic progenitors plays a critical role in vascular health and disease. Their angiogenic activity is distinct from putative "endothelial progenitor cells" that become structural cells of the endothelium by differentiation into endothelial cells. Proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell research requires multidisciplinary expertise in flow cytometry, hematology, and vascular biology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cell biology and flow cytometric methods to detect these cells in the peripheral blood circulation and BM. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  16. Endothelial cells are not required for specification of respiratory progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Havrilak, Jamie A.; Melton, Kristin R.; Shannon, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Crosstalk between mesenchymal and epithelial cells influences organogenesis in multiple tissues, such as lung, pancreas, liver, and the nervous system. Lung mesenchyme comprises multiple cell types, however, and precise identification of the mesenchymal cell type(s) that drives early events in lung development remains unknown. Endothelial cells have been shown to be required for some aspects of lung epithelial patterning, lung stem cell differentiation, and regeneration after injury. Furthermore, endothelial cells are involved in early liver and pancreas development. From these observations we hypothesized that endothelial cells might also be required for early specification of the respiratory field and subsequent lung bud initiation. We first blocked VEGF signaling in E8.5 cultured foreguts with small molecule VEGFR inhibitors and found that lung specification and bud formation were unaltered. However, when we examined E9.5 mouse embryos carrying a mutation in the VEGFR Flk-1, which do not develop endothelial cells, we found that respiratory progenitor specification was impeded. Because the E9.5 embryos were substantially smaller than control littermates, suggesting the possibility of developmental delay, we isolated and cultured foreguts from mutant and control embryos on E8.5, when no size differences were apparent. We found that both specification of the respiratory field and lung bud formation occurred in mutant and control explants. These observations were unaffected by the presence or absence of serum. We also observed that hepatic specification and initiation occurred in the absence of endothelial cells, and that expansion of the liver epithelium in culture did not differ between mutant and control explants. Consistent with previously published results, we also found that pancreatic buds were not maintained in cultured foreguts when endothelial cells were absent. Our observations support the conclusion that endothelial cells are not required for early

  17. Identification of oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary.

    PubMed

    Draper, Bruce W

    2012-01-01

    Zebrafish breed year round and females are capable of producing thousands of eggs during their lifetime. This amazing fecundity is due to the fact that the adult ovary, contains premeiotic oocyte progenitor cells, called oogonia, which produce a continuous supply of new oocytes throughout adult life. Oocyte progenitor cells can be easily identified based on their expression of Vasa, and their characteristic nuclear morphology. Thus, the zebrafish ovary provides a unique and powerful system to study the genetic regulation of oocyte production in a vertebrate animal. A method is presented here for identifying oocyte progenitor cells in the zebrafish ovary using whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence that is simple and accurate.

  18. Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozkok, Abdullah; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2018-05-10

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are bone marrow derived or tissue-resident cells that play major roles in the maintenance of vascular integrity and repair of endothelial damage. Although EPCs may be capable of directly engrafting and regenerating the endothelium, the most important effects of EPCs seem to be depended on paracrine effects. In recent studies, specific microvesicles and mRNAs have been found to mediate the pro-angiogenic and regenerative effects of EPCs on endothelium. EPC counts have important prognostic implications in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Uremia and inflammation are associated with lower EPC counts which probably contribute to increased CVD risks in patients with chronic kidney disease. Beneficial effects of the EPC therapies have been shown in studies performed on different models of CVD and kidney diseases such as acute and chronic kidney diseases and glomerulonephritis. However, lack of a clear definition and specific marker of EPCs is the most important problem causing difficulties in interpretation of the results of the studies investigating EPCs. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Impaired Endothelial Repair Capacity of Early Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Hypertensive Patients With Primary Hyperaldosteronemia: Role of 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin Oxidation and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ding, Mei-Lin; Wu, Fang; He, Wen; Li, Jin; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Xie, Wen-Li; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Xia, Wen-Hao; Tao, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Although hyperaldosteronemia exerts detrimental impacts on vascular endothelium in addition to elevating blood pressure, the effects and molecular mechanisms of hyperaldosteronemia on early endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-mediated endothelial repair after arterial damage are yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from hypertensive patients with primary hyperaldosteronemia (PHA). In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs (n=20), age- and blood pressure-matched essential hypertension patients (n=20), and age-matched healthy subjects (n=20) was evaluated by transplantation into a nude mouse carotid endothelial denudation model. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery in human subjects. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs and flow-mediated dilation were impaired both in PHAs and in essential hypertension patients when compared with age-matched healthy subjects; however, the early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs were impaired more severely than essential hypertension patients. Oral spironolactone improved early EPC in vivo endothelial repair capacity and flow-mediated dilation of PHAs. Increased oxidative stress, oxidative 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin degradation, endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and decreased nitric oxide production were found in early EPCs from PHAs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit p47(phox) knockdown or 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin supplementation attenuated endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling and enhanced in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs from PHAs. In conclusion, PHAs exhibited more impaired endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs than did essential hypertension patients independent of blood pressure, which was associated with mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent oxidative stress and subsequently 5

  20. The extracellular matrix controls gap junction protein expression and function in postnatal hippocampal neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Sophie; Gauvin, Lianne G; Toeg, Hadi D; Pettit, Alexandra; Sorbara, Catherine D; Migahed, Lamiaa; DesRoches, Rebecca; Menzies, A Sheila; Nishii, Kiyomasa; Paul, David L; Simon, Alexander M; Bennett, Steffany AL

    2009-01-01

    Background Gap junction protein and extracellular matrix signalling systems act in concert to influence developmental specification of neural stem and progenitor cells. It is not known how these two signalling systems interact. Here, we examined the role of ECM components in regulating connexin expression and function in postnatal hippocampal progenitor cells. Results We found that Cx26, Cx29, Cx30, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx47 mRNA and protein but only Cx32 and Cx36 mRNA are detected in distinct neural progenitor cell populations cultured in the absence of exogenous ECM. Multipotential Type 1 cells express Cx26, Cx30, and Cx43 protein. Their Type 2a progeny but not Type 2b and 3 neuronally committed progenitor cells additionally express Cx37, Cx40, and Cx45. Cx29 and Cx47 protein is detected in early oligodendrocyte progenitors and mature oligodendrocytes respectively. Engagement with a laminin substrate markedly increases Cx26 protein expression, decreases Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx47 protein expression, and alters subcellular localization of Cx30. These changes are associated with decreased neurogenesis. Further, laminin elicits the appearance of Cx32 protein in early oligodendrocyte progenitors and Cx36 protein in immature neurons. These changes impact upon functional connexin-mediated hemichannel activity but not gap junctional intercellular communication. Conclusion Together, these findings demonstrate a new role for extracellular matrix-cell interaction, specifically laminin, in the regulation of intrinsic connexin expression and function in postnatal neural progenitor cells. PMID:19236721

  1. Pigmentation Is Associated with Stemness Hierarchy of Progenitor Cells Within Cultured Limbal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Nielsen, Frederik Mølgaard; Emmersen, Jeppe; Bath, Chris; Hjortdal, Jesper Østergaard; Riis, Simone; Fink, Trine; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Zachar, Vladimir

    2018-05-20

    Ex-vivo cultured human limbal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (hLESCs) are the main source for regenerative therapy of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), which is worldwide one of the major causes of corneal blindness. Despite many stemness-associated markers have been identified within the limbal niche, the phenotype of the earliest hLESCs has not been hitherto identified. We sought to confirm or refute the use of tumor protein p63 (p63) and ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5) as surrogate markers for hLESCs early within the limbal differentiation hierarchy. Based on a robust fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and subsequent RNA isolation protocol, a comprehensive transcriptomic profile was obtained from four subpopulations of cultured hLESCs. The subpopulations were defined by co-expression of two putative stem/progenitor markers, the p63 and ABCB5, and the corneal differentiation marker cytokeratin 3 (CK3). A comparative transcriptomic analysis yielded novel data that indicated association between pigmentation and differentiation, with the p63 positive populations being the most pigmented and immature of the progenitors. In contrast, ABCB5, either alone or in co-expression patterns, identified more committed progenitor cells with less pigmentation. In conclusion, p63 is superior to ABCB5 as a marker for stemness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells: transferrin effects on cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Silvestroff, Lucas; Franco, Paula Gabriela; Pasquini, Juana María

    2013-01-01

    NSC (neural stem cells)/NPC (neural progenitor cells) are multipotent and self-renew throughout adulthood in the SVZ (subventricular zone) of the mammalian CNS (central nervous system). These cells are considered interesting targets for CNS neurodegenerative disorder cell therapies, and understanding their behaviour in vitro is crucial if they are to be cultured prior to transplantation. We cultured the SVZ tissue belonging to newborn rats under the form of NS (neurospheres) to evaluate the effects of Tf (transferrin) on cell proliferation. The NS were heterogeneous in terms of the NSC/NPC markers GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), Nestin and Sox2 and the OL (oligodendrocyte) progenitor markers NG2 (nerve/glia antigen 2) and PDGFRα (platelet-derived growth factor receptor α). The results of this study indicate that aTf (apoTransferrin) is able to increase cell proliferation of SVZ-derived cells in vitro, and that these effects were mediated at least in part by the TfRc1 (Tf receptor 1). Since OPCs (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) represent a significant proportion of the proliferating cells in the SVZ-derived primary cultures, we used the immature OL cell line N20.1 to show that Tf was able to augment the proliferation rate of OPC, either by adding aTf to the culture medium or by overexpressing rat Tf in situ. The culture medium supplemented with ferric iron, together with aTf, increased the DNA content, while ferrous iron did not. The present work provides data that could have a potential application in human cell replacement therapies for neurodegenerative disease and/or CNS injury that require the use of in vitro amplified NPCs. PMID:23368675

  3. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  4. Stem and progenitor cells: the premature desertion of rigorous definitions.

    PubMed

    Seaberg, Raewyn M; van der Kooy, Derek

    2003-03-01

    A current disturbing trend in stem cell biology is the abandonment of rigorous definitions of stem and progenitor cells in favor of more ambiguous, all-encompassing concepts. However, recent studies suggest that there are consistent, functional differences in the biology of these two cell types. Admittedly, it can be difficult to harmonize the in vivo and in vitro functional differences between stem and progenitor cells. Nonetheless, these distinctions between cell types should be emphasized rather than ignored, as they can be used to test specific hypotheses in neural stem cell biology.

  5. Vascular wall progenitor cells in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Psaltis, Peter J; Simari, Robert D

    2015-04-10

    The vasculature plays an indispensible role in organ development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, such that disturbances to it impact greatly on developmental and postnatal health. Although cell turnover in healthy blood vessels is low, it increases considerably under pathological conditions. The principle sources for this phenomenon have long been considered to be the recruitment of cells from the peripheral circulation and the re-entry of mature cells in the vessel wall back into cell cycle. However, recent discoveries have also uncovered the presence of a range of multipotent and lineage-restricted progenitor cells in the mural layers of postnatal blood vessels, possessing high proliferative capacity and potential to generate endothelial, smooth muscle, hematopoietic or mesenchymal cell progeny. In particular, the tunica adventitia has emerged as a progenitor-rich compartment with niche-like characteristics that support and regulate vascular wall progenitor cells. Preliminary data indicate the involvement of some of these vascular wall progenitor cells in vascular disease states, adding weight to the notion that the adventitia is integral to vascular wall pathogenesis, and raising potential implications for clinical therapies. This review discusses the current body of evidence for the existence of vascular wall progenitor cell subpopulations from development to adulthood and addresses the gains made and significant challenges that lie ahead in trying to accurately delineate their identities, origins, regulatory pathways, and relevance to normal vascular structure and function, as well as disease. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Lin28 sustains early renal progenitors and induces Wilms tumor

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Achia; Yermalovich, Alena; Zhang, Jin; Spina, Catherine S.; Zhu, Hao; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Shukrun, Rachel; Charlton, Jocelyn; Sebire, Neil; Mifsud, William; Dekel, Benjamin; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms Tumor, the most common pediatric kidney cancer, evolves from the failure of terminal differentiation of the embryonic kidney. Here we show that overexpression of the heterochronic regulator Lin28 during kidney development in mice markedly expands nephrogenic progenitors by blocking their final wave of differentiation, ultimately resulting in a pathology highly reminiscent of Wilms tumor. Using lineage-specific promoters to target Lin28 to specific cell types, we observed Wilms tumor only when Lin28 is aberrantly expressed in multiple derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm, implicating the cell of origin as a multipotential renal progenitor. We show that withdrawal of Lin28 expression reverts tumorigenesis and markedly expands the numbers of glomerulus-like structures and that tumor formation is suppressed by enforced expression of Let-7 microRNA. Finally, we demonstrate overexpression of the LIN28B paralog in a significant percentage of human Wilms tumor. Our data thus implicate the Lin28/Let-7 pathway in kidney development and tumorigenesis. PMID:24732380

  7. Regulation of Mammary Progenitor Cells by p53 and Parity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    quantitative PCR system (Stratagene). To knockdown Notch1 in TM40A cells, siRNA (s70698 and s70700) were purchased from Ambion. s70698 siRNA sense sequence: 5...hours after transfect ion and real-tim e quantitative P CR was used to confirm the knockdown efficiency. Results Label and chase progenitor cells...cells contained 0.8% o f DsRed positiv e (DsR +) progenitor cells (Fig. 1B). The mammosphere-forming capacity of DsR+ cells is 3.8-fold greater

  8. Strategies to reverse endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Alessandra; Di Fenza, Raffaele; Carvello, Michele; Gatti, Francesca; Secchi, Antonio; Fiorina, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived cells-mediated postnatal vasculogenesis has been reported as the main responsible for the regulation of vascular homeostasis in adults. Since their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells have been depicted as mediators of postnatal vasculogenesis for their peculiar phenotype (partially staminal and partially endothelial), their ability to differentiate in endothelial cell line and to be incorporated into the vessels wall during ischemia/damage. Diabetes mellitus, a condition characterized by cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and micro- and macroangiopathy, showed a dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, we review the mechanisms involved in diabetes-related dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells, highlighting how hyperglycemia affects the different steps of endothelial progenitor cells lifetime (i.e., bone marrow mobilization, trafficking into the bloodstream, differentiation in endothelial cells, and homing in damaged tissues/organs). Finally, we review preclinical and clinical strategies that aim to revert diabetes-induced dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells as a means of finding new strategies to prevent diabetic complications.

  9. Advances in hepatic stem/progenitor cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Stefaan; Best, Jan; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Dollé, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The liver is famous for its strong regenerative capacity, employing different modes of regeneration according to type and extent of injury. Mature liver cells are able to proliferate in order to replace the damaged tissue allowing the recovery of the parenchymal function. In more severe scenarios hepatocytes are believed to arise also from a facultative liver progenitor cell compartment. In human, severe acute liver failure and liver cirrhosis are also both important clinical targets in which regeneration is impaired, where the role of this stem cell compartment seems more convincing. In animal models, the current state of ambiguity regarding the identity and role of liver progenitor cells in liver physiology dampens the enthusiasm for the potential use of these cells in regenerative medicine. The aim of this review is to give the basics of liver progenitor cell biology and discuss recent results vis-à-vis their identity and contribution to liver regeneration. PMID:26600740

  10. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 affects endothelial progenitor cell proliferation

    SciT

    Colleselli, Daniela; Bijuklic, Klaudija; Mosheimer, Birgit A.

    2006-09-10

    Growing evidence indicates that inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders and various types of cancer. Endothelial progenitor cells recruited from the bone marrow have been shown to be involved in the formation of new vessels in malignancies and discussed for being a key point in tumour progression and metastasis. However, until now, nothing is known about an interaction between COX and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). Expression of COX-1 and COX-2 was detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Proliferation kinetics, cell cycle distribution and rate of apoptosis were analysed by MTT test and FACS analysis.more » Further analyses revealed an implication of Akt phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Both COX-1 and COX-2 expression can be found in bone-marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells in vitro. COX-2 inhibition leads to a significant reduction in proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells by an increase in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. COX-2 inhibition leads further to an increased cleavage of caspase-3 protein and inversely to inhibition of Akt activation. Highly proliferating endothelial progenitor cells can be targeted by selective COX-2 inhibition in vitro. These results indicate that upcoming therapy strategies in cancer patients targeting COX-2 may be effective in inhibiting tumour vasculogenesis as well as angiogenic processes.« less

  11. NFIX Regulates Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation During Hippocampal Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Yee Hsieh Evelyn; McLeay, Robert C.; Harvey, Tracey J.; Smith, Aaron G.; Barry, Guy; Cato, Kathleen; Plachez, Céline; Little, Erica; Mason, Sharon; Dixon, Chantelle; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Richards, Linda J.; Piper, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells have the ability to give rise to neurons and glia in the embryonic, postnatal and adult brain. During development, the program regulating whether these cells divide and self-renew or exit the cell cycle and differentiate is tightly controlled, and imbalances to the normal trajectory of this process can lead to severe functional consequences. However, our understanding of the molecular regulation of these fundamental events remains limited. Moreover, processes underpinning development of the postnatal neurogenic niches within the cortex remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) is expressed by neural progenitor cells within the embryonic hippocampus, and that progenitor cell differentiation is delayed within Nfix−/− mice. Moreover, we reveal that the morphology of the dentate gyrus in postnatal Nfix−/− mice is abnormal, with fewer subgranular zone neural progenitor cells being generated in the absence of this transcription factor. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the progenitor cell maintenance factor Sry-related HMG box 9 (SOX9) is upregulated in the hippocampus of Nfix−/− mice and demonstrate that NFIX can repress Sox9 promoter-driven transcription. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that NFIX plays a central role in hippocampal morphogenesis, regulating the formation of neuronal and glial populations within this structure. PMID:23042739

  12. Muscle: a source of progenitor cells for bone fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Henrotin, Yves

    2011-12-22

    Bone repair failure is a major complication of open fracture, leading to non-union of broken bone extremities and movement at the fracture site. This results in a serious disability for patients. The role played by the periosteum and bone marrow progenitors in bone repair is now well documented. In contrast, limited information is available on the role played by myogenic progenitor cells in bone repair. In a recent article published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Liu et al. compared the presence of myogenic progenitor (MyoD lineage cells) in closed and open fractures. They showed that myogenic progenitors are present in open, but not closed fractures, suggesting that muscle satellite cells may colonize the fracture site in the absence of intact periosteum. Interestingly, these progenitors sequentially expressed a chondrogenic and, thereafter, an osteoblastic phenotype, suggestive of a functional role in the repair process. This finding opens up new perspectives for the research of orthopedic surgical methods, which could maximize myogenic progenitor access and mobilization to augment bone repair. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/12/288.

  13. Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mikirova, Nina A; Jackson, James A; Hunninghake, Ron; Kenyon, Julian; Chan, Kyle W H; Swindlehurst, Cathy A; Minev, Boris; Patel, Amit N; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Leonard; Ramos, Famela; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H

    2010-04-08

    The medical significance of circulating endothelial or hematopoietic progenitors is becoming increasing recognized. While therapeutic augmentation of circulating progenitor cells using G-CSF has resulted in promising preclinical and early clinical data for several degenerative conditions, this approach is limited by cost and inability to perform chronic administration. Stem-Kine is a food supplement that was previously reported to augment circulating EPC in a pilot study. Here we report a trial in 18 healthy volunteers administered Stem-Kine twice daily for a 2 week period. Significant increases in circulating CD133 and CD34 cells were observed at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 subsequent to initiation of administration, which correlated with increased hematopoietic progenitors as detected by the HALO assay. Augmentation of EPC numbers in circulation was detected by KDR-1/CD34 staining and colony forming assays. These data suggest Stem-Kine supplementation may be useful as a stimulator of reparative processes associated with mobilization of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.

  14. STK-1, the human homolog of Flk-2/Flt-3, is selectively expressed in CD34+ human bone marrow cells and is involved in the proliferation of early progenitor/stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Small, D; Levenstein, M; Kim, E; Carow, C; Amin, S; Rockwell, P; Witte, L; Burrow, C; Ratajczak, M Z; Gewirtz, A M

    1994-01-01

    We cloned the cDNA for stem cell tyrosine kinase 1 (STK-1), the human homolog of murine Flk-2/Flt-3, from a CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell-enriched library and investigated its expression in subsets of normal human bone marrow. The cDNA encodes a protein of 993 aa with 85% identity and 92% similarity to Flk-2/Flt-3. STK-1 is a member of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family that includes KIT (steel factor receptor), FMS (colony-stimulating factor 1R), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. STK-1 expression in human blood and marrow is restricted to CD34+ cells, a population greatly enriched for stem/progenitor cells. Anti-STK-1 antiserum recognizes polypeptides of 160 and 130 kDa in several STK-1-expressing cell lines and in 3T3 cells transfected with a STK-1 expression vector. Antisense oligonucleotides directed against STK-1 sequences inhibited hematopoietic colony formation, most strongly in long-term bone marrow cultures. These data suggest that STK-1 may function as a growth factor receptor on hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7507245

  15. Effect of hyperglycemia on the number of CD117+ progenitor cells and their differentiation toward endothelial progenitor cells in young and old ages.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Elisa; Moresi, Raffaella; Orlando, Fiorenza; Malavolta, Marco; Provinciali, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been reported either in aging or diabetes, though the influence of an "old" environment on numerical and functional changes of diabetes associated EPCs is not known. We evaluated the effect of both aging and early stage of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the number of bone marrow-derived CD117 + progenitor cells, and on their differentiation in vitro toward EPCs. The phenotype of progenitor cells and the uptake of acetylated-low density lipoprotein (Ac-LDL) were evaluated after cell culture in VEGF, FGF-1, and IGF-1 supplemented medium. Hyperglycemia similarly reduced the number of CD117 + cells both in young and old mice. CD117 + cells from young mice differentiated better than those from old animals "in vitro", with a greater reduction of CD117 + cells and an higher increase of CD184 + VEGFR-2 + cells. In diabetic mice, in vitro CD117 + cells differentiation was significantly reduced in young animals. Diabetes did not impact on the scarce differentiation of CD117 + cells from old mice. Hyperglycemia reduced the uptake of acLDL by EPCs greatly in young than in old mice. These findings indicate that part of the EPCs functional alterations induced by hyperglicemia in young mice are observed in normal aged mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conversion of immortal liver progenitor cells into pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells by persistent expression of Pdx-1.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cai-Xia; Li, Wen-Lin; Xu, Fang; Geng, Zhen H; He, Zhi-Ying; Su, Juan; Tao, Xin-Rong; Ding, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yi-Ping

    2008-05-01

    The conversion of expandable liver progenitor cells into pancreatic beta cells would provide a renewable cell source for diabetes cell therapy. Previously, we reported the establishment of liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs). In this work, LEPCs were modified into EGFP/Pdx-1 LEPCs, cells with stable expression of both Pdx-1 and EGFP. Unlike previous work, with persistent expression of Pdx-1, EGFP/Pdx-1 LEPCs acquired the phenotype of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells rather than giving rise to insulin-producing cells directly. EGFP/Pdx-1 LEPCs proliferated vigorously and expressed the crucial transcription factors involved in beta cell development, including Ngn3, NeuroD, Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Pax4, Pax6, Isl1, MafA and endogenous Pdx-1, but did not secrete insulin. When cultured in high glucose/low serum medium supplemented with cytokines, EGFP/Pdx-1 LEPCs stopped proliferating and gave rise to functional beta cells without any evidence of exocrine or other islet cell lineage differentiation. When transplanted into diabetic SCID mice, EGFP/Pdx-1 LEPCs ameliorated hyperglycemia by secreting insulin in a glucose regulated manner. Considering the limited availability of beta cells, we propose that our experiments will provide a framework for utilizing the immortal liver progenitor cells as a renewable cell source for the generation of functional pancreatic beta cells.

  17. Apoptosis and proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the irradiated rodent spinal cord

    SciT

    Atkinson, Shelley L.; Li Yuqing; Wong, C. Shun

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Oligodendrocytes undergo early apoptosis after irradiation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between oligodendroglial apoptosis and proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) in the irradiated central nervous system. Methods and Materials: Adult rats and p53 transgenic mice were given single doses of 2 Gy, 8 Gy, or 22 Gy to the cervical spinal cord. Apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL (Tdt-mediated dUTP terminal nick-end labeling) staining or by examining nuclear morphology. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were identified with an NG2 antibody or by in situ hybridization for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. Proliferation of OPC was assessedmore » by in vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and subsequent immunohistochemistry. Because radiation-induced apoptosis of oligodendroglial cells is p53 dependent, p53 transgenic mice were used to study the relationship between apoptosis and cell proliferation. Results: Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells underwent apoptosis within 24 h of irradiation in the rat. That did not result in a change in OPC density at 24 h. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell density was significantly reduced by 2-4 weeks, but showed recovery by 6 weeks after irradiation. An increase in BrdU-labeled cells was observed at 2 weeks after 8 Gy or 22 Gy, and proliferating cells in the rat spinal cord were immunoreactive for NG2. The mouse spinal cord showed a similar early cell proliferation after irradiation. No difference was observed in the proliferation response in the spinal cord of p53 -/- mice compared with wild type animals. Conclusions: Oligodendroglial cells undergo early apoptosis and OPC undergo early proliferation after ionizing radiation. However, apoptosis is not likely to be the trigger for early proliferation of OPC in the irradiated central nervous system.« less

  18. An insulin signaling feedback loop regulates pancreas progenitor cell differentiation during islet development and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lihua; Robertson, Morgan A.; Mastracci, Teresa L.; Anderson, Ryan M.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the key nutrient sensors, insulin signaling plays an important role in integrating environmental energy cues with organism growth. In adult organisms, relative insufficiency of insulin signaling induces compensatory expansion of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta (β) cells. However, little is known about how insulin signaling feedback might influence neogenesis of β cells during embryonic development. Using genetic approaches and a unique cell transplantation system in developing zebrafish, we have uncovered a novel role for insulin signaling in the negative regulation of pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation. Blocking insulin signaling in the pancreatic progenitors hastened the expression of the essential β cell genes insulin and pdx1, and promoted β cell fate at the expense of alpha cell fate. In addition, loss of insulin signaling promoted β cell regeneration and destabilization of alpha cell character. These data indicate that insulin signaling constitutes a tunable mechanism for β cell compensatory plasticity during early development. Moreover, using a novel blastomere-to-larva transplantation strategy, we found that loss of insulin signaling in endoderm-committed blastomeres drove their differentiation into β cells. Furthermore, the extent of this differentiation was dependent on the function of the β cell mass in the host. Altogether, our results indicate that modulation of insulin signaling will be crucial for the development of β cell restoration therapies for diabetics; further clarification of the mechanisms of insulin signaling in β cell progenitors will reveal therapeutic targets for both in vivo and in vitro β cell generation. PMID:26658317

  19. Progenitor cell domains in the developing and adult pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Janel L; Dubois, Claire L; Hao, Ergeng; Thorel, Fabrizio; Herrera, Pedro L

    2011-01-01

    Unlike organs with defined stem cell compartments, such as the intestine, the pancreas has limited capacity to regenerate. The question of whether the adult pancreas harbors facultative stem/progenitor cells has been a prime subject of debate. Cumulative evidence from recent genetic lineage tracing studies, in which specific cell populations were marked and traced in adult mice, suggests that endocrine and acinar cells are no longer generated from progenitors in the adult pancreas. These studies further indicate that adult pancreatic ductal cells are not a source for endocrine cells following pancreatic injury, as previously suggested. Our own studies have shown that adult ductal cells reinitiate expression of some endocrine progenitor markers, including Ngn3, after injury by partial duct ligation (PDL), but that these cells do not undergo endocrine cell differentiation. Here, we present additional evidence that endocrine cells do not arise from ducts following β-cell ablation by streptozotocin or by a diphtheria toxin-expressing transgene or when β-cell ablation is combined with PDL. In this review, we discuss findings from recent lineage tracing studies of embryonic and adult pancreatic ductal cells. Based upon the combined evidence from these studies, we propose that multipotency is associated with a specific transcriptional signature. PMID:21558806

  20. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  1. [Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls].

    PubMed

    Korta, Krzysztof; Kupczyk, Piotr; Skóra, Jan; Pupka, Artur; Zejler, Paweł; Hołysz, Marcin; Gajda, Mariusz; Nowakowska, Beata; Barć, Piotr; Dorobisz, Andrzej T; Dawiskiba, Tomasz; Szyber, Piotr; Bar, Julia

    2013-09-18

    Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, "anchored" in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC). Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as "subendothelial or vasculogenic zones". Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  2. Sun Ginseng Protects Endothelial Progenitor Cells From Senescence Associated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Wooseok; Chung, Jin-Young; Bhan, Jaejun; Lim, Jiyeon; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Kim, Manho

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are a population of cells that circulate in the blood stream. They play a role in angiogenesis and, therefore, can be prognostic markers of vascular repair. Ginsenoside Rg3 prevents endothelial cell apoptosis through the inhibition of the mitochondrial caspase pathway. It also affects estrogen activity, which reduces EPC senescence. Sun ginseng (SG), which is heat-processed ginseng, has a high content of ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of SG on senescence-associated apoptosis in EPCs. In order to isolate EPCs, mononuclear cells of human blood buffy coats were cultured and characterized by their uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (acLDL) and their binding of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (ulex-lectin). Flow cytometry with annexin-V staining was performed in order to assess early and late apoptosis. Senescence was determined by β-galactosidase (β-gal) staining. Staining with 4′-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole verified that most adherent cells (93±2.7%) were acLDL-positive and ulex-lectin-positive. The percentage of β-gal-positive EPCs was decreased from 93.8±2.0% to 62.5±3.6% by SG treatment. A fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis showed that 4.9% of EPCs were late apoptotic in controls. Sun ginseng decreased the apoptotic cell population by 39% in the late stage of apoptosis from control baseline levels. In conclusion, these results show antisenescent and antiapoptotic effects of SG in human-derived EPCs, indicating that SG can enhance EPC-mediated repair mechanisms. PMID:23717107

  3. Analyses of cell surface molecules on hepatic stem/progenitor cells in mouse fetal liver.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Sei; Ohta, Haruhiko; Kamiya, Akihide; Yamazaki, Yuji; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Okada, Ken; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2009-07-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells possess active proliferative ability and the capacity for differentiation into hepatic and cholangiocytic lineages. Our group and others have shown that a prospectively defined population in mid-gestational fetal liver contains hepatic stem/progenitor cells. However, the phenotypes of such cells are incompletely elucidated. We analyzed the profile of cell-surface molecules on primary hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Expression of cell surface molecules on primary hepatic stem/progenitor cells in mouse mid-gestational fetal liver was analyzed using flow cytometric multicolor analyses and colony-formation assays. The potential of the cells for liver repopulation was examined by transplantation assay. We found that CD13 (aminopeptidase N) was detected on the cells of the previously reported (Dlk/Pref-1(+)) hepatic stem/progenitor fraction. Colony-formation assays revealed that the CD13(+) fraction, compared with the Dlk(+) fraction, of non-hematopoietic cells in fetal liver was enriched in hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Transplantation assay showed the former fraction exhibited repopulating potential in regenerating liver. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis for over 90 antigens demonstrated enrichment of hepatic stem/progenitor cells using several positive selection markers, including (hitherto unknown) CD13, CD73, CD106, and CD133. Our data indicated that CD13 is a positive selection marker for hepatic stem/progenitor cells in mid-gestational fetal liver.

  4. FGF/EGF signaling regulates the renewal of early nephron progenitors during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Aaron C; Adams, Derek; de Caestecker, Mark; Yang, Xuehui; Friesel, Robert; Oxburgh, Leif

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that nephron progenitor cells of the embryonic kidney are arranged in a series of compartments of an increasing state of differentiation. The earliest progenitor compartment, distinguished by expression of CITED1, possesses greater capacity for renewal and differentiation than later compartments. Signaling events governing progression of nephron progenitor cells through stages of increasing differentiation are poorly understood, and their elucidation will provide key insights into normal and dysregulated nephrogenesis, as well as into regenerative processes that follow kidney injury. In this study, we found that the mouse CITED1(+) progenitor compartment is maintained in response to receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) ligands that activate both FGF and EGF receptors. This RTK signaling function is dependent on RAS and PI3K signaling but not ERK. In vivo, RAS inactivation by expression of sprouty 1 (Spry1) in CITED1(+) nephron progenitors results in loss of characteristic molecular marker expression and in increased death of progenitor cells. Lineage tracing shows that surviving Spry1-expressing progenitor cells are impaired in their subsequent epithelial differentiation, infrequently contributing to epithelial structures. These findings demonstrate that the survival and developmental potential of cells in the earliest embryonic nephron progenitor cell compartment are dependent on FGF/EGF signaling through RAS.

  5. Development of the expressed Ig CDR-H3 repertoire is marked by focusing of constraints in length, amino acid use, and charge that are first established in early B cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Schelonka, Robert L; Zhuang, Yingxin; Gartland, G Larry; Zemlin, Michael; Schroeder, Harry W

    2005-06-15

    To gain insight into the mechanisms that regulate the development of the H chain CDR3 (CDR-H3), we used the scheme of Hardy to sort mouse bone marrow B lineage cells into progenitor, immature, and mature B cell fractions, and then performed sequence analysis on V(H)7183-containing Cmu transcripts. The essential architecture of the CDR-H3 repertoire observed in the mature B cell fraction F was already established in the early pre-B cell fraction C. These architectural features include V(H) gene segment use preference, D(H) family usage, J(H) rank order, predicted structures of the CDR-H3 base and loop, and the amino acid composition and average hydrophobicity of the CDR-H3 loop. With development, the repertoire was focused by eliminating outliers to what appears to be a preferred repertoire in terms of length, amino acid composition, and average hydrophobicity. Unlike humans, the average length of CDR-H3 increased during development. The majority of this increase came from enhanced preservation of J(H) sequence. This was associated with an increase in the prevalence of tyrosine. With an accompanying increase in glycine, a shift in hydrophobicity was observed in the CDR-H3 loop from near neutral in fraction C (-0.08 +/- 0.03) to mild hydrophilic in fraction F (-0.17 +/- 0.02). Fundamental constraints on the sequence and structure of CDR-H3 are thus established before surface IgM expression.

  6. Creatine supports propagation and promotes neuronal differentiation of inner ear progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Di Santo, Stefano; Mina, Amir; Ducray, Angélique; Widmer, Hans R; Senn, Pascal

    2014-05-07

    Long-term propagation of inner ear-derived progenitor/stem cells beyond the third generation and differentiation into inner ear cell types has been shown to be feasible, but challenging. We investigated whether the known neuroprotective guanidine compound creatine (Cr) promotes propagation of inner ear progenitor/stem cells as mitogen-expanded neurosphere cultures judged from the formation of spheres over passages. In addition, we studied whether Cr alone or in combination with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes neuronal differentiation of inner ear progenitors. For this purpose, early postnatal rat spiral ganglia, utricle, and organ of Corti-derived progenitors were grown as floating spheres in the absence (controls) or presence of Cr (5 mM) from passage 3 onward. Similarly, dissociated sphere-derived cultures were differentiated for 14 days in the presence or absence of Cr (5 mM) and spiral ganglia sphere-derived cultures in a combination of Cr with the neurotrophin BDNF (50 ng/ml). We found that the cumulative total number of spheres over all passages was significantly higher after Cr supplementation as compared with controls in all the three inner ear cultures. In contrast, sphere sizes were not affected by the administration of Cr. Administration of Cr during differentiation of spiral ganglia cells resulted in a significantly higher density of β-III-tubulin-positive cells compared with controls, whereas densities of myosin VIIa-positive cells in cultures of utricle and organ of Corti were not affected by the treatment. Importantly, a combination of Cr with the neurotrophin BDNF resulted in further significantly increased densities of β-III-tubulin-positive cells in cultures of spiral ganglia cells as compared with single treatments. In sum, Cr promoted continuing propagation of rat inner ear-derived progenitor cells and supported specifically in combination with BDNF the differentiation of neuronal cell types from spiral ganglion

  7. Nucleostemin Rejuvenates Cardiac Progenitor Cells and Antagonizes Myocardial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Quijada, Pearl; Mohsin, Sadia; Joyo, Anya; Samse, Kaitlen; Monsanto, Megan; De La Torre, Andrea; Avitabile, Daniele; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael J.; Tsai, Emily J; Sussman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Functional decline in stem cell-mediated regeneration contributes to aging associated with cellular senescence in c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Clinical implementation of CPC-based therapy with elderly patients would benefit tremendously from understanding molecular characteristics of senescence to antagonize aging. Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein regulating stem cell proliferation and pluripotency. OBJECTIVES The goal is to demonstrate that NS preserves characteristics associated with “stemness” in CPCs and antagonizes myocardial senescence and aging. METHODS CPCs isolated from human fetal (FhCPC) and adult failing (AhCPC) hearts, as well as young (YCPC) and old mice (OCPC), were studied for senescence characteristics and NS expression. Heterozygous knockout mice with one functional allele of NS (NS+/−) were used to demonstrate that NS preserves myocardial structure and function and slows characteristics of aging. RESULTS NS expression is decreased in AhCPCs relative to FhCPC, correlating with lowered proliferation potential and shortened telomere length. AhCPC characteristics resemble OCPCs, which have a phenotype induced by NS silencing, resulting in cell flattening, senescence, multinucleated cells, decreased S phase progression, diminished expression of stemness markers and up-regulation of p53 and p16. CPC senescence resulting from NS loss is partially p53 dependent and is rescued by concurrent silencing of p53. Mechanistically, NS induction correlates with Pim-1 kinase-mediated stabilization of c-Myc. Engineering OCPCs and AhCPCs to overexpress NS decreases senescent and multinucleated cells, restores morphology, and antagonizes senescence, thereby preserving phenotypic properties of “stemness.” Early cardiac aging with decline in cardiac function, increase in senescence markers p53 and p16, telomere attrition, and accompanied CPC exhaustion is evident in NS+/− mice. CONCLUSIONS Youthful properties and antagonism of

  8. Elevated endothelial progenitor cells during painful sickle cell crisis.

    PubMed

    van Beem, Rachel T; Nur, Erfan; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Landburg, Precious P; van Beers, Eduard J; Duits, Ashley J; Brandjes, Dees P; Lommerse, Ingrid; de Boer, Hetty C; van der Schoot, C Ellen; Schnog, John-John B; Biemond, Bart J

    2009-09-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) counts were determined in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) to elucidate their role in SCD-related ischemia-induced angiogenesis and reendothelialization. Circulating EPC counts (KDR(+)/CD34(+)/Cd45(dim) cells) and their relation to serum levels of EPC mobilizing growth factors erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-8 were investigated in SCD patients during asymptomatic state (n=66) and painful crisis (n=36) and compared to healthy controls (n=13). EPC counts were comparable between controls (0; range, 0-1.1 cells/mL) and patients (0; range, 0-0 cells/mL) in asymptomatic state, but were significantly higher during painful crisis (41.7; range, 0-186 cells/mL; p<0.05). Also in a paired analysis of 12 patients who were included both during asymptomatic state and painful crisis, EPC counts increased significantly during painful crisis (from 0 [range, 0-0] to 26 [range, 0-149 cell/mL; p<0.05). EPC counts were not related to any of the measured growth factors. The higher EPC counts during painful crisis might indicate a role for EPC mobilization in reendothelialization. As a relationship of EPCs with the established mobilizing growth factors, measured in this study was not observed, the mechanism of EPC mobilization in SCD remains to be elucidated.

  9. PRMT5 is essential for the maintenance of chondrogenic progenitor cells in the limb bud

    PubMed Central

    Norrie, Jacqueline L.; Li, Qiang; Co, Swanie; Huang, Bau-Lin; Ding, Ding; Uy, Jann C.; Ji, Zhicheng; Mackem, Susan; Bedford, Mark T.; Galli, Antonella; Ji, Hongkai

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, undifferentiated progenitor cells balance the generation of additional progenitor cells with differentiation. Within the developing limb, cartilage cells differentiate from mesodermal progenitors in an ordered process that results in the specification of the correct number of appropriately sized skeletal elements. The internal pathways by which these cells maintain an undifferentiated state while preserving their capacity to differentiate is unknown. Here, we report that the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 has a crucial role in maintaining progenitor cells. Mouse embryonic buds lacking PRMT5 have severely truncated bones with wispy digits lacking joints. This novel phenotype is caused by widespread cell death that includes mesodermal progenitor cells that have begun to precociously differentiate into cartilage cells. We propose that PRMT5 maintains progenitor cells through its regulation of Bmp4. Intriguingly, adult and embryonic stem cells also require PRMT5 for maintaining pluripotency, suggesting that similar mechanisms might regulate lineage-restricted progenitor cells during organogenesis. PMID:27827819

  10. Cotransplantation of ex vivo expanded progenitors with nonexpanded cord blood cells improves platelet recovery.

    PubMed

    Émond, Hélène; Boyer, Lucie; Roy, Denis-Claude; Pineault, Nicolas

    2012-11-20

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is associated with prolonged periods of cytopenia. Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is currently investigated as a mean to accelerate hematological recovery. Contrary to neutrophils, platelet recovery remains problematic. For this reason, we have developed a culture protocol promoting the expansion of megakaryocyte (Mk) progenitors. The objective of this work was to determine whether the expanded (E) UCB HSPCs could accelerate platelet recovery in vivo using a murine HSPC transplantation model. The thrombopoietic activity of UCB and mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) cells expanded under mild hyperthermia (MH, ie, 39°C) with the optimized megakaryocyte progenitor cocktail (OMPC) diverged significantly from the nonexpanded (NE) cells of origin; E cells provided rapid platelet release, while NE cells strongly contributed to platelet production past 10 days of transplantation. Consequently, the complementary of both cell sources was investigated. Cotransplantation of NE with E UCB cells significantly improved the recovery of human platelets (hPLTs) in vivo due to their complementary and synergistic thrombopoietic activities. Moreover, short-term human bone marrow (BM) reconstitution was also improved. Finally, we show that early hPLT release is dependent on Mk-primed cells and that E cells do not act as accessory cells, but have a more active role. In conclusion, hPLT recovery and short-term BM engraftment can be efficiently improved by the cotransplantation of Mk-primed UCB cells with NE HSPCs in a murine transplantation model.

  11. Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Shuttle of Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Laurenzana, Anna; Margheri, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Biagioni, Alessio; Margheri, Giancarlo; Calorini, Lido; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Cell therapies are treatments in which stem or progenitor cells are stimulated to differentiate into specialized cells able to home to and repair damaged tissues. After their discovery, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) stimulated worldwide interest as possible vehicles to perform autologous cell therapy of tumors. Taking into account the tumor-homing properties of EPCs, two different approaches to control cancer progression have been pursued by combining cell-based therapy with gene therapy or with nanomedicine. The first approach is based on the possibility of engineering EPCs to express different transgenes, and the second is based on the capacity of EPCs to take up nanomaterials. Here we review the most important progress covering the following issues: the characterization of bona fide endothelial progenitor cells, their role in tumor vascularization and metastasis, and preclinical data about their use in cell-based tumor therapy, considering antiangiogenic, suicide, immune-stimulating, and oncolytic virus gene therapy. The mixed approach of EPC cell therapy and nanomedicine is discussed in terms of plasmonic-dependent thermoablation and molecular imaging.

  12. Centroacinar Cells Are Progenitors That Contribute to Endocrine Pancreas Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Delaspre, Fabien; Beer, Rebecca L.; Rovira, Meritxell; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guangliang; Gee, Stephen; Vitery, Maria del Carmen; Wheelan, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with a paucity of insulin-producing β-cells. With the goal of finding therapeutic routes to treat diabetes, we aim to find molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in β-cell neogenesis and regeneration. To facilitate discovery of such mechanisms, we use a vertebrate organism where pancreatic cells readily regenerate. The larval zebrafish pancreas contains Notch-responsive progenitors that during development give rise to adult ductal, endocrine, and centroacinar cells (CACs). Adult CACs are also Notch responsive and are morphologically similar to their larval predecessors. To test our hypothesis that adult CACs are also progenitors, we took two complementary approaches: 1) We established the transcriptome for adult CACs. Using gene ontology, transgenic lines, and in situ hybridization, we found that the CAC transcriptome is enriched for progenitor markers. 2) Using lineage tracing, we demonstrated that CACs do form new endocrine cells after β-cell ablation or partial pancreatectomy. We concluded that CACs and their larval predecessors are the same cell type and represent an opportune model to study both β-cell neogenesis and β-cell regeneration. Furthermore, we show that in cftr loss-of-function mutants, there is a deficiency of larval CACs, providing a possible explanation for pancreatic complications associated with cystic fibrosis. PMID:26153247

  13. Recruitment of host's progenitor cells to sites of human amniotic fluid stem cells implantation.

    PubMed

    Mirabella, Teodelinda; Poggi, Alessandro; Scaranari, Monica; Mogni, Massimo; Lituania, Mario; Baldo, Chiara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara

    2011-06-01

    The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with a therapeutic potential for human diseases. Cultured at low cell density, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) were still able to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) after 60 doublings, thus confirming their staminal nature. Moreover, after extensive in vitro cell expansion hAFSCs maintained a stable karyotype. The expression of genes, such as SSEA-4, SOX2 and OCT3/4 was confirmed at early and later culture stage. Also, hAFSCs showed bright expression of mesenchymal lineage markers and immunoregulatory properties. hAFSCs, seeded onto hydroxyapatite scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted in nude mice, played a pivotal role in mounting a response resulting in the recruitment of host's progenitor cells forming tissues of mesodermal origin such as fat, muscle, fibrous tissue and immature bone. Implanted hAFSCs migrated from the scaffold to the skin overlying implant site but not to other organs. Given their in vivo: (i) recruitment of host progenitor cells, (ii) homing towards injured sites and (iii) multipotentiality in tissue repair, hAFSCs are a very appealing reserve of stem cells potentially useful for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Roles of CDX2 and EOMES in human induced trophoblast progenitor cells

    SciT

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu; Wang, Kai; Gong, Yun Guo

    Highlights: ► CDX2 and EOMES play critical roles in human induced trophoblast progenitors (iTP). ► iTP cells directly transformed from fibroblasts. ► Differentiation of iTP cells into extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. -- Abstract: Abnormal trophoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation in early pregnancy have been associated with the pathogenesis of placenta diseases of pregnancy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the molecular mechanisms of early placental development due to the limited primary trophoblast cultures and fidelity of immortalized trophoblast lines. Trophoblasts stem (TS) cells, an in vitro model of trophectoderm that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, canmore » be an attractive tool for early pregnancy research. TS cells are well established in mouse but not in humans due to insufficient knowledge of which trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors are involved in human trophectoderm (TE) proliferation and differentiation. Here, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell technique to investigate the human trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors. We established human induced trophoblast progenitor (iTP) cells by direct reprogramming the fibroblasts with a pool of mouse trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors consisting of CDX2, EOMES, and ELF5. The human iTP cells exhibit epithelial morphology and can be maintained in vitro for more than 2 months. Gene expression profile of these cells was tightly clustered with human trophectoderm but not with human neuron progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or endoderm cells. These cells are capable of differentiating into cells with an invasive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts. They also form multi-nucleated cells which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol, consistent with a syncytiotrophoblast phenotype. Our results provide the evidence that transcription factors CDX2

  15. Characteristics of hepatic stem/progenitor cells in the fetal and adult liver.

    PubMed

    Koike, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2012-11-01

    The liver is an essential organ that maintains vital activity through its numerous important functions. It has a unique capability of fully regenerating after injury. Regulating a balance between self-renewal and differentiation of hepatic stem cells that are resources for functional mature liver cells is required for maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This review describes the characteristics of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and the regulatory mechanism of their self-renewal and differentiation capacity. In liver organogenesis, undifferentiated hepatic stem/progenitor cells expand their pool by repeated self-renewal in the early stage of liver development and then differentiate into two different types of cell lineage, namely hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Liver development is regulated by expression of stem cell transcription factors in a complex multistep process. Recent studies suggest that stem cells are maintained by integrative regulation of gene expression patterns related to self-renewal and differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modification and DNA methylation. Analysis of the proper regulatory mechanism of hepatic stem/progenitor cells is important for regenerative medicine that utilizes hepatic stem cells and for preventing liver cancer through clarification of the carcinogenetic mechanism involved in stem cell system failure.

  16. Effects of topography on the functional development of human neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-Zhi; Kisaalita, William S; Wang, Lina; Zachman, Angela L; Zhao, Yiping; Hasneen, Kowser; Machacek, Dave; Stice, Steven L

    2010-07-01

    We have fabricated a topographical substrate with a packed polystyrene bead array for the development of cell-based assay systems targeting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Human neural progenitor cells (H945RB.3) cultured on both flat and topographical substrates were analyzed in terms of morphological spreading, neuronal commitment, resting membrane potential (V(m)) establishment and VGCC function development. We found, by SEM imaging, that arrayed substrates, formed with both sub-micrometer (of 0.51 microm in mean diameter) and micrometer (of 1.98 microm in mean diameter) beads, were capable of promoting the spreading of the progenitor cells as compared with the flat polystyrene surfaces. With the micrometer beads, it was found that arrayed substrates facilitated the neural progenitor cells' maintenance of less negative V(m) values upon differentiation with bFGF starvation, which favored predominant neuronal commitment. Almost all the progenitor cells were responsive to 50 mM K(+) depolarization with an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) either before or upon differentiation, suggesting the expression of functional VGCCs. Compared to the flat polystyrene surfaces, microbead arrayed substrates facilitated the development of higher VGCC responsiveness by the progenitor cells upon differentiation. The enhancement of both VGCC responsiveness and cell spreading by arrays of micrometer beads was most significant on day 14 into differentiation, which was the latest time point of measurement in this study. This study thus rationalized the possibility for future substrate topography engineering to manipulate ion channel function and to meet the challenge of low VGCC responsiveness found in early drug discovery.

  17. Functional interleukin-33 receptors are expressed in early progenitor stages of allergy-related granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Hirofumi; Arinobu, Yojiro; Miyawaki, Kohta; Takaki, Ayako; Ota, Shun-Ichiro; Ota, Yuri; Mitoma, Hiroki; Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Mori, Yasuo; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Niiro, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) induces T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine production and eosinophilia independently of acquired immunity, leading to innate immunity-mediated allergic inflammation. Allergy-related innate myeloid cells such as eosinophils, basophils and mast cells express the IL-33 receptor (IL-33R), but it is still unknown how IL-33 regulates allergic inflammation involving these cells and their progenitors. Here, we revealed that the functional IL-33R was expressed on eosinophil progenitors (EoPs), basophil progenitors (BaPs) and mast cell progenitors (MCPs). In the presence of IL-33, these progenitors did not expand, but produced a high amount of Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-9, IL-13, IL-1β and IL-6. The amount of cytokines produced by these progenitors was greater than that by mature cells. In vivo, IL-33 stimulated the expansion of EoPs, but it was dependent upon the elevated serum IL-5 that is presumably derived from type 2 innate lymphoid cells that express functional IL-33R. These data collectively suggest that EoPs, BaPs and MCPs are not only the sources of allergy-related granulocytes, but can also be sources of allergy-related cytokines in IL-33-induced inflammation. Because such progenitors can differentiate into mature granulocytes at the site of inflammation, they are potential therapeutic targets in IL-33-related allergic diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Selection of Phage Display Peptides Targeting Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Progenitor Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Bignone, Paola A; Krupa, Rachel A; West, Michael D; Larocca, David

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPS) to both self-renew and differentiate into virtually any cell type makes them a promising source of cells for cell-based regenerative therapies. However, stem cell identity, purity, and scalability remain formidable challenges that need to be overcome for translation of pluripotent stem cell research into clinical applications. Directed differentiation from hPS cells is inefficient and residual contamination with pluripotent cells that have the potential to form tumors remains problematic. The derivation of scalable (self-renewing) embryonic progenitor stem cell lines offers a solution because they are well defined and clonally pure. Clonally pure progenitor stem cell lines also provide a means for identifying cell surface targeting reagents that are useful for identification, tracking, and repeated derivation of the corresponding progenitor stem cell types from additional hPS cell sources. Such stem cell targeting reagents can then be applied to the manufacture of genetically diverse banks of human embryonic progenitor cell lines for drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy. Here we present methods to identify human embryonic progenitor stem cell targeting peptides by selection of phage display libraries on clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines and demonstrate their use for targeting quantum dots (Qdots) for stem cell labeling.

  19. CD44-mediated hyaluronan binding marks proliferating hematopoietic progenitor cells and promotes bone marrow engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Sayer, Sally S. M.; Dougan, Meghan N.; Cooper, Jesse; Sanderson, Leslie; Dosanjh, Manisha; Maxwell, Christopher A.

    2018-01-01

    CD44 is a widely expressed cell adhesion molecule that binds to the extracellular matrix component, hyaluronan. However, this interaction is not constitutive in most immune cells at steady state, as the ability of CD44 to engage hyaluronan is highly regulated. While activated T cells and macrophages gain the ability to bind hyaluronan by CD44, the status in other immune cells is less studied. Here we found a percentage of murine eosinophils, natural killer and natural killer T cells were capable of interacting with hyaluronan at steady state. To further investigate the consequences of hyaluronan binding by CD44 in the hematopoietic system, point mutations of CD44 that either cannot bind hyaluronan (LOF-CD44) or have an increased affinity for hyaluronan (GOF-CD44) were expressed in CD44-deficient bone marrow. Competitive bone marrow reconstitution of irradiated mice revealed an early preference for GOF-CD44 over WT-CD44 expressing cells, and for WT-CD44 over LOF-CD44 expressing cells, in the hematopoietic progenitor cell compartment. The advantage of the hyaluronan-binding cells was observed in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor populations, and was maintained throughout the immune system. Hematopoietic stem cells bound minimal hyaluronan at steady state, and this was increased when the cells were induced to proliferate whereas multipotent progenitors had an increased ability to bind hyaluronan at steady state. In vitro, the addition of hyaluronan promoted their proliferation. Thus, proliferating hematopoietic progenitors bind hyaluronan, and hyaluronan binding cells have a striking competitive advantage in bone marrow engraftment. PMID:29684048

  20. Multipotent progenitor cells are present in human peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Rigo, Silvia; Bergamin, Natascha; D'Aurizio, Federica; Verardo, Roberto; Piazza, Silvano; Klaric, Enio; Fanin, Renato; Toffoletto, Barbara; Marzinotto, Stefania; Mariuzzi, Laura; Finato, Nicoletta; Pandolfi, Maura; Leri, Annarosa; Schneider, Claudio; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Anversa, Piero

    2009-05-22

    To determine whether the peripheral blood in humans contains a population of multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs), products of leukapheresis were obtained from healthy donor volunteers following the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Small clusters of adherent proliferating cells were collected, and these cells continued to divide up to 40 population doublings without reaching replicative senescence and growth arrest. MPCs were positive for the transcription factors Nanog, Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 and expressed several antigens characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells. However, they were negative for markers of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and bone marrow cell lineages. MPCs had a cloning efficiency of approximately 3%, and following their expansion, retained a highly immature phenotype. Under permissive culture conditions, MPCs differentiated into neurons, glial cells, hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and osteoblasts. Moreover, the gene expression profile of MPCs partially overlapped with that of neural and embryonic stem cells, further demonstrating their primitive, uncommitted phenotype. Following subcutaneous transplantation in nonimmunosuppressed mice, MPCs migrated to distant organs and integrated structurally and functionally within the new tissue, acquiring the identity of resident parenchymal cells. In conclusion, undifferentiated cells with properties of embryonic stem cells can be isolated and expanded from human peripheral blood after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration. This cell pool may constitute a unique source of autologous cells with critical clinical import.

  1. Collection and use of circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Klein, H G

    1995-02-01

    Although lymphocytes and monocytes are becoming increasingly important in transfusion therapy, peripheral stem cells have been responsible for the recent explosive interest in harvesting mononuclear cells from the peripheral circulation. Despite their low concentration in peripheral blood and the consequent difficulty in cell collection, circulating hematopoietic progenitor cells are collected and used almost routinely. These mononuclear cells, possessing the capacity for hematopoietic reconstitution and the potential for definitive therapy of a variety of disorders, have been the focus of recent intense interest in transfusion medicine.

  2. Progenitor cell dose determines the pace and completeness of engraftment in a xenograft model for cord blood transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Congxiao; Chen, Benny J.; DeOliveira, Divinomar; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Chao, Nelson J.

    2010-01-01

    Two critical concerns in clinical cord blood transplantation are the initial time to engraftment and the subsequent restoration of immune function. These studies measured the impact of progenitor cell dose on both the pace and strength of hematopoietic reconstitution by transplanting nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency/interleukin-2 receptor-gamma–null (NSγ) mice with lineage-depleted aldehyde dehydrogenase-bright CD34+ human cord blood progenitors. The progress of each transplant was monitored over an extended time course by repeatedly analyzing the peripheral blood for human hematopoietic cells. In vivo human hematopoietic development was complete. After long-term transplantation assays (≥ 19 weeks), human T-cell development was documented within multiple tissues in 16 of 32 NSγ mice. Human T-cell differentiation was active within NSγ thymuses, as documented by the presence of CD4+ CD8+ T-cell progenitors as well as T-cell receptor excision circles. It is important to note that although myeloid and B-cell engraftment was detected as early as 4 weeks after transplantation, human T-cell development was exclusively late onset. High progenitor cell doses were associated with a robust human hematopoietic chimerism that accelerated both initial time to engraftment and subsequent T-cell development. At lower progenitor cell doses, the chimerism was weak and the human hematopoietic lineage development was frequently incomplete. PMID:20833978

  3. Evaluating the progenitor cells of ovarian cancer: analysis of current animal models.

    PubMed

    King, Shelby M; Burdette, Joanna E

    2011-07-01

    Serous ovarian cancer is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies. Progress on effective diagnostics and therapeutics for this disease are hampered by ambiguity as to the cellular origins of this histotype of ovarian cancer, as well as limited suitable animal models to analyze early stages of disease. In this report, we will review current animal models with respect to the two proposed progenitor cells for serous ovarian cancer, the ovarian surface epithelium and the fallopian tube epithelium.

  4. Robust generation and expansion of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Michael; Kocharyan, Avetik; Liu, Jun; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a developmental model to study early embryonic and tissue development, tease apart human disease processes, perform drug screens to identify potential molecular effectors of in situ regeneration, and provide a source for cell and tissue based transplantation. Highly efficient differentiation protocols have been established for many cell types and tissues; however, until very recently robust differentiation into skeletal muscle cells had not been possible unless driven by transgenic expression of master regulators of myogenesis. Nevertheless, several breakthrough protocols have been published in the past two years that efficiently generate cells of the skeletal muscle lineage from pluripotent stem cells. Here, we present an updated version of our recently described 50-day protocol in detail, whereby chemically defined media are used to drive and support muscle lineage development from initial CHIR99021-induced mesoderm through to PAX7-expressing skeletal muscle progenitors and mature skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, we report an optional method to passage and expand differentiating skeletal muscle progenitors approximately 3-fold every 2weeks using Collagenase IV and continued FGF2 supplementation. Both protocols have been optimized using a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our differentiation and expansion protocols provide sufficient quantities of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes that could be used for a variety of studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pancreatic β-cell regeneration: Facultative or dedicated progenitors?

    PubMed

    Afelik, Solomon; Rovira, Meritxell

    2017-04-15

    The adult pancreas is only capable of limited regeneration. Unlike highly regenerative tissues such as the skin, intestinal crypts and hematopoietic system, no dedicated adult stem cells or stem cell niche have so far been identified within the adult pancreas. New β cells have been shown to form in the adult pancreas, in response to high physiological demand or experimental β-cell ablation, mostly by replication of existing β cells. The possibility that new β cells are formed from other sources is currently a point of major controversy. Under particular injury conditions, fully differentiated pancreatic duct and acinar cells have been shown to dedifferentiate into a progenitor-like state, however the extent, to which ductal, acinar or other endocrine cells contribute to restoring pancreatic β-cell mass remains to be resolved. In this review we focus on regenerative events in the pancreas with emphasis on the restoration of β-cell mass. We present an overview of regenerative responses noted within the different pancreatic lineages, following injury. We also highlight the intrinsic plasticity of the adult pancreas that allows for inter-conversion of fully differentiated pancreatic lineages through manipulation of few genes or growth factors. Taken together, evidence from a number of studies suggest that differentiated pancreatic lineages could act as facultative progenitor cells, but the extent to which these contribute to β-cell regeneration in vivo is still a matter of contention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Combining G-CSF with a blockade of adhesion strongly improves the reconstitutive capacity of mobilized hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Christ, O; Kronenwett, R; Haas, R; Zöller, M

    2001-03-01

    Mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells is achieved mainly by application of growth factors and, more recently, by blockade of adhesion. In this report, we describe the advantages of a combined treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and anti-VLA4 (CD49d)/anti-CD44 as compared to treatment with the individual components. Mobilization by intravenous injection of anti-CD44, anti-VLA4, or G-CSF was controlled in spleen and bone marrow with regard to frequencies of multipotential colony-forming unit (C-CFU), marrow repopulating ability, long-term reconstitution, recovery of myelopoiesis, and regain of immunocompetence. Mobilization by anti-CD44 had a strong effect on expansion of early progenitor cells in the bone marrow, while the recovery in the spleen was poor. In anti-CD49d-mobilized noncommitted and committed progenitors, progenitor expansion was less pronounced, but settlement in the spleen was quite efficient. Thus, anti-CD44 and anti-CD49d differently influenced mobilization. Accordingly, mobilization and recovery after transfer were improved by combining anti-CD44 with anti-CD49d treatment. Mobilization by G-CSF was most efficient with respect to recovery of progenitor cells in the spleen. However, when transferring G-CSF-mobilized cells, regain of immunocompetence was strongly delayed. This disadvantage could be overridden when progenitor cells were mobilized via blockade of adhesion and when expansion of these mobilized progenitor cells was supported by low-dose G-CSF only during the last 24 hours before transfer. Mobilization of pluripotent progenitor cells via antibody blockade of CD44 or CD49d or via G-CSF relies on distinct mechanisms. Therefore, the reconstitutive capacity of a transplant can be significantly improved by mobilization regimens combining antibody with low-dose G-CSF treatment.

  7. Identifying the progenitors of present-day early-type galaxies in observational surveys: correcting `progenitor bias' using the Horizon-AGN simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, G.; Kaviraj, S.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Laigle, C.

    2018-03-01

    As endpoints of the hierarchical mass-assembly process, the stellar populations of local early-type galaxies encode the assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time. We use Horizon-AGN, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, to study the merger histories of local early-type galaxies and track how the morphological mix of their progenitors evolves over time. We provide a framework for alleviating `progenitor bias' - the bias that occurs if one uses only early-type galaxies to study the progenitor population. Early types attain their final morphology at relatively early epochs - by z ˜ 1, around 60 per cent of today's early types have had their last significant merger. At all redshifts, the majority of mergers have one late-type progenitor, with late-late mergers dominating at z > 1.5 and early-early mergers becoming significant only at z < 0.5. Progenitor bias is severe at all but the lowest redshifts - e.g. at z ˜ 0.6, less than 50 per cent of the stellar mass in today's early types is actually in progenitors with early-type morphology, while, at z ˜ 2, studying only early types misses almost all (80 per cent) of the stellar mass that eventually ends up in local early-type systems. At high redshift, almost all massive late-type galaxies, regardless of their local environment or star formation rate, are progenitors of local early-type galaxies, as are lower mass (M⋆ < 1010.5 M_{⊙}) late-types as long as they reside in high-density environments. In this new era of large observational surveys (e.g. LSST, JWST), this study provides a framework for studying how today's early-type galaxies have been built up over cosmic time.

  8. Epigenome profiling and editing of neocortical progenitor cells during development.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mareike; Kalebic, Nereo; Florio, Marta; Lakshmanaperumal, Naharajan; Haffner, Christiane; Brandl, Holger; Henry, Ian; Huttner, Wieland B

    2017-09-01

    The generation of neocortical neurons from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is primarily controlled by transcription factors binding to DNA in the context of chromatin. To understand the complex layer of regulation that orchestrates different NPC types from the same DNA sequence, epigenome maps with cell type resolution are required. Here, we present genomewide histone methylation maps for distinct neural cell populations in the developing mouse neocortex. Using different chromatin features, we identify potential novel regulators of cortical NPCs. Moreover, we identify extensive H3K27me3 changes between NPC subtypes coinciding with major developmental and cell biological transitions. Interestingly, we detect dynamic H3K27me3 changes on promoters of several crucial transcription factors, including the basal progenitor regulator Eomes We use catalytically inactive Cas9 fused with the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 to edit H3K27me3 at the Eomes locus in vivo , which results in reduced Tbr2 expression and lower basal progenitor abundance, underscoring the relevance of dynamic H3K27me3 changes during neocortex development. Taken together, we provide a rich resource of neocortical histone methylation data and outline an approach to investigate its contribution to the regulation of selected genes during neocortical development. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Towards the therapeutic use of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Broquères-You, Dong; Kubis, Nathalie; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Lévy, Bernard I

    2012-07-15

    Recent advances in the development of alternative proangiogenic and revascularization processes, including recombinant protein delivery, gene therapy, and cell therapy, hold the promise of greater efficacy in the management of cardiovascular disease in the coming years. In particular, vascular progenitor cell-based strategies have emerged as an efficient treatment approach to promote vessel formation and repair and to improve tissue perfusion. During the past decade, considerable progress has been achieved in understanding therapeutic properties of endothelial progenitor cells, while the therapeutic potential of vascular smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPC) has only recently been explored; the number of the circulating SMPC being correlated with cardiovascular health. Several endogenous SMPC populations with varying phenotypes have been identified and characterized in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and vascular wall. While the phenotypic entity of vascular SMPC is not fully defined and remains an evolving area of research, SMPC are increasingly recognized to play a special role in cardiovascular biology. In this review, we describe the current approaches used to define vascular SMPC. We further summarize the data on phenotype and functional properties of SMPC from various sources in adults. Finally, we discuss the role of SMPC in cardiovascular disease, including the contribution of SMPC to intimal proliferation, angiogenesis, and atherosclerotic plaque instability as well as the benefits resulting from the therapeutic use of SMPC.

  10. The supply of choline is important for fetal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Fetal progenitor cells proliferate, migrate, differentiate and undergo apoptosis at specific times during fetal development. Choline is needed by these cells for membrane synthesis and for methylation. There is growing evidence that this nutrient also modulates epigenetic regulation of gene expression in both neuronal and endothelial progenitor cells, thereby modifying brain development. It is likely that these mechanisms explain why, in rodent models, maternal dietary intake of choline influences both angiogenesis and neurogenesis in fetal hippocampus, and results in life-long changes in memory function. This also may explain why women eating diets low in choline have a greater risk of having a baby with a birth defect. Choline is mainly found in foods that contain fat and cholesterol, and intake of such foods has diminished in response dietary advice from nutritionists and physicians. Forty years ago, diets commonly contained choline-rich foods but now women in the USA tend to eat diets low in choline content. Premenopausal women normally may require less choline in their diet than do men and postmenopausal women, because estrogen induces the gene for the enzyme catalyzing endogenous biosynthesis of the choline-containing phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. However, many women have a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that blocks the induction of endogenous biosynthesis, thereby making them require more dietary choline. When these women eat diets low in choline, the supply of this nutrient to the fetus is likely to be inadequate, and may perturb progenitor cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. PMID:21693194

  11. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Pediatric Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Asmaa Mohamad; Elsayh, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamad, Ismail Lotfy; Hassan, Gamal Mohamad; Abdou, Madleen Adel A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) in pediatric patients with sepsis and correlating it with the severity of the disease and its outcome. The study included 19 children with sepsis, 26 with complicated sepsis, and 30 healthy controls. The patients were investigated within 48 hours of pediatric intensive care unit admission together with flow cytometric detection of CECs and CEPs. The levels of both CECs and CEPs were significantly higher in patient with sepsis and complicated sepsis than the controls. The levels of CECs were higher in patients with complicated sepsis, whereas the levels of CEPs were lower in patients with complicated sepsis. Comparing the survival and nonsurvival septic patients, the levels of CEPs were significantly higher in the survival than in nonsurvival patients, whereas the levels of CECs were significantly lower in the survival than in nonsurvival patients. Serum albumin was higher in survival than in nonsurvival patients. Estimation of CECs and CEPs and their correlation with other parameters such as serum albumen could add important information regarding prognosis in septic pediatric patients.

  12. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pires, António; Martins, Paula; Paiva, Artur; Pereira, Ana Margarida; Marques, Margarida; Castela, Eduardo; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between circulating endothelial progenitor cell count and endothelial activation in a pediatric population with obesity. Observational and transversal study, including 120 children and adolescents with primary obesity of both sexes, aged 6-17 years, who were recruited at this Cardiovascular Risk Clinic. The control group was made up of 41 children and adolescents with normal body mass index. The variables analyzed were: age, gender, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipid profile, leptin, adiponectin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, E-selectin, asymmetric dimethylarginine and circulating progenitor endothelial cell count. Insulin resistance was correlated to asymmetric dimethylarginine (ρ=0.340; p=0.003), which was directly, but weakly correlated to E-selectin (ρ=0.252; p=0.046). High sensitivity C-reactive protein was not found to be correlated to markers of endothelial activation. Systolic blood pressure was directly correlated to body mass index (ρ=0.471; p<0.001) and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (ρ=0.230; p=0.012), and inversely correlated to adiponectin (ρ=-0.331; p<0.001) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (ρ=-0.319; p<0.001). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count was directly, but weakly correlated, to body mass index (r=0.211; p=0.016), leptin (ρ=0.245; p=0.006), triglyceride levels (r=0.241; p=0.031), and E-selectin (ρ=0.297; p=0.004). Circulating endothelial progenitor cell count is elevated in obese children and adolescents with evidence of endothelial activation, suggesting that, during infancy, endothelial repairing mechanisms are present in the context of endothelial activation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer Progenitor Cells: The Result of an Epigenetic Event?

    PubMed

    Lapinska, Karolina; Faria, Gabriela; McGonagle, Sandra; Macumber, Kate Morgan; Heerboth, Sarah; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2018-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells was proposed in the late 1990s. Although initially the idea seemed controversial, the existence of cancer stem cells is now well established. However, the process leading to the formation of cancer stem cells is still not clear and thus requires further research. This article discusses epigenetic events that possibly produce cancer progenitor cells from predisposed cells by the influence of their environment. Every somatic cell possesses an epigenetic signature in terms of histone modifications and DNA methylation, which are obtained during lineage-specific differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, which is specific to that particular tissue. We call this signature an epigenetic switch. The epigenetic switch is not fixed. Our epigenome alters with aging. However, depending on the predisposition of the cells of a particular tissue and their microenvironment, the balance of the switch (histone modifications and the DNA methylation) may be tilted to immortality in a few cells, which generates cancer progenitor cells. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Lgr5(+ve) stem/progenitor cells contribute to nephron formation during kidney development.

    PubMed

    Barker, Nick; Rookmaaker, Maarten B; Kujala, Pekka; Ng, Annie; Leushacke, Marc; Snippert, Hugo; van de Wetering, Marc; Tan, Shawna; Van Es, Johan H; Huch, Meritxell; Poulsom, Richard; Verhaar, Marianne C; Peters, Peter J; Clevers, Hans

    2012-09-27

    Multipotent stem cells and their lineage-restricted progeny drive nephron formation within the developing kidney. Here, we document expression of the adult stem cell marker Lgr5 in the developing kidney and assess the stem/progenitor identity of Lgr5(+ve) cells via in vivo lineage tracing. The appearance and localization of Lgr5(+ve) cells coincided with that of the S-shaped body around embryonic day 14. Lgr5 expression remained restricted to cell clusters within developing nephrons in the cortex until postnatal day 7, when expression was permanently silenced. In vivo lineage tracing identified Lgr5 as a marker of a stem/progenitor population within nascent nephrons dedicated to generating the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and distal convoluted tubule. The Lgr5 surface marker and experimental models described here will be invaluable for deciphering the contribution of early nephron stem cells to developmental defects and for isolating human nephron progenitors as a prerequisite to evaluating their therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. β-Cell regeneration through the transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells: Pancreatic progenitor cells in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic progenitor cell research has been in the spotlight, as these cells have the potential to replace pancreatic β-cells for the treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetic patients with the absence or reduction of pancreatic β-cells. During the past few decades, the successful treatment of diabetes through transplantation of the whole pancreas or isolated islets has nearly been achieved. However, novel sources of pancreatic islets or insulin-producing cells are required to provide sufficient amounts of donor tissues. To overcome this limitation, the use of pancreatic progenitor cells is gaining more attention. In particular, pancreatic exocrine cells, such as duct epithelial cells and acinar cells, are attractive candidates for β-cell regeneration because of their differentiation potential and pancreatic lineage characteristics. It has been assumed that β-cell neogenesis from pancreatic progenitor cells could occur in pancreatic ducts in the postnatal stage. Several studies have shown that insulin-producing cells can arise in the duct tissue of the adult pancreas. Acinar cells also might have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. The present review summarizes recent progress in research on the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, especially duct and acinar cells.

  16. Culture and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenyu; Sun, Wei; Guo, Changcheng; Yan, Yang; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-07-01

    Although emerging evidence demonstrates increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with solid tumors, to our knowledge it is still unknown whether such cells can be cultured from patients with highly angiogenic renal cell carcinoma. We cultured and characterized circulating endothelial progenitor cells from patients with renal cell carcinoma. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (percent of CD45(-)CD34(+) VEGF-R2(+) cells in total peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was quantified in 47 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 40 healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated from 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 30 healthy controls to culture and characterize circulating endothelial progenitor cells. The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level was significantly higher in patients with renal cell carcinoma than in healthy controls (0.276% vs 0.086%, p <0.001). A colony of circulating endothelial progenitor cells first emerged significantly earlier in patient than in control preparations (6.72 vs 14.67 days, p <0.001). The culture success rate (87.8% vs 40.0% of participants) and the number of colonies (10.06 vs 1.83) were significantly greater for patients than for controls (each p <0.001). The circulating endothelial progenitor cell level correlated positively with the number of patient colonies (r = 0.762, p <0.001). Cells cultured from patients and controls showed a similar growth pattern, immunophenotype, ability to uptake Ac-LDL and bind lectin, and form capillary tubes in vitro. However, significantly more VEGF-R2(+) circulating endothelial progenitor cells were found in preparations from patients with renal cell carcinoma than from healthy controls (21.1% vs 13.4%, p <0.001). Earlier emergence of circulating endothelial progenitor cell colonies, a higher cell culture success rate and more colonies were found for patients with renal cell carcinoma than for healthy controls. Results

  17. Direct Reprogramming of Murine Fibroblasts to Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Batta, Kiran; Florkowska, Magdalena; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Summary Recent reports have shown that somatic cells, under appropriate culture conditions, could be directly reprogrammed to cardiac, hepatic, or neuronal phenotype by lineage-specific transcription factors. In this study, we demonstrate that both embryonic and adult somatic fibroblasts can be efficiently reprogrammed to clonal multilineage hematopoietic progenitors by the ectopic expression of the transcription factors ERG, GATA2, LMO2, RUNX1c, and SCL. These reprogrammed cells were stably expanded on stromal cells and possessed short-term reconstitution ability in vivo. Loss of p53 function facilitated reprogramming to blood, and p53−/− reprogrammed cells efficiently generated erythroid, megakaryocytic, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages. Genome-wide analyses revealed that generation of hematopoietic progenitors was preceded by the appearance of hemogenic endothelial cells expressing endothelial and hematopoietic genes. Altogether, our findings suggest that direct reprogramming could represent a valid alternative approach to the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for disease modeling and autologous blood cell therapies. PMID:25466247

  18. Chlorpyrifos induces oxidative stress in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Saulsbury, Marilyn D; Heyliger, Simone O; Wang, Kaiyu; Johnson, Deadre J

    2009-05-02

    There are increasing concerns regarding the relative safety of chlorpyrifos (CPF) to various facets of the environment. Although published works suggest that CPF is relatively safe in adult animals, recent evidence indicates that juveniles, both animals and humans, may be more sensitive to CPF toxicity than adults. In young animals, CPF is neurotoxic and mechanistically interferes with cellular replication and cellular differentiation, which culminates in the alteration of synaptic neurotransmission in neurons. However, the effects of CPF on glial cells are not fully elucidated. Here we report that chlorpyrifos is toxic to oligodendrocyte progenitors. In addition, CPF produced dose-dependent increases in 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCF-DA) and dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence intensities relative to the vehicle control. Moreover, CPF toxicity is associated with nuclear condensation and elevation of caspase 3/7 activity and Heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression. Pan-caspase inhibitor QVDOPh and cholinergic receptor antagonists' atropine and mecamylamine failed to protect oligodendrocyte progenitors from CPF-induced injury. Finally, glutathione (GSH) depletion enhanced CPF-induced toxicity whereas nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor L-NAME partially protected progenitors and the non-specific antioxidant vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) completely spared cells from injury. Collectively, this data suggests that CPF induced toxicity is independent of cholinergic stimulation and is most likely caused by the induction of oxidative stress.

  19. Exfoliated Human Olfactory Neuroepithelium: A Source of Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Vaca, Ana L; Benitez-King, Gloria; Ruiz, Víctor; Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gerardo B; Hernández-de la Cruz, Beatriz; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio A; González-Márquez, Humberto; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Vélez-Del Valle, Cristina; Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa Ma

    2018-03-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPC) contained in the human adult olfactory neuroepithelium (ONE) possess an undifferentiated state, the capability of self-renewal, the ability to generate neural and glial cells as well as being kept as neurospheres in cell culture conditions. Recently, NPC have been isolated from human or animal models using high-risk surgical methods. Therefore, it was necessary to improve methodologies to obtain and maintain human NPC as well as to achieve better knowledge of brain disorders. In this study, we propose the establishment and characterization of NPC cultures derived from the human olfactory neuroepithelium, using non-invasive procedures. Twenty-two healthy individuals (29.7 ± 4.5 years of age) were subjected to nasal exfoliation. Cells were recovered and kept as neurospheres under serum-free conditions. The neural progenitor origin of these neurospheres was determined by immunocytochemistry and qPCR. Their ability for self-renewal and multipotency was analyzed by clonogenic and differentiation assays, respectively. In the cultures, the ONE cells preserved the phenotype of the neurospheres. The expression levels of Nestin, Musashi, Sox2, and βIII-tubulin demonstrated the neural origin of the neurospheres; 48% of the cells separated could generate neurospheres, determining that they retained their self-renewal capacity. Neurospheres were differentiated in the absence of growth factors (EGF and FGF), and their multipotency ability was maintained as well. We were also able to isolate and grow human neural progenitor cells (neurospheres) through nasal exfoliates (non-invasive method) of the ONE from healthy adults, which is an extremely important contribution for the study of brain disorders and for the development of new therapies.

  20. Neuronal expression of pathological tau accelerates oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ossola, Bernardino; Zhao, Chao; Compston, Alastair; Pluchino, Stefano; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation is an important therapeutic target to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously reported hyperphosphorylated and aggregated microtubule‐associated protein tau in MS lesions, suggesting its involvement in axonal degeneration. However, the influence of pathological tau‐induced axonal damage on the potential for remyelination is unknown. Therefore, we investigated OPC differentiation in human P301S tau (P301S‐htau) transgenic mice, both in vitro and in vivo following focal demyelination. In 2‐month‐old P301S‐htau mice, which show hyperphosphorylated tau in neurons, we found atrophic axons in the spinal cord in the absence of prominent axonal degeneration. These signs of early axonal damage were associated with microgliosis and an upregulation of IL‐1β and TNFα. Following in vivo focal white matter demyelination we found that OPCs differentiated more efficiently in P301S‐htau mice than wild type (Wt) mice. We also found an increased level of myelin basic protein within the lesions, which however did not translate into increased remyelination due to higher susceptibility of P301S‐htau axons to demyelination‐induced degeneration compared to Wt axons. In vitro experiments confirmed higher differentiation capacity of OPCs from P301S‐htau mice compared with Wt mice‐derived OPCs. Because the OPCs from P301S‐htau mice do not ectopically express the transgene, and when isolated from newborn mice behave like Wt mice‐derived OPCs, we infer that their enhanced differentiation capacity must have been acquired through microenvironmental priming. Our data suggest the intriguing concept that damaged axons may signal to OPCs and promote their differentiation in the attempt at rescue by remyelination. GLIA 2016;64:457–471 PMID:26576485

  1. Premyogenic progenitors derived from human pluripotent stem cells expand in floating culture and differentiate into transplantable myogenic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Sakai-Takemura, Fusako; Narita, Asako; Masuda, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Toshifumi; Watanabe, Nobuharu; Nishiyama, Takashi; Nogami, Ken'ichiro; Blanc, Matthias; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko

    2018-04-26

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a potential source for cell therapy of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. To reliably obtain skeletal muscle progenitors from hiPSCs, we treated hiPS cells with a Wnt activator, CHIR-99021 and a BMP receptor inhibitor, LDN-193189, and then induced skeletal muscle cells using a previously reported sphere-based culture. This protocol greatly improved sphere formation efficiency and stably induced the differentiation of myogenic cells from hiPS cells generated from both healthy donors and a patient with congenital myasthenic syndrome. hiPSC-derived myogenic progenitors were enriched in the CD57(-) CD108(-) CD271(+) ERBB3(+) cell fraction, and their differentiation was greatly promoted by TGF-β inhibitors. TGF-β inhibitors down-regulated the NFIX transcription factor, and NFIX short hairpin RNA (shRNA) improved the differentiation of iPS cell-derived myogenic progenitors. These results suggest that NFIX inhibited differentiation of myogenic progenitors. hiPSC-derived myogenic cells differentiated into myofibers in muscles of NSG-mdx 4Cv mice after direct transplantation. Our results indicate that our new muscle induction protocol is useful for cell therapy of muscular dystrophies.

  2. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells. PMID:22490806

  3. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid.

    PubMed

    Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Davari, Maliheh; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh; Pakravesh, Jalil; Bagheri, Abouzar

    2012-04-10

    Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  4. Identification of Three Molecular and Functional Subtypes in Canine Hemangiosarcoma through Gene Expression Profiling and Progenitor Cell Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gorden, Brandi H.; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sarver, Aaron L.; Frantz, Aric M.; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; O'Brien, Timothy D.; Sharkey, Leslie C.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Dickerson, Erin B.

    2015-01-01

    Canine hemangiosarcomas have been ascribed to an endothelial origin based on histologic appearance; however, recent findings suggest that these tumors may arise instead from hematopoietic progenitor cells. To clarify this ontogenetic dilemma, we used genome-wide expression profiling of primary hemangiosarcomas and identified three distinct tumor subtypes associated with angiogenesis (group 1), inflammation (group 2), and adipogenesis (group 3). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that a common progenitor may differentiate into the three tumor subtypes observed in our gene profiling experiment. To investigate this possibility, we cultured hemangiosarcoma cell lines under normal and sphere-forming culture conditions to enrich for tumor cell progenitors. Cells from sphere-forming cultures displayed a robust self-renewal capacity and exhibited genotypic, phenotypic, and functional properties consistent with each of the three molecular subtypes seen in primary tumors, including expression of endothelial progenitor cell (CD133 and CD34) and endothelial cell (CD105, CD146, and αvβ3 integrin) markers, expression of early hematopoietic (CD133, CD117, and CD34) and myeloid (CD115 and CD14) differentiation markers in parallel with increased phagocytic capacity, and acquisition of adipogenic potential. Collectively, these results suggest that canine hemangiosarcomas arise from multipotent progenitors that differentiate into distinct subtypes. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that determine the molecular and phenotypic differentiation of tumor cells in vivo could change paradigms regarding the origin and progression of endothelial sarcomas. PMID:24525151

  5. Identification of three molecular and functional subtypes in canine hemangiosarcoma through gene expression profiling and progenitor cell characterization.

    PubMed

    Gorden, Brandi H; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sarver, Aaron L; Frantz, Aric M; Breen, Matthew; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; O'Brien, Timothy D; Sharkey, Leslie C; Modiano, Jaime F; Dickerson, Erin B

    2014-04-01

    Canine hemangiosarcomas have been ascribed to an endothelial origin based on histologic appearance; however, recent findings suggest that these tumors may arise instead from hematopoietic progenitor cells. To clarify this ontogenetic dilemma, we used genome-wide expression profiling of primary hemangiosarcomas and identified three distinct tumor subtypes associated with angiogenesis (group 1), inflammation (group 2), and adipogenesis (group 3). Based on these findings, we hypothesized that a common progenitor may differentiate into the three tumor subtypes observed in our gene profiling experiment. To investigate this possibility, we cultured hemangiosarcoma cell lines under normal and sphere-forming culture conditions to enrich for tumor cell progenitors. Cells from sphere-forming cultures displayed a robust self-renewal capacity and exhibited genotypic, phenotypic, and functional properties consistent with each of the three molecular subtypes seen in primary tumors, including expression of endothelial progenitor cell (CD133 and CD34) and endothelial cell (CD105, CD146, and αvβ3 integrin) markers, expression of early hematopoietic (CD133, CD117, and CD34) and myeloid (CD115 and CD14) differentiation markers in parallel with increased phagocytic capacity, and acquisition of adipogenic potential. Collectively, these results suggest that canine hemangiosarcomas arise from multipotent progenitors that differentiate into distinct subtypes. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that determine the molecular and phenotypic differentiation of tumor cells in vivo could change paradigms regarding the origin and progression of endothelial sarcomas. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Presence of stem/progenitor cells in the rat penis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guiting; Alwaal, Amjad; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jianwen; Wang, Lin; Li, Huixi; Wang, Guifang; Ning, Hongxiu; Lin, Ching-Shwun; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lue, Tom F

    2015-01-15

    Tissue resident stem cells are believed to exist in every organ, and their identification is commonly done using a combination of immunostaining for putative stem cell markers and label-retaining cell (LRC) strategy. In this study, we employed these approaches to identify potential stem cells in the penis. Newborn rats were intraperitoneally injected with thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), and their penis was harvested at 7 h, 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks. It was processed for EdU stains and immunofluorescence staining for stem cell markers A2B5, PCNA, and c-kit. EdU-positive cells were counted for each time point and co-localized with each stem cell marker, then isolated and cultured in vitro followed by their characterization using flowcytometry and immunofluorescence. At 7 h post-EdU injection, 410 ± 105.3 penile corporal cells were labeled in each cross-section (∼28%). The number of EdU-positive cells at 3 days increased to 536 ± 115.6, while their percentage dropped to 25%. Progressively fewer EdU-positive cells were present in the sacrificed rat penis at longer time points (1 and 4 weeks). They were mainly distributed in the subtunic and perisinusoidal spaces, and defined as subtunic penile progenitor cells (STPCs) and perisinusoidal penile progenitor cells (PPCs). These cells expressed c-kit, A2B5, and PCNA. After culturing in vitro, only ∼0.324% corporal cells were EdU-labeled LRCs and expressed A2B5/PCNA. Therefore, labeling of penis cells by EdU occurred randomly, and label retaining was not associated with expression of c-kit, A2B5, or PCNA. The penile LRCs are mainly distributed within the subtunic and perisinusoidal space.

  7. Role of medullary progenitor cells in epithelial cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuning; Park, Chanyoung; Al-Omari, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing medullary interstitial progenitor cells and to examine their capacity to induce tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. We have isolated a progenitor cell side population from a primary medullary interstitial cell line. We show that the medullary progenitor cells (MPCs) express CD24, CD44, CXCR7, CXCR4, nestin, and PAX7. MPCs are CD34 negative, which indicates that they are not bone marrow-derived stem cells. MPCs survive >50 passages, and when grown in epithelial differentiation medium develop phenotypic characteristics of epithelial cells. Inner medulla collecting duct (IMCD3) cells treated with conditioned medium from MPCs show significantly accelerated cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned medium from PGE2-treated MPCs induce tubule formation in IMCD3 cells grown in 3D Matrigel. Moreover, most of the MPCs express the pericyte marker PDGFR-b. Our study shows that the medullary interstitium harbors a side population of progenitor cells that can differentiate to epithelial cells and can stimulate tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. The findings of this study suggest that medullary pericyte/progenitor cells may play a critical role in collecting duct cell injury repair. PMID:24808539

  8. Identification of Multipotent Stem/Progenitor Cells in Murine Sclera

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Ling; Wu, Pei-Chang; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Shi, Songtao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The sclera forms the fibrous outer coat of the eyeball and acts as a supportive framework. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the sclera contains mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Method. Scleral tissue from C57BL6/J mice was separated from the retina and choroid and subsequently enzyme digested to release single cells. Proliferation capacity, self-renewal capacity, and ability for multipotent differentiation were analyzed by BrdU labeling, flow cytometry, reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and in vivo transplantation. Results. The scleral stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs) possessed clonogenic and high doubling capacities. These cells were positive for the mesenchymal markers Sca-1, CD90.2, CD44, CD105, and CD73 and negative for the hematopoietic markers CD45, CD11b, Flk1, CD34, and CD117. In addition to expressing stem cell genes ABCG2, Six2, Notch1, and Pax6, SSPCs were able to differentiate to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and neurogenic lineages. Conclusions. This study indicates that the sclera contains multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Further study of SSPCs may help elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism of scleral diseases such as scleritis and myopia. PMID:21788434

  9. Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney.

    PubMed

    Camarata, Troy; Howard, Alexis; Elsey, Ruth M; Raza, Sarah; O'Connor, Alice; Beatty, Brian; Conrad, Jack; Solounias, Nikos; Chow, Priscilla; Mukta, Saima; Vasilyev, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    New nephron formation (nephrogenesis) ceases in mammals around birth and is completely absent in adults. In contrast, postembryonic nephrogenesis is well documented in the mesonephric kidneys of fishes and amphibians. The transient mesonephros in reptiles (including birds) and mammals is replaced by the metanephros during embryogenesis. Thus, one may speculate that postembryonic nephrogenesis is restricted to the mesonephric kidney. Previous reports have suggested the metanephros of non-avian reptiles (hereafter reptiles) may continually form nephrons throughout life. We investigated the presence of adult nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others. We found that all major reptilian groups (Testudines, Crocodylia, and Squamates) showed the presence of adult nephrogenesis. The total amount of nephrogenesis varied greatly between species with turtles displaying the highest density of nephrogenesis. In contrast, we were unable to detect adult nephrogenesis in monotremes, and in the iguanid A. carolinensis. Nephron progenitor cells express the transcription factor Six2, which in mammals, becomes downregulated as the progenitor cell population is exhausted and nephrogenesis ends. Using the alligator as a model, we were able to detect Six2-positive cap mesenchyme cells in the adult kidney, which spatially correlated with areas of nephrogenesis. These results suggest that the metanephric kidney of reptiles has maintained the ability to continually grow new nephrons during postembryonic life, a process lost early in mammalian evolution, likely due to the persistence of a Six2-expressing progenitor cell population.

  10. Postembryonic Nephrogenesis and Persistence of Six2-Expressing Nephron Progenitor Cells in the Reptilian Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Camarata, Troy; Howard, Alexis; Elsey, Ruth M.; Raza, Sarah; O’Connor, Alice; Beatty, Brian; Conrad, Jack; Solounias, Nikos; Chow, Priscilla; Mukta, Saima; Vasilyev, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    New nephron formation (nephrogenesis) ceases in mammals around birth and is completely absent in adults. In contrast, postembryonic nephrogenesis is well documented in the mesonephric kidneys of fishes and amphibians. The transient mesonephros in reptiles (including birds) and mammals is replaced by the metanephros during embryogenesis. Thus, one may speculate that postembryonic nephrogenesis is restricted to the mesonephric kidney. Previous reports have suggested the metanephros of non-avian reptiles (hereafter reptiles) may continually form nephrons throughout life. We investigated the presence of adult nephrogenesis in reptiles by examining adult kidneys from several species including Trachemys scripta, Chrysemys picta, Boa constrictor, Tupinambis tegu, Anolis carolinensis, and Alligator mississipiensis among others. We found that all major reptilian groups (Testudines, Crocodylia, and Squamates) showed the presence of adult nephrogenesis. The total amount of nephrogenesis varied greatly between species with turtles displaying the highest density of nephrogenesis. In contrast, we were unable to detect adult nephrogenesis in monotremes, and in the iguanid A. carolinensis. Nephron progenitor cells express the transcription factor Six2, which in mammals, becomes downregulated as the progenitor cell population is exhausted and nephrogenesis ends. Using the alligator as a model, we were able to detect Six2-positive cap mesenchyme cells in the adult kidney, which spatially correlated with areas of nephrogenesis. These results suggest that the metanephric kidney of reptiles has maintained the ability to continually grow new nephrons during postembryonic life, a process lost early in mammalian evolution, likely due to the persistence of a Six2-expressing progenitor cell population. PMID:27144443

  11. Pleiotrophin enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis through increased proliferation of neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Laaniste, Liisi; Jiang, Yiwen; Alafuzoff, Irina; Uhrbom, Lene; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) augments tumor growth by increasing proliferation of tumor cells and promoting vascular abnormalization, but its role in early gliomagenesis has not been evaluated. Through analysis of publically available datasets, we demonstrate that increased PTN mRNA expression is associated with amplification of chromosome 7, identified as one of the earliest steps in glioblastoma development. To elucidate the role of PTN in tumor initiation we employed the RCAS/tv-a model that allows glioma induction by RCAS-virus mediated expression of oncogenes in neural progenitor cells. Intracranial injection of RCAS-PTN did not induce glioma formation when administrated alone, but significantly enhanced RCAS-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)B-induced gliomagenesis. PTN co-treatment augmented PDGFB-induced Akt activation in neural progenitor cells in vitro, and enhanced neural sphere size associated with increased proliferation. Our data indicates that PTN expression is associated with chromosome 7 gain, and that PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells. PMID:27806344

  12. Pleiotrophin enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis through increased proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Laaniste, Liisi; Jiang, Yiwen; Alafuzoff, Irina; Uhrbom, Lene; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-12-06

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) augments tumor growth by increasing proliferation of tumor cells and promoting vascular abnormalization, but its role in early gliomagenesis has not been evaluated. Through analysis of publically available datasets, we demonstrate that increased PTN mRNA expression is associated with amplification of chromosome 7, identified as one of the earliest steps in glioblastoma development. To elucidate the role of PTN in tumor initiation we employed the RCAS/tv-a model that allows glioma induction by RCAS-virus mediated expression of oncogenes in neural progenitor cells. Intracranial injection of RCAS-PTN did not induce glioma formation when administrated alone, but significantly enhanced RCAS-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)B-induced gliomagenesis. PTN co-treatment augmented PDGFB-induced Akt activation in neural progenitor cells in vitro, and enhanced neural sphere size associated with increased proliferation. Our data indicates that PTN expression is associated with chromosome 7 gain, and that PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

  13. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Fre, Silvia

    2013-10-14

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive "triple negative" human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2(SAT) transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells.

  14. Notch3 marks clonogenic mammary luminal progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lafkas, Daniel; Rodilla, Veronica; Huyghe, Mathilde; Mourao, Larissa; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2013-01-01

    The identity of mammary stem and progenitor cells remains poorly understood, mainly as a result of the lack of robust markers. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in mammary gland development as well as in tumorigenesis in this tissue. Elevated expression of the Notch3 receptor has been correlated to the highly aggressive “triple negative” human breast cancer. However, the specific cells expressing this Notch paralogue in the mammary gland remain unknown. Using a conditionally inducible Notch3-CreERT2SAT transgenic mouse, we genetically marked Notch3-expressing cells throughout mammary gland development and followed their lineage in vivo. We demonstrate that Notch3 is expressed in a highly clonogenic and transiently quiescent luminal progenitor population that gives rise to a ductal lineage. These cells are capable of surviving multiple successive pregnancies, suggesting a capacity to self-renew. Our results also uncover a role for the Notch3 receptor in restricting the proliferation and consequent clonal expansion of these cells. PMID:24100291

  15. Latent progenitor cells as potential regulators for tympanic membrane regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Jangho; Seonwoo, Hoon; Jang, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Lim, Ki-Taek; Tian, Chunjie; Chung, Jong Hoon; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation, in particular chronic otitis media, is one of the most common clinical problems in the world and can present with sensorineural healing loss. Here, we explored an approach for TM regeneration where the latent progenitor or stem cells within TM epithelial layers may play an important regulatory role. We showed that potential TM stem cells present highly positive staining for epithelial stem cell markers in all areas of normal TM tissue. Additionally, they are present at high levels in perforated TMs, especially in proximity to the holes, regardless of acute or chronic status, suggesting that TM stem cells may be a potential factor for TM regeneration. Our study suggests that latent TM stem cells could be potential regulators of regeneration, which provides a new insight into this clinically important process and a potential target for new therapies for chronic otitis media and other eardrum injuries.

  16. Ngn3+ endocrine progenitor cells control the fate and morphogenesis of pancreatic ductal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Magenheim, Judith; Klein, Allon M.; Stanger, Ben Z.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Gu, Guoqiang; Dor, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Summary During pancreas development, endocrine and exocrine cells arise from a common multipotent progenitor pool. How these cell fate decisions are coordinated with tissue morphogenesis is poorly understood. Here we have examined ductal morphology, endocrine progenitor cell fate and Notch signaling in Ngn3−/− mice, which do not produce islet cells. Ngn3 deficiency results in reduced branching and enlarged pancreatic duct-like structures, concomitant with Ngn3 promoter activation throughout the ductal epithelium and reduced Notch signaling. Conversely, forced generation of surplus endocrine progenitor cells causes reduced duct caliber and an excessive number of tip cells. Thus, endocrine progenitor cells normally provide a feedback signal to adjacent multipotent ductal progenitor cells that activates Notch signaling, inhibits further endocrine differentiation and promotes proper morphogenesis. These results uncover a novel layer of regulation coordinating pancreas morphogenesis and endocrine/exocrine differentiation, and suggest ways to enhance the yield of beta-cells from stem cells. PMID:21888903

  17. Interleukin-7-induced Stat-5 acts in synergy with Flt-3 signaling to stimulate expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Åhsberg, Josefine; Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Qian, Hong; Zetterblad, Jenny; Zandi, Sasan; Månsson, Robert; Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar; Sigvardsson, Mikael

    2010-11-19

    The development of lymphoid cells from bone marrow progenitors is dictated by interplay between internal cues such as transcription factors and external signals like the cytokines Flt-3 ligand and Il-7. These proteins are both of large importance for normal lymphoid development; however, it is unclear if they act in direct synergy to expand a transient Il-7R(+)Flt-3(+) population or if the collaboration is created through sequential activities. We report here that Flt-3L and Il-7 synergistically stimulated the expansion of primary Il-7R(+)Flt-3(+) progenitor cells and a hematopoietic progenitor cell line ectopically expressing the receptors. The stimulation resulted in a reduced expression of pro-apoptotic genes and also mediated survival of primary progenitor cells in vitro. However, functional analysis of single cells suggested that the anti-apoptotic effect was additive indicating that the synergy observed mainly depends on stimulation of proliferation. Analysis of downstream signaling events suggested that although Il-7 induced Stat-5 phosphorylation, Flt-3L caused activation of the ERK and AKT signaling pathways. Flt-3L could also drive proliferation in synergy with ectopically expressed constitutively active Stat-5. This synergy could be inhibited with either receptor tyrosine kinase or MAPK inhibitors suggesting that Flt-3L and Il-7 act in synergy by activation of independent signaling pathways to expand early hematopoietic progenitors.

  18. p53 Enables metabolic fitness and self-renewal of nephron progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuwen; Liu, Jiao; Li, Wencheng; Brown, Aaron; Baddoo, Melody; Li, Marilyn; Carroll, Thomas; Oxburgh, Leif; Feng, Yumei; Saifudeen, Zubaida

    2015-04-01

    Contrary to its classic role in restraining cell proliferation, we demonstrate here a divergent function of p53 in the maintenance of self-renewal of the nephron progenitor pool in the embryonic mouse kidney. Nephron endowment is regulated by progenitor availability and differentiation potential. Conditional deletion of p53 in nephron progenitor cells (Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl)) induces progressive depletion of Cited1(+)/Six2(+) self-renewing progenitors and loss of cap mesenchyme (CM) integrity. The Six2(p53-null) CM is disorganized, with interspersed stromal cells and an absence of a distinct CM-epithelia and CM-stroma interface. Impaired cell adhesion and epithelialization are indicated by decreased E-cadherin and NCAM expression and by ineffective differentiation in response to Wnt induction. The Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl) cap has 30% fewer Six2(GFP(+)) cells. Apoptotic index is unchanged, whereas proliferation index is significantly reduced in accordance with cell cycle analysis showing disproportionately fewer Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl) cells in the S and G2/M phases compared with Six2Cre(+);p53(+/+) cells. Mutant kidneys are hypoplastic with fewer generations of nascent nephrons. A significant increase in mean arterial pressure is observed in early adulthood in both germline and conditional Six2(p53-null) mice, linking p53-mediated defects in kidney development to hypertension. RNA-Seq analyses of FACS-isolated wild-type and Six2(GFP(+)) CM cells revealed that the top downregulated genes in Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl) CM belong to glucose metabolism and adhesion and/or migration pathways. Mutant cells exhibit a ∼ 50% decrease in ATP levels and a 30% decrease in levels of reactive oxygen species, indicating energy metabolism dysfunction. In summary, our data indicate a novel role for p53 in enabling the metabolic fitness and self-renewal of nephron progenitors. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Progressive Recruitment of Mesenchymal Progenitors Reveals a Time-Dependent Process of Cell Fate Acquisition in Mouse and Human Nephrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Nils O; De Sena Brandine, Guilherme; Tran, Tracy; Ransick, Andrew; Suh, Gio; Guo, Jinjin; Kim, Albert D; Parvez, Riana K; Ruffins, Seth W; Rutledge, Elisabeth A; Thornton, Matthew E; Grubbs, Brendan; McMahon, Jill A; Smith, Andrew D; McMahon, Andrew P

    2018-06-04

    Mammalian nephrons arise from a limited nephron progenitor pool through a reiterative inductive process extending over days (mouse) or weeks (human) of kidney development. Here, we present evidence that human nephron patterning reflects a time-dependent process of recruitment of mesenchymal progenitors into an epithelial nephron precursor. Progressive recruitment predicted from high-resolution image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction of human nephrogenesis was confirmed through direct visualization and cell fate analysis of mouse kidney organ cultures. Single-cell RNA sequencing of the human nephrogenic niche provided molecular insights into these early patterning processes and predicted developmental trajectories adopted by nephron progenitor cells in forming segment-specific domains of the human nephron. The temporal-recruitment model for nephron polarity and patterning suggested by direct analysis of human kidney development provides a framework for integrating signaling pathways driving mammalian nephrogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pdx-1 and Ptf1a concurrently determine fate specification of pancreatic multipotent progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Burlison, Jared S.; Long, Qiaoming; Fujitani, Yoshio; Wright, Christopher V.E.; Magnuson, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The pancreas is derived from a pool of multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) that co-express Pdx-1 and Ptf1a. To more precisely define how the individual and combined loss of Pdx-1 and Ptf1a affects pancreatic MPC specification and differentiation we derived and studied mice bearing a novel Ptf1aYFP allele. While the expression of Pdx-1 and Ptf1a in pancreatic MPCs coincides between E9.5–12.5 the developmental phenotypes of Pdx-1 null and Pdx-1; Ptf1a double null mice are indistinguishable, and an early pancreatic bud is formed in both cases. This finding indicates that Pdx-1 is required in the foregut endoderm prior to Ptf1a for pancreatic MPC specification. We also found that Ptf1a is neither required for specification of Ngn3-positive endocrine progenitors nor differentiation of mature β-cells. In the absence of Pdx-1 Ngn3-positive cells were not observed after E9.5. Thus, in contrast to the deletion of Ptf1a, the loss of Pdx-1 precludes the sustained Ngn3-based derivation of endocrine progenitors from pancreatic MPCs. Taken together, these studies indicate that Pdx-1 and Ptf1a have distinct but interdependent functions during pancreatic MPC specification. PMID:18294628

  1. Pdx-1 and Ptf1a concurrently determine fate specification of pancreatic multipotent progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Burlison, Jared S; Long, Qiaoming; Fujitani, Yoshio; Wright, Christopher V E; Magnuson, Mark A

    2008-04-01

    The pancreas is derived from a pool of multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs) that co-express Pdx-1 and Ptf1a. To more precisely define how the individual and combined loss of Pdx-1 and Ptf1a affects pancreatic MPC specification and differentiation we derived and studied mice bearing a novel Ptf1a(YFP) allele. While the expression of Pdx-1 and Ptf1a in pancreatic MPCs coincides between E9.5 and 12.5 the developmental phenotypes of Pdx-1 null and Pdx-1; Ptf1a double null mice are indistinguishable, and an early pancreatic bud is formed in both cases. This finding indicates that Pdx-1 is required in the foregut endoderm prior to Ptf1a for pancreatic MPC specification. We also found that Ptf1a is neither required for specification of Ngn3-positive endocrine progenitors nor differentiation of mature beta-cells. In the absence of Pdx-1 Ngn3-positive cells were not observed after E9.5. Thus, in contrast to the deletion of Ptf1a, the loss of Pdx-1 precludes the sustained Ngn3-based derivation of endocrine progenitors from pancreatic MPCs. Taken together, these studies indicate that Pdx-1 and Ptf1a have distinct but interdependent functions during pancreatic MPC specification.

  2. GHF-1-promoter-targeted immortalization of a somatotropic progenitor cell results in dwarfism in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lew, D; Brady, H; Klausing, K; Yaginuma, K; Theill, L E; Stauber, C; Karin, M; Mellon, P L

    1993-04-01

    During pituitary development, the homeo domain protein GHF-1 is required for generation of somatotropes and lactotropes and for growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene expression. GHF-1 mRNA is detectable several days before the emergence of GH- or PRL-expressing cells, suggesting the existence of a somatotropic progenitor cell in which GHF-1 transcription is first activated. We have immortalized this cell type by using the GHF-1 regulatory region to target SV40 T-antigen (Tag) tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. The GHF-Tag transgene caused developmental entrapment of somatotropic progenitor cells that express GHF-1 but not GH or PRL, resulting in dwarfism. Immortalized cell lines derived from a transgenic pituitary tumor maintain the characteristics of the somato/lactotropic progenitor in that they express GHF-1 mRNA and protein yet fail to activate GH or PRL transcription. Using these cells, we identified an enhancer that activates GHF-1 transcription at this early stage of development yet is inactive in cells representing later developmental stages of the somatotropic lineage or in other cell types. These experiments not only demonstrate the potential for immortalization of developmental progenitor cells using the regulatory regions from cell type-specific transcription factor genes but illustrate the power of such model systems in the study of developmental control.

  3. Prognostic value of circulating VEGFR2+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Massard, Christophe; Borget, Isabelle; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Taylor, Melissa; Gomez-Roca, Carlos; Soria, Jean Charles; Farace, Françoise

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesised that host-related markers, possibly reflecting tumour aggressiveness, such as circulating endothelial cells (CEC) and circulating VEGFR2(+) bone marrow-derived (BMD) progenitor cells, could have prognostic value in patients with advanced cancer enrolled in early anticancer drug development trials. Baseline CECs (CD45(-)CD31(+)CD146(+)7AAD(-) cells) and circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells (defined as CD45(dim)CD34(+)VEGFR2(+)7AAD(-) cells) were measured by flow-cytometry in 71 and 58 patients included in phase 1 trials testing novel anti-vascular or anti-angiogenic agents. Correlations between levels of CECs, circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells, clinical and biological prognostic factors (i.e. the Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) score), and overall survival (OS) were studied. The median value of CECs was 12 CEC/ml (range 0-154/ml). The median level of VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor cells was 1.3% (range 0-32.5%) of circulating BMD-CD34(+) progenitors. While OS was not correlated with CEC levels, it was significantly worse in patients with high VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels (>1%) (median OS 9.0 versus 17.0 months), and with a RMH prognostic score >0 (median OS 9.0 versus 24.2 months). The prognostic value of VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels remained significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-4.6, p = 0.02) after multivariate analysis. A composite VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor level/RHM score ≥ 2 was significantly associated with an increased risk of death compared to scores of 0 or 1 (median OS 9.0 versus 18.4 months, HR = 2.6 (95%CI, 1.2-5.8, p = 0.02)). High circulating VEGFR2(+)-BMD progenitor levels are associated with poor prognostics and when combined to classical clinical and biological parameters could provide a new tool for patient selection in early anticancer drug trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A single-cell resolution map of mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nestorowa, Sonia; Hamey, Fiona K; Pijuan Sala, Blanca; Diamanti, Evangelia; Shepherd, Mairi; Laurenti, Elisa; Wilson, Nicola K; Kent, David G; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-08-25

    Maintenance of the blood system requires balanced cell fate decisions by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Because cell fate choices are executed at the individual cell level, new single-cell profiling technologies offer exciting possibilities for mapping the dynamic molecular changes underlying HSPC differentiation. Here, we have used single-cell RNA sequencing to profile more than 1600 single HSPCs, and deep sequencing has enabled detection of an average of 6558 protein-coding genes per cell. Index sorting, in combination with broad sorting gates, allowed us to retrospectively assign cells to 12 commonly sorted HSPC phenotypes while also capturing intermediate cells typically excluded by conventional gating. We further show that independently generated single-cell data sets can be projected onto the single-cell resolution expression map to directly compare data from multiple groups and to build and refine new hypotheses. Reconstruction of differentiation trajectories reveals dynamic expression changes associated with early lymphoid, erythroid, and granulocyte-macrophage differentiation. The latter two trajectories were characterized by common upregulation of cell cycle and oxidative phosphorylation transcriptional programs. By using external spike-in controls, we estimate absolute messenger RNA (mRNA) levels per cell, showing for the first time that despite a general reduction in total mRNA, a subset of genes shows higher expression levels in immature stem cells consistent with active maintenance of the stem-cell state. Finally, we report the development of an intuitive Web interface as a new community resource to permit visualization of gene expression in HSPCs at single-cell resolution for any gene of choice. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Enumerating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Zebrafish Embryos.

    PubMed

    Esain, Virginie; Cortes, Mauricio; North, Trista E

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, zebrafish have proven to be a valuable model to dissect the signaling pathways involved in hematopoiesis, including Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell (HSPC) formation and homeostasis. Despite tremendous efforts to generate the tools necessary to characterize HSPCs in vitro and in vivo the zebrafish community still lacks standardized methods to quantify HSPCs across laboratories. Here, we describe three methods used routinely in our lab, and in others, to reliably enumerate HSPCs in zebrafish embryos: large-scale live imaging of transgenic reporter lines, Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS), and in vitro cell culture. While live imaging and FACS analysis allows enumeration of total or site-specific HSPCs, the cell culture assay provides the unique opportunity to test the functional potential of isolated HSPCs, similar to those employed in mammals.

  6. RNAi of COL1A1 in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Millington-Ward, Sophia; McMahon, Helena P; Allen, Danny; Tuohy, Gearóid; Kiang, Anna-Sophia; Palfi, Arpad; Kenna, Paul F; Humphries, Peter; Farrar, G Jane

    2004-10-01

    Given that mutant COL1A1 is known to cause Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), tools to modulate COL1A1 expression are likely to be of significant therapeutic value. In this context, we have evaluated RNA interference (RNAi) as a means to downregulate COL1A1 expression in Cos-7 cells and in human mesenchymal progenitor stem cells (MPCs), the latter cells giving rise to bone and therefore representing a target cell type for collagen-related disorders. In addition, allele-specificity, a key factor to the success of RNAi-based suppression, was explored with a view to developing a mutation-independent RNAi-based therapeutic for OI by targeting an intragenic SNP within transcripts derived from the COL1A1 gene. Preferential suppression of individual polymorphic alleles that differed by a single nucleotide was observed.

  7. Early molecular events during retinoic acid induced differentiation of neuromesodermal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Thomas J.; Colas, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bipotent neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) residing in the caudal epiblast drive coordinated body axis extension by generating both posterior neuroectoderm and presomitic mesoderm. Retinoic acid (RA) is required for body axis extension, however the early molecular response to RA signaling is poorly defined, as is its relationship to NMP biology. As endogenous RA is first seen near the time when NMPs appear, we used WNT/FGF agonists to differentiate embryonic stem cells to NMPs which were then treated with a short 2-h pulse of 25 nM RA or 1 µM RA followed by RNA-seq transcriptome analysis. Differential expression analysis of this dataset indicated that treatment with 25 nM RA, but not 1 µM RA, provided physiologically relevant findings. The 25 nM RA dataset yielded a cohort of previously known caudal RA target genes including Fgf8 (repressed) and Sox2 (activated), plus novel early RA signaling targets with nearby conserved RA response elements. Importantly, validation of top-ranked genes in vivo using RA-deficient Raldh2−/− embryos identified novel examples of RA activation (Nkx1-2, Zfp503, Zfp703, Gbx2, Fgf15, Nt5e) or RA repression (Id1) of genes expressed in the NMP niche or progeny. These findings provide evidence for early instructive and permissive roles of RA in controlling differentiation of NMPs to neural and mesodermal lineages. PMID:27793834

  8. Adenosine signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell emergence

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Lili; Tamplin, Owen J.; Chen, Michael J.; Deng, Qing; Patterson, Shenia; Kim, Peter G.; Durand, Ellen M.; McNeil, Ashley; Green, Julie M.; Matsuura, Shinobu; Ablain, Julien; Brandt, Margot K.; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Huttenlocher, Anna; Daley, George Q.; Ravid, Katya

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) emerge from aortic endothelium via the endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition (EHT). The molecular mechanisms that initiate and regulate EHT remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adenosine signaling regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development in zebrafish embryos. The adenosine receptor A2b is expressed in the vascular endothelium before HSPC emergence. Elevated adenosine levels increased runx1+/cmyb+ HSPCs in the dorsal aorta, whereas blocking the adenosine pathway decreased HSPCs. Knockdown of A2b adenosine receptor disrupted scl+ hemogenic vascular endothelium and the subsequent EHT process. A2b adenosine receptor activation induced CXCL8 via cAMP–protein kinase A (PKA) and mediated hematopoiesis. We further show that adenosine increased multipotent progenitors in a mouse embryonic stem cell colony-forming assay and in embryonic day 10.5 aorta-gonad-mesonephros explants. Our results demonstrate that adenosine signaling plays an evolutionary conserved role in the first steps of HSPC formation in vertebrates. PMID:25870200

  9. Identification of a novel putative pancreatic stem/progenitor cell marker DCAMKL-1 in normal mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    May, Randal; Sureban, Sripathi M; Lightfoot, Stan A; Hoskins, Aimee B; Brackett, Daniel J; Postier, Russell G; Ramanujam, Rama; Rao, Chinthalapally V; Wyche, James H; Anant, Shrikant; Houchen, Courtney W

    2010-08-01

    Stem cells are critical in maintaining adult homeostasis and have been proposed to be the origin of many solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Here we demonstrate the expression patterns of the putative intestinal stem cell marker DCAMKL-1 in the pancreas of uninjured C57BL/6 mice compared with other pancreatic stem/progenitor cell markers. We then determined the viability of isolated pancreatic stem/progenitor cells in isotransplantation assays following DCAMKL-1 antibody-based cell sorting. Sorted cells were grown in suspension culture and injected into the flanks of athymic nude mice. Here we report that DCAMKL-1 is expressed in the main pancreatic duct epithelia and islets, but not within acinar cells. Coexpression was observed with somatostatin, NGN3, and nestin, but not glucagon or insulin. Isolated DCAMKL-1+ cells formed spheroids in suspension culture and induced nodule formation in isotransplantation assays. Analysis of nodules demonstrated markers of early pancreatic development (PDX-1), glandular epithelium (cytokeratin-14 and Ep-CAM), and isletlike structures (somatostatin and secretin). These data taken together suggest that DCAMKL-1 is a novel putative stem/progenitor marker, can be used to isolate normal pancreatic stem/progenitors, and potentially regenerates pancreatic tissues. This may represent a novel tool for regenerative medicine and a target for anti-stem cell-based therapeutics in pancreatic cancer.

  10. Identification of a novel putative pancreatic stem/progenitor cell marker DCAMKL-1 in normal mouse pancreas

    PubMed Central

    May, Randal; Sureban, Sripathi M.; Lightfoot, Stan A.; Hoskins, Aimee B.; Brackett, Daniel J.; Postier, Russell G.; Ramanujam, Rama; Rao, Chinthalapally V.; Wyche, James H.; Anant, Shrikant

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are critical in maintaining adult homeostasis and have been proposed to be the origin of many solid tumors, including pancreatic cancer. Here we demonstrate the expression patterns of the putative intestinal stem cell marker DCAMKL-1 in the pancreas of uninjured C57BL/6 mice compared with other pancreatic stem/progenitor cell markers. We then determined the viability of isolated pancreatic stem/progenitor cells in isotransplantation assays following DCAMKL-1 antibody-based cell sorting. Sorted cells were grown in suspension culture and injected into the flanks of athymic nude mice. Here we report that DCAMKL-1 is expressed in the main pancreatic duct epithelia and islets, but not within acinar cells. Coexpression was observed with somatostatin, NGN3, and nestin, but not glucagon or insulin. Isolated DCAMKL-1+ cells formed spheroids in suspension culture and induced nodule formation in isotransplantation assays. Analysis of nodules demonstrated markers of early pancreatic development (PDX-1), glandular epithelium (cytokeratin-14 and Ep-CAM), and isletlike structures (somatostatin and secretin). These data taken together suggest that DCAMKL-1 is a novel putative stem/progenitor marker, can be used to isolate normal pancreatic stem/progenitors, and potentially regenerates pancreatic tissues. This may represent a novel tool for regenerative medicine and a target for anti-stem cell-based therapeutics in pancreatic cancer. PMID:20522640

  11. Cannabinoid receptor signaling in progenitor/stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Chiurchiù, Valerio; Díaz-Alonso, Javier; Bari, Monica; Guzmán, Manuel; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of cannabis (Cannabis sativa) extracts, have attracted the attention of human civilizations for centuries, much earlier than the discovery and characterization of their substrate of action, the endocannabinoid system (ECS). The latter is an ensemble of endogenous lipids, their receptors [in particular type-1 (CB1) and type-2 (CB2) cannabinoid receptors] and metabolic enzymes. Cannabinoid signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, with different outcomes depending on the molecular targets and cellular context involved. Cannabinoid receptors are expressed and functional from the very early developmental stages, when they regulate embryonic and trophoblast stem cell survival and differentiation, and thus may affect the formation of manifold adult specialized tissues derived from the three different germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm). In the ectoderm-derived nervous system, both CB1 and CB2 receptors are present in neural progenitor/stem cells and control their self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. CB1 and CB2 show opposite patterns of expression, the former increasing and the latter decreasing along neuronal differentiation. Recently, endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has also been shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of mesoderm-derived hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells, with a key role in determining the formation of several cell types in peripheral tissues, including blood cells, adipocytes, osteoblasts/osteoclasts and epithelial cells. Here, we will review these new findings, which unveil the involvement of eCB signaling in the regulation of progenitor/stem cell fate in the nervous system and in the periphery. The developmental regulation of cannabinoid receptor expression and cellular/subcellular localization, together with their role in progenitor/stem cell biology, may have important implications in human health and disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  12. Isolation of pancreatic progenitor cells with the surface marker of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengxia; Chen, Fang; Chi, Ying; Yang, Shaoguang; Lu, Shihong; Han, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    To isolate pancreatic progenitor cells with the surface markers of hematopoietic stem cells, the expression of stem cell antigen (Sca-1) and c-Kit and the coexpression of them with pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), and insulin were examined in murine embryonic pancreas. Then different pancreatic cell subpopulations were isolated by magnet-activated cell sorting. Isolated cells were cultured overnight in hanging drops. When cells formed spheres, they were laid on floating filters at the air/medium interface. With this new culture system, pancreatic progenitor cells were induced to differentiate to endocrine and exocrine cells. It was shown that c-Kit and Sca-1 were expressed differently in embryonic pancreas at 12.5, 15.5, and 17.5 days of gestation. The expression of c-Kit and Sca-1 was the highest at 15.5 days of gestation. c-Kit rather than Sca-1 coexpressed with PDX-1, Ngn3, and insulin. Cells differentiated from c-Kit-positive cells contained more insulin-producing cells and secreted more insulin in response to glucose stimulation than that from c-Kit-negative cells. These results suggested that c-Kit could be used to isolate pancreatic progenitor cells and our new culture system permitted pancreatic progenitor cells to differentiate to mature endocrine cells.

  13. Uncaria tomentosa stimulates the proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Farias, Iria; do Carmo Araújo, Maria; Zimmermann, Estevan Sonego; Dalmora, Sergio Luiz; Benedetti, Aloisio Luiz; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Asbahr, Ana Carolina Cavazzin; Bertol, Gustavo; Farias, Júlia; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2011-09-01

    The Asháninkas, indigenous people of Peru, use cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) to restore health. Uncaria tomentosa has antioxidant activity and works as an agent to repair DNA damage. It causes different effects on cell proliferation depending on the cell type involved; specifically, it can stimulate the proliferation of myeloid progenitors and cause apoptosis of neoplastic cells. Neutropenia is the most common collateral effect of chemotherapy. For patients undergoing cancer treatment, the administration of a drug that stimulates the proliferation of healthy hematopoietic tissue cells is very desirable. It is important to assess the acute effects of Uncaria tomentosa on granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells (CFU-GM) and in the recovery of neutrophils after chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, by establishing the correlation with filgrastim (rhG-CSF) treatment to evaluate its possible use in clinical oncology. The in vivo assay was performed in ifosfamide-treated mice receiving oral doses of 5 and 15 mg of Uncaria tomentosa and intraperitoneal doses of 3 and 9 μg of filgrastim, respectively, for four days. Colony-forming cell (CFC) assays were performed with human hematopoietic stem/precursor cells (hHSPCs) obtained from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Bioassays showed that treatment with Uncaria tomentosa significantly increased the neutrophil count, and a potency of 85.2% was calculated in relation to filgrastim at the corresponding doses tested. An in vitro CFC assay showed an increase in CFU-GM size and mixed colonies (CFU-GEMM) size at the final concentrations of 100 and 200 μg extract/mL. At the tested doses, Uncaria tomentosa had a positive effect on myeloid progenitor number and is promising for use with chemotherapy to minimize the adverse effects of this treatment. These results support the belief of the Asháninkas, who have classified Uncaria tomentosa as a 'powerful plant'. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endothelial Progenitor Cells=EPC=Elemental Pernicious Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Ushio-Fukai, Masuko

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) represent a heterogeneous population of cells with a pro-angiogenic potential that are derived not only from bone marrow but also from other tissues. Depending on the model and cell type used, the pro-angiogenic effect is a consequence of direct vascular integration, the paracrine release of growth factors and cytokines, or complex interactions with other cellular components like monocytes or platelets. The pro-angiogenic potential of EPCs is dependent on the particular type of EPC studied and modulated by the risk and life style factors of the patient as well as by local factors determining the homing to diseased tissue and the EPC proteome. In this Forum on EPCs these aspects will be covered in individual review articles, which are accompanied by two original research studies on the role of NADPH oxidases for EPC mobilization and the impact of organic nitrates on EPCs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 911–914. PMID:21128729

  15. Very late antigen-5 facilitates stromal progenitor cell differentiation into myofibroblast.

    PubMed

    Sen, Namita; Weingarten, Mark; Peter, Yakov

    2014-11-01

    Fibrotic disease is associated with abrogated stromal cell proliferation and activity. The precise identity of the cells that drive fibrosis remains obscure, in part because of a lack of information on their lineage development. To investigate the role of an early stromal progenitor cell (SPC) on the fibrotic process, we selected for, and monitored the stages of, fibroblast development from a previously reported free-floating anchorage-independent cell (AIC) progenitor population. Our findings demonstrate that organotypic pulmonary, cardiac, and renal fibroblast commitment follows a two-step process of attachment and remodeling in culture. Cell differentiation was confirmed by the inability of SPCs to revert to the free-floating state and functional mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) differentiation into osteoblast, adipocyte, chondrocyte, and fibroblastic lineages. The myofibroblastic phenotype was reflected by actin stress-fiber formation, α-smooth muscle production, and a greater than threefold increase in proliferative activity compared with that of the progenitors. SPC-derived pulmonary myofibroblasts demonstrated a more than 300-fold increase in fibronectin-1 (Fn1), collagen, type 1, α1, integrin α-5 (Itga5), and integrin β-1 (Itgb1) transcript levels. Very late antigen-5 (ITGA5/ITGB1) protein cluster formations were also prevalent on the differentiated cells. Normalized SPC-derived myofibroblast expression patterns reflected those of primary cultured lung myofibroblasts. Intratracheal implantation of pulmonary AICs into recipient mouse lungs resulted in donor cell FN1 production and evidence of epithelial derivation. SPC derivation into stromal tissue in vitro and in vivo and the observation that MSC and fibroblast lineages share a common ancestor could potentially lead to personalized antifibrotic therapies. ©AlphaMed Press.

  16. Adaptive remodeling of the biliary tree: the essence of liver progenitor cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Kok, Cindy Yuet-Yin; Miyajima, Atsushi; Itoh, Tohru

    2015-07-01

    The liver progenitor cell population has long been thought to exist within the liver. However, there are no standardized criteria for defining the liver progenitor cells, and there has been intense debate about the origin of these cells in the adult liver. The characteristics of such cells vary depending on the disease model used and also on the method of analysis. Visualization of three-dimensional biliary structures has revealed that the emergence of liver progenitor cells essentially reflects the adaptive remodeling of the hepatic biliary network in response to liver injury. We propose that the progenitor cell exists as a subpopulation in the biliary tree and show that the appearance of liver progenitor cells in injured parenchyma is reflective of extensive remodeling of the biliary structure. © 2015 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  17. Fgf10-positive cells represent a progenitor cell population during lung development and postnatally

    PubMed Central

    El Agha, Elie; Herold, Susanne; Alam, Denise Al; Quantius, Jennifer; MacKenzie, BreAnne; Carraro, Gianni; Moiseenko, Alena; Chao, Cho-Ming; Minoo, Parviz; Seeger, Werner; Bellusci, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    The lung mesenchyme consists of a widely heterogeneous population of cells that play crucial roles during development and homeostasis after birth. These cells belong to myogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, neuronal and other lineages. Yet, no clear hierarchy for these lineages has been established. We have previously generated a novel Fgf10iCre knock-in mouse line that allows lineage tracing of Fgf10-positive cells during development and postnatally. Using these mice, we hereby demonstrate the presence of two waves of Fgf10 expression during embryonic lung development: the first wave, comprising Fgf10-positive cells residing in the submesothelial mesenchyme at early pseudoglandular stage (as well as their descendants); and the second wave, comprising Fgf10-positive cells from late pseudoglandular stage (as well as their descendants). Our lineage-tracing data reveal that the first wave contributes to the formation of parabronchial and vascular smooth muscle cells as well as lipofibroblasts at later developmental stages, whereas the second wave does not give rise to smooth muscle cells but to lipofibroblasts as well as an Nkx2.1- E-Cad- Epcam+ Pro-Spc+ lineage that requires further in-depth analysis. During alveologenesis, Fgf10-positive cells give rise to lipofibroblasts rather than alveolar myofibroblasts, and during adult life, a subpopulation of Fgf10-expressing cells represents a pool of resident mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) (Cd45- Cd31- Sca-1+). Taken together, we show for the first time that Fgf10-expressing cells represent a pool of mesenchymal progenitors in the embryonic and postnatal lung. Our findings suggest that Fgf10-positive cells could be useful for developing stem cell-based therapies for treating interstitial lung diseases. PMID:24353064

  18. Inflammation increases cells expressing ZSCAN4 and progenitor cell markers in the adult pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Niida, Shumpei; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    We have recently identified the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 4 (Zscan4), which is transiently expressed and regulates telomere elongation and genome stability in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of ZSCAN4 in the adult pancreas and elucidate the role of ZSCAN4 in tissue inflammation and subsequent regeneration. The expression of ZSCAN4 and other progenitor or differentiated cell markers in the human pancreas was immunohistochemically examined. Pancreas sections of alcoholic or autoimmune pancreatitis patients before and under maintenance corticosteroid treatment were used in this study. In the adult human pancreas a small number of ZSCAN4-positive (ZSCAN4+) cells are present among cells located in the islets of Langerhans, acini, ducts, and oval-shaped cells. These cells not only express differentiated cell markers for each compartment of the pancreas but also express other tissue stem/progenitor cell markers. Furthermore, the number of ZSCAN4+ cells dramatically increased in patients with chronic pancreatitis, especially in the pancreatic tissues of autoimmune pancreatitis actively regenerating under corticosteroid treatment. Interestingly, a number of ZSCAN4+ cells in the pancreas of autoimmune pancreatitis returned to the basal level after 1 yr of maintenance corticosteroid treatment. In conclusion, coexpression of progenitor cell markers and differentiated cell markers with ZSCAN4 in each compartment of the pancreas may indicate the presence of facultative progenitors for both exocrine and endocrine cells in the adult pancreas. PMID:23599043

  19. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  20. Culture materials affect ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    LaIuppa, J A; McAdams, T A; Papoutsakis, E T; Miller, W M

    1997-09-05

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells is important for applications such as cancer treatment, gene therapy, and transfusion medicine. While cell culture systems are widely used to evaluate the biocompatibility of materials for implantation, the ability of materials to support proliferation of primary human cells in cultures for reinfusion into patients has not been addressed. We screened a variety of commercially available polymer (15 types), metal (four types), and glass substrates for their ability to support expansion of hematopoietic cells when cultured under conditions that would be encountered in a clinical setting. Cultures of peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for expansion of total cells and colony-forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM; progenitors committed to the granulocyte and/or monocyte lineage). Human hematopoietic cultures in serum-free medium were found to be extremely sensitive to the substrate material. The only materials tested that supported expansion at or near the levels of polystyrene were tissue culture polystyrene, Teflon perfluoroalkoxy, Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene, cellulose acetate, titanium, new polycarbonate, and new polymethylpentene. MNC were less sensitive to the substrate materials than the primitive CD34+ progenitors, although similar trends were seen for expansion of the two cell populations on the substrates tested. CFU-GM expansion was more sensitive to substrate materials than was total cell expansion. The detrimental effects of a number of the materials on hematopoietic cultures appear to be caused by protein adsorption and/or leaching of toxins. Factors such as cleaning, sterilization, and reuse significantly affected the performance of some materials as culture substrates. We also used PB CD34+ cell cultures to examine the biocompatibility of gas-permeable cell culture and blood storage bags and several types of tubing commonly used with biomedical equipment

  1. Establishment and characterization of a unique 1 microm diameter liver-derived progenitor cell line.

    PubMed

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Behnan Sahin, M; Cressman, Erik N K; Steer, Clifford J

    2010-01-01

    Liver-derived progenitor cells (LDPCs) are recently identified novel stem/progenitor cells from healthy, unmanipulated adult rat livers. They are distinct from other known liver stem/progenitor cells such as the oval cells. In this study, we have generated a LDPC cell line RA1 by overexpressing the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen (TAg) in primary LDPCs. This cell line was propagated continuously for 55 passages in culture, after which it became senescent. Interestingly, following transformation with SV40 TAg, LDPCs decreased in size significantly and the propagating cells measured 1 microm in diameter. RA1 cells proliferated in vitro with a doubling time of 5-7 days, and expressed cell surface markers of LDPCs. In this report, we describe the characterization of this novel progenitor cell line that might serve as a valuable model to study liver cell functions and stem cell origin of liver cancers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from dissociated monolayer and feeder-free cultured pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Yuki; Bando, Yoshio; Ono, Takashi; Kobayashi, Sakurako; Doi, Ayano; Araki, Toshihiro; Kato, Yosuke; Shirakawa, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Junji; Yoshida, Shigetaka; Sato, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons and form myelin sheaths in the central nervous system. The development of therapies for demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis and leukodystrophies, is a challenge because the pathogenic mechanisms of disease remain poorly understood. Primate pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes are expected to help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of these diseases. Oligodendrocytes have been successfully differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells. However, it is challenging to prepare large amounts of oligodendrocytes over a short amount of time because of manipulation difficulties under conventional primate pluripotent stem cell culture methods. We developed a proprietary dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system to handle pluripotent stem cell cultures. Because the dissociated monolayer and feeder-free culture system improves the quality and growth of primate pluripotent stem cells, these cells could potentially be differentiated into any desired functional cells and consistently cultured in large-scale conditions. In the current study, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes were generated within three months from monkey embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes exhibited in vitro myelinogenic potency with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Additionally, the transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitor cells differentiated into myelin basic protein-positive mature oligodendrocytes in the mouse corpus callosum. This preparative method was used for human induced pluripotent stem cells, which were also successfully differentiated into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and mature oligodendrocytes that were capable of myelinating rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Moreover, it was possible to freeze, thaw, and successfully re-culture the differentiating cells. These results showed that embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells maintained in a

  3. Discovery, Progenitor and Early Evolution of a Stripped Envelope Supernova iPTF13bvn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Arcavi, Iair; Horesh, Assaf; Hancock, Paul; Valenti, Stefano; Cenko, S. Bradley; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gorbikov, Evgeny; Ofek, Eran O.; Sand, David; Yaron, Ofer; Graham, Melissa; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Marion, G. H.; Walker, Emma S.; Mazzali, Paolo; Howell, D. Andrew; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Surace, Jason; Masci, Frank; Carpenter, John; Degenaar, Nathalie; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2013-09-01

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory reports our discovery of a young supernova, iPTF13bvn, in the nearby galaxy, NGC 5806 (22.5 Mpc). Our spectral sequence in the optical and infrared suggests a Type Ib classification. We identify a blue progenitor candidate in deep pre-explosion imaging within a 2σ error circle of 80 mas (8.7 pc). The candidate has an MB luminosity of -5.52 ± 0.39 mag and a B - I color of 0.25 ± 0.25 mag. If confirmed by future observations, this would be the first direct detection for a progenitor of a Type Ib. Fitting a power law to the early light curve, we find an extrapolated explosion date around 0.6 days before our first detection. We see no evidence of shock cooling. The pre-explosion detection limits constrain the radius of the progenitor to be smaller than a few solar radii. iPTF13bvn is also detected in centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. Fitting a synchrotron self-absorption model to our radio data, we find a mass-loading parameter of 1.3×1012 g cm-1. Assuming a wind velocity of 103 km s-1, we derive a progenitor mass-loss rate of 3 × 10-5 M ⊙ yr-1. Our observations, taken as a whole, are consistent with a Wolf-Rayet progenitor of the supernova iPTF13bvn.

  4. A Cell Model to Evaluate Chemical Effects on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Function

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells (CPC) represent a population of cells in the heart critical for its regeneration and function over a lifetime. The impact of chemicals on adult human CSC/CPC differentiation and function is unknown. Research was conducted to dev...

  5. Role of progenitor cell producing normal vagina by metaplasia in laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Pravin N.; Narkhede, Hemraj R.; Pawar, P. Amol; Mhatre, P. Jyoti; Kumar, Das Dhanjit

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Host of vaginoplasty techniques have been described. None has been successful in developing normal vagina. Laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty (LPV) is performed in Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) culminating in normal vagina. AIMS: This study aims to confirm normal development of neovagina by anatomical and functional parameters of histology, cytology, and ultrasonography (USG) in LPV. To identify peritoneal progenitor cell by OCT4/SOX2 markers. To demonstrate the metaplastic conversion of peritoneum to neovagina and the progenitor cell concentration, distribution pattern. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is prospective experimental study, conducted at teaching hospital and private hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifteen women of MRKHS underwent LPV followed by histology, cytology, two-/three-dimensional USG of neovagina. Four women underwent peritoneal biopsy for identification of progenitor cells with OCT4/SOX2 markers. One patient underwent serial biopsies for 4 weeks for histology and progenitor cell immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Normal vaginal histology and cytology were apparent. USG of neovagina showed normal appearance and blood flow. Two peritoneal samples confirmed the presence of progenitor cells. Serial biopsies demonstrated the epithelial change from single to multilayer with stromal compaction and neoangiogenesis. The progenitor cells concentration and different distribution patterns were described using SOX2/OCT4 markers. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown successful peritoneal metaplastic conversion to normal vagina in LPV. The progenitor cell was identified in normal peritoneum using SOX2/OCT4 markers. The progenitor cell concentration and pattern were demonstrated at various stages of neovaginal development. PMID:28216908

  6. Hepatic progenitor cells of biliary origin with liver repopulation capacity

    PubMed Central

    Boulter, Luke; Tsuchiya, Atsunori; Cole, Alicia M; Hay, Trevor; Guest, Rachel V; Wojtacha, Davina; Man, Tak Yung; Mackinnon, Alison; Ridgway, Rachel A; Kendall, Timothy; Williams, Michael J; Jamieson, Thomas; Raven, Alex; Hay, David C; Iredale, John P; Clarke, Alan R; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes self renew following liver injury. Following severe injury hepatocytes are increasingly senescent, whether Hepatic Progenitor Cells (HPCs) then contribute to liver regeneration is unclear. Here, we describe a mouse model where Mdm2 is inducibly deleted in over 98% of hepatocytes, causing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence with nearly all hepatocytes expressing p21. This results in florid HPC activation, which is necessary for survival, followed by complete, functional liver reconstitution. HPCs isolated from genetically normal mice, using cell surface markers, were highly expandable and phenotypically stable in vitro. These HPCs were transplanted into adult mouse livers where hepatocyte Mdm2 was repeatedly deleted, creating a non-competitive repopulation assay. Transplanted HPCs contributed significantly to restoration of liver parenchyma, regenerating hepatocytes and biliary epithelia, highlighting their in vivo lineage potency. HPCs are therefore a potential future alternative to hepatocyte or liver transplantation for liver disease. PMID:26192438

  7. Transcriptome Profiles of Isolated Murine Achilles Tendon Proper- and Peritenon- Derived Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Mienaltowski, Michael J; Cánovas, Angela; Fates, Valerie A; Hampton, Angela R; Pechanec, Monica Y; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Medrano, Juan F

    2018-06-21

    Progenitor cells of the tendon proper and peritenon have unique properties that could impact their utilization in tendon repair strategies. While a few markers have been found to aid in distinguishing progenitors cells from each region, there is great value in identifying more markers. In this study, we hypothesized that RNAseq could be used to improve our understanding of those markers that define these cell types. Transcriptome profiles were generated for pools of mouse Achilles tendon progenitor cells from both regions and catalogues of potential markers were generated. Moreover, common (e.g., glycoprotein, signaling, and proteinaceous extracellular matrix) and unique (e.g., cartilage development versus angiogenesis and muscle contraction) biological processes and molecular functions were described for progenitors from each region. Real-time quantitative PCR of a subset of genes was used to gain insight into the heterogeneity amongst individual progenitor colonies from each region. Markers like Scx, Mkx, Thbs4, and Wnt10a were consistently able to distinguish tendon proper progenitors from peritenon progenitors; expression variability for other genes suggested greater cell type complexity for potential peritenon progenitor markers. This is the first effort to define Achilles tendon progenitor markers by region. Further efforts to investigate the value of these catalogued markers are required by screening more individual colonies of progenitors for more markers. Findings from this study advance efforts in the discernment of cell type specific markers for tendon proper and peritenon progenitor cells; insight into marker sets could improve tracking and sorting strategies for these cells for future therapeutic strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent progress on normal and malignant pancreatic stem/progenitor cell research: therapeutic implications for the treatment of type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus and aggressive pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mimeault, M; Batra, S K

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress on pancreatic stem/progenitor cell research has revealed that the putative multipotent pancreatic stem/progenitor cells and/or more committed beta cell precursors may persist in the pancreatic gland in adult life. The presence of immature pancreatic cells with stem cell-like properties offers the possibility of stimulating their in vivo expansion and differentiation or to use their ex vivo expanded progenies for beta cell replacement-based therapies for type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. In addition, the transplantation of either insulin-producing beta cells derived from embryonic, fetal and other tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells or genetically modified adult stem/progenitor cells may also constitute alternative promising therapies for treating diabetic patients. The genetic and/or epigenetic alterations in putative pancreatic adult stem/progenitor cells and/or their early progenies may, however, contribute to their acquisition of a dysfunctional behaviour as well as their malignant transformation into pancreatic cancer stem/progenitor cells. More particularly, the activation of distinct tumorigenic signalling cascades, including the hedgehog, epidermal growth factor–epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF–EGFR) system, wingless ligand (Wnt)/β-catenin and/or stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)–CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) pathways may play a major role in the sustained growth, survival, metastasis and/or drug resistance of pancreatic cancer stem/progenitor cells and their further differentiated progenies. The combination of drugs that target the oncogenic elements in pancreatic cancer stem/progenitor cells and their microenvironment, with the conventional chemotherapeutic regimens, could represent promising therapeutic strategies. These novel targeted therapies should lead to the development of more effective treatments of locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancers, which remain incurable with current therapies

  9. Circulating endothelial cells and their progenitors in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Asmaa Mohammed; Aly, Sanaa Shaker; Altayeb, Hanan Ahmed; Ali, Arwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological malignancy characterized by the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow. Studies are required to investigate the prognostic and predictive value of surrogate biomarkers. Given the importance of angiogenesis in oncology in terms of pathogenesis as well as being a target for treatment, circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are promising candidates to serve as such markers. The aim of the present study was to quantify CECs and EPCs in patients with AML at initial diagnosis and following induction chemotherapy, and to correlate these findings with the response to treatment in AML patients. The present study included 40 patients with de novo AML and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CECs and EPCs were evaluated by flow cytometry at initial diagnosis and after induction chemotherapy (3+7 protocol for AML other than M3 and all-trans-retinoic acid plus anthracycline for M3 disease). CECs and EPCs were significantly higher in AML patients at diagnosis and after induction chemotherapy than in controls. After induction chemotherapy, CECs and EPCs were significantly decreased compared with the levels at initial diagnosis. Patients who achieved complete response (n=28) had lower initial CEC and EPC levels compared with patients who did not respond to treatment. These results suggest that CEC levels are higher in AML patients and may correlate with disease status and treatment response. Further investigations are required to better determine the predictive value and implication of these cells in AML management. PMID:27602121

  10. Hematopoietic stem cells can differentiate into restricted myeloid progenitors before cell division in mice.

    PubMed

    Grinenko, Tatyana; Eugster, Anne; Thielecke, Lars; Ramasz, Beáta; Krüger, Anja; Dietz, Sevina; Glauche, Ingmar; Gerbaulet, Alexander; von Bonin, Malte; Basak, Onur; Clevers, Hans; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Wielockx, Ben

    2018-05-15

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) continuously replenish all blood cell types through a series of differentiation steps and repeated cell divisions that involve the generation of lineage-committed progenitors. However, whether cell division in HSCs precedes differentiation is unclear. To this end, we used an HSC cell-tracing approach and Ki67 RFP knock-in mice, in a non-conditioned transplantation model, to assess divisional history, cell cycle progression, and differentiation of adult HSCs. Our results reveal that HSCs are able to differentiate into restricted progenitors, especially common myeloid, megakaryocyte-erythroid and pre-megakaryocyte progenitors, without undergoing cell division and even before entering the S phase of the cell cycle. Additionally, the phenotype of the undivided but differentiated progenitors correlated with the expression of lineage-specific genes and loss of multipotency. Thus HSC fate decisions can be uncoupled from physical cell division. These results facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms that control fate decisions in hematopoietic cells.

  11. PRMT5 is essential for the maintenance of chondrogenic progenitor cells in the limb bud.

    PubMed

    Norrie, Jacqueline L; Li, Qiang; Co, Swanie; Huang, Bau-Lin; Ding, Ding; Uy, Jann C; Ji, Zhicheng; Mackem, Susan; Bedford, Mark T; Galli, Antonella; Ji, Hongkai; Vokes, Steven A

    2016-12-15

    During embryonic development, undifferentiated progenitor cells balance the generation of additional progenitor cells with differentiation. Within the developing limb, cartilage cells differentiate from mesodermal progenitors in an ordered process that results in the specification of the correct number of appropriately sized skeletal elements. The internal pathways by which these cells maintain an undifferentiated state while preserving their capacity to differentiate is unknown. Here, we report that the arginine methyltransferase PRMT5 has a crucial role in maintaining progenitor cells. Mouse embryonic buds lacking PRMT5 have severely truncated bones with wispy digits lacking joints. This novel phenotype is caused by widespread cell death that includes mesodermal progenitor cells that have begun to precociously differentiate into cartilage cells. We propose that PRMT5 maintains progenitor cells through its regulation of Bmp4 Intriguingly, adult and embryonic stem cells also require PRMT5 for maintaining pluripotency, suggesting that similar mechanisms might regulate lineage-restricted progenitor cells during organogenesis. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Osteocalcin expression by circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gössl, Mario; Mödder, Ulrike I; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Lerman, Amir; Khosla, Sundeep

    2008-10-14

    This study was designed to test whether patients with coronary atherosclerosis have increases in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) expressing an osteogenic phenotype. Increasing evidence indicates a link between bone and the vasculature, and bone marrow and circulating osteogenic cells have been identified by staining for the osteoblastic marker, osteocalcin (OCN). Endothelial progenitor cells contribute to vascular repair, but repair of vascular injury may result in calcification. Using cell surface markers (CD34, CD133, kinase insert domain receptor [KDR]) to identify EPCs, we examined whether patients with coronary atherosclerosis had increases in the percentage of EPCs expressing OCN. We studied 72 patients undergoing invasive coronary assessment: control patients (normal coronary arteries and no endothelial dysfunction, n = 21) versus 2 groups with coronary atherosclerosis-early coronary atherosclerosis (normal coronary arteries but with endothelial dysfunction, n = 22) and late coronary atherosclerosis (severe, multivessel coronary artery disease, n = 29). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed using flow cytometry. Compared with control patients, patients with early or late coronary atherosclerosis had significant increases (approximately 2-fold) in the percentage of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ cells costaining for OCN. Even larger increases were noted in the early and late coronary atherosclerosis patients in the percentage of CD34+/CD133-/KDR+ cells costaining for OCN (5- and 2-fold, p < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). A higher percentage of EPCs express OCN in patients with coronary atherosclerosis compared with subjects with normal endothelial function and no structural coronary artery disease. These findings have potential implications for the mechanisms of vascular calcification and for the development of novel markers for coronary atherosclerosis.

  13. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Prenatally fabricated autologous human living heart valves based on amniotic fluid derived progenitor cells as single cell source.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dörthe; Achermann, Josef; Odermatt, Bernhard; Breymann, Christian; Mol, Anita; Genoni, Michele; Zund, Gregor; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2007-09-11

    A novel concept providing prenatally tissue engineered human autologous heart valves based on routinely obtained fetal amniotic fluid progenitors as single cell source is introduced. Fetal human amniotic progenitors were isolated from routinely sampled amniotic fluid and sorted using CD133 magnetic beads. After expansion and differentiation, cell phenotypes of CD133- and CD133+ cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and flowcytometry. After characterization, CD133- derived cells were seeded onto heart valve leaflet scaffolds (n=18) fabricated from rapidly biodegradable polymers, conditioned in a pulse duplicator system, and subsequently coated with CD133+ derived cells. After in vitro maturation, opening and closing behavior of leaflets was investigated. Neo-tissues were analyzed by histology, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extracellular matrix (ECM) elements and cell numbers were quantified biochemically. Mechanical properties were assessed by tensile testing. CD133- derived cells demonstrated characteristics of mesenchymal progenitors expressing CD44 and CD105. Differentiated CD133+ cells showed features of functional endothelial cells by eNOS and CD141 expression. Engineered heart valve leaflets demonstrated endothelialized tissue formation with production of ECM elements (GAG 80%, HYP 5%, cell number 100% of native values). SEM showed intact endothelial surfaces. Opening and closing behavior was sufficient under half of systemic conditions. The use of amniotic fluid as single cell source is a promising low-risk approach enabling the prenatal fabrication of heart valves ready to use at birth. These living replacements with the potential of growth, remodeling, and regeneration may realize the early repair of congenital malformations.

  15. Supernova 2012ec: identification of the progenitor and early monitoring with PESSTO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, J. R.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Botticella, M. T.; Barbarino, C.; Childress, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Inserra, C.; Pignata, G.; Reichart, D.; Schmidt, B.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.

    2013-04-01

    We present the identification of the progenitor of the Type IIP SN 2012ec in archival pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel F814W images. The properties of the progenitor are further constrained by non-detections in pre-explosion WFPC2 F450W and F606W images. We report a series of early photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012ec. The r'-band light curve shows a plateau with M_{r^' }}=-17.0. The early spectrum is similar to the Type IIP SN 1999em, with the expansion velocity measured at Hα absorption minimum of -11 700 km s-1 (at 1 d post-discovery). The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2012ec shows it to be a Type IIP SN, discovered only a few days post-explosion (<6 d). We derive a luminosity for the progenitor, in comparison with MARCS model spectral energy distributions, of log {L/L}_{⊙} = 5.15± 0.19, from which we infer an initial mass range of 14-22 M⊙. This is the first SN with an identified progenitor to be followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO).

  16. Proteomic Cornerstones of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation: Distinct Signatures of Multipotent Progenitors and Myeloid Committed Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Klimmeck, Daniel; Hansson, Jenny; Raffel, Simon; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Trumpp, Andreas; Krijgsveld, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative tissues such as the skin epidermis, the intestinal mucosa or the hematopoietic system are organized in a hierarchical manner with stem cells building the top of this hierarchy. Somatic stem cells harbor the highest self-renewal activity and generate a series of multipotent progenitors which differentiate into lineage committed progenitors and subsequently mature cells. In this report, we applied an in-depth quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare the full proteomes of ex vivo isolated and FACS-sorted populations highly enriched for either multipotent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, LinnegSca-1+c-Kit+) or myeloid committed precursors (LinnegSca-1−c-Kit+). By employing stable isotope dimethyl labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry, more than 5000 proteins were quantified. From biological triplicate experiments subjected to rigorous statistical evaluation, 893 proteins were found differentially expressed between multipotent and myeloid committed cells. The differential protein content in these cell populations points to a distinct structural organization of the cytoskeleton including remodeling activity. In addition, we found a marked difference in the expression of metabolic enzymes, including a clear shift of specific protein isoforms of the glycolytic pathway. Proteins involved in translation showed a collective higher expression in myeloid progenitors, indicating an increased translational activity. Strikingly, the data uncover a unique signature related to immune defense mechanisms, centering on the RIG-I and type-1 interferon response systems, which are installed in multipotent progenitors but not evident in myeloid committed cells. This suggests that specific, and so far unrecognized, mechanisms protect these immature cells before they mature. In conclusion, this study indicates that the transition of hematopoietic stem/progenitors toward myeloid commitment is accompanied by a profound change in processing of

  17. CD24-Positive Cells from Normal Adult Mouse Liver Are Hepatocyte Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Qiong; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Dean, Adam M.; Rao, Pulivarthi H.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of specific cell surface markers that can be used to isolate liver progenitor cells will greatly facilitate experimentation to determine the role of these cells in liver regeneration and their potential for therapeutic transplantation. Previously, the cell surface marker, CD24, was observed to be expressed on undifferentiated bipotential mouse embryonic liver stem cells and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-induced oval cells. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a rare, primary, nonhematopoietic, CD24+ progenitor cell population from normal, untreated mouse liver. By immunohistochemistry, CD24-expressing cells in normal adult mouse liver were colocalized with CK19-positive cholangiocytes. This nonhematopoietic (CD45−, Ter119−) CD24+ cell population isolated by flow cytometry represented 0.04% of liver cells and expressed several markers of liver progenitor/oval cells. The immunophenotype of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells was CD133, Dlk, and Sca-1 high, but c-Kit, Thy-1, and CD34 low. The CD24+ cells had increased expression of CK19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Sox 9, and FN14 compared with the unsorted cells. Upon transplantation of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells under the sub-capsule of the livers of Fah knockout mice, cells differentiated into mature functional hepatocytes. Analysis of X and Y chromosome complements were used to determine whether or not fusion of the engrafted cells with the recipient hepatocytes occurred. No cells were found that contained XXXY or any other combination of donor and host sex chromosomes as would be expected if cell fusion had occurred. These results suggested that CD24 can be used as a cell surface marker for isolation of hepatocyte progenitor cells from normal adult liver that are able to differentiate into hepatocytes. PMID:21361791

  18. CD24-positive cells from normal adult mouse liver are hepatocyte progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qiong; Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Dean, Adam M; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Darlington, Gretchen J

    2011-12-01

    The identification of specific cell surface markers that can be used to isolate liver progenitor cells will greatly facilitate experimentation to determine the role of these cells in liver regeneration and their potential for therapeutic transplantation. Previously, the cell surface marker, CD24, was observed to be expressed on undifferentiated bipotential mouse embryonic liver stem cells and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine-induced oval cells. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of a rare, primary, nonhematopoietic, CD24+ progenitor cell population from normal, untreated mouse liver. By immunohistochemistry, CD24-expressing cells in normal adult mouse liver were colocalized with CK19-positive cholangiocytes. This nonhematopoietic (CD45-, Ter119-) CD24+ cell population isolated by flow cytometry represented 0.04% of liver cells and expressed several markers of liver progenitor/oval cells. The immunophenotype of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells was CD133, Dlk, and Sca-1 high, but c-Kit, Thy-1, and CD34 low. The CD24+ cells had increased expression of CK19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, Sox 9, and FN14 compared with the unsorted cells. Upon transplantation of nonhematopoietic CD24+ cells under the sub-capsule of the livers of Fah knockout mice, cells differentiated into mature functional hepatocytes. Analysis of X and Y chromosome complements were used to determine whether or not fusion of the engrafted cells with the recipient hepatocytes occurred. No cells were found that contained XXXY or any other combination of donor and host sex chromosomes as would be expected if cell fusion had occurred. These results suggested that CD24 can be used as a cell surface marker for isolation of hepatocyte progenitor cells from normal adult liver that are able to differentiate into hepatocytes.

  19. Exposure to ultrafine particles, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes and altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Kim; Møller, Peter; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Olsen, Yulia; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Loft, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to particles in the fine and ultrafine size range has been linked to induction of low-grade systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. Declining levels of endothelial progenitor cells within systemic circulation have likewise been linked to progression of cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to determine if exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor and outdoor sources, assessed by personal and residential indoor monitoring, is associated with altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells, and whether such effects are related to leukocyte-mediated oxidative stress. The study utilized a cross sectional design performed in 58 study participants from a larger cohort. Levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, defined as either late (CD34(+)KDR(+) cells) or early (CD34(+)CD133(+)KDR(+) cells) subsets were measured using polychromatic flow cytometry. We additionally measured production of reactive oxygen species in leukocyte subsets (lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) by flow cytometry using intracellular 2',7'-dichlorofluoroscein. The measurements encompassed both basal levels of reactive oxygen species production and capacity for reactive oxygen species production for each leukocyte subset. We found that the late endothelial progenitor subset was negatively associated with levels of ultrafine particles measured within the participant residences and with reactive oxygen species production capacity in lymphocytes. Additionally, the early endothelial progenitor cell levels were positively associated with a personalised measure of ultrafine particle exposure and negatively associated with both basal and capacity for reactive oxygen species production in lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively. Our results indicate that exposure to fine and ultrafine particles derived from indoor sources may have adverse effects on human vascular health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  20. Identification, emergence and mobilization of circulating endothelial cells or progenitors in the embryo.

    PubMed

    Pardanaud, Luc; Eichmann, Anne

    2006-07-01

    Using quail-chick parabiosis and QH1 monoclonal antibody analysis, we have identified circulating endothelial cells and/or progenitors in the embryo. These cells were already present early in ontogeny, before the third embryonic day. Under normal conditions, they integrated into most tissues but remained scarce. When experimental angiogenic responses were induced by wounding or grafts onto the chorioallantoic membrane, circulating endothelial cells were rapidly mobilized and selectively integrated sites of neoangiogenesis. Their mobilization was not dependent on the presence of the bone marrow as it was effective before its differentiation. Surprisingly, mobilization was not effective during sprouting angiogenesis following VEGF treatment of chorioallantoic membrane. Thus, embryonic circulating endothelial cells were efficiently mobilized during the establishment of an initial vascular supply to ischemic tissues following wounding or grafting, but were not involved during classical sprouting angiogenesis.

  1. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived glial cells and neural progenitors display divergent responses to Zika and dengue infections.

    PubMed

    Muffat, Julien; Li, Yun; Omer, Attya; Durbin, Ann; Bosch, Irene; Bakiasi, Grisilda; Richards, Edward; Meyer, Aaron; Gehrke, Lee; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2018-06-18

    Maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is recognized as the cause of an epidemic of microcephaly and other neurological anomalies in human fetuses. It remains unclear how ZIKV accesses the highly vulnerable population of neural progenitors of the fetal central nervous system (CNS), and which cell types of the CNS may be viral reservoirs. In contrast, the related dengue virus (DENV) does not elicit teratogenicity. To model viral interaction with cells of the fetal CNS in vitro, we investigated the tropism of ZIKV and DENV for different induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human cells, with a particular focus on microglia-like cells. We show that ZIKV infected isogenic neural progenitors, astrocytes, and microglia-like cells (pMGLs), but was only cytotoxic to neural progenitors. Infected glial cells propagated ZIKV and maintained ZIKV load over time, leading to viral spread to susceptible cells. DENV triggered stronger immune responses and could be cleared by neural and glial cells more efficiently. pMGLs, when cocultured with neural spheroids, invaded the tissue and, when infected with ZIKV, initiated neural infection. Since microglia derive from primitive macrophages originating in proximity to the maternal vasculature, they may act as a viral reservoir for ZIKV and establish infection of the fetal brain. Infection of immature neural stem cells by invading microglia may occur in the early stages of pregnancy, before angiogenesis in the brain rudiments. Our data are also consistent with ZIKV and DENV affecting the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, thus allowing infection of the brain later in life.

  2. Coronary Artery Development: Progenitor Cells and Differentiation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bikram; Chang, Andrew; Red-Horse, Kristy

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the number one cause of death worldwide and involves the accumulation of plaques within the artery wall that can occlude blood flow to the heart and cause myocardial infarction. The high mortality associated with CAD makes the development of medical interventions that repair and replace diseased arteries a high priority for the cardiovascular research community. Advancements in arterial regenerative medicine could benefit from a detailed understanding of coronary artery development during embryogenesis and of how these pathways might be reignited during disease. Recent research has advanced our knowledge on how the coronary vasculature is built and revealed unexpected features of progenitor cell deployment that may have implications for organogenesis in general. Here, we highlight these recent findings and discuss how they set the stage to interrogate developmental pathways during injury and disease. PMID:27959616

  3. Tbx16 regulates hox gene activation in mesodermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Payumo, Alexander Y.; McQuade, Lindsey E.; Walker, Whitney J.; Yamazoe, Sayumi; Chen, James K.

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor T-box 16 (Tbx16/Spadetail) is an essential regulator of paraxial mesoderm development in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs) fail to differentiate into trunk somites in tbx16 mutants and instead accumulate within the tailbud in an immature state. The mechanisms by which Tbx16 controls mesoderm patterning have remained enigmatic, and we describe here the application of photoactivatable morpholino oligonucleotides to determine the Tbx16 transcriptome in MPCs. We identify 124 Tbx16-regulated genes that are expressed in zebrafish gastrulae, including several developmental signaling proteins and regulators of gastrulation, myogenesis, and somitogenesis. Unexpectedly, we observe that loss of Tbx16 function precociously activates posterior hox genes in MPCs, and overexpression of a single posterior hox gene is sufficient to disrupt MPC migration. Our studies support a model in which Tbx16 regulates the timing of collinear hox gene activation to coordinate the anterior-posterior fates and positions of paraxial MPCs. PMID:27376691

  4. Sources of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells and Methods to Optimize Yields for Clinical Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Panch, Sandhya R; Szymanski, James; Savani, Bipin N; Stroncek, David F

    2017-08-01

    Bone marrow (BM) aspirates, mobilized peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood (UCB) have developed as graft sources for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for stem cell transplantation and other cellular therapeutics. Individualized techniques are necessary to enhance graft HSPC yields and cell quality from each graft source. BM aspirates yield adequate CD34 + cells but can result in relative delays in engraftment. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed BM HSPCs may facilitate faster engraftment while minimizing graft-versus-host disease in certain patient subsets. The levels of circulating HSPCs are enhanced using mobilizing agents, such as G-CSF and/or plerixafor, which act via the stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 axis. Alternate niche pathway mediators, including very late antigen-4/vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, heparan sulfate proteoglycans, parathyroid hormone, and coagulation cascade intermediates, may offer promising alternatives for graft enhancement. UCB grafts have been expanded ex vivo with cytokines, notch-ligand, or mesenchymal stromal cells, and most studies demonstrated greater quantities of CD34 + cells ex vivo and improved short-term engraftment. No significant changes were observed in long-term repopulating potential or in patient survival. Early phase clinical trials using nicotinamide and StemReginin1 may offer improved short- and long-term repopulating ability. Breakthroughs in genome editing and stem cell reprogramming technologies may hasten the generation of pooled, third-party HSPC grafts. This review elucidates past, present, and potential future approaches to HSPC graft optimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Foetal hepatic progenitor cells assume a cholangiocytic cell phenotype during two-dimensional pre-culture.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Kazuya; Chikada, Hiromi; Tsuruya, Kota; Ida, Kinuyo; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Inagaki, Yutaka; Mine, Tesuya; Kamiya, Akihide

    2016-06-23

    Liver consists of parenchymal hepatocytes and other cells. Liver progenitor cell (LPC) is the origin of both hepatocytes and cholangiocytic cells. The analyses of mechanism regulating differentiation of LPCs into these functional cells are important for liver regenerative therapy using progenitor cells. LPCs in adult livers were found to form cysts with cholangiocytic characteristics in 3D culture. In contrast, foetal LPCs cannot form these cholangiocytic cysts in the same culture. Thus, the transition of foetal LPCs into cholangiocytic progenitor cells might occur during liver development. Primary CD45(-)Ter119(-)Dlk1(+) LPCs derived from murine foetal livers formed ALBUMIN (ALB)(+)CYTOKERATIN (CK)19(-) non-cholangiocytic cysts within 3D culture. In contrast, when foetal LPCs were pre-cultured on gelatine-coated dishes, they formed ALB(-)CK19(+) cholangiocytic cysts. When hepatocyte growth factor or oncostatin M, which are inducers of hepatocytic differentiation, was added to pre-culture, LPCs did not form cholangiocytic cysts. These results suggest that the pre-culture on gelatine-coated dishes changed the characteristics of foetal LPCs into cholangiocytic cells. Furthermore, neonatal liver progenitor cells were able to form cholangiocytic cysts in 3D culture without pre-culture. It is therefore possible that the pre-culture of mid-foetal LPCs in vitro functioned as a substitute for the late-foetal maturation step in vivo.

  6. Thymus-autonomous T cell development in the absence of progenitor import.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vera C; Ruggiero, Eliana; Schlenner, Susan M; Madan, Vikas; Schmidt, Manfred; Fink, Pamela J; von Kalle, Christof; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2012-07-30

    Thymus function is thought to depend on a steady supply of T cell progenitors from the bone marrow. The notion that the thymus lacks progenitors with self-renewal capacity is based on thymus transplantation experiments in which host-derived thymocytes replaced thymus-resident cells within 4 wk. Thymus grafting into T cell-deficient mice resulted in a wave of T cell export from the thymus, followed by colonization of the thymus by host-derived progenitors, and cessation of T cell development. Compound Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-)Kit(W/Wv) mutants lack competitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and are devoid of T cell progenitors. In this study, using this strain as recipients for wild-type thymus grafts, we noticed thymus-autonomous T cell development lasting several months. However, we found no evidence for export of donor HSCs from thymus to bone marrow. A diverse T cell antigen receptor repertoire in progenitor-deprived thymus grafts implied that many thymocytes were capable of self-renewal. Although the process was most efficient in Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-)Kit(W/Wv) hosts, γ(c)-mediated signals alone played a key role in the competition between thymus-resident and bone marrow-derived progenitors. Hence, the turnover of each generation of thymocytes is not only based on short life span but is also driven via expulsion of resident thymocytes by fresh progenitors entering the thymus.

  7. l-Arginine is a Radioprotector for Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Linda L.; Zheng, Xichen; Martinez-Bosch, Sandra; Kerr, Patrick P.; Khlangwiset, Pornsri; Epperly, Michael W.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Greenberger, Joel S.; Peterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    l-Arginine is shown to protect hematopoietic progenitor (32D cl 3) cells from death due to exposure to γ radiation (137Cs). Some of the other intermediates in the urea cycle, namely ornithine and citrulline, plus urea itself, were not found to have any significant impact on cell survival after irradiation. Intriguingly, supplementation of irradiated cells with l-arginine results in decreased production of peroxynitrite, suggesting that suppression of superoxide generation by nitric oxide synthase in one or more microenvironments is an important factor in the observed radioprotection. The absence of any radioprotective effect of l-arginine in cells at 3% oxygen also confirms the involvement of one or more oxygen-derived species. Knockdown experiments with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) siRNAs in cells and NOS knockout animals confirm that the observed radioprotection is associated with nNOS (NOS-1). l-Arginine also ameliorates the transient inhibition of the electron-transport chain complex I that occurs within 30 min of completing the dose (10 Gy) and that appears to be a functional marker for postirradiation mitochondrial oxidant production. PMID:22175298

  8. Type 2 Diabetes Dysregulates Glucose Metabolism in Cardiac Progenitor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Salabei, Joshua K.; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Mehra, Parul; Gibb, Andrew A.; Haberzettl, Petra; Hong, Kyung U.; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiang; Li, Qianhong; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Bolli, Roberto; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Hill, Bradford G.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with increased mortality and progression to heart failure. Recent studies suggest that diabetes also impairs reparative responses after cell therapy. In this study, we examined potential mechanisms by which diabetes affects cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). CPCs isolated from the diabetic heart showed diminished proliferation, a propensity for cell death, and a pro-adipogenic phenotype. The diabetic CPCs were insulin-resistant, and they showed higher energetic reliance on glycolysis, which was associated with up-regulation of the pro-glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3). In WT CPCs, expression of a mutant form of PFKFB, which mimics PFKFB3 activity and increases glycolytic rate, was sufficient to phenocopy the mitochondrial and proliferative deficiencies found in diabetic cells. Consistent with activation of phosphofructokinase in diabetic cells, stable isotope carbon tracing in diabetic CPCs showed dysregulation of the pentose phosphate and glycero(phospho)lipid synthesis pathways. We describe diabetes-induced dysregulation of carbon partitioning using stable isotope metabolomics-based coupling quotients, which relate relative flux values between metabolic pathways. These findings suggest that diabetes causes an imbalance in glucose carbon allocation by uncoupling biosynthetic pathway activity, which could diminish the efficacy of CPCs for myocardial repair. PMID:27151219

  9. Low- and high-LET radiation drives clonal expansion of lung progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Farin, Alicia M.; Manzo, Nicholas D.; Kirsch, David G.; Stripp, Barry R.

    2015-01-01

    Abundant populations of epithelial progenitor cells maintain the epithelium along the proximal-to-distal axis of the airway. Exposure of lung tissue to ionizing radiation leads to tissue remodeling and potential cancer initiation or progression. However, little is known about the effects of ionizing radiation on airway epithelial progenitor cells. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation exposure will alter the behavior of airway epithelial progenitor cells in a radiation dose- and quality-dependent manner. To address this hypothesis, we cultured primary airway epithelial cells isolated from mice exposed to various doses of 320 kVp X-ray or 600 MeV/nucleon 56Fe ions in a 3D epithelial-fibroblast co-culture system. Colony-forming efficiency of the airway epithelial progenitor cells was assessed at culture day 14. In vivo clonogenic and proliferative potentials of airway epithelial progenitor cells were measured after exposure to ionizing radiation by lineage tracing and IdU incorporation. Exposure to both X-rays and 56Fe resulted in a dose dependent decrease in the ability of epithelial progenitors to form colonies in vitro. In vivo evidence for increased clonogenic expansion of epithelial progenitors was observed after exposure to both X-rays and 56Fe. Interestingly, we found no significant increase in the epithelial proliferative index, indicating that ionizing radiation does not promote increased turnover of the airway epithelium. Therefore, we propose a model in which radiation induces a dose-dependent decrease in the pool of available progenitor cells, leaving fewer progenitors able to maintain the airway long-term. This work provides novel insights into the effects of ionizing radiation exposure on airway epithelial progenitor cell behavior. PMID:25564721

  10. An intermediate level of BMP signaling directly specifies cranial neural crest progenitor cells in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jennifer A; Hashiguchi, Megumi; Nguyen, Vu H; Mullins, Mary C

    2011-01-01

    The specification of the neural crest progenitor cell (NCPC) population in the early vertebrate embryo requires an elaborate network of signaling pathways, one of which is the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway. Based on alterations in neural crest gene expression in zebrafish BMP pathway component mutants, we previously proposed a model in which the gastrula BMP morphogen gradient establishes an intermediate level of BMP activity establishing the future NCPC domain. Here, we tested this model and show that an intermediate level of BMP signaling acts directly to specify the NCPC. We quantified the effects of reducing BMP signaling on the number of neural crest cells and show that neural crest cells are significantly increased when BMP signaling is reduced and that this increase is not due to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, when BMP signaling is eliminated, NCPC fail to be specified. We modulated BMP signaling levels in BMP pathway mutants with expanded or no NCPCs to demonstrate that an intermediate level of BMP signaling specifies the NCPC. We further investigated the ability of Smad5 to act in a graded fashion by injecting smad5 antisense morpholinos and show that increasing doses first expand the NCPCs and then cause a loss of NCPCs, consistent with Smad5 acting directly in neural crest progenitor specification. Using Western blot analysis, we show that P-Smad5 levels are dose-dependently reduced in smad5 morphants, consistent with an intermediate level of BMP signaling acting through Smad5 to specify the neural crest progenitors. Finally, we performed chimeric analysis to demonstrate for the first time that BMP signal reception is required directly by NCPCs for their specification. Together these results add substantial evidence to a model in which graded BMP signaling acts as a morphogen to pattern the ectoderm, with an intermediate level acting in neural crest specification.

  11. Cerebellar Granule Cell Replenishment Post-Injury by Adaptive Reprogramming of Nestin+ Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Wojcinski, Alexandre; Lawton, Andrew K.; Bayin, N Sumru.; Lao, Zhimin; Stephen, Daniel N.; Joyner, Alexandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Regeneration of several organs involves adaptive reprogramming of progenitors, however, the intrinsic capacity of the developing brain to replenish lost cells remains largely unknown. In this study, we discovered that the developing cerebellum has unappreciated progenitor plasticity, since it undergoes near full growth and functional recovery following acute depletion of granule cells, the most plentiful neuron population in the brain. We demonstrate that following postnatal ablation of granule cell progenitors, Nestin-expressing progenitors (NEPs) specified during mid-embryogenesis to produce astroglia and interneurons, switch their fate and generate granule neurons in mice. Moreover, Hedgehog-signaling in two NEP populations is crucial not only for the compensatory replenishment of granule neurons but also to scale interneuron and astrocyte numbers. Thus we provide insights into the mechanisms underlying robustness of circuit formation in the cerebellum, and speculate that adaptive reprogramming of progenitors in other brain regions plays a greater role than appreciated in developmental regeneration. PMID:28805814

  12. Distribution and Characterization of Progenitor Cells within the Human Filum Terminale

    PubMed Central

    Jaff, Nasren; Ossoinak, Amina; Jansson, Katarina; Hägerstrand, Anders; Johansson, Clas B.; Brundin, Lou; Svensson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Background Filum terminale (FT) is a structure that is intimately associated with conus medullaris, the most caudal part of the spinal cord. It is well documented that certain regions of the adult human central nervous system contains undifferentiated, progenitor cells or multipotent precursors. The primary objective of this study was to describe the distribution and progenitor features of this cell population in humans, and to confirm their ability to differentiate within the neuroectodermal lineage. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that neural stem/progenitor cells are present in FT obtained from patients treated for tethered cord. When human or rat FT-derived cells were cultured in defined medium, they proliferated and formed neurospheres in 13 out of 21 individuals. Cells expressing Sox2 and Musashi-1 were found to outline the central canal, and also to be distributed in islets throughout the whole FT. Following plating, the cells developed antigen profiles characteristic of astrocytes (GFAP) and neurons (β-III-tubulin). Addition of PDGF-BB directed the cells towards a neuronal fate. Moreover, the cells obtained from young donors shows higher capacity for proliferation and are easier to expand than cells derived from older donors. Conclusion/Significance The identification of bona fide neural progenitor cells in FT suggests a possible role for progenitor cells in this extension of conus medullaris and may provide an additional source of such cells for possible therapeutic purposes. Filum terminale, human, progenitor cells, neuron, astrocytes, spinal cord. PMID:22096566

  13. Generation of neural progenitor cells by chemical cocktails and hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Hu, Wenxiang; Qiu, Binlong; Zhao, Jian; Yu, Yongchun; Guan, Wuqiang; Wang, Min; Yang, Wuzhou; Pei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) can be induced from somatic cells by defined factors. Here we report that NPCs can be generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts by a chemical cocktail, namely VCR (V, VPA, an inhibitor of HDACs; C, CHIR99021, an inhibitor of GSK-3 kinases and R, Repsox, an inhibitor of TGF-β pathways), under a physiological hypoxic condition. These chemical-induced NPCs (ciNPCs) resemble mouse brain-derived NPCs regarding their proliferative and self-renewing abilities, gene expression profiles, and multipotency for different neuroectodermal lineages in vitro and in vivo. Further experiments reveal that alternative cocktails with inhibitors of histone deacetylation, glycogen synthase kinase, and TGF-β pathways show similar efficacies for ciNPC induction. Moreover, ciNPCs can also be induced from mouse tail-tip fibroblasts and human urinary cells with the same chemical cocktail VCR. Thus our study demonstrates that lineage-specific conversion of somatic cells to NPCs could be achieved by chemical cocktails without introducing exogenous factors. PMID:24638034

  14. Epigenomic Reprogramming of Adult Cardiomyocyte-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Zhong, Jiang F; Qiu, Hongyu; Robb MacLellan, W.; Marbán, Eduardo; Wang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    It has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are terminally-differentiated and are unable to proliferate. Recently, using a bi-transgenic ACM fate mapping mouse model and an in vitro culture system, we demonstrated that adult mouse cardiomyocytes were able to dedifferentiate into cardiac progenitor-like cells (CPCs). However, little is known about the molecular basis of their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Here we integrate single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylation analyses to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and cell cycle reentry of mouse ACMs. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, dedifferentiated mouse cardiomyocyte-derived CPCs (mCPCs) display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome. Correlated well with the methylome, our transcriptomic data showed that the genes encoding cardiac structure and function proteins are remarkably down-regulated in mCPCs, while those for cell cycle, proliferation, and stemness are significantly up-regulated. In addition, implantation of mCPCs into infarcted mouse myocardium improves cardiac function with augmented left ventricular ejection fraction. Our study demonstrates that the cellular plasticity of mammalian cardiomyocytes is the result of a well-orchestrated epigenomic reprogramming and a subsequent global transcriptomic alteration. PMID:26657817

  15. Hepatic stem/progenitor cells and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Sei; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Allogeneic liver transplantation is still the only effective treatment available to patients with liver failure. However, because there is a serious shortage of liver donors, an alternative therapeutic approach is needed. Transplantation of mature hepatocytes has been evaluated in clinical trials, but the long-term efficacy remains unclear and the paucity of donor cells limits this strategy. Stem-cell transplantation is a more promising alternative approach. Several studies have provided information about the mechanism underlying the proliferation and differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells. Moreover, in experimental models of liver disease, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells or hepatocyte-like cells derived from multipotent stem cells led to donor cell-mediated repopulation of the liver and improved survival rates. However, before stem-cell transplantation can be applied in the clinic to treat liver failure in humans, it will be necessary to overcome several difficulties associated with the technique.

  16. Progenitors of Secondary Crest Myofibroblasts are Developmentally Committed in Early Lung Mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changgong; Li, Min; Li, Sha; Xing, Yiming; Yang, Chang-Yo; Li, Aimin; Borok, Zea; De Langhe, Stijn; Minoo, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    Development of the mammalian lung is predicated on cross-communications between two highly interactive tissues, the endodermally-derived epithelium and the mesodermally-derived pulmonary mesenchyme. While much attention has been paid the lung epithelium, the pulmonary mesenchyme, partly due to lack of specific tractable markers remains under-investigated. The lung mesenchyme is derived from the lateral plate mesoderm and is the principal recipient of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, a morphogenetic network that regulates multiple aspects of embryonic development. Using the Hh-responsive Gli1-creERT2 mouse line, we identified the mesodermal targets of Hh signaling at various time points during embryonic and postnatal lung development. Cell lineage analysis showed these cells serve as progenitors to contribute to multiple lineages of mesodermally-derived differentiated cell types that include parenchymal or interstitial myofibroblasts, parabronchial and perivascular smooth muscle as well as rare populations of cells within the mesothelium. Most importantly, Gli1-creERT2 identified the progenitors of secondary crest myofibroblasts, a hitherto intractable cell type that plays a key role in alveolar formation, a vital process about which little is currently known. Transcriptome analysis of Hh-targeted progenitor cells transitioning from the pseudoglandular to the saccular phase of lung development revealed important modulations of key signaling pathways. Amongst these, there was significant down-regulation of canonical WNT signaling. Ectopic stabilization of β-Catenin via inactivation of Apc by Gli1-creERT2 expanded the Hh-targeted progenitor pools, which caused the formation of fibroblastic masses within the lung parenchyma. The Gli1-creERT2 mouse line represents a novel tool in the analysis of mesenchymal cell biology and alveolar formation during lung development. PMID:25448080

  17. Approaches to utilize mesenchymal progenitor cells as cellular vehicles.

    PubMed

    Pereboeva, L; Komarova, S; Mikheeva, G; Krasnykh, V; Curiel, D T

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian cells represent a novel vector approach for gene delivery that overcomes major drawbacks of viral and nonviral vectors and couples cell therapy with gene delivery. A variety of cell types have been tested in this regard, confirming that the ideal cellular vector system for ex vivo gene therapy has to comply with stringent criteria and is yet to be found. Several properties of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), such as easy access and simple isolation and propagation procedures, make these cells attractive candidates as cellular vehicles. In the current work, we evaluated the potential utility of MPCs as cellular vectors with the intent to use them in the cancer therapy context. When conventional adenoviral (Ad) vectors were used for MPC transduction, the highest transduction efficiency of MPCs was 40%. We demonstrated that Ad primary-binding receptors were poorly expressed on MPCs, while the secondary Ad receptors and integrins presented in sufficient amounts. By employing Ad vectors with incorporated integrin-binding motifs (Ad5lucRGD), MPC transduction was augmented tenfold, achieving efficient genetic loading of MPCs with reporter and anticancer genes. MPCs expressing thymidine kinase were able to exert a bystander killing effect on the cancer cell line SKOV3ip1 in vitro. In addition, we found that MPCs were able to support Ad replication, and thus can be used as cell vectors to deliver oncolytic viruses. Our results show that MPCs can foster expression of suicide genes or support replication of adenoviruses as potential anticancer therapeutic payloads. These findings are consistent with the concept that MPCs possess key properties that ensure their employment as cellular vehicles and can be used to deliver either therapeutic genes or viruses to tumor sites.

  18. Mature Hepatocytes Exhibit Unexpected Plasticity by Direct Dedifferentiation into Liver Progenitor Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixin; Wong, Philip P.; Sjeklocha, Lucas; Steer, Clifford J.; Sahin, M. Behnan

    2011-01-01

    Although there have been numerous reports describing the isolation of liver progenitor cells from adult liver, their exact origin has not been clearly defined; and the role played by mature hepatocytes as direct contributors to the hepatic progenitor cell pool has remained largely unknown. Here we report strong evidence that mature hepatocytes in culture have the capacity to dedifferentiate into a population of adult liver progenitors without genetic or epigenetic manipulations. By using highly-purified mature hepatocytes, which were obtained from untreated, healthy rat liver and labeled with fluorescent dye PKH2, we found that hepatocytes in culture gave rise to a population of PKH2-positive liver progenitor cells. These cells, Liver Derived Progenitor Cells or LDPCS, which share phenotypic similarities with oval cells, were previously reported to be capable of forming mature hepatocytes both in culture and in animals. Studies done at various time points during the course of dedifferentiation cultures revealed that hepatocytes rapidly transformed into liver progenitors within one week through a transient oval cell-like stage. This finding was supported by lineage-tracing studies involving double-transgenic AlbuminCreXRosa26 mice expressing β-galactosidase exclusively in hepatocytes. Cultures set up with hepatocytes obtained from these mice resulted in generation of β-galactosidase-positive liver progenitor cells demonstrating that they were a direct dedifferentiation product of mature hepatocytes. Additionally, these progenitors differentiated into hepatocytes in vivo when transplanted into rats that had undergone retrorsine pretreatment and partial hepatectomy. Conclusion Our studies provide strong evidence for the unexpected plasticity of mature hepatocytes to dedifferentiate into progenitor cells in culture; and this may potentially have a significant impact on the treatment of liver diseases requiring liver or hepatocyte transplantation. PMID:21953633

  19. Selective In Vitro Propagation of Nephron Progenitors Derived from Embryos and Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Taguchi, Atsuhiro; Sharma, Nirmala; Perantoni, Alan O; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi

    2016-04-26

    Nephron progenitors in the embryonic kidney propagate while generating differentiated nephrons. However, in mice, the progenitors terminally differentiate shortly after birth. Here, we report a method for selectively expanding nephron progenitors in vitro in an undifferentiated state. Combinatorial and concentration-dependent stimulation with LIF, FGF2/9, BMP7, and a WNT agonist is critical for expansion. The purified progenitors proliferated beyond the physiological limits observed in vivo, both for cell numbers and lifespan. Neonatal progenitors were maintained for a week, while progenitors from embryonic day 11.5 expanded 1,800-fold for nearly 20 days and still reconstituted 3D nephrons containing glomeruli and renal tubules. Furthermore, progenitors generated from mouse embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent cells could be expanded with retained nephron-forming potential. Thus, we have established in vitro conditions for promoting the propagation of nephron progenitors, which will be essential for dissecting the mechanisms of kidney organogenesis and for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteopontin-deficient progenitor cells display enhanced differentiation to adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Viedma, Veronica; Tardelli, Matteo; Zeyda, Maximilian; Sibilia, Maria; Burks, J Deborah; Stulnig, Thomas M

    2018-03-06

    Osteopontin (OPN, Spp1) is a protein upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese subjects. Deletion of OPN protects mice from high-fat diet-induced WAT inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the alterations mediated by loss of OPN in WAT before the obesogenic challenge have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we hypothesised that the lack of OPN might enhance the pro-adipogenic micro environment before obesity driven inflammation. OPN deficiency was tested in visceral (V) and subcutaneous (SC) WAT from WT and Spp1 -/- female mice. Gene expression for hypoxia, inflammation and adipogenesis was checked in WT vs. Spp1 -/- mice (n=15). Adipocytes progenitor cells (APC) were isolated by fluorescence cell sorting and role of OPN deficiency in adipogenesis was investigated by cell images and RT-PCR. We show that Spp1 -/- maintained normal body and fat-pad weights, although hypoxia and inflammation markers were significantly reduced. In contrast, expression of genes involved in adipogenesis was increased in WAT from Spp1 -/- mice. Strikingly, APC from Spp1 -/- were diminished but differentiated more efficiently to adipocytes than those from control mice. APC from SC-WAT of lean OPN-deficient mice display an enhanced capacity for differentiating to adipocytes. These alterations may explain the healthy expansion of WAT in the OPN-deficient model which is associated with reduced inflammation and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Endothelial progenitor cells regenerate infracted myocardium with neovascularisation development.

    PubMed

    Abd El Aziz, M T; Abd El Nabi, E A; Abd El Hamid, M; Sabry, D; Atta, H M; Rahed, L A; Shamaa, A; Mahfouz, S; Taha, F M; Elrefaay, S; Gharib, D M; Elsetohy, Khaled A

    2015-03-01

    We achieved possibility of isolation, characterization human umbilical cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), examination potency of EPCs to form new blood vessels and differentiation into cardiomyoctes in canines with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). EPCs were separated and cultured from umbilical cord blood. Their phenotypes were confirmed by uptake of double stains dioctadecyl tetramethylindocarbocyanine-labeled acetylated LDL and FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (DILDL-UEA-1). EPCs of cord blood were counted. Human VEGFR-2 and eNOS from the cultured EPCs were assessed by qPCR. Human EPCs was transplanted intramyocardially in canines with AMI. ECG and cardiac enzymes (CK-MB and Troponin I) were measured to assess severity of cellular damage. Histopathology was done to assess neovascularisation. Immunostaining was done to detect EPCs transdifferentiation into cardiomyocytes in peri-infarct cardiac tissue. qPCR for human genes (hVEGFR-2, and eNOS) was done to assess homing and angiogenic function of transplanted EPCs. Cultured human cord blood exhibited an increased number of EPCs and significant high expression of hVEGFR-2 and eNOS genes in the culture cells. Histopathology showed increased neovascularization and immunostaining showed presence of EPCs newly differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings suggested that hEPCs can mediate angiogenesis and differentiate into cardiomyoctes in canines with AMI.

  2. A Microfabricated Scaffold for Retinal Progenitor Cell Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Neeley, William L.; Redenti, Stephen; Klassen, Henry; Tao, Sarah; Desai, Tejal; Young, Michael J.; Langer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Diseases that cause photoreceptor cell degeneration afflict millions of people, yet no restorative treatment exists for these blinding disorders. Replacement of photoreceptors using retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) represents a promising therapy for the treatment of retinal degeneration. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of polymer scaffolds to increase significantly both the survival and differentiation of RPCs. We report the microfabrication of a poly(glycerol-sebacate) scaffold with superior mechanical properties for the delivery of RPCs to the subretinal space. Using a replica molding technique, a porous poly(glycerol-sebacate) scaffold with a thickness of 45 μm was fabricated. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of this scaffold showed that the Young’s modulus is about 5-fold lower and the maximum elongation at failure is about 10-fold higher than the previously reported RPC scaffolds. RPCs strongly adhered to the poly(glycerol-sebacate) scaffold, and endogenous fluorescence nearly doubled over a 2 day period before leveling off after 3 days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that cells grown on the scaffold for 7 days expressed a mixture of immature and mature markers, suggesting a tendency towards differentiation. We conclude that microfabricated poly(glycerol-sebacate) exhibits a number of novel properties for use as a scaffold for RPC delivery. PMID:17961646

  3. Hydroxyurea inhibits parvovirus B19 replication in erythroid progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Bua, Gloria; Conti, Ilaria; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2017-07-15

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is restricted to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) of the human bone marrow, leading to transient arrest of erythropoiesis and severe complications mainly in subjects with underlying hematological disorders or with immune system deficits. Currently, there are no specific antiviral drugs for B19V treatment, but identification of compounds inhibiting B19V replication can be pursued by a drug repositioning strategy. In this frame, the present study investigates the activity of hydroxyurea (HU), the only disease-modifying therapy approved for sickle cell disease (SCD), towards B19V replication in the two relevant cellular systems, the UT7/EpoS1 cell line and EPCs. Results demonstrate that HU inhibits B19V replication with EC 50 values of 96.2µM and 147.1µM in UT7/EpoS1 and EPCs, respectively, providing experimental evidence of the antiviral activity of HU towards B19V replication, and confirming the efficacy of a drug discovery process by drug repositioning strategy. The antiviral activity occurs in vitro at concentrations lower than those affecting cellular DNA replication and viability, and at levels measured in plasma samples of SCD patients undergoing HU therapy. HU might determine a dual beneficial effect on SCD patients, not only for the treatment of the disease but also towards a virus responsible for severe complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Progenitor cells are mobilized by acute psychological stress but not beta-adrenergic receptor agonist infusion

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Natalie E.; Burns, Victoria E.; Wallace, Graham R.; Edwards, Kate M.; Drayson, Mark; Redwine, Laura S.; Hong, Suzi; Bui, Jack D.; Fischer, Johannes C.; Mills, Paul J.; Bosch, Jos A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Stimuli that activate the sympathetic nervous system, such as acute psychological stress, rapidly invoke a robust mobilization of lymphocytes into the circulation. Experimental animal studies suggest that bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (PCs) also mobilize in response to sympathetic stimulation. Here we tested the effects of acute psychological stress and brief pharmacological β-adrenergic (βAR) stimulation on peripheral PC numbers in humans. Methods In two studies, we investigated PC mobilization in response to an acute speech task (n=26) and βAR-agonist (isoproterenol) infusion (n=20). A subset of 8 participants also underwent the infusion protocol with concomitant administration of the βAR-antagonist propranolol. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate lymphocyte subsets, total progenitor cells, total haematopoietic stem cells (HSC), early HSC (multi-lineage potential), late HSC (lineage committed), and endothelial PCs (EPCs). Results Both psychological stress and βAR-agonist infusion caused the expected mobilization of total monocytes and lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Psychological stress also induced a modest, but significant, increase in total PCs, HSCs, and EPC numbers in peripheral blood. However, infusion of a βAR-agonist did not result in a significant change in circulating PCs. Conclusion PCs are rapidly mobilized by psychological stress via mechanisms independent of βAR-stimulation, although the findings do not exclude βAR-stimulation as a possible cofactor. Considering the clinical and physiological relevance, further research into the mechanisms involved in stress-induced PC mobilization seems warranted. PMID:25747743

  5. The Impact of Juvenile Coxsackievirus Infection on Cardiac Progenitor Cells and Postnatal Heart Development

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Jon; Puccini, Jenna M.; Huang, Chengqun; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Gilbert, Paul E.; Sussman, Mark A.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Feuer, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackievirus B (CVB) is an enterovirus that most commonly causes a self-limited febrile illness in infants, but cases of severe infection can manifest in acute myocarditis. Chronic consequences of mild CVB infection are unknown, though there is an epidemiologic association between early subclinical infections and late heart failure, raising the possibility of subtle damage leading to late-onset dysfunction, or chronic ongoing injury due to inflammatory reactions during latent infection. Here we describe a mouse model of juvenile infection with a subclinical dose of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) which showed no evident symptoms, either immediately following infection or in adult mice. However following physiological or pharmacologically-induced cardiac stress, juvenile-infected adult mice underwent cardiac hypertrophy and dilation indicative of progression to heart failure. Evaluation of the vasculature in the hearts of adult mice subjected to cardiac stress showed a compensatory increase in CD31+ blood vessel formation, although this effect was suppressed in juvenile-infected mice. Moreover, CVB3 efficiently infected juvenile c-kit+ cells, and cardiac progenitor cell numbers were reduced in the hearts of juvenile-infected adult mice. These results suggest that the exhausted cardiac progenitor cell pool following juvenile CVB3 infection may impair the heart's ability to increase capillary density to adapt to increased load. PMID:25079373

  6. Generation of Oligodendrogenic Spinal Neural Progenitor Cells From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, Mohamad; Ahuja, Christopher S; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    This unit describes protocols for the efficient generation of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (o-NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Specifically, detailed methods are provided for the maintenance and differentiation of hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-o-NPCs) with the final products being suitable for in vitro experimentation or in vivo transplantation. Throughout, cell exposure to growth factors and patterning morphogens has been optimized for both concentration and timing, based on the literature and empirical experience, resulting in a robust and highly efficient protocol. Using this derivation procedure, it is possible to obtain millions of oligodendrogenic-NPCs within 40 days of initial cell plating which is substantially shorter than other protocols for similar cell types. This protocol has also been optimized to use translationally relevant human iPSCs as the parent cell line. The resultant cells have been extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo and express key markers of an oligodendrogenic lineage. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  7. Raman spectroscopy for discrimination of neural progenitor cells and their lineages (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Keren; Ong, William; Chew, Sing Yian; Liu, Quan

    2017-02-01

    Neurological diseases are one of the leading causes of adult disability and they are estimated to cause more deaths than cancer in the elderly population by 2040. Stem cell therapy has shown great potential in treating neurological diseases. However, before cell therapy can be widely adopted in the long term, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including the fundamental research about cellular development of neural progenitor cells. To facilitate the fundamental research of neural progenitor cells, many methods have been developed to identify neural progenitor cells. Although great progress has been made, there is still lack of an effective method to achieve fast, label-free and noninvasive differentiation of neural progenitor cells and their lineages. As a fast, label-free and noninvasive technique, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been conducted to characterize many types of stem cells including neural stem cells. However, to our best knowledge, it has not been studied for the discrimination of neural progenitor cells from specific lineages. Here we report the differentiation of neural progenitor cell from their lineages including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons using spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, we also evaluate the influence of system parameters during spectral acquisition on the quality of measured Raman spectra and the accuracy of classification using the spectra, which yield a set of optimal system parameters facilitating future studies.

  8. Unipotent, Atoh1+ progenitors maintain the Merkel cell population in embryonic and adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Margaret C.; Reed-Geaghan, Erin G.; Bolock, Alexa M.; Fujiyama, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Resident progenitor cells in mammalian skin generate new cells as a part of tissue homeostasis. We sought to identify the progenitors of Merkel cells, a unique skin cell type that plays critical roles in mechanosensation. We found that some Atoh1-expressing cells in the hairy skin and whisker follicles are mitotically active at embryonic and postnatal ages. Genetic fate-mapping revealed that these Atoh1-expressing cells give rise solely to Merkel cells. Furthermore, selective ablation of Atoh1+ skin cells in adult mice led to a permanent reduction in Merkel cell numbers, demonstrating that other stem cell populations are incapable of producing Merkel cells. These data identify a novel, unipotent progenitor population in the skin that gives rise to Merkel cells both during development and adulthood. PMID:25624394

  9. Oxytocin alters cell fate selection of rat neural progenitor cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Xu, Zhiqiang; Martino, Audrey; Friese, Matthew B.; Boyd, Justin D.; Crosby, Gregory; Culley, Deborah J.

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes). Treated NPCs were analysed with unbiased high-throughput immunocytochemistry. Neither 6 nor 24 h exposure to 100 pM or 100 nM sOT had an effect on viability as assessed by PI or CC-3 immunocytochemistry. Similarly, sOT had negligible effect on NPC proliferation, except that the overall rate of NPC proliferation was higher in the 24 h compared to the 6 h group regardless of sOT exposure. The most significant finding was that sOT exposure caused NPCs to select a predominantly neuronal lineage, along with a concomitant decrease in glial cells. Collectively, our data suggest that perinatal exposure to sOT can have neurodevelopmental consequences for the fetus, and support the need for in vivo anatomical and behavioral studies in offspring exposed to sOT in utero. PMID:29346405

  10. Oxytocin alters cell fate selection of rat neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Arvind; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Xu, Zhiqiang; Martino, Audrey; Friese, Matthew B; Boyd, Justin D; Crosby, Gregory; Culley, Deborah J

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes). Treated NPCs were analysed with unbiased high-throughput immunocytochemistry. Neither 6 nor 24 h exposure to 100 pM or 100 nM sOT had an effect on viability as assessed by PI or CC-3 immunocytochemistry. Similarly, sOT had negligible effect on NPC proliferation, except that the overall rate of NPC proliferation was higher in the 24 h compared to the 6 h group regardless of sOT exposure. The most significant finding was that sOT exposure caused NPCs to select a predominantly neuronal lineage, along with a concomitant decrease in glial cells. Collectively, our data suggest that perinatal exposure to sOT can have neurodevelopmental consequences for the fetus, and support the need for in vivo anatomical and behavioral studies in offspring exposed to sOT in utero.

  11. Accumulation of Multipotent Progenitor Cells on Polymethylpentene Membranes During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lehle, Karla; Friedl, Lucas; Wilm, Julius; Philipp, Alois; Müller, Thomas; Lubnow, Matthias; Schmid, Christof

    2016-06-01

    Multipotent progenitor cells were mobilized during pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We hypothesize that these cells also adhered onto polymethylpentene (PMP) fibers within the membrane oxygenator (MO) during adult ECMO support. Mononuclear cells were removed from the surface of explanted PMP-MOs (n = 16). Endothelial-like outgrowth and mesenchymal-like cells were characterized by flow cytometric analysis using different surface markers. Spindle-shaped attaching cells were identified early, but without proliferative activity. After long-term cultivation palisading type or cobblestone-type outgrowth cells with high proliferative activity appeared and were characterized as (i) leukocytoid CD45+/CD31+ (CD133+/VEGFR-II+/CD90+/CD14+/CD146dim/CD105dim); (ii) endothelial-like CD45-/CD31+ (VEGF-RII+/CD146+/CD105+/CD133-/CD14-/CD90-); and (iii) mesenchymal-like cells CD45-/CD31- (CD105+/CD90+/CD133dim/VEGFR-II-/CD146-/CD14-). The distribution of the cell populations depended on the MO and cultivation time. Endothelial-like cells formed capillary-like structures and did uptake Dil-acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Endothelial- and mesenchymal-like cells adhered on the surface of PMP-MOs. Further research is needed to identify the clinical relevance of these cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Artificial Organs published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation (ICAOT).

  12. Ex-vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells: preliminary results in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    McNiece, I; Jones, R; Cagnoni, P; Bearman, S; Nieto, Y; Shpall, E J

    1999-04-01

    Ex-vivo expanded progenitor cells have been proposed as a source of cells to support high-dose chemotherapy and to decrease or eliminate the period of neutropenia following transplantation. To date, no clinical studies using ex vivo expanded cells, have demonstrated any decrease in the time to neutrophil or platelet recovery, although a number of clinical studies have been performed using a variety of growth factor cocktails and culture conditions. Over the past 6 years we have developed a static culture system that results in optimal expansion of myeloid progenitor cells. We have initiated a clinical study to evaluate this culture system in breast cancer patients receiving peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) to support high-dose chemotherapy. CD34 selected cells were cultured for 10 days in 800 ml of defined media (Amgen Inc.) containing 100 ng/ml each of rhSCF, rhG-CSF and rhMGDF in 1L teflon bags (American Fluoroseal) at 20,000 to 50,000 cells per ml. After culture the cells were washed with 3 volumes of PBS to remove all media and growth factors and reinfused on day 0 of transplant followed by daily administration of rhG-CSF. On day +1 the patients received an unexpanded PBPC product to ensure the durability of the graft. Patients transplanted with expanded PBPC cells recovered neutrophil counts (ANC > 500/microl) as early as day 4 post transplant with a median of 6 days (range 4 to 14 days). In comparison, our historical control group of patients (N=175) had a median time to neutrophil engraftment of 9 days (range 7 to 24 days). A second cohort of patients were transplanted with expanded cells alone and a similar rapid engraftment was obtained. The first patients are now over 70 days post transplant with durable engraftment. No effect on platelet recovery has been observed in any patients to date. These data demonstrate that PBPC expanded under the conditions defined can significantly shorten the time to engraftment of neutrophils.

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells and rheumatic disease modifying therapy.

    PubMed

    Lo Gullo, Alberto; Aragona, Caterina Oriana; Michele, Scuruchi; Versace, Antonio Giovanni; Antonino, Saitta; Egidio, Imbalzano; Loddo, Saverio; Campo, Giuseppe Maurizio; Giuseppe, Mandraffino

    2018-05-26

    Rheumatic diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease are not completely clarified, but it is likely that a pivotal role is played by vascular inflammation and consequently to altered vascular endothelium homeostasis. Also, high prevalence of traditional risk factors, proatherogenic activation and endothelial dysfunction further contribute to vascular damage. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can restore dysfunctional endothelium and protect against atherosclerotic vascular disease. However, abnormalities in number and function of these cells in patients with rheumatic condition have been extensively reported. During the last years, growing interest in the mechanisms of endothelial renewal and its potential as a therapy for CVD has been shown; in addition, pioneering studies show that EPC dysfunction might be improved with pharmacological strategies. However, how to restore EPC function, and whether achieving this aim may be effective in preventing cardiovascular complications in rheumatic disease, remain to be established. In this review we report an overview on the current stand of knowledge on the effect of pharmaceutical and lifestyle intervention in improving EPCs number and function in rheumatic disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An update on ABO incompatible hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Staley, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Joseph; Pham, Huy P

    2016-06-01

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation has long been established as the optimal treatment for many hematologic malignancies. In the setting of allogenic HLA matched HPC transplantation, greater than 50% of unrelated donors and 30% of related donors demonstrate some degree of ABO incompatibility (ABOi), which is classified in one of three ways: major, minor, or bidirectional. Major ABOi refers to the presence of recipient isoagglutinins against the donor's A and/or B antigen. Minor ABOi occurs when the HPC product contains the isoagglutinins targeting the recipient's A and/or B antigen. Bidirectional refers to the presence of both major and minor ABOi. Major adverse events associated with ABOi HPC transplantation includes acute and delayed hemolysis, pure red cell aplasia, and delayed engraftment. ABOi HPC transplantation poses a unique challenge to the clinical transplantation unit, the HPC processing lab, and the transfusion medicine service. Therefore, it is essential that these services actively communicate with one another to ensure patient safety. This review will attempt to globally address the challenges related to ABOi HPC transplantation, with an increased focus on aspects related to the laboratory and transfusion medicine services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptional regulation of intermediate progenitor cell generation during hippocampal development

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lachlan; Zalucki, Oressia; Gobius, Ilan; McDonald, Hannah; Osinki, Jason; Harvey, Tracey J.; Essebier, Alexandra; Vidovic, Diana; Gladwyn-Ng, Ivan; Burne, Thomas H.; Heng, Julian I.; Richards, Linda J.; Gronostajski, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    During forebrain development, radial glia generate neurons through the production of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). The production of IPCs is a central tenet underlying the generation of the appropriate number of cortical neurons, but the transcriptional logic underpinning this process remains poorly defined. Here, we examined IPC production using mice lacking the transcription factor nuclear factor I/X (Nfix). We show that Nfix deficiency delays IPC production and prolongs the neurogenic window, resulting in an increased number of neurons in the postnatal forebrain. Loss of additional Nfi alleles (Nfib) resulted in a severe delay in IPC generation while, conversely, overexpression of NFIX led to precocious IPC generation. Mechanistically, analyses of microarray and ChIP-seq datasets, coupled with the investigation of spindle orientation during radial glial cell division, revealed that NFIX promotes the generation of IPCs via the transcriptional upregulation of inscuteable (Insc). These data thereby provide novel insights into the mechanisms controlling the timely transition of radial glia into IPCs during forebrain development. PMID:27965439

  16. In vivo imaging of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mouse calvarium bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Lo Celso, Cristina; Lin, Charles P; Scadden, David T

    2011-01-01

    In vivo imaging of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) was developed to investigate the relationship between HSPCs and components of their microenvironment in the bone marrow. In particular, it allows a direct observation of the behavior of hematopoietic cells during the first few days after transplantation, when the critical events in homing and early engraftment are occurring. By directly imaging these events in living animals, this method permits a detailed assessment of functions previously evaluated by crude assessments of cell counts (homing) or after prolonged periods (engraftment). This protocol offers a new means of investigating the role of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic molecular regulators of hematopoiesis during the early stages of transplantation, and it is the first to allow the study of cell-cell interactions within the bone marrow in three dimensions and in real time. In this paper, we describe how to isolate, label and inject HSPCs, as well as how to perform calvarium intravital microscopy and analyze the resulting images. A typical experiment can be performed and analyzed in ~1 week. PMID:21212779

  17. Monoamine Oxidases Regulate Telencephalic Neural Progenitors in Late Embryonic and Early Postnatal Development

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aiwu; Scott, Anna L.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Chen, Kevin; Ouyang, Xin; Lathia, Justin D.; Mughal, Mohamed; Cadet, Jean Lud; Mattson, Mark P.; Shih, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters play major roles in regulating a range of brain functions in adults and increasing evidence suggests roles for monoamines in brain development. Here we show that mice lacking the monoamine metabolic enzymes MAO A and MAO B (MAO AB-deficient mice) exhibit diminished proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the developing telencephalon beginning in late gestation [embryonic day (E) 17.5], a deficit that persists in neonatal and adult mice. These mice showed significantly increased monoamine levels and anxiety-like behaviors as adults. Assessments of markers of intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) and mitosis showed that NSC in the subventricular zone (SVZ), but not in the ventricular zone, are reduced in MAO AB-deficient mice. A developmental time course of monoamines in frontal cortical tissues revealed increased serotonin levels as early as E14.5, and a further large increase was found between E17.5 and postnatal day 2. Administration of an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis (parachlorophenylalanine) between E14.5 and E19.5 restored the IPC numbers and SVZ thickness, suggesting the role of serotonin in the suppression of IPC proliferation. Studies of neurosphere cultures prepared from the telencephalon at different embryonic and postnatal ages showed that serotonin stimulates proliferation in wild-type, but not in MAO AB-deficient, NSC. Together, these results suggest that a MAO-dependent long-lasting alteration in the proliferation capacity of NSC occurs late in embryonic development and is mediated by serotonin. Our findings reveal novel roles for MAOs and serotonin in the regulation of IPC proliferation in the developing brain. PMID:20702706

  18. Stem Cells, Progenitor Cells, and Lineage Decisions in the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Hummitzsch, Katja; Anderson, Richard A.; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Wu, Ji; Telfer, Evelyn E.; Russell, Darryl L.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring stem cells in the mammalian ovary has unleashed a Pandora's box of new insights and questions. Recent evidence supports the existence of stem cells of a number of the different cell types within the ovary. The evidence for a stem cell model producing mural granulosa cells and cumulus cells is strong, despite a limited number of reports. The recent identification of a precursor granulosa cell, the gonadal ridge epithelial-like cell, is exciting and novel. The identification of female germline (oogonial) stem cells is still very new and is currently limited to just a few species. Their origins and physiological roles, if any, are unknown, and their potential to produce oocytes and contribute to follicle formation in vivo lacks robust evidence. The precursor of thecal cells remains elusive, and more compelling data are needed. Similarly, claims of very small embryonic-like cells are also preliminary. Surface epithelial cells originating from gonadal ridge epithelial-like cells and from the mesonephric epithelium at the hilum of the ovary have also been proposed. Another important issue is the role of the stroma in guiding the formation of the ovary, ovigerous cords, follicles, and surface epithelium. Immune cells may also play key roles in developmental patterning, given their critical roles in corpora lutea formation and regression. Thus, while the cellular biology of the ovary is extremely important for its major endocrine and fertility roles, there is much still to be discovered. This review draws together the current evidence and perspectives on this topic. PMID:25541635

  19. Effects of transplanted circulating endothelial progenitor cells and platelet microparticles in atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Adriana; Alexandru, Nicoleta; Andrei, Eugen; Dragan, Emanuel; Cochior, Daniel; Dias, Sérgio

    2016-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease, in which risk factors such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension affect the arterial endothelium, resulting in dysfunction, cell damage or both. The number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and microparticles provides invaluable outcome prediction for atherosclerosis disease. However, evidence for the therapeutic potential of endothelial progenitor cells and microparticles in atherosclerosis development is limited. Our study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of a cell therapy-based approach, using endothelial progenitor cells and the dual behaviour of circulating platelet microparticles, on atherosclerosis development in hypertensive-hypercholesterolemic hamster model. Consequently, control hamsters received four intravenous inoculations of: (1) 1×10(5) endothelial progenitor cells of healthy origins in one dose per month, during four months of diet-induced atherosclerosis, and after hypertensive-hypercholesterolemic diet for further four months; (2) in a second set of experiments, 1×10(5) endothelial progenitor cells of healthy origins or/and 1×10(5) platelet microparticles of atherosclerotic origins were inoculated every other month during hypertensive-hypercholesterolemic diet. Endothelial progenitor cell treatment had the following effects: (1) re-established plasmatic parameters: cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, blood pressure, heart rate, cytokine and chemokine profiles, platelet microparticle pro-thrombotic activity and endothelial progenitor cell paracrine activity reflected by cytokine/chemokine detection; (2) reduced lipid, macrophage and microparticle accumulation in liver; (3) reduced atherosclerosis development, revealed by decreased lipid, macrophage and microparticle content of arterial wall; (4) induced the recruitment and incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells into liver and arterial wall; (5) improved arterial dysfunction by increasing contraction and

  20. Basal Cells Are a Multipotent Progenitor Capable of Renewing the Bronchial Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Kyung U.; Reynolds, Susan D.; Watkins, Simon; Fuchs, Elaine; Stripp, Barry R.

    2004-01-01

    Commitment of the pulmonary epithelium to bronchial and bronchiolar airway lineages occurs during the transition from pseudoglandular to cannalicular phases of lung development, suggesting that regional differences exist with respect to the identity of stem and progenitor cells that contribute to epithelial maintenance in adulthood. We previously defined a critical role for Clara cell secretory protein-expressing (CE) cells in renewal of bronchiolar airway epithelium following injury. Even though CE cells are also the principal progenitor for maintenance of the bronchial airway epithelium, CE cell injury is resolved through a mechanism involving recruitment of a second progenitor cell population that we now identify as a GSI-B4 reactive, cytokeratin-14-expressing basal cell. These cells exhibit multipotent differentiation capacity as assessed by analysis of cellular phenotype within clones of LacZ-tagged cells. Clones were derived from K14-expressing cells tagged in a cell-type-specific fashion by ligand-regulable Cre recombinase-mediated genomic rearrangement of the ROSA26 recombination substrate allele. We conclude that basal cells represent an alternative multipotent progenitor cell population of bronchial airways and that progenitor cell selection is dictated by the type of airway injury. PMID:14742263

  1. Aging-associated inflammation promotes selection for adaptive oncogenic events in B cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Henry, Curtis J; Casás-Selves, Matias; Kim, Jihye; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Aghili, Leila; Daniel, Ashley E; Jimenez, Linda; Azam, Tania; McNamee, Eoin N; Clambey, Eric T; Klawitter, Jelena; Serkova, Natalie J; Tan, Aik Choon; Dinarello, Charles A; DeGregori, James

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes BCR-ABL, NRAS(V12), or Myc restored B cell progenitor fitness, leading to selection for oncogenically initiated cells and leukemogenesis specifically in the context of an aged hematopoietic system. Aging was associated with increased inflammation in the BM microenvironment, and induction of inflammation in young mice phenocopied aging-associated B lymphopoiesis. Conversely, a reduction of inflammation in aged mice via transgenic expression of α-1-antitrypsin or IL-37 preserved the function of B cell progenitors and prevented NRAS(V12)-mediated oncogenesis. We conclude that chronic inflammatory microenvironments in old age lead to reductions in the fitness of B cell progenitor populations. This reduced progenitor pool fitness engenders selection for cells harboring oncogenic mutations, in part due to their ability to correct aging-associated functional defects. Thus, modulation of inflammation--a common feature of aging--has the potential to limit aging-associated oncogenesis.

  2. FGFR3 regulates brain size by controlling progenitor cell proliferation and apoptosis during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Inglis-Broadgate, Suzanne L; Thomson, Rachel E; Pellicano, Francesca; Tartaglia, Michael A; Pontikis, Charlie C; Cooper, Jonathan D; Iwata, Tomoko

    2005-03-01

    Mice with the K644E kinase domain mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (Fgfr3) (EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E)) exhibited a marked enlargement of the brain. The brain size was increased as early as E11.5, not secondary to the possible effect of Fgfr3 activity in the skeleton. Furthermore, the mutant brains showed a dramatic increase in cortical thickness, a phenotype opposite to that in FGF2 knockout mice. Despite this increased thickness, cortical layer formation was largely unaffected and no cortical folding was observed during embryonic days 11.5-18.5 (E11.5-E18.5). Measurement of cortical thickness revealed an increase of 38.1% in the EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E) mice at E14.5 and the advanced appearance of the cortical plate was frequently observed at this stage. Unbiased stereological analysis revealed that the volume of the ventricular zone (VZ) was increased by more than two fold in the EIIa;Fgfr3(+/K644E) mutants at E14.5. A relatively mild increase in progenitor cell proliferation and a profound decrease in developmental apoptosis during E11.5-E14.5 most likely accounts for the dramatic increase in total telecephalic cell number. Taken together, our data suggest a novel function of Fgfr3 in controlling the development of the cortex, by regulating proliferation and apoptosis of cortical progenitors.

  3. Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns: fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Khor, Hwei Ling; Kuan, Yujun; Kukula, Hildegard; Tamada, Kaoru; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moeller, Martin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-05-01

    Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells were cultured on the nanopatterned surfaces. Phase contrast and confocal laser microscopy showed that fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells preferred the densely spaced wormlike patterns. Atomic force microscopy showed that the cells remodelled the extracellular matrix differently as they migrate over the two distinctly different nanopatterns.

  4. Clinicopathologic implication of hepatic progenitor cell marker expression in hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yun, Woong Jae; Shin, Eun; Lee, Kyoungbun; Jung, Hae Yoen; Kim, Soo Hee; Park, Young-Nyun; Yu, Eunsil; Jang, Ja-June

    2013-09-01

    Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are thought to play a role in hepatoblastoma, as hepatoblastomas are characterized by an immature histology and a wide variety of cell lineages. We aimed to investigate the extent of expression of HPCs marker and its clinical implication in hepatoblastoma. We collected 61 hepatoblastomas and 9 childhood hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and performed immunohistochemistry for HPC markers, including cytokeratin 19 (CK19), octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct-3/4), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), and delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1). Of the hepatoblastoma samples, 27/61 (44.3%), 21/61 (34.4%), 51/61 (83.6%) and 56/61 (91.8%) exhibited positivity for CK19, Oct-3/4, EpCAM and DLK-1, respectively. For HCCs, the rates of expression were 22.2% (CK19), 77.8% (EpCAM) and 77.8% (DLK-1). Oct-3/4 was not expressed in HCC cells. Hepatoblastomas with a poorly differentiated epithelial component had a higher incidence of CK19 and Oct-3/4 expression than those with a well differentiated epithelial component (p=0.005 and 0.037, respectively). Higher disease stage of hepatoblastoma was correlated with CK19 expression (p=0.043). Oct-3/4-positive hepatoblastomas were associated with short disease-free survival (p=0.035). Both hepatoblastomas and childhood HCCs, therefore, exhibit characteristics of HPCs, and the poor prognosis of patients with Oct-3/4-positive hepatoblastoma suggests that stem-like properties affect hepatoblastoma pathogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of NADPH Oxidase-4 in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hakami, Nora Y.; Ranjan, Amaresh K.; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Dusting, Greg J.; Peshavariya, Hitesh M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) display a unique ability to promote angiogenesis and restore endothelial function in injured blood vessels. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4)-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) serves as a signaling molecule and promotes endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as protecting against cell death. However, the role of NOX4 in EPC function is not completely understood. Methods: EPCs were isolated from human saphenous vein and mammary artery discarded during bypass surgery. NOX4 gene and protein expression in EPCs were measured by real time-PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. NOX4 gene expression was inhibited using an adenoviral vector expressing human NOX4 shRNA (Ad-NOX4i). H2O2 production was measured by Amplex red assay. EPC migration was evaluated using a transwell migration assay. EPC proliferation and viability were measured using trypan blue counts. Results: Inhibition of NOX4 using Ad-NOX4i reduced Nox4 gene and protein expression as well as H2O2 formation in EPCs. Inhibition of NOX4-derived H2O2 decreased both proliferation and migration of EPCs. Interestingly, pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) decreased NOX4 expression and reduced survival of EPCs. However, the survival of EPCs was further diminished by TNF-α in NOX4-knockdown cells, suggesting that NOX4 has a protective role in EPCs. Conclusion: These findings suggest that NOX4-type NADPH oxidase is important for proliferation and migration functions of EPCs and protects against pro-inflammatory cytokine induced EPC death. These properties of NOX4 may facilitate the efficient function of EPCs which is vital for successful neovascularization. PMID:28386230

  6. Angiogenic function of prostacyclin biosynthesis in human endothelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Tongrong; Lu, Tong; d’Uscio, Livius V.; Lam, Chen-Fuh; Lee, Hon-Chi; Katusic, Zvonimir S.

    2009-01-01

    The role of prostaglandins production in the control of regenerative function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has not been studied. We hypothesized that activation of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymatic activity and the subsequent production of prostacyclin (PGI2) is an important mechanism responsible for the regenerative function of EPCs. In the present study, we detected high levels of COX-1 protein expression and PGI2 biosynthesis in human EPCs outgrown from blood mononuclear cells. Expression of COX-2 protein was almost undetectable under basal conditions but significantly elevated after treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α. Condition medium derived from EPCs hyperpolarized human coronary artery smooth muscle cells, similar to the effect of the PGI2 analogue iloprost. The proliferation and in vitro tube formation by EPCs were inhibited by the COX inhibitor indomethacin, or by genetic inactivation of COX-1 or PGI2 synthase (PGIS) with small interfering RNA (siRNA). Impaired tube formation and cell proliferation induced by inactivation of COX-1 were rescued by the treatment with iloprost or selective peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) agonist, GW501516, but not by the selective PGI2 receptor agonist, cicaprost. Down regulation of PPARδ by siRNA also reduced angiogenic capacity of EPCs. Iloprost failed to reverse PPARδ-siRNA-induced impairment of angiogenesis. Furthermore, transfection of PGIS-siRNA, COX-1-siRNA, or PPARδ-siRNA into EPCs decreased the capillary formation in vivo after transplantation of human EPCs into the nude mice. These results suggest that activation of COX-1-PGI2-PPARδ pathway is an important mechanism underlying pro-angiogenic function of EPCs. PMID:18511850

  7. Regulation of adult neural progenitor cell functions by purinergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong; Illes, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular purines are signaling molecules in the neurogenic niches of the brain and spinal cord, where they activate cell surface purinoceptors at embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although mRNA and protein are expressed at NSCs/NPCs for almost all subtypes of the nucleotide-sensitive P2X/P2Y, and the nucleoside-sensitive adenosine receptors, only a few of those have acquired functional significance. ATP is sequentially degraded by ecto-nucleotidases to ADP, AMP, and adenosine with agonistic properties for distinct receptor-classes. Nucleotides/nucleosides facilitate or inhibit NSC/NPC proliferation, migration and differentiation. The most ubiquitous effect of all agonists (especially of ATP and ADP) appears to be the facilitation of cell proliferation, usually through P2Y1Rs and sometimes through P2X7Rs. However, usually P2X7R activation causes necrosis/apoptosis of NPCs. Differentiation can be initiated by P2Y2R-activation or P2X7R-blockade. A key element in the transduction mechanism of either receptor is the increase of the intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration, which may arise due to its release from intracellular storage sites (G protein-coupling; P2Y) or due to its passage through the receptor-channel itself from the extracellular space (ATP-gated ion channel; P2X). Further research is needed to clarify how purinergic signaling controls NSC/NPC fate and how the balance between the quiescent and activated states is established with fine and dynamic regulation. GLIA 2017;65:213-230. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Rejuvenation of human cardiac progenitor cells with Pim-1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Nguyen, Jonathan; Alkatib, Monique; Siddiqi, Sailay; Hariharan, Nirmala; Wallach, Kathleen; Monsanto, Megan; Gude, Natalie; Dembitsky, Walter; Sussman, Mark A

    2013-10-25

    Myocardial function is enhanced by adoptive transfer of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) into a pathologically challenged heart. However, advanced age, comorbidities, and myocardial injury in patients with heart failure constrain the proliferation, survival, and regenerative capacity of hCPCs. Rejuvenation of senescent hCPCs will improve the outcome of regenerative therapy for a substantial patient population possessing functionally impaired stem cells. Reverse phenotypic and functional senescence of hCPCs by ex vivo modification with Pim-1. C-kit-positive hCPCs were isolated from heart biopsy samples of patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Growth kinetics, telomere lengths, and expression of cell cycle regulators showed significant variation between hCPC isolated from multiple patients. Telomere length was significantly decreased in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics concomitant with decreased proliferation and upregulation of senescent markers compared with hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. Desirable youthful characteristics were conferred on hCPCs by genetic modification using Pim-1 kinase, including increases in proliferation, telomere length, survival, and decreased expression of senescence markers. Senescence characteristics of hCPCs are ameliorated by Pim-1 kinase resulting in rejuvenation of phenotypic and functional properties. hCPCs show improved cellular properties resulting from Pim-1 modification, but benefits were more pronounced in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics relative to hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. With the majority of patients with heart failure presenting advanced age, infirmity, and impaired regenerative capacity, the use of Pim-1 modification should be incorporated into cell-based therapeutic approaches to broaden inclusion criteria and address limitations associated with the senescent phenotype of aged hCPC.

  9. Rejuvenation of Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells With Pim-1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Mohsin; Nguyen, Jonathan; Alkatib, Monique; Siddiqi, Sailay; Hariharan, Nirmala; Wallach, Kathleen; Monsanto, Megan; Gude, Natalie; Dembitsky, Walter; Sussman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Myocardial function is enhanced by adoptive transfer of human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) into a pathologically challenged heart. However, advanced age, comorbidities, and myocardial injury in patients with heart failure constrain the proliferation, survival, and regenerative capacity of hCPCs. Rejuvenation of senescent hCPCs will improve the outcome of regenerative therapy for a substantial patient population possessing functionally impaired stem cells. Objective Reverse phenotypic and functional senescence of hCPCs by ex vivo modification with Pim-1. Methods and Results C-kit–positive hCPCs were isolated from heart biopsy samples of patients undergoing left ventricular assist device implantation. Growth kinetics, telomere lengths, and expression of cell cycle regulators showed significant variation between hCPC isolated from multiple patients. Telomere length was significantly decreased in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics concomitant with decreased proliferation and upregulation of senescent markers compared with hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. Desirable youthful characteristics were conferred on hCPCs by genetic modification using Pim-1 kinase, including increases in proliferation, telomere length, survival, and decreased expression of senescence markers. Conclusions Senescence characteristics of hCPCs are ameliorated by Pim-1 kinase resulting in rejuvenation of phenotypic and functional properties. hCPCs show improved cellular properties resulting from Pim-1 modification, but benefits were more pronounced in hCPC with slow-growth kinetics relative to hCPC with fast-growth kinetics. With the majority of patients with heart failure presenting advanced age, infirmity, and impaired regenerative capacity, the use of Pim-1 modification should be incorporated into cell-based therapeutic approaches to broaden inclusion criteria and address limitations associated with the senescent phenotype of aged hCPC. PMID:24044948

  10. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Sand, David J.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Kasen, Daniel; Arcavi, Iair; Azalee Bostroem, K.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.

    2017-08-01

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U, B, and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R ⊙ from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C II λ6580) absorption up through day -13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  11. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    SciT

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R {sub ☉} from the explodingmore » white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.« less

  12. Earmuff restricts progenitor cell potential by attenuating the competence to respond to self-renewal factors.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Derek H; Komori, Hideyuki; Grbac, Daniel; Chen, Keng; Koe, Chwee Tat; Wang, Hongyan; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-03-01

    Despite expressing stem cell self-renewal factors, intermediate progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential, which allows them to give rise exclusively to differentiated progeny rather than stem cell progeny. Failure to restrict the developmental potential can allow intermediate progenitor cells to revert into aberrant stem cells that might contribute to tumorigenesis. Insight into stable restriction of the developmental potential in intermediate progenitor cells could improve our understanding of the development and growth of tumors, but the mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. Intermediate neural progenitors (INPs), generated by type II neural stem cells (neuroblasts) in fly larval brains, provide an in vivo model for investigating the mechanisms that stably restrict the developmental potential of intermediate progenitor cells. Here, we report that the transcriptional repressor protein Earmuff (Erm) functions temporally after Brain tumor (Brat) and Numb to restrict the developmental potential of uncommitted (immature) INPs. Consistently, endogenous Erm is detected in immature INPs but undetectable in INPs. Erm-dependent restriction of the developmental potential in immature INPs leads to attenuated competence to respond to all known neuroblast self-renewal factors in INPs. We also identified that the BAP chromatin-remodeling complex probably functions cooperatively with Erm to restrict the developmental potential of immature INPs. Together, these data led us to conclude that the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism stably restricts the developmental potential of immature INPs by attenuating their genomic responses to stem cell self-renewal factors. We propose that restriction of developmental potential by the Erm-BAP-dependent mechanism functionally distinguishes intermediate progenitor cells from stem cells, ensuring the generation of differentiated cells and preventing the formation of progenitor cell-derived tumor-initiating stem cells.

  13. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (ogg1) maintains the function of cardiac progenitor cells during heart formation in zebrafish

    SciT

    Yan, Lifeng; Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029; Zhou, Yong

    Genomic damage may devastate the potential of progenitor cells and consequently impair early organogenesis. We found that ogg1, a key enzyme initiating the base-excision repair, was enriched in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. So far, little is known about DNA repair in cardiogenesis. Here, we addressed the critical role of ogg1 in cardiogenesis for the first time. ogg1 mainly expressed in the anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), the primary heart tube, and subsequently the embryonic myocardium by in situ hybridisation. Loss of ogg1 resulted in severe cardiac morphogenesis and functional abnormalities, including the short heart length, arrhythmia, decreased cardiomyocytes andmore » nkx2.5{sup +} cardiac progenitor cells. Moreover, the increased apoptosis and repressed proliferation of progenitor cells caused by ogg1 deficiency might contribute to the heart phenotype. The microarray analysis showed that the expression of genes involved in embryonic heart tube morphogenesis and heart structure were significantly changed due to the lack of ogg1. Among those, foxh1 is an important partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage. Our work demonstrates the requirement of ogg1 in cardiac progenitors and heart development in zebrafish. These findings may be helpful for understanding the aetiology of congenital cardiac deficits. - Highlights: • A key DNA repair enzyme ogg1 is expressed in the embryonic heart in zebrafish. • We found that ogg1 is essential for normal cardiac morphogenesis in zebrafish. • The production of embryonic cardiomyocytes requires appropriate ogg1 expression. • Ogg1 critically regulated proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells in zebrafish. • foxh1 is a partner of ogg1 in the cardiac development in response to DNA damage.« less

  14. Brief report: reconstruction of joint hyaline cartilage by autologous progenitor cells derived from ear elastic cartilage.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Shinji; Takebe, Takanori; Kan, Hiroomi; Yabuki, Yuichiro; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Nakabayashi, Seiichiro; Ik, Lee Jeong; Maegawa, Jiro; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    In healthy joints, hyaline cartilage covering the joint surfaces of bones provides cushioning due to its unique mechanical properties. However, because of its limited regenerative capacity, age- and sports-related injuries to this tissue may lead to degenerative arthropathies, prompting researchers to investigate a variety of cell sources. We recently succeeded in isolating human cartilage progenitor cells from ear elastic cartilage. Human cartilage progenitor cells have high chondrogenic and proliferative potential to form elastic cartilage with long-term tissue maintenance. However, it is unknown whether ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells can be used to reconstruct hyaline cartilage, which has different mechanical and histological properties from elastic cartilage. In our efforts to develop foundational technologies for joint hyaline cartilage repair and reconstruction, we conducted this study to obtain an answer to this question. We created an experimental canine model of knee joint cartilage damage, transplanted ear-derived autologous cartilage progenitor cells. The reconstructed cartilage was rich in proteoglycans and showed unique histological characteristics similar to joint hyaline cartilage. In addition, mechanical properties of the reconstructed tissues were higher than those of ear cartilage and equal to those of joint hyaline cartilage. This study suggested that joint hyaline cartilage was reconstructed from ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells. It also demonstrated that ear-derived cartilage progenitor cells, which can be harvested by a minimally invasive method, would be useful for reconstructing joint hyaline cartilage in patients with degenerative arthropathies. © AlphaMed Press.

  15. Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transplants remyelinate and restore locomotion after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Keirstead, Hans S; Nistor, Gabriel; Bernal, Giovanna; Totoiu, Minodora; Cloutier, Frank; Sharp, Kelly; Steward, Oswald

    2005-05-11

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function after spinal cord injury, and thus a potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing myelin-forming cells. Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function. OPCs were injected 7 d or 10 months after injury. In both cases, transplanted cells survived, redistributed over short distances, and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. Animals that received OPCs 7 d after injury exhibited enhanced remyelination and substantially improved locomotor ability. In contrast, when OPCs were transplanted 10 months after injury, there was no enhanced remyelination or locomotor recovery. These studies document the feasibility of predifferentiating hESCs into functional OPCs and demonstrate their therapeutic potential at early time points after spinal cord injury.

  16. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. Methods The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. Results The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Conclusions Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma. PMID:23915425

  17. Boron neutron capture therapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis of glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Zhang, Zizhu; Li, Bin; Chen, Guilin; Xie, Xueshun; Wei, Yongxin; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Youxin; Du, Ziwei

    2013-08-06

    Glioma stem cells in the quiescent state are resistant to clinical radiation therapy. An almost inevitable glioma recurrence is due to the persistence of these cells. The high linear energy transfer associated with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) could kill quiescent and proliferative cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of BNCT on glioma stem/progenitor cells in vitro. The damage induced by BNCT was assessed using cell cycle progression, apoptotic cell ratio and apoptosis-associated proteins expression. The surviving fraction and cell viability of glioma stem/progenitor cells were decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells using the same boronophenylalanine pretreatment and the same dose of neutron flux. BNCT induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, with changes in the expression of associated proteins. Glioma stem/progenitor cells, which are resistant to current clinical radiotherapy, could be effectively killed by BNCT in vitro via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis using a prolonged neutron irradiation, although radiosensitivity of glioma stem/progenitor cells was decreased compared with differentiated glioma cells when using the same dose of thermal neutron exposure and boronophenylalanine pretreatment. Thus, BNCT could offer an appreciable therapeutic advantage to prevent tumor recurrence, and may become a promising treatment in recurrent glioma.

  18. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Microvascular Complications: Friends or Foes?

    PubMed

    Yu, Cai-Guo; Zhang, Ning; Yuan, Sha-Sha; Ma, Yan; Yang, Long-Yan; Feng, Ying-Mei; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Despite being featured as metabolic disorder, diabetic patients are largely affected by hyperglycemia-induced vascular abnormality. Accumulated evidence has confirmed the beneficial effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in coronary heart disease. However, antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment is the main therapy for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, indicating the uncertain role of EPCs in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular disease. In this review, we first illustrate how hyperglycemia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in EPCs, which exerts deleterious impact on their number and function. We then discuss how abnormal angiogenesis develops in eyes and kidneys under diabetes condition, focusing on "VEGF uncoupling with nitric oxide" and "competitive angiopoietin 1/angiopoietin 2" mechanisms that are shared in both organs. Next, we dissect the nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular complications. After we overview the current EPCs-related strategies, we point out new EPCs-associated options for future exploration. Ultimately, we hope that this review would uncover the mysterious nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular disease for therapeutics.

  19. Serum of myeloproliferative neoplasms stimulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lubberich, Richard K; Walenda, Thomas; Goecke, Tamme W; Strathmann, Klaus; Isfort, Susanne; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Koschmieder, Steffen; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN)-such as polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF)-are typically diseases of the elderly caused by acquired somatic mutations. However, it is largely unknown how the malignant clone interferes with normal hematopoiesis. In this study, we analyzed if serum of MPN patients comprises soluble factors that impact on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPCs). CD34+ HPCs were cultured in medium supplemented with serum samples of PV, ET, or MF patients, or healthy controls. The impact on proliferation, maintenance of immature hematopoietic surface markers, and colony forming unit (CFU) potential was systematically analyzed. In addition, we compared serum of healthy young (<25 years) and elderly donors (>50 years) to determine how normal aging impacts on the hematopoiesis-supportive function of serum. Serum from MF, PV and ET patients significantly increased proliferation as compared to controls. In addition, serum from MF and ET patients attenuated the loss of a primitive immunophenotype during in vitro culture. The CFU counts were significantly higher if HPCs were cultured with serum of MPN patients as compared to controls. Furthermore, serum of healthy young versus old donors did not evoke significant differences in proliferation or immunophenotype of HPCs, whereas the CFU frequency was significantly increased by serum from elderly patients. Our results indicate that serum derived from patients with MPN comprises activating feedback signals that stimulate the HPCs-and this stimulatory signal may result in a viscous circle that further accelerates development of the disease.

  20. The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration, Proliferation and Differentiation in Fracture Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration, Proliferation and Differentiation in Fracture Repair PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11/1/05 – 10/31/09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this program is to investigate the influence of controlled mechanical stimulation on the behavior of

  1. Repurposing Treprostinil for Enhancing Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Zahra; Bergmayr, Christian; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Javaheri, Tahereh; Themanns, Madeleine; Pham, Ha T. T.; Strohmaier, Wolfgang; Sexl, Veronika; Zebedin-Brandl, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Gs-coupled receptors enhances engraftment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We tested the hypothesis that treprostinil, a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, can be repurposed to improve hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Murine and human HSPCs were isolated from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood, respectively. Prostanoid receptor agonists and the combination thereof with forskolin were tested for their capacity to stimulate [3H]cAMP accumulation in HSPCs. Three independent approaches were employed to verify the ability of agonist-activated HSPCs to reconstitute the bone marrow in lethally irradiated recipient mice. The underlying mechanism was explored in cellular migration assays and by blocking C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Among several prostanoid agonists tested in combination with forskolin, treprostinil was most efficacious in raising intracellular cAMP levels in murine and human HPSCs. Injection of murine and human HSPCs, which had been pretreated with treprostinil and forskolin, enhanced survival of lethally irradiated recipient mice. Survival was further improved if recipient mice were subcutaneously administered treprostinil (0.15 mg kg−1 8 h−1) for 10 days. This regimen also reduced the number of HSPCs required to rescue lethally irradiated mice. Enhanced survival of recipient mice was causally related to treprostinil-enhanced CXCR4-dependent migration of HSPCs. Treprostinil stimulates the engraftment of human and murine hematopoietic stem cells without impairing their capacity for self-renewal. The investigated dose range corresponds to the dose approved for human use. Hence, these findings may be readily translated into a clinical application. PMID:26989084

  2. Motor neurons and oligodendrocytes arise from distinct cell lineages by progenitor recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ravanelli, Andrew M.; Appel, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    During spinal cord development, ventral neural progenitor cells that express the transcription factors Olig1 and Olig2, called pMN progenitors, produce motor neurons and then oligodendrocytes. Whether motor neurons and oligodendrocytes arise from common or distinct progenitors in vivo is not known. Using zebrafish, we found that motor neurons and oligodendrocytes are produced sequentially by distinct progenitors that have distinct origins. When olig2+ cells were tracked during the peak period of motor neuron formation, most differentiated as motor neurons without further cell division. Using time-lapse imaging, we found that, as motor neurons differentiated, more dorsally positioned neuroepithelial progenitors descended to the pMN domain and initiated olig2 expression. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling during motor neuron differentiation blocked the ventral movement of progenitors, the progressive initiation of olig2 expression, and oligodendrocyte formation. We therefore propose that the motor neuron-to-oligodendrocyte switch results from Hedgehog-mediated recruitment of glial-fated progenitors to the pMN domain subsequent to neurogenesis. PMID:26584621

  3. Biochemistry and biology: heart-to-heart to investigate cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Isotta; Forte, Elvira; Angelini, Francesco; Messina, Elisa; Giacomello, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    Cardiac regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving field, with promising future developments for effective personalized treatments. Several stem/progenitor cells are candidates for cardiac cell therapy, and emerging evidence suggests how multiple metabolic and biochemical pathways strictly regulate their fate and renewal. In this review, we will explore a selection of areas of common interest for biology and biochemistry concerning stem/progenitor cells, and in particular cardiac progenitor cells. Numerous regulatory mechanisms have been identified that link stem cell signaling and functions to the modulation of metabolic pathways, and vice versa. Pharmacological treatments and culture requirements may be exploited to modulate stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal, possibly boosting their regenerative potential for cell therapy. Mitochondria and their many related metabolites and messengers, such as oxygen, ROS, calcium and glucose, have a crucial role in regulating stem cell fate and the balance of their functions, together with many metabolic enzymes. Furthermore, protein biochemistry and proteomics can provide precious clues on the definition of different progenitor cell populations, their physiology and their autocrine/paracrine regulatory/signaling networks. Interdisciplinary approaches between biology and biochemistry can provide productive insights on stem/progenitor cells, allowing the development of novel strategies and protocols for effective cardiac cell therapy clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biologic properties of endothelial progenitor cells and their potential for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Young, Pampee P; Vaughan, Douglas E; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that portions of ischemic and tumor neovasculature are derived by neovasculogenesis, whereby bone marrow (BM)-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) home to sites of regenerative or malignant growth and contribute to blood vessel formation. Recent data from animal models suggest that a variety of cell types, including unfractionated BM mononuclear cells and those obtained by ex vivo expansion of human peripheral blood or enriched progenitors, can function as EPCs to promote tissue vasculogenesis, regeneration, and repair when introduced in vivo. The promising preclinical results have led to several human clinical trials using BM as a potential source of EPCs in cardiac repair as well as ongoing basic research on using EPCs in tissue engineering or as cell therapy to target tumor growth.

  5. Characterization of the Transcriptomes of Lgr5+ Hair Cell Progenitors and Lgr5- Supporting Cells in the Mouse Cochlea.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Guo, Luo; Lu, Ling; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, ShaSha; Gao, Junyan; Waqas, Muhammad; Zhu, Chengwen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Chuanying; Gao, Xia; Tang, Mingliang; Chen, Fangyi; Shi, Haibo; Li, Huawei; Chai, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear supporting cells (SCs) have been shown to be a promising resource for hair cell (HC) regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Previous studies have reported that Lgr5+ SCs can regenerate HCs both in vitro and in vivo and thus are considered to be inner ear progenitor cells. Lgr5+ progenitors are able to regenerate more HCs than Lgr5- SCs, and it is important to understand the mechanism behind the proliferation and HC regeneration of these progenitors. Here, we isolated Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs from Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Sox2-CreERT2/Rosa26-tdTomato mice via flow cytometry. As expected, we found that Lgr5+ progenitors had significantly higher proliferation and HC regeneration ability than Lgr5- SCs. Next, we performed RNA-Seq to determine the gene expression profiles of Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs. We analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs, and we found 8 cell cycle genes, 9 transcription factors, and 24 cell signaling pathway genes that were uniquely expressed in one population but not the other. Last, we made a protein-protein interaction network to further analyze the role of these differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we present a set of genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration ability of Lgr5+ progenitors, and these might serve as potential new therapeutic targets for HC regeneration.

  6. Characterization of the Transcriptomes of Lgr5+ Hair Cell Progenitors and Lgr5- Supporting Cells in the Mouse Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Guo, Luo; Lu, Ling; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, ShaSha; Gao, Junyan; Waqas, Muhammad; Zhu, Chengwen; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Chuanying; Gao, Xia; Tang, Mingliang; Chen, Fangyi; Shi, Haibo; Li, Huawei; Chai, Renjie

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear supporting cells (SCs) have been shown to be a promising resource for hair cell (HC) regeneration in the neonatal mouse cochlea. Previous studies have reported that Lgr5+ SCs can regenerate HCs both in vitro and in vivo and thus are considered to be inner ear progenitor cells. Lgr5+ progenitors are able to regenerate more HCs than Lgr5- SCs, and it is important to understand the mechanism behind the proliferation and HC regeneration of these progenitors. Here, we isolated Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs from Lgr5-EGFP-CreERT2/Sox2-CreERT2/Rosa26-tdTomato mice via flow cytometry. As expected, we found that Lgr5+ progenitors had significantly higher proliferation and HC regeneration ability than Lgr5- SCs. Next, we performed RNA-Seq to determine the gene expression profiles of Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs. We analyzed the genes that were enriched and differentially expressed in Lgr5+ progenitors and Lgr5- SCs, and we found 8 cell cycle genes, 9 transcription factors, and 24 cell signaling pathway genes that were uniquely expressed in one population but not the other. Last, we made a protein–protein interaction network to further analyze the role of these differentially expressed genes. In conclusion, we present a set of genes that might regulate the proliferation and HC regeneration ability of Lgr5+ progenitors, and these might serve as potential new therapeutic targets for HC regeneration. PMID:28491023

  7. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Ryo; Suda, Noriko; Sudo, Kazuhiro; Miharada, Kenichi; Hiroyama, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Kenzaburo; Nakamura, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  8. Cdx mutant axial progenitor cells are rescued by grafting to a wild type environment.

    PubMed

    Bialecka, Monika; Wilson, Valerie; Deschamps, Jacqueline

    2010-11-01

    Cdx transcription factors are required for axial extension. Cdx genes are expressed in the posterior growth zone, a region that supplies new cells for axial elongation. Cdx2(+/-)Cdx4(-/-) (Cdx2/4) mutant embryos show abnormalities in axis elongation from E8.5, culminating in axial truncation at E10.5. These data raised the possibility that the long-term axial progenitors of Cdx mutants are intrinsically impaired in their ability to contribute to posterior growth. We investigated whether we could identify cell-autonomous defects of the axial progenitor cells by grafting mutant cells into a wild type growth zone environment. We compared the contribution of GFP labeled mutant and wild type progenitors grafted to unlabeled wild type recipients subsequently cultured over the period during which Cdx2/4 defects emerge. Descendants of grafted cells were scored for their contribution to differentiated tissues in the elongating axis and to the posterior growth zone. No difference between the contribution of descendants from wild type and mutant grafted progenitors was detected, indicating that rescue of the Cdx mutant progenitors by the wild type recipient growth zone is provided non-cell autonomously. Recently, we showed that premature axial termination of Cdx mutants can be partly rescued by stimulating canonical Wnt signaling in the posterior growth zone. Taken together with the data shown here, this suggests that Cdx genes function to maintain a signaling-dependent niche for the posterior axial progenitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Left atrial appendages from adult hearts contain a reservoir of diverse cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Jussi V; Emanuelov, Avishag K; Platt, Yardanna; Helman, Yaron; Feinberg, Yael; Lotan, Chaim; Beeri, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence supporting the claim that endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are key players in cardiac regeneration, but the anatomic source and phenotype of the master cardiac progenitors remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the different cardiac stem cell populations in the left atrial appendage (LAA) and their fates. We investigated the CPC content and profile of adult murine LAAs using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that the LAA contains a large number of CPCs relative to other areas of the heart, representing over 20% of the total cell number. We grew two distinct CPC populations from the LAA by varying the degree of proteolysis. These differed by their histological location, surface marker profiles and growth dynamics. Specifically, CD45(pos) cells grew with milder proteolysis, while CD45(neg) cells grew mainly with more intense proteolysis. Both cell types could be induced to differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte markers and organelles, albeit by different protocols. Many CD45(pos) cells expressed CD45 initially and rapidly lost its expression while differentiating. Our results demonstrate that the left atrial appendage plays a role as a reservoir of multiple types of progenitor cells in murine adult hearts. Two different types of CPCs were isolated, differing in their epicardial-myocardial localization. Considering studies demonstrating layer-specific origins of different cardiac progenitor cells, our findings may shed light on possible pathways to study and utilize the diversity of endogenous progenitor cells in the adult heart.

  10. Left Atrial Appendages from Adult Hearts Contain a Reservoir of Diverse Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Yardanna; Helman, Yaron; Feinberg, Yael; Lotan, Chaim; Beeri, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    Aims There is strong evidence supporting the claim that endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are key players in cardiac regeneration, but the anatomic source and phenotype of the master cardiac progenitors remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the different cardiac stem cell populations in the left atrial appendage (LAA) and their fates. Methods and Results We investigated the CPC content and profile of adult murine LAAs using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that the LAA contains a large number of CPCs relative to other areas of the heart, representing over 20% of the total cell number. We grew two distinct CPC populations from the LAA by varying the degree of proteolysis. These differed by their histological location, surface marker profiles and growth dynamics. Specifically, CD45pos cells grew with milder proteolysis, while CD45neg cells grew mainly with more intense proteolysis. Both cell types could be induced to differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte markers and organelles, albeit by different protocols. Many CD45pos cells expressed CD45 initially and rapidly lost its expression while differentiating. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the left atrial appendage plays a role as a reservoir of multiple types of progenitor cells in murine adult hearts. Two different types of CPCs were isolated, differing in their epicardial-myocardial localization. Considering studies demonstrating layer-specific origins of different cardiac progenitor cells, our findings may shed light on possible pathways to study and utilize the diversity of endogenous progenitor cells in the adult heart. PMID:23555001

  11. Characterization of TLX expression in neural stem cells and progenitor cells in adult brains.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengxiu; Sun, Guoqiang; Murai, Kiyohito; Ye, Peng; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression. Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells.

  12. Characterization of TLX Expression in Neural Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells in Adult Brains

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengxiu; Sun, Guoqiang; Murai, Kiyohito; Ye, Peng; Shi, Yanhong

    2012-01-01

    TLX has been shown to play an important role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells in adult brains. However, the cellular distribution of endogenous TLX protein in adult brains remains to be elucidated. In this study, we used immunostaining with a TLX-specific antibody to show that TLX is expressed in both neural stem cells and transit-amplifying neural progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult mouse brains. Then, using a double thymidine analog labeling approach, we showed that almost all of the self-renewing neural stem cells expressed TLX. Interestingly, most of the TLX-positive cells in the SVZ represented the thymidine analog-negative, relatively quiescent neural stem cell population. Using cell type markers and short-term BrdU labeling, we demonstrated that TLX was also expressed in the Mash1+ rapidly dividing type C cells. Furthermore, loss of TLX expression dramatically reduced BrdU label-retaining neural stem cells and the actively dividing neural progenitor cells in the SVZ, but substantially increased GFAP staining and extended GFAP processes. These results suggest that TLX is essential to maintain the self-renewing neural stem cells in the SVZ and that the GFAP+ cells in the SVZ lose neural stem cell property upon loss of TLX expression.Understanding the cellular distribution of TLX and its function in specific cell types may provide insights into the development of therapeutic tools for neurodegenerative diseases by targeting TLX in neural stem/progenitors cells. PMID:22952666

  13. Comparison of culture media for ex vivo cultivation of limbal epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Renata Ruoco; Cristovam, Priscila Cardoso; Martins, Caio Marques; Covre, Joyce Luciana; Sobrinho, Juliana Aparecida; Ricardo, José Reinaldo da Silva; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Myhailov; Höfling-Lima, Ana Luisa; Belfort, Rubens; Nishi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effectiveness of three culture media for growth, proliferation, differentiation, and viability of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial progenitor cells. Methods Limbal epithelial progenitor cell cultures were established from ten human corneal rims and grew on plastic wells in three culture media: supplemental hormonal epithelial medium (SHEM), keratinocyte serum-free medium (KSFM), and Epilife. The performance of culturing limbal epithelial progenitor cells in each medium was evaluated according to the following parameters: growth area of epithelial migration; immunocytochemistry for adenosine 5′-triphosphate-binding cassette member 2 (ABCG2), p63, Ki67, cytokeratin 3 (CK3), and vimentin (VMT) and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) for CK3, ABCG2, and p63, and cell viability using Hoechst staining. Results Limbal epithelial progenitor cells cultivated in SHEM showed a tendency to faster migration, compared to KSFM and Epilife. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that proliferated cells in the SHEM had lower expression for markers related to progenitor epithelial cells (ABCG2) and putative progenitor cells (p63), and a higher percentage of positive cells for differentiated epithelium (CK3) when compared to KSFM and Epilife. In PCR analysis, ABCG2 expression was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM. Expression of p63 was statistically higher for Epilife compared to SHEM and KSFM. However, CK3 expression was statistically lower for KSFM compared to SHEM. Conclusions Based on our findings, we concluded that cells cultured in KSFM and Epilife media presented a higher percentage of limbal epithelial progenitor cells, compared to SHEM. PMID:23378720

  14. Leptin Induces Sca-1+ Progenitor Cell Migration Enhancing Neointimal Lesions in Vessel-Injury Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yao; Potter, Claire M F; Le Bras, Alexandra; Nowak, Witold N; Gu, Wenduo; Bhaloo, Shirin Issa; Zhang, Zhongyi; Hu, Yanhua; Zhang, Li; Xu, Qingbo

    2017-11-01

    Leptin is an adipokine initially thought to be a metabolic factor. Recent publications have shown its roles in inflammation and vascular disease, to which Sca-1 + vascular progenitor cells within the vessel wall may contribute. We sought to elucidate the effects of leptin on Sca-1 + progenitor cells migration and neointimal formation and to understand the underlying mechanisms. Sca-1 + progenitor cells from the vessel wall of Lepr +/+ and Lepr -/- mice were cultured and purified. The migration of Lepr +/+ Sca-1 + progenitor cells in vitro was markedly induced by leptin. Western blotting and kinase assays revealed that leptin induced the activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, pFAK (phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase), and Rac1 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1)/Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42 homolog). In a mouse femoral artery guidewire injury model, an increased expression of leptin in both injured vessels and serum was observed 24 hours post-surgery. RFP (red fluorescent protein)-Sca-1 + progenitor cells in Matrigel were applied to the adventitia of the injured femoral artery. RFP + cells were observed in the intima 24 hours post-surgery, subsequently increasing neointimal lesions at 2 weeks when compared with the arteries without seeded cells. This increase was reduced by pre-treatment of Sca-1 + cells with a leptin antagonist. Guidewire injury could only induce minor neointima in Lepr -/- mice 2 weeks post-surgery. However, transplantation of Lepr +/+ Sca-1 + progenitor cells into the adventitial side of injured artery in Lepr -/- mice significantly enhanced neointimal formation. Upregulation of leptin levels in both the vessel wall and the circulation after vessel injury promoted the migration of Sca-1 + progenitor cells via leptin receptor-dependent signal transducer and activator of transcription 3- Rac1/Cdc42-ERK (extracellular signal

  15. Erythro-myeloid progenitors can differentiate from endothelial cells and modulate embryonic vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kasaai, Bahar; Caolo, Vincenza; Peacock, Hanna M.; Lehoux, Stephanie; Gomez-Perdiguero, Elisa; Luttun, Aernout; Jones, Elizabeth A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) were recently described to arise from the yolk sac endothelium, just prior to vascular remodeling, and are the source of adult/post-natal tissue resident macrophages. Questions remain, however, concerning whether EMPs differentiate directly from the endothelium or merely pass through. We provide the first evidence in vivo that EMPs can emerge directly from endothelial cells (ECs) and demonstrate a role for these cells in vascular development. We find that EMPs express most EC markers but late EMPs and EMP-derived cells do not take up acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), as ECs do. When the endothelium is labelled with AcLDL before EMPs differentiate, EMPs and EMP-derived cells arise that are AcLDL+. If AcLDL is injected after the onset of EMP differentiation, however, the majority of EMP-derived cells are not double labelled. We find that cell division precedes entry of EMPs into circulation, and that blood flow facilitates the transition of EMPs from the endothelium into circulation in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. In gain-of-function studies, we inject the CSF1-Fc ligand in embryos and found that this increases the number of CSF1R+ cells, which localize to the venous plexus and significantly disrupt venous remodeling. This is the first study to definitively establish that EMPs arise from the endothelium in vivo and show a role for early myeloid cells in vascular development. PMID:28272478

  16. [Circulating endothelial progenitor cell levels in treated hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Maroun-Eid, C; Ortega-Hernández, A; Abad, M; García-Donaire, J A; Barbero, A; Reinares, L; Martell-Claros, N; Gómez-Garre, D

    2015-01-01

    Most optimally treated hypertensive patients still have an around 50% increased risk of any cardiovascular event, suggesting the possible existence of unidentified risk factors. In the last years there has been evidence of the essential role of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the maintenance of endothelial integrity and function, increasing the interest in their involvement in cardiovascular disease. In this study, the circulating levels of EPCs and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are investigated in treated hypertensive patients with adequate control of blood pressure (BP). Blood samples were collected from treated hypertensive patients with controlled BP. Plasma levels of EPCs CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ were quantified by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of VEGF was determined by ELISA. A group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors was included as controls. A total of 108 hypertensive patients were included (61±12 years, 47.2% men) of which 82.4% showed BP<140/90 mmHg, 91.7% and 81.5% controlled diabetes (HbA1c <7%) and cLDL (<130 or 100 mg/dL), respectively, and 85.2% were non-smokers. Around 45% of them were obese. Although patients had cardiovascular parameters within normal ranges, they showed significantly lower levels of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ compared with healthy control group, although plasma VEGF concentration was higher in patients than in controls. Despite an optimal treatment, hypertensive patients show a decreased number of circulating EPCs that could be, at least in part, responsible for their residual cardiovascular risk, suggesting that these cells could be a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenotypic characterization of aberrant stem and progenitor cell populations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ostendorf, Benjamin N; Flenner, Eva; Flörcken, Anne; Westermann, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Recent reports have revealed myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to arise from cancer stem cells phenotypically similar to physiological hematopoietic stem cells. Myelodysplastic hematopoiesis maintains a hierarchical organization, but the proportion of several hematopoietic compartments is skewed and multiple surface markers are aberrantly expressed. These aberrant antigen expression patterns hold diagnostic and therapeutic promise. However, eradication of MDS requires targeting of early myelodysplasia propagating stem cells. This warrants an exact assessment of the differentiation stage at which aberrant expression occurs in transformed hematopoiesis. Here, we report results on the prospective and extensive dissection of the hematopoietic hierarchy in 20 patients with either low-risk MDS or MDS with excess blasts and compare it to hematopoiesis in patients with non-malignancy-associated cytopenia or B cell lymphoma without bone marrow infiltration. We found patients with MDS with excess blasts to exhibit characteristic expansions of specific immature progenitor compartments. We also identified the aberrant expression of several markers including ALDH, CLL-1, CD44, and CD47 to be specific features of hematopoiesis in MDS with excess blasts. We show that amongst these, aberrant CLL-1 expression manifested at the early uncommitted hematopoietic stem cell level, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic target.

  18. Poised Regeneration of Zebrafish Melanocytes Involves Direct Differentiation and Concurrent Replenishment of Tissue-Resident Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Sharanya; Kasheta, Melissa; Ceol, Craig J

    2015-06-22

    Efficient regeneration following injury is critical for maintaining tissue function and enabling organismal survival. Cells reconstituting damaged tissue are often generated from resident stem or progenitor cells or from cells that have dedifferentiated and become proliferative. While lineage-tracing studies have defined cellular sources of regeneration in many tissues, the process by which these cells execute the regenerative process is largely obscure. Here, we have identified tissue-resident progenitor cells that mediate regeneration of zebrafish stripe melanocytes and defined how these cells reconstitute pigmentation. Nearly all regeneration melanocytes arise through direct differentiation of progenitor cells. Wnt signaling is activated prior to differentiation, and inhibition of Wnt signaling impairs regeneration. Additional progenitors divide symmetrically to sustain the pool of progenitor cells. Combining direct differentiation with symmetric progenitor divisions may serve as a means to rapidly repair injured tissue while preserving the capacity to regenerate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brief Report: Robo1 Regulates the Migration of Human Subventricular Zone Neural Progenitor Cells During Development.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Lavell, Emily; Chen, Linda; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Clements, Anna Christina; Drummond, Gabrielle; Noiman, Liron; Thaler, Katrina; Burke, Anne; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Human neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ganglionic eminence is an active process throughout early brain development. The migration of human NPCs from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb during fetal stages resembles what occurs in adult rodents. As the human brain develops during infancy, this migratory stream is drastically reduced in cell number and becomes barely evident in adults. The mechanisms regulating human NPC migration are unknown. The Slit-Robo signaling pathway has been defined as a chemorepulsive cue involved in axon guidance and neuroblast migration in rodents. Slit and Robo proteins expressed in the rodent brain help guide neuroblast migration from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. Here, we present the first study on the role that Slit and Robo proteins play in human-derived fetal neural progenitor cell migration (hfNPC). We describe that Robo1 and Robo2 isoforms are expressed in the human fetal SVZ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Slit2 is able to induce a chemorepellent effect on the migration of hfNPCs derived from the human fetal SVZ. In addition, when Robo1 expression is inhibited, hfNPCs are unable to migrate to the olfactory bulb of mice when injected in the anterior SVZ. Our findings indicate that the migration of human NPCs from the SVZ is partially regulated by the Slit-Robo axis. This pathway could be regulated to direct the migration of NPCs in human endogenous neural cell therapy. Stem Cells 2017;35:1860-1865. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  20. Reversing resistance to vascular-disrupting agents by blocking late mobilization of circulating endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Melissa; Billiot, Fanny; Marty, Virginie; Rouffiac, Valérie; Cohen, Patrick; Tournay, Elodie; Opolon, Paule; Louache, Fawzia; Vassal, Gilles; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Vielh, Philippe; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise

    2012-05-01

    The prevailing concept is that immediate mobilization of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) is a key mechanism mediating tumor resistance to vascular-disrupting agents (VDA). Here, we show that administration of VDA to tumor-bearing mice induces 2 distinct peaks in CEPs: an early, unspecific CEP efflux followed by a late yet more dramatic tumor-specific CEP burst that infiltrates tumors and is recruited to vessels. Combination with antiangiogenic drugs could not disrupt the early peak but completely abrogated the late VDA-induced CEP burst, blunted bone marrow-derived cell recruitment to tumors, and resulted in striking antitumor efficacy, indicating that the late CEP burst might be crucial to tumor recovery after VDA therapy. CEP and circulating endothelial cell kinetics in VDA-treated patients with cancer were remarkably consistent with our preclinical data. These findings expand the current understanding of vasculogenic "rebounds" that may be targeted to improve VDA-based strategies. Our findings suggest that resistance to VDA therapy may be strongly mediated by late, rather than early, tumor-specific recruitment of CEPs, the suppression of which resulted in increased VDA-mediated antitumor efficacy. VDA-based therapy might thus be significantly enhanced by combination strategies targeting late CEP mobilization. © 2012 AACR

  1. Update on the pathogenesis of Scleroderma: focus on circulating progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Brunasso, Alexandra Maria Giovanna; Massone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    In systemic sclerosis (SSc), the development of fibrosis seems to be a consequence of the initial ischemic process related to an endothelial injury. The initial trigger event in SSc is still unknown, but circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) might play a key role. Such cells have the ability to traffic into injury sites, exhibiting inflammatory features of macrophages, tissue remodeling properties of fibroblasts, and vasculogenesis functions of endothelial cells. The different subsets of CPCs described thus far in SSc arise from a pool of circulating monocyte precursors (CD14 + cells) and probably correspond to a different degree of differentiation of a single cell of origin. Several subsets of CPCs have been described in patients with SSc, all have a monocytic origin but may or may not express CD14, and all of these cells have the ability to give origin to endothelial cells, or collagen (Col)-producing cells, or both. We were able to identify six subsets of CPCs: pluripotent stem cells (CD14 +, CD45 +, and CD34 +), monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs) or monocyte-derived mesenchymal progenitors (CD14 +, CD45 +, CD34 +, Col I +, CD11b +, CD68 +, CD105 +, and VEGFR1 +), early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) or monocytic pro-angiogenic hematopoietic cells or circulating hematopoietic cells (CD14 +, CD45 +, CD34 low/−, VEGFR2 +/−, CXCR4 +, c-kit +, and DC117 +), late EPCs (CD14 −, CD133 +, VEGFR2 +, CD144 + [VE-cadherin +], and CD146 +), fibroblast-like cells (FLCs)/circulating Col-producing monocytes (CD14 +, CD45 +, CD34 +/−, and Col I +), and fibrocytes (CD14 −, CD45 +, CD34 +, Col I +, and CXCR4 +). It has been demonstrated that circulating CD14 + monocytes with an activated phenotype are increased in patients with SSc when compared with normal subjects. CD14 +, CD34 +, and Col I + spindle-shaped cells have been found in increased numbers in lungs of SSc patients with interstitial lung disease. Elevated blood amounts of early EPCs have been

  2. Update on the pathogenesis of Scleroderma: focus on circulating progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Brunasso, Alexandra Maria Giovanna; Massone, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    In systemic sclerosis (SSc), the development of fibrosis seems to be a consequence of the initial ischemic process related to an endothelial injury. The initial trigger event in SSc is still unknown, but circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) might play a key role. Such cells have the ability to traffic into injury sites, exhibiting inflammatory features of macrophages, tissue remodeling properties of fibroblasts, and vasculogenesis functions of endothelial cells. The different subsets of CPCs described thus far in SSc arise from a pool of circulating monocyte precursors (CD14 (+) cells) and probably correspond to a different degree of differentiation of a single cell of origin. Several subsets of CPCs have been described in patients with SSc, all have a monocytic origin but may or may not express CD14, and all of these cells have the ability to give origin to endothelial cells, or collagen (Col)-producing cells, or both. We were able to identify six subsets of CPCs: pluripotent stem cells (CD14 (+), CD45 (+), and CD34 (+)), monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs) or monocyte-derived mesenchymal progenitors (CD14 (+), CD45 (+), CD34 (+), Col I (+), CD11b (+), CD68 (+), CD105 (+), and VEGFR1 (+)), early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) or monocytic pro-angiogenic hematopoietic cells or circulating hematopoietic cells (CD14 (+), CD45 (+), CD34 (low/-), VEGFR2 (+/-), CXCR4 (+), c-kit (+), and DC117 (+)), late EPCs (CD14 (-), CD133 (+), VEGFR2 (+), CD144 (+) [VE-cadherin (+)], and CD146 (+)), fibroblast-like cells (FLCs)/circulating Col-producing monocytes (CD14 (+), CD45 (+), CD34 (+/-), and Col I (+)), and fibrocytes (CD14 (-), CD45 (+), CD34 (+), Col I (+), and CXCR4 (+)). It has been demonstrated that circulating CD14 (+) monocytes with an activated phenotype are increased in patients with SSc when compared with normal subjects. CD14 (+), CD34 (+), and Col I (+) spindle-shaped cells have been found in increased numbers in lungs of SSc patients with

  3. Identification of a progenitor cell population destined to form fracture fibrocartilage callus in Dickkopf-related protein 3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yu; Adams, Douglas; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Yoshida, Ryu; Kamimura, Masayuki; Itoi, Eiji; Rowe, David W

    2016-11-01

    Fracture healing is a complex biological process involving the proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells, and chondrogenic, osteogenic, and angiogenic differentiation. The mechanisms underlying the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate Dickkopf-related protein 3 (Dkk3) expression in periosteal cells using Dkk3-green fluorescent protein reporter mice. We found that proliferation of mesenchymal progenitor cells began in the periosteum, involving Dkk3-positive cell proliferation near the fracture site. In addition, Dkk3 was expressed in fibrocartilage cells together with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 in the early phase of fracture healing as a cell marker of fibrocartilage cells. Dkk3 was not expressed in mature chondrogenic cells or osteogenic cells. Transient expression of Dkk3 disappeared in the late phase of fracture healing, except in the superficial periosteal area of fracture callus. The Dkk3 expression pattern differed in newly formed type IV collagen positive blood vessels and the related avascular tissue. This is the first report that shows Dkk3 expression in the periosteum at a resting state and in fibrocartilage cells during the fracture healing process, which was associated with smooth muscle α-actin and Col3.6 expression in mesenchymal progenitor cells. These fluorescent mesenchymal lineage cells may be useful for future studies to better understand fracture healing.

  4. Progenitor cells for regenerative medicine and consequences of ART and cloning-associated epimutations.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Shari L

    2010-06-01

    The "holy grail" of regenerative medicine is the identification of an undifferentiated progenitor cell that is pluripotent, patient specific, and ethically unambiguous. Such a progenitor cell must also be able to differentiate into functional, transplantable tissue, while avoiding the risks of immune rejection. With reports detailing aberrant genomic imprinting associated with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and reproductive cloning, the idea that human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) derived from surplus in vitro fertilized embryos or nuclear transfer ESCs (ntESCs) harvested from cloned embryos may harbor dangerous epigenetic errors has gained attention. Various progenitor cell sources have been proposed for human therapy, from hESCs to ntESCs, and from adult stem cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS and piPS cells). This review highlights the advantages and disadvantages of each of these technologies, with particular emphasis on epigenetic stability.

  5. Human Lyb-2 homolog CD72 is a marker for progenitor B-cell leukemias.

    PubMed

    Schwarting, R; Castello, R; Moldenhauer, G; Pezzutto, A; von Hoegen, I; Ludwig, W D; Parnes, J R; Dörken, B

    1992-11-01

    S-HCL 2 is the prototype antibody of the recently defined CD72 cluster (human Lyb-2). Under nonreducing conditions, S-HCL 2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) precipitates a glycoprotein of 80-86 kDa. Under reducing conditions, a dimer of 43 and 39 kDa, with core proteins of 40 and 36 kDa, is precipitated. CD72 expression in normal and malignant tissues is different from expression of all other previously described human B-cell antigens. In peripheral blood and bone marrow, the antigen appears to be present on all B lymphocytes, with the exception of plasma cells. In tissue, immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity for all known B-cell compartments; however, pulpa macrophages of the spleen and von Kupffer cells exhibited distinct positivity for CD72 also. Among 83 malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas examined by immunohistochemistry (alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase technique), all 54 B-cell lymphomas, including precursor B-cell lymphomas, Burkitt's lymphomas, germinal center lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemias, and hairy cell leukemias, were CD72 positive, but no T-cell lymphomas were. Flow cytometry study of more than 80 mainly acute leukemias (52 B-cell leukemias) showed reactivity with S-HCL 2 mAb over the full range of B-cell differentiation. In particular, very early B cells in cytoplasmic Ig (cIg)-negative, CD19-positive pre-pre-B-cell leukemias and hybrid leukemias (mixed myeloid and B-cell type) were consistently positive for CD72 on the cell surface. Therefore, CD72 may become an important marker for progenitor B-cell leukemias.

  6. In vitro effects of Epidiferphane™ on adult human neural progenitor cells

    Neural stem cells have the capacity to respond to their environment, migrate to the injury site and generate functional cell types, and thus they hold great promise for cell therapies. In addition to representing a source for central nervous system (CNS) repair, neural stem and progenitor cells als...

  7. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M; Schumacher, Michael A; Matthis, Andrea L; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R; Hong, Christian I; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A; Montrose, Marshall H

    2015-11-24

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5(+)) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5(+) cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration.

  8. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Matthis, Andrea L.; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K.; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R.; Hong, Christian I.; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5+ cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration. PMID:26597788

  9. Progressive alterations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors underlie lymphoid cell loss in aging.

    PubMed

    Young, Kira; Borikar, Sneha; Bell, Rebecca; Kuffler, Lauren; Philip, Vivek; Trowbridge, Jennifer J

    2016-10-17

    Declining immune function with age is associated with reduced lymphoid output of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Currently, there is poor understanding of changes with age in the heterogeneous multipotent progenitor (MPP) cell compartment, which is long lived and responsible for dynamically regulating output of mature hematopoietic cells. In this study, we observe an early and progressive loss of lymphoid-primed MPP cells (LMPP/MPP4) with aging, concomitant with expansion of HSCs. Transcriptome and in vitro functional analyses at the single-cell level reveal a concurrent increase in cycling of aging LMPP/MPP4 with loss of lymphoid priming and differentiation potential. Impaired lymphoid differentiation potential of aged LMPP/MPP4 is not rescued by transplantation into a young bone marrow microenvironment, demonstrating cell-autonomous changes in the MPP compartment with aging. These results pinpoint an age and cellular compartment to focus further interrogation of the drivers of lymphoid cell loss with aging. © 2016 Young et al.

  10. Sall4-Gli3 system in early limb progenitors is essential for the development of limb skeletal elements.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Ryutaro; Kawakami, Hiroko; Wong, Julia; Oishi, Isao; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-21

    Limb skeletal elements originate from the limb progenitor cells, which undergo expansion and patterning to develop each skeletal element. Posterior-distal skeletal elements, such as the ulna/fibula and posterior digits develop in a Sonic hedgehog (Shh)-dependent manner. However, it is poorly understood how anterior-proximal elements, such as the humerus/femur, the radius/tibia and the anterior digits, are developed. Here we show that the zinc finger factors Sall4 and Gli3 cooperate for proper development of the anterior-proximal skeletal elements and also function upstream of Shh-dependent posterior skeletal element development. Conditional inactivation of Sall4 in the mesoderm before limb outgrowth caused severe defects in the anterior-proximal skeletal elements in the hindlimb. We found that Gli3 expression is reduced in Sall4 mutant hindlimbs, but not in forelimbs. This reduction caused posteriorization of nascent hindlimb buds, which is correlated with a loss of anterior digits. In proximal development, Sall4 integrates Gli3 and the Plzf-Hox system, in addition to proliferative expansion of cells in the mesenchymal core of nascent hindlimb buds. Whereas forelimbs developed normally in Sall4 mutants, further genetic analysis identified that the Sall4-Gli3 system is a common regulator of the early limb progenitor cells in both forelimbs and hindlimbs. The Sall4-Gli3 system also functions upstream of the Shh-expressing ZPA and the Fgf8-expressing AER in fore- and hindlimbs. Therefore, our study identified a critical role of the Sall4-Gli3 system at the early steps of limb development for proper development of the appendicular skeletal elements.

  11. Development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. EMMPRIN overexpression in SVZ neural progenitor cells increases their migration towards ischemic cortex.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Michiko; Tsupykov, Oleg; Potter, Gaël; Boitard, Michael; Salmon, Patrick; Zgraggen, Eloisa; Gascon, Eduardo; Skibo, Galina; Dayer, Alexandre G; Kiss, Jozsef Z

    2017-11-01

    Stimulation of endogenous neurogenesis and recruitment of neural progenitors from the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenic site may represent a useful strategy to improve regeneration in the ischemic cortex. Here, we tested whether transgenic overexpression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), the regulator of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, in endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) could increase migration towards ischemic injury. For this purpose, we applied a lentivector-mediated gene transfer system. We found that EMMPRIN-transduced progenitors exhibited enhanced MMP-2 activity in vitro and showed improved motility in 3D collagen gel as well as in cortical slices. Using a rat model of neonatal ischemia, we showed that EMMPRIN overexpressing SVZ cells invade the injured cortical tissue more efficiently than controls. Our results suggest that EMMPRIN overexpression could be suitable approach to improve capacities of endogenous or transplanted progenitors to invade the injured cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficient expansion of human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells carrying a transgene with lentiviral vector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of an appropriate procedure for lentiviral gene transduction into keratinocyte stem cells is crucial for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine for genetic disorders of the skin. However, there is little information available on the efficiency of lentiviral transduction into human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells and the effects of gene transduction procedures on growth potential of the stem cells by systematic assessment. Methods In this study, we explored the conditions for efficient expansion of human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells carrying a transgene with a lentiviral vector, by using the culture of keratinocytes on a feeder layer of 3 T3 mouse fibroblasts. The gene transduction and expansion of keratinocytes carrying a transgene were analyzed by Western blotting, quantitative PCR, and flow cytometry. Results Polybrene (hexadiamine bromide) markedly enhanced the efficiency of lentiviral gene transduction, but negatively affected the maintenance of the keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells at a concentration higher than 5 μg/ml. Rho-assiciated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632, a small molecule which enhanced keratinocyte proliferation, significantly interfered with the lentiviral transduction into cultured human keratinocytes. However, a suitable combination of polybrene and Y-27632 effectively expanded keratinocytes carrying a transgene. Conclusions This study provides information for effective expansion of cultured human keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells carrying a transgene. This point is particularly significant for the application of genetically modified keratinocyte stem/progenitor stem cells in regenerative medicine. PMID:24406242

  15. Hematopoietic progenitor cell deficiency in fetuses and children affected by Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Denise K; Bates, Nicola; Murray, Mary; Ladusans, E J; Morabito, Antonino; Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B; Johnston, Tracey A; Walkenshaw, Steve; Wynn, Robert F; Bellantuono, Ilaria

    2006-12-01

    There is an increased risk of myeloid malignancy in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), which is associated with a mutation in exon 2 of the transcription factor GATA-1. It is recognized that there is accelerated telomere shortening in blood cells of children with DS similar to that in conditions such as Fanconi anemia and dyskeratosis congenita. The latter conditions are associated with stem cell deficiency and clonal change, including acute myeloid leukemia. In this study we address the questions 1) whether the accelerated telomere shortening is associated with progenitor/stem cell deficiency in individuals with DS, predisposing to clonal change and 2) whether the occurrence of reduced numbers of stem/progenitor cells precede the incidence of mutations in exon 2 of GATA-1. Peripheral blood from fetuses (23-35 weeks gestation) and/or bone marrow from children affected by DS and age-matched hematologically healthy controls were analyzed for telomere length, content of stem/progenitor cells, and mutations in exon 2 of GATA-1. We found that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell deficiency and telomere shortening occurs in individuals with DS in fetal life. Moreover, the presence of a low number of progenitor cells was not associated with mutations in exon 2 of GATA-1. We propose that stem cell deficiency may be a primary predisposing event to DS leukemia development.

  16. The scaffold protein Nde1 safeguards the brain genome during S phase of early neural progenitor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Feng, Yuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Successfully completing the S phase of each cell cycle ensures genome integrity. Impediment of DNA replication can lead to DNA damage and genomic disorders. In this study, we show a novel function for NDE1, whose mutations cause brain developmental disorders, in safeguarding the genome through S phase during early steps of neural progenitor fate restrictive differentiation. Nde1 mutant neural progenitors showed catastrophic DNA double strand breaks concurrent with the DNA replication. This evoked DNA damage responses, led to the activation of p53-dependent apoptosis, and resulted in the reduction of neurons in cortical layer II/III. We discovered a nuclear pool of Nde1, identified the interaction of Nde1 with cohesin and its associated chromatin remodeler, and showed that stalled DNA replication in Nde1 mutants specifically occurred in mid-late S phase at heterochromatin domains. These findings suggest that NDE1-mediated heterochromatin replication is indispensible for neuronal differentiation, and that the loss of NDE1 function may lead to genomic neurological disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03297.001 PMID:25245017

  17. Osteogenic differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Teruyo; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Kanaji, Arihiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Asami; Yamada, Harumoto; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2013-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue outside the skeletal tissue. HO is thought to result from aberrant differentiation of osteogenic progenitors within skeletal muscle. However, the precise origin of HO is still unclear. Skeletal muscle contains two kinds of progenitor cells, myogenic progenitors and mesenchymal progenitors. Myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors in human skeletal muscle can be identified as CD56(+) and PDGFRα(+) cells, respectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitors. Both CD56(+) cells and PDGFRα(+) cells showed comparable osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. However, in an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, PDGFRα(+) cells formed bone-like tissue and showed successful engraftment, while CD56(+) cells did not form bone-like tissue and did not adapt to an osteogenic environment. Immunohistological analysis of human HO sample revealed that many PDGFRα(+) cells were localized in proximity to ectopic bone formed in skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to regulate many biological processes including osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the participation of miRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+) cells by using microarray. We identified miRNAs that had not been known to be involved in osteogenesis but showed dramatic changes during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+) cells. Upregulation of miR-146b-5p and -424 and downregulation of miR-7 during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+) cells were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Inhibition of upregulated miRNAs, miR-146b-5p and -424, resulted in the suppression of osteocyte maturation, suggesting that these two miRNAs have the positive role in the osteogenesis of PDGFRα(+) cells. Our results suggest that PDGFRα(+) cells may be the major source of HO and that the newly identified miRNAs may

  18. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Fruits as a Potential Cardioprotective Agent: The Role of Circulating Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A.; Mohamed, Maged E.; Ahmed, K. K. M.; Kumar, Arun H. S.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Date palms, along with their fruits’ dietary consumption, possess enormous medicinal and pharmacological activities manifested in their usage in a variety of ailments in the various traditional systems of medicine. In recent years, the identification of progenitor cells in the adult organ systems has opened an altogether new approach to therapeutics, due to the ability of these cells to repair the damaged cells/tissues. Hence, the concept of developing therapeutics, which can mobilize endogenous progenitor cells, following tissue injury, to enhance tissue repair process is clinically relevant. Objectives: The present study investigates the potential of date of palm fruit extracts in repairing tissue injury following myocardial infarction (MI) potentially by mobilizing circulating progenitor cells. Methods: Extracts of four different varieties of date palm fruits common in Saudi Arabia eastern provision were scrutinized for their total flavonoid, total phenolic, in vitro antioxidant capacity, as well as their effects on two different rodent MI models. Results: High concentrations of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were observed in date palm fruit extracts, which contributed to the promising antioxidant activities of these extracts and the observed high protective effect against various induced in vivo MI. The extracts showed ability to build up reserves and to mobilize circulating progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral circulation to the site of myocardial infraction. Conclusion: Date palm fruit extracts have the potential to mobilize endogenous circulating progenitor cells, which can promote tissue repair following ischemic injury. PMID:28928656

  19. Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Fruits as a Potential Cardioprotective Agent: The Role of Circulating Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Mohamed, Maged E; Ahmed, K K M; Kumar, Arun H S

    2017-01-01

    Context: Date palms, along with their fruits' dietary consumption, possess enormous medicinal and pharmacological activities manifested in their usage in a variety of ailments in the various traditional systems of medicine. In recent years, the identification of progenitor cells in the adult organ systems has opened an altogether new approach to therapeutics, due to the ability of these cells to repair the damaged cells/tissues. Hence, the concept of developing therapeutics, which can mobilize endogenous progenitor cells, following tissue injury, to enhance tissue repair process is clinically relevant. Objectives: The present study investigates the potential of date of palm fruit extracts in repairing tissue injury following myocardial infarction (MI) potentially by mobilizing circulating progenitor cells. Methods: Extracts of four different varieties of date palm fruits common in Saudi Arabia eastern provision were scrutinized for their total flavonoid, total phenolic, in vitro antioxidant capacity, as well as their effects on two different rodent MI models. Results: High concentrations of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were observed in date palm fruit extracts, which contributed to the promising antioxidant activities of these extracts and the observed high protective effect against various induced in vivo MI. The extracts showed ability to build up reserves and to mobilize circulating progenitor cells from bone marrow and peripheral circulation to the site of myocardial infraction. Conclusion: Date palm fruit extracts have the potential to mobilize endogenous circulating progenitor cells, which can promote tissue repair following ischemic injury.

  20. Notch Signaling in Postnatal Pituitary Expansion: Proliferation, Progenitors, and Cell Specification

    PubMed Central

    Nantie, Leah B.; Himes, Ashley D.; Getz, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PROP1 account for up to half of the cases of combined pituitary hormone deficiency that result from known causes. Despite this, few signaling molecules and pathways that influence PROP1 expression have been identified. Notch signaling has been linked to Prop1 expression, but the developmental periods during which Notch signaling influences Prop1 and overall pituitary development remain unclear. To test the requirement for Notch signaling in establishing the normal pituitary hormone milieu, we generated mice with early embryonic conditional loss of Notch2 (conditional knockout) and examined the consequences of chemical Notch inhibition during early postnatal pituitary maturation. We show that loss of Notch2 has little influence on early embryonic pituitary proliferation but is crucial for postnatal progenitor maintenance and proliferation. In addition, we show that Notch signaling is necessary embryonically and postnatally for Prop1 expression and robust Pit1 lineage hormone cell expansion, as well as repression of the corticotrope lineage. Taken together, our studies identify temporal and cell type–specific roles for Notch signaling and highlight the importance of this pathway throughout pituitary development. PMID:24673559

  1. Delayed Rectifier and A-Type Potassium Channels Associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 Expression in Embryonic Rat Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dean O.; Rosenheimer, Julie L.; Kalil, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Because of the importance of voltage-activated K+ channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and βIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K+ currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells. PMID:18270591

  2. Delayed rectifier and A-type potassium channels associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 expression in embryonic rat neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean O; Rosenheimer, Julie L; Kalil, Ronald E

    2008-02-13

    Because of the importance of voltage-activated K(+) channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ). Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and betaIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K(+) currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells.

  3. Generation of an expandable intermediate mesoderm restricted progenitor cell line from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathan; Richter, Jenna; Cutts, Josh; Bush, Kevin T; Trujillo, Cleber; Nigam, Sanjay K; Gaasterland, Terry; Brafman, David; Willert, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The field of tissue engineering entered a new era with the development of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which are capable of unlimited expansion whilst retaining the potential to differentiate into all mature cell populations. However, these cells harbor significant risks, including tumor formation upon transplantation. One way to mitigate this risk is to develop expandable progenitor cell populations with restricted differentiation potential. Here, we used a cellular microarray technology to identify a defined and optimized culture condition that supports the derivation and propagation of a cell population with mesodermal properties. This cell population, referred to as intermediate mesodermal progenitor (IMP) cells, is capable of unlimited expansion, lacks tumor formation potential, and, upon appropriate stimulation, readily acquires properties of a sub-population of kidney cells. Interestingly, IMP cells fail to differentiate into other mesodermally-derived tissues, including blood and heart, suggesting that these cells are restricted to an intermediate mesodermal fate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08413.001 PMID:26554899

  4. Downstream targets of HOXB4 in a cell line model of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han M; Zhang, Hui; Schulz, Vincent; Tuck, David P; Forget, Bernard G

    2010-08-05

    Enforced expression of the homeobox transcription factor HOXB4 has been shown to enhance hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and expansion ex vivo and in vivo. To investigate the downstream targets of HOXB4 in hematopoietic progenitor cells, HOXB4 was constitutively overexpressed in the primitive hematopoietic progenitor cell line EML. Two genome-wide analytical techniques were used: RNA expression profiling using microarrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip. RNA expression profiling revealed that 465 gene transcripts were differentially expressed in KLS (c-Kit(+), Lin(-), Sca-1(+))-EML cells that overexpressed HOXB4 (KLS-EML-HOXB4) compared with control KLS-EML cells that were transduced with vector alone. In particular, erythroid-specific gene transcripts were observed to be highly down-regulated in KLS-EML-HOXB4 cells. ChIP-chip analysis revealed that the promoter region for 1910 genes, such as CD34, Sox4, and B220, were occupied by HOXB4 in KLS-EML-HOXB4 cells. Side-by-side comparison of the ChIP-chip and RNA expression profiling datasets provided correlative information and identified Gp49a and Laptm4b as candidate "stemness-related" genes. Both genes were highly ranked in both dataset lists and have been previously shown to be preferentially expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and down-regulated in mature hematopoietic cells, thus making them attractive candidates for future functional studies in hematopoietic cells.

  5. Fail-Safe Therapy by Gamma-Ray Irradiation Against Tumor Formation by Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Katsukawa, Mitsuko; Nakajima, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Akiko; Doi, Daisuke; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-06-01

    Cell replacement therapy holds great promise for Parkinson's disease (PD), but residual undifferentiated cells and immature neural progenitors in the therapy may cause tumor formation. Although cell sorting could effectively exclude these proliferative cells, from the viewpoint of clinical application, there exists no adequate coping strategy in the case of their contamination. In this study, we analyzed a component of proliferative cells in the grafts of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors and investigated the effect of radiation therapy on tumor formation. In our differentiating protocol, analyses of neural progenitors (day 19) revealed that the proliferating cells expressed early neural markers (SOX1, PAX6) or a dopaminergic neuron progenitor marker (FOXA2). When grafted into the rat striatum, these immature neurons gradually became postmitotic in the brain, and the rosette structures disappeared at 14 weeks. However, at 4-8 weeks, the SOX1(+)PAX6(+) cells formed rosette structures in the grafts, suggesting their tumorigenic potential. Therefore, to develop a fail-safe therapy against tumor formation, we investigated the effect of radiation therapy. At 4 weeks posttransplantation, when KI67(+) cells comprised the highest ratio, radiation therapy with (137)Cs Gammacell Exactor for tumor-bearing immunodeficient rats showed a significant decrease in graft volume and percentage of SOX1(+)KI67(+) cells in the graft, thus demonstrating the preventive effect of gamma-ray irradiation against tumorigenicity. These results give us critical criteria for the safety of future cell replacement therapy for PD.

  6. Distinct capacity for differentiation to inner ear cell types by progenitor cells of the cochlea and vestibular organs

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Will J.; McLean, Dalton T.; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of hearing and balance are most commonly associated with damage to cochlear and vestibular hair cells or neurons. Although these cells are not capable of spontaneous regeneration, progenitor cells in the hearing and balance organs of the neonatal mammalian inner ear have the capacity to generate new hair cells after damage. To investigate whether these cells are restricted in their differentiation capacity, we assessed the phenotypes of differentiated progenitor cells isolated from three compartments of the mouse inner ear – the vestibular and cochlear sensory epithelia and the spiral ganglion – by measuring electrophysiological properties and gene expression. Lgr5+ progenitor cells from the sensory epithelia gave rise to hair cell-like cells, but not neurons or glial cells. Newly created hair cell-like cells had hair bundle proteins, synaptic proteins and membrane proteins characteristic of the compartment of origin. PLP1+ glial cells from the spiral ganglion were identified as neural progenitors, which gave rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but not hair cells. Thus, distinct progenitor populations from the neonatal inner ear differentiate to cell types associated with their organ of origin. PMID:27789624

  7. [Coronary disease extension determines mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells and cytokines after a first myocardial infarction with ST elevation].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Navarro, Manuel F; González, Francisco Jesús; Caballero-Borrego, Juan; Marchal, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez-Losada, Noela; Carrillo, Esmeralda; García-Pinilla, José Manuel; Hernández-García, José M; Pérez-González, Rita; Ramírez, Gemma; Aránega, Antonia; de Teresa Galván, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Multivessel coronary disease is still a postinfarction prognostic marker despite new forms of reperfusion, such as primary angioplasty. The aim of this study was to determine the time sequence of various sets of endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenic cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor) according to the degree of extension of the postinfarction coronary disease. We studied the release kinetics in 32 patients admitted for a first myocardial infarction with ST elevation, grouped according to whether they had single or multivessel disease, and 26 controls. The patients had a higher number of endothelial progenitor cells and angiogenic cytokines than the controls at all 3 measurements (admission, day 3, and day 7) of the following subsets: CD34, CD34+CD133+, CD34+KDR+, and CD34+CD133+KDR+CD45+(weak); this latter was higher on day 7. The levels of these cell subsets were all higher in the patients with single-vessel disease and at all 3 measurements. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels were raised during the first week and the hepatocyte growth factor showed an early peak on admission for infarction. No significant differences were seen in the cytokines according to coronary disease extension. Although the release kinetics of different subsets of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation was similar in those with single vessel disease to those with multivessel disease, the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells was greater in the patients with single vessel disease. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels were raised during the first postinfarction week and the hepatocyte growth factor were higher on admission. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Shear stress upregulates regeneration-related immediate early genes in liver progenitors in 3D ECM-like microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Kenichiro; Brodin, Erik; Renshaw, Taylor; Weesner, Rachael; Moran, Emma; Soker, Shay; Sparks, Jessica L

    2018-05-01

    The role of fluid stresses in activating the hepatic stem/progenitor cell regenerative response is not well understood. This study hypothesized that immediate early genes (IEGs) with known links to liver regeneration will be upregulated in liver progenitor cells (LPCs) exposed to in vitro shear stresses on the order of those produced from elevated interstitial flow after partial hepatectomy. The objectives were: (1) to develop a shear flow chamber for application of fluid stress to LPCs in 3D culture; and (2) to determine the effects of fluid stress on IEG expression in LPCs. Two hours of shear stress exposure at ∼4 dyn/cm 2 was applied to LPCs embedded individually or as 3D spheroids within a hyaluronic acid/collagen I hydrogel. Results were compared against static controls. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the effect of experimental treatments on gene expression. Twenty-nine genes were analyzed, including IEGs and other genes linked to liver regeneration. Four IEGs (CFOS, IP10, MKP1, ALB) and three other regeneration-related genes (WNT, VEGF, EpCAM) were significantly upregulated in LPCs in response to fluid mechanical stress. LPCs maintained an early to intermediate stage of differentiation in spheroid culture in the absence of the hydrogel, and addition of the gel initiated cholangiocyte differentiation programs which were abrogated by the onset of flow. Collectively the flow-upregulated genes fit the pattern of an LPC-mediated proliferative/regenerative response. These results suggest that fluid stresses are potentially important regulators of the LPC-mediated regeneration response in liver. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Progenitor cells are mobilized by acute psychological stress but not beta-adrenergic receptor agonist infusion.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Natalie E; Burns, Victoria E; Wallace, Graham R; Edwards, Kate M; Drayson, Mark; Redwine, Laura S; Hong, Suzi; Bui, Jack C; Fischer, Johannes C; Mills, Paul J; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-10-01

    Stimuli that activate the sympathetic nervous system, such as acute psychological stress, rapidly invoke a robust mobilization of lymphocytes into the circulation. Experimental animal studies suggest that bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (PCs) also mobilize in response to sympathetic stimulation. Here we tested the effects of acute psychological stress and brief pharmacological β-adrenergic (βAR) stimulation on peripheral PC numbers in humans. In two studies, we investigated PC mobilization in response to an acute speech task (n=26) and βAR-agonist (isoproterenol) infusion (n=20). A subset of 8 participants also underwent the infusion protocol with concomitant administration of the βAR-antagonist propranolol. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate lymphocyte subsets, total progenitor cells, total haematopoietic stem cells (HSC), early HSC (multi-lineage potential), late HSC (lineage committed), and endothelial PCs (EPCs). Both psychological stress and βAR-agonist infusion caused the expected mobilization of total monocytes and lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Psychological stress also induced a modest, but significant, increase in total PCs, HSCs, and EPC numbers in peripheral blood. However, infusion of a βAR-agonist did not result in a significant change in circulating PCs. PCs are rapidly mobilized by psychological stress via mechanisms independent of βAR-stimulation, although the findings do not exclude βAR-stimulation as a possible cofactor. Considering the clinical and physiological relevance, further research into the mechanisms involved in stress-induced PC mobilization seems warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An autocrine γ-aminobutyric acid signaling system exists in pancreatic β-cell progenitors of fetal and postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mary M; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Wang, Shuanglian; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced and secreted by adult pancreatic β-cells, which also express GABA receptors mediating autocrine signaling and regulating β-cell proliferation. However, whether the autocrine GABA signaling involves in β-cell progenitor development or maturation remains uncertain. By means of immunohistochemistry we analyzed the expression profiles of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and the α1-subunit of type-A GABA receptor (GABAARα1) in the pancreas of mice at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5), E18.5, postnatal day 1 (P1) and P7. Our data showed that at E15.5 the pancreatic and duodenum homeobox-1 (Pdx1) was expressed in the majority of cells in the developing pancreata. Notably, insulin immunoreactivity was identified in a subpopulation of pancreatic cells with a high level of Pdx1 expression. About 80% of the high-level Pdx-1 expressing cells in the pancreas expressed GAD and GABAARα1 at all pancreatic developmental stages. In contrast, only about 30% of the high-level Pdx-1 expressing cells in the E15.5 pancreas expressed insulin; i.e., a large number of GAD/GABAARα1-expressing cells did not express insulin at this early developmental stage. The expression level of GAD and GABAARα1 increased steadily, and progressively more GAD/GABAARα1-expressing cells expressed insulin in the course of pancreatic development. These results suggest that 1) GABA signaling proteins appear in β-cell progenitors prior to insulin expression; and 2) the increased expression of GABA signaling proteins may be involved in β-cell progenitor maturation.

  11. Effect of Environmental Chemical Exposures on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Viability and Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cell biology has revealed that the adult heart is not a terminally differentiated organ but is capable of generating new cardiomyocytes (CMs) from cardiac stem cells (CSC) and/or progenitor cells (CPC) throughout life. The impact that environmental chemical exposures have on adul...

  12. 2D and 3D Stem Cell Models of Primate Cortical Development Identify Species-Specific Differences in Progenitor Behavior Contributing to Brain Size.

    PubMed

    Otani, Tomoki; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H; Simons, Benjamin D; Livesey, Frederick J

    2016-04-07

    Variation in cerebral cortex size and complexity is thought to contribute to differences in cognitive ability between humans and other animals. Here we compare cortical progenitor cell output in humans and three nonhuman primates using directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in adherent two-dimensional (2D) and organoid three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. Clonal lineage analysis showed that primate cortical progenitors proliferate for a protracted period of time, during which they generate early-born neurons, in contrast to rodents, where this expansion phase largely ceases before neurogenesis begins. The extent of this additional cortical progenitor expansion differs among primates, leading to differences in the number of neurons generated by each progenitor cell. We found that this mechanism for controlling cortical size is regulated cell autonomously in culture, suggesting that primate cerebral cortex size is regulated at least in part at the level of individual cortical progenitor cell clonal output. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dependence of corneal stem/progenitor cells on ocular surface innervation.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiroki; Ferrari, Giulio; Hattori, Takaaki; Saban, Daniel R; Katikireddy, Kishore R; Chauhan, Sunil K; Dana, Reza

    2012-02-21

    Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is a corneal degeneration associated with corneal nerve dysfunction. It can cause corneal epithelial defects, stromal thinning, and perforation. However, it is not clear if and to which extent epithelial stem cells are affected in NK. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between corneolimbal epithelial progenitor/stem cells and sensory nerves using a denervated mouse model of NK. NK was induced in mice by electrocoagulation of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. The absence of corneal nerves was confirmed with β-III tubulin immunostaining and blink reflex test after 7 days. ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), p63, and hairy enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) were chosen as corneolimbal stem/progenitor cell markers and assessed in denervated mice versus controls by immunofluorescent microscopy and real-time PCR. In addition, corneolimbal stem/progenitor cells were detected as side population cells using flow cytometry, and colony-forming efficiency assay was performed to assess their function. ABCG2, p63, and Hes1 immunostaining were significantly decreased in denervated eyes after 7 days. Similarly, the expression levels of ABCG2, p63, K15, Hes1, and N-cadherin transcripts were also significantly decreased in denervated eyes. Stem/progenitor cells measured as side population from NK mice were decreased by approximately 75% compared with normals. In addition, the authors found a significant (P = 0.038) reduction in colony-forming efficiency of stem/progenitor cells harvested from denervated eyes. Corneolimbal stem/progenitor cells are significantly reduced after depletion of sensory nerves. The data suggest a critical role of innervation in maintaining stem cells and/or the stem cell niche.

  14. Dependence of Corneal Stem/Progenitor Cells on Ocular Surface Innervation

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Hiroki; Ferrari, Giulio; Hattori, Takaaki; Saban, Daniel R.; Katikireddy, Kishore R.; Chauhan, Sunil K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is a corneal degeneration associated with corneal nerve dysfunction. It can cause corneal epithelial defects, stromal thinning, and perforation. However, it is not clear if and to which extent epithelial stem cells are affected in NK. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between corneolimbal epithelial progenitor/stem cells and sensory nerves using a denervated mouse model of NK. Methods. NK was induced in mice by electrocoagulation of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. The absence of corneal nerves was confirmed with β-III tubulin immunostaining and blink reflex test after 7 days. ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), p63, and hairy enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) were chosen as corneolimbal stem/progenitor cell markers and assessed in denervated mice versus controls by immunofluorescent microscopy and real-time PCR. In addition, corneolimbal stem/progenitor cells were detected as side population cells using flow cytometry, and colony-forming efficiency assay was performed to assess their function. Results. ABCG2, p63, and Hes1 immunostaining were significantly decreased in denervated eyes after 7 days. Similarly, the expression levels of ABCG2, p63, K15, Hes1, and N-cadherin transcripts were also significantly decreased in denervated eyes. Stem/progenitor cells measured as side population from NK mice were decreased by approximately 75% compared with normals. In addition, the authors found a significant (P = 0.038) reduction in colony-forming efficiency of stem/progenitor cells harvested from denervated eyes. Conclusions. Corneolimbal stem/progenitor cells are significantly reduced after depletion of sensory nerves. The data suggest a critical role of innervation in maintaining stem cells and/or the stem cell niche. PMID:22232434

  15. Putative oncogene Brachyury (T) is essential to specify cell fate but dispensable for notochord progenitor proliferation and EMT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianjian; Kwan, Kin Ming; Mackem, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Brachyury (T) gene is expressed throughout primary mesoderm (primitive streak and notochord) during early embryonic development and has been strongly implicated in the genesis of chordoma, a sarcoma of notochord cell origin. Additionally, T expression has been found in and proposed to play a role in promoting epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various other types of human tumors. However, the role of T in normal mammalian notochord development and function is still not well-understood. We have generated an inducible knockdown model to efficiently and selectively deplete T from notochord in mouse embryos. In combination with genetic lineage tracing, we show that T function is essential for maintaining notochord cell fate and function. Progenitors adopt predominantly a neural fate in the absence of T, consistent with an origin from a common chordoneural progenitor. However, T function is dispensable for progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and EMT, which has implications for the therapeutic targeting of T in chordoma and other cancers. PMID:27006501

  16. Putative oncogene Brachyury (T) is essential to specify cell fate but dispensable for notochord progenitor proliferation and EMT.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianjian; Kwan, Kin Ming; Mackem, Susan

    2016-04-05

    The transcription factor Brachyury (T) gene is expressed throughout primary mesoderm (primitive streak and notochord) during early embryonic development and has been strongly implicated in the genesis of chordoma, a sarcoma of notochord cell origin. Additionally, T expression has been found in and proposed to play a role in promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in various other types of human tumors. However, the role of T in normal mammalian notochord development and function is still not well-understood. We have generated an inducible knockdown model to efficiently and selectively deplete T from notochord in mouse embryos. In combination with genetic lineage tracing, we show that T function is essential for maintaining notochord cell fate and function. Progenitors adopt predominantly a neural fate in the absence of T, consistent with an origin from a common chordoneural progenitor. However, T function is dispensable for progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and EMT, which has implications for the therapeutic targeting of T in chordoma and other cancers.

  17. Neighbor of Punc E 11: expression pattern of the new hepatic stem/progenitor cell marker during murine liver development.

    PubMed

    Schievenbusch, Stephanie; Sauer, Elisabeth; Curth, Harald-Morten; Schulte, Sigrid; Demir, Münevver; Toex, Ulrich; Goeser, Tobias; Nierhoff, Dirk

    2012-09-20

    We have previously identified Neighbor of Punc E 11 (Nope) as a specific cell surface marker of stem/progenitor cells in the murine fetal liver that is also expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we focus on the differential expression pattern of Nope during murine fetal and postnatal liver development as well as in a normal and regenerating adult liver including oval cell activation. In the fetal liver, Nope shows a constantly high expression level and is a useful surface marker for the identification of Dlk, E-cadherin, and CD133-positive hepatoblasts by flow cytometry. Postnatally, Nope expression declines rapidly and remains barely detectable in the adult liver as shown by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. Immunohistochemically, costainings for Nope- and epithelial-specific markers (E-cadherin), markers of early hepatoblasts (alpha-fetoprotein), and biliary marker proteins (CK19) demonstrate that Nope is initially expressed on bipotent hepatoblasts and persists thereafter on commited hepatocytic as well as cholangiocytic progenitor cells during late fetal liver development. Postnatally, Nope loses its circular expression pattern and is specifically directed to the sinusoidal membrane of early hepatocytes. While Nope is only weakly expressed on cholangiocytes in the normal adult liver, activated stem/progenitor (oval) cells clearly coexpress Nope together with the common markers A6, EpCAM, and CD24 in the 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine mouse model. In conclusion, Nope should be most useful in future research to define the differentiation stage of hepatic-specified cells of various sources and is a promising candidate to identify and isolate hepatic stem cells from the adult liver.

  18. DLK1 as a potential target against cancer stem/progenitor cells of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Liu, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Xin; Huang, Li-Yu; Chen, Fei; Fei, Qian-Lan; Han, Ze-Guang

    2012-03-01

    Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1; Drosophila) is a hepatic stem/progenitor cell marker in fetal livers that plays a vital role in oncogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study is to investigate whether DLK1 could serve as a potential therapeutic target against cancer stem/progenitor cells of HCC. DLK1(+) and DLK1(-) cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting, respectively, and then were evaluated by flow cytometry. The biological behaviors of these isolated cells and those with DLK1 knockdown were assessed by growth curve, colony formation assay, spheroid colony formation, chemoresistance, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Adenovirus-mediated RNA interference was used to knockdown the endogenous DLK1. We found that DLK1(+) population was less than 10% in almost all 17 HCC cell lines examined. DLK1(+) HCC cells showed stronger ability of chemoresistance, colony formation, spheroid colony formation, and in vivo tumorigenicity compared with DLK1(-) cells. The DLK1(+) HCC cells could generate the progeny without DLK1 expression. Furthermore, DLK1 knockdown could suppress the ability of proliferation, colony formation, spheroid colony formation, and in vivo tumorigenicity of Hep3B and Huh-7 HCC cells. Our data suggested that DLK1(+) HCC cells have characteristics similar to those of cancer stem/progenitor cells. RNA interference against DLK1 can suppress the malignant behaviors of HCC cells, possibly through directly disrupting cancer stem/progenitor cells, which suggested that DLK1 could be a potential therapeutic target against the HCC stem/progenitor cells.

  19. Induction of insulin-producing cells from human pancreatic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Naziruddin, B; Shimoda, M; Fujita, Y; Chujo, D; Takita, M; Peng, H; Sugimoto, K; Itoh, T; Tamura, Y; Olsen, G S; Kobayashi, N; Onaca, N; Hayashi, S; Levy, M F; Matsumoto, S

    2010-01-01

    We previously established a mouse pancreatic stem cell line without genetic manipulation. In this study, we sought to identify and isolate human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. We also tested whether growth factors and protein transduction of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) and BETA2/NeuroD into human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells induced insulin or pancreas-related gene expressions. Human pancreata from brain-dead donors were used for islet isolation with the standard Ricordi technique modified by the Edmonton protocol. The cells from a duct-rich population were cultured in several media, based on those designed for mouse pancreatic or for human embryonic stem cells. To induce cell differentiation, cells were cultured for 2 weeks with exendin-4, nicotinamide, keratinocyte growth factor, PDX-1 protein, or BETA2/NeuroD protein. The cells in serum-free media showed morphologies similar to a mouse pancreatic stem cell line, while the cells in the medium for human embryonic stem cells formed fibroblast-like morphologies. The nucleus/cytoplasm ratios of the cells in each culture medium decreased during the culture. The cells stopped dividing after 30 days, suggesting that they had entered senescence. The cells treated with induction medium differentiated into insulin-producing cells, expressing pancreas-related genes. Duplications of cells from a duct-rich population were limited. Induction therapy with several growth factors and transduction proteins might provide a potential new strategy for induction of transplantable insulin-producing cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA damage tolerance in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pilzecker, Bas; Buoninfante, Olimpia Alessandra; van den Berk, Paul; Lancini, Cesare; Song, Ji-Ying; Citterio, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    DNA damage tolerance (DDT) enables bypassing of DNA lesions during replication, thereby preventing fork stalling, replication stress, and secondary DNA damage related to fork stalling. Three modes of DDT have been documented: translesion synthesis (TLS), template switching (TS), and repriming. TLS and TS depend on site-specific PCNA K164 monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination, respectively. To investigate the role of DDT in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors, we used PcnaK164R/K164R mice as a unique DDT-defective mouse model. Analysis of the composition of HSCs and HSC-derived multipotent progenitors (MPPs) revealed a significantly reduced number of HSCs, likely owing to increased differentiation of HSCs toward myeloid/erythroid-associated MPP2s. This skewing came at the expense of the number of lymphoid-primed MPP4s, which appeared to be compensated for by increased MPP4 proliferation. Furthermore, defective DDT decreased the numbers of MPP-derived common lymphoid progenitor (CLP), common myeloid progenitor (CMP), megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor (MEP), and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP) cells, accompanied by increased cell cycle arrest in CMPs. The HSC and MPP phenotypes are reminiscent of premature aging and stressed hematopoiesis, and indeed progressed with age and were exacerbated on cisplatin exposure. Bone marrow transplantations revealed a strong cell intrinsic defect of DDT-deficient HSCs in reconstituting lethally irradiated mice and a strong competitive disadvantage when cotransplanted with wild-type HSCs. These findings indicate a critical role of DDT in maintaining HSCs and progenitor cells, and in preventing premature aging. PMID:28761001

  1. Nucleic Acid Encoding A Lectin-Derived Progenitor Cell Preservation Factor

    DOEpatents

    Colucci, M. Gabriella; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Moore, Jeffrey G.

    2001-10-30

    The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a protein that is effective to preserve progenitor cells, such as hematopoietic progenitor cells. The nucleic acid comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:1, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof. The encoded protein has an amino acid sequence that comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:2, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof that contains an amino acid sequence TNNVLQVT. Methods of using the encoded protein for preserving progenitor cells in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo are also described. The invention, therefore, include methods such as myeloablation therapies for cancer treatment wherein myeloid reconstitution is facilitated by means of the specified protein. Other therapeutic utilities are also enabled through the invention, for example, expanding progenitor cell populations ex vivo to increase chances of engraftation, improving conditions for transporting and storing progenitor cells, and facilitating gene therapy to treat and cure a broad range of life-threatening hematologic diseases.

  2. [Culture of pancreatic progenitor cells in hanging drop and on floating filter].

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng-xia; Chen, Fang; Chi, Ying; Yang, Shao-guang; Lu, Shi-hong; Han, Zhong-chao

    2013-06-01

    To construct a method to culture pancreatic progenitor cells in hanging drop and on floating filter,and to examine if pancreatic progenitor cells can differentiate into mature endocrine cells with this method. Murine embryos at day 12.5 were isolated and digested into single cells,which were then cultured in hanging drop for 24h and formed spheres.Spheres were cultured on the filter for 6 days,which floated in the dish containing medium.During culture,the expressions of pancreas duodenum homeobox-1(PDX-1)and neurogenin3(Ngn3)were determined.The expressions of endocrine and exocrine markers,insulin,glucagon,and carboxypeptidase(CPA)were determined on day 7 by immunohistochemistry.Insulin secretion of spheres stimulated by glucose was detected by ELISA.The changes of pancreatic marker expressions during culture were monitored by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR). One day after the culture,there were still a large amount of PDX-1 positive cells in pancreatic spheres,and these cells proliferated.On day 3,high expression of Ngn3 was detected,and the Ngn3-positive cells did not proliferate.On day 7,The expressions of endocrine and exocrine markers in the differentiated pancreatic progenitor cells were detected,which were consistent with that in vivo.Insulin was secreted by spheres upon the stimulation of glucose. In hanging drop and on floating filter,pancreatic progenitor cells can differentiate into mature endocrine cells.

  3. Parvovirus B19 Replication and Expression in Differentiating Erythroid Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bua, Gloria; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Bonvicini, Francesca; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is characterized by a strict adaptation to erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs), a heterogeneous population of differentiating cells with diverse phenotypic and functional properties. In our work, we studied the dynamics of B19V infection in EPCs in dependence on the cell differentiation stage, in terms of distribution of infected cells, synthesis of viral nucleic acids and production of infectious virus. EPCs at early differentiation stage led to an abortive infection, without viral genome replication and a very low transcriptional activity. EPCs at later stages were permissive, with highest levels of viral replicative activity at day 9 (+3.0 Log from 2 to 48 hpi) and lower levels at day 18 (+1.5 Log from 2 to 48 hpi). B19V DNA increment was in accordance with the percentage of cells positive to flow-FISH assay (41.4% at day 9, 1.1% at day 18). Quantitation of total RNA indicated a close association of genome replication and transcription with viral RNA accumulation within infected cells related to viral DNA increase during the course of infection. Analysis of the different classes of mRNAs revealed two distinct pattern of genome expression profile with a fine regulation in the frequency utilization of RNA processing signals: an early phase, when cleavage at the proximal site leading to a higher relative production of mRNA for NS protein, and a late phase, when cleavage at the distal site was more frequent leading to higher relative abundance of mRNA for VP and 11 kDA proteins. Infectious virus was released from cells at day 6–15, but not at day 18. Our results, providing a detailed description of B19V replication and expression profile in differentiating EPCs, highlight the very tight adaptation of B19V to a specific cellular target defined both by its erythroid lineage and its differentiation stage. PMID:26845771

  4. Silk fibroin scaffolds enhance cell commitment of adult rat cardiac progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Di Felice, Valentina; Serradifalco, Claudia; Rizzuto, Luigi; De Luca, Angela; Rappa, Francesca; Barone, Rosario; Di Marco, Patrizia; Cassata, Giovanni; Puleio, Roberto; Verin, Lucia; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio; Guercio, Annalisa; Zummo, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) cultures may induce cardiac progenitor cells to synthesize their own extracellular matrix (ECM) and sarcomeric proteins to initiate cardiac differentiation. 3D cultures grown on synthetic scaffolds may favour the implantation and survival of stem cells for cell therapy when pharmacological therapies are not efficient in curing cardiovascular diseases and when organ transplantation remains the only treatment able to rescue the patient's life. Silk fibroin-based scaffolds may be used to increase cell affinity to biomaterials and may be chemically modified to improve cell adhesion. In the present study, porous, partially orientated and electrospun nanometric nets were used. Cardiac progenitor cells isolated from adult rats were seeded by capillarity in the 3D structures and cultured inside inserts for 21 days. Under this condition, the cells expressed a high level of sarcomeric and cardiac proteins and synthesized a great quantity of ECM. In particular, partially orientated scaffolds induced the synthesis of titin, which is a fundamental protein in sarcomere assembly. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Tissue kallikrein promotes cardiac neovascularization by enhancing endothelial progenitor cell functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuyu; Sheng, Zulong; Li, Yefei; Yan, Fengdi; Fu, Cong; Li, Yongjun; Ma, Genshan; Liu, Naifeng; Chao, Julie; Chao, Lee

    2012-08-01

    Tissue kallikrein (TK) has been demonstrated to improve neovasculogenesis after myocardial infarction (MI). In the present study, we examined the role and underlying mechanisms of TK in peripheral endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells containing EPCs were isolated from rat. The in vitro effects of TK on EPC differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and vascular tube formation capacity were studied in the presence or absence of TK, kinin B(2) receptor antagonist (icatibant), and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor (LY294002). Apoptosis was evaluated by flow-cytometry analysis using Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, as well as western-blot analysis of Akt phosphorylation and cleaved caspase-3. Using an MI mouse model, we then examined the in vivo effects of human TK gene adenoviral vector (Ad.hTK) administration on the number of CD34(+)Flk-1(+) progenitors in the peripheral circulation, heart tissue, extent of vasculogenesis, and heart function. Administration of TK significantly increased the number of Dil-LDL/UEA-lectin double-positive early EPCs, as well as their migration and tube formation properties in vitro. Transduction of TK in cultured EPCs attenuated apoptosis induced by hypoxia and led to an increase in Akt phosphorylation and a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 levels. The beneficial effects of TK were blocked by pretreatment with icatibant and LY294002. The expression of recombinant human TK in the ischemic mouse heart significantly improved cardiac contractility and reduced infarct size 7 days after gene delivery. Compared with the Ad.Null group, Ad.hTK reduced mortality and preserved left ventricular function by increasing the number of CD34(+)Flk-1(+) EPCs and promoting the growth of capillaries and arterioles in the peri-infarct myocardium. These data provide direct evidence that TK promotes vessel growth by increasing the number of EPCs and enhancing their functional properties through the kinin B(2) receptor

  6. Stromal Progenitor Cells in Mitigation of Non-Hematopoietic Radiation Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Shilpa; Wang, Timothy C.; Guha, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Therapeutic exposure to high doses of radiation can severely impair organ function due to ablation of stem cells. Normal tissue injury is a dose-limiting toxicity for radiation therapy (RT). Although advances in the delivery of high precision conformal RT has increased normal tissue sparing, mitigating and therapeutic strategies that could alleviate early and chronic radiation effects are urgently needed in order to deliver curative doses of RT, especially in abdominal, pelvic and thoracic malignancies. Radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury is also a major cause of lethality from accidental or intentional exposure to whole body irradiation in the case of nuclear accidents or terrorism. This review examines the therapeutic options for mitigation of non-hematopoietic radiation injuries. Recent findings We have developed stem cell based therapies for the mitigation of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS). This is a promising option because of the robustness of standardized isolation and transplantation of stromal cells protocols, and their ability to support and replace radiation-damaged stem cells and stem cell niche. Stromal progenitor cells (SPC) represent a unique multipotent and heterogeneous cell population with regenerative, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties. SPC are also known to secrete various key cytokines and growth factors such as platelet derived growth factors (PDGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), R-spondins (Rspo), and may consequently exert their regenerative effects via paracrine function. Additionally, secretory vesicles such as exosomes or microparticles can potentially be a cell-free alternative replacing the cell transplant in some cases. Summary This review highlights the beneficial effects of SPC on tissue regeneration with their ability to (a) target the irradiated tissues, (b) recruit host stromal cells, (c) regenerate endothelium and

  7. Isolation and characterization of centroacinar/terminal ductal progenitor cells in adult mouse pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Meritxell; Scott, Sherri-Gae; Liss, Andrew S.; Jensen, Jan; Thayer, Sarah P.; Leach, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether dedicated progenitor cells exist in adult vertebrate pancreas remains controversial. Centroacinar cells and terminal duct (CA/TD) cells lie at the junction between peripheral acinar cells and the adjacent ductal epithelium, and are frequently included among cell types proposed as candidate pancreatic progenitors. However these cells have not previously been isolated in a manner that allows formal assessment of their progenitor capacities. We have found that a subset of adult CA/TD cells are characterized by high levels of ALDH1 enzymatic activity, related to high-level expression of both Aldh1a1 and Aldh1a7. This allows their isolation by FACS using a fluorogenic ALDH1 substrate. FACS-isolated CA/TD cells are relatively depleted of transcripts associated with differentiated pancreatic cell types. In contrast, they are markedly enriched for transcripts encoding Sca1, Sdf1, c-Met, Nestin, and Sox9, markers previously associated with progenitor populations in embryonic pancreas and other tissues. FACS-sorted CA/TD cells are uniquely able to form self-renewing “pancreatospheres” in suspension culture, even when plated at clonal density. These spheres display a capacity for spontaneous endocrine and exocrine differentiation, as well as glucose-responsive insulin secretion. In addition, when injected into cultured embryonic dorsal pancreatic buds, these adult cells display a unique capacity to contribute to both the embryonic endocrine and exocrine lineages. Finally, these cells demonstrate dramatic expansion in the setting of chronic epithelial injury. These findings suggest that CA/TD cells are indeed capable of progenitor function and may contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis in adult mouse pancreas. PMID:20018761

  8. Elk3 is essential for the progression from progenitor to definitive neural crest cell

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Crystal D.; Phillips, Jacquelyn L.; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2013-01-01

    Elk3/Net/Sap2 (here referred to as Elk3) is an Ets ternary complex transcriptional repressor known for its involvement in angiogenesis during embryonic development. Although Elk3 is expressed in various tissues, additional roles for the protein outside of vasculature development have yet to be reported. Here, we characterize the early spatiotemporal expression pattern of Elk3 in the avian embryo using whole mount in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR and examine the effects of its loss of function on neural crest development. At early stages, Elk3 is expressed in the head folds, head mesenchyme, intersomitic vessels, and migratory cranial neural crest (NC) cells. Loss of the Elk3 protein results in the retention of Pax7+ precursors in the dorsal neural tube that fail to upregulate neural crest specifier genes, FoxD3, Sox10 and Snail2, resulting in embryos with severe migration defects. The results putatively place Elk3 downstream of neural plate border genes, but upstream of neural crest specifier genes in the neural crest gene regulatory network (NC-GRN), suggesting that it is critical for the progression from progenitor to definitive neural crest cell. PMID:23266330

  9. Electrotaxis of cardiac progenitor cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells requires serum and is directed via PI3'K pathways.

    PubMed

    Frederich, Bert J; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Thai, Phung N; Haddad, Michael J; Poe, Adam J; Lau, Victor C; Moshref, Maryam; Knowlton, Anne A; Sirish, Padmini; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2017-11-01

    The limited regenerative capacity of cardiac tissue has long been an obstacle to treating damaged myocardium. Cell-based therapy offers an enormous potential to the current treatment paradigms. However, the efficacy of regenerative therapies remains limited by inefficient delivery and engraftment. Electrotaxis (electrically guided cell movement) has been clinically used to improve recovery in a number of tissues but has not been investigated for treating myocardial damage. The purpose of this study was to test the electrotactic behaviors of several types of cardiac cells. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (hiPSC-CPCs) were used. CPCs and CFs electrotax toward the anode of a direct current electric field, whereas hiPSC-CPCs electrotax toward the cathode. The voltage-dependent electrotaxis of CPCs and CFs requires the presence of serum in the media. Addition of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule to serum-free media restores directed migration. We provide evidence that CPC and CF electrotaxis is mediated through phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase signaling. In addition, very late antigen-4, an integrin and growth factor receptor, is required for electrotaxis and localizes to the anodal edge of CPCs in response to direct current electric field. The hiPSC-derived CPCs do not express very late antigen-4, migrate toward the cathode in a voltage-dependent manner, and, similar to CPCs and CFs, require media serum and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activity for electrotaxis. The electrotactic behaviors of these therapeutic cardiac cells may be used to improve cell-based therapy for recovering function in damaged myocardium. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Wnt Responsive Lgr5-Expressing Stem Cells Are Hair Cell Progenitors in the Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Fuxin; Kempfle, Judith; Edge, Albert S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells are surrounded on their basolateral aspects by supporting cells, and these two cell types together constitute the sensory epithelium of the organ of Corti, which is the hearing apparatus of the ear. We show here that Lgr5, a marker for adult stem cells, was expressed in a subset of supporting cells in the newborn and adult murine cochlea. Lgr5-expressing supporting cells, sorted by flow cytometry and cultured in a single cell suspension, as compared to unsorted cells, displayed an enhanced capacity for self-renewing neurosphere formation in response to Wnt and were converted to hair cells at a higher (>10-fold) rate. The greater differentiation of hair cell in the neurosphere assay showed that Lgr5-positive cells had the capacity to act as cochlear progenitor cells, and lineage tracing confirmed that Lgr5-expressing cells accounted for the cells that formed neurospheres and differentiated to hair cells. The responsiveness to Wnt of cells with a capacity for division and sensory cell formation suggests a potential route to new hair cell generation in the adult cochlea. PMID:22787049

  11. Prolonged Mitosis of Neural Progenitors Alters Cell Fate in the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; McMahon, John J; Miller, Emily E; Lennox, Ashley L; Suzuki, Aussie; Salmon, Edward; Silver, Debra L

    2016-01-06

    Embryonic neocortical development depends on balanced production of progenitors and neurons. Genetic mutations disrupting progenitor mitosis frequently impair neurogenesis; however, the link between altered mitosis and cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that prolonged mitosis of radial glial progenitors directly alters neuronal fate specification and progeny viability. Live imaging of progenitors from a neurogenesis mutant, Magoh(+/-), reveals that mitotic delay significantly correlates with preferential production of neurons instead of progenitors, as well as apoptotic progeny. Independently, two pharmacological approaches reveal a causal relationship between mitotic delay and progeny fate. As mitotic duration increases, progenitors produce substantially more apoptotic progeny or neurons. We show that apoptosis, but not differentiation, is p53 dependent, demonstrating that these are distinct outcomes of mitotic delay. Together our findings reveal that prolonged mitosis is sufficient to alter fates of radial glia progeny and define a new paradigm to understand how mitosis perturbations underlie brain size disorders such as microcephaly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional Definition of Progenitors Versus Mature Endothelial Cells Reveals Key SoxF-Dependent Differentiation Process.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jatin; Seppanen, Elke J; Rodero, Mathieu P; Wong, Ho Yi; Donovan, Prudence; Neufeld, Zoltan; Fisk, Nicholas M; Francois, Mathias; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2017-02-21

    During adult life, blood vessel formation is thought to occur via angiogenic processes involving branching from existing vessels. An alternate proposal suggests that neovessels form from endothelial progenitors able to assemble the intimal layers. We here aimed to define vessel-resident endothelial progenitors in vivo in a variety of tissues in physiological and pathological situations such as normal aorta, lungs, and wound healing, tumors, and placenta, as well. Based on protein expression levels of common endothelial markers using flow cytometry, 3 subpopulations of endothelial cells could be identified among VE-Cadherin+ and CD45- cells. Lineage tracing by using Cdh5cre ERt2 /Rosa-YFP reporter strategy demonstrated that the CD31-/loVEGFR2lo/intracellular endothelial population was indeed an endovascular progenitor (EVP) of an intermediate CD31intVEGFR2lo/intracellular transit amplifying (TA) and a definitive differentiated (D) CD31hiVEGFR2hi/extracellular population. EVP cells arose from vascular-resident beds that could not be transferred by bone marrow transplantation. Furthermore, EVP displayed progenitor-like status with a high proportion of cells in a quiescent cell cycle phase as assessed in wounds, tumors, and aorta. Only EVP cells and not TA and D cells had self-renewal capacity as demonstrated by colony-forming capacity in limiting dilution and by transplantation in Matrigel plugs in recipient mice. RNA sequencing revealed prominent gene expression differences between EVP and D cells. In particular, EVP cells highly expressed genes related to progenitor function including Sox9 , Il33 , Egfr , and Pdfgrα. Conversely, D cells highly expressed genes related to differentiated endothelium including Ets1&2 , Gata2 , Cd31 , Vwf , and Notch . The RNA sequencing also pointed to an essential role of the Sox18 transcription factor. The role of SOX18 in the differentiation process was validated by using lineage-tracing experiments based on S ox18Cre ERt2 /Rosa

  13. Current molecular markers for gastric progenitor cells and gastric cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaotan T; Gumucio, Deborah L

    2011-07-01

    Gastric stem and progenitor cells (GPC) play key roles in the homeostatic renewal of gastric glands and are instrumental in epithelial repair after injury. Until very recently, the existence of GPC could only be inferred by indirect labeling strategies. The last few years have seen significant progress in the identification of biomarkers that allow prospective identification of GPC. The analysis of these unique cell populations is providing new insights into the molecular underpinnings of gastric epithelial homeostasis and repair. Of closely related interest is the potential to identify so-called cancer stem cells, a rare subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells. Here, we review the current useful biomarkers for GPC, including: (a) those that have been demonstrated by lineage tracing to give rise to all gastric cell lineages (e.g., the villin-transgene marker as well as Lgr5); (b) those that give rise to a subset of gastric lineages (e.g., TFF2); (c) markers that recognize cryptic progenitors for metaplasia (e.g., MIST1), and (d) markers that have not yet been analyzed by lineage tracing (e.g., DCKL1/DCAMKL1, CD133/PROM1, and CD44). The study of these markers has been mostly limited to the mouse model, but the hope is that the rapid pace of recent breakthroughs in this animal model will soon lead to a greater understanding of human gastric stem cell biology and to new insights into gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide.

  14. Inner ear progenitor cells can be generated in vitro from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boddy, Sarah L; Chen, Wei; Romero-Guevara, Ricardo; Kottam, Lucksy; Bellantuono, Illaria; Rivolta, Marcelo N

    2012-11-01

    Mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can generate sensory neurons and produce inner ear hair cell-like cells. An equivalent source from humans is highly desirable, given their potential application in patient-specific regenerative therapies for deafness. In this study, we explored the ability of human MSCs (hMSCs) to differentiate into otic lineages. hMSCs were exposed to culture media conditioned by human fetal auditory stem cells. Conditioned media induced the expression of otic progenitor markers PAX8, PAX2, GATA3 and SOX2. After 4 weeks, cells coexpressed ATOH1, MYO7A and POU4F3 (indicators of hair cell lineage) or neuronal markers NEUROG1, POU4F1 and NEFH. Inhibition of WNT signaling prevented differentiation into otic progenitors, while WNT activation partially phenocopied results seen with the conditioned media. This study demonstrates that hMSCs can be driven to express key genes found in the otic lineages and thereby promotes their status as candidates for regenerative therapies for deafness.

  15. A cGMP-applicable expansion method for aggregates of human neural stem and progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Brandon C; Gowing, Geneviève; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-06-15

    A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as "chopping" that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.

  16. Electrophysiological properties of prion-positive cardiac progenitors derived from murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Ikeuchi, Yu; Kurata, Yasutaka; Ikeda, Nobuhito; Bahrudin, Udin; Li, Peili; Nakayama, Yuji; Endo, Ryo; Hasegawa, Akira; Morikawa, Kumi; Miake, Junichiro; Yoshida, Akio; Hidaka, Kyoko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Shirayoshi, Yasuaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) has been reported to serve as a surface maker for isolation of cardiomyogenic progenitors from murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. Although PrP-positive cells exhibited automaticity, their electrophysiological characteristics remain unresolved. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the electrophysiological properties of PrP-positive cells in comparison with those of HCN4p-or Nkx2.5-positive cells. Differentiation of AB1, HCN5p-EGFP and hcgp7 ES cells into cardiac progenitors was induced by embryoid body (EB) formation. EBs were dissociated and cells expressing PrP, HCN4-EGFP and/or Nkx2.5-GFP were collected via flow cytometry. Sorted cells were subjected to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunostaining and patch-clamp experiments. PrP-positive cells expressed mRNA of undifferentiation markers, first and second heart field markers, and cardiac-specific genes and ion channels, indicating their commitment to cardiomyogenic progenitors. PrP-positive cells with automaticity showed positive and negative chronotropic responses to isoproterenol and carbamylcholine, respectively. Hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I(f)) was barely detectable, whereas Na(+) and L-type Ca(2+) channel currents were frequently observed. Their spontaneous activity was slowed by inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) uptake and release but not by blocking I(f). The maximum diastolic potential of their spontaneous firings was more depolarized than that of Nkx2.5-GFP-positive cells. PrP-positive cells contained cardiac progenitors that separated from the lineage of sinoatrial node cells. PrP can be used as a marker to enrich nascent cardiac progenitors.

  17. Assessment of Immune Isolation of Allogeneic Mouse Pancreatic Progenitor Cells by a Macroencapsulation Device

    PubMed Central

    Faleo, Gaetano; Lee, Karim; Nguyen, Vinh; Tang, Qizhi

    2016-01-01

    Background Embryonic-stem-cell (ESC)-derived islets hold the promise of providing a renewable source of tissue for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. Encapsulation may allow ESC-derived islets to be transplanted without immunosuppression, thus enabling wider application of this therapy. Methods In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity of mouse pancreatic progenitor cells and efficacy of a new macroencapsulation device in protecting these cells against alloimmune and autoimmune responses in mouse models. Results Mouse pancreatic progenitor cells activated the indirect but not the direct pathway of alloimmune response and were promptly rejected in immune competent hosts. The new macroencapsulation device abolished T cell activation induced by allogeneic splenocytes and protected allogeneic MIN6 β cells and pancreatic progenitors from rejection even in pre-sensitized recipients. In addition, the device was effective in protecting MIN6 cells in spontaneously diabetic non-obese diabetic recipients against both alloimmune and recurring autoimmune responses. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that macroencapsulation can effectively prevent immune sensing and rejection of allogeneic pancreatic progenitor cells in fully sensitized and autoimmune hosts. PMID:26982952

  18. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  19. Advancing haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell biology through single-cell profiling.

    PubMed

    Hamey, Fiona K; Nestorowa, Sonia; Wilson, Nicola K; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) sit at the top of the haematopoietic hierarchy, and their fate choices need to be carefully controlled to ensure balanced production of all mature blood cell types. As cell fate decisions are made at the level of the individual cells, recent technological advances in measuring gene and protein expression in increasingly large numbers of single cells have been rapidly adopted to study both normal and pathological HSPC function. In this review we emphasise the importance of combining the correct computational models with single-cell experimental techniques, and illustrate how such integrated approaches have been used to resolve heterogeneities in populations, reconstruct lineage differentiation, identify regulatory relationships and link molecular profiling to cellular function. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. Flow-cytometric separation and enrichment of hepatic progenitor cells in the developing mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Zheng, Y; Kondo, R; Kusakabe, M; Takada, Y; Fukao, K; Nakauchi, H; Taniguchi, H

    2000-12-01

    Stem cells responsible for tissue maintenance and repair are found in a number of organs. However, hepatic stem cells assumed to play a key role in liver development and regeneration remain to be well characterized. To address this issue, we set up a culture system in which primitive hepatic progenitor cells formed colonies. By combining this culture system with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), cells forming colonies containing distinct hepatocytes and cholangiocytes were identified in the fetal mouse liver. These cells express both CD49f and CD29 (alpha6 and beta1 integrin subunits), but do not mark for hematopoietic antigens such as CD45, TER119, and c-Kit. When transplanted into the spleen, these cells migrated to the recipient liver and differentiated into liver parenchymal cells. Our data demonstrate that hepatic progenitor cells are enriched by FACS and suggest approaches to supplanting organ allografting and improving artificial-organ hepatic support.

  1. Identification and characterization of a non-satellite cell muscle resident progenitor during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kathryn J; Pannérec, Alice; Cadot, Bruno; Parlakian, Ara; Besson, Vanessa; Gomes, Edgar R; Marazzi, Giovanna; Sassoon, David A

    2010-03-01

    Satellite cells are resident myogenic progenitors in postnatal skeletal muscle involved in muscle postnatal growth and adult regenerative capacity. Here, we identify and describe a population of muscle-resident stem cells, which are located in the interstitium, that express the cell stress mediator PW1 but do not express other markers of muscle stem cells such as Pax7. PW1(+)/Pax7(-) interstitial cells (PICs) are myogenic in vitro and efficiently contribute to skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo as well as generating satellite cells and PICs. Whereas Pax7 mutant satellite cells show robust myogenic potential, Pax7 mutant PICs are unable to participate in myogenesis and accumulate during postnatal growth. Furthermore, we found that PICs are not derived from a satellite cell lineage. Taken together, our findings uncover a new and anatomically identifiable population of muscle progenitors and define a key role for Pax7 in a non-satellite cell population during postnatal muscle growth.

  2. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  3. S6K links cell fate, cell cycle and nutrient response in C. elegans germline stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Korta, Dorota Z.; Tuck, Simon; Hubbard, E. Jane Albert

    2012-01-01

    Coupling of stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation to organismal physiological demands ensures the proper growth and homeostasis of tissues. However, in vivo mechanisms underlying this control are poorly characterized. We investigated the role of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) at the intersection of nutrition and the establishment of a stem/progenitor cell population using the C. elegans germ line as a model. We find that rsks-1 (which encodes the worm homolog of mammalian p70S6K) is required germline-autonomously for proper establishment of the germline progenitor pool. In the germ line, rsks-1 promotes cell cycle progression and inhibits larval progenitor differentiation, promotes growth of adult tumors and requires a conserved TOR phosphorylation site. Loss of rsks-1 and ife-1 (eIF4E) together reduces the germline progenitor pool more severely than either single mutant and similarly to reducing the activity of let-363 (TOR) or daf-15 (RAPTOR). Moreover, rsks-1 acts in parallel with the glp-1 (Notch) and daf-2 (insulin-IGF receptor) pathways, and does not share the same genetic dependencies with its role in lifespan control. We show that overall dietary restriction and amino acid deprivation cause germline defects similar to a subset of rsks-1 mutant phenotypes. Consistent with a link between diet and germline proliferation via rsks-1, loss of rsks-1 renders the germ line largely insensitive to the effects of dietary restriction. Our studies establish the C. elegans germ line as an in vivo model to understand TOR-S6K signaling in proliferation and differentiation and suggest that this pathway is a key nutrient-responsive regulator of germline progenitors. PMID:22278922

  4. 12-Deoxyphorbols Promote Adult Neurogenesis by Inducing Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation via PKC Activation

    PubMed Central

    Geribaldi-Doldán, Noelia; Flores-Giubi, Eugenia; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; García-Bernal, Francisco; Carrasco, Manuel; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J.; Domínguez-Riscart, Jesús; Verástegui, Cristina; Hernández-Galán, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders frequently occur after brain insults associated with neuronal loss. Strategies aimed to facilitate neuronal renewal by promoting neurogenesis constitute a promising therapeutic option to treat neuronal death-associated disorders. In the adult brain, generation of new neurons occurs physiologically throughout the entire life controlled by extracellular molecules coupled to intracellular signaling cascades. Proteins participating in these cascades within neurogenic regions constitute potential pharmacological targets to promote neuronal regeneration of injured areas of the central nervous system. Methodology: We have performed in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine neural progenitor cell proliferation to understand whether activation of kinases of the protein kinase C family facilitates neurogenesis in the adult brain. Results: We have demonstrated that protein kinase C activation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induces neural progenitor cell proliferation in vitro. We also show that the nontumorogenic protein kinase C activator prostratin exerts a proliferative effect on neural progenitor cells in vitro. This effect can be reverted by addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor G06850, demonstrating that the effect of prostratin is mediated by protein kinase C activation. Additionally, we show that prostratin treatment in vivo induces proliferation of neural progenitor cells within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. Finally, we describe a library of diterpenes with a 12-deoxyphorbol structure similar to that of prostratin that induces a stronger effect than prostratin on neural progenitor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: This work suggests that protein kinase C activation is a promising strategy to expand the endogenous neural progenitor cell population to promote neurogenesis and highlights the potential of 12-deoxyphorbols as pharmaceutical

  5. 12-Deoxyphorbols Promote Adult Neurogenesis by Inducing Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation via PKC Activation.

    PubMed

    Geribaldi-Doldán, Noelia; Flores-Giubi, Eugenia; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; García-Bernal, Francisco; Carrasco, Manuel; Macías-Sánchez, Antonio J; Domínguez-Riscart, Jesús; Verástegui, Cristina; Hernández-Galán, Rosario; Castro, Carmen

    2015-07-29

    Neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders frequently occur after brain insults associated with neuronal loss. Strategies aimed to facilitate neuronal renewal by promoting neurogenesis constitute a promising therapeutic option to treat neuronal death-associated disorders. In the adult brain, generation of new neurons occurs physiologically throughout the entire life controlled by extracellular molecules coupled to intracellular signaling cascades. Proteins participating in these cascades within neurogenic regions constitute potential pharmacological targets to promote neuronal regeneration of injured areas of the central nervous system. We have performed in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine neural progenitor cell proliferation to understand whether activation of kinases of the protein kinase C family facilitates neurogenesis in the adult brain. We have demonstrated that protein kinase C activation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induces neural progenitor cell proliferation in vitro. We also show that the nontumorogenic protein kinase C activator prostratin exerts a proliferative effect on neural progenitor cells in vitro. This effect can be reverted by addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor G06850, demonstrating that the effect of prostratin is mediated by protein kinase C activation. Additionally, we show that prostratin treatment in vivo induces proliferation of neural progenitor cells within the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. Finally, we describe a library of diterpenes with a 12-deoxyphorbol structure similar to that of prostratin that induces a stronger effect than prostratin on neural progenitor cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. This work suggests that protein kinase C activation is a promising strategy to expand the endogenous neural progenitor cell population to promote neurogenesis and highlights the potential of 12-deoxyphorbols as pharmaceutical agents to facilitate neuronal renewal. © The

  6. Cadmium modulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and skews toward myelopoiesis in mice

    SciT

    Zhang, Yandong; Yu, Xinchun

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to modulate immunity and cause osteoporosis. However, how Cd influences on hematopoiesis remain largely unknown. Herein, we show that wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice exposed to Cd for 3 months had expanded bone marrow (BM) populations of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), while having reduced populations of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). A competitive mixed BM transplantation assay indicates that BM from Cd-treated mice had impaired LT-HSC ability to differentiate into mature cells. In accordance with increased myeloid progenitors and decreased lymphoid progenitors,more » the BM and spleens of Cd-treated mice had more monocytes and/or neutrophils and fewer B cells and T cells. Cd impaired the ability of the non-hematopoietic system to support LT-HSCs, in that lethally irradiated Cd-treated recipients transplanted with normal BM cells had reduced LT-HSCs after the hematopoietic system was fully reconstituted. This is consistent with reduced osteoblasts, a known critical component for HSC niche, observed in Cd-treated mice. Conversely, lethally irradiated control recipients transplanted with BM cells from Cd-treated mice had normal LT-HSC reconstitution. Furthermore, both control mice and Cd-treated mice that received Alendronate, a clinical drug used for treating osteoporosis, had BM increases of LT-HSCs. Thus, the results suggest Cd increase of LT-HSCs is due to effects on HSCs and not on osteoblasts, although, Cd causes osteoblast reduction and impaired niche function for maintaining HSCs. Furthermore, Cd skews HSCs toward myelopoiesis. - Highlights: • Cd increases the number of LT-HSCs but impairs their development. • Cd-treated hosts have compromised ability to support LT-HSCs. • Cd promotes myelopoiesis at the expense of lymphopoiesis at the MPP level.« less

  7. The differentiation and movement of presomitic mesoderm progenitor cells are controlled by Mesogenin 1

    PubMed Central

    Fior, Rita; Maxwell, Adrienne A.; Ma, Taylur P.; Vezzaro, Annalisa; Moens, Cecilia B.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Lewis, Julian; Saúde, Leonor

    2012-01-01

    Somites are formed from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and give rise to the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. The PSM is dynamic; somites are generated at the anterior end, while the posterior end is continually renewed with new cells entering from the tailbud progenitor region. Which genes control the conversion of tailbud progenitors into PSM and how is this process coordinated with cell movement? Using loss- and gain-of-function experiments and heat-shock transgenics we show in zebrafish that the transcription factor Mesogenin 1 (Msgn1), acting with Spadetail (Spt), has a central role. Msgn1 allows progression of the PSM differentiation program by switching off the progenitor maintenance genes ntl, wnt3a, wnt8 and fgf8 in the future PSM cells as they exit from the tailbud, and subsequently induces expression of PSM markers such as tbx24. msgn1 is itself positively regulated by Ntl/Wnt/Fgf, creating a negative-feedback loop that might be crucial to regulate homeostasis of the progenitor population until somitogenesis ends. Msgn1 drives not only the changes in gene expression in the nascent PSM cells but also the movements by which they stream out of the tailbud into the PSM. Loss of Msgn1 reduces the flux of cells out of the tailbud, producing smaller somites and an enlarged tailbud, and, by delaying exhaustion of the progenitor population, results in supernumerary tail somites. Through its combined effects on gene expression and cell movement, Msgn1 (with Spt) plays a key role both in genesis of the paraxial mesoderm and in maintenance of the progenitor population from which it derives. PMID:23172917

  8. Dedifferentiation of Human Primary Thyrocytes into Multilineage Progenitor Cells without Gene Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Saenko, Vladimir; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Matsuse, Michiko; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kumagai, Atsushi; Uga, Tatsuya; Yano, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Yuji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    While identification and isolation of adult stem cells have potentially important implications, recent reports regarding dedifferentiation/reprogramming from differentiated cells have provided another clue to gain insight into source of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we developed a novel culture system to obtain dedifferentiated progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. After enzymatic digestion, primary thyrocytes, expressing thyroglobulin, vimentin and cytokeratin-18, were cultured in a serum-free medium called SAGM. Although the vast majority of cells died, a small proportion (∼0.5%) survived and proliferated. During initial cell expansion, thyroglobulin/cytokeratin-18 expression was gradually declined in the proliferating cells. Moreover, sorted cells expressing thyroid peroxidase gave rise to proliferating clones in SAGM. These data suggest that those cells are derived from thyroid follicular cells or at least thyroid-committed cells. The SAGM-grown cells did not express any thyroid-specific genes. However, after four-week incubation with FBS and TSH, cytokeratin-18, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor, PAX8 and TTF1 expressions re-emerged. Moreover, surprisingly, the cells were capable of differentiating into neuronal or adipogenic lineage depending on differentiating conditions. In summary, we have developed a novel system to generate multilineage progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. This seems to be achieved by dedifferentiation of thyroid follicular cells. The presently described culture system may be useful for regenerative medicine, but the primary importance will be as a tool to elucidate the mechanisms of thyroid diseases. PMID:21556376

  9. Changes in the frequencies of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells with age and site

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, TL; McGuire, TR; Bilek, L; Brusnahan, SK; Jackson, JD; Lane, JT; Garvin, KL; O'Kane, BJ; Berger, AM; Tuljapurkar, SR; Kessinger, MA; Sharp, JG

    2013-01-01

    This study enumerated CD45hi/CD34+ and CD45hi/CD133+ human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and granulocyte-monocyte colony forming (GM-CFC) progenitor cells in blood and trochanteric and femoral bone marrow in 233 individuals. Stem cell frequencies were determined by multi-parameter flow cytometry employing an internal control to determine the intrinsic variance of the assays. Progenitor cell frequency was determined using a standard colony assay technique. The frequency of outliers from undetermined methodological causes was highest for blood but less than 5% for all values. The frequency of CD45hi/CD133+ cells correlated highly with the frequency of CD45hi/CD34+ cells in trochanteric and femoral bone marrow. The frequency of these HSC populations in trochanteric and femoral bone marrow rose significantly with age. In contrast, there was no significant trend of either of these cell populations with age in the blood. Trochanteric marrow GM-CFC progenitor cells showed no significant trends with age, but femoral marrow GM-CFC trended downward with age, potentially because of the reported conversion of red marrow at this site to fat with age. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells exhibited changes in frequencies with age that differed between blood and bone marrow. We previously reported that side population (SP) multipotential HSC, that include the precursors of CD45hi/CD133+ and CD45hi/CD34+, decline with age. Potentially the increases in stem cell frequencies in the intermediate compartment between SP and GM progenitor cells observed in this study represent a compensatory increase for the loss of more potent members of the HSC hierarchy. PMID:24246745

  10. Reduction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Improves Angiogenic Progenitor Cell function in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Maulasri; Chatpar, Krishna; Hu, Zihua; Wang, Joshua J; Zhang, Sarah X

    2018-04-27

    Persistent vascular injury and degeneration in diabetes are attributed in part to defective reparatory function of angiogenic cells. Our recent work implicates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in high-glucose-induced bone marrow (BM) progenitor dysfunction. Herein, we investigated the in vivo role of ER stress in angiogenic abnormalities of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Our data demonstrate that ER stress markers and inflammatory gene expression in BM mononuclear cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells increase dynamically with disease progression. Increased CHOP and cleaved caspase- 3 levels were observed in BM--derived early outgrowth cells (EOCs) after 3 months of diabetes. Inhibition of ER stress by ex vivo or in vivo chemical chaperone treatment significantly improved the generation and migration of diabetic EOCs while reducing apoptosis of these cells. Chemical chaperone treatment also increased the number of circulating angiogenic cells in peripheral blood, alleviated BM pathology, and enhanced retinal vascular repair following ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic mice. Mechanistically, knockdown of CHOP alleviated high-glucose-induced EOC dysfunction and mitigated apoptosis, suggesting a pivotal role of CHOP in mediating ER stress-associated angiogenic cell injury in diabetes. Together, our study suggests that targeting ER signaling may provide a promising and novel approach to enhancing angiogenic function in diabetes.

  11. Prospectively isolated NGN3-expressing progenitors from human embryonic stem cells give rise to pancreatic endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Bonfanti, Paola; Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Vanuytsel, Kim; Vanhove, Jolien; Gysemans, Conny; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Raitano, Susanna; Heimberg, Harry; Ordovas, Laura; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic endocrine progenitors obtained from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent a promising source to develop cell-based therapies for diabetes. Although endocrine pancreas progenitor cells have been isolated from mouse pancreata on the basis of Ngn3 expression, human endocrine progenitors have not been isolated yet. As substantial differences exist between human and murine pancreas biology, we investigated whether it is possible to isolate pancreatic endocrine progenitors from differentiating hESC cultures by lineage tracing of NGN3. We targeted the 3' end of NGN3 using zinc finger nuclease-mediated homologous recombination to allow selection of NGN3eGFP(+) cells without disrupting the coding sequence of the gene. Isolated NGN3eGFP(+) cells express PDX1, NKX6.1, and chromogranin A and differentiate in vivo toward insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin single hormone-expressing cells but not to ductal or exocrine pancreatic cells or other endodermal, mesodermal, or ectodermal lineages. This confirms that NGN3(+) cells represent pancreatic endocrine progenitors in humans. In addition, this hESC reporter line constitutes a unique tool that may aid in gaining insight into the developmental mechanisms underlying fate choices in human pancreas and in developing cell-based therapies.

  12. Parity induces differentiation and reduces Wnt/Notch signaling ratio and proliferation potential of basal stem/progenitor cells isolated from mouse mammary epithelium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Early pregnancy has a strong protective effect against breast cancer in humans and rodents, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because breast cancers are thought to arise from specific cell subpopulations of mammary epithelia, we studied the effect of parity on the transcriptome and the differentiation/proliferation potential of specific luminal and basal mammary cells in mice. Methods Mammary epithelial cell subpopulations (luminal Sca1-, luminal Sca1+, basal stem/progenitor, and basal myoepithelial cells) were isolated by flow cytometry from parous and age-matched virgin mice and examined by using a combination of unbiased genomics, bioinformatics, in vitro colony formation, and in vivo limiting dilution transplantation assays. Specific findings were further investigated with immunohistochemistry in entire glands of parous and age-matched virgin mice. Results Transcriptome analysis revealed an upregulation of differentiation genes and a marked decrease in the Wnt/Notch signaling ratio in basal stem/progenitor cells of parous mice. Separate bioinformatics analyses showed reduced activity for the canonical Wnt transcription factor LEF1/TCF7 and increased activity for the Wnt repressor TCF3. This finding was specific for basal stem/progenitor cells and was associated with downregulation of potentially carcinogenic pathways and a reduction in the proliferation potential of this cell subpopulation in vitro and in vivo. As a possible mechanism for decreased Wnt signaling in basal stem/progenitor cells, we found a more than threefold reduction in the expression of the secreted Wnt ligand Wnt4 in total mammary cells from parous mice, which corresponded to a similar decrease in the proportion of Wnt4-secreting and estrogen/progesterone receptor-positive cells. Because recombinant Wnt4 rescued the proliferation defect of basal stem/progenitor cells in vitro, reduced Wnt4 secretion appears to be causally related to parity-induced alterations of basal stem/progenitor

  13. An emerging cell-based strategy in orthopaedics: endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Karlsson, Jon; Asahara, Takayuki; Atala, Anthony; Doral, M Nedim; Verdonk, Rene; Li, Ru; Schemitsch, Emil

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to analyze the results of studies in the literature, which evaluated the use of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) as a cell-based tissue engineering strategy. EPCs have been successfully used in regenerative medicine to augment neovascularization in patients after myocardial infarction and limb ischemia. EPCs' important role as vasculogenic progenitors presents them as a potential source for cell-based therapies to promote bone healing. EPCs have been shown to have prominent effects in promoting bone regeneration in several animal models. Evidence indicates that EPCs promote bone regeneration by stimulating both angiogenesis and osteogenesis through a differentiation process toward endothelial cell lineage and formation of osteoblasts. Moreover, EPCs increase vascularization and osteogenesis by increased secretion of growth factors and cytokines through paracrine mechanisms. EPCs offer the potential to emerge as a new strategy among other cell-based therapies to promote bone regeneration. Further investigations and human trials are required to address current questions with regard to biology and mechanisms of action of EPCs in bone tissue engineering.

  14. TRPM7 maintains progenitor-like features of neuroblastoma cells: implications for metastasis formation

    PubMed Central

    Middelbeek, Jeroen; Kamermans, Alwin; Kuipers, Arthur J.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Jalink, Kees; van Leeuwen, Frank N.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor derived from poorly differentiated neural crest cells. Current research is aimed at identifying the molecular mechanisms that maintain the progenitor state of neuroblastoma cells and to develop novel therapeutic strategies that induce neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Mechanisms controlling neural crest development are typically dysregulated during neuroblastoma progression, and provide an appealing starting point for drug target discovery. Transcriptional programs involved in neural crest development act as a context dependent gene regulatory network. In addition to BMP, Wnt and Notch signaling, activation of developmental gene expression programs depends on the physical characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. TRPM7, a mechanically regulated TRP channel with kinase activity, was previously found essential for embryogenesis and the maintenance of undifferentiated neural crest progenitors. Hence, we hypothesized that TRPM7 may preserve progenitor-like, metastatic features of neuroblastoma cells. Using multiple neuroblastoma cell models, we demonstrate that TRPM7 expression closely associates with the migratory and metastatic properties of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiling on control and TRPM7 shRNA transduced neuroblastoma cells indicates that TRPM7 controls a developmental transcriptional program involving the transcription factor SNAI2. Overall, our data indicate that TRPM7 contributes to neuroblastoma progression by maintaining progenitor-like features. PMID:25797249

  15. Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangaria, Smit J.

    2011-12-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and

  16. Effects of Polyamidoamine Dendrimers on a 3-D Neurosphere System Using Human Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yang; Kurokawa, Yoshika; Zeng, Qin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Nansai, Hiroko; Zhang, Zhenya; Sone, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    The practical application of engineered nanomaterials or nanoparticles like polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers has been promoted in medical devices or industrial uses. The safety of PAMAM dendrimers needs to be assessed when used as a drug carrier to treat brain disease. However, the effects of PAMAM on the human nervous system remain unknown. In this study, human neural progenitor cells cultured as a 3D neurosphere model were used to study the effects of PAMAM dendrimers on the nervous system. Neurospheres were exposed to different G4-PAMAM dendrimers for 72 h at concentrations of 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 μg/ml. The biodistribution was investigated using fluorescence-labeled PAMAM dendrimers, and gene expression was evaluated using microarray analysis followed by pathway and network analysis. Results showed that PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles can penetrate into neurospheres via superficial cells on them. PAMAM-NH2 but not PAMAM-SC can inhibit neurosphere growth. A reduced number of MAP2-positive cells in flare regions were inhibited after 10 days of differentiation, indicating an inhibitory effect of PAMAM-NH2 on cell proliferation and neuronal migration. A microarray assay showed 32 dendrimer toxicity-related genes, with network analysis showing 3 independent networks of the selected gene targets. Inducible immediate early gene early growth response gene 1 (Egr1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI2), and adrenomedullin (ADM) were the key genes in each network, and the expression of these genes was significantly down regulated. These findings suggest that exposure of neurospheres to PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers affects cell proliferation and migration through pathways regulated by Egr1, IGFBP3, TFPI2, and ADM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The isolation and in vitro expansion of hepatic Sca-1 progenitor cells

    SciT

    Clayton, Elizabeth, E-mail: Elizabeth.Clayton@ed.ac.uk; Forbes, Stuart J.

    2009-04-17

    The intra-hepatic population of liver progenitor cells expands during liver injury when hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. These cells can be purified by density gradient centrifugation and cultured. Separated by size only this population contains small cells of hematopoietic, epithelial and endothelial lineages and is thought to contain liver stem cells. The identity of liver stem cells remains unknown although there is some evidence that tissue Sca1{sup +} CD45{sup -} cells display progenitor cell characteristics. We identified both intra-hepatic and gall bladder Sca1{sup +} cells following liver injury and expanded ex vivo Sca1 cells as part of heterogenous cell culture ormore » as a purified population. We found significant difference between the proliferation of Sca-1 cells when plated on laminin or collagen I while proliferation of heterogenous population was not affected by the extracellular matrix indicating the necessity for culture of Sca1{sup +} cells with laminin matrix or laminin producing cells in long term liver progenitor cell cultures.« less

  18. Brain tumor specifies intermediate progenitor cell identity by attenuating β-catenin/Armadillo activity

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Hideyuki; Xiao, Qi; McCartney, Brooke M.; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    During asymmetric stem cell division, both the daughter stem cell and the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell inherit cytoplasm from their parental stem cell. Thus, proper specification of intermediate progenitor cell identity requires an efficient mechanism to rapidly extinguish the activity of self-renewal factors, but the mechanisms remain unknown in most stem cell lineages. During asymmetric division of a type II neural stem cell (neuroblast) in the Drosophila larval brain, the Brain tumor (Brat) protein segregates unequally into the immature intermediate neural progenitor (INP), where it specifies INP identity by attenuating the function of the self-renewal factor Klumpfuss (Klu), but the mechanisms are not understood. Here, we report that Brat specifies INP identity through its N-terminal B-boxes via a novel mechanism that is independent of asymmetric protein segregation. Brat-mediated specification of INP identity is critically dependent on the function of the Wnt destruction complex, which attenuates the activity of β-catenin/Armadillo (Arm) in immature INPs. Aberrantly increasing Arm activity in immature INPs further exacerbates the defects in the specification of INP identity and enhances the supernumerary neuroblast mutant phenotype in brat mutant brains. By contrast, reducing Arm activity in immature INPs suppresses supernumerary neuroblast formation in brat mutant brains. Finally, reducing Arm activity also strongly suppresses supernumerary neuroblasts induced by overexpression of klu. Thus, the Brat-dependent mechanism extinguishes the function of the self-renewal factor Klu in the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell by attenuating Arm activity, balancing stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell specification. PMID:24257623

  19. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  20. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele, Morena; Del Prato, Stefano; Pucci, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation. PMID:28386305

  1. β-Adrenergic Regulation of Cardiac Progenitor Cell Death Versus Survival and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohsin; Mohsin, Sadia; Avitabile, Daniele; Siddiqi, Sailay; Nguyen, Jonathan; Wallach, Kathleen; Quijada, Pearl; McGregor, Michael; Gude, Natalie; Alvarez, Roberto; Tilley, Douglas G.; Koch, Walter J.; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Short-term β-adrenergic stimulation promotes contractility in response to stress but is ultimately detrimental in the failing heart because of accrual of cardiomyocyte death. Endogenous cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) activation may partially offset cardiomyocyte losses, but consequences of long-term β-adrenergic drive on CPC survival and proliferation are unknown. Objective We sought to determine the relationship between β-adrenergic activity and regulation of CPC function. Methods and Results Mouse and human CPCs express only β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) in conjunction with stem cell marker c-kit. Activation of β2-AR signaling promotes proliferation associated with increased AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, upregulation of cyclin D1, and decreased levels of G protein–coupled receptor kinase 2. Conversely, silencing of β2-AR expression or treatment with β2-antagonist ICI 118, 551 impairs CPC proliferation and survival. β1-AR expression in CPC is induced by differentiation stimuli, sensitizing CPC to isoproterenol-induced cell death that is abrogated by metoprolol. Efficacy of β1-AR blockade by metoprolol to increase CPC survival and proliferation was confirmed in vivo by adoptive transfer of CPC into failing mouse myocardium. Conclusions β-adrenergic stimulation promotes expansion and survival of CPCs through β2-AR, but acquisition of β1-AR on commitment to the myocyte lineage results in loss of CPCs and early myocyte precursors. PMID:23243208

  2. Reticular dysgenesis–associated AK2 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rissone, Alberto; Weinacht, Katja Gabriele; la Marca, Giancarlo; Bishop, Kevin; Giocaliere, Elisa; Jagadeesh, Jayashree; Felgentreff, Kerstin; Dobbs, Kerry; Al-Herz, Waleed; Jones, Marypat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Kirby, Martha; Wincovitch, Stephen; Simon, Karen Lyn; Itan, Yuval; DeVine, Alex; Schlaeger, Thorsten; Schambach, Axel; Sood, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Adenylate kinases (AKs) are phosphotransferases that regulate the cellular adenine nucleotide composition and play a critical role in the energy homeostasis of all tissues. The AK2 isoenzyme is expressed in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is mutated in reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. RD is characterized by a maturation arrest in the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, leading to early onset, recurrent, and overwhelming infections. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we studied the effects of AK2 deficiency using the zebrafish model and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of an RD patient. In zebrafish, Ak2 deficiency affected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. AK2-deficient iPSCs recapitulated the characteristic myeloid maturation arrest at the promyelocyte stage and demonstrated an increased AMP/ADP ratio, indicative of an energy-depleted adenine nucleotide profile. Antioxidant treatment rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes in vivo in ak2 mutant zebrafish and restored differentiation of AK2-deficient iPSCs into mature granulocytes. Our results link hematopoietic cell fate in AK2 deficiency to cellular energy depletion and increased oxidative stress. This points to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for patients with RD. PMID:26150473

  3. Neural stem/progenitor cell properties of glial cells in the adult mouse auditory nerve

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hainan; Xing, Yazhi; Brown, LaShardai N.; Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Panganiban, Clarisse H.; Havens, Luke T.; Balasubramanian, Sundaravadivel; Wegner, Michael; Krug, Edward L.; Barth, Jeremy L.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory nerve is the primary conveyor of hearing information from sensory hair cells to the brain. It has been believed that loss of the auditory nerve is irreversible in the adult mammalian ear, resulting in sensorineural hearing loss. We examined the regenerative potential of the auditory nerve in a mouse model of auditory neuropathy. Following neuronal degeneration, quiescent glial cells converted to an activated state showing a decrease in nuclear chromatin condensation, altered histone deacetylase expression and up-regulation of numerous genes associated with neurogenesis or development. Neurosphere formation assays showed that adult auditory nerves contain neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs) that were within a Sox2-positive glial population. Production of neurospheres from auditory nerve cells was stimulated by acute neuronal injury and hypoxic conditioning. These results demonstrate that a subset of glial cells in the adult auditory nerve exhibit several characteristics of NSPs and are therefore potential targets for promoting auditory nerve regeneration. PMID:26307538

  4. Fibronectin promotes differentiation of neural crest progenitors endowed with smooth muscle cell potential

    SciT

    Costa-Silva, Bruno; Programa de Pos-graduacao em Neurociencias, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario - Trindade, 88040-900, Florianopolis, S.C.; Coelho da Costa, Meline

    The neural crest (NC) is a model system used to investigate multipotency during vertebrate development. Environmental factors control NC cell fate decisions. Despite the well-known influence of extracellular matrix molecules in NC cell migration, the issue of whether they also influence NC cell differentiation has not been addressed at the single cell level. By analyzing mass and clonal cultures of mouse cephalic and quail trunk NC cells, we show for the first time that fibronectin (FN) promotes differentiation into the smooth muscle cell phenotype without affecting differentiation into glia, neurons, and melanocytes. Time course analysis indicated that the FN-induced effectmore » was not related to massive cell death or proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Finally, by comparing clonal cultures of quail trunk NC cells grown on FN and collagen type IV (CLIV), we found that FN strongly increased both NC cell survival and the proportion of unipotent and oligopotent NC progenitors endowed with smooth muscle potential. In contrast, melanocytic progenitors were prominent in clonogenic NC cells grown on CLIV. Taken together, these results show that FN promotes NC cell differentiation along the smooth muscle lineage, and therefore plays an important role in fate decisions of NC progenitor cells.« less

  5. Reactivation of NCAM1 defines a subpopulation of human adult kidney epithelial cells with clonogenic and stem/progenitor properties.

    PubMed

    Buzhor, Ella; Omer, Dorit; Harari-Steinberg, Orit; Dotan, Zohar; Vax, Einav; Pri-Chen, Sara; Metsuyanim, Sally; Pleniceanu, Oren; Goldstein, Ronald S; Dekel, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    The nephron is composed of a monolayer of epithelial cells that make up its various compartments. In development, these cells begin as mesenchyme. NCAM1, abundant in the mesenchyme and early nephron lineage, ceases to express in mature kidney epithelia. We show that, once placed in culture and released from quiescence, adult human kidney epithelial cells (hKEpCs), uniformly positive for CD24/CD133, re-express NCAM1 in a specific cell subset that attains a stem/progenitor state. Immunosorted NCAM1(+) cells overexpressed early nephron progenitor markers (PAX2, SALL1, SIX2, WT1) and acquired a mesenchymal fate, indicated by high vimentim and reduced E-cadherin levels. Gene expression and microarray analysis disclosed both a proximal tubular origin of these cells and molecules regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition. NCAM1(+) cells generated clonal progeny when cultured in the presence of fetal kidney conditioned medium, differentiated along mesenchymal lineages but retained the unique propensity to generate epithelial kidney spheres and produce epithelial renal tissue on single-cell grafting in chick CAM and mouse. Depletion of NCAM1(+) cells from hKEpCs abrogated stemness traits in vitro. Eliminating these cells during the regenerative response that follows glycerol-induced acute tubular necrosis worsened peak renal injury in vivo. Thus, higher clone-forming and developmental capacities characterize a distinct subset of adult kidney-derived cells. The ability to influence an endogenous regenerative response via NCAM1 targeting may lead to novel therapeutics for renal diseases. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Engineering Robust and Functional Vascular Networks in Vivo with Human Adult and Cord Blood-Derived Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    for other sources of ECs such as those derived from embryonic and adult progenitor cells ( Rafii ; Lyden 2003). For example, human ES-derived...functional endothelial precursors. Blood, 95, 952-958. Rafii , S., and D. Lyden, 2003: Therapeutic stem and progenitor cell transplantation for

  7. IRF-8 extinguishes neutrophil production and promotes dendritic cell lineage commitment in both myeloid and lymphoid mouse progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.; Michael, Drew G.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Sciammas, Roger; Singh, Harinder

    2012-01-01

    While most blood lineages are assumed to mature through a single cellular and developmental route downstream of HSCs, dendritic cells (DCs) can be derived from both myeloid and lymphoid progenitors in vivo. To determine how distinct progenitors can generate similar downstream lineages, we examined the transcriptional changes that accompany loss of in vivo myeloid potential as common myeloid progenitors differentiate into common DC progenitors (CDPs), and as lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs) differentiate into all lymphoid progenitors (ALPs). Microarray studies revealed that IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) expression increased during each of these transitions. Competitive reconstitutions using Irf8−/− BM demonstrated cell-intrinsic defects in the formation of CDPs and all splenic DC subsets. Irf8−/− common myeloid progenitors and, unexpectedly, Irf8−/− ALPs produced more neutrophils in vivo than their wild-type counterparts at the expense of DCs. Retroviral expression of IRF-8 in multiple progenitors led to reduced neutrophil production and increased numbers of DCs, even in the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), which does not normally possess conventional DC potential. These data suggest that IRF-8 represses a neutrophil module of development and promotes convergent DC development from multiple lymphoid and myeloid progenitors autonomously of cellular context. PMID:22238324

  8. Amplification of progenitors in the mammalian telencephalon includes a new radial glial cell type.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Gregor-Alexander; Shitamukai, Atsunori; Reillo, Isabel; Pacary, Emilie; Schwausch, Julia; Stahl, Ronny; Ninkovic, Jovica; Snippert, Hugo J; Clevers, Hans; Godinho, Leanne; Guillemot, Francois; Borrell, Victor; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Götz, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms governing the expansion of neuron number in specific brain regions are still poorly understood. Enlarged neuron numbers in different species are often anticipated by increased numbers of progenitors dividing in the subventricular zone. Here we present live imaging analysis of radial glial cells and their progeny in the ventral telencephalon, the region with the largest subventricular zone in the murine brain during neurogenesis. We observe lineage amplification by a new type of progenitor, including bipolar radial glial cells dividing at subapical positions and generating further proliferating progeny. The frequency of this new type of progenitor is increased not only in larger clones of the mouse lateral ganglionic eminence but also in cerebral cortices of gyrated species, and upon inducing gyrification in the murine cerebral cortex. This implies key roles of this new type of radial glia in ontogeny and phylogeny.

  9. Transplantation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells Expressing IGF-1 Enhances Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Caiwei; Sun, Yu; Liao, Tiffany; Beattie, Ursula; López, Francisco J.; Chen, Dong Feng; Lashkari, Kameran

    2015-01-01

    We have previously characterized human neuronal progenitor cells (hNP) that can adopt a retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-like morphology within the RGC and nerve fiber layers of the retina. In an effort to determine whether hNPs could be used a candidate cells for targeted delivery of neurotrophic factors (NTFs), we evaluated whether hNPs transfected with an vector that expresses IGF-1 in the form of a fusion protein with tdTomato (TD), would increase RGC survival in vitro and confer neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of glaucoma. RGCs co-cultured with hNPIGF-TD cells displayed enhanced survival, and increased neurite extension and branching as compared to hNPTD or untransfected hNP cells. Application of various IGF-1 signaling blockers or IGF-1 receptor antagonists abrogated these effects. In vivo, using a model of glaucoma we showed that IOP elevation led to reductions in retinal RGC count. In this model, evaluation of retinal flatmounts and optic nerve cross sections indicated that only hNPIGF-TD cells effectively reduced RGC death and showed a trend to improve optic nerve axonal loss. RT-PCR analysis of retina lysates over time showed that the neurotrophic effects of IGF-1 were also attributed to down-regulation of inflammatory and to some extent, angiogenic pathways. This study shows that neuronal progenitor cells that hone into the RGC and nerve fiber layers may be used as vehicles for local production and delivery of a desired NTF. Transplantation of hNPIGF-TD cells improves RGC survival in vitro and protects against RGC loss in a rodent model of glaucoma. Our findings have provided experimental evidence and form the basis for applying cell-based strategies for local delivery of NTFs into the retina. Application of cell-based delivery may be extended to other disease conditions beyond glaucoma. PMID:25923430

  10. Improved adductor function after canine recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and repair using muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Paniello, Randal C; Brookes, Sarah; Bhatt, Neel K; Bijangi-Vishehsaraei, Khadijeh; Zhang, Hongji; Halum, Stacey

    2017-12-08

    Muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) can be isolated from muscle samples and grown to a critical mass in culture. They have been shown to survive and integrate when implanted into rat laryngeal muscles. In this study, the ability of MPC implants to enhance adductor function of reinnervated thyroarytenoid muscles was tested in a canine model. Animal study. Sternocleidomastoid muscle samples were harvested from three canines. Muscle progenitor cells were isolated and cultured to 10 7 cells over 4 to 5 weeks, then implanted into right thyroarytenoid muscles after ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve transection and repair. The left sides underwent the same nerve injury, but no cells were implanted. Laryngeal adductor force was measured pretreatment and again 6 months later, and the muscles were harvested for histology. Muscle progenitor cells were successfully cultured from all dogs. Laryngeal adductor force measurements averaged 60% of their baseline pretreatment values in nonimplanted controls, 98% after implantation with MPCs, and 128% after implantation with motor endplate-enhanced MPCs. Histology confirmed that the implanted MPCs survived, became integrated into thyroarytenoid muscle fibers, and were in close contact with nerve endings, suggesting functional innervation. Muscle progenitor cells were shown to significantly enhance adductor function in this pilot canine study. Patient-specific MPC implantation could potentially be used to improve laryngeal function in patients with vocal fold paresis/paralysis, atrophy, and other conditions. Further experiments are planned. NA. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Moclobemide up-regulates proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in chronically stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-feng; Zhang, You-zhi; Liu, Yan-qin; Wang, Heng-lin; Yuan, Li; Luo, Zhi-pu

    2004-11-01

    To explore the action mechanism of antidepressants. The PC12 cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry. The proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells and level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured by immunohistochemistry. Treatment with N-methylaspartate (NMDA) 600 micromol/L for 3 d significantly decreased the percentage of S-phase in PC12 cells, while in the presence of classical antidepressant, moclobemide (MOC) 2 and 10 micromol/L, the percentage in S-phase increased. Furthermore, the proliferation of progenitor cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus (subgranular zone), as well as the level of BDNF in hippocampus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, while chronic administration with MOC 40 mg/kg (ip) up-regulated the progenitor cell proliferation and BDNF level in the same time course. Up-regulation of the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells is one of the action mechanisms for MOC, which may be closely related to the elevation of BDNF level at the same time. These results also extend evidence for our hypothesis that up-regulation of the hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the common mechanisms for antidepressants.

  12. Pre-malignant lymphoid cells arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kikushige, Yoshikane; Miyamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Human malignancies progress through a multistep process that includes the development of critical somatic mutations over the clinical course. Recent novel findings have indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into multilineage hematopoietic cells, are an important cellular target for the accumulation of critical somatic mutations in hematological malignancies and play a central role in myeloid malignancy development. In contrast to myeloid malignancies, mature lymphoid malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are thought to originate directly from differentiated mature lymphocytes; however, recent compelling data have shown that primitive HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid malignancies. Several representative mutations of hematological malignancies have been identified within the HSCs of CLL and lymphoma patients, indicating that the self-renewing long-lived fraction of HSCs can serve as a reservoir for the development of oncogenic events. Novel mice models have been established as human mature lymphoma models, in which specific oncogenic events target the HSCs and immature progenitor cells. These data collectively suggest that HSCs can be the cellular target involved in the accumulation of oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid and myeloid malignancies.

  13. Marrow stromal cells from patients affected by MPS I differentially support haematopoietic progenitor cell development.

    PubMed

    Baxter, M A; Wynn, R F; Schyma, L; Holmes, D K; Wraith, J E; Fairbairn, L J; Bellantuono, I

    2005-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is the therapy of choice in patients affected by MPS I (Hurler syndrome), but a high incidence of rejection limits the success of this treatment. The deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (EC 1.2.3.76), one of the enzymes responsible for the degradation of glycosaminoglycans, results in accumulation of heparan and dermatan sulphate in these patients. Heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate are known to be important components of the bone marrow microenvironment and critical for haematopoietic cell development. In this study we compared the ability of marrow stromal cells from MPS I patients and healthy donors to support normal haematopoiesis in Dexter-type long term culture. We found an inverse stroma/supernatant ratio in the number of clonogenic progenitors, particularly the colony-forming unit granulocyte-machrophage in MPS I cultures when compared to normal controls. No alteration in the adhesion of haematopoietic cells to the stroma of MPS I patients was found, suggesting that the altered distribution in the number of clonogenic progenitors is probably the result of an accelerated process of differentiation and maturation. The use of alpha-L-iduronidase gene-corrected marrow stromal cells re-established normal haematopoiesis in culture, suggesting that correction of the bone marrow microenvironment with competent enzyme prior to transplantation might help establishment of donor haematopoiesis.

  14. Leptin Induces Sca-1+ Progenitor Cell Migration Enhancing Neointimal Lesions in Vessel-Injury Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yao; Potter, Claire M.F.; Le Bras, Alexandra; Nowak, Witold N.; Gu, Wenduo; Bhaloo, Shirin Issa; Zhang, Zhongyi; Hu, Yanhua; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Objective— Leptin is an adipokine initially thought to be a metabolic factor. Recent publications have shown its roles in inflammation and vascular disease, to which Sca-1+ vascular progenitor cells within the vessel wall may contribute. We sought to elucidate the effects of leptin on Sca-1+ progenitor cells migration and neointimal formation and to understand the underlying mechanisms. Approach and Results— Sca-1+ progenitor cells from the vessel wall of Lepr+/+ and Lepr−/− mice were cultured and purified. The migration of Lepr+/+ Sca-1+ progenitor cells in vitro was markedly induced by leptin. Western blotting and kinase assays revealed that leptin induced the activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinases 1/2, pFAK (phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase), and Rac1 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1)/Cdc42 (cell division control protein 42 homolog). In a mouse femoral artery guidewire injury model, an increased expression of leptin in both injured vessels and serum was observed 24 hours post-surgery. RFP (red fluorescent protein)-Sca-1+ progenitor cells in Matrigel were applied to the adventitia of the injured femoral artery. RFP+ cells were observed in the intima 24 hours post-surgery, subsequently increasing neointimal lesions at 2 weeks when compared with the arteries without seeded cells. This increase was reduced by pre-treatment of Sca-1+ cells with a leptin antagonist. Guidewire injury could only induce minor neointima in Lepr−/− mice 2 weeks post-surgery. However, transplantation of Lepr+/+ Sca-1+ progenitor cells into the adventitial side of injured artery in Lepr−/− mice significantly enhanced neointimal formation. Conclusions— Upregulation of leptin levels in both the vessel wall and the circulation after vessel injury promoted the migration of Sca-1+ progenitor cells via leptin receptor–dependent signal transducer and activator of

  15. The Cdk4-E2f1 pathway regulates early pancreas development by targeting Pdx1+ progenitors and Ngn3+ endocrine precursors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yoon; Rane, Sushil G.

    2011-01-01

    Cell division and cell differentiation are intricately regulated processes vital to organ development. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are master regulators of the cell cycle that orchestrate the cell division and differentiation programs. Cdk1 is essential to drive cell division and is required for the first embryonic divisions, whereas Cdks 2, 4 and 6 are dispensable for organogenesis but vital for tissue-specific cell development. Here, we illustrate an important role for Cdk4 in regulating early pancreas development. Pancreatic development involves extensive morphogenesis, proliferation and differentiation of the epithelium to give rise to the distinct cell lineages of the adult pancreas. The cell cycle molecules that specify lineage commitment within the early pancreas are unknown. We show that Cdk4 and its downstream transcription factor E2f1 regulate mouse pancreas development prior to and during the secondary transition. Cdk4 deficiency reduces embryonic pancreas size owing to impaired mesenchyme development and fewer Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Expression of activated Cdk4R24C kinase leads to increased Nkx2.2+ and Nkx6.1+ cells and a rise in the number and proliferation of Ngn3+ endocrine precursors, resulting in expansion of the β cell lineage. We show that E2f1 binds and activates the Ngn3 promoter to modulate Ngn3 expression levels in the embryonic pancreas in a Cdk4-dependent manner. These results suggest that Cdk4 promotes β cell development by directing E2f1-mediated activation of Ngn3 and increasing the pool of endocrine precursors, and identify Cdk4 as an important regulator of early pancreas development that modulates the proliferation potential of pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. PMID:21490060

  16. Fracture induced mobilization and incorporation of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells for bone healing.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Mifune, Yutaka; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Shoji, Taro; Iwasaki, Hiroto; Suzuki, Takahiro; Oyamada, Akira; Horii, Miki; Yokoyama, Ayumi; Nishimura, Hiromi; Lee, Sang Yang; Miwa, Masahiko; Doita, Minoru; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Asahara, Takayuki

    2008-04-01

    We recently reported that systemic administration of peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells, an endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-enriched population, contributed to fracture healing via vasculogenesis/angiogenesis. However, pathophysiological role of EPCs in fracture healing process has not been fully clarified. Therefore, we investigated the hypothesis whether mobilization and incorporation of bone marrow (BM)-derived EPCs may play a pivotal role in appropriate fracture healing. Serial examinations of Laser doppler perfusion imaging and histological capillary density revealed that neovascularization activity at the fracture site peaked at day 7 post-fracture, the early phase of endochondral ossifification. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis demonstrated that the frequency of BM cKit+Sca1+Lineage- (Lin-) cells and PB Sca1+Lin- cells, which are EPC-enriched fractions, significantly increased post-fracture. The Sca1+ EPC-derived vasuculogenesis at the fracture site was confirmed by double immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Sca1. BM transplantation from transgenic donors expressing LacZ transcriptionally regulated by endothelial cell-specific Tie-2 promoter into wild type also provided direct evidence that EPCs contributing to enhanced neovascularization at the fracture site were specifically derived from BM. Animal model of systemic administration of PB Sca1+Lin- Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)+ cells further confirmed incorporation of the mobilized EPCs into the fracture site for fracture healing. These findings indicate that fracture may induce mobilization of EPCs from BM to PB and recruitment of the mobilized EPCs into fracture sites, thereby augment neovascularization during the process of bone healing. EPCs may play an essential role in fracture healing by promoting a favorable environment through neovascularization in damaged skeletal tissue. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Isolation and Ex Vivo Culture of Vδ1+CD4+γδ T Cells, an Extrathymic αβT-cell Progenitor.

    PubMed

    Welker, Christian; Handgretinger, Rupert; Schilbach, Karin

    2015-12-07

    The thymus, the primary organ for the generation of αβ T cells and backbone of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates, has long been considered as the only source of αβT cells. Yet, thymic involution begins early in life leading to a drastically reduced output of naïve αβT cells into the periphery. Nevertheless, even centenarians can build immunity against newly acquired pathogens. Recent research suggests extrathymic αβT cell development, however our understanding of pathways that may compensate for thymic loss of function are still rudimental. γδ T cells are innate lymphocytes that constitute the main T-cell subset in the tissues. We recently ascribed a so far unappreciated outstanding function to a γδ T cell subset by showing that the scarce entity of CD4(+) Vδ1(+)γδ T cells can transdifferentiate into αβT cells in inflammatory conditions. Here, we provide the protocol for the isolation of this progenitor from peripheral blood and its subsequent cultivation. Vδ1 cells are positively enriched from PBMCs of healthy human donors using magnetic beads, followed by a second step wherein we target the scarce fraction of CD4(+) cells with a further magnetic labeling technique. The magnetic force of the second labeling exceeds the one of the first magnetic label, and thus allows the efficient, quantitative and specific positive isolation of the population of interest. We then introduce the technique and culture condition required for cloning and efficiently expanding the cells and for identification of the generated clones by FACS analysis. Thus, we provide a detailed protocol for the purification, culture and ex vivo expansion of CD4(+) Vδ1(+)γδ T cells. This knowledge is prerequisite for studies that relate to this αβT cell progenitor`s biology and for those who aim to identify the molecular triggers that are involved in its transdifferentiation.

  18. Rosuvastatin reduces atherosclerotic lesions and promotes progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Marco R; Humboldt, Tim; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2009-07-01

    Statins enhance incorporation of bone marrow-derived cells into experimental neointimal lesions. However, the contribution of progenitor cells to progression of spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques, and the possible modulatory role of statins in this process, remain poorly understood. We compared the effects of rosuvastatin (1 and 10mg/kg BW) and pravastatin (10mg/kg) on progenitor cell mobilisation, recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion growth. Statins were administered over 8 weeks to apolipoprotein E knockout mice on atherogenic diet. In addition, mice were lethally irradiated, followed by transplantation of bone marrow from LacZ transgenic mice. Rosuvastatin reduced lesion area and intima-to-media ratio at the brachiocephalic artery compared to vehicle, while both parameters were not significantly altered by pravastatin. Rosuvastatin also augmented endothelialisation (P<0.05) and reduced the smooth muscle cells (SMC) content (P=0.042) of lesions. Numbers of c-kit, sca-1 and flk-1, sca-1 double-positive progenitor cells were significantly increased in rosuvastatin compared to control-treated mice, both in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood. Similarly, the number of spleen-derived acLDL, lectin double-positive progenitor cells (P=0.001) and colony-forming units (P=0.0104) was significantly increased in mice treated with rosuvastatin compared to vehicle alone. In the bone marrow, increased Akt and p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation and upregulated SDF1alpha mRNA expression were observed. Importantly, rosuvastatin treatment also increased the plasma levels of c-kit ligand (P=0.003), and the number of c-kit-positive cells within atherosclerotic lesions (P=0.041). Our findings suggest that rosuvastatin reduces the size of atherosclerotic plaques, and this effect appears to involve progenitor cell mobilisation and recruitment into vascular lesions.

  19. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation

    SciT

    Vega, Sebastián L.; Liu, Er; Arvind, Varun

    Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods. Nuclear descriptors defined through image informatics classified mesenchymal stem cells poised to either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, and oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from different regionsmore » of the brain and destined to distinct astrocyte subtypes. Nuclear descriptors also revealed early changes in stem cells after chemical oncogenesis, allowing the identification of a class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials. To capture the metrology of nuclear changes, we developed a simple and quantitative “imaging-derived” parsing index, which reflects the dynamic evolution of the high-dimensional space of nuclear organizational features. A comparative analysis of parsing outcomes via either nuclear shape or textural metrics of the nuclear structural protein NuMA indicates the nuclear shape alone is a weak phenotypic predictor. In contrast, variations in the NuMA organization parsed emergent cell phenotypes and discerned emergent stages of stem cell transformation, supporting a prognosticating role for this protein in the outcomes of nuclear functions. - Highlights: • High-content analysis of nuclear shape and organization classify stem and progenitor cells poised for distinct lineages. • Early oncogenic changes in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are also detected with nuclear descriptors. • A new class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials was identified based on

  20. Advances in Progenitor Cell Therapy Using Scaffolding Constructs for Central Nervous System Injury

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter A.; Aroom, Kevin R.; Jimenez, Fernando; Shah, Shinil K.; Harting, Matthew T.; Gill, Brijesh S.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Current clinical therapy is focused on optimization of the acute/subacute intracerebral milieu, minimizing continued cell death, and subsequent intense rehabilitation to ameliorate the prolonged physical, cognitive, and psychosocial deficits that result from TBI. Adult progenitor (stem) cell therapies have shown promise in pre-clinical studies and remain a focus of intense scientific investigation. One of the fundamental challenges to successful translation of the large body of pre-clinical work is the delivery of progenitor cells to the target location/organ. Classically used vehicles such as intravenous and intra arterial infusion have shown low engraftment rates and risk of distal emboli. Novel delivery methods such as nanofiber scaffold implantation could provide the structural and nutritive support required for progenitor cell proliferation, engraftment, and differentiation. The focus of this review is to explore the current state of the art as it relates to current and novel progenitor cell delivery methods. PMID:19644777

  1. Characterization of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells and their changes with aging in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anqi; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Gao, Hui; Shi, Yuanshuo; Chen, Yuanhong; Zhang, Fuchuang; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wang, Danhan; Gorena, Karla M; Huang, Changjiang; Tardif, Suzette; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-08-25

    Age is the number one risk factor for breast cancer, yet the underlying mechanisms are unexplored. Age-associated mammary stem cell (MaSC) dysfunction is thought to play an important role in breast cancer carcinogenesis. Non-human primates with their close phylogenetic relationship to humans provide a powerful model system to study the effects of aging on human MaSC. In particular, the common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus) with a relatively short life span is an ideal model for aging research. In the present study, we characterized for the first time the mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells in the common marmoset. The MaSC-enriched cells formed four major types of morphologically distinct colonies when cultured on plates pre-seeded with irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts, and were also capable of forming mammospheres in suspension culture and subsequent formation of 3D organoids in Matrigel culture. Most importantly, these 3D organoids were found to contain stem/progenitor cells that can undergo self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. We also observed a significant decrease of luminal-restricted progenitors with age. Our findings demonstrate that common marmoset mammary stem/progenitor cells can be isolated and quantified with established in vitro and in vivo assays used for mouse and human studies.

  2. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2-7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum-treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases.

  3. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Maliheh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. Methods RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2–7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid–binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Results Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum–treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. Conclusions This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases. PMID:24265548

  4. Regulatory System for Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches in the Adult Rodent Pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue composed of five types of endocrine cells. Although the turnover rate of pituitary endocrine cells is as low as about 1.6% per day, recent studies have demonstrated that Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2)+-cells exist as pituitary stem/progenitor cells in the adult anterior lobe and contribute to cell regeneration. Notably, SOX2+-pituitary stem/progenitor cells form two types of niches in this tissue: the marginal cell layer (MCL-niche) and the dense cell clusters scattering in the parenchyma (parenchymal-niche). However, little is known about the mechanisms and factors for regulating the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches, as well as the functional differences between the two types of niches. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms in the niches might enable us to understand the cell regeneration system that acts in accordance with physiological demands in the adult pituitary. In this review, so as to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of the two types of niche, we summarize the regulatory factors and their roles in the adult rodent pituitary niches by focusing on three components: soluble factors, cell surface proteins and extracellular matrixes. PMID:26761002

  5. A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver

    SciT

    Shikanai, Mima; Asahina, Kinji; Iseki, Sachiko

    2009-04-03

    Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or {alpha}-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells becamemore » mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.« less

  6. Long-lived keratin 15+ esophageal progenitor cells contribute to homeostasis and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, Véronique; Lento, Ashley A.; Islam, Mirazul; Pitarresi, Jason R.; Kharbanda, Akriti; Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Whelan, Kelly A.; Long, Apple; Rhoades, Ben; Tang, Qiaosi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Lengner, Christopher J.; Bass, Adam J.; Wileyto, E. Paul; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Wang, Timothy C.; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2017-01-01

    The esophageal lumen is lined by a stratified squamous epithelium comprised of proliferative basal cells that differentiate while migrating toward the luminal surface and eventually desquamate. Rapid epithelial renewal occurs, but the specific cell of origin that supports this high proliferative demand remains unknown. Herein, we have described a long-lived progenitor cell population in the mouse esophageal epithelium that is characterized by expression of keratin 15 (Krt15). Genetic in vivo lineage tracing revealed that the Krt15 promoter marks a long-lived basal cell population able to self-renew, proliferate, and generate differentiated cells, consistent with a progenitor/stem cell population. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that Krt15+ basal cells are molecularly distinct from Krt15– basal cells. Depletion of Krt15-derived cells resulted in decreased proliferation, thereby leading to atrophy of the esophageal epithelium. Further, Krt15+ cells were radioresistant and contributed to esophageal epithelial regeneration following radiation-induced injury. These results establish the presence of a long-lived and indispensable Krt15+ progenitor cell population that provides additional perspective on esophageal epithelial biology and the widely prevalent diseases that afflict this epithelium. PMID:28481227

  7. Shear Stress Regulates Adhesion and Rolling of CD44+ Leukemic and Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells on Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Christophis, Christof; Taubert, Isabel; Meseck, Georg R.; Schubert, Mario; Grunze, Michael; Ho, Anthony D.; Rosenhahn, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Leukemic cells and human hematopoietic progenitor cells expressing CD44 receptors have the ability to attach and roll on hyaluronan. We investigated quantitatively the adhesion behavior of leukemic cell lines and hematopoietic progenitor cells on thin films of the polysaccharides hyaluronan and alginate in a microfluidic system. An applied flow enhances the interaction between CD44-positive cells and hyaluronan if a threshold shear stress of 0.2 dyn/cm2 is exceeded. At shear stress ∼1 dyn/cm2, the cell rolling speed reaches a maximum of 15 μm/s. Leukemic Jurkat and Kasumi-1 cells lacking CD44-expression showed no adhesion or rolling on the polysaccharides whereas the CD44-expressing leukemic cells KG-1a, HL-60, K-562, and hematopoietic progenitor cells attached and rolled on hyaluronan. Interestingly, the observations of flow-induced cell rolling are related to those found in the recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites and the mechanisms of stem-cell homing into the bone marrow. PMID:21806926

  8. Proneurotrophin-3 promotes cell cycle withdrawal of developing cerebellar granule cell progenitors via the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Juan Pablo; Abercrombie, Elizabeth; Friedman, Wilma J

    2016-07-19

    Cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP) proliferate extensively in the external granule layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum prior to differentiating and migrating. Mechanisms that regulate the appropriate timing of cell cycle withdrawal of these neuronal progenitors during brain development are not well defined. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is highly expressed in the proliferating GCPs, but is downregulated once the cells leave the cell cycle. This receptor has primarily been characterized as a death receptor for its ability to induce neuronal apoptosis following injury. Here we demonstrate a novel function for p75(NTR) in regulating proper cell cycle exit of neuronal progenitors in the developing rat and mouse EGL, which is stimulated by proNT3. In the absence of p75(NTR), GCPs continue to proliferate beyond their normal period, resulting in a larger cerebellum that persists into adulthood, with consequent motor deficits.

  9. Differentiation and Cell-Cell Interactions of Neural Progenitor Cells Transplanted into Intact Adult Brain.

    PubMed

    Sukhinich, K K; Kosykh, A V; Aleksandrova, M A

    2015-11-01

    We studied the behavior and cell-cell interactions of embryonic brain cell from GFP-reporter mice after their transplantation into the intact adult brain. Fragments or cell suspensions of fetal neocortical cells at different stages of development were transplanted into the neocortex and striatum of adult recipients. Even in intact brain, the processes of transplanted neurons formed extensive networks in the striatum and neocortical layers I and V-VI. Processes of transplanted cells at different stages of development attained the rostral areas of the frontal cortex and some of them reached the internal capsule. However, the cells transplanted in suspension had lower process growth potency than cells from tissue fragments. Tyrosine hydroxylase fibers penetrated from the recipient brain into grafts at both early and late stages of development. Our experiments demonstrated the formation of extensive reciprocal networks between the transplanted fetal neural cells and recipient brain neurons even in intact brain.

  10. Generation of mature T cells from human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in artificial thymic organoids.

    PubMed

    Seet, Christopher S; He, Chongbin; Bethune, Michael T; Li, Suwen; Chick, Brent; Gschweng, Eric H; Zhu, Yuhua; Kim, Kenneth; Kohn, Donald B; Baltimore, David; Crooks, Gay M; Montel-Hagen, Amélie

    2017-05-01

    Studies of human T cell development require robust model systems that recapitulate the full span of thymopoiesis, from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through to mature T cells. Existing in vitro models induce T cell commitment from human HSPCs; however, differentiation into mature CD3 + TCR-αβ + single-positive CD8 + or CD4 + cells is limited. We describe here a serum-free, artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system that supports efficient and reproducible in vitro differentiation and positive selection of conventional human T cells from all sources of HSPCs. ATO-derived T cells exhibited mature naive phenotypes, a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and TCR-dependent function. ATOs initiated with TCR-engineered HSPCs produced T cells with antigen-specific cytotoxicity and near-complete lack of endogenous TCR Vβ expression, consistent with allelic exclusion of Vβ-encoding loci. ATOs provide a robust tool for studying human T cell differentiation and for the future development of stem-cell-based engineered T cell therapies.

  11. miR-133a enhances the protective capacity of cardiac progenitors cells after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Izarra, Alberto; Moscoso, Isabel; Levent, Elif; Cañón, Susana; Cerrada, Inmaculada; Díez-Juan, Antonio; Blanca, Vanessa; Núñez-Gil, Iván-J; Valiente, Iñigo; Ruíz-Sauri, Amparo; Sepúlveda, Pilar; Tiburcy, Malte; Zimmermann, Wolfram-H; Bernad, Antonio

    2014-12-09

    miR-133a and miR-1 are known as muscle-specific microRNAs that are involved in cardiac development and pathophysiology. We have shown that both miR-1 and miR-133a are early and progressively upregulated during in vitro cardiac differentiation of adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but only miR-133a expression was enhanced under in vitro oxidative stress. miR-1 was demonstrated to favor differentiation of CPCs, whereas miR-133a overexpression protected CPCs against cell death, targeting, among others, the proapoptotic genes Bim and Bmf. miR-133a-CPCs clearly improved cardiac function in a rat myocardial infarction model by reducing fibrosis and hypertrophy and increasing vascularization and cardiomyocyte proliferation. The beneficial effects of miR-133a-CPCs seem to correlate with the upregulated expression of several relevant paracrine factors and the plausible cooperative secretion of miR-133a via exosomal transport. Finally, an in vitro heart muscle model confirmed the antiapoptotic effects of miR-133a-CPCs, favoring the structuration and contractile functionality of the artificial tissue. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. miR-133a Enhances the Protective Capacity of Cardiac Progenitors Cells after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Izarra, Alberto; Moscoso, Isabel; Levent, Elif; Cañón, Susana; Cerrada, Inmaculada; Díez-Juan, Antonio; Blanca, Vanessa; Núñez-Gil, Iván-J.; Valiente, Iñigo; Ruíz-Sauri, Amparo; Sepúlveda, Pilar; Tiburcy, Malte; Zimmermann, Wolfram-H.; Bernad, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Summary miR-133a and miR-1 are known as muscle-specific microRNAs that are involved in cardiac development and pathophysiology. We have shown that both miR-1 and miR-133a are early and progressively upregulated during in vitro cardiac differentiation of adult cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but only miR-133a expression was enhanced under in vitro oxidative stress. miR-1 was demonstrated to favor differentiation of CPCs, whereas miR-133a overexpression protected CPCs against cell death, targeting, among others, the proapoptotic genes Bim and Bmf. miR-133a-CPCs clearly improved cardiac function in a rat myocardial infarction model by reducing fibrosis and hypertrophy and increasing vascularization and cardiomyocyte proliferation. The beneficial effects of miR-133a-CPCs seem to correlate with the upregulated expression of several relevant paracrine factors and the plausible cooperative secretion of miR-133a via exosomal transport. Finally, an in vitro heart muscle model confirmed the antiapoptotic effects of miR-133a-CPCs, favoring the structuration and contractile functionality of the artificial tissue. PMID:25465869

  13. The Thoc1 Encoded Ribonucleoprotein Is Required for Myeloid Progenitor Cell Homeostasis in the Adult Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Chinnam, Meenalakshmi; Povinelli, Benjamin J.; Fisher, Daniel T.; Golding, Michelle; Appenheimer, Michelle M.; Nemeth, Michael J.; Evans, Sharon; Goodrich, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover. PMID:24830368

  14. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    PubMed

    Pitzonka, Laura; Ullas, Sumana; Chinnam, Meenalakshmi; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Fisher, Daniel T; Golding, Michelle; Appenheimer, Michelle M; Nemeth, Michael J; Evans, Sharon; Goodrich, David W

    2014-01-01

    Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  15. Embryonic origin and Hox status determine progenitor cell fate during adult bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Leucht, Philipp; Kim, Jae-Beom; Amasha, Raimy; James, Aaron W; Girod, Sabine; Helms, Jill A

    2008-09-01

    The fetal skeleton arises from neural crest and from mesoderm. Here, we provide evidence that each lineage contributes a unique stem cell population to the regeneration of injured adult bones. Using Wnt1Cre::Z/EG mice we found that the neural crest-derived mandible heals with neural crest-derived skeletal stem cells, whereas the mesoderm-derived tibia heals with mesoderm-derived stem cells. We tested whether skeletal stem cells from each lineage were functionally interchangeable by grafting mesoderm-derived cells into mandibular defects, and vice versa. All of the grafting scenarios, except one, healed through the direct differentiation of skeletal stem cells into osteoblasts; when mesoderm-derived cells were transplanted into tibial defects they differentiated into osteoblasts but when transplanted into mandibular defects they differentiated into chondrocytes. A mismatch between the Hox gene expression status of the host and donor cells might be responsible for this aberration in bone repair. We found that initially, mandibular skeletal progenitor cells are Hox-negative but that they adopt a Hoxa11-positive profile when transplanted into a tibial defect. Conversely, tibial skeletal progenitor cells are Hox-positive and maintain this Hox status even when transplanted into a Hox-negative mandibular defect. Skeletal progenitor cells from the two lineages also show differences in osteogenic potential and proliferation, which translate into more robust in vivo bone regeneration by neural crest-derived cells. Thus, embryonic origin and Hox gene expression status distinguish neural crest-derived from mesoderm-derived skeletal progenitor cells, and both characteristics influence the process of adult bone regeneration.

  16. Evidence of progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea: sphere formation and identification of ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Massucci-Bissoli, Milene; Lezirovitz, Karina; Oiticica, Jeanne; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to search for evidence of stem or progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea by testing for sphere formation capacity and the presence of the stem cell marker ABCG2. Cochleas removed from patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma resection (n=2) and from brain-dead organ donors (n=4) were dissociated for either flow cytometry analysis for the stem cell marker ABCG2 or a sphere formation assay that is widely used to test the sphere-forming capacity of cells from mouse inner ear tissue. Spheres were identified after 2-5 days in vitro, and the stem cell marker ABCG2 was detected using flow cytometric analysis after cochlear dissociation. Evidence suggests that there may be progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea, although further studies are required.

  17. Optimizing Culture Medium Composition to Improve Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Yields In Vitro from Subventricular Zone-Derived Neural Progenitor Cell Neurospheres

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Paula G.; Pasquini, Juana M.; Silvestroff, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC) are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC. PMID:25837625

  18. Morphological and genetical changes of endothelial progenitor cells after in-vitro conversion into photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Shi; Alsaeedi, Hiba Amer; Yuhong, Cheng; Yang, Hao; Tong, Li; Kumar, Suresh; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munisvaradass, Rusheni; Ling, Mok Pooi; Cheng, Pei

    2018-06-01

    Retinal degeneration is a condition ensued by various ocular disorders such as artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, retrolental fibroplasia and retinitis pigmentosa which cause abnormal loss of photoreceptor cells and lead to eventual vision impairment. No efficient treatment has yet been found, however, the use of stem cell therapy such as bone marrow and embryonic stem cells has opened a new treatment modality for retinal degenerative diseases. The major goal of this study is to analyze the potential of endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow to differentiate into retinal neural cells for regenerative medicine purposes. In this study, endothelial progenitor cells were induced in-vitro with photoreceptor growth factor (taurine) for 21 days. Subsequently, the morphology and gene expression of CRX and RHO of the photoreceptors-induced EPCs were examined through immunostaining assay. The results indicated that the induced endothelial progenitor cells demonstrated positive gene expression of CRX and RHO. Our findings suggested that EPC cells may have a high advantage in cell replacement therapy for treating eye disease, in addition to other neural diseases, and may be a suitable cell source in regenerative medicine for eye disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Eotaxin-Rich Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells and CCR3+ Endothelium in the Atopic Asthmatic Response.

    PubMed

    Asosingh, Kewal; Vasanji, Amit; Tipton, Aaron; Queisser, Kimberly; Wanner, Nicholas; Janocha, Allison; Grandon, Deepa; Anand-Apte, Bela; Rothenberg, Marc E; Dweik, Raed; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2016-03-01

    Angiogenesis is closely linked to and precedes eosinophilic infiltration in asthma. Eosinophils are recruited into the airway by chemoattractant eotaxins, which are expressed by endothelial cells, smooth muscles cells, epithelial cells, and hematopoietic cells. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells that contain eotaxins contribute to the initiation of angiogenesis and inflammation in asthma. Whole-lung allergen challenge of atopic asthma patients revealed vascular activation occurs within hours of challenge and before airway inflammation. The eotaxin receptor CCR3 was expressed at high levels on submucosal endothelial cells in patients and a murine model of asthma. Ex vivo exposure of murine endothelial cells to eotaxins induced migration and angiogenesis. In mechanistic studies, wild-type mice transplanted with eotaxin-1/2-deficient bone marrow had markedly less angiogenesis and inflammation in an atopic asthma model, whereas adoptive transfer of proangiogenic progenitor cells from wild-type mice in an atopic asthma model into the eotaxin-1/2-deficient mice led to angiogenesis and airway inflammation. The findings indicate that Th2-promoting hematopoietic progenitor cells are rapidly recruited to the lung upon allergen exposure and release eotaxins that coordinately activate endothelial cells, angiogenesis, and airway inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Eotaxin-rich Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells and CCR3+ Endothelium in the Atopic Asthmatic Response

    PubMed Central

    Asosingh, Kewal; Vasanji, Amit; Tipton, Aaron; Queisser, Kimberly; Wanner, Nicholas; Janocha, Allison; Grandon, Deepa; Anand-Apte, Bela; Rothenberg, Marc. E.; Dweik, Raed; Erzurum, Serpil C.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is closely linked to and precedes eosinophilic infiltration in asthma. Eosinophils are recruited into the airway by chemoattractant eotaxins, which are expressed by endothelial cells, smooth muscles cells, epithelial cells, and hematopoietic cells. We hypothesized that bone marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells that contain eotaxins contribute to the initiation of angiogenesis and inflammation in asthma. Whole lung allergen challenge of atopic asthma patients revealed vascular activation occurs within hours of challenge, and prior to airway inflammation. The eotaxin receptor CCR3 was expressed at high levels on submucosal endothelial cells in patients and murine model of asthma. Exvivo exposure of murine endothelial cells to eotaxins induced migration and angiogenesis. In mechanistic studies, wildtype mice transplanted with eotaxin-1/2 deficient bone marrow had markedly less angiogenesis and inflammation in an atopic asthma model, while adoptive transfer of proangiogenic progenitor cells from wildtype mice in an atopic asthma model into the eotaxin-1/2 deficient mice led to angiogenesis and airway inflammation. The findings indicate that TH2-promoting hematopoietic progenitor cells are rapidly recruited to the lung upon allergen exposure and release eotaxins that coordinately activate endothelial cells, angiogenesis, and airway inflammation. PMID:26810221

  1. BLOS2 negatively regulates Notch signaling during neural and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenwen; He, Qiuping; Zhang, Chunxia; He, Xin; Cui, Zongbin; Liu, Feng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in controling the proliferation and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells during embryogenesis or organogenesis, but its regulation is incompletely understood. BLOS2, encoded by the Bloc1s2 gene, is a shared subunit of two lysosomal trafficking complexes, biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) and BLOC-1-related complex (BORC). Bloc1s2−/− mice were embryonic lethal and exhibited defects in cortical development and hematopoiesis. Loss of BLOS2 resulted in elevated Notch signaling, which consequently increased the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and inhibited neuronal differentiation in cortices. Likewise, ablation of bloc1s2 in zebrafish or mice led to increased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell production in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. BLOS2 physically interacted with Notch1 in endo-lysosomal trafficking of Notch1. Our findings suggest that BLOS2 is a novel negative player in regulating Notch signaling through lysosomal trafficking to control multiple stem and progenitor cell homeostasis in vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18108.001 PMID:27719760

  2. Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation from Smartphones on Learning Ability and Hippocampal Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Nonionizing radiation is emitted from electronic devices, such as smartphones. In this study, we intended to elucidate the effect of electromagnetic radiation from smartphones on spatial working memory and progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Both male and female mice were randomly separated into two groups (radiated and control) and the radiated group was exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 9 weeks and 11 weeks for male and female mice, respectively. Spatial working memory was examined with a Y maze, and proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells were examined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine administration and immunohistochemical detection. When spatial working memory on a Y maze was examined in the 9(th) week, there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation score on the Y maze between the two groups. In addition, there was no significant difference in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation. However, immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in exposed animals. Next, to test the effect of recovery following chronic radiation exposure, the remaining female mice were further exposed to electromagnetic radiation for 2 more weeks (total 11 weeks), and spontaneous alternation was tested 4 weeks later. In this experiment, although there was no significant difference in the spontaneous alternation scores, the number of arm entry was significantly increased. These data indicate that although chronic electromagnetic radiation does not affect spatial working memory and hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation it can mediate astrocyte activation in the hippocampus and delayed hyperactivity-like behavior.

  3. Characterization of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Models for Developmental Neurotoxicity Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current testing methods for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) make evaluation of the effects of large numbers of chemicals impractical and prohibitively expensive. As such, we are evaluating two different human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) models for their utility in screens for...

  4. Double-chimera proteins to enhance recruitment of endothelial cells and their progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Behjati, M; Kazemi, M; Hashemi, M; Zarkesh-Esfahanai, S H; Bahrami, E; Hashemi-Beni, B; Ahmadi, R

    2013-08-20

    Enhanced attraction of selective vascular reparative cells is of great importance in order to increase vascular patency after endovascular treatments. We aimed to evaluate efficient attachment of endothelial cells and their progenitors on surfaces coated with mixture of specific antibodies, L-selectin and VE-cadherin, with prohibited platelet attachment. The most efficient conditions for coating of L-selectin-Fc chimera and VE-cadherin-Fc chimera proteins were first determined by protein coating on ELISA plates. The whole processes were repeated on titanium substrates, which are commonly used to coat stents. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. Cell attachment, growth, proliferation, viability and surface cytotoxicity were evaluated using nuclear staining and MTT assay. Platelet and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Optimal concentration of each protein for surface coating was 50 ng/ml. The efficacy of protein coating was both heat and pH independent. Calcium ions had significant impact on simultaneous dual-protein coating (P<0.05). Coating stability data revealed more than one year stability for these coated proteins at 4°C. L-selectin and VE-cadherin (ratio of 50:50) coated surface showed highest EPC and HUVEC attachment, viability and proliferation compared to single protein coated and non-coated titanium surfaces (P<0.05). This double coated surface did not show any cytotoxic effect. Surfaces coated with L-selectin and VE-cadherin are friendly surface for EPC and endothelial cell attachment with less platelet attachment. These desirable factors make the L-selectin and VE-cadherin coated surfaces perfect candidate endovascular device. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Generation of mature T cells from human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in artificial thymic organoids

    PubMed Central

    Seet, Christopher S.; He, Chongbin; Bethune, Michael T.; Li, Suwen; Chick, Brent; Gschweng, Eric H.; Zhu, Yuhua; Kim, Kenneth; Kohn, Donald B.; Baltimore, David; Crooks, Gay M.; Montel-Hagen, Amélie

    2017-01-01

    Studies of human T cell development require robust model systems that recapitulate the full span of thymopoiesis, from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through to mature T cells. Existing in vitro models induce T cell commitment from human HSPCs; however, differentiation into mature CD3+TCRab+ single positive (SP) CD8+ or CD4+ cells is limited. We describe here a serum-free, artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system that supports highly efficient and reproducible in vitro differentiation and positive selection of conventional human T cells from all sources of HSPCs. ATO-derived T cells exhibited mature naïve phenotypes, a diverse TCR repertoire, and TCR-dependent function. ATOs initiated with TCR-engineered HSPCs produced T cells with antigen specific cytotoxicity and near complete lack of endogenous TCR Vβ expression, consistent with allelic exclusion of Vβ loci. ATOs provide a robust tool for studying human T cell development and stem cell based approaches to engineered T cell therapies. PMID:28369043

  6. Targeting of the BLT2 in chronic myeloid leukemia inhibits leukemia stem/progenitor cell function

    SciT

    Xiao, Meifang; Ai, Hongmei; Li, Tao

    Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has significantly improved clinical outcome for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. However, patients develop resistance when the disease progresses to the blast phase (BP) and the mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that BCR-ABL activates BLT2 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to promote leukemogenesis and this involves the p53 signaling pathway. Compared to normal bone marrow (NBM), the mRNA and protein levels of BLT2 are significantly increased in BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitor cells. This is correlated with increasing BCR-ABL expression. In contrast, knockdown of BCR-ABL or inhibition of its tyrosine kinase activity decreasesmore » Blt2 protein level. BLT2 inhibition induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation, colony formation and self-renewal capacity of CD34{sup +} cells from TKI-resistant BP-CML patients. Importantly, the inhibitory effects of BCR-ABL TKI on CML stem/progenitor cells are further enhanced upon combination with BLT2 inhibition. We further show that BLT2 activation selectively suppresses p53 but not Wnt or BMP-mediated luciferase activity and transcription. Our results demonstrate that BLT2 is a novel pathway activated by BCR-ABL and critically involved in the resistance of BP-CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors to TKIs treatment. Our findings suggest that BLT2 and p53 can serve as therapeutic targets for CML treatment. - Highlights: • BCR-ABL regulates BLT2 expression to promote leukemogenesis. • BLT2 is essential to maintain CML cell function. • Activation of BLT2 suppresses p53 signaling pathway in CML cells. • Inhibition of BLT2 and BCR-ABL synergize in eliminating CML CD34{sup +} stem/progenitors.« less

  7. Seven diverse human embryonic stem cell-derived chondrogenic clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines display site-specific cell fates.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Hal; Kidd, Jennifer; Murai, James T; Jiang, Jianjie; Rinon, Ariel; Erickson, Isaac E; Funk, Walter D; Wang, Qian; Chapman, Karen B; Vangsness, C Thomas; West, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    The transcriptomes of seven diverse clonal human embryonic progenitor cell lines with chondrogenic potential were compared with that of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The cell lines 4D20.8, 7PEND24, 7SMOO32, E15, MEL2, SK11 and SM30 were compared with MSCs using immunohistochemical methods, gene expression microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. In the undifferentiated progenitor state, each line displayed unique combinations of site-specific markers, including AJAP1, ALDH1A2, BMP5, BARX1, HAND2, HOXB2, LHX1, LHX8, PITX1, TBX15 and ZIC2, but none of the lines expressed the MSC marker CD74. The lines showed diverse responses when differentiated in the presence of combinations of TGF-β3, BMP2, 4, 6 and 7 and GDF5, with the lines 4D20.8, SK11, SM30 and MEL2 showing osteogenic markers in some differentiation conditions. The line 7PEND24 showed evidence of regenerating articular cartilage and, in some conditions, markers of tendon differentiation. The scalability of site-specific clonal human embryonic stem cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell lines may provide novel models for the study of differentiation and methods for preparing purified and identified cells types for use in therapy.

  8. Enteric nervous system specific deletion of Foxd3 disrupts glial cell differentiation and activates compensatory enteric progenitors.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Nathan A; Plank, Jennifer L; LeGrone, Alison W; Frist, Audrey Y; Zhu, Lei; Shin, Myung K; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Labosky, Patricia A

    2012-03-15

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the coordinated migration, expansion and differentiation of vagal and sacral neural crest progenitor cells. During development, vagal neural crest cells enter the foregut and migrate in a rostro-to-caudal direction, colonizing the entire gastrointestinal tract and generating the majority of the ENS. Sacral neural crest contributes to a subset of enteric ganglia in the hindgut, colonizing the colon in a caudal-to-rostral wave. During this process, enteric neural crest-derived progenitors (ENPs) self-renew and begin expressing markers of neural and glial lineages as they populate the intestine. Our earlier work demonstrated that the transcription factor Foxd3 is required early in neural crest-derived progenitors for self-renewal, multipotency and establishment of multiple neural crest-derived cells and structures including the ENS. Here, we describe Foxd3 expression within the fetal and postnatal intestine: Foxd3 was strongly expressed in ENPs as they colonize the gastrointestinal tract and was progressively restricted to enteric glial cells. Using a novel Ednrb-iCre transgene to delete Foxd3 after vagal neural crest cells migrate into the midgut, we demonstrated a late temporal requirement for Foxd3 during ENS development. Lineage labeling of Ednrb-iCre expressing cells in Foxd3 mutant embryos revealed a reduction of ENPs throughout the gut and loss of Ednrb-iCre lineage cells in the distal colon. Although mutant mice were viable, defects in patterning and distribution of ENPs were associated with reduced proliferation and severe reduction of glial cells derived from the Ednrb-iCre lineage. Analyses of ENS-lineage and differentiation in mutant embryos suggested activation of a compensatory population of Foxd3-positive ENPs that did not express the Ednrb-iCre transgene. Our findings highlight the crucial roles played by Foxd3 during ENS development including progenitor proliferation, neural patterning, and glial

  9. Expression of Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor Separates Hematopoietic and Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Fetal Liver Kinase 1-Expressing Mesoderm

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Hirata, Nobue; Okada, Atsumasa; Yamaguchi, Tomoko; Takayama, Kazuo; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    In developing embryos or in vitro differentiation cultures using pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, fetal liver kinase 1 (Flk1)-expressing mesodermal cells are thought to be a heterogeneous population that includes hematopoietic progenitors, endothelial progenitors, and cardiac progenitors. However, information on cell surface markers for separating these progenitors in Flk1+ cells is currently limited. In the present study, we show that distinct types of progenitor cells in Flk1+ cells could be separated according to the expression of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, also known as CXADR), a tight junction component molecule. We found that mouse and human PSC- and mouse embryo-derived Flk1+ cells could be subdivided into Flk1+CAR+ cells and Flk1+CAR− cells. The progenitor cells with cardiac potential were almost entirely restricted to Flk1+CAR+ cells, and Flk1+CAR− cells efficiently differentiated into hematopoietic cells. Endothelial differentiation potential was observed in both populations. Furthermore, from the expression of CAR, Flk1, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα), Flk1+ cells could be separated into three populations (Flk1+PDGFRα−CAR− cells, Flk1+PDGFRα−CAR+ cells, and Flk1+PDGFRα+CAR+ cells). Flk1+PDGFRα+ cells and Flk1+PDGFRα− cells have been reported as cardiac and hematopoietic progenitor cells, respectively. We identified a novel population (Flk1+PDGFRα−CAR+ cells) with the potential to differentiate into not only hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells but also cardiomyocytes. Our findings indicate that CAR would be a novel and prominent marker for separating PSC- and embryo-derived Flk1+ mesodermal cells with distinct differentiation potentials. PMID:25762001

  10. Human Cartilage-Derived Progenitor Cells From Committed Chondrocytes for Efficient Cartilage Repair and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yangzi; Cai, Youzhi; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Zi; Hu, Changchang; Tong, Tong; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Shufang; Neculai, Dante; Tuan, Rocky S; Ouyang, Hong Wei

    2016-06-01

    Articular cartilage is not a physiologically self-renewing tissue. Injury of cartilage often progresses from the articular surface to the subchondral bone, leading to pathogenesis of tissue degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Therapies to treat cartilage defects using autologous chondrocyte-based tissue engineering have been developed and used for more than 20 years; however, the challenge of chondrocyte expansion in vitro remains. A promising cell source, cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), has attracted recent attention. Because their origin and identity are still unclear, the application potential of CSPCs is under active investigation. Here we have captured the emergence of a group of stem/progenitor cells derived from adult human chondrocytes, highlighted by dynamic changes in expression of the mature chondrocyte marker, COL2, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) marker, CD146. These cells are termed chondrocyte-derived progenitor cells (CDPCs). The stem cell-like potency and differentiation status of CDPCs were determined by physical and biochemical cues during culture. A low-density, low-glucose 2-dimensional culture condition (2DLL) was critical for the emergence and proliferation enhancement of CDPCs. CDPCs showed similar phenotype as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells but exhibited greater chondrogenic potential. Moreover, the 2DLL-cultured CDPCs proved efficient in cartilage formation both in vitro and in vivo and in repairing large knee cartilage defects (6-13 cm(2)) in 15 patients. These findings suggest a phenotype conversion between chondrocytes and CDPCs and provide conditions that promote the conversion. These insights expand our understanding of cartilage biology and may enhance the success of chondrocyte-based therapies. Injury of cartilage, a non-self-repairing tissue, often progresses to pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Although tissue-derived stem cells have been shown to

  11. Human Cartilage-Derived Progenitor Cells From Committed Chondrocytes for Efficient Cartilage Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yangzi; Cai, Youzhi; Zhang, Wei; Yin, Zi; Hu, Changchang; Tong, Tong; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Shufang; Neculai, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage is not a physiologically self-renewing tissue. Injury of cartilage often progresses from the articular surface to the subchondral bone, leading to pathogenesis of tissue degenerative diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Therapies to treat cartilage defects using autologous chondrocyte-based tissue engineering have been developed and used for more than 20 years; however, the challenge of chondrocyte expansion in vitro remains. A promising cell source, cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), has attracted recent attention. Because their origin and identity are still unclear, the application potential of CSPCs is under active investigation. Here we have captured the emergence of a group of stem/progenitor cells derived from adult human chondrocytes, highlighted by dynamic changes in expression of the mature chondrocyte marker, COL2, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) marker, CD146. These cells are termed chondrocyte-derived progenitor cells (CDPCs). The stem cell-like potency and differentiation status of CDPCs were determined by physical and biochemical cues during culture. A low-density, low-glucose 2-dimensional culture condition (2DLL) was critical for the emergence and proliferation enhancement of CDPCs. CDPCs showed similar phenotype as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells but exhibited greater chondrogenic potential. Moreover, the 2DLL-cultured CDPCs proved efficient in cartilage formation both in vitro and in vivo and in repairing large knee cartilage defects (6–13 cm2) in 15 patients. These findings suggest a phenotype conversion between chondrocytes and CDPCs and provide conditions that promote the conversion. These insights expand our understanding of cartilage biology and may enhance the success of chondrocyte-based therapies. Significance Injury of cartilage, a non-self-repairing tissue, often progresses to pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases, such as osteoarthritis. Although tissue-derived stem cells have been shown

  12. Biliary Tree Stem Cells, Precursors to Pancreatic Committed Progenitors: Evidence for Possible Life-long Pancreatic Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunfang; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Carpino, Guido; Cui, Cai-Bin; Dominguez-Bendala, Juan; Wauthier, Eliane; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Oikawa, Tsunekazu; Pileggi, Antonello; Gerber, David; Furth, Mark E.; Alvaro, Domenico; Gaudio, Eugenio; Inverardi, Luca; Reid, Lola M.

    2013-01-01

    Peribiliary glands (PBGs) in bile duct walls, and pancreatic duct glands (PDGs) associated with pancreatic ducts, in humans of all ages, contain a continuous, ramifying network of cells in overlapping maturational lineages. We show that proximal (PBGs)-to-distal (PDGs) maturational lineages start near the duodenum with cells expressing markers of pluripotency (NANOG,OCT4,SOX2), proliferation (Ki67), self-replication (SALL4), and early hepato-pancreatic commitment (SOX9,SOX17,PDX1,LGR5), transitioning to PDG cells with no expression of pluripotency or self-replication markers, maintenance of pancreatic genes (PDX1), and expression of markers of pancreatic endocrine maturation (NGN3,MUC6,insulin). Radial-axis lineages start in PBGs near the ducts’ fibromuscular layers with stem cells and end at the ducts’ lumens with cells devoid of stem cell traits and positive for pancreatic endocrine genes. Biliary tree-derived cells behaved as stem cells in culture under expansion conditions, culture plastic and serum-free Kubota’s Medium, proliferating for months as undifferentiated cells, whereas pancreas-derived cells underwent only ∼8-10 divisions, then partially differentiated towards an islet fate. Biliary tree-derived cells proved precursors of pancreas’ committed progenitors. Both could be driven by 3-dimensional conditions, islet-derived matrix components and a serum-free, hormonally defined medium for an islet fate (HDM-P), to form spheroids with ultrastructural, electrophysiological and functional characteristics of neoislets, including glucose regulatability. Implantation of these neoislets into epididymal fat pads of immuno-compromised mice, chemically rendered diabetic, resulted in secretion of human C-peptide, regulatable by glucose, and able to alleviate hyperglycemia in hosts. The biliary tree-derived stem cells and their connections to pancreatic committed progenitors constitute a biological framework for life-long pancreatic organogenesis. PMID

  13. Aortic Sca-1+ Progenitor Cells Arise from the Somitic Mesoderm Lineage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Sarah K; Wang, Tao; Carruthers, Martha H; Li, Angela; Besla, Rickvinder; Johnston, Adam P; Robbins, Clinton S; Husain, Mansoor

    2018-05-31

    Sca-1 + progenitor cells in the adult mouse aorta are known to generate vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but their embryological origins and temporal abundance are not known. Using tamoxifen-inducible Myf5-Cre ER mice, we demonstrate that Sca-1 + adult aortic cells arise from the somitic mesoderm beginning at E8.5 and continue throughout somitogenesis. Myf5 lineage-derived Sca-1 + cells greatly expand in situ, starting at 4 weeks of age, and become a major source of aortic Sca-1 + cells by 6 weeks of age. Myf5-derived adult aortic cells are capable of forming multicellular sphere-like structures in vitro and express the pluripotency marker Sox2. Exposure to transforming growth factor-β3 induces these spheres to differentiate into calponin-expressing VSMCs. Pulse-chase experiments using tamoxifen-inducible Sox2-Cre ERT2 mice at 8 weeks of age demonstrate that ∼35% of all adult aortic Sca-1 + cells are derived from Sox2 + cells. The present study demonstrates that aortic Sca-1 + progenitor cells are derived from the somitic mesoderm formed at the earliest stages of somitogenesis and from Sox2-expressing progenitors in adult mice.

  14. Engraftment of enteric neural progenitor cells into the injured adult brain.

    PubMed

    Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Hotta, Ryo; Whalen, Michael; Nayyar, Naema; Nagy, Nandor; Cheng, Lily; Zuckerman, Aaron; Goldstein, Allan M; Dietrich, Jorg

    2016-01-25

    A major area of unmet need is the development of strategies to restore neuronal network systems and to recover brain function in patients with neurological disease. The use of cell-based therapies remains an attractive approach, but its application has been challenging due to the lack of suitable cell sources, ethical concerns, and immune-mediated tissue rejection. We propose an innovative approach that utilizes gut-derived neural tissue for cell-based therapies following focal or diffuse central nervous system injury. Enteric neuronal stem and progenitor cells, able to differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages, were isolated from the postnatal enteric nervous system and propagated in vitro. Gut-derived neural progenitors, genetically engineered to express fluorescent proteins, were transplanted into the injured brain of adult mice. Using different models of brain injury in combination with either local or systemic cell delivery, we show that transplanted enteric neuronal progenitor cells survive, proliferate, and differentiate into neuronal and glial lineage