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  1. Cerebral Proliferative Angiopathy (CPA): Imaging Findings and Response to Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lopci, Egesta; Olivari, Laura; Bello, Lorenzo; Navarria, Pierina; Chiti, Arturo

    2016-12-01

    We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with cerebral proliferative angiopathy (CPA). Her medical history included brain surgery for small vascular lesions and suspicion of cerebral malignancy. C methionine PET (C-METH PET) demonstrated a diffusely increased uptake on the right hemisphere. Contrast-enhanced MRI documented a massive lesion with a diffuse "nidus" appearance, involving the right cerebral hemisphere (sparing the inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior frontal lobe), the brainstem, and the middle cerebellar peduncle. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of CPA and, after radiation treatment, the patient presented with clinical and radiological response.

  2. Potentiation of lymphocyte proliferative responses by nickel sulfide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaramillo, A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1992-01-01

    Crystalline nickel sulfide (NiS) induced a spleen cell proliferation that resembles a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). It depended on cell-cell interaction, induced high levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and the responding cell subpopulation was composed of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Furthermore, the proliferation was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by magnesium. Crystalline NiS also increased significantly the spleen cell proliferative response to concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with magnesium potentiating the combined effects of crystalline NiS and mitogens. Interestingly, crystalline NiS did not show any effect on the induction of IL-2 by Con A. The results described herein suggest that crystalline NiS can potentiate both antigenic (MLR) and mitogenic (Con A and LPS) proliferative responses in vitro. Crystalline NiS appears to potentiate these responses by acting in the form of ionic nickel on several intracellular targets for which magnesium ions have different noncompetitive interactions. The effects of magnesium on the potentiating action of crystalline NiS are different depending upon the type of primary stimulatory signal for proliferation (mitogenic or antigenic).

  3. T-cell proliferative responses following sepsis in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Dallal, Ousama; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kohn, Annamarie; Muraskas, Jonathan K; Namak, Shahla Y; Alattar, Mohammad H; Sayeed, Mohammed M

    2003-01-01

    Both experimental and clinical evidence suggest a suppression of T-cell function in burn and sepsis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate splenocyte and purified T-cell proliferative response and IL-2 production in septic neonatal rats. We also examined if alterations in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production in neonatal sepsis is due to elevation in PGE2. PGE2 is known to play a significant role in T-cell suppression during sepsis in adults. Sepsis was induced in 15-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats by implanting 0.1 cm3 of fecal pellet impregnated with Escherichia coli (50 CFU) and Bacteroides fragilis (10(3) CFU). Animals receiving fecal pellets without the bacteria were designated as sterile. A group of septic and sterile rats were treated with PGE2 synthesis inhibitors, NS398 and resveratrol. These treatments of animals allowed us to evaluate the role of PGE2 in T-cell suppression during neonatal sepsis. Splenocytes as well as purified T cells were prepared and then proliferative response and IL-2 productive capacities were measured. A significant suppression of splenocyte proliferation and IL-2 production was noticed in both sterile and septic animals compared to the T cells from unoperated control rats. In contrast, the proliferation and IL-2 production by nylon wool purified T cells in sterile rats was not significantly different from control rats, whereas, a significant suppression in Con A-mediated T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production noticed in septic rat T cells compared to the sterile and control rat T cells. Such decrease in T-cell proliferation and IL-2 production was accompanied with 20-25% deaths in neonates implanted with septic pellets. No mortality was noted in sterile-implanted neonates. Treatment of animals with COX-1 inhibitor had no effect on T-cell proliferation response in both septic and sterile groups, whereas COX-2 inhibitor abrogated the decrease in T-cell proliferative response in the septic group. The treatment

  4. Pupillary responses in non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason C; Chen, Yi-Fan; Blair, Norman P; Chau, Felix Y; Lim, Jennifer I; Leiderman, Yannek I; Shahidi, Mahnaz; McAnany, J Jason

    2017-03-23

    The goal of this study was to determine the extent of rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated pupillary light reflex (PLR) abnormalities in diabetic patients who have non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Fifty diabetic subjects who have different stages of NPDR and 25 age-equivalent, non-diabetic controls participated. PLRs were measured in response to full-field, brief-flash stimuli under conditions that target the rod, cone, and intrinsically-photosensitive (melanopsin) retinal ganglion cell pathways. Pupil responses were compared among the subjects groups using age-corrected linear mixed models. Compared to control, the mean baseline pupil diameters were significantly smaller for all patient groups in the dark (all p < 0.001) and for the moderate-severe NPDR group in the light (p = 0.003). Pairwise comparisons indicated: (1) the mean melanopsin-mediated PLR was significantly reduced in the mild and moderate-severe groups (both p < 0.001); (2) the mean cone-mediated PLR was reduced significantly in the moderate-severe group (p = 0.008); (3) no significant differences in the mean rod-mediated responses. The data indicate abnormalities in NPDR patients under conditions that separately assess pupil function driven by different photoreceptor classes. The results provide evidence for compromised neural function in these patients and provide a promising approach for quantifying their neural abnormalities.

  5. OM-101 Decreases the Fibrotic Response Associated with Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dvashi, Zeev; Ben-Yaakov, Keren; Weinberg, Tamir; Greenwald, Yoel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to investigate the effect of OM-101 on the fibrotic response occurring in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in an animal model. Methods Antifibrotic effect of OM-101 was investigated in vivo. As control, eight weeks old c57black mice underwent intravitreal injection with Hepes (group A) or dispase (0.3 units), to induce retinal detachment (RD) and PVR. The dispase-injected mice were randomly divided into two groups B and C (N = 25 mice); in group C, the eyes were treated with intravitreal injection of OM-101 (3 μl), and group B with PBS, as a control. After additional five days, mice were injected with the same initial treatment. Three days later, mice were euthanized, and the eyes were enucleated and processed for histological analysis. Results Intravitreal injection of dispase caused RD in 64% of the mice in group B, and 93% of those mice had PVR. Only 32% of mice treated with OM-101 and dispase (group C) developed RD, and only 25% of those developed PVR. Conclusions OM-101 was found effective in reducing the incidence of RD and PVR maintaining the normal architecture of the retina. This study suggests that OM-101 is a potentially effective and safe drug for the treatment of PVR patients. PMID:29109865

  6. Moral uncertainty in bioethical argumentation: a new understanding of the pro-life view on early human embryos.

    PubMed

    Żuradzki, Tomasz

    2014-12-01

    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of embryos with the certainty about normative obligations. I will demonstrate that my interpretation of the pro-life view, although seeming to be stronger than the standard one, has limited scope and cannot be used to limit destructive research on human embryos.

  7. Role of redox signaling in the autonomous proliferative response of endothelial cells to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, M; Schäfer, C; Ewald, N; Piper, H M; Noll, Th

    2003-05-16

    Endothelial cells exhibit an autonomous proliferative response to hypoxia, independent of paracrine effectors. In cultured endothelial cells of porcine aorta, we analyzed the signaling of this response, with a focus on the roles of redox signaling and the MEK/ERK pathway. Transient hypoxia (1 hour) stimulated proliferation by 61+/-4% (n=16; P<0.05 versus control), quantified after 24 hours normoxic postincubation. Hypoxia induced an activation of ERK2 and of NAD(P)H oxidase and a burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS), determined by DCF fluorescence. To inhibit the MEK/ERK pathway, we used PD 98059 (PD, 20 micromol/L); to downregulate NAD(P)H oxidase, we applied p22phox antisense oligonucleotides; and to inhibit mitochondrial ROS generation, we used the ubiquinone derivate mitoQ (MQ, 10 micromol/L). All three inhibitions suppressed the proliferative response: PD inhibited NAD(P)H oxidase activation; p22phox antisense transfection did not inhibit ERK2 activation, but suppressed ROS production; and MQ inhibited ERK2 activation and ROS production. The autonomous proliferative response depends on the MEK/ERK pathway and redox signaling steps upstream and downstream of ERK. Located upstream is ROS generation by mitochondria, downstream is NAD(P)H oxidase.

  8. Proliferative responses to canine thyroglobulin of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from hypothyroid dogs.

    PubMed

    Tani, Hiroyuki; Nabetani, Tomoyo; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2005-04-01

    The immune responses of hypothyroid dogs to canine thyroglobulin (cTg) were evaluated for the proliferative ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC from three hypothyroid dogs with high titers of thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) and 3 clinically normal dogs were cultured with 5, 10, or 20 microg/ml of cTg for 72 hr. The proliferative responses of the cells were determined by the level of incorporated BrdU. The numbers of cells expressing Thy-1, CD4, CD8 and IgG in the PBMC were counted by the immunofluorescence method. Proliferative responses to cTg were observed in the cells from hypothyroid dogs. The number of cells expressing IgG and CD8 in the hypothyroid dogs tended to be high compared with the clinically normal dogs. The CD4+ cells in cultures from hypothyroid dogs increased depending upon the amount of cTg. There was a significant (P<0.05) positive correlation between the number of CD4+ cells and the concentration of cTg in the cultures from hypothyroid dogs. These findings suggest a possible relationship between canine hypothyroidism and cellular immunity. Loss of self tolerance to thyroid antigens in CD4+ T cells may play an important role in the development of canine hypothyroidism.

  9. Characteristics of Neovascularization in Early Stages of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jiandong; Chen, Ding; Yang, Xiaoling; Zou, Ruitao; Zhao, Kuo; Cheng, Dan; Huang, Shenghai; Zhou, Tingye; Yang, Ye; Chen, Feng

    2018-05-25

    To classify retinal neovascularization in untreated early stages of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) based on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A cross-sectional study. Thirty-five eyes were included. They underwent color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA), and OCTA examinations. Neovascularizations elsewhere (NVEs), neovascularizations of the optic disc (NVDs), and intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs) were scanned by OCTA. The origin and morphology of NVE/NVD/IRMA on OCTA were evaluated. Retinal nonperfusion areas (NPAs) were measured using Image J software. In 35 eyes successfully imaged, 75 NVEs, 35 NVDs and 12 IRMAs were captured. Three proposed subtypes of NVE were indentified based on the origins and morphological features. Type 1 (32 of 75, 42.67%) originated from venous, in a tree-like shape. Type 2 (30 of 75, 40.00%) originated from capillary networks, with an octopus-like appearance. Type 3 (13 of 75, 17.33%) originated from the IRMAs, having a sea fan shape. NVD originated from the retinal artery, the retinal vein, or from the choroid, and arose from the bending vessels near the rim of the optic disc. IRMA originated from and drained into retinal venules, extending in the retina. The initial layer and affiliated NPA were significantly different in the 3 subtypes of NVEs (all P < 0.01). OCTA allowed identification of the origins and morphological patterns of neovascularization in PDR. The new classification of retinal neovascularization may be useful to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms and to guide efficient therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Trypanosoma congolense: proliferative responses and interleukin production in lymph node cells of infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Lutje, V; Mertens, B; Boulangé, A; Williams, D J; Authié, E

    1995-09-01

    T-cell-mediated immune responses to defined antigens of Trypanosoma congolense were measured in cattle undergoing primary infection. The antigens used were the variable surface glycoprotein and two invariant antigens, a 33-kDa cysteine protease (congopain) and a recombinant form of a 69-kDa heat-shock protein. Proliferative responses were highest during the second week postinfection and were detected in cells obtained from the lymph node draining the site of infection but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma was measured in supernatants from antigen-stimulated lymph node cell cultures. Expression of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain amplification.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of helper T cell clones. Early proliferative defects despite intact antigen-specific recognition and interleukin 4 secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Laurence, J; Friedman, S M; Chartash, E K; Crow, M K; Posnett, D N

    1989-01-01

    HIV selectively inhibited the proliferative response of clonal CD4+ T lymphocytes to alloantigen while other alloantigen-dependent responses were unperturbed. Specifically, impaired blastogenesis could be dissociated from alloantigen-specific induction of the B cell activation molecule CD23, IL-4 release, and inositol lipid hydrolysis. In addition, membrane expression of pertinent T cell receptor molecules, including CD2, CD3, and T cell antigen receptor (Ti), remained intact. Using two MHC class II-specific human CD4+ helper T cell clones, the proliferative defect was shown to be an early consequence of HIV infection, occurring within 4 d of viral inoculation and preceding increases in mature virion production. It was generalizable to three distinct methods of T cell activation, all independent of antigen-presenting cells: anti-CD3 mediated cross-linking of the CD3/Ti complex; anti-CD2 and phorbol 12-myristic 13-acetate (PMA); and anti-CD28 plus PMA. These abnormalities were not mitigated by addition of exogenous IL-2, even though expression of the IL-2 receptor (CD25) was unaltered. These studies define a selective blockade in T cell function early after HIV exposure that could serve as a model for certain in vivo manifestations of AIDS. PMID:2470786

  12. Differential effects of arsenic on intracellular free calcium levels and the proliferative response of murine mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C; Cebrian, Mariano E; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the effects of sodium arsenite treatment on free [Ca(2+)]i and cell death in mitogen-activated murine lymphocytes. The main findings of this study were that simultaneous sodium arsenite treatment inhibited PHA- but not Con A-induced T cell proliferation, induced a higher increase in free [Ca(2+)]i and an early increase in the proportion of dead cells in PHA than in Con A activated cells. Sodium arsenite pre-treatment reduced both PHA- and Con A-induced T-cell proliferation. Phorbol myristate ester (PMA) did not prevent the inhibitory effects of both sodium arsenite treatments, suggesting that sodium arsenite did not significantly decreased PKC activation or that its effects occurred on events parallel to PKC activation. Both PHA and Con A increased free [Ca(2+)]i after stimulation, yet the effect was more pronounced in mitogen-activated cells simultaneously treated with sodium arsenite and particularly in those activated with PHA. The increase in free [Ca(2+)]i was in agreement with the early cell death induced by sodium arsenite in PHA-activated cells, a finding consistent with the inhibitory effects on PHA-induced proliferation. Sodium arsenite-induced cell death occurred faster in PHA-activated cells. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationships between the effects of sodium arsenite on free [Ca(2+)]i levels and the type of cell death induced by sodium arsenite and their relevance for the proliferative response of T cells.

  13. Benzene-induced myelotoxicity: application of flow cytofluorometry for the evaluation of early proliferative change in bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Irons, R D

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of flow cytofluorometric DNA cell cycle analysis is presented. A number of studies by the author and other investigators are reviewed in which a method is developed for the analysis of cell cycle phase in bone marrow of experimental animals. Bone marrow cell cycle analysis is a sensitive indicator of changes in bone marrow proliferative activity occurring early in chemically-induced myelotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis, used together with other hematologic methods, has revealed benzene-induced toxicity in proliferating bone marrow cells to be cycle specific, appearing to affect a population in late S phase which then accumulate in G2/M. PMID:7016521

  14. Toxocara canis adult worm antigen induces proliferative response of healthy human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Inuo, G; Akao, N; Kohsaka, H; Saito, I; Miyasaka, N; Fujita, K

    1995-02-01

    The proliferative response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors to Toxocara canis adult worm antigens (TcA) was examined. PBMC from all donors examined (n = 7) strongly responded to TcA in a dose-dependent fashion after six days of culture, irrespective of their serological reactivity. In contrast, cord blood mononuclear cells did not react to TcA. The proliferation of PBMC in response to TcA was completely inhibited by anti-HLA-DR antibody. Purified CD4+ T cells reconstituted with autologous irradiated antigen presenting cells (APC) vigorously proliferated in response to TcA, but this was abrogated by pretreatment of APC with paraformaldehyde. Significant IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma mRNA expression was detected in PBMC stimulated with TcA, with expression peaking at 72 h after stimulation. IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF mRNA expression was also upregulated, peaking at 24 h after stimulation. Taken together, these results suggest that adult T. canis-derived antigens have the ability to activate human PBMC as conventional antigens, possibly due to their cross-reactivity, which may be involved in the host defence against helminth infection.

  15. T-dependence of human B lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens.

    PubMed

    Brochier, J; Samarut, C; Gueho, J P; Revillard, J P

    1976-01-01

    Human peripheral blood and tonsil lymphocytes were fractionated on anti-Ig-coated Sephadex columns or by centrifugation after rosetting with native sheep erythrocytes. Both methods allowed the recovery of B and T-enriched populations the purity of which was checked by fluorescein-labelled anti-Ig serum, E and EAC rosette formation, and heterologous antisera specific for B or T lymphocytes. The proliferative response of T cells to PHA, Con A, PWM, and ALS was not found different from that of unfractionated cells, whereas no response of the B cells could be observed to these mitogens providing that no contaminating T cells were present. Addition of T lymphocytes to these unresponsive B cells allowed them to respond to phytomitogens, but not to ALS. X-irradiated T cells could, to some extent, replace the diving T lymphocytes; no T-replacing factor could be found in cell-free supernatants from T cells, whether or not they had been activated by mitrogens. This model of B-T cooperation appears useful for studying the differentiation and maturation of human B lymphocytes.

  16. Lung Inflammation, Injury, and Proliferative Response after Repetitive Particulate Hexavalent Chromium Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Laura M.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Schwartz, Arnold M.; Damsker, Jesse M.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Ceryak, Susan M.; Patierno, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronic inflammation is implicated in the development of several human cancers, including lung cancer. Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are well-documented human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. Despite this, little is known about the pathologic injury and immune responses after repetitive exposure to particulate chromates. Objectives In this study we investigated the lung injury, inflammation, proliferation, and survival signaling responses after repetitive exposure to particulate chromate. Methods BALB/c mice were repetitively treated with particulate basic zinc chromate or saline using an intranasal exposure regimen. We assessed lungs for Cr(VI)-induced changes by bronchoalveolar lavage, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. Results Single exposure to Cr(VI) resulted in inflammation of lung tissue that persists for up to 21 days. Repetitive Cr(VI) exposure induced a neutrophilic inflammatory airway response 24 hr after each treatment. Neutrophils were subsequently replaced by increasing numbers of macrophages by 5 days after treatment. Repetitive Cr(VI) exposure induced chronic peribronchial inflammation with alveolar and interstitial pneumonitis dominated by lymphocytes and macrophages. Moreover, chronic toxic mucosal injury was observed and accompanied by increased airway pro-matrix metalloprotease-9. Injury and inflammation correlated with airways becoming immunoreactive for phosphorylation of the survival signaling protein Akt and the proliferation marker Ki-67. We observed a reactive proliferative response in epithelial cells lining airways of chromate-exposed animals. Conclusions These data illustrate that repetitive exposure to particulate chromate induces chronic injury and an inflammatory microenvironment that may promote Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. PMID:20049209

  17. Ki-67 staining for determination of rhesus macaque T cell proliferative responses ex vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Shedlock, Devon J.; Talbott, Kendra T.; Morrow, Matthew P.; Ferraro, Bernadette; Hokey, David A.; Muthumani, Karuppiah; Weiner, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The capacity for robust proliferation upon re-infection is a hallmark of adaptive immunity and the basis of vaccination. A widely used animal model for the study of human disease is the rhesus macaque (RM), where capacity for proliferation can be assessed ex vivo using carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based dilution assays. However, we show over the course of the standard ex vivo proliferation assay that CFSE-labeling at commonly-used dye concentrations induces significant cell death, but that this phenomenon is dose-dependent. Here we describe an alternative, semi-quantitative method for estimating T cell proliferative responses that avoids the putative biases associated with chemical modification. RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated ex vivo with cognate peptides for five days, immunostained for intracellular Ki-67, and then analyzed by flow cytometry. We describe a gating strategy using Ki-67 and side light scatter, also a marker of blastogenesis, which correlates strongly with data from CFSE dilution. We show that this method is a valid tool for measuring RM antigen-specific cellular proliferation ex vivo and can be used as an alternative to CFSE dilution assays. PMID:20104580

  18. Beta-Amyloid Peptides Enhance the Proliferative Response of Activated CD4+CD28+ Lymphocytes from Alzheimer Disease Patients and from Healthy Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Landowski, Jerzy; Bidzan, Leszek; Fülop, Tamas; Bryl, Ewa; Witkowski, Jacek M.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent form of dementia among elderly. Despite the vast amount of literature on non-specific immune mechanisms in AD there is still little information about the potential antigen-specific immune response in this pathology. It is known that early stages of AD include β-amyloid (Aβ)- reactive antibodies production and inflammatory response. Despite some evidence gathered proving cellular immune response background in AD pathology, the specific reactions of CD4+ and CD8+ cells remain unknown as the previous investigations yielded conflicting results. Here we investigated the CD4+CD28+ population of human peripheral blood T cells and showed that soluble β-amyloids alone were unable to stimulate these cells to proliferate significantly, resulting only in minor, probably antigen-specific, proliferative response. On the other hand, the exposure of in vitro pre-stimulated lymphocytes to soluble Aβ peptides significantly enhanced the proliferative response of these cells which had also lead to increased levels of TNF, IL-10 and IL-6. We also proved that Aβ peptide-enhanced proliferative response of CD4+CD28+ cells is autonomous and independent from disease status while being associated with the initial, ex vivo activation status of the CD4+ cells. In conclusion, we suggest that the effect of Aβ peptides on the immune system of AD patients does not depend on the specific reactivity to Aβ epitope(s), but is rather a consequence of an unspecific modulation of the cell cycle dynamics and cytokine production by T cells, occurring simultaneously in a huge proportion of Aβ peptide-exposed T lymphocytes and affecting the immune system performance. PMID:22428008

  19. Recombinant adenovirus-p21 attenuates proliferative responses associated with excessive scarring.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danling; Atencio, Isabella; Kang, David W; Looper, L David; Ahmed, C M I; Levy, Alina; Maneval, Dan; Zepeda, Monica L

    2005-01-01

    Excessive cutaneous scarring is an important clinical disorder resulting in adverse tissue growth and function as well as undesirable cosmetic appearance. p21WAF-1/Cip-1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression and inhibits cell proliferation. We used a recombinant adenovirus containing the human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 cDNA (rAd-p21) to evaluate proliferative responses in skin models. In vitro dose-response studies using primary human dermal fibroblasts resulted in a dose-dependent expression of p21WAF-1/Cip-1 protein and a 3- to 80-fold reduction in cell proliferation as measured by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Further, rAd-p21 reduced type I procollagen production when compared to control virus. A rat polyvinyl alcohol sponge model was used to determine rAd-p21 effects on granulation tissue formation in vivo. Sponges pretreated with a granulation tissue stimulator, rAd-PDGF-B and subsequently rAd-p21 on a second injection, showed a p21WAF-1/Cip-1 specific dose-dependent decrease in percent granulation fill as the rAd-p21 dose increased (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemistry identified human p21WAF-1/Cip-1 expression in sponges treated with rAd-p21 5 days postinjection. Additionally, 5-bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 staining in sponges treated with rAd-p21 showed a significant decrease in proliferation when compared to rAd-platelet-derived growth factor-B alone or vehicle control groups (p < 0.01). These data support the utility of p21WAF-1/Cip-1 in targeting hyperproliferative disorders of the skin.

  20. Mesenteric lymph node T cells but not splenic T cells maintain their proliferative response to concanavalin-A following peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Neyer, L E; Kang, H; Remington, J S; Suzuki, Y

    1998-12-01

    The suppression of T cell responsiveness which occurs after infection with Toxoplasma gondii in mice has been widely studied using spleen cells. Because the natural route of infection with T. gondii is the peroral route, we examined the proliferative responses of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, in addition to spleen cells, to Concanavalin-A (Con-A) in mice perorally infected with T. gondii. Proliferative responses of spleen cells were significantly suppressed seven and ten days after infection when compared with spleen cells from uninfected mice (62% and 91% reduction, respectively). In contrast, proliferative responses of MLN cells from these infected mice did not differ from those of normal MLN cells. Since IFN-gamma-induced reactive nitrogen intermediate (RNI) production has been reported to play a major role in suppression of proliferative responses in spleen cells of infected mice, we compared production of IFN-gamma and RNI by spleen and MLN cells following infection. MLN cells produced as much IFN-gamma as did spleen cells, but produced 70% less nitrite (as a measure of RNI) after Con-A stimulation. Proliferative responses of MLN cells were suppressed when co-cultured with spleen cells from infected mice, and addition of an inhibitor of RNI to these co-culture inhibited this suppression, suggesting that reduced RNI production by MLN cells contributes to their maintenance of higher proliferative responses. These results demonstrated a clear difference in activity of T cells in the MLN and spleen during the acute stage of the infection.

  1. ESR1 Mutations Affect Anti-proliferative Responses to Tamoxifen through Enhanced Cross-Talk with IGF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gelsomino, Luca; Gu, Guowei; Rechoum, Yassine; Beyer, Amanda R; Pejerrey, Sasha M; Tsimelzon, Anna; Wang, Tao; Huffman, Kenneth; Ludlow, Andrew; Ando’, Sebastiano; Fuqua, Suzanne AW

    2017-01-01

    It is now generally accepted that estrogen receptor (ESR1) mutations occur frequently in metastatic breast cancers, however we do not yet know how to best treat these patients. We have modeled the three most frequent hormone binding ESR1 (HBD-ESR1) mutations (Y537N, Y537S, and D538G) using stable lentiviral transduction in human breast cancer cell lines. Effects on growth were examined in response to hormonal and targeted agents, and mutation-specific changes were studied using microarray and western blot analysis. We determined that the HBD-ESR1 mutations alter anti-proliferative effects to tamoxifen (Tam), due to cell-intrinsic changes in activation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) signaling pathway and levels of PIK3R1/PIK3R3. The selective estrogen receptor degrader, fulvestrant, significantly reduced the anchorage-independent growth of ESR1 mutant-expressing cells, while combination treatments with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus, or an inhibitor blocking IGF1R and the insulin receptor significantly enhanced anti-proliferative responses. Using digital drop (dd) PCR we identified mutations at high frequencies ranging from 12% for Y537N, 5% for Y537S, and 2% for D538G in archived primary breast tumors from women treated with adjuvant mono-tamoxifen therapy. The HBD-ESR1 mutations were not associated with recurrence-free or overall survival in response in this patient cohort, and suggest that knowledge of other cell-intrinsic factors in combination with ESR1 mutation status will be needed determine anti-proliferative responses to Tam. PMID:27178332

  2. Lymphocyte proliferative responses of goats vaccinated with Brucella melitensis 16M or a delta purE201 strain.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F; Stevens, M G; Houng, H H; Drazek, E S; Hadfield, T L; Warren, R L; Hoover, D L

    1997-01-01

    The response to a Brucella melitensis purEK deletion mutant, delta purE201 (referred to as strain 201), was compared with the response to its parental strain, 16M, in juvenile goats. Proliferative responses to gamma-irradiated bacteria were detected earlier in strain 201-infected goats. Lymphocytes from strain 16M- or 201-infected goats proliferated in response to one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated proteins of similar mass isolated from strain 16M or Brucella abortus RB51. Data from this study suggest that some antigens stimulating cell-mediated responses are conserved among Brucella species, as 201- and 16M-infected goats recognized similar proteins expressed by RB51 and 16M. PMID:9199478

  3. Anesthesiologists at work: an increase in pro-inflammatory and Th2 cytokine production, and alterations in proliferative immune responses.

    PubMed

    Beilin, B; Greenfeld, K; Abiri, N; Yardeni, I Z; Bessler, H; Ben-Eliyahu, S

    2006-11-01

    Anesthesiologists are a population at high risk of alcohol and drug abuse, depression, suicide, and psychiatric hospitalization. The impact of their working milieu on specific immune indices has scarcely been studied, and it is assumed that immune perturbations may contribute to some of the above risks. This study took advantage of an unplanned, 3-month long strike of anesthesiologists, and explored its relations to specific immune measures. We assessed induced cytokine production and lymphocytes proliferative responses in blood samples taken from 10 anesthesiologists just before the strike and at its end, after a long period of markedly reduced workload. The results indicated that the proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) were significantly lower at the end of the strike. At this time point, we observed a significant decrease in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 and IL1ra levels, and a significant increase in IL-2 production. A strong trend towards a decline in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels was evident, while levels of IL-1beta were unchanged. These findings suggest that the working conditions of anesthesiologists are associated with specific immune alterations, including a shift towards a Th2 cytokines' dominance, and an elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine response. A reduced Th1 profile has been related to increased susceptibility to infections, and high pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were recently proposed as etiological factors in cardiovascular diseases and in depression.

  4. The prevalence of dogs with lymphocyte proliferative responses to food allergens in canine allergic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kawano, K; Oumi, K; Ashida, Y; Horiuchi, Y; Mizuno, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between the results of lymphocyte proliferative test (LPT) specific to food allergens and allergic skin diseases in dogs. Investigations were performed in 138 dogs with allergic skin diseases diagnosed in a private animal hospital. Of the 138 animals, 97 cases had positive reactions in LPT specific to food allergens. Of these 97 dogs, 67 animals were diagnosed with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD), but 30 dogs did not have IgE antibodies to environmental allergens. As 14 dogs out of 30 animals showed a positive result, 12 dogs underwent elimination diet trial based on the test results and all of them showed improvement in the pruritus score. Therefore, we conclude that LPT is an effective diagnostic test for allergic skin disease. Results of the lymphocyte test are useful in the identification of food allergens for the elimination diet trial.

  5. Assessing Estrogen-Induced Proliferative Response in an Endometrial Cancer Cell Line Using a Universally Applicable Methodological Guide.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Christina; Kamal, Areege; Valentijn, Anthony J; Alnafakh, Rafah; Gross, Stephane R; Barraclough, Roger; Moss, Diana; Kirwan, John; Hapangama, Dharani K

    2018-01-01

    Translational endometrial cancer (EC) research benefits from an in vitro experimental approach using EC cell lines. We demonstrated the steps that are required to examine estrogen-induced proliferative response, a simple yet important research question pertinent to EC, and devised a pragmatic methodological workflow for using EC cell lines in experimental models. Comprehensive review of all commercially available EC cell lines was carried out, and Ishikawa cell line was selected to study the estrogen responsiveness with HEC1A, RL95-2, and MFE280 cell lines as comparators where appropriate, examining relevant differential molecular (steroid receptors) and functional (phenotype, anchorage-independent growth, hormone responsiveness, migration, invasion, and chemosensitivity) characteristics in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures in vitro using immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. In vivo tumor, formation, and chemosensitivity were also assessed in a chick chorioallantoic membrane model. Short tandem repeat analysis authenticated the purchased cell lines, whereas gifted cells deviated significantly from the published profile. We demonstrate the importance of prior assessment of the suitability of each cell line for the chosen in vitro experimental technique. Prior establishment of baseline, nonenriched conditions was required to induce a proliferative response to estrogen. The chorioallantoic membrane model was a suitable in vivo multicellular animal model for EC for producing rapid and reproducible data. We have developed a methodological guide for EC researchers when using endometrial cell lines to answer important translational research questions (exemplified by estrogen-responsive cell proliferation) to facilitate robust data, while saving time and resources.

  6. ESR1 mutations affect anti-proliferative responses to tamoxifen through enhanced cross-talk with IGF signaling.

    PubMed

    Gelsomino, Luca; Gu, Guowei; Rechoum, Yassine; Beyer, Amanda R; Pejerrey, Sasha M; Tsimelzon, Anna; Wang, Tao; Huffman, Kenneth; Ludlow, Andrew; Andò, Sebastiano; Fuqua, Suzanne A W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the role of ESR1 hormone-binding mutations in breast cancer. Soft agar anchorage-independent growth assay, Western blot, ERE reporter transactivation assay, proximity ligation assay (PLA), coimmunoprecipitation assay, silencing assay, digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), Kaplan-Meier analysis, and statistical analysis. It is now generally accepted that estrogen receptor (ESR1) mutations occur frequently in metastatic breast cancers; however, we do not yet know how to best treat these patients. We have modeled the three most frequent hormone-binding ESR1 (HBD-ESR1) mutations (Y537N, Y537S, and D538G) using stable lentiviral transduction in human breast cancer cell lines. Effects on growth were examined in response to hormonal and targeted agents, and mutation-specific changes were studied using microarray and Western blot analysis. We determined that the HBD-ESR1 mutations alter anti-proliferative effects to tamoxifen (Tam), due to cell-intrinsic changes in activation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) signaling pathway and levels of PIK3R1/PIK3R3. The selective estrogen receptor degrader, fulvestrant, significantly reduced the anchorage-independent growth of ESR1 mutant-expressing cells, while combination treatments with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus, or an inhibitor blocking IGF1R, and the insulin receptor significantly enhanced anti-proliferative responses. Using digital drop (dd) PCR, we identified mutations at high frequencies ranging from 12 % for Y537N, 5 % for Y537S, and 2 % for D538G in archived primary breast tumors from women treated with adjuvant mono-tamoxifen therapy. The HBD-ESR1 mutations were not associated with recurrence-free or overall survival in response in this patient cohort and suggest that knowledge of other cell-intrinsic factors in combination with ESR1 mutation status will be needed determine anti-proliferative responses to Tam.

  7. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...

  8. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  9. Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferative responses to Helicobacter pylori by plastic adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Uyub, A M; Anuar, A K

    2001-03-01

    A study was carried out on 49 H. pylori-positive and 11 H. pylori-negative patients to determine the reactivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and acid glycine extract (AGE) of H. pylori, and to identify cells responsible for imunosuppression. Based on response to PHA stimulation, cell-mediated immunity of all patients were competent. In some patients, however, response to AGE of H. pylori was suppressed by plastic adherent cells. This study provided evidence of the presence of plastic adherent suppressor cells which suppressed PBL response to AGE of H. pylori but not to PHA suggesting that immunosuppression is antigen specific. There is also an indication that immunosuppression may be species-specific as PBL devoid of plastic adherent cells only responded to stimulation by AGE of H. pylori but not that to AGE of C. jejuni.

  10. Specific Cytotoxicity Against Autologous Tumour and Proliferative Responses of Human Lymphocytes Grown in Interleukin 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-11

    PHA failed. Interestingly, in cultures in which feeders totoxicity (Hellstr6m et al.. 1971; Troye et al., 1977), were used PLT responses were apparent...J. Immunol., TROYE , M., PERLMAN, P., POPE, G.R.. SPIEGETBERO, H.L., NAS- 126, 1318-1322 (1981). LUND, I., and GIDLOF, A., The use of Fab fragments

  11. Postnatal ablation of osteoblast Smad4 enhances proliferative responses to canonical Wnt signaling through interactions with β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Valerie S.; Zarkadis, Nicholas; Huang, Lisa; Watkins, Marcus; Kading, Jacqueline; Bonar, Sheri; Norris, Jin; Mbalaviele, Gabriel; Civitelli, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Summary Canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling through β-catenin regulates osteoblast proliferation and differentiation to enhance bone formation. We previously reported that osteogenic action of β-catenin is dependent on BMP signaling. Here, we further examined interactions between cWnt and BMP in bone. In osteoprogenitors stimulated with BMP2, β-catenin localizes to the nucleus, physically interacts with Smad4, and is recruited to DNA-binding transcription complexes containing Smad4, R-Smad1/5 and TCF4. Furthermore, Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription, Ccnd1 expression and proliferation all increase when Smad4, 1 or 5 levels are low, whereas TCF/Lef activities decrease when Smad4 expression is high. The ability of Smad4 to antagonize transcription of Ccnd1 is dependent on DNA-binding activity but Smad4-dependent transcription is not required. In mice, conditional deletion of Smad4 in osterix+ cells increases mitosis of cells on trabecular bone surfaces as well as in primary osteoblast cultures from adult bone marrow and neonatal calvaria. By contrast, ablation of Smad4 delays differentiation and matrix mineralization by primary osteoblasts in response to Wnt3a, indicating that loss of Smad4 perturbs the balance between proliferation and differentiation in osteoprogenitors. We propose that Smad4 and Tcf/Lef transcription complexes compete for β-catenin, thus restraining cWnt-dependent proliferative signals while favoring the matrix synthesizing activity of osteoblasts. PMID:24101723

  12. Breast cancer cell-associated endopeptidase EC 24.11 modulates proliferative response to bombesin.

    PubMed

    Burns, D M; Walker, B; Gray, J; Nelson, J

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the production, growth and inactivation of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-like peptides in human breast cancer cell lines. Radioimmunoassay detected GRP-like immunoreactivity (GRP-LI) in T47D breast cancer cells but not in the conditioned medium, indicating rapid clearance. No GRP-LI was found in the ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-436 cells or their conditioned medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the GRP-LI in the T47D cells revealed a major peak, which co-eluted with GRP(18-27), and a minor more hydrophilic peak. In vitro stimulation of T47D cell growth by bombesin (BN) was enhanced to 138% of control levels (bombesin alone) by the addition of the selective endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11 inhibitor phosphoramidon (0.1 ng ml(-1)). Fluorogenic analysis using whole cells confirmed low levels of this phosphoramidon-sensitive enzyme on the T47D cells. This enzyme, previously unreported in human breast cancer cells, significantly modulates both T47D growth and its response to BN-induced growth.

  13. Breast cancer cell-associated endopeptidase EC 24.11 modulates proliferative response to bombesin

    PubMed Central

    Burns, D M; Walker, B; Gray, J; Nelson, J

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the production, growth and inactivation of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-like peptides in human breast cancer cell lines. Radioimmunoassay detected GRP-like immunoreactivity (GRP-LI) in T47D breast cancer cells but not in the conditioned medium, indicating rapid clearance. No GRP-LI was found in the ZR-75-1 or MDA-MB-436 cells or their conditioned medium. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the GRP-LI in the T47D cells revealed a major peak, which co-eluted with GRP18–27, and a minor more hydrophilic peak. In vitro stimulation of T47D cell growth by bombesin (BN) was enhanced to 138% of control levels (bombesin alone) by the addition of the selective endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11 inhibitor phosphoramidon (0.1 ng ml−;1). Fluorogenic analysis using whole cells confirmed low levels of this phosphoramidon-sensitive enzyme on the T47D cells. This enzyme, previously unreported in human breast cancer cells, significantly modulates both T47D growth and its response to BN-induced growth. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:9888460

  14. Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Erika; Miyaji, Hirofumi; Kato, Akihito; Takita, Hiroko; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Momose, Takehito; Ogawa, Kosuke; Murakami, Shusuke; Sugaya, Tsutomu; Kawanami, Masamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) consisting of a carbon monolayer has been widely investigated for tissue engineering platforms because of its unique properties. For this study, we fabricated a GO-applied scaffold and assessed the cellular and tissue behaviors in the scaffold. A preclinical test was conducted to ascertain whether the GO scaffold promoted bone induction in dog tooth extraction sockets. For this study, GO scaffolds were prepared by coating the surface of a collagen sponge scaffold with 0.1 and 1 µg/mL GO dispersion. Scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physical testing, cell seeding, and rat subcutaneous implant testing. Then a GO scaffold was implanted into a dog tooth extraction socket. Histological observations were made at 2 weeks postsurgery. SEM observations show that GO attached to the surface of collagen scaffold struts. The GO scaffold exhibited an interconnected structure resembling that of control subjects. GO application improved the physical strength, enzyme resistance, and adsorption of calcium and proteins. Cytocompatibility tests showed that GO application significantly increased osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. In addition, an assessment of rat subcutaneous tissue response revealed that implantation of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold stimulated cellular ingrowth behavior, suggesting that the GO scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility. The tissue ingrowth area and DNA contents of 1 µg/mL GO scaffold were, respectively, approximately 2.5-fold and 1.4-fold greater than those of the control. Particularly, the infiltration of ED2-positive (M2) macrophages and blood vessels were prominent in the GO scaffold. Dog bone-formation tests showed that 1 µg/mL GO scaffold implantation enhanced bone formation. New bone formation following GO scaffold implantation was enhanced fivefold compared to that in control subjects. These results suggest that GO was biocompatible and had high bone-formation capability for the scaffold

  15. Increased T cell proliferative responses to islet antigens identify clinical responders to anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) therapy in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herold, Kevan C; Pescovitz, Mark D; McGee, Paula; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Spain, Lisa M; Bourcier, Kasia; Asare, Adam; Liu, Zhugong; Lachin, John M; Dosch, H Michael

    2011-08-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is believed to be due to the autoimmune destruction of β-cells by T lymphocytes, but a single course of rituximab, a monoclonal anti-CD20 B lymphocyte Ab, can attenuate C-peptide loss over the first year of disease. The effects of B cell depletion on disease-associated T cell responses have not been studied. We compare changes in lymphocyte subsets, T cell proliferative responses to disease-associated target Ags, and C-peptide levels of participants who did (responders) or did not (nonresponders) show signs of β-cell preservation 1 y after rituximab therapy in a placebo-controlled TrialNet trial. Rituximab decreased B lymphocyte levels after four weekly doses of mAb. T cell proliferative responses to diabetes-associated Ags were present at baseline in 75% of anti-CD20- and 82% of placebo-treated subjects and were not different over time. However, in rituximab-treated subjects with significant C-peptide preservation at 6 mo (58%), the proliferative responses to diabetes-associated total (p = 0.032), islet-specific (p = 0.048), and neuronal autoantigens (p = 0.005) increased over the 12-mo observation period. This relationship was not seen in placebo-treated patients. We conclude that in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, anti-B cell mAb causes increased proliferative responses to diabetes Ags and attenuated β-cell loss. The way in which these responses affect the disease course remains unknown.

  16. [Early mobilization. Competencies, responsibilities, milestones].

    PubMed

    Nydahl, P; Dewes, M; Dubb, R; Filipovic, S; Hermes, C; Jüttner, F; Kaltwasser, A; Klarmann, S; Klas, K; Mende, H; Rothaug, O; Schuchhardt, D

    2016-03-01

    Early mobilization is an evident, interprofessional concept to improve the outcome of intensive care patients. It reduces psychocognitive deficits and delirium and attenuates a general deconditioning, including atrophy of the respiratory pump and skeletal muscles. In this regard the interdisciplinary approach of early mobilization, taking into account different levels of mobilization, appears to be beneficial. The purpose of this study was to explore opinions on collaboration and tasks between different professional groups. During the 25th Bremen Conference on Intensive Medicine and Nursing on 20 February 2015, a questionnaire survey was carried out among the 120 participants of the German Early Mobilization Network meeting. In all, 102 questionnaires were analyzed. Most participants reported on the interdisciplinarity of the approach, but none of the tasks and responsibilities concerning early mobilization can be assigned to a single professional group. The practical implementation of mobilizing orally intubated patients may require two registered nurses as well as a physical therapist. Implementation in daily practice seems to be heterogeneous. There is no consensus regarding collaboration, competencies, and responsibilities with respect to early mobilization of intensive care patients. The approach to date has been characterized by a lack of interprofessional communication, which may lead to an inefficient use of the broad and varied base of knowledge and experienceof the different professions.

  17. Proliferative responses in the local lymph node assay associated with concomitant exposure to 1,4-phenylenediamine and methyldibromo glutaronitrile: evidence for synergy?

    PubMed

    Jowsey, Ian R; Basketter, David A; Irwin, Anita

    2008-08-01

    A key consideration when undertaking risk assessments should be the potential for synergy between contact allergens. Previously, this concept has only been investigated during elicitation in contact allergic individuals. To determine whether there exists evidence for synergy between contact allergens during the induction phase of skin sensitization using the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) as a model system. Proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes were assessed with increasing concentrations of 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD), methyldibromo glutaronitrile (MDBGN), and a combination of PPD and MDBGN. Data from each of two independent experiments show that lymph node cell proliferation associated with combined exposure to PPD and MDBGN was, in general, only modestly increased relative to that predicted from a simple summation of their individual responses. Although the increase in response is very modest, it does imply a relationship between this combination of sensitizers that may not be simply additive in terms of their ability to stimulate proliferative responses in draining lymph nodes. The reproducibility of this observation should be confirmed in future studies with additional pairs of contact allergens to ascertain whether or not this represents evidence of synergy.

  18. Role of P-glycoprotein on CD69+CD4+ cells in the pathogenesis of proliferative lupus nephritis and non-responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Adachi, Tomoko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on activated lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) plays a role in active efflux of intracellular drugs, resulting in drug resistance. The role of P-gp-expressing lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of SLE remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp+CD4+ cells in organ manifestations in refractory SLE. Methods The proportion of P-gp+CD4+ cells was determined by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of patients with SLE (n=116) and healthy adults (n=10). Renal biopsy specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry for P-gp expression. Results CD69 is a marker of CD4 cell activation. The proportion of both P-gp-expressing CD4+ cells and CD69-expressing CD4+ cells in peripheral blood was higher in SLE than control. The proportion of P-gp+CD69+CD4+ cells correlated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index and was higher in poor responders to corticosteroids. Furthermore, the proportion of P-gp+CD69+CD4+ cells was significantly higher in proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) with poor response to corticosteroids. The efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy depended on the regulation of the proportion of P-gp+CD69+CD4+ cells. Marked accumulation of P-gp+CD4+ cells in renal interstitial tissue and high proportion of peripheral P-gp+CD69+CD4+ cells were noted in patients with proliferative LN. Conclusions The results showed high proportion of P-gp+CD69+CD4+ cells in peripheral blood and their accumulation in renal tissue in patients with proliferative LN refractory to CS therapy, suggesting that P-gp expression on activated CD4+ T cells is a potentially useful marker for refractoriness to treatment and a novel target for treatment. PMID:29225917

  19. Role of P-glycoprotein on CD69+CD4+ cells in the pathogenesis of proliferative lupus nephritis and non-responsiveness to immunosuppressive therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Adachi, Tomoko; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2017-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on activated lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) plays a role in active efflux of intracellular drugs, resulting in drug resistance. The role of P-gp-expressing lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of SLE remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp + CD4 + cells in organ manifestations in refractory SLE. The proportion of P-gp + CD4 + cells was determined by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of patients with SLE (n=116) and healthy adults (n=10). Renal biopsy specimens were examined by immunohistochemistry for P-gp expression. CD69 is a marker of CD4 cell activation. The proportion of both P-gp-expressing CD4 + cells and CD69-expressing CD4 + cells in peripheral blood was higher in SLE than control. The proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells correlated with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index and was higher in poor responders to corticosteroids. Furthermore, the proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells was significantly higher in proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) with poor response to corticosteroids. The efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy depended on the regulation of the proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells. Marked accumulation of P-gp + CD4 + cells in renal interstitial tissue and high proportion of peripheral P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells were noted in patients with proliferative LN. The results showed high proportion of P-gp + CD69 + CD4 + cells in peripheral blood and their accumulation in renal tissue in patients with proliferative LN refractory to CS therapy, suggesting that P-gp expression on activated CD4 + T cells is a potentially useful marker for refractoriness to treatment and a novel target for treatment.

  20. Early detection and rapid response

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  1. Genetic control of murine T cell proliferative responses to Mycobacterium leprae. V. Evidence for cross-reactivity between host antigens and Mycobacterium leprae

    SciT

    Harris, D.P.; Jones, A.G.; Wade, S.

    1988-09-01

    T cell proliferative responses to Mycobacterium leprae were measured by immunization of mice at the base of the tail with Ag and challenging lymphocytes from draining lymph nodes in culture with M. leprae. C57BL/10J and B10.BR mice were identified as low responder mice and the congenic strains B10.M, B10.Q, and B10.AKM as high responders whereas F1 (high x low) hybrid mice were found to be low responders. The cellular basis of low responsiveness did not appear to result from a defect in Ag-presenting cells or the activation of suppressor T cells by M. leprae. The influence of the environment inmore » which T cells developed on responsiveness to M. leprae was analyzed in chimeric mice prepared by irradiating F1(C57BL/10J x B10.M) mice and reconstituting with bone marrow from C57BL/10J, B10.M, or F1 donors. Six weeks later, chimeric mice were immunized with M. leprae, lymph node cells were subsequently prepared, and H-2 phenotyped and challenged in culture with M. leprae Ag. T cell proliferative responses were found to be low in all cases, similar to those observed using lymph node cells from F1 hybrid mice. These results suggested that high responder B10.M lymphocytes developing in the irradiated F1 mice became tolerized to antigenic determinants found on M. leprae. This implied cross-reactive epitopes existed between some mouse strains and M. leprae. Low responsiveness to M. leprae in low responder and F1 hybrid mice may result from tolerance to H-2-encoded Ag that show cross-reactivity with M. leprae.« less

  2. Galectin-1 expression imprints a neurovascular phenotype in proliferative retinopathies and delineates responses to anti-VEGF.

    PubMed

    Ridano, Magali E; Subirada, Paula V; Paz, María C; Lorenc, Valeria E; Stupirski, Juan C; Gramajo, Ana L; Luna, José D; Croci, Diego O; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Sánchez, María C

    2017-05-16

    Neovascular retinopathies are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have been established as the mainstay of current treatment, clinical management of these diseases is still limited. As retinal impairment involves abnormal neovascularization and neuronal degeneration, we evaluated here the involvement of galectin-1 in vascular and non-vascular alterations associated with retinopathies, using the oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. Postnatal day 17 OIR mouse retinas showed the highest neovascular profile and exhibited neuro-glial injury as well as retinal functional loss, which persisted until P26 OIR. Concomitant to VEGF up-regulation, galectin-1 was highly expressed in P17 OIR retinas and it was mainly localized in neovascular tufts. In addition, OIR induced remodelling of cell surface glycophenotype leading to exposure of galectin-1-specific glycan epitopes. Whereas VEGF returned to baseline levels at P26, increased galectin-1 expression persisted until this time period. Remarkably, although anti-VEGF treatment in P17 OIR improved retinal vascularization, neither galectin-1 expression nor non-vascular and functional alterations were attenuated. However, this functional defect was partially prevented in galectin-1-deficient (Lgals1-/-) OIR mice, suggesting the importance of targeting both VEGF and galectin-1 as non-redundant independent pathways. Supporting the clinical relevance of these findings, we found increased levels of galectin-1 in aqueous humor from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and neovascular glaucoma. Thus, using an OIR model and human samples, we identified a role for galectin-1 accompanying vascular and non-vascular retinal alterations in neovascular retinopathies.

  3. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand MCC-555 imparts anti-proliferative response in pancreatic cancer cells by PPARgamma-independent up-regulation of KLF4

    SciT

    Min, Kyung-Won; Zhang, Xiaobo; College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100

    2012-09-01

    MCC-555 is a novel PPARα/γ dual ligand of the thiazolidinedione class and was recently developed as an anti-diabetic drug with unique properties. MCC-555 also has anti-proliferative activity through growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in several cancer cell types. Our group has shown that MCC-555 targets several proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1) which plays an important role in chemoprevention responsible for chemopreventive compounds. NAG-1 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is involved in tumor progression and development; however, NAG-1's roles in pancreatic cancer have not been studied. In this report, we found thatmore » MCC-555 alters not only NAG-1 expression, but also p21 and cyclin D1 expression. NAG-1 and p21 expression was not blocked by PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662, suggesting that MCC-555-induced NAG-1 and p21 expression is independent of PPARγ activation. However, decreasing cyclin D1 by MCC-555 seems to be affected by PPARγ activation. Further, we found that the GC box located in the NAG-1 promoter play an important role in NAG-1 transactivation by MCC-555. Subsequently, we screened several transcription factors that may bind to the GC box region in the NAG-1 promoter and found that KLF4 potentially binds to this region. Expression of KLF4 precedes NAG-1 and p21 expression in the presence of MCC-555, whereas blocking KLF4 expression using specific KLF4 siRNA showed that both NAG-1 and p21 expression by MCC-555 was blocked. In conclusion, MCC-555's actions on anti-proliferation involve both PPARγ-dependent and -independent pathways, thereby enhancing anti-tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer cells. -- Highlights: ► PPARα/γ ligand MCC-555 exhibits anti-proliferative activity in pancreatic cancer cells. ► MCC-555 affects KLF4 expression following by NAG-1 and p21 expression in a PPARγ independent manner. ► MCC-555 also affects cyclin D1 down

  4. SIRT1 deacetylase is overexpressed in human melanoma and its small molecule inhibition imparts anti-proliferative response via p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Wilking, Melissa J; Singh, Chandra; Nihal, Minakshi; Zhong, Weixiong; Ahmad, Nihal

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma causes more deaths than any other skin cancer, and its incidence in the US continues to rise. Current medical therapies are insufficient to control this deadly neoplasm, necessitating the development of new target-based approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the role and functional significance of the class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 in melanoma. We have found that SIRT1 is overexpressed in clinical human melanoma tissues and human melanoma cell lines (Sk-Mel-2, WM35, G361, A375, and Hs294T) compared to normal skin and normal melanocytes, respectively. In addition, treatment of melanoma cell lines A375, Hs294T, and G361 with Tenovin-1, a small molecule SIRT1 inhibitor, resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth and cell viability. Further, Tenovin-1 treatment also resulted in a marked decrease in the clonogenic survival of melanoma cells. Further experiments showed that the anti-proliferative response of Tenovin-1 was accompanied by an increase in the protein as well as activity of the tumor suppressor p53. This increase in p53 activity was substantiated by an increase in the protein level of its downstream target p21. Overall, these data suggest that small molecule inhibition of SIRT1 causes anti-proliferative effects in melanoma cells. SIRT1 appears to be acting through the activity of the tumor suppressor p53, which is not mutated in the majority of melanomas. However, future detailed studies are needed to further explore the role and mechanism of SIRT1 in melanoma development and progression and its usefulness in melanoma treatment.

  5. Early caregiving and physiological stress responses.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Lemery, Kathryn S

    2004-05-01

    Inadequate early caregiving has been associated with risks of stress-related psychological and physical illness over the life span. Dysregulated physiological stress responses may represent a mechanism linking early caregiving to health outcomes. This paper reviews evidence linking early caregiving to physiological responses that can increase vulnerability to stress-related illness. A number of high-risk family characteristics, including high conflict, divorce, abuse, and parental psychopathology, are considered in the development of stress vulnerability. Three theoretical pathways linking caregiving to physiological stress responses are outlined: genetic, psychosocial, and cognitive-affective. Exciting preliminary evidence suggests that early caregiving can impact long-term physiological stress responses. Directions for future research in this area are suggested.

  6. Impaired Upregulation of the Costimulatory Molecules, CD27 and CD28, on CD4+ T Cells from HIV Patients Receiving ART Is Associated with Poor Proliferative Responses.

    PubMed

    Tanaskovic, Sara; Price, Patricia; French, Martyn A; Fernandez, Sonia

    2017-02-01

    HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) with advanced immunodeficiency often retain low CD4 + T cell counts despite virological control. We examined proliferative responses and upregulation of costimulatory molecules, following anti-CD3 stimulation, in HIV patients with persistent CD4 + T cell deficiency on ART. Aviremic HIV patients with nadir CD4 + T cell counts <100 cells/μL and who had received ART for a median time of 7 (range 1-11) years were categorized into those achieving low (<350 cells/μL; n = 13) or normal (>500 cells/μL; n = 20) CD4 + T cell counts. Ten healthy controls were also recruited. CD4 + T cell proliferation (Ki67) and upregulation of costimulatory molecules (CD27 and CD28) after anti-CD3 stimulation were assessed by flow cytometry. Results were related to proportions of CD4 + T cells expressing markers of T cell senescence (CD57), activation (HLA-DR), and apoptotic potential (Fas). Expression of CD27 and/or CD28 on uncultured CD4 + T cells was similar in patients with normal CD4 + T cell counts and healthy controls, but lower in patients with low CD4 + T cell counts. Proportions of CD4 + T cells expressing CD27 and/or CD28 correlated inversely with CD4 + T cell expression of CD57, HLA-DR, and Fas. After anti-CD3 stimulation, induction of CD27 hi CD28 hi expression was independent of CD4 + T cell counts, but lower in HIV patients than in healthy controls. Induction of CD27 hi CD28 hi expression correlated with induction of Ki67 expression in total, naïve, and CD31 + naïve CD4 + T cells from patients. In HIV patients responding to ART, impaired induction of CD27 and CD28 on CD4 + T cells after stimulation with anti-CD3 is associated with poor proliferative responses as well as greater CD4 + T cell activation and immunosenescence.

  7. The anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory response of COPD airway smooth muscle cells to hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mark M; Tildy, Bernadett; Papi, Alberto; Casolari, Paolo; Caramori, Gaetano; Rempel, Karen Limbert; Halayko, Andrew J; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian Fan

    2018-05-09

    COPD is a common, highly debilitating disease of the airways, primarily caused by smoking. Chronic inflammation and structural remodelling are key pathological features of this disease caused, in part, by the aberrant function of airway smooth muscle (ASM). We have previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) can inhibit ASM cell proliferation and CXCL8 release, from cells isolated from non-smokers. We examined the effect of H 2 S upon ASM cells from COPD patients. ASM cells were isolated from non-smokers, smokers and patients with COPD (n = 9). Proliferation and cytokine release (IL-6 and CXCL8) of ASM was induced by FCS, and measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and ELISA, respectively. Exposure of ASM to H 2 S donors inhibited FCS-induced proliferation and cytokine release, but was less effective upon COPD ASM cells compared to the non-smokers and smokers. The mRNA and protein expression of the enzymes responsible for endogenous H 2 S production (cystathionine-β-synthase [CBS] and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulphur transferase [MPST]) were inhibited by H 2 S donors. Finally, we report that exogenous H 2 S inhibited FCS-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), in the non-smoker and smoker ASM cells, with little effect in COPD cells. H 2 S production provides a novel mechanism for the repression of ASM proliferation and cytokine release. The ability of COPD ASM cells to respond to H 2 S is attenuated in COPD ASM cells despite the presence of the enzymes responsible for H 2 S production.

  8. The effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the proliferative response of blood lymphocytes and the phagocytic activity of blood monocytes and granulocytes in calves.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, R; Małaczewska, J; Siwicki, A K; Miciński, J; Zwierzchowski, G

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on selected indicators of immunity in calves. The experiment was performed on 14 calves aged 30 +/- 2 days, divided into two equal groups of control (group I) and experimental (group II) animals. The feed administered to experimental group calves was supplemented with HMB at 40 mg/kg BW, whereas control calves were administered standard farm-made feed without supplementation. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein immediately before the experiment (day 0) and on experimental days 15, 30 and 60 to determine the following parameters of immunity: proliferative response of LPS- and ConA-stimulated lymphocytes (MTT), respiratory burst activity (RBA) and potential killing activity (PKA) of phagocytes. The results revealed a significant increase in RBA and MTT values in calves administered HMB in comparison with the control group throughout the experiment. In the group of animals receiving HMB, an increase in PKA values was noted only on day 30.

  9. Aerobic physical training does not condition against strenuous exercise-induced changes in immune function but modulates T cell proliferative responses.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Pablo J; Caraballo, Domingo I; Szewczyk, Katarzyna; Quintana, Juan C; Bedoya, Lady R; Ramírez, Beatriz E; Jaramillo, Andrés

    2017-09-29

    Exercise-induced stress induces considerable changes in the immune system. To better understand the mechanisms related to these immune changes during acute and chronic physical stress, we studied the effects of aerobic physical training (APT) on several parameters of the immune system. Previously untrained males (18-25 years of age) were divided into a group that was subjected to 6 months of APT (n=10) and a sedentary control group (n=7). The subjects performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CET) at 0, 3, and 6 months of the APT program. B cell (CD19+), T cell (CD4+ and CD8+), and natural killer cell (CD56+) levels, and mitogen-induced T cell proliferation and cytokine production (interleukin-1, interleukin-4, interleukin-12, and interferon-) were evaluated before and at 30 seconds and 24 hours after the CET. There was a significant increase in CD4+ T cells and natural killer cells and a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in both groups 30 seconds after the CET at 3 and 6 months of the APT program. Of note, the trained group showed significantly lower resting T cell proliferation (before and 24 hour after the CET) than the sedentary control group at 3 and 6 months of the APT program. There were no significant differences in cytokine production after the CET between both groups at any time point of the APT program. These data show that APT does not condition against strenuous exercise induced immune changes but significantly modulates T cell proliferative responses.

  10. [Thyroid hormones in the early postnatal development of the CNS: effect of hyperthyroidism on proliferative activity of white matter cells of rat cerebellum].

    PubMed

    Moskovkin, G N

    1976-01-01

    The effect of triiodothyronin on the proliferative activity of the white matter cells has been studied by means of radioautography in the cerebellum vermis and hemisphere of developing rats. The index of labelled nuclei and the mitotic index of the white matter glial elements in both the cerebellum regions of 7 and 10 days old hyperthyroid animals are markedly reduced. Besides, the general tendency was found towards the increase of the mitotic cycle duration in the white matter cells due to the lengthening of S and G2 + 1/2 M periods. The data obtained are discussed with respect to the importance of thyroid hormones for the CNS development.

  11. Orbital Fibroblasts From Thyroid Eye Disease Patients Differ in Proliferative and Adipogenic Responses Depending on Disease Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Kuriyan, Ajay E.; Woeller, Collynn F.; O'Loughlin, Charles W.; Phipps, Richard P.; Feldon, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Thyroid eye disease (TED) patients are classified as type I (predominantly fat compartment enlargement) or type II (predominantly extraocular muscle enlargement) based on orbital imaging. Orbital fibroblasts (OFs) can be driven to proliferate or differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that type I OFs undergo more adipogenesis than type II OFs, whereas type II OFs proliferate more than type I OFs. We also examined the effect of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on OF adipogenesis and proliferation. Methods. Type I, type II, and non-TED OFs were treated with transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) to induce proliferation and with 15-deoxy-Δ−12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) to induce adipogenesis. Proliferation was measured using the [3H]thymidine assay, and adipogenesis was measured using the AdipoRed assay, Oil Red O staining, and flow cytometry. The effect of COX inhibition on adipogenesis and proliferation was also studied. Results. Type II OFs incorporated 1.7-fold more [3H]thymidine than type I OFs (P < 0.05). Type I OFs accumulated 4.8-fold more lipid than type II OFs (P < 0.05) and 12.6-fold more lipid than non-TED OFs (P < 0.05). Oil Red O staining and flow cytometry also demonstrated increased adipogenesis in type I OFs compared to type II and non-TED OFs. Cyclooxygenase inhibition significantly decreased proliferation and adipogenesis in type II OFs, but not type I OFs. Conclusions. We have demonstrated that OFs from TED patients have heterogeneous responses to proproliferative and proadipogenic stimulators in vitro in a manner that corresponds to their different clinical manifestations. Furthermore, we demonstrated a differential effect of COX inhibitors on type I and type II OF proliferation and adipogenesis. PMID:24135759

  12. Sub-isotypic differences in the immunoglobulin G response to Lawsonia intracellularis in vaccinated, seropositive, and equine proliferative enteropathy-affected horses.

    PubMed

    Page, Allen E; Stills, Harold F; Horohov, David W

    2014-12-15

    In the horse, Lawsonia intracellularis infection results in equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). While upwards of 100% of weanlings on an endemic farm may seroconvert, only a small percentage (approximately 5%) will develop clinical disease. Cell-mediated immune mechanisms likely play a role in resistance to L. intracellularis and the absence of a L. intracellularis-specific IFN-γ response has been associated with the development of EPE. The goal of this study was to determine whether protection from clinical EPE is associated with the induction of a systemic IgG sub-isotypic response consistent with a Th1-type cytokine response. To describe their L. intracellularis/EPE status, horses enrolled in this study were placed into one of three categories: seropositive-only, vaccinated, and presumptive clinical EPE. An existing ELISA method was modified to detect L. intracellularis-specific IgG(a), IgG(b), and IgG(t) antibodies using the mouse anti-equine hybridomas CVS-48, CVS-39, and CVS-40, respectively. Additionally, the existing ELISA method was used to quantify total IgG antibodies specific for L. intracellularis for comparison between the groups. Total L. intracellularis-specific IgG was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in presumptive clinical EPE cases (n=21) when compared with seropositive (exposed but unaffected) (n=36) and vaccinated horses (n=27). Further, a similar pattern for IgG(a) was seen in that the presumptive clinical EPE horses had significantly more L. intracellularis-specific IgG(a) (p<0.05) than the seropositive or vaccinated horses. With IgG(b), however, the vaccinated horses had significantly more IgG(b) (p<0.05) than the presumptive clinical or seropositive horses. No L. intracellularis-specific IgG(t) was detected in samples from any of the groups. While the results presented here with respect to IgG(a) response in the presumptive clinical EPE group were expected, a higher concentration of IgG(a) was anticipated in the seropositive

  13. Early Onset of Atypical Proliferative Lesions in the Lungs of a Libby Amphibole (LA) Exposed Rat Model of Cardiovascular Disease-Associated Iron Overlo

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Miners and residents of Libby, Montana have increased incidences of asbestos-related diseases associated with exposure to amphibole contaminated vermiculite. Amphiboles have been shown to bind endogenous iron and modulate fiber induced inflammatory response. We hypoth...

  14. PRO-LIFE Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Neugebauer, Randy [R-TX-19

    2013-03-13

    House - 04/23/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. PRO-LIFE Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Neugebauer, Randy [R-TX-19

    2012-07-24

    House - 09/26/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. The Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis: Challenges and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, William F.

    2007-12-01

    Ruddiman (2003) proposed that late Holocene anthropogenic intervention caused CH4 and CO2 increases that kept climate from cooling and that preindustrial pandemics caused CO2 decreases and a small cooling. Every aspect of this early anthropogenic hypothesis has been challenged: the timescale, the issue of stage 11 as a better analog, the ability of human activities to account for the gas anomalies, and the impact of the pandemics. This review finds that the late Holocene gas trends are anomalous in all ice timescales; greenhouse gases decreased during the closest stage 11 insolation analog; disproportionate biomass burning and rice irrigation can explain the methane anomaly; and pandemics explain half of the CO2 decrease since 1000 years ago. Only ˜25% of the CO2 anomaly can, however, be explained by carbon from early deforestation. The remainder must have come from climate system feedbacks, including a Holocene ocean that remained anomalously warm because of anthropogenic intervention.

  17. PROPOSED DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinguishing hyperplastic lesions from neoplasia in the thyroid of bony fishes has been debated by scientists for about one hundred years. As early as the first decade of the last century, the histological interpretation of some of the striking proliferative lesions observed in...

  18. Estrogen plus Progestin and Risk of Benign Proliferative Breast Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Thomas E; Negassa, Abdissa; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Lasser, Norman L.; McTiernan, Anne; Schenken, Robert S.; Ginsberg, Mindy; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Page, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Women with benign proliferative breast disease are at increased risk of subsequent breast cancer. Estrogens and progesterone exert proliferative effects on mammary epithelium and combined hormone replacement therapy has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. We tested the effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus progestin on risk of benign proliferative breast disease in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial. In the WHI trial of estrogen plus progestin, 16608 postmenopausal women were randomly assigned either to 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen plus 2.5 mg/d of medroxyprogesterone acetate or to placebo. Baseline and annual breast exams and mammograms were required. The trial was terminated early (average follow-up, 5.5 years). We identified women who had had a biopsy for benign breast disease and subjected histologic sections from the biopsies to standardized review. Overall, 178 incident cases of benign proliferative breast disease were ascertained in the estrogen plus progestin group and 99 in the placebo group. Use of estrogen plus progestin was associated with a 74% increase in risk of benign proliferative breast disease (hazard ratio 1.74, 95% CI 1.35-2.25). For benign proliferative breast disease without atypia the hazard ratio was 2.00 (95% CI 1.50-2.66), while for atypical hyperplasia it was 0.76 (95% CI 0.38-1.52). Risk varied little by levels of baseline characteristics. The results of this study suggest that use of estrogen plus progestin may increase the risk of benign proliferative breast disease. PMID:18725513

  19. Apoptosis of Oligodendrocytes during Early Development Delays Myelination and Impairs Subsequent Responses to Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Caprariello, Andrew V.; Batt, Courtney E.; Zippe, Ingrid; Romito-DiGiacomo, Rita R.; Karl, Molly

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian development, myelin-forming oligodendrocytes are generated and axons ensheathed according to a tightly regulated sequence of events. Excess premyelinating oligodendrocytes are eliminated by apoptosis and the timing of the onset of myelination in any specific CNS region is highly reproducible. Although the developing CNS recovers more effectively than the adult CNS from similar insults, it is unknown whether early loss of oligodendrocyte lineage cells leads to long-term functional deficits. To directly assess whether the loss of oligodendrocytes during early postnatal spinal cord development impacted oligodendrogenesis, myelination, and remyelination, transgenic mouse lines were generated in which a modified caspase-9 molecule allowed spatial and temporal control of the apoptotic pathway specifically in mature, myelin basic protein expressing oligodendrocytes (MBP-iCP9). Activating apoptosis in MBP+ cells of the developing spinal cord during the first postnatal week inhibited myelination. This inhibition was transient, and the levels of myelination largely returned to normal after 2 weeks. Despite robust developmental plasticity, MBP-iCP9-induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis compromised the rate and extent of adult remyelination. Remyelination failure correlated with a truncated proliferative response of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, suggesting that depleting the oligodendrocyte pool during critical developmental periods compromises the regenerative response to subsequent demyelinating lesions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This manuscript demonstrates that early insults leading to oligodendrocyte apoptosis result in the impairment of recovery from demyelinating diseases in the adult. These studies begin to provide an initial understanding of the potential failure of recovery in insults, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis. PMID:26468203

  20. Early Campus Response to Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Linda J.; Zdziarski, Eugene L.

    2008-01-01

    As major events define generations and tragedies define and refine protocol response to significant incidents, a sense of comfort and confidence is attained as the authors train individually and organizationally to respond to extreme events, and yet those who have experienced them know that no plan goes as it should. There are, however, steps or…

  1. Menarche: Responses of Early Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrory, Arlene

    1990-01-01

    Investigated responses of menarcheal age females to menarche. Results from 95 girls indicated that premenarcheal girls thought menses was more debilitating than did postmenarcheal girls. Subjects who had been menstruating longer considered menses natural event but denied its effects. Found no significant difference in overall self-esteem and…

  2. Exploring early public responses to geoengineering.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Nick; Corner, Adam; Parkhill, Karen; Spence, Alexa; Butler, Catherine; Poortinga, Wouter

    2012-09-13

    Proposals for geoengineering the Earth's climate are prime examples of emerging or 'upstream' technologies, because many aspects of their effectiveness, cost and risks are yet to be researched, and in many cases are highly uncertain. This paper contributes to the emerging debate about the social acceptability of geoengineering technologies by presenting preliminary evidence on public responses to geoengineering from two of the very first UK studies of public perceptions and responses. The discussion draws upon two datasets: qualitative data (from an interview study conducted in 42 households in 2009), and quantitative data (from a subsequent nationwide survey (n=1822) of British public opinion). Unsurprisingly, baseline awareness of geoengineering was extremely low in both cases. The data from the survey indicate that, when briefly explained to people, carbon dioxide removal approaches were preferred to solar radiation management, while significant positive correlations were also found between concern about climate change and support for different geoengineering approaches. We discuss some of the wider considerations that are likely to shape public perceptions of geoengineering as it enters the media and public sphere, and conclude that, aside from technical considerations, public perceptions are likely to prove a key element influencing the debate over questions of the acceptability of geoengineering proposals.

  3. SLC6A4 expression and anti-proliferative responses to serotonin transporter ligands chlomipramine and fluoxetine in primary B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chamba, Anita; Holder, Michelle J; Jarrett, Ruth F; Shield, Lesley; Toellner, Kai M; Drayson, Mark T; Barnes, Nicholas M; Gordon, John

    2010-08-01

    B-cell lines of diverse neoplastic origin express the serotonin transporter (SERT/SLC6A4) and growth arrest in response to SERT-ligands, including the antidepressants chlomipramine and fluoxetine. Here we detail SLC6A4 transcript (Q-PCR) and protein (FACS) expression in primary cells from patients with: chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; mantle cell lymphoma; follicular lymphoma; Burkitt's lymphoma; and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The ability of the SERT-binding antidepressants to impact the growth of these cells when sustained on CD154-transfected fibroblasts was also determined. The results reveal a broad spectrum of primary B-cell malignancies expressing SLC6A4 with a proportion additionally displaying growth arrest on SERT-ligand exposure. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Blood gene expression profiling of an early acetaminophen response.

    PubMed

    Bushel, P R; Fannin, R D; Gerrish, K; Watkins, P B; Paules, R S

    2017-06-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4 g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing, and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 h. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure, and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration.

  5. Blood Gene Expression Profiling of an Early Acetaminophen Response

    PubMed Central

    Bushel, Pierre R.; Fannin, Rick D.; Gerrish, Kevin; Watkins, Paul B.; Paules, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen can adversely affect the liver especially when overdosed. We used whole blood as a surrogate to identify genes as potential early indicators of an acetaminophen-induced response. In a clinical study, healthy human subjects were dosed daily with 4g of either acetaminophen or placebo pills for 7 days and evaluated over the course of 14 days. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels for responders to acetaminophen increased between days 4 and 9 after dosing and 12 genes were detected with expression profiles significantly altered within 24 hrs. The early responsive genes separated the subjects by class and dose period. In addition, the genes clustered patients who overdosed on acetaminophen apart from controls and also predicted the exposure classifications with 100% accuracy. The responsive genes serve as early indicators of an acetaminophen exposure and their gene expression profiles can potentially be evaluated as molecular indicators for further consideration. PMID:26927286

  6. Early response to psychological trauma--what GPs can do.

    PubMed

    Wade, Darryl; Howard, Alexandra; Fletcher, Susan; Cooper, John; Forbes, David

    2013-09-01

    There is a high prevalence of psychological trauma exposure among primary care patients. General practitioners are well placed to provide appropriate support for patients coping with trauma. This article outlines an evidence-based early response to psychological trauma. Psychological first aid is the preferred approach in providing early assistance to patients who have experienced a traumatic event. General practitioners can be guided by five empirically derived principles in their early response: promoting a sense of safety, calming, self efficacy, connectedness and hope. Structured psychological interventions, including psychological debriefing, are not routinely recommended in the first few weeks following trauma exposure. General practitioner self care is an important aspect of providing post-trauma patient care.

  7. Early Twentieth Century Responses to the Drug Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfennig, Dennis Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Describes early twentieth-century responses to the drug problem in the United States. Discusses pressure from the media and reformers to control the availability of drugs such as opium and cocaine that were widely available in over-the-counter medications. Focuses on New York State, which took the lead in enacting drug control legislation. (DK)

  8. A Comparison of Responsive Interventions on Kindergarteners' Early Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Simmons, Leslie E.; Fogarty, Melissa; Oslund, Eric; Coyne, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effects of Tier 2 reading interventions that operated in response-to-intervention contexts. Kindergarten children (N = 90) who were identified as at risk for reading difficulties were stratified by school and randomly assigned to receive (a) Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) modified in response…

  9. A Framework for Providing Culturally Responsive Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…

  10. The Reasons behind Early Adolescents' Responses to Peer Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellmore, Amy; Chen, Wei-Ting; Rischall, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Victims of school-based peer harassment face a range of risks including psycho-social, physical, and academic harm. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioral coping responses used by early adolescents when they face peer victimization. To meet this aim, 216 sixth grade students (55% girls) from two urban middle schools and 254…

  11. Quiescent and Proliferative Fibroblasts Exhibit Differential p300 HAT Activation through Control of 5-Methoxytryptophan Production

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ling-yun; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Kuo, Cheng-Chin; Wu, Kenneth K.

    2014-01-01

    Quiescent fibroblasts possess unique genetic program and exhibit high metabolic activity distinct from proliferative fibroblasts. In response to inflammatory stimulation, quiescent fibroblasts are more active in expressing cyclooxygenase-2 and other proinflammatory genes than proliferative fibroblasts. The underlying transcriptional mechanism is unclear. Here we show that phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and cytokines increased p300 histone acetyltransferase activity to a higher magnitude (> 2 fold) in quiescent fibroblasts than in proliferative fibroblasts. Binding of p300 to cyclooxygenase-2 promoter was reduced in proliferative fibroblasts. By ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer and enzyme-immunoassay, we found that production of 5-methoxytryptophan was 2–3 folds higher in proliferative fibroblasts than that in quiescent fibroblasts. Addition of 5-methoxytryptophan and its metabolic precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, to quiescent fibroblasts suppressed PMA-induced p300 histone acetyltransferase activity and cyclooxygenase-2 expression to the level of proliferative fibroblasts. Silencing of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 or hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase in proliferative fibroblasts with siRNA resulted in elevation of PMA-induced p300 histone acetyltransferase activity to the level of that in quiescent fibroblasts, which was rescued by addition of 5-hydroxytryptophan or 5-methoxytryptophan. Our findings indicate that robust inflammatory gene expression in quiescent fibroblasts vs. proliferative fibroblasts is attributed to uncontrolled p300 histone acetyltransferase activation due to deficiency of 5-methoxytryptophan production. 5-methoxytryptophan thus is a potential valuable lead compound for new anti-inflammatory drug development. PMID:24523905

  12. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery

    PubMed Central

    Klimberg, V. Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. Methods In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post‐absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Results Major surgery resulted in an up‐regulation of post‐absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non‐cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. Conclusions The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the

  13. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  14. Proliferative lifespan is conserved after nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Clark, A John; Ferrier, Patricia; Aslam, Samena; Burl, Sarah; Denning, Chris; Wylie, Diana; Ross, Arlene; de Sousa, Paul; Wilmut, Ian; Cui, Wei

    2003-06-01

    Cultured primary cells exhibit a finite proliferative lifespan, termed the Hayflick limit. Cloning by nuclear transfer can reverse this cellular ageing process and can be accomplished with cultured cells nearing senescence. Here we describe nuclear transfer experiments in which donor cell lines at different ages and with different proliferative capacities were used to clone foetuses and animals from which new primary cell lines were generated. The rederived lines had the same proliferative capacity and rate of telomere shortening as the donor cell lines, suggesting that these are innate, genetically determined, properties that are conserved by nuclear transfer.

  15. Stomatal Blue Light Response Is Present in Early Vascular Plants.

    PubMed

    Doi, Michio; Kitagawa, Yuki; Shimazaki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Light is a major environmental factor required for stomatal opening. Blue light (BL) induces stomatal opening in higher plants as a signal under the photosynthetic active radiation. The stomatal BL response is not present in the fern species of Polypodiopsida. The acquisition of a stomatal BL response might provide competitive advantages in both the uptake of CO2 and prevention of water loss with the ability to rapidly open and close stomata. We surveyed the stomatal opening in response to strong red light (RL) and weak BL under the RL with gas exchange technique in a diverse selection of plant species from euphyllophytes, including spermatophytes and monilophytes, to lycophytes. We showed the presence of RL-induced stomatal opening in most of these species and found that the BL responses operated in all euphyllophytes except Polypodiopsida. We also confirmed that the stomatal opening in lycophytes, the early vascular plants, is driven by plasma membrane proton-translocating adenosine triphosphatase and K(+) accumulation in guard cells, which is the same mechanism operating in stomata of angiosperms. These results suggest that the early vascular plants respond to both RL and BL and actively regulate stomatal aperture. We also found three plant species that absolutely require BL for both stomatal opening and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, including a gymnosperm, C. revoluta, and the ferns Equisetum hyemale and Psilotum nudum. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Early stage response problem for post-disaster incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Shin, Youngchul; Lee, Gyu M.; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2018-07-01

    Research on evacuation plans for reducing damages and casualties has been conducted to advise defenders against threats. However, despite the attention given to the research in the past, emergency response management, designed to neutralize hazards, has been undermined since planners frequently fail to apprehend the complexities and contexts of the emergency situation. Therefore, this study considers a response problem with unique characteristics for the duration of the emergency. An early stage response problem is identified to find the optimal routing and scheduling plan for responders to prevent further hazards. Due to the complexity of the proposed mathematical model, two algorithms are developed. Data from a high-rise building, called Central City in Seoul, Korea, are used to evaluate the algorithms. Results show that the proposed algorithms can procure near-optimal solutions within a reasonable time.

  17. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.

  18. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Background Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. Methods An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Results Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (P<0.0001) and in positive (P<0.0001), negative (P<0.0001), and general subscale scores (P<0.0001). In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores) were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and 51.6%, respectively. Conclusion Our results suggest that the blonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8. PMID:25285009

  19. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning and Rapid Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, M. O.; Fahjan, Y.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Aydin, M.; Gul, M.

    2003-12-01

    As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users by UHF systems through a "service provider" company. The users of the early warning signal will be power and gas companies, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, subway system and several high-rise buildings. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. For the rapid response system one hundred 18 bit-resolution strong motion accelerometers were placed in quasi-free field locations (basement of small buildings) in the populated areas of the city, within an area of approximately 50x30km, to constitute a network that will enable early

  20. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imroze; Agashe, Deepa; Rolff, Jens

    2017-03-15

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    PubMed

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  2. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. PMID:28275145

  3. Memory T cell proliferative responses and IFN-γ productivity sustain long-lasting efficacy of a Cap-based PCV2 vaccine upon PCV2 natural infection and associated disease.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Luca; Borghetti, Paolo; De Angelis, Elena; Martelli, Paolo

    2014-04-16

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination represents an important measure to cope with PCV2 infection; however, data regarding the modulation of the immune cell compartment are still limited, especially under field conditions. This study is aimed at investigating the features of the cellular immune response in conventional piglets induced by vaccination using a capsid (Cap) protein-based PCV2 vaccine compared to unvaccinated animals when exposed to PCV2 natural infection. Immune reactivity was evaluated by quantifying peripheral cell subsets involved in the anti-viral response and characterizing the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting cell (SC) responsiveness both in vivo and upon in vitro whole PCV2 recall. The vaccination triggered an early and intense IFN-γ secreting cell response and induced the activation of peripheral lymphocytes. The early increase of IFN-γ SC frequencies resulted in a remarkable and transient tendency to increased IFN-γ productivity in vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated animals, soon before the onset of infection occurred 15-16 weeks post-vaccination, the recalled PCV2-specific immune response was characterized by moderate PCV2-specific IFN-γ secreting cell frequencies and augmented productivity together with reactive CD4+CD8+ memory T cells. Conversely, upon infection, unvaccinated animals showed very high frequencies of IFN-γ secreting cells and a tendency to lower productivity, which paralleled with effector CD4-CD8+ cytotoxic cell responsiveness. The study shows that PCV2 vaccination induces a long-lasting immunity sustained by memory T cells and IFN-γ secreting cells that potentially played a role in preventing the onset of infection; the extent and duration of this reactivity can be an important feature for evaluating the protective immunity induced by vaccination.

  4. Memory T cell proliferative responses and IFN-γ productivity sustain long-lasting efficacy of a Cap-based PCV2 vaccine upon PCV2 natural infection and associated disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccination represents an important measure to cope with PCV2 infection; however, data regarding the modulation of the immune cell compartment are still limited, especially under field conditions. This study is aimed at investigating the features of the cellular immune response in conventional piglets induced by vaccination using a capsid (Cap) protein-based PCV2 vaccine compared to unvaccinated animals when exposed to PCV2 natural infection. Immune reactivity was evaluated by quantifying peripheral cell subsets involved in the anti-viral response and characterizing the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting cell (SC) responsiveness both in vivo and upon in vitro whole PCV2 recall. The vaccination triggered an early and intense IFN-γ secreting cell response and induced the activation of peripheral lymphocytes. The early increase of IFN-γ SC frequencies resulted in a remarkable and transient tendency to increased IFN-γ productivity in vaccinated pigs. In vaccinated animals, soon before the onset of infection occurred 15-16 weeks post-vaccination, the recalled PCV2-specific immune response was characterized by moderate PCV2-specific IFN-γ secreting cell frequencies and augmented productivity together with reactive CD4+CD8+ memory T cells. Conversely, upon infection, unvaccinated animals showed very high frequencies of IFN-γ secreting cells and a tendency to lower productivity, which paralleled with effector CD4–CD8+ cytotoxic cell responsiveness. The study shows that PCV2 vaccination induces a long-lasting immunity sustained by memory T cells and IFN-γ secreting cells that potentially played a role in preventing the onset of infection; the extent and duration of this reactivity can be an important feature for evaluating the protective immunity induced by vaccination. PMID:24735253

  5. A Proliferative Burst During Preadolescence Establishes the Final Cardiomyocyte Number

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Nawazish; Li, Ming; Calvert, John W.; Tejada, Thor; Lambert, Jonathan P.; Wu, Jianxin; Kesteven, Scott H.; Holman, Sara R.; Matsuda, Torahiro; Lovelock, Joshua D.; Howard, Wesley W.; Iismaa, Siiri E.; Chan, Andrea Y.; Crawford, Brian H.; Wagner, Mary B.; Martin, David I. K.; Lefer, David J.; Graham, Robert M.; Husain, Ahsan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here we show thata thyroid hormone surge activates the IGF-1/IGF1-R/Akt pathway on postnatal day-15andinitiates a brief but intense proliferative burst of predominantly binuclear cardiomyocytes. This proliferation increases cardiomyocyte numbers by ~40%, causing a major disparity between heart and cardiomyocyte growth. Also, the response to cardiac injury at postnatal day15 is intermediate between that observed at postnatal day-2 and -21, further suggesting persistence of cardiomyocyte proliferative capacity beyond the perinatal period. If replicated in humans, this may allow novel regenerative therapies for heart diseases. PMID:24813607

  6. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  7. Plasma-Sprayed Titanium Patterns for Enhancing Early Cell Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunqi; Xie, Youtao; Pan, Houhua; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping; Ji, Fang; Li, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Titanium coating has been widely used as a biocompatible metal in biomedical applications. However, the early cell responses and long-term fixation of titanium implants are not satisfied. To obviate these defects, in this paper, micro-post arrays with various widths (150-1000 μm) and intervals (100-300 μm) were fabricated on the titanium substrate by template-assisted plasma spraying technology. In vitro cell culture experiments showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited significantly higher osteogenic differentiation as well as slightly improved adhesion and proliferation on the micro-patterned coatings compared with the traditional one. The cell number on the pattern with 1000 µm width reached 130% after 6 days of incubation, and the expressions of osteopontin (OPN) as well as osteocalcin (OC) were doubled. No obvious difference was found in cell adhesion on various size patterns. The present micro-patterned coatings proposed a new modification method for the traditional plasma spraying technology to enhance the early cell responses and convenience for the bone in-growth.

  8. Diffusion MRI in early cancer therapeutic response assessment

    PubMed Central

    Galbán, C. J.; Hoff, B. A.; Chenevert, T. L.; Ross, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging biomarkers for the predictive assessment of treatment response in patients with cancer earlier than standard tumor volumetric metrics would provide new opportunities to individualize therapy. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI), highly sensitive to microenvironmental alterations at the cellular level, has been evaluated extensively as a technique for the generation of quantitative and early imaging biomarkers of therapeutic response and clinical outcome. First demonstrated in a rodent tumor model, subsequent studies have shown that DW-MRI can be applied to many different solid tumors for the detection of changes in cellularity as measured indirectly by an increase in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water molecules within the lesion. The introduction of quantitative DW-MRI into the treatment management of patients with cancer may aid physicians to individualize therapy, thereby minimizing unnecessary systemic toxicity associated with ineffective therapies, saving valuable time, reducing patient care costs and ultimately improving clinical outcome. This review covers the theoretical basis behind the application of DW-MRI to monitor therapeutic response in cancer, the analytical techniques used and the results obtained from various clinical studies that have demonstrated the efficacy of DW-MRI for the prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:26773848

  9. Content of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex membranes positively correlates with the proliferative status of brain cells.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, David C; Maccioni, Hugo J F; Caputto, Beatriz L

    2009-03-01

    Although the molecular and cellular basis of particular events that lead to the biogenesis of membranes in eukaryotic cells has been described in detail, understanding of the intrinsic complexity of the pleiotropic response by which a cell adjusts the overall activity of its endomembrane system to accomplish these requirements is limited. Here we carried out an immunocytochemical and biochemical examination of the content and quality of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus membranes in two in vivo situations characterized by a phase of active cell proliferation followed by a phase of declination in proliferation (rat brain tissue at early and late developmental stages) or by permanent active proliferation (gliomas and their most malignant manifestation, glioblastomas multiforme). It was found that, in highly proliferative phases of brain development (early embryo brain cells), the content of ER and Golgi apparatus membranes, measured as total lipid phosphorous content, is higher than in adult brain cells. In addition, the concentration of protein markers of ER and Golgi is also higher in early embryo brain cells and in human glioblastoma multiforme cells than in adult rat brain or in nonpathological human brain cells. Results suggest that the amount of endomembranes and the concentration of constituent functional proteins diminish as cells decline in their proliferative activity.

  10. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Barkla, D H; Tutton, P J

    1985-06-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence.

  11. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  12. Intracranial baroreflex yielding an early cushing response in human.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E A; Czosnyka, Z; Momjian, S; Czosnyka, M; Bech, R A; Pickard, J D

    2005-01-01

    The Cushing response is a pre-terminal sympatho-adrenal systemic response to very high ICP. Animal studies have demonstrated that a moderate rise of ICP yields a reversible pressure-mediated systemic response. Infusion studies are routine procedures to investigate, by infusing CSF space with saline, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biophysics in patients suspected of hydrocephalus. Our study aims at assessing systemic and cerebral haemodynamic changes during moderate rise of ICP in human. Infusion studies were performed in 34 patients. This is a routine test perform in patients presenting with symptoms of NPH during their pre-shunting assessment. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (FV) were non-invasively monitored with photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler. The rise in ICP (8.2 +/- 5.1 mmHg to 25 +/- 8.3 mmHg) was followed by a significant rise in ABP (106.6 +/- 29.7 mmHg to 115.2 +/- 30.1 mmHg), drop in CPP (98.3 +/- 29 mmHg to 90.2 +/- 30.7 mmHg) and decrease in FV (55.6 +/- 17 cm/s to 51.1 +/- 16.3 cm/s). Increasing ICP did not alter heart rate (70.4 +/- 10.4/min to 70.3 +/- 9.1/min) but augmented the heart rate variance (0.046 +/- 0.058 to 0.067 +/- 0.075/min). In a population suspected of hydrocephalus, our study demonstrated that a moderate rise of ICP yields a reversible pressure-mediated systemic response, demonstrating an early Cushing response in human and a putative intracranial baroreflex.

  13. Proliferative capability of parietal and zymogen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K Y; Withers, H R

    1975-01-01

    Six to eight week old male mice of C3Hf/Bu strain were killed and studied at various times from 30 minutes to 30 days after tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) injection. Labelling of parietal and zymogen cells was observed in autoradiographic histological specimens. There were 590 +/- 22 gastric glands per circumference at the body of the stomach. Parietal cells were counted as 16-2 (14-0-18-4) per gland or 9600 per circumference. There were 11-4 (9-4-13-7) zymogen cells per gland or 6700 per circumference. Two labelled immature parietal cells per circumference were seen 30 minutes after 3H-TdR injection, equivalent to a ratio of 1:5000; more mature labelled parietal cells were seen at later times up to 30 days. There was evidence for proliferation during maturation and downward migration of cells toward the body and the lower part of the gastric gland. Our data support earlier evidence that immature parietal cells constantly supply mature parietal cells through migration from a proliferative zone. Whether the parietal cells are derived from the same stem cell compartment as surface epithelium cells is unclear at the present time. An average of 2-6 zymogen cells per circumference, or 1:2500, was found to be labelled. While most zymogen cells were not proliferating, cells entered the proliferating cycle at random. Based on the findings reported in this paper and the radiation responses of both parietal and zymogen cells, it is postulated that they form part of a slow renewal system. Images Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 (cont.) Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2 PMID:1213947

  14. Response to Early AED Therapy and Its Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline A.

    2002-01-01

    Determining the prognosis of patients when they first present with epilepsy is a difficult task. Several clinical studies have shed light on this very important topic. Potential predictors of the refractory state, including seizure etiology, duration of epilepsy before treatment, and epilepsy type, have not been successful indicators of long-term outcome. One predictor of the refractory state appears to be early response to AED therapy. Inadequate seizure control after initial treatment is a poor prognostic sign. Recent research into genetic causes of the refractory state has included investigation of the multiple drug resistance gene, and polymorphisms at drug targets. More work is needed to determine the causes and predictors of drug resistance. PMID:15309146

  15. Infusing Culturally Responsive Science Curriculum into Early Childhood Teacher Preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jiyoon; Martin, Leisa A.

    2017-08-01

    Previous research studies in early childhood teacher education have indicated that teacher candidates are not adequately prepared to demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to teach science to all children including culturally and linguistically diverse students. To address this issue, the researchers provided 31 early childhood teacher candidates with instructions through a culturally responsive science education curriculum that integrates American and Korean science curriculum corresponding to the American and Korean standards for teacher education. The results showed a statistically significant increase in their Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PSTE). In addition, the teacher candidates were able to create a multicultural/diverse lesson in the developing and proficiency levels based on Ambrosio's lesson matrix. This study provides teacher candidates' knowledge as well as an additional resource for developing their self-efficacy and understanding the role of multicultural/diverse lesson planning for science instruction. Also, teacher candidates could be better prepared by understanding how other countries approach science education and integrating this knowledge to enrich their own science instruction.

  16. Early disaster response in Haiti: the Israeli field hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Peleg, Kobi; Levy, Gad; Vinker, Shlomo; Sagi, Ram; Abargel, Avi; Bartal, Carmi; Lin, Guy; Bar, Ariel; Bar-On, Elhanan; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Ash, Nachman

    2010-07-06

    The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused an estimated 230,000 deaths and injured approximately 250,000 people. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital was fully operational on site only 89 hours after the earthquake struck and was capable of providing sophisticated medical care. During the 10 days the hospital was operational, its staff treated 1111 patients, hospitalized 737 patients, and performed 244 operations on 203 patients. The field hospital also served as a referral center for medical teams from other countries that were deployed in the surrounding areas. The key factor that enabled rapid response during the early phase of the disaster from a distance of 6000 miles was a well-prepared and trained medical unit maintained on continuous alert. The prompt deployment of advanced-capability field hospitals is essential in disaster relief, especially in countries with minimal medical infrastructure. The changing medical requirements of people in an earthquake zone dictate that field hospitals be designed to operate with maximum flexibility and versatility regarding triage, staff positioning, treatment priorities, and hospitalization policies. Early coordination with local administrative bodies is indispensable.

  17. Automated segmentation of retinal blood vessels and identification of proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, Herbert F.; Cree, Michael J.; Leandro, Jorge J. G.; Soares, João V. B.; Cesar, Roberto M.; Luckie, A.

    2007-05-01

    Proliferative diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness. However, early recognition allows appropriate, timely intervention. Fluorescein-labeled retinal blood vessels of 27 digital images were automatically segmented using the Gabor wavelet transform and classified using traditional features such as area, perimeter, and an additional five morphological features based on the derivatives-of-Gaussian wavelet-derived data. Discriminant analysis indicated that traditional features do not detect early proliferative retinopathy. The best single feature for discrimination was the wavelet curvature with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76. Linear discriminant analysis with a selection of six features achieved an AUC of 0.90 (0.73-0.97, 95% confidence interval). The wavelet method was able to segment retinal blood vessels and classify the images according to the presence or absence of proliferative retinopathy.

  18. The early epigenetic response to ozone: impacts on DNA ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Epigenetics have been increasingly recognized as a mechanism linking environment and gene expression. Despite awareness of the role of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation as potential drivers of the response to air pollutants, very little work has been performed investigating the direct epigenetic effects following exposure to ambient air pollution. Thus the purpose of this study was to investigate the early epigenetic response to ozone in comparison to the epigenetic modifier 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) in rats. 12 week old, male Long-Evans rats (n=16) were exposed to 4 hours of whole-body 1.0 ppm ozone or air and immediately euthanized. A subset of animals were additionally treated with 5-Aza (n=16) to serve as an epigenetic control to ozone exposure. Neither 5-Aza nor ozone by itself induced changes to the global methylome or hydroxmethylome of the lung measured by ELISA. Despite this finding, ozone exposure induced a significant increase in the activity of the DNA methyltransferase enzymes in the lung which was reversed with 5-Aza treatment. Interestingly, a significant interaction between 5-Aza treatment and ozone exposure was found in a large array of data. The interaction between 5-Aza and ozone produced indicators of pulmonary edema and elevated lung damage. Along with these adverse changes, expression of major epigenetic enzymes (Tet 1-3, Dnmt3 a-b) were found to be perturbed in both the lung and hepatic tissues. While ozone exposure appears to in

  19. Early response to therapy and survival in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schaar, C G; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; le Cessie, S; Franck, P F H; te Marvelde, M C; Wijermans, P W

    2004-04-01

    Whether the response to chemotherapy is a prognosticator in multiple myeloma (MM) is still not known. Therefore, the relationship between survival and the rate of monoclonal protein (M-protein) decrement during the first cycles of therapy was prospectively assessed in 262 patients with newly diagnosed MM that were included in a phase III trial (HOVON-16). M-proteins were collected monthly during melphalan-prednisone therapy (MP: melphalan 0.25 mg/kg, prednisone 1.0 mg/kg orally for 5 d every 4 weeks). Patients with light chain disease (n = 18), immunoglobulin M (IgM)-MM (n = 1) and no immunotyping (n = 1) were excluded. Of the 242 patients studied, 75% had IgG M-protein and 25% IgA; MM stages: I: 1%, II: 35% and III: 64%. The median M-protein decrease after the first cycle of MP was 21% for IgG and 27% for IgA, and declined to < 5% after four cycles. An obvious survival advantage was seen for patients who had an M-protein decrease of at least 30% after the first MP cycle, which became significant when an M-protein decrease of 40% or more was reached. As established prognostic parameters (Salmon & Durie stage, serum creatinine, and haemoglobin) also remained prognostically significant, we concluded that early response to MP predicts for survival in MM.

  20. Automatic non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening system based on color fundus image.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhitao; Zhang, Xinpeng; Geng, Lei; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jun; Tong, Jun; Ogunbona, Philip O; Shan, Chunyan

    2017-10-26

    Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Automatic detection of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy is significant for clinical diagnosis, early screening and course progression of patients. This paper introduces the design and implementation of an automatic system for screening non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy based on color fundus images. Firstly, the fundus structures, including blood vessels, optic disc and macula, are extracted and located, respectively. In particular, a new optic disc localization method using parabolic fitting is proposed based on the physiological structure characteristics of optic disc and blood vessels. Then, early lesions, such as microaneurysms, hemorrhages and hard exudates, are detected based on their respective characteristics. An equivalent optical model simulating human eyes is designed based on the anatomical structure of retina. Main structures and early lesions are reconstructed in the 3D space for better visualization. Finally, the severity of each image is evaluated based on the international criteria of diabetic retinopathy. The system has been tested on public databases and images from hospitals. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system achieves high accuracy for main structures and early lesions detection. The results of severity classification for non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy are also accurate and suitable. Our system can assist ophthalmologists for clinical diagnosis, automatic screening and course progression of patients.

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis manipulates pulmonary APCs subverting early immune responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romo, Gina S; Pedroza-Gonzalez, Alexander; Lambrecht, Bart N; Aguilar-Leon, Diana; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2013-03-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and dendritic cells (DCs) are the main antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the respiratory tract. Whereas macrophages have been extensively studied in tuberculosis, in situ interactions of DC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are poorly explored. We aimed to characterize lung APCs during pulmonary tuberculosis in Balb/C mice infected with Mtb H37Rv. Mtb-infection via the airways induced a delayed and continuous accumulation of DCs and AM in the lungs. While lung DCs increased after day 3 post-infection, macrophages increased after 2-3 weeks. Although both populations accumulated in lungs during the infection, DCs decreased in the late stages. Infection induced differential expression of co-stimulatory molecules in these lung APCs, decreasing to basal levels in both APCs in the late stages. A remarkable segregation was found regarding bacillary burden. Many macrophages contained numerous bacilli, but DC contained scarce mycobacteria or none. Mtb-infection also induced delayed accumulation of DC in draining lymph nodes. This delayed recruitment was not associated with a lack of IL-12p40, which was detected from day 3 post-infection. Although AM and lung DCs behave differently during pulmonary tuberculosis, Mtb apparently manipulates both lung APCs subverting early protective responses resulting in disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  3. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  4. The treatment of systemic lupus proliferative nephritis.

    PubMed

    Punaro, Marilynn G

    2013-11-01

    Lupus nephritis is one of the most common and serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in childhood affecting more than 80% of patients. Treatment of this complication has undergone significant evolution in recent years. A series of randomized controlled trials has clarified the role of a variety of immunomodulating regimens including some novel biologic medications. This review touches on the major trials that have influenced practice and shaped current thinking about the treatment of proliferative lupus glomerulonephritis.

  5. [Expression of p27 and proliferative (MIB-1), mitotic (MI) and apoptotic indices in early-phase (EGF) gastric carcinoma. Results of a study by the Italian Gastric Cancer Research Group (IRGGC)].

    PubMed

    Saragoni, L; Morgagni, P; De Manzoni, G; Tomezzoli, A; Roviello, F; Marrelli, D; Di Leo, A; Vindigni, C; Kurihara, H; Fociani, P

    2003-02-01

    Since the Japanese Society for Gastroenterology and Endoscopy (JSGE) introduced the definition of Early Gastric Cancer (EGC), much more and deeper studies were done, which demonstrated that EGC was a more complex phase of the neoplastic disease with different morphologic characteristics, tightly linked to the prognosis. We evaluated the clinical impact of some prognostic factors, known being important in the advanced lesions, in a series of EGC patients with special reference to the clinicomorphological features. We analysed the mitotic (MI) and apoptotic (AI) indices and the immunohistochemical expression of p27 and MIB-1 in 83 EGC cases consecutively recruited in the hospitals of Forlì, Verona, Siena and Milan (IRGGC) in the period 1994-95. The classifications of JSGE, Lauren and Kodama were used to define the macroscopic, microscopic and growth pattern types, respectively. Decreased p27 expression correlated with the macroscopic escavated lesions and diffused mixed histotypes; the increase of MIB-1 detection with tumour size larger than 2 cm, but lesser than 4 cm; MI with intestinal histologic types and AI with mucosal and penetrating lesions, according to Kodama. Statistical analysis showed significative correlations among MIB-1, MI and AI, but not with p27 and the other variables. All these factors did not influence the prognosis of our patients. In our series, p27, MIB-1, MI, and AI did not add any useful clinical. So, in EGC patients the morphological features have still the most important role in influencing the prognosis and treatment of patients.

  6. Ventilatory gas exchange and early response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Ho; Olson, Lyle J; Shen, Win K; Cha, Yong-Mei; Johnson, Bruce D

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an accepted intervention for chronic heart failure (HF), although approximately 30% of patients are non-responders. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise respiratory gas exchange obtained before CRT implantation predicts early response to CRT. Before CRT implantation, patients were assigned to either a mild-moderate group (Mod G, n = 33, age 67 ± 10 years) or a moderate-severe group (Sev G, n = 31, age 67 ± 10 years), based on abnormalities in exercise gas exchange. Severity of impaired gas exchange was based on a score from the measures of VE/VCO(2) slope, resting PETCO(2) and change of PETCO(2) from resting to peak. All measurements were performed before and 3 to 4 months after CRT implantation. Although Mod G did not have improved gas exchange (p > 0.05), Sev G improved significantly (p < 0.05) post-CRT. In addition, Mod G did not show improved right ventricular systolic pressure (RSVP; pre vs post: 37 ± 14 vs 36 ± 11 mm Hg, p > 0.05), yet Sev G showed significantly improved RVSP, by 23% (50 ± 14 vs 42 ± 12 mm Hg, p < 0.05). Both groups had improved left ventricular ejection fraction (p < 0.05), New York Heart Association class (p < 0.05) and quality of life (p < 0.05), but no significant differences were observed between groups (p > 0.05). No significant changes were observed in brain natriuretic peptide in either group post-CRT. Based on pre-CRT implantation ventilatory gas exchange, subjects with the most impaired values appeared to have more improvement post-CRT, possibly associated with a decrease in RVSP. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Proliferative and morphologic changes in rat colon following bypass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, D. H.; Tutton, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    In this study the proliferative and morphologic changes that occur in the colon of normal and dimethylhydrazine-treated rats following surgical bypass of the middle third of the colon are reported. Proliferative changes were measured by estimating accumulated mitotic indexes following vinblastine treatment and morphologic changes were observed with the use of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Data were collected on Days 0, 7, 14, 30, and 72 after surgery. The results show that surgical bypass produces contrasting effects in the segments proximal to and distal to the suture line. In the proximal segment there was morphologic evidence of hyperplasia, although proliferative activity was unchanged except for an increase at 7 days in normal rats. In the distal segment there was a long-lived increase in the mitotic index, although morphologic changes were not seen. The results for DMH-treated rats were similar to those in normal rats. Groups of isolated dysplastic epithelial cells were often seen in the submucosa adjacent to sutures up to 72 days after surgery. Increased lymphoid infiltration was seen in segments proximal to but not distal to the suture line. It is hypothesized that the different responses of the proximal and distal segments may be related to the different embryologic origins of those segments. It is also hypothesized that the seeding of the submucosa with epithelial cells during suturing may be a factor in tumor recurrence. Images Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014432

  8. Culturally Responsive Literacy Practices in an Early Childhood Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…

  9. Early skin toxicity predicts better outcomes, and early tumor shrinkage predicts better response after cetuximab treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, T; Doi, A; Shimokawa, M; Fouad, T M; Osuga, T; Tamura, F; Mizushima, T; Kimura, T; Abe, S; Ihara, H; Kukitsu, T; Sumiyoshi, T; Yoshizaki, N; Hirayama, M; Sasaki, T; Kawarada, Y; Kitashiro, S; Okushiba, S; Kondo, H; Tsuji, Y

    2015-03-01

    Cetuximab-containing treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer have been shown to have higher overall response rates and longer progression-free and overall survival than other systemic therapies. Cetuximab-related manifestations, including severe skin toxicity and early tumor shrinkage, have been shown to be predictors of response to cetuximab. We hypothesized that early skin toxicity is a predictor of response and better outcomes in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma. We retrospectively evaluated 62 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma who had unresectable tumors and were treated with cetuximab in our institution. Skin toxicity grade was evaluated on each treatment day. Tumor size was evaluated using computed tomography prior to treatment and 4-8 weeks after the start of treatment with cetuximab.Patients with early tumor shrinkage after starting treatment with cetuximab had a significantly higher overall response rate (P = 0.0001). Patients with early skin toxicity showed significantly longer overall survival (P = 0.0305), and patients with higher skin toxicity grades had longer progression-free survival (P = 0.0168).We have shown that early tumor shrinkage, early onset of skin toxicity, and high skin toxicity grade are predictors of treatment efficacy and/or outcome in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma treated with cetuximab.

  10. Altered Evoked Gamma-Band Responses Reveal Impaired Early Visual Processing in ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Daniel; Krauel, Kerstin; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Schadow, Jeanette; Hinrichs, Hermann; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2010-01-01

    Neurophysiological studies yield contrary results whether attentional problems of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are related to early visual processing deficits or not. Evoked gamma-band responses (GBRs), being among the first cortical responses occurring as early as 90 ms after visual stimulation in human EEG, have…

  11. SDF-1 is both necessary and sufficient to promote proliferative retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Jason M.; Guthrie, Steven M.; Koc, Mehmet; Afzal, Aqeela; Caballero, Sergio; Brooks, H. Logan; Mames, Robert N.; Segal, Mark S.; Grant, Maria B.; Scott, Edward W.

    2005-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working-age adults. It is caused by oxygen starvation in the retina inducing aberrant formation of blood vessels that destroy retinal architecture. In humans, vitreal stromal cell–derived factor–1 (SDF-1) concentration increases as proliferative diabetic retinopathy progresses. Treatment of patients with triamcinolone decreases SDF-1 levels in the vitreous, with marked disease improvement. SDF-1 induces human retinal endothelial cells to increase expression of VCAM-1, a receptor for very late antigen–4 found on many hematopoietic progenitors, and reduce tight cellular junctions by reducing occludin expression. Both changes would serve to recruit hematopoietic and endothelial progenitor cells along an SDF-1 gradient. We have shown, using a murine model of proliferative adult retinopathy, that the majority of new vessels formed in response to oxygen starvation originate from hematopoietic stem cell–derived endothelial progenitor cells. We now show that the levels of SDF-1 found in patients with proliferative retinopathy induce retinopathy in our murine model. Intravitreal injection of blocking antibodies to SDF-1 prevented retinal neovascularization in our murine model, even in the presence of exogenous VEGF. Together, these data demonstrate that SDF-1 plays a major role in proliferative retinopathy and may be an ideal target for the prevention of proliferative retinopathy. PMID:15630447

  12. Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces following Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, N.; Hare, T. A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J. D.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo…

  13. Adaptive neuroplastic responses in early and late hemispherectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural recovery in children who undergo medically required hemispherectomy showcase the remarkable ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt and reorganize following insult early in life. Case study data suggest that lesions sustained early in childhood lead to better recovery compared to those that occur later in life. In these children, it is possible that neural reorganization had begun prior to surgery but was masked by the dysfunctional hemisphere. The degree of neural reorganization has been difficult to study systematically in human infants. Here we present a 20-year culmination of data on our nonhuman primate model (Chlorocebus sabeus) of early-life hemispherectomy in which behavioral recovery is interpreted in light of plastic processes that lead to the anatomical reorganization of the early-damaged brain. The model presented here suggests that significant functional recovery occurs after the removal of one hemisphere in monkeys with no preexisting neurological dysfunctions. Human and primate studies suggest a critical role for subcortical and brainstem structures as well as corticospinal tracts in the neuroanatomical reorganization which result in the remarkable behavioral recovery following hemispherectomy. The non-human primate model presented here offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavioral and functional neuroanatomical reorganization that underlies developmental plasticity.

  14. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  15. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. The Effects of Responsive Stimulation in Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Craig T.; Finkelstein, Neal W.

    This study investigated whether infants who were given increased amounts of response-contingent stimulation would evidence positive and nonspecific transfer of learning to situations requiring new responses to control environmental events. Subjects were thirty 3-month-old biologically normal home-reared infants. Infants in the group assigned to a…

  17. Communication and Alert Maintenance Program for Early Response Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Richardson, Laura [D-CA-37

    2011-09-07

    House - 09/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Emergency Preparedness, Response and Communications. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Early and late mammalian responses to heavy charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview summarizes murine results on acute lethality responses, inactivation of marrow CFU-S and intestinal microcolonies, testes weight loss, life span shortening, and posterior lens opacification in mice irradiated with heavy charged particles. RBE-LET relationships for these mammalian responses are compared with results from in vitro studies. The trend is that the maximum RBE for in vivo responses tends to be lower and occurs at a lower LET than for inactivation of V79 and T-1 cells in culture. Based on inactivation cross sections, the response of CFU-S in vivo conforms to expectations from earlier studies with prokaryotic systems and mammalian cells in culture. Effects of heavy ions are compared with fission spectrum neutrons, and the results are consistent with the interpretation that RBEs are lower than for fission neutrons at about the same LET, probably due to differences in track structure.

  19. Early life socioeconomic position and immune response to persistent infections among elderly Latinos.

    PubMed

    Meier, Helen C S; Haan, Mary N; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer B; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Persistent infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), are common in the U.S. but their prevalence varies by socioeconomic status. It is unclear if early or later life socioeconomic position (SEP) is a more salient driver of disparities in immune control of these infections. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, we examined whether early or later life SEP was the strongest predictor of immune control later in life by contrasting two life course models, the critical period model and the chain of risk model. Early life SEP was measured as a latent variable, derived from parental education and occupation, and food availability. Indicators for SEP in later life included education level and occupation. Individuals were categorized by immune response to each pathogen (seronegative, low, medium and high) with increasing immune response representing poorer immune control. Cumulative immune response was estimated using a latent profile analysis with higher total immune response representing poorer immune control. Structural equation models were used to examine direct, indirect and total effects of early life SEP on each infection and cumulative immune response, controlling for age and gender. The direct effect of early life SEP on immune response was not statistically significant for the infections or cumulative immune response. Higher early life SEP was associated with lower immune response for T. gondii, H. pylori and cumulative immune response through pathways mediated by later life SEP. For CMV, higher early life SEP was both directly associated and partially mediated by later life SEP. No association was found between SEP and HSV-1. Findings from this study support a chain of risk model, whereby early life SEP acts through later life SEP to affect immune response to persistent infections in older age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  20. Clues to prolific productivity among prominent scientists.

    PubMed

    Kantha, S S

    1992-10-01

    In a survey based on the biographical sketches, obituary notes and eulogies of notable scientists, eight were identified as belonging to an elite group, having authored more than 1000 research publications, which include books, monographs and patents. They were, in chronological order, Thomas Alva Edison, Paul Karrer, Margaret Mead, Giulio Natta, Hans Selye, Herbert C Brown, Tetsuji Kametani and Carl Djerassi. Among these, Karrer, Natta and Brown were Nobelists in chemistry. Four criteria which can be identified as clues to their prolific productivity are, 1) enthusiasm for compulsive work and eccentric life style, 2) physical and/or environmental handicap, 3) pioneering efforts in a new research field, and 4) selection of research area, predominantly organic chemistry.

  1. The effects of pleiotrophin in proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xue; Bai, Yujing; Zhu, Xuemei; Li, Tianqi; Jin, Enzhong; Huang, Lvzhen; Yu, Wenzhen; Zhao, Mingwei

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of pleiotrophin (PTN) in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) both in vitro and in vivo. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the PTN expression in periretinal membrane samples from patients with PVR and controls. ARPE-19 cells were exposed to TGF-β1. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the ARPE-19 cells was confirmed by observed morphological changes and the increased expression of α-SMA and fibronectin at both the mRNA and protein levels. We used specific small interfering (si)RNA to knock down the expression of PTN. The subsequent effects of PTN inhibition were assessed with regard to the EMT, migration, proliferation, cytoskeletal arrangement, TGF-β signaling, PTN signaling, integral tight junction protein expression (e.g., claudin-1 and occludin), and p38 MAPK and p-p38 MAPK levels. Additionally, a PVR rat model was established by the intravitreal injection of ARPE-19 cells transfected with PTN-siRNA and was evaluated accordingly. PTN was highly expressed in PVR membranes compared to controls. PTN knockdown attenuated the TGF-β1-induced migration, proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and expression of EMT markers such as α-SMA and fibronectin in the ARPE-19 cells, and these effects may have been mediated through p38 MAPK signaling pathway activation. PTN silencing inhibited the up-regulation of claudin-1 and occludin stimulated by TGF-β1, and PTN knockdown inhibited the proliferative aspects of severe PVR in vivo. PTN is involved in the process of EMT induced by TGF-β1 in human ARPE-19 cells in vitro, and PTN knockdown attenuated the progression of experimental PVR in vivo. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PVR.

  2. The Development of Attention and Response Inhibition in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartgis, Jami; Thomas, David G.; Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the development of attention and response inhibition from ages 5 to 7. Forty children (20 5-year-olds and 20 7-year-olds) completed four counterbalanced phases of a continuous performance task. Phase 1 was designed to measure attention without distraction, Phase 2 was designed to measure attention with…

  3. Frameworks for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood: Description and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In February, 2013, the Division of Early Childhood, the National Association for the Education of Young Children, and the National Head Start Association released a collaborative paper to provide clarification and assistance regarding the relationship of response to intervention (RTI) with the field of early childhood (EC). In addition to…

  4. Response to Therapy Following Retreatment of Serofast Early Syphilis Patients With Benzathine Penicillin

    PubMed Central

    Seña, Arlene C.; Wolff, Mark; Behets, Frieda; Van Damme, Kathleen; Martin, David H.; Leone, Peter; McNeil, Linda; Hook, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent nontreponemal titers after treatment are common among patients with early syphilis. We retreated 82 human immunodeficiency virus–negative early syphilis participants who were serofast at 6 months using benzathine penicillin. Only 27% exhibited serological response after retreatment and after an additional 6 months of follow-up. PMID:23118269

  5. Multidecadal response of naturally regenerated southern pine to early competition control and commercial thinning

    Andrew S. Nelson; Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    Multidecadal responses to early competition control are poorly documented in naturally regenerated southern pine stands. This study examined the effects of the following early herbicide treatments in thinned southern pine stands through age 31: (1) no control (CK), (2) herbaceous vegetation control only (HC), (3) woody vegetation control only (WC), and (4) total (woody...

  6. Defining Clinical Response Criteria and Early Response Criteria for Precision Oncology: Current State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Chuang, Hubert H; Gambhire, Dhiraj; Kairemo, Kalevi

    2017-02-15

    In this era of precision oncology, there has been an exponential growth in the armamentarium of genomically targeted therapies and immunotherapies. Evaluating early responses to precision therapy is essential for "go" versus "no go" decisions for these molecularly targeted drugs and agents that arm the immune system. Many different response assessment criteria exist for use in solid tumors and lymphomas. We reviewed the literature using the Medline/PubMed database for keywords "response assessment" and various known response assessment criteria published up to 2016. In this article we review the commonly used response assessment criteria. We present a decision tree to facilitate selection of appropriate criteria. We also suggest methods for standardization of various response assessment criteria. The relevant response assessment criteria were further studied for rational of development, key features, proposed use and acceptance by various entities. We also discuss early response evaluation and provide specific case studies of early response to targeted therapy. With high-throughput, advanced computing programs and digital data-mining it is now possible to acquire vast amount of high quality imaging data opening up a new field of "omics in radiology"-radiomics that complements genomics for personalized medicine. Radiomics is rapidly evolving and is still in the research arena. This cutting-edge technology is poised to move soon to the mainstream clinical arena. Novel agents with new mechanisms of action require advanced molecular imaging as imaging biomarkers. There is an urgent need for development of standardized early response assessment criteria for evaluation of response to precision therapy.

  7. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Suppresses the Early Proinflammatory Immune Response to a Severe Cutaneous Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Burn wound model Mice were anaesthetised using isoflurane inha- lation. After shaving the dorsum, the exposed skin was washed gently with room...Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn injury* Thomas A Davis, Alexander...S, Peoples GE, Tadaki D, Elster EA. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn

  8. Dual function of CD70 in viral infection: modulator of early cytokine responses and activator of adaptive responses1

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Atef; Swiecki, Melissa; Vermi, William; Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Colonna, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The role of the tumor necrosis factor family member CD70 in adaptive T cell responses has been intensively studied but its function in innate responses is still under investigation. Here we show that CD70 inhibits the early innate response to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) but is essential for the optimal generation of virus-specific CD8 T cells. CD70-/- mice reacted to MCMV infection with a robust type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokine response. This response was sufficient for initial control of MCMV, although at later time points, CD70-/- mice became more susceptible to MCMV infection. The heightened cytokine response during the early phase of MCMV infection in CD70-/- mice was paralleled by a reduction in regulatory T cells (Treg). Treg from naïve CD70-/- mice were not as efficient at suppressing T cell proliferation compared to Treg from naïve WT mice and depletion of Treg during MCMV infection in Foxp3-DTR mice or in WT mice recapitulated the phenotype observed in CD70-/- mice. Our study demonstrates that while CD70 is required for the activation of the antiviral adaptive response, it has a regulatory role in early cytokine responses to viruses such as MCMV, possibly through maintenance of Treg survival and function. PMID:24913981

  9. The microenvironment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy supports lymphatic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Gucciardo, Erika; Loukovaara, Sirpa; Korhonen, Ani; Repo, Pauliina; Martins, Beatriz; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Lehti, Kaisa

    2018-06-01

    Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a major diabetic microvascular complication characterized by pathological angiogenesis. Several retinopathy animal models have been developed to study the disease mechanisms and putative targets. However, knowledge on the human proliferative disease remains incomplete, relying on steady-state results from thin histological neovascular tissue sections and vitreous samples. New translational models are thus required to comprehensively understand the disease pathophysiology and develop improved therapeutic interventions. We describe here a clinically relevant model, whereby the native multicellular PDR landscape and neo(fibro)vascular processes can be analysed ex vivo and related to clinical data. As characterized by three-dimensional whole-mount immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, heterogeneity in patient-derived PDR neovascular tissues included discontinuous capillaries coupled with aberrantly differentiated, lymphatic-like and tortuous endothelia. Spatially confined apoptosis and proliferation coexisted with inflammatory cell infiltration and unique vascular islet formation. Ex vivo-cultured explants retained multicellularity, islet patterning and capillary or fibrotic outgrowth in response to vitreoretinal factors. Strikingly, PDR neovascular tissues, whose matched vitreous samples enhanced lymphatic endothelial cell sprouting, contained lymphatic-like capillaries in vivo and developed Prox1 + capillaries and sprouts with lymphatic endothelial ultrastructures ex vivo. Among multiple vitreal components, vascular endothelial growth factor C was one factor found at lymphatic endothelium-activating concentrations. These results indicate that the ischaemia-induced and inflammation-induced human PDR microenvironment supports pathological neolymphovascularization, providing a new concept regarding PDR mechanisms and targeting options. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John

  10. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but diagnostic terminology and criteria for these lesions are inconsistent in the literature. The diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions is especially challenging in fish due to the fact that the thyroid is not a ...

  11. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: diagnosis, management and current advances.

    PubMed

    Capella, Diogo Lenzi; Gonçalves, Jussara Maria; Abrantes, Adelino António Artur; Grando, Liliane Janete; Daniel, Filipe Ivan

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is a multifocal and progressive lesion of the oral mucosa, with unknown etiology, and commonly resistant to all therapy attempts with frequent recurrences. It is characterized by a high rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma and verrucou carcinoma transformations. To analyze the studies about Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia and develop a concise update. A Pubmed search identifying studies (laboratory research, case series and reviews of literature) that examined patients with Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia was realized. There are not enough studies about Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia in the literature. The few found studies not present a consensus about its etiology and diagnosis criteria. Although several treatment strategies have been proposed, most of them still show a high recurrence rate. More research about Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia is necessary to understand and treat this disease. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Axial length and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ko-Jen; Sun, Chi-Chin; Ku, Wan-Chen; Chuang, Lan-Hsin; Ng, Soh Ching; Chou, Kuei-Mei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Yeung, Ling

    2012-04-01

    To determine the correlation between axial length and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes mellitus for 10 years or more. This study was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional study. Patients with diabetes for 10 years or more were included. We excluded eyes with any other significant ocular disease or any prior intraocular surgery, except uncomplicated cataract surgery. Only one eye of each patient was included as the study eye. The severity of DR was graded as no DR, non-proliferative DR (NPDR), or proliferative DR (PDR). Axial length was measured by A-scan ultrasound (10 MHz Transducer, AL-2000 Biometer/Pachymeter; Tomey, Phoenix, AZ). Univariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between the dependent variables (any DR, PDR) and all potential risk factors. Axial length and other factors with p value <0.1 were included in multivariate logistic regression models. Backward selection based on the likelihood ratio statistic was used to select the final models. We included 166 eyes from 166 patients (93 female and 73 male; mean age, 68.8 years). The mean diabetes duration was 15.4 years. Fifty-four (32.5%) eyes had no DR, 72 (43.4%) eyes had NPDR, and 40 (24.1%) eyes had PDR. In univariate analysis, hypertension (p = 0.009), renal impairment (p = 0.079), and insulin use (p = 0.009) were associated with developing any DR. Hypertension (p = 0.042), renal impairment (p = 0.014), insulin use (p = 0.040), pseudophakia (p = 0.019), and axial length (p = 0.076) were associated with developing PDR. In multivariate analysis, hypertension (p = 0.005) and insulin use (p = 0.010) were associated with developing any DR. Hypertension (p = 0.020), renal impairment (p = 0.025), pseudophakia (p = 0.006), and axial length (p = 0.024) were associated with developing PDR. This observational study suggests an inverse relationship between axial length and the development of PDR in patients with diabetes for 10 years or more. No

  13. Mitogenic activity of a water-soluble adjuvant (Bu-WSA) obtained from Bacterionema matruchotii. IV. Synergistic effects of Bu-WSA on Concanavalin A-induced proliferative response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nitta, T; Okumura, S; Tsushi, M; Nakano, M

    1982-01-01

    Butanol-extracted water-soluble adjuvant (Bu-WSA) obtained from Bacterionema matruchotii was cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) in the presence of sub- and/or supra-optimal mitogenic concentrations of concanavalin A (Con A). The addition of Bu-WSA resulted in increased tritiated thymidine incorporation above that produced by Con A alone. Bu-WSA by itself is not mitogenic for PBM and in fact produced a decrease in thymidine uptake compared to the control. We investigated the response of subpopulation(s) of PBM to Bu-WSA, Con A and a mixture of Bu-WSA and Con A. Separation of PBM into purified T cells, B cells and macrophages showed that cell-cell cooperation of T cells with B cells or macrophages is necessary for the observed synergistic effect of Bu-WSA with Con A. A marked increase in thymidine incorporation by the mixture of T and B cell populations occurred, while only a small amount of thymidine was incorporated when the B cell population was absent. Mitomycin treatment revealed that the response could be ascribed to the T-cell response with a B-cell helper effect. Moreover, Con A and Bu-WSA appeared to act on the same T cell population. This model may provide unique information about the activation of human peripheral blood T cells compared with the activation of these cells by other mitogens.

  14. Mitogenic Activity of a Water-Soluble Adjuvant (Bu-WSA) Obtained from Bacterionema matruchotii: IV. Synergistic Effects of Bu-WSA on Concanavalin A-Induced Proliferative Response of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Toshimasa; Okumura, Seiichi; Tsushi, Masao; Nakano, Masayasu

    1982-07-01

    Butanol-extracted water-soluble adjuvant (Bu-WSA) obtained from Bacterionema matruchotii was cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) in the presence of sub- and/or supra-optimal mitogenic concentrations of concanavalin A (Con A). The addition of Bu-WSA resulted in increased tritiated thymidine incorporation above that produced by Con A alone. Bu-WSA by itself is not mitogenic for PBM and in fact produced a decrease in thymidine uptake compared to the control. We investigated the response of subpopulation(s) of PBM to Bu-WSA, Con A and a mixture of Bu-WSA and Con A. Separation of PBM into purified T cells, B cells and macrophages showed that cell-cell cooperation of T cells with B cells or macrophages is necessary for the observed synergistic effect of Bu-WSA with Con A. A marked increase in thymidine incorporation by the mixture of T and B cell populations occurred, while only a small amount of thymidine was incorporated when the B cell population was absent. Mitomycin treatment revealed that the response could be ascribed to the T-cell response with a B-cell helper effect. Moreover, Con A and Bu-WSA appeared to act on the same T cell population. This model may provide unique information about the activation of human peripheral blood T cells compared with the activation of these cells by other mitogens. © owned by Center for Academic Publications Japan (Publisher).

  15. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    MAPK pathways plays a role in early T-cell activation and induction of IL-2, IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) gene expression.

  16. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J B; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-09-01

    MAPK pathways plays a role in early T-cell activation and induction of IL-2, IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) gene expression.

  17. Evaluation of VEGF gene polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria C; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Soberon-Ventura, Vidal R; Gonzalez, Victoria; Lechuga, Rodrigo; Garcia-Solis, Pablo; Garcia-Gutierrez, David G; Garcia-Solis, Marco Vinicio; Saenz de Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    To assess if the included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms rs3025035, rs3025021 and rs2010963 are associated to proliferative retinopathy in a Mexican population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A case-control study was conducted in adult individuals with T2DM associated to proliferative retinopathy or non-proliferative retinopathy from Oct. 2014 to Jun. 2015 from the Retina Department of the Asociation to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The selected patients were adults with a diagnosis of T2DM ≥5y. All subjects had a comprehensive ocular examination and the classification of the retinopathy severity was made considering the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standardization protocols. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. All samples were genotyped by qPCR for selected VEGF polymorphisms. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was calculated by comparing Chi-square values between the expected and the observed values for genotype counts. In total 142 individuals were enrolled, 71 individuals with T2DM and associated proliferative retinopathy and 71 individuals with non-proliferative retinopathy. One-sided Fisher's exact test was performed for rs3025021 [OR (95% CI)=0.44(0.08-2.2); P =0.25] and rs2010963 [OR (95% CI)=0.63(0.25-1.6); P =0.23]. The minor allelic frequencies obtained were 26% for rs3025021, 10% for rs3025035 and 61% for rs2010963. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the three SNP was assessed, and was as follows: rs3025021 vs rs3025035: D'=1.0, r 2 =0.1043, P ≤0.0001; rs3025021 vs rs2010963: D'=0.442, r 2 =0.0446, P =0.149; rs3025035 vs rs2010963: D'=0.505, r 2 =0.0214, P =0.142. This is the first analysis involving VEGF polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican population. A major finding of the present study is that none of the polymorphisms studied was significantly associated with proliferative retinopathy. Based on these results, we can infer that different populations

  18. Evaluation of VEGF gene polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria C; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Canton, Virgilio; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Soberon-Ventura, Vidal R; Gonzalez, Victoria; Lechuga, Rodrigo; Garcia-Solis, Pablo; Garcia-Gutierrez, David G; Garcia-Solis, Marco Vinicio; Saenz de Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess if the included vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms rs3025035, rs3025021 and rs2010963 are associated to proliferative retinopathy in a Mexican population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS A case-control study was conducted in adult individuals with T2DM associated to proliferative retinopathy or non-proliferative retinopathy from Oct. 2014 to Jun. 2015 from the Retina Department of the Asociation to Prevent Blindness in Mexico. The selected patients were adults with a diagnosis of T2DM ≥5y. All subjects had a comprehensive ocular examination and the classification of the retinopathy severity was made considering the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) standardization protocols. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole fresh blood. All samples were genotyped by qPCR for selected VEGF polymorphisms. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was calculated by comparing Chi-square values between the expected and the observed values for genotype counts. RESULTS In total 142 individuals were enrolled, 71 individuals with T2DM and associated proliferative retinopathy and 71 individuals with non-proliferative retinopathy. One-sided Fisher's exact test was performed for rs3025021 [OR (95% CI)=0.44(0.08-2.2); P=0.25] and rs2010963 [OR (95% CI)=0.63(0.25-1.6); P=0.23]. The minor allelic frequencies obtained were 26% for rs3025021, 10% for rs3025035 and 61% for rs2010963. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium between the three SNP was assessed, and was as follows: rs3025021 vs rs3025035: D'=1.0, r2=0.1043, P≤0.0001; rs3025021 vs rs2010963: D'=0.442, r2=0.0446, P=0.149; rs3025035 vs rs2010963: D'=0.505, r2=0.0214, P=0.142. CONCLUSION This is the first analysis involving VEGF polymorphisms and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in a Mexican population. A major finding of the present study is that none of the polymorphisms studied was significantly associated with proliferative retinopathy. Based on these results, we can infer that

  19. Predictors of Responsiveness to Early Literacy Intervention: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…

  20. Evidence-Based Early Reading Practices within a Response to Intervention System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursuck, Bill; Blanks, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Many students who experience reading failure are inappropriately placed in special education. A promising response to reducing reading failure and the overidentification of students for special education is Response to Intervention (RTI), a comprehensive early detection and prevention system that allows teachers to identify and support struggling…

  1. Children's cortisol responses to a social evaluative laboratory stressor from early to middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Leppert, Katherine A; Kushner, Marissa; Smith, Victoria C; Lemay, Edward P; Dougherty, Lea R

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the stability of children's cortisol responses to a social evaluative laboratory stressor from early to middle childhood. Ninety-six children (51 males) completed stress-inducing laboratory tasks and provided five salivary cortisol samples in early (W1) and middle (W2) childhood. Although W1 cortisol responses did not predict W2 cortisol responses, children's cortisol responses demonstrated change: compared to their W1 cortisol responses, children's W2 cortisol responses demonstrated an increased slope and more negative quadratic curvature. Furthermore, child psychiatric symptoms at W1 moderated the stability of children's cortisol responses. Children with fewer preschool psychiatric symptoms demonstrated greater inter-individual and intra-individual stability, whereas children with higher preschool psychiatric symptoms and comorbidity demonstrated systematic inter-individual and intra-individual instability in cortisol responses over time. Findings suggest a developmental shift toward increasing cortisol stress responses from early to middle childhood and highlight preschool psychopathology as a moderator of stability in children's cortisol responses over time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Planned delayed relaxing retinotomy for proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Tom H; Gupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    A program involving three operations-the first to reattach most of the retina under silicone oil, the second to reattach the remaining retina by planned delayed relaxing retinectomy (PDRR), and the third to remove silicone oil-was tested. Review of electronic records of patients receiving PDRR for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). The primary end point was reattached retina without silicone oil. Eighty-seven patients had PVR and 27 received PDRR (mean age: 66.6 years; mean follow-up: 2.3 years). Ten patients had grade B PVR, 8 had CP1 to CP6, and 7 had CA2 to CA6. Twenty-four (89%) patients achieved a reattached retina without silicone oil. Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuities were 1.41 (standard deviation = 0.67) at presentation and 1.21 (standard deviation = 0.58) at final follow-up. Four patients had glaucoma and 1 had scleromalacia. The overall success rate for all patients with PVR was 85% reattached retina without oil tamponade. PDRR contributes to a high chance of reattached retina and oil removal in PVR. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Early improvements in anxiety, depression, and anger/hostility symptoms and response to antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Farabaugh, Amy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Johnson, Daniel P; Witte, Janet; Papakostas, George I; Goodness, Tracie; Clain, Alisabet; Baer, Lee; Mischoulon, David; Fava, Maurizio; Harley, Rebecca

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether treatment response to fluoxetine by depressed outpatients was predicted by early improvement on any of 3 subscales (Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility) of the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ). We evaluated 169 depressed outpatients (52.6% female) between ages 18 and 65 (mean age, 40.3 +/- 10.6 years) meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). All patients completed the SQ at baseline (week 0) and at weeks 2, 4, and 8 of treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg/d. We defined treatment response as a > or= 50% reduction in score on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and early improvement on 3 SQ subscales (Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility) as a >30% reduction in score by week 2. The percentage of patients with significant early improvement in anger was significantly greater than the percentage of those with early improvements in anxiety or depression. When early improvement on the Anxiety, Depression, and Anger/Hostility subscales of the SQ were assessed independently by logistic regression, all 3 subscales were predictors of response to treatment. Early improvement in anger, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may predict response to antidepressant treatment among outpatients with MDD.

  4. Health responsibility and workplace health promotion among women: early detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, T; Rabinowitz, S; Melamed, S; Weisberg, E; Ribak, J

    1995-01-01

    The importance of health responsibility as one aspect of a health-promoting lifestyle has been emphasized repeatedly. Yet there are only a few empirical studies of its role in preventive behavior. We examined the relationship between health responsibility and early-detection practices for breast and cervical cancer. A group of 253 women employees of a large industrial company participated in a cancer screening program subsidized by the employer. They completed questionnaires assessing health responsibility and reported early-detection practices: frequency of breast self-examination and physician breast examinations, frequency of Pap tests, and time lapsed since last Pap test and breast examinations. Health responsibility was a significant independent predictor of breast examination indicators but not of Pap tests. Education level was an important predictor for Pap tests, and age predicted most early-detection practices. The findings lend some support to the role of health responsibility in initiating breast examinations. Better prediction of early-detection practices could be achieved by adding cognitive and emotional components to the existing responsibility scale and by distinguishing between retrospective and prospective responsibility.

  5. Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer in Cell Culture and Nude Mice Models via the E2F Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, W. Elaine; Luo, Haitao; Chen, Yi C.; Carpenter, A. Betts; Lau, Jamie K.; Dasgupta, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays anti-proliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin potently suppressed the growth of H69 human SCLC tumors in vivo as ascertained by CAM assays and nude mice models. The second part of our study attempted to provide insight into molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. We found that the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin is correlated with a decrease in the expression of E2F-responsive proliferative genes like cyclin E, thymidylate synthase, cdc25A and cdc6, both at mRNA and protein levels. The transcription factor E2F4 mediated the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin. Ablation of E2F4 levels by siRNA methodology suppressed capsaicin-induced G1 arrest. ChIP assays demonstrated that capsaicin caused the recruitment of E2F4 and p130 on E2F-responsive proliferative promoters, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that the anti-proliferative effects of capsaicin could be useful in the therapy of human SCLCs. PMID:20421925

  6. Analysis on pathogenesis of 50 cases of bladder proliferative lesions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Lan, Ruzhu; Ye, Zhangqun; Yang, Weimin

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the pathogenesis, clinical and pathological characteristics of proliferative lesions of the bladder, 50 cases of proliferative lesions of the bladder from 150 patients with complaints of frequency, urgency, hematuria and dysuria were subjected to cystoscopic biopsy of the suspicious foci in the bladder. In combination with the symptoms, urine and urodynamics, the relationship of proliferative lesions of the bladder to the inflammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract was analyzed. Of the 50 cases of proliferative bladder lesions, 44 cases (88%) had lower urinary tract infection and 29 (58%) lower urinary tract obstruction. The patients with lower urinary tract obstruction were all complicated with infection. Three cases were associated with transitional cell carcinoma. Malignant cells were detected in 1 case by urinary cytologic examination. Proliferative lesions of the bladder, especially those without other obvious mucosa changes under cystoscopy, are common histological variants of urothelium in the patients with chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract. Chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lower urinary tract might be the causes for proliferative lesions of the bladder. It is suggested that different treatments should be applied according to the scope and histological type of the proliferative lesions.

  7. Investigating the anti-proliferative activity of styrylazanaphthalenes and azanaphthalenediones.

    PubMed

    Mrozek-Wilczkiewicz, Anna; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Musiol, Robert; Finster, Jacek; Szurko, Agnieszka; Serafin, Katarzyna; Knas, Magdalena; Kamalapuram, Sishir K; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Jampilek, Josef; Ratuszna, Alicja; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna; Richardson, Des R; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2010-04-01

    A group of styrylazanaphthalenes and azanaphthalenediones were synthesized and tested for their anti-proliferative activity. Most of the compounds were obtained with the use of microwave-assisted synthesis. The lipophilicity of the compounds was measured by RP-HPLC and their anti-proliferative activity was assayed against the human SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cell lines. Active compounds were also tested in clonogenity and comet assays. Several quinazolinone and styrylquinazoline analogues were found to have markedly greater anti-proliferative activity than desferoxamine and cis-platin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activity, anti-proliferative activity, and amino acid profiles of ethanolic extracts of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Panthong, S; Boonsathorn, N; Chuchawankul, S

    2016-10-17

    Biological activities of various mushrooms have recently been discovered, particularly, immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. Herein, three edible mushrooms, Auricularia auricula-judae (AA), Pleurotus abalonus (PA) and Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS) extracted using Soxhlet ethanol extraction were evaluated for their antioxidative, anti-proliferative effects on leukemia cells. Using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, phenolics and antioxidant activity were found in all sample mushrooms. Additionally, anti-proliferative activity of mushroom extracts against U937 leukemia cells was determined using a viability assay based on mitochondrial activity. PA (0.5 mg/mL) and AA (0.25-0.5 mg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability. Interestingly, PS caused a hormetic-like biphasic dose-response. Low doses (0-0.25 mg/L) of PS promoted cell proliferation up to 140% relative to control, whereas higher doses (0.50 mg/mL) inhibited cell proliferation. Against U937 cells, AA IC 50 was 0.28 ± 0.04 mg/mL, which was lower than PS or PA IC 50 (0.45 ± 0.01 and 0.49 ± 0.001 mg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage conferred cytotoxicity. PS and PA were not toxic to U937 cells at any tested concentration; AA (0.50 mg/mL) showed high LDH levels and caused 50% cytotoxicity. Additionally, UPLC-HRMS data indicated several phytochemicals known to support functional activities as either antioxidant or anti-proliferative. Glutamic acid was uniquely found in ethanolic extracts of AA, and was considered an anti-cancer amino acid with potent anti-proliferative effects on U937 cells. Collectively, all mushroom extracts exhibited antioxidant effects, but their anti-proliferative effects were dose-dependent. Nevertheless, the AA extract, with highest potency, is a promising candidate for future applications.

  9. Pirfenidone inhibits post-traumatic proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Khanum, B N M K; Guha, R; Sur, V P; Nandi, S; Basak, S K; Konar, A; Hazra, S

    2017-09-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal pirfenidone for inhibition of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in a model of penetrating ocular injury.Patients and methodsPenetrating trauma was induced on the retina of rabbit and treated either with 0.1 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or 0.1 ml of 0.5% pirfenidone, and development of PVR was evaluated clinically and graded after 1 month. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry with transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and collagen-1 were performed to assess the fibrotic changes. Expression of cytokines in the vitro-retinal tissues at different time points following pirfenidone and PBS injection was examined by RT-PCR. Availability of pirfenidone in the vitreous of rabbit at various time points was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography following injection of 0.1 ml of 0.5% pirfenidone. In normal rabbit eye, 0.1 ml of 0.5% pirfenidone was injected to evaluate any toxic effect.ResultsClinical assessment and grading revealed prevention of PVR formation in pirfenidone-treated animals, gross histology, and histopathology confirmed the observation. Immunohistochemistry showed prevention in the expression of collagen-I, αSMA, and TGFβ in the pirfenidone-treated eyes compared to the PBS-treated eyes. Pirfenidone inhibited increased gene expression of cytokines observed in control eyes. Pirfenidone could be detected up to 48 h in the vitreous of rabbit eye following single intravitreal injection. Pirfenidone did not show any adverse effect following intravitreal injection; eyes were devoid of any abnormal clinical sign, intraocular pressure, and electroretinography did not show any significant change and histology of retina remained unchanged.ConclusionThis animal study shows that pirfenidone might be a potential therapy for PVR. Further clinical study will be useful to evaluate the clinical application of

  10. To report a case of unilateral proliferative retinopathy following noncerebral malaria with Plasmodium falciparum in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Aditya; Krishna, M S

    2015-01-01

    The retinopathy in association with malaria fever described so far includes retinal hemorrhages, vessel changes, retinal discoloration/whitening and papilledema. Malaria retinopathy has been mostly described in severe cases, associated with Plasmodium falciparum, correlating the patho-physiology of retinal and cerebral manifestations. We report an unusual case of proliferative retinopathy as a manifestation of malaria fever, caused by P. falciparum with no cerebral involvement. The patient had features of unilateral retinal vascular occlusion with proliferative changes and vitreous hemorrhage. To the best of our knowledge, such a case has never been reported so far in the literature. This report highlights the possible occurrence of severe proliferative changes associated with malaria fever, which if diagnosed early can prevent possible blindness.

  11. Cortisol Response to Psychosocial Stress in Chinese Early Puberty Girls: Possible Role of Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Deng, Fang; Liu, Yang; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The present study aimed at investigating unique patterns of salivary cortisol reactivity and recovery in response to a social stressor among girls with early puberty and exploring possible role of depressive symptom in this association. Design. Case-control study. Patients. Fifty-six girls with early puberty and age- and body mass index- (BMI-) matched normal puberty controls (n = 56) were selected. Measurements. Salivary cortisol was measured in response to the Groningen Social Stress Test for Children. Results. Girls with early puberty had higher cortisol concentration at the end of the GSST (C3), cortisol concentration 20 min after the end of the GSST (C4), and AUC increment (AUCi) compared to non-early puberty girls. Depressive symptoms correlated with blunted HPA reactivity among girls with early puberty. Conclusion. This study demonstrated the disturbance effect of objectively examined early pubertal timing on HPA axis responses. It also suggested that stress reactivity might be blunted for individuals with depressive symptoms.

  12. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  13. Proliferative and Non-Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Integument

    PubMed Central

    Mecklenburg, Lars; Kusewitt, Donna; Kolly, Carine; Treumann, Silke; Adams, E. Terence; Diegel, Kelly; Yamate, Jyoji; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Müller, Susanne; Danilenko, Dimitry; Bradley, Alys

    2014-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) project is a joint initiative of the societies of toxicological pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP). Its aim is to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory rodents. A widely accepted international harmonization of nomenclature in laboratory animals will decrease confusion among regulatory and scientific research organizations in different countries and will provide a common language to increase and enrich international exchanges of information among toxicologists and pathologists. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopical lesions observed in the integument of laboratory rats and mice. Example colour images are provided for most lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document and additional colour images are also available electronically at http://www.goreni.org. The nomenclature presented herein is based on histopathology databases from government, academia, and industrial laboratories throughout the world, and covers lesions that develop spontaneously as well as those induced by exposure to various test materials. (DOI: 10.1293/tox.26.27S; J Toxicol Pathol 2013; 26: 27S–57S) PMID:25035577

  14. Non-proliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Cardiovascular System of the Rat and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Brian R.; Mowat, Vasanthi; Nagai, Hirofumi; Nyska, Abraham; Okazaki, Yoshimasa; Clements, Peter J.; Rinke, Matthias; Snyder, Paul W.; Boyle, Michael C.; Wells, Monique Y.

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of the Societies of Toxicologic Pathology from Japan (JSTP), Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally-accepted nomenclature for proliferative and non-proliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The primary purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for characterizing lesions observed in the cardiovascular (CV) system of rats and mice commonly used in drug or chemical safety assessment. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically for society members on the internet (http://goreni.org). Accurate and precise morphologic descriptions of changes in the CV system are important for understanding the mechanisms and pathogenesis of those changes, differentiation of natural and induced injuries and their ultimate functional consequence. Challenges in nomenclature are associated with lesions or pathologic processes that may present as a temporal or pathogenic spectrum or when natural and induced injuries share indistinguishable features. Specific nomenclature recommendations are offered to provide a consistent approach. PMID:27621537

  15. Substance P prevents development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in mice by modulating TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyungsang; Son, Bo Kwon; Kim, Suna; Son, Youngsook; Yu, Seung-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is an inflammatory fibrotic disease resulting from the inflammatory milieu after retinal detachment, which can prevent retinal healing. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of substance P (SP) on retinal degeneration caused by retinal detachment in vivo and to examine the role of SP in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human RPE cells in vitro. Methods PVR-like retinal damage was induced by intravitreally injecting dispase into mice, and SP was systemically injected twice a week for 3 weeks. Histological analysis and cytokine profile with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed. The direct effect of SP on induction of EMT in vitro was studied by adding SP to TNF-α-treated ARPE-19 cells and then evaluating the change in the characteristics of the epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Results Dispase injection led to a PVR-like retinal condition, demonstrating an inflammatory response with disruption of RPE interaction within 1 week and severe destruction with enfolding within 3 weeks after the dispase injection. The inflammatory environment promoted apoptosis and migration of fibroblast-like cells in the retinal layer, which can cause fibrotic disease, such as PVR. However, SP treatment suppressed early inflammatory responses by reducing TNF-α and elevating interleukin-10 (IL-10), with cell death and the appearance of fibroblastic cells inhibited and the progression of retinal degeneration obviously delayed. Moreover, SP ameliorated TNF-α-induced EMT of the RPE and directly prevented fibrotic change in the RPE. Conclusions This study revealed that SP can block apoptosis and EMT due to retinal inflammation and inhibit the development of PVR. This effect most likely occurred by modulating the secretion and action of TNF-α.. PMID:29296073

  16. [Inflammasome and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at early stage of burns].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Jiahui; Xia, Zhaofan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammasomes are large multi-protein complexes that serve as a platform for caspase-1 activation, and this process induces subsequent maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as pyroptosis. As an important component of the innate immune system, early activation of inflammasomes in a variety of immune cell subsets can mediate inflammatory response and immunological conditions after burn injury. Here, we review the current knowledge of inflammasomes and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at the early stage of burn injury.

  17. Changes in the Proliferative Program Limit Astrocyte Homeostasis in the Aged Post-Traumatic Murine Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Gábor; Canhos, Luisa L; Frik, Jesica; Jäger, Gabriele; Lepko, Tjasa; Ninkovic, Jovica; Götz, Magdalena; Sirko, Swetlana

    2017-08-01

    Aging leads to adverse outcomes after traumatic brain injury. The mechanisms underlying these defects, however, are not yet clear. In this study, we found that astrocytes in the aged post-traumatic cerebral cortex develop a significantly reduced proliferative response, resulting in reduced astrocyte numbers in the penumbra. Moreover, experiments of reactive astrocytes in vitro reveal that their diminished proliferation is due to an age-related switch in the division mode with reduced cell-cycle re-entry rather than changes in cell-cycle length. Notably, reactive astrocytes in vivo and in vitro become refractory to stimuli increasing their proliferation during aging, such as Sonic hedgehog signaling. These data demonstrate for the first time that age-dependent, most likely intrinsic changes in the proliferative program of reactive astrocytes result in their severely hampered proliferative response to traumatic injury thereby affecting astrocyte homeostasis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. The tonic response to the infant knee jerk as an early sign of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hamer, Elisa G; La Bastide-Van Gemert, Sacha; Boxum, Anke G; Dijkstra, Linze J; Hielkema, Tjitske; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2018-04-01

    Early identification of infants at risk of cerebral palsy (CP) is desirable in order to provide early intervention. We previously demonstrated differences in knee jerk responses between 3-month-old high risk and typically developing infants. To improve early identification by investigating whether the presence of tonic responses (continuous muscle activity occurring after the typical phasic response), clonus or contralateral responses to the knee jerk during infancy is associated with CP. Longitudinal EMG-study. We included 34 high-risk infants (median gestational age 31.9 weeks) who participated in the LEARN2MOVE 0-2 years trial. Video-recorded knee jerk EMG-assessments were performed during infancy (1-4 times). Developmental outcome was assessed at 21 months corrected age (CA). Binomial generalized estimating equations models with repeated measurements were fitted using predictor variables. Infants who later were diagnosed with CP (n = 18) showed more often than infants who were not diagnosed with CP i) tonic responses - from 4 months CA onwards, ii) clonus - from 13 months CA onwards, and iii) contralateral responses - from 15 months CA onwards. The main limitation is the relatively small sample size. The assessment of tonic responses to the knee jerk using EMG may be a valuable add-on tool to appraise a high risk of CP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Negative affective spillover from daily events predicts early response to cognitive therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lawrence H; Gunthert, Kathleen C; Butler, Andrew C; Parrish, Brendt P; Wenze, Susan J; Beck, Judith S

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluated the predictive role of depressed outpatients' (N = 62) affective reactivity to daily stressors in their rates of improvement in cognitive therapy (CT). For 1 week before treatment, patients completed nightly electronic diaries that assessed daily stressors and negative affect (NA). The authors used multilevel modeling to compute each patient's within-day relationship between daily stressors and daily NA (within-day reactivity), as well as the relationship between daily stressors and next-day NA (next-day reactivity; affective spillover). In growth model analyses, the authors evaluated the predictive role of patients' NA reactivity in their early (Sessions 1-4) and late (Sessions 5-12) response to CT. Within-day NA reactivity did not predict early or late response to CT. However, next-day reactivity predicted early response to CT, such that patients who had greater NA spillover in response to negative events had a slower rate of symptom change during the first 4 sessions. Affective spillover did not influence later response to CT. The findings suggest that depressed patients who have difficulty bouncing back the next day from their NA reactions to a relative increase in daily negative events will respond less quickly to the early sessions of CT.

  20. Early Change in Stroke Size Performs Best in Predicting Response to Therapy.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Alexis Nétis; Dias, Christian; Norato, Gina; Kim, Eunhee; Leigh, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Reliable imaging biomarkers of response to therapy in acute stroke are needed. The final infarct volume and percent of early reperfusion have been used for this purpose. Early fluctuation in stroke size is a recognized phenomenon, but its utility as a biomarker for response to therapy has not been established. This study examined the clinical relevance of early change in stroke volume and compared it with the final infarct volume and percent of early reperfusion in identifying early neurologic improvement (ENI). Acute stroke patients, enrolled between 2013 and 2014 with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (pretreatment baseline, 2 h post, and 24 h post), who received thrombolysis were included in the analysis. Early change in stroke volume, infarct volume at 24 h on diffusion, and percent of early reperfusion were calculated from the baseline and 2 h MRI scans were compared. ENI was defined as ≥4 point decrease in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scales within 24 h. Logistic regression models and receiver operator characteristics analysis were used to compare the efficacy of 3 imaging biomarkers. Serial MRIs of 58 acute stroke patients were analyzed. Early change in stroke volume was significantly associated with ENI by logistic regression analysis (OR 0.93, p = 0.048) and remained significant after controlling for stroke size and severity (OR 0.90, p = 0.032). Thus, for every 1 mL increase in stroke volume, there was a 10% decrease in the odds of ENI, while for every 1 mL decrease in stroke volume, there was a 10% increase in the odds of ENI. Neither infarct volume at 24 h nor percent of early reperfusion were significantly associated with ENI by logistic regression. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis identified early change in stroke volume as the only biomarker of the 3 that performed significantly different than chance (p = 0.03). Early fluctuations in stroke size may represent a more reliable biomarker for response to therapy than the

  1. Selective AR Modulators that Distinguish Proliferative from Differentiative Gene Promoters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0292 TITLE: Selective AR Modulators that Distinguish Proliferative from Differentiative Gene Promoters PRINCIPAL...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...29 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Selective AR Modulators that Distinguish Proliferative from Differentiative Gene Promoters 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  2. Auditory-neurophysiological responses to speech during early childhood: Effects of background noise

    PubMed Central

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Davies, Evan C.; Thompson, Elaine C.; Carr, Kali Woodruff; Nicol, Trent; Bradlow, Ann R.; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period of auditory learning, during which children are constantly mapping sounds to meaning. But learning rarely occurs under ideal listening conditions—children are forced to listen against a relentless din. This background noise degrades the neural coding of these critical sounds, in turn interfering with auditory learning. Despite the importance of robust and reliable auditory processing during early childhood, little is known about the neurophysiology underlying speech processing in children so young. To better understand the physiological constraints these adverse listening scenarios impose on speech sound coding during early childhood, auditory-neurophysiological responses were elicited to a consonant-vowel syllable in quiet and background noise in a cohort of typically-developing preschoolers (ages 3–5 yr). Overall, responses were degraded in noise: they were smaller, less stable across trials, slower, and there was poorer coding of spectral content and the temporal envelope. These effects were exacerbated in response to the consonant transition relative to the vowel, suggesting that the neural coding of spectrotemporally-dynamic speech features is more tenuous in noise than the coding of static features—even in children this young. Neural coding of speech temporal fine structure, however, was more resilient to the addition of background noise than coding of temporal envelope information. Taken together, these results demonstrate that noise places a neurophysiological constraint on speech processing during early childhood by causing a breakdown in neural processing of speech acoustics. These results may explain why some listeners have inordinate difficulties understanding speech in noise. Speech-elicited auditory-neurophysiological responses offer objective insight into listening skills during early childhood by reflecting the integrity of neural coding in quiet and noise; this paper documents typical response properties

  3. Early-Life Persistent Vitamin D Deficiency Alters Cardiopulmonary Responses to Particulate Matter-Enhanced Atmospheric Smog in Adult Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that early-life persistent vitamin D deficiency alters the cardiopulmonary response to smog in mice and may increase risk of adverse effects. Early life nutritional deficiencies can lead to increased cardiovascular susceptibility to environme...

  4. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Piippo, Niina; Kinnunen, Kati; Hytti, Maria; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-12-01

    Innate immunity and dysregulation of inflammatory processes play a role in vascular diseases like atherosclerosis or diabetes. Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich repeat Receptor containing a Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes are pro-inflammatory signalling complexes that were found in 2002. In addition to pathogens and other extracellular threats, they can be activated by various endogenous danger signals. The purpose of this study was to find out whether NLRP3 activation occurs in patients with sight-threatening forms of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Inflammasome components NLRP3 and caspase-1, inflammasome-related pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), acute-phase cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as adaptive immunity-related cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) were measured from the vitreous samples of 15 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (non-PDR) and 23 proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) patients using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) was determined using the Western blot technique. Inflammasome components were present in the vitreous of DR patients. Along with VEGF, the levels of caspase-1 and IL-18 were significantly increased, especially in PDR eyes. Interestingly, clearly higher levels of NLRP3 were found in the PDR eyes with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) than from PDR eyes with fully attached retina. There were no significant differences in the amounts of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ that were detectable in the vitreous of both non-PDR and PDR patients. Our results suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation can be associated especially with the pathogenesis of PDR. The lack of differences in TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ also alludes that acute inflammation or T-cell-mediated responses do not dominate in PDR pathogenesis. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation

  5. Population Response Profiles in Early Visual Cortex Are Biased in Favor of More Valuable Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Saproo, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    Voluntary and stimulus-driven shifts of attention can modulate the representation of behaviorally relevant stimuli in early areas of visual cortex. In turn, attended items are processed faster and more accurately, facilitating the selection of appropriate behavioral responses. Information processing is also strongly influenced by past experience and recent studies indicate that the learned value of a stimulus can influence relatively late stages of decision making such as the process of selecting a motor response. However, the learned value of a stimulus can also influence the magnitude of cortical responses in early sensory areas such as V1 and S1. These early effects of stimulus value are presumed to improve the quality of sensory representations; however, the nature of these modulations is not clear. They could reflect nonspecific changes in response amplitude associated with changes in general arousal or they could reflect a bias in population responses so that high-value features are represented more robustly. To examine this issue, subjects performed a two-alternative forced choice paradigm with a variable-interval payoff schedule to dynamically manipulate the relative value of two stimuli defined by their orientation (one was rotated clockwise from vertical, the other counterclockwise). Activation levels in visual cortex were monitored using functional MRI and feature-selective voxel tuning functions while subjects performed the behavioral task. The results suggest that value not only modulates the relative amplitude of responses in early areas of human visual cortex, but also sharpens the response profile across the populations of feature-selective neurons that encode the critical stimulus feature (orientation). Moreover, changes in space- or feature-based attention cannot easily explain the results because representations of both the selected and the unselected stimuli underwent a similar feature-selective modulation. This sharpening in the population

  6. Stress and the memory T-cell response to the Epstein-Barr virus in healthy medical students.

    PubMed

    Glaser, R; Pearson, G R; Bonneau, R H; Esterling, B A; Atkinson, C; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K

    1993-11-01

    This study investigated the memory T-cell proliferative response to several early and late Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polypeptides. Blood samples were collected twice, 1 month before a 3-day block of examinations and again on the last day of the exam series. Ss were 25 healthy, EBV seropositive medical students. The proliferative response to 5 of the 6 EBV polypeptides significantly decreased during examinations. In addition, Ss high (above the median) in seeking support, as measured by the COPE, had lower proliferative responses to 3 EBV polypeptides (p17, p52/50, and p85), as well as higher levels of antibody to EBV virus capsid antigen. The data provide further evidence that psychological stress can modulate the cellular immune response to latent EBV.

  7. The bradykinin B2 receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Kaman, Wendy E; Wolterink, Arthur F W M; Bader, Michael; Boele, Linda C L; van der Kleij, Desiree

    2009-02-01

    The endogenous danger signal bradykinin was recently found implicated in the development of immunity against parasites via dendritic cells. We here report an essential role of the B(2) (B(2)R) bradykinin receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection. Mice deficient in B(2)R (B(2)R(-/-) mice) were shown to suffer from increased hepatic bacterial burden and concomitant dramatic weight loss during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Levels of cytokines known to play a pivotal role in the early phase immune response against L. monocytogenes, IL-12p70 and IFN-gamma, were reduced in B(2)R(-/-) mice. To extend these findings to the human system, we show that bradykinin potentiates the production of IL-12p70 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thus, we show that bradykinin and the B(2)R play a role in early innate immune functions during bacterial infection.

  8. Exploring Higher Education's Response to the Early Childhood Education Teacher Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matczak, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative single case study attempt is to explore how one institution of higher education can be responsive in meeting the needs of a teacher shortage in early childhood education and the factors impacting (hindering and helping) the collaborative partner process of designing an Applied Bachelor's in Science Degree in Elementary Education…

  9. Designing a Measurement Framework for Response to Intervention in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Scott R.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Roloff, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The overall architecture and major components of a measurement system designed and evaluated to support Response to Intervention (RTI) in the areas of language and literacy in early childhood programs are described. Efficient and reliable measurement is essential for implementing any viable RTI system, and implementing such a system in early…

  10. Effectiveness of Community-Based Early Intervention Based on Pivotal Response Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isabel M.; Flanagan, Helen E.; Garon, Nancy; Bryson, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers (n = 118) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participated in this prospective effectiveness study of an early intervention program. Treatment entailed parent training and therapist-implemented components, incorporating Pivotal Response Treatment and Positive Behaviour Support. Standardized ability and behavioural measures were…

  11. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  12. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  13. Caregiver Responsiveness during Preschool Supports Cooperation in Kindergarten: Moderation by Children's Early Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Megan E.; Lipscomb, Shannon T.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined how children's parent-reported compliance at age 3 (36 months) moderated the effects of 2 dimensions of directly observed early care and education (ECE) process quality (positivity/responsivity and cognitive stimulation) during the prekindergarten year (54 months) on teacher reports of children's…

  14. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  15. [Health threats and health system crises. An approach to early warning and response. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    PubMed

    Simón Soria, Fernando; Guillén Enríquez, Francisco Javier

    2008-04-01

    The world is changing more and faster than ever before. New diseases are coming to light each year, controlled diseases are reemerging as potential threats, and natural or man-made disasters are increasingly affecting human health. The "International Health Regulations (2005)" reflect the changes in the response of public health to this new situation. Surveillance of specific diseases and predefined control measures have been replaced by surveillance of public health events of international concern and control measures adapted to each situation. The public health events of international interest are characterized by their seriousness, predictability, the risk of international spread and potential for travel or trade restrictions. The development of the European Early Warning and Response System in 1998 and the creation of the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control in 2005 demonstrate political commitment in Europe, with early detection of and response to public health threats. However, timely risk evaluation and response at a national level requires improved data digitalization and accessibility, automatic notification processes, data analysis and dissemination of information, the combination of information from multiple sources and adaptation of public health services. The autonomous regions in Spain are initiating this adaptation process, but interoperability between systems and the development of guidelines for a coordinated response should be steered by the National Interregional Health Council and coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Efficient early warning systems of health threats that allow for a timely response and reduce uncertainty about information would help to minimize the risk of public health crises. The profile of public health threats is nonspecific. Early detection of threats requires access to information from multiple sources and efficient risk assessment. Key factors for improving the response to public health threats are the

  16. Vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy versus proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Kabatas, Emrah Utku; Batman, Cosar; Akin, Kadir Okhan; Kabatas, Naciye

    2012-01-01

    To assess vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in comparison to proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Vitreous samples were collected from 69 eyes of 69 patients with traumatic lens dislocation (n = 10), grade B PVR with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 13), grade C PVR with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (n = 14), PDR with vitreous hemorrhage (n = 18), and PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment (n = 14). Vitreous fluid samples were obtained at vitrectomy, and the levels of VEGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean vitreous level of VEGF was 15.14 ± 5.22 pg/ml in eyes with grade B PVR, 99.15 ± 38.58 pg/ml in eyes with grade C PVR, 4,534.01 ± 1,193.28 pg/ml in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage secondary to PDR, 5,157.29 ± 969.44 pg/ml in eyes with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment secondary to PDR, and 16.19 ± 5.76 pg/ml in eyes of the control group with traumatic lens dislocation. Vitreous VEGF concentrations were significantly higher in the patients with grade C PVR, PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and PDR with vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment in comparison to the control patients (p < 0.05). A significant alteration was not observed in patients with grade B PVR (p = 0.55). Vitreous VEGF concentrations are increased in PDR and grade C PVR. The high VEGF concentrations could suggest a possible effect of VEGF on advanced PVR. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Selective anti-proliferative activities of Carica papaya leaf juice extracts against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Walpole, Carina; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, Paul N; Batra, Jyotsna; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2017-05-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer related deaths in men. Carica papaya is a popular tropical plant that has been traditionally used for its nutritional and medicinal properties. We investigated the anti-proliferative responses of papaya leaf juice (LJP) and its various extracts ("biological"- in vitro digested, "physical"- size exclusion, and "chemical"-solvent extraction) on a range of cell lines representing benign hyperplasia, tumorigenic and normal cells of prostate origin. Time course analysis (by 24h, 48h and 72h) of LJP (1-0.1mg/mL) before and after in vitro digestion, and of molecular weight based fractions of LJP showed anti-proliferative responses. The medium polarity fraction of LJP (0.03-0.003mg/mL) after 72h exposure showed potent growth inhibitory (IC 50 =0.02-0.07mg/mL) and cytotoxic activities on all prostate cells, with the exception of the normal (RWPE-1 and WPMY-1) cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed S phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as a possible mechanism for these activities. Medium polar fraction of LJP also inhibited migration and adhesion of metastatic PC-3 cells. This is the first report suggesting selective anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic attributes of LJP extract against prostatic diseases, including PCa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Abnormal early brain responses during visual search are evident in schizophrenia but not bipolar affective disorder.

    PubMed

    VanMeerten, Nicolaas J; Dubke, Rachel E; Stanwyck, John J; Kang, Seung Suk; Sponheim, Scott R

    2016-01-01

    People with schizophrenia show deficits in processing visual stimuli but neural abnormalities underlying the deficits are unclear and it is unknown whether such functional brain abnormalities are present in other severe mental disorders or in individuals who carry genetic liability for schizophrenia. To better characterize brain responses underlying visual search deficits and test their specificity to schizophrenia we gathered behavioral and electrophysiological responses during visual search (i.e., Span of Apprehension [SOA] task) from 38 people with schizophrenia, 31 people with bipolar disorder, 58 biological relatives of people with schizophrenia, 37 biological relatives of people with bipolar disorder, and 65 non-psychiatric control participants. Through subtracting neural responses associated with purely sensory aspects of the stimuli we found that people with schizophrenia exhibited reduced early posterior task-related neural responses (i.e., Span Endogenous Negativity [SEN]) while other groups showed normative responses. People with schizophrenia exhibited longer reaction times than controls during visual search but nearly identical accuracy. Those individuals with schizophrenia who had larger SENs performed more efficiently (i.e., shorter reaction times) on the SOA task suggesting that modulation of early visual cortical responses facilitated their visual search. People with schizophrenia also exhibited a diminished P300 response compared to other groups. Unaffected first-degree relatives of people with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed an amplified N1 response over posterior brain regions in comparison to other groups. Diminished early posterior brain responses are associated with impaired visual search in schizophrenia and appear to be specifically associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Early host response in the mammary gland after experimental Streptococcus uberis challenge in heifers.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, Astrid; Zadoks, Ruth; Ruuls, Lisette; Toussaint, Mathilda; Nguyen, Thi Kim Anh; Downing, Alison; Rebel, Johanna; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Smith, Hilde

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a highly prevalent causative agent of bovine mastitis, which leads to large economic losses in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to examine the host response during acute inflammation after experimental challenge with capsulated Strep. uberis. Gene expression in response to Strep. uberis was compared between infected and control quarters in 3 animals. All quarters (n=16) were sampled at 16 different locations. Microarray data showed that 239 genes were differentially expressed between infected and control quarters. No differences in gene expression were observed between the different locations. Microarray data were confirmed for several genes using quantitative PCR analysis. Genes differentially expressed due to early Strep. uberis mastitis represented several stages of the process of infection: (1) pathogen recognition; (2) chemoattraction of neutrophils; (3) tissue repair mechanisms; and (4) bactericidal activity. Three different pathogen recognition genes were induced: ficolins, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and toll-like receptor 2. Calgranulins were found to be the most strongly upregulated genes during early inflammation. By histology and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that changes in gene expression in response to Strep. uberis were induced both in infiltrating somatic milk cells and in mammary epithelial cells, demonstrating that the latter cell type plays a role in milk production as well as immune responsiveness. Given the rapid development of inflammation or mastitis after infection, early diagnosis of (Strep. uberis) mastitis is required for prevention of disease and spread of the pathogen. Insight into host responses could help to design immunomodulatory therapies to dampen inflammation after (early) diagnosis of Strep. uberis mastitis. Future research should focus on development of these early diagnostics and immunomodulatory components for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science

  20. Early changes in emotional processing as a marker of clinical response to SSRI treatment in depression.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, B R; Browning, M; Norbury, R; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2016-11-22

    Antidepressant treatment reduces behavioural and neural markers of negative emotional bias early in treatment and has been proposed as a mechanism of antidepressant drug action. Here, we provide a critical test of this hypothesis by assessing whether neural markers of early emotional processing changes predict later clinical response in depression. Thirty-five unmedicated patients with major depression took the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI), escitalopram (10 mg), over 6 weeks, and were classified as responders (22 patients) versus non-responders (13 patients), based on at least a 50% reduction in symptoms by the end of treatment. The neural response to fearful and happy emotional facial expressions was assessed before and after 7 days of treatment using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in the neural response to these facial cues after 7 days of escitalopram were compared in patients as a function of later clinical response. A sample of healthy controls was also assessed. At baseline, depressed patients showed greater activation to fear versus happy faces than controls in the insula and dorsal anterior cingulate. Depressed patients who went on to respond to the SSRI had a greater reduction in neural activity to fearful versus happy facial expressions after just 7 days of escitalopram across a network of regions including the anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala and thalamus. Mediation analysis confirmed that the direct effect of neural change on symptom response was not mediated by initial changes in depressive symptoms. These results support the hypothesis that early changes in emotional processing with antidepressant treatment are the basis of later clinical improvement. As such, early correction of negative bias may be a key mechanism of antidepressant drug action and a potentially useful predictor of therapeutic response.

  1. Augmentation of sensory-evoked hemodynamic response in an early Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Jeong, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Based on enlarged blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses in cognitively normal subjects at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), compensatory neuronal hyperactivation has been proposed as an early marker for diagnosis of AD. The BOLD response results from neurovascular coupling, i.e., hemodynamic response induced by neuronal activity. However, there has been no evidence of task-induced increases in hemodynamic response in animal models of AD. Here, we observed an augmented hemodynamic response pattern in a transgenic AβPP(SWE)/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of AD using three in vivo imaging methods: intrinsic optical signal imaging, multi-photon laser scanning microscopy, and laser Doppler flowmetry. Sensory stimulation resulted in augmented and prolonged hemodynamic responses in transgenic mice evidenced by changes in total, oxygenated, and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration. This difference between transgenic and wild-type mice was significant at 7 months of age when amyloid plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy had developed but not at younger or older ages. Correspondingly, sensory stimulation-induced pial arteriole diameter was also augmented and prolonged in transgenic mice at 7 months of age. Cerebral blood flow response in transgenic mice was augmented but not prolonged. These results are consistent with the existence of BOLD signal hyperactivation in non-demented AD-risk human subjects, supporting its potential use as an early diagnostic marker of AD.

  2. Possible mechanisms for arsenic-induced proliferative diseases

    SciT

    Wetterhahn, K.E.; Dudek, E.J.; Shumilla, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Possible mechanisms for cardiovascular diseases and cancers which have been observed on chronic exposure to arsenic have been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that nonlethal levels of arsenic are mitogenic, cause oxidative stress, increase nuclear translocation of trans-acting factors, and increase expression of genes involved in proliferation. Cultured porcine vascular (from aorta) endothelial cells were used as a model cell system to study the effects of arsenic on the target cells for cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of postconfluent cell cultures with nonovertly toxic concentrations of arsenite increased DNA synthesis, similar to the mitogenic response observed with hydrogen peroxide. Within 1 hourmore » of adding noncytotoxic concentrations of arsenite, cellular levels of oxidants increased relative to control levels, indicating that arsenite promotes cellular oxidations. Arsenite treatment increased nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B, an oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor, in a manner similar to that observed with hydrogen peroxide. Pretreatment of intact cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and dimethylfumarate prevented the arsenite-induced increases in cellular oxidant formation and NF-KB translocation. Arsenite had little or no effect on binding of NF-KB to its DNA recognition sequence in vitro, indicating that it is unlikely that arsenite directly affects NF-KB. The steady-state mRNA levels of intracellular adhesion molecule and urokinase-like plasminogen activator, genes associated with the active endothelial phenotype in arteriosclerosis and cancer metastasis, were increased by nontoxic concentrations of arsenite. These data suggest that arsenite promotes proliferative diseases like heart disease and cancer by activating oxidant-sensitive endothelial cell signaling and gene expression. It is possible that antioxidant therapy would be useful in preventing arsenic-induced cardiovascular disease and cancer.« less

  3. Preterm children at early adolescence and continuity and discontinuity in maternal responsiveness from infancy.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, L; Rodning, C; Cohen, S

    1992-10-01

    Patterns in mother-child interaction from infancy to age 12 were investigated in a prospective, longitudinal study of 44 English-speaking mothers and their preterm children. Maternal responsiveness was assessed by home observations during infancy and the Family Interaction Q-Sort at age 12, derived from 2 structured laboratory situations requiring cooperation of mother and child. A cluster of maternal behaviors of critical control toward the toddler was assessed at age 2 years. Children of mothers who were consistently more responsive during both infancy and early adolescence, as well as children whose mothers became more responsive by age 12, achieved higher IQ and arithmetic scores, had more positive self-esteem, and their teachers reported fewer behavioral and emotional problems than children of mothers who were consistently less responsive both during infancy and at age 12. Continuity in parenting behaviors was related to control and criticism beginning in the toddler period and not to degree of responsiveness to the infant.

  4. Implementation of an alert and response system in Haiti during the early stage of the response to the cholera epidemic.

    PubMed

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-10-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  5. Implementation of an Alert and Response System in Haiti during the Early Stage of the Response to the Cholera Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Olalla, Patricia; Gayer, Michelle; Magloire, Roc; Barrais, Robert; Valenciano, Marta; Aramburu, Carmen; Poncelet, Jean Luc; Gustavo Alonso, Juan Carlos; Van Alphen, Dana; Heuschen, Florence; Andraghetti, Roberta; Lee, Robert; Drury, Patrick; Aldighieri, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The start of the cholera epidemic in Haiti quickly highlighted the necessity of the implementation of an Alert and Response (A&R) System to complement the existing national surveillance system. The national system had been able to detect and confirm the outbreak etiology but required external support to monitor the spread of cholera and coordinate response, because much of the information produced was insufficiently timely for real-time monitoring and directing of a rapid, targeted response. The A&R System was designed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization in collaboration with the Haiti Ministry of Health, and it was based on a network of partners, including any institution, structure, or individual that could identify, verify, and respond to alerts. The defined objectives were to (1) save lives through early detection and treatment of cases and (2) control the spread through early intervention at the community level. The operational structure could be broken down into three principle categories: (1) alert (early warning), (2) verification and assessment of the information, and (3) efficient and timely response in coordination with partners to avoid duplication. Information generated by the A&R System was analyzed and interpreted, and the qualitative information was critical in qualifying the epidemic and defining vulnerable areas, particularly because the national surveillance system reported incomplete data for more than one department. The A&R System detected a number of alerts unrelated to cholera and facilitated rapid access to that information. The sensitivity of the system and its ability to react quickly was shown in May of 2011, when an abnormal increase in alerts coming from several communes in the Sud-Est Department in epidemiological weeks (EWs) 17 and 18 were noted and disseminated network-wide and response activities were implemented. The national cholera surveillance system did not register the increase until EWs 21 and

  6. Girls' challenging social experiences in early adolescence predict neural response to rewards and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Guyer, Amanda E; Hipwell, Alison E; McAloon, Rose L; Hoffmann, Amy M; Keenan, Kathryn E; Forbes, Erika E

    2014-04-01

    Developmental models of psychopathology posit that exposure to social stressors may confer risk for depression in adolescent girls by disrupting neural reward circuitry. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between early adolescent social stressors and later neural reward processing and depressive symptoms. Participants were 120 girls from an ongoing longitudinal study of precursors to depression across adolescent development. Low parental warmth, peer victimization, and depressive symptoms were assessed when the girls were 11 and 12 years old, and participants completed a monetary reward guessing fMRI task and assessment of depressive symptoms at age 16. Results indicate that low parental warmth was associated with increased response to potential rewards in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), striatum, and amygdala, whereas peer victimization was associated with decreased response to potential rewards in the mPFC. Furthermore, concurrent depressive symptoms were associated with increased reward anticipation response in mPFC and striatal regions that were also associated with early adolescent psychosocial stressors, with mPFC and striatal response mediating the association between social stressors and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with developmental models that emphasize the adverse impact of early psychosocial stressors on neural reward processing and risk for depression in adolescence. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-06-07

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process.

  8. Artificial Neural Network-Based Early-Age Concrete Strength Monitoring Using Dynamic Response Signals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junkyeong; Lee, Chaggil; Park, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is one of the most common materials used to construct a variety of civil infrastructures. However, since concrete might be susceptible to brittle fracture, it is essential to confirm the strength of concrete at the early-age stage of the curing process to prevent unexpected collapse. To address this issue, this study proposes a novel method to estimate the early-age strength of concrete, by integrating an artificial neural network algorithm with a dynamic response measurement of the concrete material. The dynamic response signals of the concrete, including both electromechanical impedances and guided ultrasonic waves, are obtained from an embedded piezoelectric sensor module. The cross-correlation coefficient of the electromechanical impedance signals and the amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave signals are selected to quantify the variation in dynamic responses according to the strength of the concrete. Furthermore, an artificial neural network algorithm is used to verify a relationship between the variation in dynamic response signals and concrete strength. The results of an experimental study confirm that the proposed approach can be effectively applied to estimate the strength of concrete material from the early-age stage of the curing process. PMID:28590456

  9. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  10. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-12-01

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Early Peritoneal Immune Response during Echinococcus granulosus Establishment Displays a Biphasic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Marqués, Juan Martín; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide distributed helminth zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Human secondary cystic echinococcosis is caused by dissemination of protoscoleces after accidental rupture of fertile cysts and is due to protoscoleces ability to develop into new metacestodes. In the experimental model of secondary cystic echinococcosis mice react against protoscoleces producing inefficient immune responses, allowing parasites to develop into cysts. Although the chronic phase of infection has been analyzed in depth, early immune responses at the site of infection establishment, e.g., peritoneal cavity, have not been well studied. Because during early stages of infection parasites are thought to be more susceptible to immune attack, this work focused on the study of cellular and molecular events triggered early in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice. Principal Findings Data obtained showed disparate behaviors among subpopulations within the peritoneal lymphoid compartment. Regarding B cells, there is an active molecular process of plasma cell differentiation accompanied by significant local production of specific IgM and IgG2b antibodies. In addition, peritoneal NK cells showed a rapid increase with a significant percentage of activated cells. Peritoneal T cells showed a substantial increase, with predominance in CD4+ T lymphocytes. There was also a local increase in Treg cells. Finally, cytokine response showed local biphasic kinetics: an early predominant induction of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-15), followed by a shift toward a Th2-type profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13). Conclusions Results reported here open new ways to investigate the involvement of immune effectors players in E. granulosus establishment, and also in the sequential promotion of Th1- toward Th2-type responses in experimental secondary cystic echinococcosis. These data would be relevant for designing rational therapies

  12. The Impact of Early Substance Use Disorder Treatment Response on Treatment Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Primary Opioid Use.

    PubMed

    Tuten, Michelle; Fitzsimons, Heather; Hochheimer, Martin; Jones, Hendree E; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2018-03-13

    This study examined the impact of early patient response on treatment utilization and substance use among pregnant participants enrolled in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Treatment responders (TRs) and treatment nonresponders (TNRs) were compared on pretreatment and treatment measures. Regression models predicted treatment utilization and substance use. TR participants attended more treatment and had lower rates of substance use relative to TNR participants. Regression models for treatment utilization and substance use were significant. Maternal estimated gestational age (EGA) and baseline cocaine use were negatively associated with treatment attendance. Medication-assisted treatment, early treatment response, and baseline SUD treatment were positively associated with treatment attendance. Maternal EGA was negatively associated with counseling attendance; early treatment response was positively associated with counseling attendance. Predictors of any substance use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine use. The single predictor of any substance use at 2 months was early treatment nonresponse. Predictors of opioid use at 1 month were maternal education, EGA, early treatment nonresponse, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of opioid use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse, and baseline cocaine and marijuana use. Predictors of cocaine use at 1 month were early treatment nonresponse, baseline cocaine use, and baseline SUD treatment. Predictors of cocaine use at 2 months were early treatment nonresponse and baseline cocaine use. Early treatment response predicts more favorable maternal treatment utilization and substance use outcomes. Treatment providers should implement interventions to maximize patient early response to treatment.

  13. Immune response profiling in early rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of a novel interaction of treatment response with viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It remains challenging to predict the outcomes of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to identify immune response signatures that correlate with clinical treatment outcomes in patients with RA. Methods A cohort of 71 consecutive patients with early RA starting treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) was recruited. Disease activity at baseline and after 21 to 24 weeks of follow-up was measured using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). Immune response profiling was performed by analyzing multi-cytokine production from peripheral blood cells following incubation with a panel of stimuli, including a mixture of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lysates. Profiles identified via principal components analysis (PCA) for each stimulus were then correlated with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. A clinically meaningful improvement in the DAS28 was defined as a decrease of ≥1.2. Results A profile of T-cell cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ) produced in response to CMV/EBV was found to correlate with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. At baseline, a higher magnitude of the CMV/EBV immune response profile predicted inadequate DAS28 improvement (mean PCA-1 scores: 65.6 versus 50.2; P = 0.029). The baseline CMV/EBV response was particularly driven by IFN-γ (P = 0.039) and IL-4 (P = 0.027). Among patients who attained clinically meaningful DAS28 improvement, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score increased from baseline to follow-up (mean +11.6, SD 25.5), whereas among patients who responded inadequately to DMARD therapy, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score decreased (mean -12.8, SD 25.4; P = 0.002). Irrespective of the ΔDAS28, methotrexate use was associated with up-regulation of the CMV/EBV response. The CMV/EBV profile was associated with positive CMV IgG (P <0.001), but not EBV IgG (P = 0.32), suggesting this response was related to

  14. Evaluating cardiac risk: exposure response analysis in early clinical drug development.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Julie; Paglialunga, Sabina; Morimoto, Bruce H; Lester, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of a drug's cardiac liability has undergone considerable metamorphosis by regulators since International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirement for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use E14 guideline was introduced in 2005. Drug developers now have a choice in how proarrhythmia risk can be evaluated; the options include a dedicated thorough QT (TQT) study or exposure response (ER) modeling of intensive electrocardiogram (ECG) captured in early clinical development. The alternative approach of ER modeling was incorporated into a guidance document in 2015 as a primary analysis tool which could be utilized in early phase dose escalation studies as an option to perform a dedicated TQT trial. This review will describe the current state of ER modeling of intensive ECG data collected during early clinical drug development; the requirements with regard to the use of a positive control; and address the challenges and opportunities of this alternative approach to assessing QT liability.

  15. DNA damage signaling regulates age-dependent proliferative capacity of quiescent inner ear supporting cells

    PubMed Central

    Laos, Maarja; Anttonen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Hällström, Taija af; Laiho, Marikki; Pirvola, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Supporting cells (SCs) of the cochlear (auditory) and vestibular (balance) organs hold promise as a platform for therapeutic regeneration of the sensory hair cells. Prior data have shown proliferative restrictions of adult SCs forced to re-enter the cell cycle. By comparing juvenile and adult SCs in explant cultures, we have here studied how proliferative restrictions are linked with DNA damage signaling. Cyclin D1 overexpression, used to stimulate cell cycle re-entry, triggered higher proliferative activity of juvenile SCs. Phosphorylated form of histone H2AX (γH2AX) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) were induced in a foci-like pattern in SCs of both ages as an indication of DNA double-strand break formation and activated DNA damage response. Compared to juvenile SCs, γH2AX and the repair protein Rad51 were resolved with slower kinetics in adult SCs, accompanied by increased apoptosis. Consistent with the in vitro data, in a Rb mutant mouse model in vivo, cell cycle re-entry of SCs was associated with γH2AX foci induction. In contrast to cell cycle reactivation, pharmacological stimulation of SC-to-hair-cell transdifferentiation in vitro did not trigger γH2AX. Thus, DNA damage and its prolonged resolution are critical barriers in the efforts to stimulate proliferation of the adult inner ear SCs. PMID:25063730

  16. The early response during the interaction of fungal phytopathogen and host plant.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yilin; Liu, Na; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Wan; Xing, Guozhen; Zheng, Wenming

    2017-05-01

    Plants can be infected by a variety of pathogens, most of which can cause severe economic losses. The plants resist the invasion of pathogens via the innate or acquired immune system for surviving biotic stress. The associations between plants and pathogens are sophisticated beyond imaging and the interactions between them can occur at a very early stage after their touching each other. A number of researchers in the past decade have shown that many biochemical events appeared even as early as 5 min after their touching for plant disease resistance response. The early molecular interactions of plants and pathogens are likely to involve protein phosphorylation, ion fluxes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other signalling transduction. Here, we reviewed the recent progress in the study for molecular interaction response of fungal pathogens and host plant at the early infection stage, which included many economically important crop fungal pathogens such as cereal rust fungi, tomato Cladosporium fulvum , rice blast and so on. By dissecting the earlier infection stage of the diseases, the avirulent/virulent genes of pathogen or resistance genes of plant could be defined more clearly and accurately, which would undoubtedly facilitate fungal pathogenesis study and resistant crop breeding. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. The early response during the interaction of fungal phytopathogen and host plant

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yilin; Liu, Na; Li, Chuang; Wang, Xin; Xu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Wan; Xing, Guozhen

    2017-01-01

    Plants can be infected by a variety of pathogens, most of which can cause severe economic losses. The plants resist the invasion of pathogens via the innate or acquired immune system for surviving biotic stress. The associations between plants and pathogens are sophisticated beyond imaging and the interactions between them can occur at a very early stage after their touching each other. A number of researchers in the past decade have shown that many biochemical events appeared even as early as 5 min after their touching for plant disease resistance response. The early molecular interactions of plants and pathogens are likely to involve protein phosphorylation, ion fluxes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other signalling transduction. Here, we reviewed the recent progress in the study for molecular interaction response of fungal pathogens and host plant at the early infection stage, which included many economically important crop fungal pathogens such as cereal rust fungi, tomato Cladosporium fulvum, rice blast and so on. By dissecting the earlier infection stage of the diseases, the avirulent/virulent genes of pathogen or resistance genes of plant could be defined more clearly and accurately, which would undoubtedly facilitate fungal pathogenesis study and resistant crop breeding. PMID:28469008

  18. Prognosis and response to laser treatment of early-onset hypertrophic port-wine stains (PWS).

    PubMed

    Passeron, Thierry; Salhi, Aicha; Mazer, Jean-Michel; Lavogiez, Céline; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Galliot, Chrystèle; Collet-Villette, Anne-Marie; Labreze, Christine; Boon, Laurence; Hardy, Jean-Philippe; Fayard, Virginie; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Toubel, Gérard; Georgescou, Gabriela; Gral, Nathalie; Maza, Aude; Lacour, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    There is limited information regarding early development of soft-tissue and/or bone hypertrophy with facial port-wine stains (PWS). We sought to characterize patients with hypertrophic PWS presenting during childhood. Patients with a facial PWS and underlying hypertrophy that developed before the age of 18 years were included in a multicenter retrospective study. Age at onset of the hypertrophy, its location, association with odontologic problems, presence of other associated complications, and response to laser treatment were recorded. A total of 98 patients were included. The mean age at onset of hypertrophy, retrieved for 77 of 98 patients, was 5.6 years. The hypertrophy was congenital in 26%. Odontologic problems were noted in 39.8% of cases. Other complications, including cataract, asymmetric development of the maxillary bone, and speech delay/disorders, were reported in 18.4%. In all, 67 patients received laser treatment. Only 3% achieved complete or nearly complete clearance of the PWS. As only cases of PWS with early-onset hypertrophy were included, we were unable to calculate the prevalence of this manifestation. PWS with early-onset hypertrophy are associated with a high rate of complications and a poor response to laser treatment. Periodic monitoring is recommended for early detection and treatment of complications. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence Attachment, Affect and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents. PMID:27468997

  20. Cortisol Stress Response Variability in Early Adolescence: Attachment, Affect and Sex.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Catherine Ann; McKay, Stacey; Susman, Elizabeth J; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Wright, Joan M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Attachment, affect, and sex shape responsivity to psychosocial stress. Concurrent social contexts influence cortisol secretion, a stress hormone and biological marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Patterns of attachment, emotion status, and sex were hypothesized to relate to bifurcated, that is, accentuated and attenuated, cortisol reactivity. The theoretical framework for this study posits that multiple individual differences mediate a cortisol stress response. The effects of two psychosocial stress interventions, a modified Trier Social Stress Test for Teens and the Frustration Social Stressor for Adolescents were developed and investigated with early adolescents. Both of these protocols induced a significant stress reaction and evoked predicted bifurcation in cortisol responses; an increase or decrease from baseline to reactivity. In Study I, 120 predominantly middle-class, Euro-Canadian early adolescents with a mean age of 13.43 years were studied. The girls' attenuated cortisol reactivity to the public performance stressor related significantly to their self-reported lower maternal-attachment and higher trait-anger. In Study II, a community sample of 146 predominantly Euro-Canadian middle-class youth, with an average age of 14.5 years participated. Their self-reports of higher trait-anger and trait-anxiety, and lower parental attachment by both sexes related differentially to accentuated and attenuated cortisol reactivity to the frustration stressor. Thus, attachment, affect, sex, and the stressor contextual factors were associated with the adrenal-cortical responses of these adolescents through complex interactions. Further studies of individual differences in physiological responses to stress are called for in order to clarify the identities of concurrent protective and risk factors in the psychosocial stress and physiological stress responses of early adolescents.

  1. Can early host responses to mycobacterial infection predict eventual disease outcomes?

    PubMed

    de Silva, Kumudika; Begg, Douglas J; Plain, Karren M; Purdie, Auriol C; Kawaji, Satoko; Dhand, Navneet K; Whittington, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic tests used for Johne's disease in sheep either have poor sensitivity and specificity or only detect disease in later stages of infection. Predicting which of the infected sheep are likely to become infectious later in life is currently not feasible and continues to be a major hindrance in disease control. We conducted this longitudinal study to investigate if a suite of diagnostic tests conducted in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) exposed lambs at 4 months post infection can accurately predict their clinical status at 12 months post infection. We tracked cellular and humoral responses and quantity of MAP shedding for up to 12 months post challenge in 20 controls and 37 exposed sheep. Infection was defined at necropsy by tissue culture and disease spectrum by lesion type. Data were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models and a subset of variables from the earliest period post inoculation (4 months) was selected for predicting disease outcomes later on (12 months). Sensitivity and specificity of tests and their combinations in series and parallel were determined. Early elevation in faecal MAP DNA quantity and a lower interferon gamma (IFNγ) response were significantly associated with sheep becoming infectious as well as progressing to severe disease. Conversely, early low faecal MAP DNA and higher interleukin-10 responses were significantly associated with an exposed animal developing protective immunity. Combination of early elevated faecal MAP DNA or lower IFNγ response had the highest sensitivity (75%) and specificity (81%) for identifying sheep that would become infectious. Collectively, these results highlight the potential for combined test interpretation to aid in the early prediction of sheep susceptibility to MAP infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group.

  3. Early developmental gene regulation in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos in response to elevated CO₂ seawater conditions.

    PubMed

    Hammond, LaTisha M; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2012-07-15

    Ocean acidification, or the increased uptake of CO(2) by the ocean due to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, may variably impact marine early life history stages, as they may be especially susceptible to changes in ocean chemistry. Investigating the regulatory mechanisms of early development in an environmental context, or ecological development, will contribute to increased understanding of potential organismal responses to such rapid, large-scale environmental changes. We examined transcript-level responses to elevated seawater CO(2) during gastrulation and the initiation of spiculogenesis, two crucial developmental processes in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Embryos were reared at the current, accepted oceanic CO(2) concentration of 380 microatmospheres (μatm), and at the elevated levels of 1000 and 1350 μatm, simulating predictions for oceans and upwelling regions, respectively. The seven genes of interest comprised a subset of pathways in the primary mesenchyme cell gene regulatory network (PMC GRN) shown to be necessary for the regulation and execution of gastrulation and spiculogenesis. Of the seven genes, qPCR analysis indicated that elevated CO(2) concentrations only had a significant but subtle effect on two genes, one important for early embryo patterning, Wnt8, and the other an integral component in spiculogenesis and biomineralization, SM30b. Protein levels of another spicule matrix component, SM50, demonstrated significant variable responses to elevated CO(2). These data link the regulation of crucial early developmental processes with the environment that these embryos would be developing within, situating the study of organismal responses to ocean acidification in a developmental context.

  4. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I.; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Limitations Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. Conclusion We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group. PMID:20964960

  5. Autoantigen microarrays reveal autoantibodies associated with proliferative nephritis and active disease in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Haddon, D James; Diep, Vivian K; Price, Jordan V; Limb, Cindy; Utz, Paul J; Balboni, Imelda

    2015-06-17

    Pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) patients often initially present with more active and severe disease than adults, including a higher frequency of lupus nephritis. Specific autoantibodies, including anti-C1q, anti-DNA and anti-alpha-actinin, have been associated with kidney involvement in SLE, and DNA antibodies are capable of initiating early-stage lupus nephritis in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Over 100 different autoantibodies have been described in SLE patients, highlighting the need for comprehensive autoantibody profiling. Knowledge of the antibodies associated with pSLE and proliferative nephritis will increase the understanding of SLE pathogenesis, and may aid in monitoring patients for renal flare. We used autoantigen microarrays composed of 140 recombinant or purified antigens to compare the serum autoantibody profiles of new-onset pSLE patients (n = 45) to healthy controls (n = 17). We also compared pSLE patients with biopsy-confirmed class III or IV proliferative nephritis (n = 23) and without significant renal involvement (n = 18). We performed ELISA with selected autoantigens to validate the microarray findings. We created a multiple logistic regression model, based on the ELISA and clinical information, to predict whether a patient had proliferative nephritis, and used a validation cohort (n = 23) and longitudinal samples (88 patient visits) to test its accuracy. Fifty autoantibodies were at significantly higher levels in the sera of pSLE patients compared to healthy controls, including anti-B cell-activating factor (BAFF). High levels of anti-BAFF were associated with active disease. Thirteen serum autoantibodies were present at significantly higher levels in pSLE patients with proliferative nephritis than those without, and we confirmed five autoantigens (dsDNA, C1q, collagens IV and X and aggrecan) by ELISA. Our model, based on ELISA measurements and clinical variables, correctly identified patients with proliferative

  6. Defining and Predicting Patterns of Early Response in a Web-Based Intervention for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Alice; Rubel, Julian; Berger, Thomas; Schröder, Johanna; Späth, Christina; Meyer, Björn; Greiner, Wolfgang; Gräfe, Viola; Hautzinger, Martin; Fuhr, Kristina; Rose, Matthias; Nolte, Sandra; Löwe, Bernd; Hohagen, Fritz; Klein, Jan Philipp; Moritz, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions for individuals with depressive disorders have been a recent focus of research and may be an effective adjunct to face-to-face psychotherapy or pharmacological treatment. Objective The aim of our study was to examine the early change patterns in Web-based interventions to identify differential effects. Methods We applied piecewise growth mixture modeling (PGMM) to identify different latent classes of early change in individuals with mild-to-moderate depression (n=409) who underwent a CBT-based web intervention for depression. Results Overall, three latent classes were identified (N=409): Two early response classes (n=158, n=185) and one early deterioration class (n=66). Latent classes differed in terms of outcome (P<.001) and adherence (P=.03) in regard to the number of modules (number of modules with a duration of at least 10 minutes) and the number of assessments (P<.001), but not in regard to the overall amount of time using the system. Class membership significantly improved outcome prediction by 24.8% over patient intake characteristics (P<.001) and significantly added to the prediction of adherence (P=.04). Conclusions These findings suggest that in Web-based interventions outcome and adherence can be predicted by patterns of early change, which can inform treatment decisions and potentially help optimize the allocation of scarce clinical resources. PMID:28600278

  7. Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. Approach A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Local setting Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands’ population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. Relevant changes By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. Lesson learnt It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities. PMID:25378746

  8. Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet; Nilles, Eric

    2014-11-01

    On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands' population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities.

  9. Proteomic identification of early salicylate- and flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pei; Zhang, Huoming; Yu, Boying; Xiong, Liming; Xia, Yiji

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the early defense responses against pathogen infection in plants. The mechanism about the initial and direct regulation of the defense signaling pathway by ROS remains elusive. Perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis by ROS is believed to alter functions of redox-sensitive proteins through their oxidative modifications. Here we report an OxiTRAQ-based proteomic study in identifying proteins whose cysteines underwent oxidative modifications in Arabidopsis cells during the early response to salicylate or flg22, two defense pathway elicitors that are known to disturb cellular redox homeostasis. Among the salicylate- and/or flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins are those involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, RNA processing, post-translational modifications, and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. The identification of the salicylate-/flg22-responsive redox-sensitive proteins provides a foundation from which further study can be conducted toward understanding biological significance of their oxidative modifications during the plant defense response. PMID:25720653

  10. Antinucleosome antibodies as a marker of active proliferative lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Cornelia; Lopez-Trascasa, Margarita; Potlukova, Eliska; Moll, Solange; Danner, Doris; Schaller, Monica; Trendelenburg, Marten

    2008-04-01

    Antinucleosome autoantibodies were previously described to be a marker of active lupus nephritis. However, the true prevalence of antinucleosome antibodies at the time of active proliferative lupus nephritis has not been well established. Therefore, the aim of this study is to define the prevalence and diagnostic value of autoantibodies against nucleosomes as a marker for active proliferative lupus nephritis. Prospective multicenter diagnostic test study. 35 adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) at the time of the renal biopsy showing active class III or IV lupus nephritis compared with 59 control patients with SLE. Levels of antinucleosome antibodies and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies. Kidney biopsy findings of class III or IV lupus nephritis at the time of sampling in a study population versus clinically inactive or no nephritis in a control population. Increased concentrations of antinucleosome antibodies were found in 31 of 35 patients (89%) with active proliferative lupus nephritis compared with 47 of 59 control patients (80%) with SLE. No significant difference between the 2 groups with regard to number of positive patients (P = 0.2) or antibody concentrations (P = 0.2) could be found. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as a marker of the accuracy of the test in discriminating between proliferative lupus nephritis and inactive/no nephritis in patients with SLE was 0.581 (95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.70; P = 0.2). Increased concentrations of anti-dsDNA antibodies were found in 33 of 35 patients (94.3%) with active proliferative lupus nephritis compared with 49 of 58 control patients (84.5%) with SLE (P = 0.2). In patients with proliferative lupus nephritis, significantly higher titers of anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected compared with control patients with SLE (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in discriminating between proliferative lupus nephritis and

  11. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  12. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor suppresses renal thromboxane production but not proliferative lesions in the MRL/lpr murine model of lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Oates, Jim C; Halushka, Perry V; Hutchison, Florence N; Ruiz, Philip; Gilkeson, Gary S

    2011-02-01

    Proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) is marked by increased renal thromboxane (TX) A₂ production. Targeting the TXA₂ receptor or TXA₂ synthase effectively improves renal function in humans with LN and improves glomerular pathology in murine LN. This study was designed to address the following hypotheses: (1) TXA₂ production in the MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr)/J (MRL/lpr) model of proliferative LN is cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 dependent and (2) COX2 inhibitor therapy improves glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria, markers of innate immune response and glomerular pathology. Twenty female MRL/lpr and 20 BALB/cJ mice were divided into 2 equal treatment groups: (1) SC-236, a moderately selective COX2 inhibitor or (2) vehicle. After treatment from the age of 10 to 20 weeks, the effectiveness of inhibition of TXA₂ was determined by measuring urine TXB₂. Response endpoints measured at the age of 20 weeks were renal function (GFR), proteinuria, urine nitrate + nitrite (NO(x)) and glomerular histopathology. SC-236 therapy reduced surrogate markers of renal TXA₂ production during early, active glomerulonephritis. When this pharmacodynamic endpoint was reached, therapy improved GFR. Parallel reductions in markers of the innate immune response (urine NO(x)) during therapy were observed. However, the beneficial effect of SC-236 therapy on GFR was only transient, and renal histopathology was not improved in late disease. These data demonstrate that renal TXA2 production is COX2 dependent in murine LN and suggest that NO production is directly or indirectly COX2 dependent. However, COX2 inhibitor therapy in this model failed to improve renal pathology, making COX2 inhibition a less attractive approach for treating LN.

  13. Expression of Putative Immune Response Genes during Early Ontogeny in the Coral Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Puill-Stephan, Eneour; Seneca, François O.; Miller, David J.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Willis, Bette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Corals, like many other marine invertebrates, lack a mature allorecognition system in early life history stages. Indeed, in early ontogeny, when corals acquire and establish associations with various surface microbiota and dinoflagellate endosymbionts, they do not efficiently distinguish between closely and distantly related individuals from the same population. However, very little is known about the molecular components that underpin allorecognition and immunity responses or how they change through early ontogeny in corals. Methodology/Principal Findings Patterns in the expression of four putative immune response genes (apextrin, complement C3, and two CELIII type lectin genes) were examined in juvenile colonies of Acropora millepora throughout a six-month post-settlement period using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Expression of a CELIII type lectin gene peaked in the fourth month for most of the coral juveniles sampled and was significantly higher at this time than at any other sampling time during the six months following settlement. The timing of this increase in expression levels of putative immune response genes may be linked to allorecognition maturation which occurs around this time in A.millepora. Alternatively, the increase may represent a response to immune challenges, such as would be involved in the recognition of symbionts (such as Symbiodinium spp. or bacteria) during winnowing processes as symbioses are fine-tuned. Conclusions/Significance Our data, although preliminary, are consistent with the hypothesis that lectins may play an important role in the maturation of allorecognition responses in corals. The co-expression of lectins with apextrin during development of coral juveniles also raises the possibility that these proteins, which are components of innate immunity in other invertebrates, may influence the innate immune systems of corals through a common pathway or system. However, further studies investigating the expression of

  14. Expression of putative immune response genes during early ontogeny in the coral Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Puill-Stephan, Eneour; Seneca, François O; Miller, David J; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L

    2012-01-01

    Corals, like many other marine invertebrates, lack a mature allorecognition system in early life history stages. Indeed, in early ontogeny, when corals acquire and establish associations with various surface microbiota and dinoflagellate endosymbionts, they do not efficiently distinguish between closely and distantly related individuals from the same population. However, very little is known about the molecular components that underpin allorecognition and immunity responses or how they change through early ontogeny in corals. Patterns in the expression of four putative immune response genes (apextrin, complement C3, and two CELIII type lectin genes) were examined in juvenile colonies of Acropora millepora throughout a six-month post-settlement period using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Expression of a CELIII type lectin gene peaked in the fourth month for most of the coral juveniles sampled and was significantly higher at this time than at any other sampling time during the six months following settlement. The timing of this increase in expression levels of putative immune response genes may be linked to allorecognition maturation which occurs around this time in A. millepora. Alternatively, the increase may represent a response to immune challenges, such as would be involved in the recognition of symbionts (such as Symbiodinium spp. or bacteria) during winnowing processes as symbioses are fine-tuned. Our data, although preliminary, are consistent with the hypothesis that lectins may play an important role in the maturation of allorecognition responses in corals. The co-expression of lectins with apextrin during development of coral juveniles also raises the possibility that these proteins, which are components of innate immunity in other invertebrates, may influence the innate immune systems of corals through a common pathway or system. However, further studies investigating the expression of these genes in alloimmune-challenged corals are needed to further

  15. Early response in cognitive-behavior therapy for syndromes of medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kleinstäuber, Maria; Lambert, Michael J; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2017-05-25

    Early dramatic treatment response suggests a subset of patients who respond to treatment before most of it has been offered. These early responders tend to be over represented among those who are well at termination and at follow-up. Early response patterns in psychotherapy have been investigated only for a few of mental disorders so far. The main aim of the current study was to examine early response after five therapy-preparing sessions of a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for syndromes of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). In the context of a randomized, waiting-list controlled trial 48 patients who suffered from ≥3 MUS over ≥6 months received 5 therapy-preparing sessions and 20 sessions of CBT for somatoform disorders. They completed self-report scales of somatic symptom severity (SOMS-7 T), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (BSI), illness anxiety and behavior (IAS) at pre-treatment, after 5 therapy-preparing sessions (FU-5P) and at therapy termination (FU-20 T). The current analyses are based on data from the treatment arm only. Repeated measure ANOVAs revealed a significant decrease of depression (d = 0.34), anxiety (d = 0.60), illness anxiety (d = 0.38) and illness behavior (d = 0.42), but no change of somatic symptom severity (d = -0.03) between pre-treatment and FU-5P. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses showed that symptom improvements between pre-treatment and FU-5P predict a better outcome at therapy termination for depression and illness anxiety, after controlling for pre-treatment scores. Mixed-effect ANOVAs revealed significant group*time interaction effects indicating differences in the course of symptom improvement over the therapy between patients who fulfilled a reliable change (i.e., early response) during the 5 therapy-preparing sessions and patients who did not reach an early reliable change. Demographic or clinical variables at pre-treatment were not significantly correlated with differential scores between pre

  16. Sleep Moderates the Association Between Response Inhibition and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Allyson M.; Miller, Alison L.; Watamura, Sarah E.; Kurth, Salome; Lassonde, Jonathan M.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood is a time of rapid developmental changes in sleep, cognitive control processes, and the regulation of emotion and behavior. This experimental study examined sleep-dependent effects on response inhibition and self-regulation, as well as whether acute sleep restriction moderated the association between these processes. Preschool children (N = 19; 45.6 ± 2.2 months; 11 female) followed a strict sleep schedule for at least 3 days before each of 2 morning behavior assessments: baseline (habitual nap/night sleep) and sleep restriction (missed nap/delayed bedtime). Response inhibition was evaluated via a go/no-go task. Twelve self-regulation strategies were coded from videotapes of children while attempting an unsolvable puzzle. We then created composite variables representing adaptive and maladaptive self-regulation strategies. Although we found no sleep-dependent effects on response inhibition or self-regulation measures, linear mixed-effects regression showed that acute sleep restriction moderated the relationship between these processes. At baseline, children with better response inhibition were more likely to use adaptive self-regulation strategies (e.g., self-talk, alternate strategies), and those with poorer response inhibition showed increased use of maladaptive self-regulation strategies (e.g., perseveration, fidgeting); however, response inhibition was not related to self-regulation strategies following sleep restriction. Our results showing a sleep-dependent effect on the associations between response inhibition and self-regulation strategies indicate that adequate sleep facilitates synergy between processes supporting optimal social-emotional functioning in early childhood. Although replication studies are needed, findings suggest that sleep may alter connections between maturing emotional and cognitive systems, which have important implications for understanding risk for or resilience to developmental psychopathology. PMID:27652491

  17. Early loss of the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Siafarikas, Aris; Johnston, Robert J; Bulsara, Max K; O'Leary, Peter; Jones, Timothy W; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2012-08-01

    To assess the glucagon response to hypoglycemia and identify influencing factors in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic control subjects. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp studies were performed in all participants. The glucagon response to both hypoglycemia and arginine was measured, as well as epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia. Residual β-cell function was assessed using fasting and stimulated C-peptide. Twenty-eight nonobese adolescents with type 1 diabetes (14 female, mean age 14.9 years [range 11.2-19.8]) and 12 healthy control subjects (6 female, 15.3 years [12.8-18.7]) participated in the study. Median duration of type 1 diabetes was 0.66 years (range 0.01-9.9). The glucagon peak to arginine stimulation was similar between groups (P = 0.27). In contrast, the glucagon peak to hypoglycemia was reduced in the group with diabetes (95% CI): 68 (62-74) vs. 96 (87-115) pg/mL (P < 0.001). This response was greater than 3 SDs from baseline for only 7% of subjects with type 1 diabetes in comparison with 83% of control subjects and was lost at a median duration of diabetes of 8 months and as early as 1 month after diagnosis (R = -0.41, P < 0.01). There was no correlation in response with height, weight, BMI, and HbA(1c). Epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia were present in both groups. The glucagon response to hypoglycemia in adolescents with type 1 diabetes is influenced by the duration of diabetes and can be lost early in the course of the disease.

  18. Sleep Moderates the Association Between Response Inhibition and Self-Regulation in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Allyson M; Miller, Alison L; Watamura, Sarah E; Kurth, Salome; Lassonde, Jonathan M; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood is a time of rapid developmental changes in sleep, cognitive control processes, and the regulation of emotion and behavior. This experimental study examined sleep-dependent effects on response inhibition and self-regulation, as well as whether acute sleep restriction moderated the association between these processes. Preschool children (N = 19; 45.6 ± 2.2 months; 11 female) followed a strict sleep schedule for at least 3 days before each of 2 morning behavior assessments: baseline (habitual nap/night sleep) and sleep restriction (missed nap/delayed bedtime). Response inhibition was evaluated via a go/no-go task. Twelve self-regulation strategies were coded from videotapes of children while attempting an unsolvable puzzle. We then created composite variables representing adaptive and maladaptive self-regulation strategies. Although we found no sleep-dependent effects on response inhibition or self-regulation measures, linear mixed-effects regression showed that acute sleep restriction moderated the relationship between these processes. At baseline, children with better response inhibition were more likely to use adaptive self-regulation strategies (e.g., self-talk, alternate strategies), and those with poorer response inhibition showed increased use of maladaptive self-regulation strategies (e.g., perseveration, fidgeting); however, response inhibition was not related to self-regulation strategies following sleep restriction. Our results showing a sleep-dependent effect on the associations between response inhibition and self-regulation strategies indicate that adequate sleep facilitates synergy between processes supporting optimal social-emotional functioning in early childhood. Although replication studies are needed, findings suggest that sleep may alter connections between maturing emotional and cognitive systems, which have important implications for understanding risk for or resilience to developmental psychopathology.

  19. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System.

    PubMed

    Douw, Gooske; Huisman-de Waal, Getty; van Zanten, Arthur R H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning Score levels not reaching this point. Dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score comprises nine indicators underlying nurses' 'worry' about a patient's condition. All indicators independently show significant association with unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality. Prediction of this outcome improved by adding the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators to an Early Warning Score based on vital signs. An observational cohort study was conducted on three surgical wards in a tertiary university-affiliated teaching hospital. Included were surgical, native-speaking, adult patients. Nurses scored presence of 'worry' and/or dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators every shift or when worried. Vital signs were measured according to the prevailing protocol. Unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality was the composite endpoint. Percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators were calculated at various Early Warning Score levels in control and event groups. Entering all dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators in a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated a weighted score and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value and negative predicted value for each possible total score. In 3522 patients, 102 (2·9%) had an unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admissions (n = 97) or unexpected mortality (n = 5). Patients with such events and only slightly changed vital signs had significantly higher percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators expressed than patients in the control group. Increasing number

  20. Exposure to Violence Predicting Cortisol Response During Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Understanding Moderating Factors

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765

  1. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Perl, Mario; Heiland, Tim; Braumüller, Sonja; Stahel, Philip F.; Flierl, Michael A.; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group) were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT), closed head injury (CHI), or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT) or to the following combination of injuries: (1) ChT; (2) ChT + Fx + STT; (3) ChT + CHI; (4) CHI; (5) polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT). Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT) rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma. PMID:22481866

  2. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyer, Amanda E; Jarcho, Johanna M; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children's caregiving context. The convergence of a child's temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (M(age) = 17.89 years, N = 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development.

  3. Temperament and Parenting Styles in Early Childhood Differentially Influence Neural Response to Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Jarcho, Johanna M.; Pérez-Edgar, Koraly; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by social reticence and withdrawal from unfamiliar or novel contexts and conveys risk for social anxiety disorder. Developmental outcomes associated with this temperament can be influenced by children’s caregiving context. The convergence of a child’s temperamental disposition and rearing environment is ultimately expressed at both the behavioral and neural levels in emotional and cognitive response patterns to social challenges. The present study used functional neuroimaging to assess the moderating effects of different parenting styles on neural response to peer rejection in two groups of adolescents characterized by their early childhood temperament (Mage = 17.89 years, N= 39, 17 males, 22 females; 18 with BI; 21 without BI). The moderating effects of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles were examined in three brain regions linked with social anxiety: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), striatum, and amygdala. In youth characterized with BI in childhood, but not in those without BI, diminished responses to peer rejection in vlPFC were associated with higher levels of authoritarian parenting. In contrast, all youth showed decreased caudate response to peer rejection at higher levels of authoritative parenting. These findings indicate that BI in early life relates to greater neurobiological sensitivity to variance in parenting styles, particularly harsh parenting, in late adolescence. These results are discussed in relation to biopsychosocial models of development. PMID:25588884

  4. Write to the Top! How to Become a Prolific Academic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Brad; Mullen, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    This concise guide to writing is designed to help any academic become not only productive but truly prolific. It is a pithy, no-nonsense, no-excuses guide to maximizing the quality and quantity of scholarly output. The authors offer an accessible overview of the art of writing efficiently and effectively, provide a one-stop source for the nuts and…

  5. Early print-tuned ERP response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in Japanese Hiragana strings.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yasuko; Kasai, Tetsuko; Murohashi, Harumitsu

    2014-04-16

    The act of reading leads to the development of specific neural responses for print, the most frequently reported of which is the left occipitotemporal N170 component of event-related potentials. However, it remains unclear whether this electrophysiological response solely involves print-tuned neural activities. The present study examined an early print-tuned event-related potential response with minimal involvement of linguistic processing in a nonalphabetic language. Japanese Hiragana words, nonwords, and alphanumeric symbol strings were presented rapidly and the task was to detect the change in color of a fixation cross to restrict linguistic processing. As a result, Hiragana words and nonwords elicited a larger posterior N1 than alphanumeric symbol strings bilaterally, irrespective of intercharacter spacing. The fact that this N1 was enhanced specifically for rapidly presented Hiragana strings suggests the existence of print-tuned neural processes that are relatively independent of the influence of linguistic processing.

  6. Carbohydrate-mediated responses during zygotic and early somatic embryogenesis in the endangered conifer, Araucaria angustifolia

    PubMed Central

    Elbl, Paula; De Souza, Amanda P.; Jardim, Vinicius; de Oliveira, Leandro F.; Macedo, Amanda F.; dos Santos, André L. W.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.; Floh, Eny I. S.

    2017-01-01

    Three zygotic developmental stages and two somatic Araucaria angustifolia cell lines with contrasting embryogenic potential were analyzed to identify the carbohydrate-mediated responses associated with embryo formation. Using a comparison between zygotic and somatic embryogenesis systems, the non-structural carbohydrate content, cell wall sugar composition and expression of genes involved in sugar sensing were analyzed, and a network analysis was used to identify coordinated features during embryogenesis. We observed that carbohydrate-mediated responses occur mainly during the early stages of zygotic embryo formation, and that during seed development there are coordinated changes that affect the development of the different structures (embryo and megagametophyte). Furthermore, sucrose and starch accumulation were associated with the responsiveness of the cell lines. This study sheds light on how carbohydrate metabolism is influenced during zygotic and somatic embryogenesis in the endangered conifer species, A. angustifolia. PMID:28678868

  7. Breast fine-needle aspiration samples reported as "proliferative breast lesion": clinical utility of the subcategory "proliferative breast lesion with atypia".

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengquan; Raza, Anwar; Martin, Sue E; Pan, Jiangqiu; Greaves, Timothy S; Cobb, Camilla J

    2009-04-25

    The fine-needle aspiration (FNA) diagnosis of proliferative breast lesion is an indeterminate category. The aim of this correlative study was to determine whether a subcategory of "proliferative breast lesion with atypia" was achievable and whether this subcategory has management utility. Breast FNA cases from 2000 through 2005 diagnosed as proliferative breast lesion and proliferative breast lesion with atypia were retrieved. Both cytologic and surgical slides of these cases were reviewed blindly. A cytologic diagnosis of proliferative breast lesion (without atypia) or proliferative breast lesion with atypia was used if the findings of the proliferative breast lesion did not fit a more specific category. Of the 3934 breast FNAs performed on palpable breast masses from January 2000 to December 2005 at the LAC + USC Medical Center, 317 (8.1%) were diagnosed cytologically as proliferative breast lesion with atypia, without atypia or without mention of atypia. There was subsequent histopathology on 201 of these cases. After the cytologic smears were reviewed, 29 cases were excluded from this study. Of the 172 remaining cases, 21 (12.2%) were found to be malignant and the remaining 151 (87.8%) were found to be benign on histology. Of the malignant cases, 90% had an FNA diagnosis of proliferative breast lesion with atypia; of the benign cases, 78% were interpreted as proliferative breast lesion without atypia. Proliferative breast lesion with atypia was clinically significant because it was associated with a significantly increased likelihood of malignancy compared with proliferative breast lesion without atypia. Most of the malignancies had hypocellularity or low nuclear grade on the FNA smears. Fibroadenoma accounted for most of the benign lesions in both proliferative breast lesion and proliferative breast lesion with atypia. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  8. Early response to venlafaxine antidepressant correlates with lower ACTH levels prior to pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Araya, A V; Rojas, P; Fritsch, R; Rojas, R; Herrera, L; Rojas, G; Gatica, H; Silva, H; Fiedler, J L

    2006-12-01

    A link between stressful life events and development or exacerbation of depression has been established via a large body of evidence. An alteration in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in depression has also been associated with an increase in cortisol secretion. As arginine-vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in the activation of HPA axis during stress, the present study investigated ACTH and cortisol secretory response induced by an AVP-related peptide desmopressin (ddAVP) in patients with major depression. Prior to antidepressant treatment, endocrinological parameters were evaluated and correlated with the clinical response to venlafaxine treatment, which offers a dual antidepressant action. Depressive patients with no other psychiatric pathology were evaluated with 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) in order to follow-up the response to venlafaxine. After 1 wk of treatment, 60% of patients reduced their initial HAM-D score to at least 25%; this group was classified as early responders. The other group (40%) started to reduce significantly their HAM-D score after 3 wk of treatment and was classified as late responders. After 6 wk of treatment both groups have reduced HAM-D score to at least 25% of the baseline score. Prior to the pharmacological treatment, both early and late responders showed salivary cortisol rhythm and urinary free cortisol (UFC) in 24-h similar to healthy subjects. However, we did observe differences in basal ACTH secretion, showing that the late responder group had higher basal ACTH than both early responders and controls. The ddAVP challenge promoted a robust secretion of ACTH only in late responders, suggesting a different sensitivity of pituitary vasopressin receptor. The differences in clinical response to venlafaxine among depressive patients seem to be related to endocrinological parameters.

  9. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  10. Jasmonate signaling is activated in the very early stages of iron deficiency responses in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Oikawa, Takaya; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Minoru; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2016-07-01

    Under low iron availability, plants induce the expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation at the transcriptional level. This iron deficiency response is affected by various plant hormones, but the roles of jasmonates in this response are not well-known. We investigated the involvement of jasmonates in rice iron deficiency responses. High rates of jasmonate-inducible genes were induced during the very early stages of iron deficiency treatment in rice roots. Many jasmonate-inducible genes were also negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and positively regulated by the transcription factor IDEF1. Ten out of 35 genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were rapidly induced at 3 h of iron deficiency treatment, and this induction preceded that of known iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. Twelve genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were also upregulated in HRZ-knockdown roots. Endogenous concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl isoleucine tended to be rapidly increased in roots in response to iron deficiency treatment, whereas these concentrations were higher in HRZ-knockdown roots under iron-sufficient conditions. Analysis of the jasmonate-deficient cpm2 mutant revealed that jasmonates repress the expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron sufficiency, but this repression is partly canceled under an early stage of iron deficiency. These results indicate that jasmonate signaling is activated during the very early stages of iron deficiency, which is partly regulated by IDEF1 and OsHRZs.

  11. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Attreed, Sarah E.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity—including the specific mechanisms in humans—is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. Recent Findings The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Summary Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. PMID:28488132

  12. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life.

    PubMed

    Attreed, Sarah E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Heaney, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity-including the specific mechanisms in humans-is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines.

  13. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  14. Responsive parenting: establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R

    2006-07-01

    Mothers whose infants varied in early biological characteristics (born at term, n = 120; born at very low birth weight [VLBW], n = 144) were randomized to a target group (n = 133) or developmental feedback comparison group (n = 131) to determine whether learning responsive behaviors would facilitate infant development. The target condition included videotaped examples, problem-solving activities, and mothers' critique of their own behaviors through video procedures across 10 home visits. All target versus comparison mothers showed greater increases across multiple responsiveness behaviors observed in 4 assessments conducted across 6-13 months of age; changes in emotionally supportive behaviors were strongest for target mothers of infants born at VLBW. Increased maternal responsiveness facilitated greater growth in target infants' social, emotional, communication, and cognitive competence, supporting a causal role for responsiveness on infant development. Although benefits were generally comparable across risk groups, aspects of social and emotional skills showed greater change for those born at VLBW. Evidence for responsiveness as a multidimensional construct was provided as well as the importance of different aspects of responsiveness mediating the effect of the intervention on different infant skill domains.

  15. Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian Plant Communities to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimichele, William A.; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W.; Gastaldo, Robert A.

    Late Carboniferous and Early Permian strata record the transition from a cold interval in Earth history, characterized by the repeated periods of glaciation and deglaciation of the southern pole, to a warm-climate interval. Consequently, this time period is the best available analogue to the Recent in which to study patterns of vegetational response, both to glacial-interglacial oscillation and to the appearance of warm climate. Carboniferous wetland ecosystems were dominated by spore-producing plants and early gymnospermous seed plants. Global climate changes, largely drying, forced vegetational changes, resulting in a change to a seed plant-dominated world, beginning first at high latitudes during the Carboniferous, reaching the tropics near the Permo-Carboniferous boundary. For most of this time plant assemblages were very conservative in their composition. Change in the dominant vegetation was generally a rapid process, which suggests that environmental thresholds were crossed, and involved little mixing of elements from the wet and dry floras.

  16. Real-Time Surveillance in Emergencies Using the Early Warning Alert and Response Network.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Kristina M; Cookson, Susan T; Boyd, Andrew T; Hardy, Colleen; Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mala, Peter; El Tahir, Khalid; Everard, Marthe; Jasiem, Mohamad; Husain, Farah

    2017-11-01

    Humanitarian emergencies often result in population displacement and increase the risk for transmission of communicable diseases. To address the increased risk for outbreaks during humanitarian emergencies, the World Health Organization developed the Early Warning Alert and Response Network (EWARN) for early detection of epidemic-prone diseases. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with the World Health Organization, ministries of health, and other partners to support EWARN through the implementation and evaluation of these systems and the development of standardized guidance. Although protocols have been developed for the implementation and evaluation of EWARN, a need persists for standardized training and additional guidance on supporting these systems remotely when access to affected areas is restricted. Continued collaboration between partners and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for surveillance during emergencies is necessary to strengthen capacity and support global health security.

  17. Real-Time Surveillance in Emergencies Using the Early Warning Alert and Response Network

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Kristina M.; Cookson, Susan T.; Boyd, Andrew T.; Hardy, Colleen; Malik, Mamunur Rahman; Mala, Peter; El Tahir, Khalid; Everard, Marthe; Jasiem, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Humanitarian emergencies often result in population displacement and increase the risk for transmission of communicable diseases. To address the increased risk for outbreaks during humanitarian emergencies, the World Health Organization developed the Early Warning Alert and Response Network (EWARN) for early detection of epidemic-prone diseases. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has worked with the World Health Organization, ministries of health, and other partners to support EWARN through the implementation and evaluation of these systems and the development of standardized guidance. Although protocols have been developed for the implementation and evaluation of EWARN, a need persists for standardized training and additional guidance on supporting these systems remotely when access to affected areas is restricted. Continued collaboration between partners and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for surveillance during emergencies is necessary to strengthen capacity and support global health security. PMID:29155660

  18. Magnetoencephalographic responses to illusory figures: early evoked gamma is affected by processing of stimulus features.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, C S; Mecklinger, A

    2000-12-01

    We examined evoked and induced responses in event-related fields and gamma activity in the magnetoencephalogram (MEG) during a visual classification task. The objective was to investigate the effects of target classification and the different levels of discrimination between certain stimulus features. We performed two experiments, which differed only in the subjects' task while the stimuli were identical. In Experiment 1, subjects responded by a button-press to rare Kanizsa squares (targets) among Kanizsa triangles and non-Kanizsa figures (standards). This task requires the processing of both stimulus features (colinearity and number of inducer disks). In Experiment 2, the four stimuli of Experiment 1 were used as standards and the occurrence of an additional stimulus without any feature overlap with the Kanizsa stimuli (a rare and highly salient red fixation cross) had to be detected. Discrimination of colinearity and number of inducer disks was not necessarily required for task performance. We applied a wavelet-based time-frequency analysis to the data and calculated topographical maps of the 40 Hz activity. The early evoked gamma activity (100-200 ms) in Experiment 1 was higher for targets as compared to standards. In Experiment 2, no significant differences were found in the gamma responses to the Kanizsa figures and non-Kanizsa figures. This pattern of results suggests that early evoked gamma activity in response to visual stimuli is affected by the targetness of a stimulus and the need to discriminate between the features of a stimulus.

  19. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2018-01-01

    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information. PMID:27696324

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of Early Responsive Genes in Rice during Magnaporthe oryzae Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiming; Kwon, Soon Jae; Wu, Jingni; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Tamogami, Shigeru; Rakwal, Randeep; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Kim, Beom-Gi; Jung, Ki-Hong; Kang, Kyu Young; Kim, Sang Gon; Kim, Sun Tae

    2014-12-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) in most rice-growing regions of the world. In order to investigate early response genes in rice, we utilized the transcriptome analysis approach using a 300 K tilling microarray to rice leaves infected with compatible and incompatible M. oryzae strains. Prior to the microarray experiment, total RNA was validated by measuring the differential expression of rice defense-related marker genes (chitinase 2, barwin, PBZ1, and PR-10) by RT-PCR, and phytoalexins (sakuranetin and momilactone A) with HPLC. Microarray analysis revealed that 231 genes were up-regulated (>2 fold change, p < 0.05) in the incompatible interaction compared to the compatible one. Highly expressed genes were functionally characterized into metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction categories. The oxidative stress response was induced in both early and later infection stages. Biotic stress overview from MapMan analysis revealed that the phytohormone ethylene as well as signaling molecules jasmonic acid and salicylic acid is important for defense gene regulation. WRKY and Myb transcription factors were also involved in signal transduction processes. Additionally, receptor-like kinases were more likely associated with the defense response, and their expression patterns were validated by RT-PCR. Our results suggest that candidate genes, including receptor-like protein kinases, may play a key role in disease resistance against M. oryzae attack.

  1. Impaired early visual response modulations to spatial information in chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Knebel, Jean-François; Javitt, Daniel C.; Murray, Micah M.

    2011-01-01

    Early visual processing stages have been demonstrated to be impaired in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives. The amplitude and topography of the P1 component of the visual evoked potential (VEP) are both affected; the latter of which indicates alterations in active brain networks between populations. At least two issues remain unresolved. First, the specificity of this deficit (and suitability as an endophenotype) has yet to be established, with evidence for impaired P1 responses in other clinical populations. Second, it remains unknown whether schizophrenia patients exhibit intact functional modulation of the P1 VEP component; an aspect that may assist in distinguishing effects specific to schizophrenia. We applied electrical neuroimaging analyses to VEPs from chronic schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in response to variation in the parafoveal spatial extent of stimuli. Healthy controls demonstrated robust modulation of the VEP strength and topography as a function of the spatial extent of stimuli during the P1 component. By contrast, no such modulations were evident at early latencies in the responses from patients with schizophrenia. Source estimations localized these deficits to the left precuneus and medial inferior parietal cortex. These findings provide insights on potential underlying low-level impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:21764264

  2. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation.

    PubMed

    Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2017-07-01

    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.

  3. Early vs. asymptotic growth responses of herbaceous plants to elevated CO[sub 2

    SciT

    Thomas, S.C.; Jasienski, M.; Bazzaz, F.A.

    1999-07-01

    Although many studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on plant growth,'' the dynamics of growth involve at least two parameters, namely, an early rate of exponential size increase and an asymptotic size reached late in plant ontogeny. The common practice of quantifying CO[sub 2] responses as a single response ratio thus obscures two qualitatively distinct kinds of effects. The present experiment examines effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on both early and asymptotic growth parameters in eight C[sub 3] herbaceous plant species (Abutilon theophrasti, Cassia obtusifolia, Plantago major, Rumex crispus, Taraxacum officinale, Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Panicummore » dichotomoflorum). Plants were grown for 118--172 d in a factorial design of CO[sub 2] (350 and 700 [micro]L/L) and plant density (individually grown vs. high-density monocultures) under edaphic conditions approximating those of coastal areas in Massachusetts. For Abutilon theophrasti, intraspecific patterns of plant response were also assessed using eight genotypes randomly sampled from a natural population and propagated as inbred lines.« less

  4. Divergent response of the neritic carbonate factory to environmental changes during the Early Bajocian Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, Stephane; Hönig, Martin; Krencker, Francois-Nicolas; Danisch, Jan; Kabiri, Lahcen

    2017-04-01

    The Early Bajocian witnessed a global environmental perturbation, characterized by faunal and floral turnovers and a positive carbon isotope excursion. In Italy, this environmental perturbation coincided with an eutrophication event and a carbonate crisis, but this has so far not been adequately reported from other settings, leaving doubt about the extent and nature of these phenomena. Here, we are reporting on an extensive neritic carbonate factory demise that occurs in the upper Lower Bajocian of the Central High Atlas of Morocco, more precisely in the upper Propinquans - lower Humphriesianum Zones. This demise coincided with the acme of the global carbon isotope perturbation, recorded by a 3‰ positive carbon isotope excursion in the bulk organic matter of Morocco. Recovery of the neritic carbonate system occurs during the Early to Late Bajocian transition. The duration of the neritic carbonate factory demise was therefore in the order of 1 Myr. Furthermore, we observe that the Lower Bajocian of Morocco is relatively enriched in arenitic siliciclastic deposits, suggesting increased weathering and nutrient levels along the northwestern margin of Africa during the Early Bajocian. However, comparison with neighboring European basins highlights the non-uniqueness and different timing of the response of shallow-water carbonates to the Early Bajocian environmental perturbations, as some regions present no sign of carbonate factory crisis. Hence, we postulate that local factors were important in mediating the response of neritic carbonate factories to this global environmental perturbation. We notably highlight the role of large Early Bajocian sea-level fluctuation as a trigger for carbonate factory change and demise in Morocco. Indeed, in the Central High Atlas Basin, transgressive intervals are seeing the development of a mud-dominated carbonate factory whereas regressive intervals are associated with grain-dominated carbonate factory. We speculate that the

  5. [Dose-response relationship of ropivacaine for epidural block in early herpes zoster guided by CT].

    PubMed

    Xie, K Y; Ma, J B; Xu, Q; Huang, B; Yao, M; Ni, H D; Deng, J J; Chen, G D

    2017-12-26

    Objective: To determine the dose-response relationship of ropivacaine for epidural block in early herpes zoster by CT guided. Methods: From January 2015 to February 2017, according to the principle of completely random digital table, 80 patients with early herpes zoster who were prepared for epidural block were divided into 4 groups(each group 20 patients): in group A the concentration of ropivacaine was 0.08%, in group B was 0.10%, in group C was 0.12% and in group D was 0.14%.Under CT guidance, epidural puncture was performed in the relevant section, mixing liquid 5.0 ml (with 10% iodohydrin)were injected into epidural gap.CT scan showed that the mixing liquid covered the relevant spinal nerve segmental.The numeric rating scale(NRS) values before treatment and at 30 minutes, the incidence of adverse reactions were recorded, and the treatment were evaluated. The response to ropivacaine for epidural block in early herpes zoster was defined as positive when the NRS values was less than or equal to one.The ED(50), ED(95) and 95% confidence interval ( CI ) of ropivacaine for epidural block in early herpes zoster guided by CT were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The NRS values before treatment were 5.00(4.00, 6.00), 5.00(4.25, 6.00), 5.50(5.00, 6.00) and 5.00(4.00, 6.00), the difference was no significant( Z =2.576, P =0.462). The NRS values at 30 minutes decreased and the effective rate of the treatment increased(χ(2)=8.371, P =0.004), following ropivacaine dose gradient increasing, they were 1.50(1.00, 2.00), 1.00(1.00, 2.00), 0.50(0.00, 1.00) and 0.00(0.00, 1.00), the difference was statistically significant ( Z =17.421, P =0.001). There was one case in group C and four cases in group D were hypoesthesia, others were no significant adverse reactions occurred. The ED(50) and ED(95) (95% CI ) of ropivacaine for epidural block in early herpes zoster guided by CT were 0.078%(0.015%-0.095%)and 0.157%(0.133%-0.271%), respectively. Conclusion: Ropivacaine for

  6. A gene expression profile indicative of early stage HER2 targeted therapy response.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Fiona; Madden, Stephen F; Clynes, Martin; Crown, John; Doolan, Padraig; Aherne, Sinéad T; O'Connor, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Efficacious application of HER2-targetting agents requires the identification of novel predictive biomarkers. Lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of HER2 and EGFR growth factor receptors. A panel of breast cancer cell lines was treated with these agents, trastuzumab, gefitinib and cytotoxic therapies and the expression pattern of a specific panel of genes using RT-PCR was investigated as a potential marker of early drug response to HER2-targeting therapies. Treatment of HER2 TKI-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cell lines with lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib induced an increase in the expression of RB1CC1, ERBB3, FOXO3a and NR3C1. The response directly correlated with the degree of sensitivity. This expression pattern switched from up-regulated to down-regulated in the HER2 expressing, HER2-TKI insensitive cell line MDAMB453. Expression of the CCND1 gene demonstrated an inversely proportional response to drug exposure. A similar expression pattern was observed following the treatment with both neratinib and afatinib. These patterns were retained following exposure to traztuzumab and lapatinib plus capecitabine. In contrast, gefitinib, dasatinib and epirubicin treatment resulted in a completely different expression pattern change. In these HER2-expressing cell line models, lapatinib, neratinib, afatinib and trastuzumab treatment generated a characteristic and specific gene expression response, proportionate to the sensitivity of the cell lines to the HER2 inhibitor.Characterisation of the induced changes in expression levels of these genes may therefore give a valuable, very early predictor of the likely extent and specificity of tumour HER2 inhibitor response in patients, potentially guiding more specific use of these agents.

  7. A gene expression profile indicative of early stage HER2 targeted therapy response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Efficacious application of HER2-targetting agents requires the identification of novel predictive biomarkers. Lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) of HER2 and EGFR growth factor receptors. A panel of breast cancer cell lines was treated with these agents, trastuzumab, gefitinib and cytotoxic therapies and the expression pattern of a specific panel of genes using RT-PCR was investigated as a potential marker of early drug response to HER2-targeting therapies. Results Treatment of HER2 TKI-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cell lines with lapatinib, afatinib and neratinib induced an increase in the expression of RB1CC1, ERBB3, FOXO3a and NR3C1. The response directly correlated with the degree of sensitivity. This expression pattern switched from up-regulated to down-regulated in the HER2 expressing, HER2-TKI insensitive cell line MDAMB453. Expression of the CCND1 gene demonstrated an inversely proportional response to drug exposure. A similar expression pattern was observed following the treatment with both neratinib and afatinib. These patterns were retained following exposure to traztuzumab and lapatinib plus capecitabine. In contrast, gefitinib, dasatinib and epirubicin treatment resulted in a completely different expression pattern change. Conclusions In these HER2-expressing cell line models, lapatinib, neratinib, afatinib and trastuzumab treatment generated a characteristic and specific gene expression response, proportionate to the sensitivity of the cell lines to the HER2 inhibitor. Characterisation of the induced changes in expression levels of these genes may therefore give a valuable, very early predictor of the likely extent and specificity of tumour HER2 inhibitor response in patients, potentially guiding more specific use of these agents. PMID:23816254

  8. Transcriptomic Responses During Early Development Following Arsenic Exposure in Western Clawed Frogs, Silurana tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Koch, Iris; Gibson, Laura A; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Button, Mark; Caumette, Guilhem; Reimer, Kenneth J; Cullen, William R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic compounds are widespread environmental contaminants and exposure elicits serious health issues, including early developmental anomalies. Depending on the oxidation state, the intermediates of arsenic metabolism interfere with a range of subcellular events, but the fundamental molecular events that lead to speciation-dependent arsenic toxicity are not fully elucidated. This study therefore assesses the impact of arsenic exposure on early development by measuring speciation and gene expression profiles in the developing Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) larvae following the environmental relevant 0.5 and 1 ppm arsenate exposure. Using HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenate, dimethylarsenic acid, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and tetramethylarsonium ion were detected. Microarray and pathway analyses were utilized to characterize the comprehensive transcriptomic responses to arsenic exposure. Clustering analysis of expression data showed distinct gene expression patterns in arsenate treated groups when compared with the control. Pathway enrichment revealed common biological themes enriched in both treatments, including cell signal transduction, cell survival, and developmental pathways. Moreover, the 0.5 ppm exposure led to the enrichment of pathways and biological processes involved in arsenic intake or efflux, as well as histone remodeling. These compensatory responses are hypothesized to be responsible for maintaining an in-body arsenic level comparable to control animals. With no appreciable changes observed in malformation and mortality between control and exposed larvae, this is the first study to suggest that the underlying transcriptomic regulations related to signal transduction, cell survival, developmental pathways, and histone remodeling may contribute to maintaining ongoing development while coping with the potential arsenic toxicity in S. tropicalis during early development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  9. Regulatory parameters of the lung immune response during the early phase of experimental trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Falduto, Guido H; Vila, Cecilia C; Saracino, María P; Gentilini, María V; Venturiello, Stella M

    2016-11-15

    Parasitic infection caused by Trichinella spiralis provokes an early stimulation of the mucosal immune system which causes an allergic inflammatory response in the lungs. The present work was intended to characterize the kinetics of emergence of regulatory parameters in Wistar rat lungs during this early inflammatory response, between days 0 and 13p.i. The presence of regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) was analyzed in lung cell suspensions. Moreover, a regulatory cytokine (TGF-β) was studied in lung tissue extracts. Considering that newborn larvae (NBL) travel along the pulmonary microvasculature, the ability of this parasite stage to modulate the activation of lung macrophages was evaluated. For this purpose, lung macrophages from non-infected or infected rats (day 6p.i.) were cultured with live or dead NBL. Arginase activity (characteristic of AAM) and nitric oxide (NO produced by iNOS, characteristic of classical activated macrophages) were measured after 48h. Our results revealed a significant increase in the percentage of Tregs on days 6 and 13p.i., arginase activity on day 13p.i. and TGF-β levels on days 6 and 13p.i. Lung macrophages from non-infected rats cultured with live NBL showed a significant increase in arginase activity and NO levels. Live and dead NBL induced a significant increase in arginase activity in lung macrophages from infected rats. Only live NBL significantly increased NO levels in these macrophages. The present work demonstrates for the first time, the emergence of regulatory parameters in the early lung immune response during T. spiralis infection. The immumodulatory properties exerted by NBL during its passage through this organ could be the cause of such regulation. Moreover, we have shown the ability of NBL to activate macrophages from the lung parenchyma by the classical and alternative pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions

    PubMed Central

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y.

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia. In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. PMID:27402618

  11. Early establishment of trees at the alpine treeline: idiosyncratic species responses to temperature-moisture interactions.

    PubMed

    Loranger, Hannah; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y

    2016-01-01

    On a global scale, temperature is the main determinant of arctic and alpine treeline position. However on a local scale, treeline form and position vary considerably due to other climatic factors, tree species ecology and life-stage-dependent responses. For treelines to advance poleward or uphill, the first steps are germination and seedling establishment. These earliest life stages may be major bottlenecks for treeline tree populations and will depend differently on climatic conditions than adult trees. We investigated the effect of soil temperature and moisture on germination and early seedling survival in a field experiment in the French Alps near the local treeline (2100 m a.s.l.) using passive temperature manipulations and two watering regimes. Five European treeline tree species were studied: Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus cembra, Pinus uncinata and Sorbus aucuparia In addition, we monitored the germination response of three of these species to low temperatures under controlled conditions in growth chambers. The early establishment of these trees at the alpine treeline was limited either by temperature or by moisture, the sensitivity to one factor often depending on the intensity of the other. The results showed that the relative importance of the two factors and the direction of the effects are highly species-specific, while both factors tend to have consistent effects on both germination and early seedling survival within each species. We show that temperature and water availability are both important contributors to establishment patterns of treeline trees and hence to species-specific forms and positions of alpine treelines. The observed idiosyncratic species responses highlight the need for studies including several species and life-stages to create predictive power concerning future treeline dynamics. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  12. Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenza.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Martin, Jesus F; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raul; Pumarola, Tomas; Rello, Jordi; Almansa, Raquel; Ramírez, Paula; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Varillas, David; Gallegos, Maria C; Serón, Carlos; Micheloud, Dariela; Gomez, Jose Manuel; Tenorio-Abreu, Alberto; Ramos, María J; Molina, M Lourdes; Huidobro, Samantha; Sanchez, Elia; Gordón, Mónica; Fernández, Victoria; Del Castillo, Alberto; Marcos, Ma Angeles; Villanueva, Beatriz; López, Carlos Javier; Rodríguez-Domínguez, Mario; Galan, Juan-Carlos; Cantón, Rafael; Lietor, Aurora; Rojo, Silvia; Eiros, Jose M; Hinojosa, Carmen; Gonzalez, Isabel; Torner, Nuria; Banner, David; Leon, Alberto; Cuesta, Pablo; Rowe, Thomas; Kelvin, David J

    2009-01-01

    Human host immune response following infection with the new variant of A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nvH1N1) is poorly understood. We utilize here systemic cytokine and antibody levels in evaluating differences in early immune response in both mild and severe patients infected with nvH1N1. We profiled 29 cytokines and chemokines and evaluated the haemagglutination inhibition activity as quantitative and qualitative measurements of host immune responses in serum obtained during the first five days after symptoms onset, in two cohorts of nvH1N1 infected patients. Severe patients required hospitalization (n = 20), due to respiratory insufficiency (10 of them were admitted to the intensive care unit), while mild patients had exclusively flu-like symptoms (n = 15). A group of healthy donors was included as control (n = 15). Differences in levels of mediators between groups were assessed by using the non parametric U-Mann Whitney test. Association between variables was determined by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. Viral load was performed in serum by using real-time PCR targeting the neuraminidase gene. Increased levels of innate-immunity mediators (IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1beta), and the absence of anti-nvH1N1 antibodies, characterized the early response to nvH1N1 infection in both hospitalized and mild patients. High systemic levels of type-II interferon (IFN-gamma) and also of a group of mediators involved in the development of T-helper 17 (IL-8, IL-9, IL-17, IL-6) and T-helper 1 (TNF-alpha, IL-15, IL-12p70) responses were exclusively found in hospitalized patients. IL-15, IL-12p70, IL-6 constituted a hallmark of critical illness in our study. A significant inverse association was found between IL-6, IL-8 and PaO2 in critical patients. While infection with the nvH1N1 induces a typical innate response in both mild and severe patients, severe disease with respiratory involvement is characterized by early secretion of Th17 and Th1 cytokines usually

  13. CONSENSUS TREATMENT PLANS FOR INDUCTION THERAPY OF NEWLY-DIAGNOSED PROLIFERATIVE LUPUS NEPHRITIS IN JUVENILE SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Rina; von Scheven, Emily; Ardoin, Stacy P.; Eberhard, B. Anne; Punaro, Marilynn; Ilowite, Norman; Hsu, Joyce; Klein-Gitelman, Marisa; Moorthy, L. Nandini; Muscal, Eyal; Radhakrishna, Suhas M.; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Adams, Matthew; Blier, Peter; Buckley, Lenore; Chalom, Elizabeth; Chédeville, Gaëlle; Eichenfield, Andrew; Fish, Natalya; Henrickson, Michael; Hersh, Aimee O.; Hollister, Roger; Jones, Olcay; Jung, Lawrence; Levy, Deborah; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge; McCurdy, Deborah; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Quintero-Del Rio, Ana I.; Rothman, Deborah; Rullo, Ornella; Ruth, Natasha; Schanberg, Laura E.; Silverman, Earl; Singer, Nora G.; Soep, Jennifer; MBBS, Reema Syed; Vogler, Larry B.; Yalcindag, Ali; Yildirim-Toruner, Cagri; Wallace, Carol A.; Brunner, Hermine I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To formulate consensus treatment plans (CTPs) for induction therapy of newly-diagnosed proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (jSLE). Methods A structured consensus formation process was employed by the members of the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) after considering the existing medical evidence and current treatment approaches. Results After an initial Delphi survey (response rate 70%), a 2-day consensus conference, and two follow-up Delphi surveys (response rates 63–79%), consensus was achieved for a limited set of CTPs addressing the induction therapy of proliferative LN. These CTPs were developed for prototypic patients defined by eligibility characteristics, and included immunosuppressive therapy with either mycophenolic acid orally twice per day, or intravenous cyclophosphamide once per month at standardized doses for six months. Additionally, the CTPs describe three options for standardized use of glucocorticoids; including a primarily oral, a mixed oral/intravenous, and a primarily intravenous regimen. There was consensus on measures of effectiveness and safety of the CTPs. The CTPs were well accepted by the pediatric rheumatology providers treating children with LN, and up to 300 children per year in North America are expected to be candidates for the treatment with the CTPs. Conclusion CTPs for induction therapy of proliferative LN in jSLE based on the available scientific evidence and pediatric rheumatology group experience have been developed. Consistent use of the CTPs may improve the prognosis of proliferative LN, and support the conduct of comparative effectiveness studies aimed at optimizing therapeutic strategies for proliferative LN in jSLE. PMID:22162255

  14. Two distinct cellular proteins interact with the EIa-responsive element of an adenovirus early promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen-Durr, P; Wintzerith, M; Reimund, B; Hauss, C; Kédinger, C

    1990-01-01

    EIa-dependent transactivation of the adenovirus EIIa early (EIIaE) promoter is correlated with the activation of the cellular transcription factor E2F. In this study we identified a cellular protein, C alpha, that is distinct from E2F and that binds two sites in the EIIaE promoter, one of which overlaps with the proximal E2F binding site of the EIIaE promoter. The possible involvement of C alpha in the EIa responsiveness of this promoter is discussed. Images PMID:2139142

  15. Vestibular Activation Differentially Modulates Human Early Visual Cortex and V5/MT Excitability and Response Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Lopez, Jessica; Arshad, Qadeer; Schultz, Simon R; Walsh, Vincent; Yousif, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Head movement imposes the additional burdens on the visual system of maintaining visual acuity and determining the origin of retinal image motion (i.e., self-motion vs. object-motion). Although maintaining visual acuity during self-motion is effected by minimizing retinal slip via the brainstem vestibular-ocular reflex, higher order visuovestibular mechanisms also contribute. Disambiguating self-motion versus object-motion also invokes higher order mechanisms, and a cortical visuovestibular reciprocal antagonism is propounded. Hence, one prediction is of a vestibular modulation of visual cortical excitability and indirect measures have variously suggested none, focal or global effects of activation or suppression in human visual cortex. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced phosphenes to probe cortical excitability, we observed decreased V5/MT excitability versus increased early visual cortex (EVC) excitability, during vestibular activation. In order to exclude nonspecific effects (e.g., arousal) on cortical excitability, response specificity was assessed using information theory, specifically response entropy. Vestibular activation significantly modulated phosphene response entropy for V5/MT but not EVC, implying a specific vestibular effect on V5/MT responses. This is the first demonstration that vestibular activation modulates human visual cortex excitability. Furthermore, using information theory, not previously used in phosphene response analysis, we could distinguish between a specific vestibular modulation of V5/MT excitability from a nonspecific effect at EVC. PMID:22291031

  16. ALD1 Regulates Basal Immune Components and Early Inducible Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Nicolás M; Jung, Ho Won; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-04-01

    Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also upregulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here, we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to the wild type and ald1 mutants yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that, in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces non-Pip metabolites that play roles in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively.

  17. Early Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients Infected With Leishmania braziliensis Express Increased Inflammatory Responses After Antimony Therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rúbia S; Carvalho, Lucas P; Campos, Taís M; Magalhães, Andréa S; Passos, Sara T; Schriefer, Albert; Silva, Juliana A; Lago, Ednaldo; Paixão, Camilla S; Machado, Paulo; Scott, Phillip; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2018-02-14

    Early cutaneous leishmaniasis (ECL) is characterized by a nonulcerated papular lesion and illness duration less than 30 days. Approximately 4 weeks later, the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) ulcers appear. We were surprised to find that failure after antimony therapy (Sb5) is higher in ECL than CL. We hypothesize that the inflammatory response in ECL patients may increase during Sb5 therapy, which leads to treatment failure. A cohort of 44 ECL patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis was established to evaluate the response to Sb5 and to compare immunologic responses in ECL patients with CL and healthy subjects. A hierarchical clustering based on cytokine levels showed a weak positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokine levels and those patients that failed Sb5 treatment. Although Sb5 therapy decreased interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor levels in CL patients, we were surprised to find that an increase in these cytokines was observed in ECL patients. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-10 was less able to down-modulate immune responses in ECL. The enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines, due in part to the decreased ability of IL-10 to down-modulate immune response during therapy in ECL, promotes the development and persistence of leishmania ulcer despite antimony therapy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Consequences of an Early PSA Response to Enzalutamide Treatment for Japanese Patients with Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Haruo; Furuya, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Miyao, Takeshi; Syuto, Takahiro; Nomura, Masashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Koike, Hidekazu; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazuto; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that an early prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to androgen receptor (AR)-targeting agents in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is associated with a better prognosis. We analyzed early PSA response to enzalutamide and oncological outcomes to study their prognostic significance in the Japanese population. Fifty-one patients with mCRPC (26 of pre-docetaxel and 25 of post-docetaxel status) were treated with enzalutamide. The PSA progression-free survival (PFS), radiographic PFS (rPFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed. The association of rPFS and OS in patients with an early PSA response at 4 weeks after commencement of enzalutamide was studied. Early PSA responses were significantly associated with a longer rPFS (median of 47.9 vs. 20.1 weeks, p<0.001, in patients exhibiting a 50% PSA response; median of 40.9 vs. 20.1 weeks, p=0.016, in patients exhibiting a 30% PSA response). OS was also significantly associated with an early PSA response (p=0.002 for patients exhibiting a 50% PSA response, p=0.003 for patients exhibiting a 30% PSA response). Multivariate analysis showed that the predictors of a 50% PSA response were an interval to mCRPC and a docetaxel treatment history, while the predictor of a 30% PSA response was a docetaxel treatment history. Furthermore, a 50% PSA response was independently prognostic of rPFS. An early PSA response to enzalutamide was significantly associated with a longer rPFS and OS. This information will aid in the management of patients treated with enzalutamide. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Early detection of disease program: Evaluation of the cellular immune response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, B. S.; Knight, V.; Martin, R. R.; Kasel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The early cellular responses of specific components of the leukocyte and epithelial cell populations to foreign challenges of both an infectious and noninfectious character were evaluated. Procedures for screening potential flight crews were developed, documented, and tested on a control population. Methods for preparing suitable populations of lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells were first established and evaluated. Epithelial cells from viral infected individuals were screened with a number of anti-viral antisera. This procedure showed the earliest indication of disease as well as providing a specific diagnosis to the physicians. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied from normal individuals, smokers, and patients with viral infections. Newer techniques enabling better definition of lymphocyte subpopulations were then developed, namely the E and EAC rosette procedures for recognition of T (thymus-derived) and B (bone-marrow-derived) lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte and lymphocyte subpopulation response to multiple mitogens have been evaluated.

  20. Development of an Infection-Responsive Fluorescent Sensor for the Early Detection of Urinary Catheter Blockage.

    PubMed

    Milo, Scarlet; Acosta, Florianne B; Hathaway, Hollie J; Wallace, Laura A; Thet, Naing T; Jenkins, A Toby A

    2018-03-23

    Formation of crystalline biofilms following infection by Proteus mirabilis can lead to encrustation and blockage of long-term indwelling catheters, with serious clinical consequences. We describe a simple sensor, placed within the catheter drainage bag, to alert of impending blockage via a urinary color change. The pH-responsive sensor is a dual-layered polymeric "lozenge", able to release the self-quenching dye 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein in response to the alkaline urine generated by the expression of bacterial urease. Sensor performance was evaluated within a laboratory model of the catheterized urinary tract, infected with both urease positive and negative bacterial strains under conditions of established infection, achieving an average "early warning" of catheter blockage of 14.5 h. Signaling only occurred following infection with urease positive bacteria. Translation of these sensors into a clinical environment would allow appropriate intervention before the occurrence of catheter blockage, a problem for which there is currently no effective control method.

  1. Early change in coping strategies in responsive treatments for borderline personality disorder: A mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Ueli; Keller, Sabine; Caspar, Franz; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Kolly, Stéphane

    2017-05-01

    Difficulty in emotion regulation is a hallmark feature of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Therefore, change in the frequency of certain patients' coping strategies-aiming at emotion regulation-are among the most promising mechanisms of change in treatments for BPD. In parallel, it was highlighted that therapist responsiveness significantly contributed to outcome across treatment approaches (Stiles, 2009). Based on a randomized controlled trial (Kramer et al., 2014), the present process-outcome mediation analysis aims at examining the patient's early change in frequency of coping strategies-in particular the decrease in behavioral forms of coping-as potential mechanism of change in responsive treatments for BPD. A total of 57 patients with BPD were included in the present analysis, out of whom 27 were randomly assigned to a 10-session psychiatric treatment and 30 to a 10-session psychiatric treatment augmented with the responsive intervention of the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship (Caspar, 2007). The 1st, 5th, and 9th session of each therapy were transcribed and analyzed using the Coping Action Pattern Rating Scale (Perry et al., 2005; 171 sessions analyzed in total), a validated observer-rated method for assessing coping strategies in the therapy process. Psychological distress was assessed using the OQ-45 at intake, after Session 5, and after Session 10. The results confirmed a responsiveness effect associated with the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship and showed a significant decrease in frequency of behavioral forms of coping, F(1, 54) = 3.09, p = .05, d = .56, which was not different between the 2 conditions. In addition, we demonstrated that the early decrease in behavioral forms of coping between Sessions 1 and 5 partially mediated the link between the group assignment and the change in psychological distress between Sessions 5 and 10. These results shed light on the centrality of therapist responsiveness in treatments for

  2. Discrimination of timbre in early auditory responses of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Seol, Jaeho; Oh, MiAe; Kim, June Sic; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Sun Il; Chung, Chun Kee

    2011-01-01

    The issue of how differences in timbre are represented in the neural response still has not been well addressed, particularly with regard to the relevant brain mechanisms. Here we employ phasing and clipping of tones to produce auditory stimuli differing to describe the multidimensional nature of timbre. We investigated the auditory response and sensory gating as well, using by magnetoencephalography (MEG). Thirty-five healthy subjects without hearing deficit participated in the experiments. Two different or same tones in timbre were presented through conditioning (S1)-testing (S2) paradigm as a pair with an interval of 500 ms. As a result, the magnitudes of auditory M50 and M100 responses were different with timbre in both hemispheres. This result might support that timbre, at least by phasing and clipping, is discriminated in the auditory early processing. The second response in a pair affected by S1 in the consecutive stimuli occurred in M100 of the left hemisphere, whereas both M50 and M100 responses to S2 only in the right hemisphere reflected whether two stimuli in a pair were the same or not. Both M50 and M100 magnitudes were different with the presenting order (S1 vs. S2) for both same and different conditions in the both hemispheres. Our results demonstrate that the auditory response depends on timbre characteristics. Moreover, it was revealed that the auditory sensory gating is determined not by the stimulus that directly evokes the response, but rather by whether or not the two stimuli are identical in timbre.

  3. Fish oil supplementation in early infancy modulates developing infant immune responses.

    PubMed

    D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Lee-Pullen, T F; Metcalfe, J; Holt, B J; Serralha, M; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2012-08-01

    Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with altered infant immune responses and a reduced risk of infant sensitization and eczema. To examine the effect of early postnatal fish oil supplementation on infant cellular immune function at 6 months of age in the context of allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12606000281594), 420 infants of high atopic risk received fish oil [containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 110 mg eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)] or control oil daily from birth to 6 months. One hundred and twenty infants had blood collected at 6 months of age. Fatty acid levels, induced cytokine responses, T cell subsets and monocyte HLA-DR expression were assessed at 6 months of age. Infant allergies were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age. DHA and EPA levels were significantly higher in the fish oil group and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) levels were lower (all P < 0.05). Infants in the fish oil group had significantly lower IL-13 responses (P = 0.036) to house dust mite (HDM) and higher IFNγ (P = 0.035) and TNF (P = 0.017) responses to phytohaemaglutinin (PHA). Infants with relatively high DHA levels had lower Th2 responses to allergens including lower IL-13 to β-lactoglobulin (BLG) (P = 0.020), and lower IL-5 to BLG (P = 0.045). Postnatal fish oil supplementation increased infant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and associated with lowered allergen-specific Th2 responses and elevated polyclonal Th1 responses. Our results add to existing evidence of n-3 PUFA having immunomodulatory properties that are potentially allergy-protective. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Early Growth Response Gene 1 ("EGR-1") Is Required for New and Reactivated Fear Memories in the Lateral Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Stephanie A.; Monsey, Melissa S.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2011-01-01

    The immediate-early gene early growth response gene-1 (EGR-1, zif-268) has been extensively studied in synaptic plasticity and memory formation in a variety of memory systems. However, a convincing role for EGR-1 in amygdala-dependent memory consolidation processes has yet to emerge. In the present study, we have examined the role of EGR-1 in the…

  5. Neural responses to reward in childhood: relations to early behavioral inhibition and social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Benson, Brenda E; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A; Ernst, Monique

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an early temperamental profile characterized by negative reactivity to novelty, withdrawal from social situations, and increased risk for social anxiety. Previous research associated BI assessed in early childhood to striatal hypersensitivity in mid-to-late adolescence. The present study examined this association among 10 year-olds, characterized with BI at ages 24 and 36 months on measures of temperamental reactivity. Participants (n = 40) were studied at age 10 using a reward processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Child- and maternal-report of social anxiety symptoms was collected at ages 10 and 13. Findings indicate greater caudate activation and stronger striatal connectivity in high, compared to low, behaviorally inhibited children. Caudate activation related to social anxiety symptoms at both ages. These findings suggest that enhanced striatal responsivity reliably manifests among high behaviorally inhibited children as early as age 10. This may reflect hyper-sensitivity to reward or excessive motivation to avoid errors. PMID:27531387

  6. Experimental acidification of Little Rock Lake (Wisconsin): fish research approach and early responses.

    PubMed

    Swenson, W A; McCormick, J H; Simonson, T D; Jensen, K M; Eaton, J G

    1989-01-01

    One goal of research at Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin, is to enhance understanding of lake acidification effects on warm- and cool-water fishery resources. The Little Rock Lake fish assemblage is characteristic of many acid sensitive waters in North America and is dominated by yellow perch (Percidae) and sunfishes (Centrarchidae). Analyses of reproduction, early survival and growth rates in the field were designed around the differing reproductive modes of these taxa. Complementary laboratory research on early life stages was conducted to assist in isolating direct effect mechanisms and to determine the reliability of laboratory results in predicting field response. Preliminary findings suggest that lake acidification to pH 5.6 has not influenced reproductive activity of the four most abundant fish species. However, the field results suggest that year-class failure of rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) may be occurring due to reduced survival of early life stages. Reduced growth and food conversion efficiency of Age 0 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is also suggested. The laboratory bioassays indicate rock bass is the most acid-sensitive Little Rock Lake species tested. However, rock bass fry survival was not significantly affected until pH was reduced from 5.6 to 5.0.

  7. Linguistic category structure influences early auditory processing: Converging evidence from mismatch responses and cortical oscillations.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Monahan, Philip J; Idsardi, William J

    2016-03-01

    While previous research has established that language-specific knowledge influences early auditory processing, it is still controversial as to what aspects of speech sound representations determine early speech perception. Here, we propose that early processing primarily depends on information propagated top-down from abstractly represented speech sound categories. In particular, we assume that mid-vowels (as in 'bet') exert less top-down effects than the high-vowels (as in 'bit') because of their less specific (default) tongue height position as compared to either high- or low-vowels (as in 'bat'). We tested this assumption in a magnetoencephalography (MEG) study where we contrasted mid- and high-vowels, as well as the low- and high-vowels in a passive oddball paradigm. Overall, significant differences between deviants and standards indexed reliable mismatch negativity (MMN) responses between 200 and 300ms post-stimulus onset. MMN amplitudes differed in the mid/high-vowel contrasts and were significantly reduced when a mid-vowel standard was followed by a high-vowel deviant, extending previous findings. Furthermore, mid-vowel standards showed reduced oscillatory power in the pre-stimulus beta-frequency band (18-26Hz), compared to high-vowel standards. We take this as converging evidence for linguistic category structure to exert top-down influences on auditory processing. The findings are interpreted within the linguistic model of underspecification and the neuropsychological predictive coding framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lassa and Marburg viruses elicit distinct host transcriptional responses early after infection.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Ignacio S; Yen, Judy Y; Hensley, Lisa E; Honko, Anna N; Goff, Arthur J; Connor, John H

    2014-11-06

    Lassa virus and Marburg virus are two causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fever. Their diagnosis is difficult because patients infected with either pathogen present similar nonspecific symptoms early after infection. Current diagnostic tests are based on detecting viral proteins or nucleic acids in the blood, but these cannot be found during the early stages of disease, before the virus starts replicating in the blood. Using the transcriptional response of the host during infection can lead to earlier diagnoses compared to those of traditional methods. In this study, we use RNA sequencing to obtain a high-resolution view of the in vivo transcriptional dynamics of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) throughout both types of infection. We report a subset of host mRNAs, including heat-shock proteins like HSPA1B, immunoglobulins like IGJ, and cell adhesion molecules like SIGLEC1, whose differences in expression are strong enough to distinguish Lassa infection from Marburg infection in non-human primates. We have validated these infection-specific expression differences by using microarrays on a larger set of samples, and by quantifying the expression of individual genes using RT-PCR. These results suggest that host transcriptional signatures are correlated with specific viral infections, and that they can be used to identify highly pathogenic viruses during the early stages of disease, before standard detection methods become effective.

  9. Vascular-mediated signalling involved in early phosphate stress response in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoliang; Zheng, Yi; Ham, Byung-Kook; Chen, Jieyu; Yoshida, Akiko; Kochian, Leon V; Fei, Zhangjun; Lucas, William J

    2016-04-04

    Depletion of finite global rock phosphate (Pi) reserves will impose major limitations on future agricultural productivity and food security. Hence, modern breeding programmes seek to develop Pi-efficient crops with sustainable yields under reduced Pi fertilizer inputs. In this regard, although the long-term responses of plants to Pi stress are well documented, the early signalling events have yet to be elucidated. Here, we show plant tissue-specific responses to early Pi stress at the transcription level and a predominant role of the plant vascular system in this process. Specifically, imposition of Pi stress induces rapid and major changes in the mRNA population in the phloem translocation stream, and grafting studies have revealed that many hundreds of phloem-mobile mRNAs are delivered to specific sink tissues. We propose that the shoot vascular system acts as the site of root-derived Pi stress perception, and the phloem serves to deliver a cascade of signals to various sinks, presumably to coordinate whole-plant Pi homeostasis.

  10. Effects of early heat exposure on thermoregulatory responses and blood viscosity of broilers prior to marketing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W T; Fujita, M; Ito, T; Yamamoto, S

    1997-07-01

    1. This study was to determine the effects of heat load early in life on thermoregulatory responses and whole blood viscosity of broilers during a subsequent exposure to high environmental temperature later in life. 2. The birds, which had been subjected to exposure to 38 degrees C for 24 h at 5-d-old, served as prior exposure group (group A). Both group A and control group B were exposed to 33 degrees C for 3 h when near marketable weight. 3. On exposure to 33 degrees C, although there were no significant differences in the increases in heat production (HP) between the two groups, abdominal temperature (Ta), temperature of external ear tract (Tee), shank skin temperature (Tss), standing-lying frequency and lying time were lower in group A than in group B. Heart rate (HR) and comb surface temperature (Tcs) did not differ but increased in both groups during exposure to 33 degrees C. Respiration rate (RR) was greater in group A. 4. Blood viscosity decreased markedly in both groups after exposure to 33 degrees C; the decrease was greater in group A. 5. These results suggest that early exposure may promote broilers' ability to cope with the subsequent heat load by altering thermoregulatory physiological responses and behavioural patterns, resulting in an alleviation of heat stress.

  11. Limited Colonization Undermined by Inadequate Early Immune Responses Defines the Dynamics of Decidual Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Rizzuto, Gabrielle; Tagliani, Elisa; Manandhar, Priyanka; Erlebacher, Adrian; Bakardjiev, Anna I

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne systemic disease in pregnant women, which can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo A high inoculum was necessary to infect both human and mouse deciduas, and the data support the existence of a barrier to initial colonization of the murine decidua. If successful, however, colonization in both species was followed by significant bacterial expansion associated with an inability of the decidua to mount appropriate innate cellular immune responses. The innate immune deficits included the failure of bacterial foci to attract macrophages and NK cells, cell types known to be important for early defenses against L. monocytogenes in the spleen, as well as a decrease in the tissue density of inflammatory Ly6C hi monocytes in vivo These results suggest that the infectivity of the decidua is not the result of an enhanced recruitment of L. monocytogenes to the gestational uterus but rather is due to compromised local innate cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Density-dependent coral recruitment displays divergent responses during distinct early life-history stages

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, Nicolas R.; Gómez-Lemos, Luis A.; Babcock, Russell C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth involves demographic bottlenecks that regulate recruitment success during various early life-history stages. The success of each early life-history stage can vary in response to population density, interacting with intrinsic (e.g. behavioural) and environmental (e.g. competition, predation) factors. Here, we used the common reef-building coral Acropora millepora to investigate how density-dependence influences larval survival and settlement in laboratory experiments that isolated intrinsic effects, and post-settlement survival in a field experiment that examined interactions with environmental factors. Larval survival was exceptionally high (greater than 80%) and density-independent from 2.5 to 12 days following spawning. By contrast, there was a weak positive effect of larval density on settlement, driven by gregarious behaviour at the highest density. When larval supply was saturated, settlement was three times higher in crevices compared with exposed microhabitats, but a negative relationship between settler density and post-settlement survival in crevices and density-independent survival on exposed surfaces resulted in similar recruit densities just one month following settlement. Moreover, a negative relationship was found between turf algae and settler survival in crevices, whereas gregarious settlement improved settler survival on exposed surfaces. Overall, our findings reveal divergent responses by coral larvae and newly settled recruits to density-dependent regulation, mediated by intrinsic and environmental interactions. PMID:28573015

  13. Ultrasonic RF time series for early assessment of the tumor response to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingguang; Wang, Jianwei; Li, Qing; Lin, Chunyi; Guo, Zhixing; Zheng, Wei; Yan, Cuiju; Li, Anhua; Zhou, Jianhua

    2018-01-05

    Ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) time series have been shown to carry tissue typing information. To evaluate the potential of RF time series for early prediction of tumor response to chemotherapy, 50MCF-7 breast cancer-bearing nude mice were randomized to receive cisplatin and paclitaxel (treatment group; n = 26) or sterile saline (control group; n = 24). Sequential ultrasound imaging was performed on days 0, 3, 6, and 8 of treatment to simultaneously collect B-mode images and RF data. Six RF time series features, slope, intercept, S1, S2, S3 , and S4 , were extracted during RF data analysis and contrasted with microstructural tumor changes on histopathology. Chemotherapy administration reduced tumor growth relative to control on days 6 and 8. Compared with day 0, intercept, S1 , and S2 were increased while slope was decreased on days 3, 6, and 8 in the treatment group. Compared with the control group, intercept, S1, S2, S3 , and S4 were increased, and slope was decreased, on days 3, 6, and 8 in the treatment group. Tumor cell density decreased significantly in the latter on day 3. We conclude that ultrasonic RF time series analysis provides a simple way to noninvasively assess the early tumor response to chemotherapy.

  14. Distribution of Endogenous NO Regulates Early Gravitropic Response and PIN2 Localization in Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    París, Ramiro; Vazquez, María M; Graziano, Magdalena; Terrile, María C; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Otegui, Marisa S; Casalongué, Claudia A

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution and automated image analysis of individual roots demonstrated that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) contribute significantly to gravitropism of Arabidopsis roots. Lowering of endogenous NO concentrations strongly reduced and even reversed gravitropism, resulting in upward bending, without affecting root growth rate. Notably, the asymmetric accumulation of NO along the upper and lower sides of roots correlated with a positive gravitropic response. Detection of NO by the specific DAF-FM DA fluorescent probe revealed that NO was higher at the lower side of horizontally-oriented roots returning to initial values 2 h after the onset of gravistimulation. We demonstrate that NO promotes plasma membrane re-localization of PIN2 in epidermal cells, which is required during the early root gravitropic response. The dynamic and asymmetric localization of both auxin and NO is critical to regulate auxin polar transport during gravitropism. Our results collectively suggest that, although auxin and NO crosstalk occurs at different levels of regulation, they converge in the regulation of PIN2 membrane trafficking in gravistimulated roots, supporting the notion that a temporally and spatially coordinated network of signal molecules could participate in the early phases of auxin polar transport during gravitropism.

  15. Early-life risperidone enhances locomotor responses to amphetamine during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee Stubbeman, Bobbie; Brown, Clifford J; Yates, Justin R; Bardgett, Mark E

    2017-10-05

    Antipsychotic drug prescriptions for pediatric populations have increased over the past 20 years, particularly the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs such as risperidone. Most antipsychotic drugs target forebrain dopamine systems, and early-life antipsychotic drug exposure could conceivably reset forebrain neurotransmitter function in a permanent manner that persists into adulthood. This study determined whether chronic risperidone administration during development modified locomotor responses to the dopamine/norepinephrine agonist, D-amphetamine, in adult rats. Thirty-five male Long-Evans rats received an injection of one of four doses of risperidone (vehicle, .3, 1.0, 3.0mg/kg) each day from postnatal day 14 through 42. Locomotor activity was measured for 1h on postnatal days 46 and 47, and then for 24h once a week over the next two weeks. Beginning on postnatal day 75, rats received one of four doses of amphetamine (saline, .3, 1.0, 3.0mg/kg) once a week for four weeks. Locomotor activity was measured for 27h after amphetamine injection. Rats administered risperidone early in life demonstrated increased activity during the 1 and 24h test sessions conducted prior to postnatal day 75. Taking into account baseline group differences, these same rats exhibited significantly more locomotor activity in response to the moderate dose of amphetamine relative to controls. These results suggest that early-life treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs, like risperidone, permanently alters forebrain catecholamine function and increases sensitivity to drugs that target such function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of early repeated pain experiences on stress responsiveness and emotionality at maturity in rats.

    PubMed

    Page, Gayle G; Blakely, Wendy P; Kim, Miyong

    2005-01-01

    The intensive care necessary for premature newborns is characterized by multiple procedures, many of which are painful. Given emerging evidence that such early pain during this time of high brain plasticity may affect long-term neurodevelopmental and social-emotional functioning, this study explored the impact of early repeated pain on emotionality and stress responsivity at maturity. From birth through postnatal day 7, Fischer 344 pups underwent either paw needle prick every day versus every other day or daily paw touch, or were left unperturbed. Each paw received the designated perturbation once per day. At maturity, some animals underwent emotionality testing: either a 4-day series of open field exposures or a single elevated plus-maze (EPM) exposure. The paw prick groups exhibited less open field habituation and occupied the EPM open arms more. Two weeks later, all animals were either subjected to forced swim or not. At 1h post-swim, animals underwent either blood withdrawal for plasma corticosterone (CS) levels and ex vivo natural killer cell activity (NKCA) or were injected intravenously with radiolabeled NK-sensitive syngeneic MADB106 tumor cells and assessed for lung tumor retention. Sex was a major factor in the manifestation of perturbation-related differences in the biologic outcomes. Whereas postnatal pain differentially affected baseline tumor retention between males and females, only males exhibited perturbation-related differences in swim stress-induced increases in tumor retention and CS. Finally, male-female differences were evident in CS, NKCA, and tumor responses to swim stress. These findings suggest that early pain affects neurodevelopmental function in the mature organism; however, these relationships are complicated by sex differences, the postnatal pain schedule, and the outcome measured.

  17. Hepatitis C Virus Reveals a Novel Early Control in Acute Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Noëlla; Dabo, Stéphanie; Akazawa, Daisuke; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Hugon, Jacques; Wakita, Takaji; Meurs, Eliane F.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of viral RNA structures by the intracytosolic RNA helicase RIG-I triggers induction of innate immunity. Efficient induction requires RIG-I ubiquitination by the E3 ligase TRIM25, its interaction with the mitochondria-bound MAVS protein, recruitment of TRAF3, IRF3- and NF-κB-kinases and transcription of Interferon (IFN). In addition, IRF3 alone induces some of the Interferon-Stimulated Genes (ISGs), referred to as early ISGs. Infection of hepatocytes with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in poor production of IFN despite recognition of the viral RNA by RIG-I but can lead to induction of early ISGs. HCV was shown to inhibit IFN production by cleaving MAVS through its NS3/4A protease and by controlling cellular translation through activation of PKR, an eIF2α-kinase containing dsRNA-binding domains (DRBD). Here, we have identified a third mode of control of IFN induction by HCV. Using HCVcc and the Huh7.25.CD81 cells, we found that HCV controls RIG-I ubiquitination through the di-ubiquitine-like protein ISG15, one of the early ISGs. A transcriptome analysis performed on Huh7.25.CD81 cells silenced or not for PKR and infected with JFH1 revealed that HCV infection leads to induction of 49 PKR-dependent genes, including ISG15 and several early ISGs. Silencing experiments revealed that this novel PKR-dependent pathway involves MAVS, TRAF3 and IRF3 but not RIG-I, and that it does not induce IFN. Use of PKR inhibitors showed that this pathway requires the DRBD but not the kinase activity of PKR. We then demonstrated that PKR interacts with HCV RNA and MAVS prior to RIG-I. In conclusion, HCV recruits PKR early in infection as a sensor to trigger induction of several IRF3-dependent genes. Among those, ISG15 acts to negatively control the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, at the level of RIG-I ubiquitination.These data give novel insights in the machinery involved in the early events of innate immune response. PMID:22022264

  18. Prespecified dose-response analysis for A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial (AVERT).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Julie; Churilov, Leonid; Ellery, Fiona; Collier, Janice; Chamberlain, Jan; Langhorne, Peter; Lindley, Richard I; Moodie, Marj; Dewey, Helen; Thrift, Amanda G; Donnan, Geoff

    2016-06-07

    Our prespecified dose-response analyses of A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial (AVERT) aim to provide practical guidance for clinicians on the timing, frequency, and amount of mobilization following acute stroke. Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years, had confirmed first (or recurrent) stroke, and were admitted to a stroke unit within 24 hours of stroke onset. Patients were randomized to receive very early and frequent mobilization, commencing within 24 hours, or usual care. We used regression analyses and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to investigate the effect of timing and dose of mobilization on efficacy and safety outcomes, irrespective of assigned treatment group. A total of 2,104 patients were enrolled, of whom 2,083 (99.0%) were followed up at 3 months. We found a consistent pattern of improved odds of favorable outcome in efficacy and safety outcomes with increased daily frequency of out-of-bed sessions (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.18, p < 0.001), keeping time to first mobilization and mobilization amount constant. Increased amount (minutes per day) of mobilization reduced the odds of a good outcome (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97, p < 0.001). Session frequency was the most important variable in the CART analysis, after prognostic variables age and baseline stroke severity. These data suggest that shorter, more frequent mobilization early after acute stroke is associated with greater odds of favorable outcome at 3 months when controlling for age and stroke severity. This study provides Class III evidence that shorter, more frequent early mobilization improves the chance of regaining independence after stroke. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Chronic lung disease of prematurity and early childhood wheezing: is foetal inflammatory response syndrome to blame?

    PubMed

    Dessardo, Nada Sindičić; Dessardo, Sandro; Mustać, Elvira; Banac, Srđan; Petrović, Oleg; Peter, Branimir

    2014-09-01

    Long-lasting respiratory symptoms have a huge impact on the quality of life in prematurely born children. We aimed to investigate the perinatal and maternal risk factors involved in the development of chronic respiratory morbidity in preterm infants, with an emphasis on the importance of Foetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome (FIRS). Prospective cohort study. Demographic, antenatal, delivery and outcomes data were collected from 262 infants with less than 32 completed weeks of gestational age, over a 10-year period. Presence of chronic lung disease of prematurity and early childhood wheezing. In multivariate logistic regression analysis the presence of FIRS appears to be the most important risk factor for both, chronic lung disease of prematurity (OR 31.05, 95% CI 10.7-87.75, p<0.001) and early childhood wheezing (OR 5.63, 95% CI 2.42-13.05, p=0.01). In the alternative regression model for early childhood wheezing, with chronic lung disease included as a variable, the statistical significance of FIRS completely vanished (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.39-3.34, p=0.79), whilst chronic lung disease became the most important risk factor (OR 23.45, 95% CI 8.5-63.25, p<0.001). Prenatal and early neonatal events are of utmost importance in the development of chronic respiratory symptoms in children. The influence of FIRS on the development of chronic respiratory symptoms goes far beyond its impact on gestational age and may be related to direct inflammation-mediated lung tissue damage. CLD appears to be an intermittent step on the way from FIRS to ECW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prespecified dose-response analysis for A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial (AVERT)

    PubMed Central

    Churilov, Leonid; Ellery, Fiona; Collier, Janice; Chamberlain, Jan; Langhorne, Peter; Lindley, Richard I.; Moodie, Marj; Dewey, Helen; Thrift, Amanda G.; Donnan, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our prespecified dose-response analyses of A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial (AVERT) aim to provide practical guidance for clinicians on the timing, frequency, and amount of mobilization following acute stroke. Methods: Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years, had confirmed first (or recurrent) stroke, and were admitted to a stroke unit within 24 hours of stroke onset. Patients were randomized to receive very early and frequent mobilization, commencing within 24 hours, or usual care. We used regression analyses and Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to investigate the effect of timing and dose of mobilization on efficacy and safety outcomes, irrespective of assigned treatment group. Results: A total of 2,104 patients were enrolled, of whom 2,083 (99.0%) were followed up at 3 months. We found a consistent pattern of improved odds of favorable outcome in efficacy and safety outcomes with increased daily frequency of out-of-bed sessions (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.18, p < 0.001), keeping time to first mobilization and mobilization amount constant. Increased amount (minutes per day) of mobilization reduced the odds of a good outcome (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97, p < 0.001). Session frequency was the most important variable in the CART analysis, after prognostic variables age and baseline stroke severity. Conclusion: These data suggest that shorter, more frequent mobilization early after acute stroke is associated with greater odds of favorable outcome at 3 months when controlling for age and stroke severity. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that shorter, more frequent early mobilization improves the chance of regaining independence after stroke. PMID:26888985

  1. Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia: an aggressive form of oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Shopper, Thomas P; Brannon, Robert B; Stalker, William H

    2004-01-01

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) is an aggressive form of oral leukoplakia that is persistent, often multifocal, and refractory to treatment with a high risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. This article describes the clinical aspects and histologic features of a case that demonstrated the typical behavior pattern in a long-standing, persistent lesion of PVL of the mandibular gingiva and that ultimately developed into squamous cell carcinoma. Prognosis is poor for this seemingly harmless-appearing white lesion of the oral mucosa.

  2. Early and long term anamnestic response to HBV booster dose among fully vaccinated Egyptian children during infancy.

    PubMed

    Salama, Iman I; Sami, Samia M; Said, Zeinab N; Salama, Somaia I; Rabah, Thanaa M; Abdel-Latif, Ghada A; Elmosalami, Dalia M; Saleh, Rehan M; Abdel Mohsin, Aida M; Metwally, Ammal M; Hassanin, Amal I; Emam, Hanaa M; Hemida, Samia A; Elserougy, Safaa M; Shaaban, Fatma A; Fouad, Walaa A; Mohsen, Amira; El-Sayed, Manal H

    2018-04-05

    To evaluate early and long term anamnestic response to a booster dose of HBV vaccine among non-seroprotected children. A national community based project was carried out on 3600 children aged 9 months to 16 years, fully vaccinated during infancy. They were recruited from 6 governorates representing Egypt. It revealed that 1535 children (42.8%) had non sero-protective anti-HBs (<10 IU/L) and were HBsAg or anti-HBc negative. A challenging dose of 10 μg of mono-valent Euvax HBV vaccine was given to 1121/1535 children. Quantitative assessment of anti-HBs was performed to detect early (2-4 weeks) and long term (one year) anamnestic responses. Early anamnestic response developed among 967/1070 children (90.3%).Children having detectable anti-HBs (1-9 IU/L) significantly developed early anamnestic response (90%) compared to 85% with undetectable anti-HBs (<1 IU/L), P < 0.001. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that undetectable anti-HBs, living in rural residence and children aged 15-16 years were the most significant predicting risk factors for the absence of early anamnestic response (<10 IU/L), with AOR 2.7, 2.7 & 4.7 respectively. After one year, long term anamnestic response was absent among 15% of children who previously showed early response. Poor early anamnestic response and undetectable pre-booster anti-HBs were the significant predicting risk factors for absent long term anamnestic response, with AOR 18.7 & 2.7 respectively. Immunological memory for HBV vaccine outlasts the presence of anti- HBs and HBV vaccination program provides effective long term protection even in children showing waning or undetectable concentrations of anti-HBs. This signifies no need for a booster dose especially to healthy children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Time matters - acute stress response and glucocorticoid sensitivity in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kern, Simone; Rohleder, Nicolas; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lange, Jan; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2014-10-01

    Psychosocial stress has frequently been associated with disease activity and acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this well established finding, strikingly little is known about the acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) stress response in MS. Twenty-six early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (CS) took part in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a well validated psycho-social laboratory stress protocol. Repeated blood samples were analyzed for stress-related cortisol and catecholamine levels as well as for glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS) of target immune cells. Chronic and acute stress appraisals were assessed by self-report measures. RRMS patients and CS did not differ in stress-related cortisol/catecholamine levels, GCS or stress appraisal in response to the TSST. However, cortisol release as well as GCS was strongly correlated with time since diagnosis but not with neurological disability. Patients with shorter disease duration (2-12 months) expressed a significantly higher cortisol stress response while MS patients with longer disease duration (14-36 months) showed a significantly diminished HPA response as well as lower post-stress GCS. There is evidence for a time-dependent variability in the HPA stress system with an increased cortisol stress response in the first year after diagnosis along with a more blunted HPA stress response and a diminished GCS in subsequent disease stages. Data underscore the highly dynamic nature of HPA axis regulation in the MS disease process, which could possibly relate to compensatory mechanisms within a cytokine-HPA axis feedback circuit model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of gene expression during parabolic flights reveals distinct early gravity responses in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Aubry-Hivet, D; Nziengui, H; Rapp, K; Oliveira, O; Paponov, I A; Li, Y; Hauslage, J; Vagt, N; Braun, M; Ditengou, F A; Dovzhenko, A; Palme, K

    2014-01-01

    Plant roots are among most intensively studied biological systems in gravity research. Altered gravity induces asymmetric cell growth leading to root bending. Differential distribution of the phytohormone auxin underlies root responses to gravity, being coordinated by auxin efflux transporters from the PIN family. The objective of this study was to compare early transcriptomic changes in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana wild type, and pin2 and pin3 mutants under parabolic flight conditions and to correlate these changes to auxin distribution. Parabolic flights allow comparison of transient 1-g, hypergravity and microgravity effects in living organisms in parallel. We found common and mutation-related genes differentially expressed in response to transient microgravity phases. Gene ontology analysis of common genes revealed lipid metabolism, response to stress factors and light categories as primarily involved in response to transient microgravity phases, suggesting that fundamental reorganisation of metabolic pathways functions upstream of a further signal mediating hormonal network. Gene expression changes in roots lacking the columella-located PIN3 were stronger than in those deprived of the epidermis and cortex cell-specific PIN2. Moreover, repetitive exposure to microgravity/hypergravity and gravity/hypergravity flight phases induced an up-regulation of auxin responsive genes in wild type and pin2 roots, but not in pin3 roots, suggesting a critical function of PIN3 in mediating auxin fluxes in response to transient microgravity phases. Our study provides important insights towards understanding signal transduction processes in transient microgravity conditions by combining for the first time the parabolic flight platform with the transcriptome analysis of different genetic mutants in the model plant, Arabidopsis. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of Tumor Early Response to a Vascular-Disrupting Agent with Dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ning; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lang, Lixin; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Niu, Gang; Li, Quanzheng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early response of tumors to a vascular-disrupting agent (VDA) VEGF121/recombinant toxin gelonin (rGel) using dynamic [(18)F]FPPRGD2 positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic parameter estimation. Two tumor xenograft models: U87MG (highly vascularized) and A549 (moderately vascularized), were selected, and both were randomized into treatment and control groups. Sixty-minute dynamic PET scans with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 that targets to integrin αvβ3 were performed at days 0 (baseline), 1, and 3 since VEGF121/rGel treatment started. Dynamic PET-derived binding potential (BPND) and parametric maps were compared with tumor uptake (%ID/g) and the static PET image at 1 h after the tracer administration. The growth of U87MG tumor was obviously delayed upon VEGF121/rGel treatment. A549 tumor was not responsive to the same treatment. BPND of treated U87MG tumors decreased significantly at day 1 (p < 0.05), and the difference was more significant at day 3 (p < 0.01), compared with the control group. However, the tracer uptake (%ID/g) derived from static images at 1-h time point did not show significant difference between the treated and control tumors until day 3. Little difference in tracer uptake (%ID/g) or BPND was found between treated and control A549 tumors. Considering the tracer retention in tumor and the slower clearance due to damaged tumor vasculature after treatment, BPND representing the actual specific binding portion appears to be more sensitive and accurate than the semiquantitative parameters (such as %ID/g) derived from static images to assess the early response of tumor to VDA treatment. Quantitative analysis based on dynamic PET with [(18)F]FPPRGD2 shows advantages in distinguishing effective from ineffective treatment during the course of VEGF121/rGel therapy at early stage and is therefore more sensitive in assessing therapy response than static PET.

  7. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2008-02-01

    Rat pups demonstrate high levels of immediate acceptance of ethanol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Given that the taste of ethanol is most likely perceived by infant rats as a combination of sweet and bitter, high intake of ethanol early in ontogeny may be associated with age-related enhanced responsiveness to the sweet component of ethanol taste, as well as with ontogenetic decreases in sensitivity to its bitter component. Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Characteristic patterns of responsiveness to 10% (v/v) ethanol, 0.1% saccharin, 0.2% quinine, and water in terms of taste reactivity and fluid intake were assessed in rat pups tested on postnatal day (P) 4, 9, or 12 using a new technique of on-line monitoring of fluid flow through a two-channel intraoral cannula. Taste reactivity included analysis of ingestive and aversive responses following six intraoral infusions of the test fluids. This taste reactivity probe was followed by the intake test, in which animals were allowed to voluntarily ingest fluids from an intraoral cannula. Pups of all ages showed more appetitive responses to saccharin and ethanol than to water or quinine. No age-related differences were apparent in taste responsiveness to saccharin and ethanol. However, the age-related pattern of ethanol intake drastically differed from that of saccharin. Intake of saccharin increased from P4 to P9 and decreased substantially by P12, whereas intake of ethanol gradually increased from P4 to P12. Intake of ethanol was significantly lower than intake of saccharin on P9, whereas P12 pups took in more ethanol than saccharin. The findings of the present study indicate ontogenetic dissociations between taste reactivity to ethanol and saccharin and intake of these solutions, and suggest that high acceptance of ethanol early in

  8. Atypical hyperplasia, proliferative fibrocystic change, and exogenous hormone use.

    PubMed

    Zera, R T; Danielson, D; Van Camp, J M; Schmidt-Steinbrunn, B; Hong, J; McCoy, M; Anderson, W R; Linzie, B M; Rodriguez, J L

    2001-10-01

    The association between breast cancer development and exogenous hormone use (EHU) is suggested by indirect clinical evidence. We undertook this study to better define the relationship that EHU has with proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) and atypical hyperplasia (AH). Women diagnosed with AH without associated carcinoma from January 1990 to December 1999 were compared with control subjects who underwent breast biopsy procedures during the same interval and who were diagnosed with either a proliferative fibrocystic change (PFC) or a nonproliferative fibrocystic change (NPFC). EHU was defined as the use of estrogen or progesterone taken together or separately within 3 months of biopsy. EHU was significantly higher in patients with AH compared with women with NPFC (P =.01). This observation was also significant if all proliferative change (both AH and PFC) was compared with NPFC (P =.03); it was not significant when PFC alone was compared with NPFC. No significant difference in EHU was demonstrated between women with AH and those with PFC. There is strong association between AH and EHU. These results support the theory that a continuum exists between hyperplasia and carcinoma and that EHU may influence the transition from one to the other in an undefined subset of women. We encourage our patients with AH to discontinue EHU.

  9. RNA-seq Analysis of Clinical-Grade Osteochondral Allografts Reveals Activation of Early Response Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Lewallen, Eric A.; Camilleri, Emily T.; Bonin, Carolina A.; Jones, Dakota L.; Dudakovic, Amel; Galeano-Garces, Catalina; Wang, Wei; Karperien, Marcel J.; Larson, Annalise N.; Dahm, Diane L.; Stuart, Michael J.; Levy, Bruce A.; Smith, Jay; Ryssman, Daniel B.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Im, Hee-Jeong; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Riester, Scott M.; Krych, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of osteochondral allografts used for transplantation is critical to ensure favorable outcomes for patients after surgical treatment of cartilage defects. To study the biological effects of protocols currently used for cartilage storage, we investigated differences in gene expression between stored allograft cartilage and fresh cartilage from living donors using high throughput molecular screening strategies. We applied next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to assess genome-wide differences in mRNA expression between stored allograft cartilage and fresh cartilage tissue from living donors. Gene ontology analysis was used to characterize biological pathways associated with differentially expressed genes. Our studies establish reduced levels of mRNAs encoding cartilage related extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (i.e., COL1A1, COL2A1, COL10A1, ACAN, DCN, HAPLN1, TNC, and COMP) in stored cartilage. These changes occur concomitantly with increased expression of “early response genes” that encode transcription factors mediating stress/cytoprotective responses (i.e., EGR1, EGR2, EGR3, MYC, FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, JUN, JUNB, and JUND). The elevated expression of “early response genes” and reduced levels of ECM-related mRNAs in stored cartilage allografts suggests that tissue viability may be maintained by a cytoprotective program that reduces cell metabolic activity. These findings have potential implications for future studies focused on quality assessment and clinical optimization of osteochondral allografts used for cartilage transplantation. PMID:26909883

  10. RNA-seq analysis of clinical-grade osteochondral allografts reveals activation of early response genes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Lewallen, Eric A; Camilleri, Emily T; Bonin, Carolina A; Jones, Dakota L; Dudakovic, Amel; Galeano-Garces, Catalina; Wang, Wei; Karperien, Marcel J; Larson, Annalise N; Dahm, Diane L; Stuart, Michael J; Levy, Bruce A; Smith, Jay; Ryssman, Daniel B; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Im, Hee-Jeong; van Wijnen, Andre J; Riester, Scott M; Krych, Aaron J

    2016-11-01

    Preservation of osteochondral allografts used for transplantation is critical to ensure favorable outcomes for patients after surgical treatment of cartilage defects. To study the biological effects of protocols currently used for cartilage storage, we investigated differences in gene expression between stored allograft cartilage and fresh cartilage from living donors using high throughput molecular screening strategies. We applied next generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to assess genome-wide differences in mRNA expression between stored allograft cartilage and fresh cartilage tissue from living donors. Gene ontology analysis was used to characterize biological pathways associated with differentially expressed genes. Our studies establish reduced levels of mRNAs encoding cartilage related extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (i.e., COL1A1, COL2A1, COL10A1, ACAN, DCN, HAPLN1, TNC, and COMP) in stored cartilage. These changes occur concomitantly with increased expression of "early response genes" that encode transcription factors mediating stress/cytoprotective responses (i.e., EGR1, EGR2, EGR3, MYC, FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, FOSL2, JUN, JUNB, and JUND). The elevated expression of "early response genes" and reduced levels of ECM-related mRNAs in stored cartilage allografts suggests that tissue viability may be maintained by a cytoprotective program that reduces cell metabolic activity. These findings have potential implications for future studies focused on quality assessment and clinical optimization of osteochondral allografts used for cartilage transplantation. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1950-1959, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Acute Responses to Resistance and High-Intensity Interval Training in Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nigel K; Dulson, Deborah K; Logan, Greig R M; Warbrick, Isaac B; Merien, Fabrice L R; Lubans, David R

    2017-05-01

    Harris, NK, Dulson, DK, Logan, GRM, Warbrick, IB, Merien, FLR, and Lubans, DR. Acute responses to resistance and high-intensity interval training in early adolescents. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1177-1186, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the acute physiological responses within and between resistance training (RT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) matched for time and with comparable effort, in a school setting. Seventeen early adolescents (12.9 ± 0.3 years) performed both RT (2-5 repetitions perceived short of failure at the end of each set) and HIIT (90% of age-predicted maximum heart rate), equated for total work set and recovery period durations comprising of 12 "sets" of 30-second work followed by 30-second recovery (total session time 12 minutes). Variables of interest included oxygen consumption, set and session heart rate (HR), and rate of perceived exertion, and change in salivary cortisol (SC), salivary alpha amylase, and blood lactate (BL) from presession to postsession. Analyses were conducted to determine responses within and between the 2 different protocols. For both RT and HIIT, there were very large increases pretrial to posttrial for SC and BL, and only BL increased greater in HIIT (9.1 ± 2.6 mmol·L) than RT (6.8 ± 3.3 mmol·L). Mean set HR for both RT (170 ± 9.1 b·min) and HIIT (179 ± 5.6 b·min) was at least 85% of HRmax. V[Combining Dot Above]O2 over all 12 sets was greater for HIIT (33.8 ± 5.21 ml·kg·min) than RT (24.9 ± 3.23 ml·kg·min). Brief, repetitive, intermittent forays into high but not supramaximal intensity exercise using RT or HIIT seemed to be a potent physiological stimulus in adolescents.

  12. The relationship between early ego strength and adolescent responses to the threat of nuclear war

    SciT

    Andrekus, N.J.

    Ego resiliency and ego control, measured when subjects were 3 or 4 years old, were related to expectation of war, concern for the future, and activism in response to the threat of nuclear war, measured when subjects were 18 years old. Data from 92 participants in a longitudinal study of ego and cognitive development conducted by Jeanne and Jack Block at the University of California, Berkeley were used to test hypotheses. Assessments with the California Child Q-set, composited across multiple independent observers, provide measures of ego resiliency and ego control. Adolescent interviews regarding the perception of likelihood of nuclear war,more » how this affects their future, and their antinuclear and general political activism were scaled and rated. Early ego resiliency and ego under control were hypothesized to account for the variance in adolescent nuclear responses and activism. The only significant longitudinal relationships were in the female sample, where ego under control was found to be a significant predictor of both general political activism (p<.01) and ideas of the future being affected by the nuclear threat (p<.05). Among males, the relationship between early ego resiliency and adolescent antinuclear activism approached significance (p<.10). Adolescent personality was significantly related to several measures of nuclear response. In girls, adolescent ego under control related to perception of likelihood of nuclear war (p<.05) and antinuclear activism (p<.05), and the interaction of ego resiliency and ego under control predicted general political activism (p<.0005). In boys, adolescent ego resiliency correlated with antinuclear activism (p<.05). These findings were discussed in terms of antecedent parenting styles, and conceptual links were drawn between children's ego resiliency and security of attachment, perspective taking, and moral development.« less

  13. Phenological behaviour of early spring flowering trees in Spain in response to recent climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo-Galvez, M. D.; García-Mozo, H.; Oteros, J.; Mestre, A.; Botey, R.; Galán, C.

    2018-04-01

    This research reports the phenological trends of four early spring and late winter flowering trees in Spain (south Europe) from a recent period (1986-2012). The studied species were deciduous trees growing in different climatic areas: hazel ( Corylus avellana L.), willow ( Salix alba L.), ash ( Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and white mulberry ( Morus alba L.). We analysed the response to climate and the trends of the following phenophases observed at the field: budburst, leaf unfolding, flowering, fruit ripening, fruit harvesting, leaf colour change and leaf-fall. The study was carried out in 17 sampling sites in the country with the aim of detecting the recent phenological response to the climate of these species, and the possible effect of climate change. We have observed differences in the phenological response to climate depending on each species. Sixty-one percent of studied sites suffered an advance of early spring phenophases, especially budburst on average by -0.67 days and flowering on average by -0.15 days during the studied period, and also in the subsequent fruit ripening and harvesting phases on average by -1.06 days. By contrast, it has been detected that 63% of sampling sites showed a delay in autumn vegetative phases, especially leaf-fall events on average by +1.15 days. The statistic correlation analysis shows in the 55% of the studied localities that phenological advances are the consequence of the increasing trend detected for temperature—being minimum temperature the most influential factor—and in the 52% of them, phenological advances occurred by rainfall variations. In general, leaf unfolding and flowering from these species showed negative correlations in relation to temperature and rainfall, whereas that leaf colour change and leaf-fall presented positive correlations. The results obtained have a great relevance due to the fact that they can be considered as reliable bio-indicators of the impact of the recent climate changes in southern

  14. Induction of proliferative lesions of the uterus, testes, and liver in swiss mice given repeated injections of sodium arsenate: possible estrogenic mode of action.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Keefer, L K; Diwan, B A

    2000-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As) is a human carcinogen but has not been unequivocally proven carcinogenic in rodents. For instance, one older study indicates that repeated iv injections of sodium arsenate might induce lymphomas in Swiss mice (58% incidence) (Osswald and Goerttler, Verh. Dtsch. Ges. Pathol. 55, 289-293, 1971), but it was considered inadequate for critical evaluation of carcinogenic potential largely because of issues in experimental design. Therefore, we studied repeated iv sodium arsenate injection and neoplastic response in male and female Swiss mice. Groups (n = 25) of mice received sodium arsenate (0.5 mg/kg, iv) or saline (control) once/week for 20 weeks and were observed for a total of 96 weeks when the study ended. Differences in survival and body weights were unremarkable. In females, arsenate induced marked increases in the incidence and severity of cystic hyperplasia of the uterus compared against controls. Arsenate also was associated with a rare adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Hyperplastic uterine epithelium from arsenate-exposed animals showed strong positive immunostaining for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). There was also an upregulation of estrogen receptor (ER) immunoreactive protein in the early lesions of uterine luminal and glandular hyperplasia, although a progressive decrease in its expression was seen in the severe hyperplastic or neoplastic epithelium. In common with the preneoplastic and neoplastic gynecological lesions in humans, the levels of immunoreactive inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins were greater in the uterine hyperplastic epidermis and their intensity was positively correlated with the severity of the lesions. Arsenate-induced uterine hyperplastic lesions also showed a strong upregulation of cyclin D1, an estrogen-associated gene product essential for progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In other tissues, arsenate increased testicular interstitial cell

  15. Early response to ranibizumab predictive of functional outcome after dexamethasone for unresponsive diabetic macular oedema.

    PubMed

    Cicinelli, Maria Vittoria; Cavalleri, Michele; Querques, Lea; Rabiolo, Alessandro; Bandello, Francesco; Querques, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    To analyse the effects of intravitreal dexamethasone implant in patients suffering from diabetic macular oedema (DME) on the basis of their visual and functional response to antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) loading dose, in order to early shift to corticosteroids in poorly responding patients. Retrospective monocentric study. Data of patients with diabetes shifted to 0.7 mg dexamethasone implant after three injections of ranibizumab (RNB) and followed-up to 12 months were reviewed. Main outcome was the evaluation of short-term changes after dexamethasone implant injection, stratifying patients on the basis of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) after RNB loading dose. Secondary outcome was to investigate clinical gain maintenance at long-term follow-up. Overall, 45 eyes of 45 patients (23 males, 51.1%), mean age 69.7±9 years, were included in the analysis. After 3 injections of RNB, 30 eyes (66.7%) had a poor visual response (-4.3±10.7 letters), while 15 eyes (33.3%) disclosed good visual outcome (+13.9±9.2 letters). Patients with poor visual response were associated with limited morphological improvement (p=0.04). After 1 month from dexamethasone, only poor responders showed relevant increase in BCVA (p=0.006) and reduction in CMT (p=0.002), in comparison to good visual response patients, featuring only minor clinical effects (p=0.3). The same trend was maintained up to 12 months, after a mean of 1.9±1.1 dexamethasone administrations. Visual and anatomical responses after RNB loading dose are significant predictors of both early term and long-term visual acuity improvement after switching to corticosteroids in patients with DME unresponsive to anti-VEGF. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Prediction in the service of comprehension: modulated early brain responses to omitted speech segments.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Scharinger, Mathias; Strauß, Antje; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    Speech signals are often compromised by disruptions originating from external (e.g., masking noise) or internal (e.g., inaccurate articulation) sources. Speech comprehension thus entails detecting and replacing missing information based on predictive and restorative neural mechanisms. The present study targets predictive mechanisms by investigating the influence of a speech segment's predictability on early, modality-specific electrophysiological responses to this segment's omission. Predictability was manipulated in simple physical terms in a single-word framework (Experiment 1) or in more complex semantic terms in a sentence framework (Experiment 2). In both experiments, final consonants of the German words Lachs ([laks], salmon) or Latz ([lats], bib) were occasionally omitted, resulting in the syllable La ([la], no semantic meaning), while brain responses were measured with multi-channel electroencephalography (EEG). In both experiments, the occasional presentation of the fragment La elicited a larger omission response when the final speech segment had been predictable. The omission response occurred ∼125-165 msec after the expected onset of the final segment and showed characteristics of the omission mismatch negativity (MMN), with generators in auditory cortical areas. Suggestive of a general auditory predictive mechanism at work, this main observation was robust against varying source of predictive information or attentional allocation, differing between the two experiments. Source localization further suggested the omission response enhancement by predictability to emerge from left superior temporal gyrus and left angular gyrus in both experiments, with additional experiment-specific contributions. These results are consistent with the existence of predictive coding mechanisms in the central auditory system, and suggestive of the general predictive properties of the auditory system to support spoken word recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  17. Early Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout Liver upon Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rosario; Abós, Beatriz; Pignatelli, Jaime; von Gersdorff Jørgensen, Louise; González Granja, Aitor; Buchmann, Kurt; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Among the essential metabolic functions of the liver, in mammals, a role as mediator of systemic and local innate immunity has also been reported. Although the presence of an important leukocyte population in mammalian liver is well documented, the characterization of leukocyte populations in the teleost liver has been only scarcely addressed. In the current work, we have confirmed the presence of IgM+, IgD+, IgT+, CD8α+, CD3+ cells, and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver by flow cytometry and/or immunohistochemistry analysis. Additionally, the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on the liver immune response was assessed. First, we studied the effect of viral intraperitoneal injection on the transcription of a wide selection of immune genes at days 1, 2 and 5 post-infection. These included a group of leukocyte markers genes, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), chemokines, chemokine receptor genes, and other genes involved in the early immune response and in acute phase reaction. Our results indicate that T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial response to VHSV in the liver, since CD3, CD8, CD4, perforin, Mx and interferon (IFN) transcription levels were up-regulated in response to VHSV. Consequently, flow cytometry analysis of CD8α+ cells in liver and spleen at day 5 post-infection revealed a decrease in the number of CD8α+ cells in the spleen and an increased population in the liver. No differences were found however in the percentages of B lymphocyte (IgM+ or IgD+) populations. In addition, a strong up-regulation in the transcription levels of several PRRs and chemokines was observed from the second day of infection, indicating an important role of these factors in the response of the liver to viral infections. PMID:25338079

  18. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor and early growth response gene 1 during postnatal development of two inbred strains of mice exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

    2010-07-01

    Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent

  19. Genome-wide association study of response to methotrexate in early rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John C; Bongartz, Tim; Massey, Jonathan; Mifsud, Borbala; Spiliopoulou, Athina; Scott, Ian C; Wang, Jianmei; Morgan, Michael; Plant, Darren; Colombo, Marco; Orchard, Peter; Twigg, Sarah; McInnes, Iain B; Porter, Duncan; Freeston, Jane E; Nam, Jackie L; Cordell, Heather J; Isaacs, John D; Strathdee, Jenna L; Arnett, Donna; de Hair, Maria J H; Tak, Paul P; Aslibekyan, Stella; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Padyukov, Leonid; Bridges, S Louis; Pitzalis, Costantino; Cope, Andrew P; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Emery, Paul; Barnes, Michael R; Agakov, Felix; McKeigue, Paul; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki; Weinshilboum, Richard; Barton, Anne; Morgan, Ann W; Barrett, Jennifer H

    2018-05-25

    Methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy is a common first treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but many patients do not respond adequately. In order to identify genetic predictors of response, we have combined data from two consortia to carry out a genome-wide study of response to MTX in 1424 early RA patients of European ancestry. Clinical endpoints were change from baseline to 6 months after starting treatment in swollen 28-joint count, tender 28-joint count, C-reactive protein and the overall 3-component disease activity score (DAS28). No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reached genome-wide statistical significance for any outcome measure. The strongest evidence for association was with rs168201 in NRG3 (p = 10 -7 for change in DAS28). Some support was also seen for association with ZMIZ1, previously highlighted in a study of response to MTX in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Follow-up in two smaller cohorts of 429 and 177 RA patients did not support these findings, although these cohorts were more heterogeneous.

  20. Early transcriptional response to biotic stress in mixed starter fermentations involving Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii.

    PubMed

    Tronchoni, Jordi; Curiel, Jose Antonio; Morales, Pilar; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2017-01-16

    Advances in microbial wine biotechnology have led to the recent commercialization of several non-Saccharomyces starter cultures. These are intended to be used in either simultaneous or sequential inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The different types of microbial interactions that can be stablished during wine fermentation acquire an increased relevance in the context of these mixed-starter fermentations. We analysed the transcriptional response to co-cultivation of S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. The study focused in the initial stages of wine fermentation, before S. cerevisiae completely dominates the mixed cultures. Both species showed a clear response to the presence of each other, even though the portion of the genome showing altered transcription levels was relatively small. Changes in the transcription pattern suggested a stimulation of metabolic activity and growth, as a consequence of the presence of competitors in the same medium. The response of S. cerevisiae seems to take place earlier, as compared to T. delbrueckii. Enhanced glycolytic activity of the mixed culture was confirmed by the CO 2 production profile during these early stages of fermentation. Interestingly, HSP12 expression appeared induced by co-cultivation for both of S. cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii in the two time points studied. This might be related with a recently described role of Hsp12 in intercellular communication in yeast. Expression of S. cerevisiae PAU genes was also stimulated in mixed cultures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation to identify epileptogenic cortex: Clinical information obtained from early evoked responses.

    PubMed

    Mouthaan, B E; van 't Klooster, M A; Keizer, D; Hebbink, G J; Leijten, F S S; Ferrier, C H; van Putten, M J A M; Zijlmans, M; Huiskamp, G J M

    2016-02-01

    Single Pulse Electrical Stimulation (SPES) probes epileptogenic cortex during electrocorticography. Two SPES responses are described: pathological delayed responses (DR, >100 ms) associated with the seizure onset zone (SOZ) and physiological early responses (ER, <100 ms) that map cortical connectivity. We analyzed properties of ERs, including frequencies >80 Hz, in the SOZ and seizure propagation areas. We used data from 12 refractory epilepsy patients. SPES consisted of 10 pulses of 1 ms, 4-8 mA and 5s interval on adjacent electrodes pairs. Data were available at 2048 samples/s for six and 512 samples/s (22 bits) for eight patients and analyzed in the time-frequency (TF) and time-domain (TD). Electrodes with ERs were stronger associated with SOZ than non-SOZ electrodes. ERs with frequency content >80 Hz exist and are specific for SOZ channels. ERs evoked by stimulation of seizure onset electrodes were associated with electrodes involved in seizure propagation. Analysis of ERs can reveal aspects of pathology, manifested by association with seizure propagation and areas with high ER numbers that coincide with the SOZ. Not only DRs, but also ERs could have clinical value for mapping epileptogenic cortex and help to unravel aspects of the epileptic network. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of a tau overexpression model in rats implicates an early pro-inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David B.; Dayton, Robert D.; Zweig, Richard M.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles comprised of the microtubule-associated protein tau are pathological features of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy. We previously overexpressed tau in the substantia nigra of rats and mimicked some of the neurodegenerative sequelae that occur in humans such as tangle formation, loss of dopamine neurons, and microgliosis. To study molecular changes involved in the tau-induced disease state, we used DNA microarrays at an early stage of the disease process. A range of adeno-associated virus (AAV9) vector doses for tau were injected in groups of rats with a survival interval of two weeks. Specific decreases in messages for dopamine related genes validated the technique with respect to the dopaminergic cell loss observed. Of the mRNAs upregulated, there was a dose-dependent effect on multiple genes involved in immune response such as chemokines, interferon-inducible genes and leukocyte markers, only in the tau vector groups and not in dose-matched controls of either transgene-less empty vector or control green fluorescent protein vector. Histological staining for dopamine neurons and microglia matched the loss of dopaminergic markers and upregulation of immune response mRNAs in the microarray data, respectively. RT-PCR for selected markers confirmed the microarray results, with similar changes found by either technique. The mRNA data correlate well with previous findings, and underscore microgliosis and immune response in the degenerative process following tau overexpression. PMID:20346943

  3. Unraveling the early molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in response to phenanthrene exposure.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Anne-Sophie; Taconnat, Ludivine; Barbas, Evangelos; Rigaill, Guillem; Catrice, Olivier; Bernard, Delphine; Benamar, Abdelilah; Macherel, David; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Berthomé, Richard

    2016-10-21

    Higher plants have to cope with increasing concentrations of pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Given their capacity to concentrate and metabolize various compounds including pollutants, plants can be used to treat environmental problems - a process called phytoremediation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the stabilization, the extraction, the accumulation and partial or complete degradation of pollutants by plants remain poorly understood. Here, we determined the molecular events involved in the early plant response to phenanthrene, used as a model of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A transcriptomic and a metabolic analysis strongly suggest that energy availability is the crucial limiting factor leading to high and rapid transcriptional reprogramming that can ultimately lead to death. We show that the accumulation of phenanthrene in leaves inhibits electron transfer and photosynthesis within a few minutes, probably disrupting energy transformation. This kinetic analysis improved the resolution of the transcriptome in the initial plant response to phenanthrene, identifying genes that are involved in primary processes set up to sense and detoxify this pollutant but also in molecular mechanisms used by the plant to cope with such harmful stress. The identification of first events involved in plant response to phenanthrene is a key step in the selection of candidates for further functional characterization, with the prospect of engineering efficient ecological detoxification systems for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  4. Seasonal greening of an Arctic ecosystem in response to early snowmelt and climate warming: do plant community responses differ from species responses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltzer, H.; Weintraub, M. N.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Schimel, J.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Shory, R.; Livensperger, C.; Melle, C.; Segal, A. D.; Daly, K.; Tsosie, T.

    2011-12-01

    In the Arctic and around the world, earlier plant growth and a longer growing season are indications that warmer temperatures or other global changes are changing the seasonality of the Earth's ecosystems. These changes in plant life histories have multi-trophic level consequences that affect food webs and biogeochemical cycles. Both the response of the plant community and of individual species can affect food and habitat resources for animals or nutrient resources for microbes. Our aim was to determine if the response of an Arctic plant community differs from individual species responses to climate change. For two years in an early snowmelt and climate warming experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra, we observed the seasonal greening of the ecosystem through near-surface measurements of surface greenness and through direct observations of the timing of plant life history events for five to eight common species that differ in growth form. In 2010 when snowmelt was accelerated by 4 days, earlier snowmelt alone or in combination with climate warming extended the life history of the dominant graminoids (E. vaginatum and C. bigelowii) and willow (S. pulchra) by 3 to 4 days. For these species, new leaf production began earlier, while the timing of senescence was similar to the controls. The effect of earlier snowmelt on the life histories of birch (B. nana) and cranberry (V. vitis-idaea) was less, but warming alone tended to increase life history duration. Warming led to earlier leaf expansion for birch and delayed senescence for cranberry. We found that the onset of greening for the plant community began four days earlier, due to the earlier loss of snow cover, and that warming accelerated the rate of greening. Peak season ended 4 days earlier in response to earlier snowmelt and climate warming, due to earlier senescence by birch. In 2011, our manipulation of the snowpack by increasing energy absorption accelerated snowmelt by 15 days and control plots were snowfree

  5. Critical Reflections on Working with Diverse Families: Culturally Responsive Professional Development Strategies for Early Childhood and Early Childhood Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Susan P.; Hodges, Lisa Naig; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Hughes-Belding, Kere; Peck, Nancy; Weigel, Cindy; Sharp, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Professional development that focuses on supporting teachers' abilities to work with diverse families is keenly needed. This article outlines three instructional strategies and how they were used with undergraduate students in an inclusive early childhood teacher education program: (a) involving diverse family members as instructional supports;…

  6. Early human bone response to laser metal sintering surface topography: a histologic report.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; d'Avila, Susana; Iezzi, Giovanna; Mangano, Francesco; Onuma, Tatiana; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2010-01-01

    This histologic report evaluated the early human bone response to a direct laser metal sintering implant surface retrieved after a short period of healing. A selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder with a particle size of 25-45 microm prepared this surface topography. One experimental microimplant was inserted into the anterior mandible of a patient during conventional implant surgery of the jaw. The microimplant and surrounding tissues were removed after 2 months of unloaded healing and were prepared for histomorphometric analysis. Histologically, the peri-implant bone appeared in close contact with the implant surface, whereas marrow spaces could be detected in other areas along with prominently stained cement lines. The mean of bone-to-implant contact was 69.51%. The results of this histologic report suggest that the laser metal sintering surface could be a promising alternative to conventional implant surface topographies.

  7. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  8. A dominant bursting electromyograph pattern in dystonic conditions predicts an early response to pallidal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Yianni, John; Wang, Shou Yan; Liu, Xuguang; Bain, Peter G; Nandi, Dipankar; Gregory, Ralph; Joint, Carole; Stein, John F; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2006-08-01

    Although chronic pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in the treatment of medically intractable dystonia, there is no way of predicting the variations in clinical outcome, partly due to our limited understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this condition. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) activity from the most severely affected muscle groups in seven dystonia patients before and after pallidal DBS. Patient EMG recordings could be classified into two groups: one consisting of patients who at rest demonstrated a dominant low frequency component of activity on power spectral analysis (ranging from 2 to 5 Hz), and one group in which this dominant pattern was absent. Early postoperative improvements (within 2-3 days) were observed in the former group, whereas the latter group benefited more gradually (over several months). Analysis of EMG activity may provide a sensitive means of identifying dystonic patients who are likely to be most responsive to functional neurosurgical intervention.

  9. Late Glacial to Early Holocene socio-ecological responses to climatic instability within the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier; Jones, Samantha E.; Burjachs, Francesc

    2018-03-01

    The period spanning the Late Glacial and the Early Holocene (≈19-8.2 ka) witnessed a dramatic sequence of climate and palaeoenvironmental changes (Rasmussen et al., 2014). Interestingly, some of the most significant transformations ever documented in human Prehistory took place during this period such as the intensification of hunter-gatherer economic systems, the domestication process of wild plants and animals, and the spread of farming across Eurasia. Understanding the role of climate and environmental dynamics on long-term cultural and economic trajectories, as well as specific human responses to episodes of rapid climate change, still remains as one of the main challenges of archaeological research (Kintigh et al., 2014).

  10. Wisconsin Twin Research: early development, childhood psychopathology, autism, and sensory over-responsivity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicole L; Van Hulle, Carol A; Brooker, Rebecca J; Meyer, Lauren R; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H Hill

    2013-02-01

    The Wisconsin Twin Research Program comprises multiple longitudinal studies that utilize a panel recruited from statewide birth records for the years 1989 through 2004. Our research foci are the etiology and developmental course of early emotions, temperament, childhood anxiety and impulsivity, autism, sensory over-responsivity, and related topics. A signature feature of this research program is the breadth and depth of assessment during key periods of development. The assessments include extensive home- and laboratory-based behavioral batteries, recorded sibling and caregiver interactions, structured psychiatric interviews with caregivers and adolescents, observer ratings of child behavior, child self-report, cognitive testing, neuroendocrine measures, medical records, dermatoglyphics, genotyping, and neuroimaging. Across the various studies, testing occasions occurred between 3 months and 18 years of age. Data collection for some aspects of the research program has concluded and, for other aspects, longitudinal follow-ups are in progress.

  11. Wisconsin Twin Research: Early Development, Childhood Psychopathology, Autism, and Sensory Over-responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Nicole L.; Van Hulle, Carol; Brooker, Rebecca J.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Goldsmith, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    The Wisconsin Twin Research Program comprises multiple longitudinal studies that utilize a panel recruited from statewide birth records for the years 1989 through 2004. Our research foci are the etiology and developmental course of early emotions, temperament, childhood anxiety and impulsivity, autism, sensory over-responsivity, and related topics. A signature feature of this research program is the breadth and depth of assessment during key periods of development. The assessments include extensive home and laboratory-based behavioral batteries, recorded sibling and caregiver interactions, structured psychiatric interviews with caregivers and adolescents, observer ratings of child behavior, child self-report, cognitive testing, neuroendocrine measures, medical records, dermatoglyphics, genotyping, and neuroimaging. Across the various studies, testing occasions occurred between 3 months and 18 years of age. Data collection for some aspects of the research program has concluded and, for other aspects, longitudinal follow-ups are in progress. PMID:23200241

  12. It's a word: early electrophysiological response to the character likeness of pictographs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingxia; Jiang, Ting; Mei, Leilei; Yang, Hongmin; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Dong, Qi

    2011-07-01

    Using unfamiliar and meaningless pictographs that varied in their degree of similarity to Chinese characters, the current study tested whether the early electrophysiological response was modulated by character likeness. We measured P100 and N170 while 20 native Chinese speakers were viewing Chinese characters, drawings of objects, and pictographs. Comparisons across the three categories of stimuli showed that pictographs elicited a smaller N170 amplitude than did Chinese characters and a stronger N170 amplitude than did objects, but did not differ in the P100 amplitude from the other two categories. Within the category of pictographs, stimuli with a higher degree of character likeness elicited larger N170 amplitudes and shorter N170 peak latencies, and this effect was again not observed in P100. These results suggest that N170 is sensitive to visual stimuli's character likeness even though they are unfamiliar pictographs with no meanings or sounds. Copyright © 2010 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Early changes in shoot transcriptome of rice in response to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa JGTA-S1

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Chinmay; Seal, Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of Rhodotorula genus have been reported to show endophytic colonization in different plants. Some of the Rhodotorula species are found to exhibit plant growth promoting activities and also have been reported to protect plants against invading pathogens. A yeast strain closely related to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was isolated from the endosphere of Typha angustifolia collected from a Uranium mine. A microarray analysis was performed to investigate the early changes in rice shoot transcripts in response to this yeast (R. mucilaginosa JGTA-S1). Transcriptional changes were monitored in 6 h and 24 h treated rice plant shoots as compared to 0 h control. The microarray data has been submitted to the NCBI GEO repository under the accession number of GSE64321. PMID:26697384

  14. Is a Response to Intervention (RTI) Approach to Preschool Language and Early Literacy Instruction Needed?

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether or not preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, we conducted a process-product description of preschool instruction and children's growth and outcomes in typical programs (i.e., Pre-Kindergarten, Title 1, Head Start, Tuition-Based) using a Response to Intervention (RTI) perspective. Results indicated that (a) students in their preschool year prior to kindergarten made small gains, but students starting the year in lower Tier 2 and 3 performance levels did not close initial skills gaps, (b) variations were noted by program types with varying socio-demographics and instructional processes, and (c) the quality of instruction (Tier 1) received by all was low with room for improvement. Implications for future research on the application of the RTI approach and potential benefits are discussed. PMID:24899769

  15. Small pelagics in a changing ocean: biological responses of sardine early stages to warming

    PubMed Central

    Faleiro, Filipa; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Bispo, Regina; Lopes, Ana Rita; Diniz, Mário S.; Rosa, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Small pelagic fishes are known to respond rapidly to changes in ocean climate. In this study, we evaluate the effects of future environmental warming (+2°C) during the early ontogeny of the European sardine, Sardina pilchardus. Warming reduced the survival of 30-day-old larvae by half. Length at hatching increased with temperature as expected, but no significant effect was observed on the length and growth at 30 days post-hatching. Warming did not significantly affect the thermal tolerance of sardine larvae, even though the mean lethal temperature increased by 1°C. In the warm conditions, sardine larvae showed signs of thermal stress, indicated by a pronounced increase in larval metabolism (Q10 = 7.9) and a 45% increase in the heat shock response. Lipid peroxidation was not significantly affected by the higher temperature, even though the mean value doubled. Warming did not affect the time larvae spent swimming, but decreased by 36% the frequency of prey attacks. Given the key role of these small pelagics in the trophic dynamics off the Western Iberian upwelling ecosystem, the negative effects of warming on the early stages may have important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. PMID:27293764

  16. Potentiation of the early visual response to learned danger signals in adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Howsley, Philippa; Jordan, Jeff; Johnston, Pat

    2015-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of aversive outcomes on avoidance behaviour are well established. However, their influence on perceptual processes is less well explored, especially during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether learning to actively or passively avoid harm can modulate early visual responses in adolescents and adults. The task included two avoidance conditions, active and passive, where two different warning stimuli predicted the imminent, but avoidable, presentation of an aversive tone. To avoid the aversive outcome, participants had to learn to emit an action (active avoidance) for one of the warning stimuli and omit an action for the other (passive avoidance). Both adults and adolescents performed the task with a high degree of accuracy. For both adolescents and adults, increased N170 event-related potential amplitudes were found for both the active and the passive warning stimuli compared with control conditions. Moreover, the potentiation of the N170 to the warning stimuli was stable and long lasting. Developmental differences were also observed; adolescents showed greater potentiation of the N170 component to danger signals. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that learned danger signals in an instrumental avoidance task can influence early visual sensory processes in both adults and adolescents. PMID:24652856

  17. Early osteoblast responses to orthopedic implants: Synergy of surface roughness and chemistry of bioactive ceramic coating.

    PubMed

    Aniket; Reid, Robert; Hall, Benika; Marriott, Ian; El-Ghannam, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Pro-osteogenic stimulation of bone cells by bioactive ceramic-coated orthopedic implants is influenced by both surface roughness and material chemistry; however, their concomitant impact on osteoblast behavior is not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of nano-scale roughness and chemistry of bioactive silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC50) coated Ti-6Al-4V on modulating early bone cell responses. Cell attachment was higher on SCPC50-coated substrates compared to the uncoated controls; however, cells on the uncoated substrate exhibited greater spreading and superior quality of F-actin filaments than cells on the SCPC50-coated substrates. The poor F-actin filament organization on SCPC50-coated substrates is thought to be due to the enhanced calcium uptake by the ceramic surface. Dissolution analyses showed that an increase in surface roughness was accompanied by increased calcium uptake, and increased phosphorous and silicon release, all of which appear to interfere with F-actin assembly and osteoblast morphology. Moreover, cell attachment onto the SCPC50-coated substrates correlated with the known adsorption of fibronectin, and was independent of surface roughness. High-throughput genome sequencing showed enhanced expression of extracellular matrix and cell differentiation related genes. These results demonstrate a synergistic relationship between bioactive ceramic coating roughness and material chemistry resulting in a phenotype that leads to early osteoblast differentiation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Redox Protein Expression Predicts Radiotherapeutic Response in Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Patients

    SciT

    Woolston, Caroline M.; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Storr, Sarah J.

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Early-stage invasive breast cancer patients have commonly undergone breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy. In a large majority of these patients, the treatment is effective; however, a proportion will develop local recurrence. Deregulated redox systems provide cancer cells protection from increased oxidative stress, such as that induced by ionizing radiation. Therefore, the expression of redox proteins was examined in tumor specimens from this defined cohort to determine whether such expression could predict response. Methods and Materials: The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of nine redox proteins (glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutaredoxin, glutathione peroxidase 1, 3, and 4, and glutathione S-transferase-{theta}, -{pi}, and -{alpha})more » was assessed using conventional immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 224 tumors. Results: A high cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} significantly correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence (p = .008) and, when combined with a low nuclear expression (p = .009), became an independent predictive factor (p = .002) for local recurrence. High cytoplasmic expression of glutathione S-transferase-{theta} also correlated with a worse overall survival (p = .009). Low nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of glutathione peroxidase 3 (p = .002) correlated with a greater risk of local recurrence and was an independent predictive factor (p = .005). These proteins did not correlate with tumor grade, suggesting their function might be specific to the regulation of oxidative stress rather than alterations of tumor phenotype. Only nuclear (p = .005) and cytoplasmic (p = .001) expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 correlated with the tumor grade. Conclusions: Our results support the use of redox protein expression, namely glutathione S-transferase-{theta} and glutathione peroxidase 3, to predict the response to radiotherapy in early-stage breast cancer patients. If incorporated

  19. Psychometric Evaluation of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) in Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Barrios, Yasmin V; Redline, Susan; Drake, Christopher L; Williams, Michelle A

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test questionnaire (FIRST-S) when used in early pregnancy. A cohort of 647 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation to collect information regarding lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. The factorial structure of the FIRST-S was tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed by evaluating the association between the FIRST-S with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted to complement classical test theory (CTT) analytic approaches. The mean score of the FIRST-S was 13.8 (range: 9-33). The results of the EFA showed that the FIRST-S contained a one-factor solution that accounted for 69.8% of the variance. The FIRST-S items showed good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.81). CFA results corroborated the one-factor structure finding from the EFA; and yielded measures indicating goodness of fit (comparative fit index of 0.902) and accuracy (root mean square error of approximation of 0.057). The FIRST-S had good construct validity as demonstrated by statistically significant associations of FIRST-S scores with sleep quality, antepartum depression and anxiety symptoms. Finally, results from IRT analyses suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. The FIRST-S was found to have good construct validity and internal consistency for assessing vulnerability to insomnia during early pregnancy. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  20. Vitamin A supplementation in early life affects later response to an obesogenic diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Granados, N; Amengual, J; Ribot, J; Musinovic, H; Ceresi, E; von Lintig, J; Palou, A; Bonet, M L

    2013-09-01

    To assess the influence of supplementation with a moderate dose of vitamin A in early life on adipose tissue development and the response to an obesogenic diet later in life. During the suckling period, rat pups received a daily oral dose of retinyl palmitate corresponding to three times the vitamin A ingested daily from maternal milk. Control rats received the vehicle (olive oil). Short-term effects of treatment on gene expression and morphology of white adipose tissue (WAT) were analyzed in animals on the day after weaning (day 21). To study long-term effects, control and vitamin A-treated rats were fed, after weaning, a normal fat or a high-fat (HF) diet for 16 weeks. WAT of vitamin A-treated young rats (day 21) was enriched in small adipocytes with a reduced expression of adipogenic markers (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and lipoprotein lipase) and an increased cell proliferation potential as indicated by increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Increased retinoic acid (RA)-induced transcriptional responses were present in the tissues of vitamin A-treated young rats (day 21) including WAT. Vitamin A-treated rats developed higher adiposity than control rats on a HF diet as indicated by body composition analysis and increased WAT depot mass, adipocyte diameter, WAT DNA content, leptinemia and adipose leptin gene expression. Excess adiposity gain in vitamin A-treated rats developed in the absence of changes in body weight and was attributable to excess adipocyte hyperplasia. No differences in adiposity were observed between vitamin A-treated rats and control rats on a normal fat diet. Total retinol levels in WAT of vitamin A-treated rats were elevated at weaning (day 21) and normalized by day 135 of age. Vitamin A intake in the early stages of postnatal life favors subsequent HF diet-induced adiposity gain through mechanisms that may relate to changes in adipose tissue development, likely mediated by RA.

  1. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin early in life promotes Th2-mediated immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Woźniak, Dorota; Motyl, Sylwia; Szczepanik, Marian

    2016-02-01

    Th2 lymphocytes play a crucial role in the development of allergy. These pathologies are caused by coordinated production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 that regulate the activity of eosinophils, basophils and B cells. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', the reduced exposure to microorganisms favors allergy occurrence. The advances in medicine in the field of infection therapy promoted an increasing application of antibiotics which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate the microbiota. Epicutaneous (EC) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by OVA challenge was used to study the influence of partial gut flora depletion by oral treatment with enrofloxacin on type-2 immune response. Current work describes the influence of enrofloxacin application on anti-OVA antibody production and cytokine synthesis in young and adult mice. Immune response in adult mice is less sensitive to modification of natural gut flora. We observed that enrofloxacin treatment of adult mice leads to significant decrease of anti-OVA IgG2a production while synthesis of anti-OVA IgE was not changed. The production of type-1 (IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and Th17-associated (IL-17A) cytokines was inhibited. On the other hand, treatment of young mice with enrofloxacin significantly upregulates the production of anti-OVA IgE and inhibits the secretion of anti-OVA IgG2a antibodies. Additionally, treatment with enrofloxacin early in life prior to OVA immunization results in increased production of type-2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines. Our results clearly indicate that the immune system is more vulnerable to decreased bacterial exposure early in life that may promote development of allergy. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of motion response anisotropies in human early visual cortex: the role of configuration and eccentricity.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Ryan T; Watson, Tamara L; Clifford, Colin W G

    2014-10-15

    Anisotropies in the cortical representation of various stimulus parameters can reveal the fundamental mechanisms by which sensory properties are analysed and coded by the brain. One example is the preference for motion radial to the point of fixation (i.e. centripetal or centrifugal) exhibited in mammalian visual cortex. In two experiments, this study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the determinants of these radial biases for motion in functionally-defined areas of human early visual cortex, and in particular their dependence upon eccentricity which has been indicated in recent reports. In one experiment, the cortical response to wide-field random dot kinematograms forming 16 different complex motion patterns (including centrifugal, centripetal, rotational and spiral motion) was measured. The response was analysed according to preferred eccentricity within four different eccentricity ranges. Response anisotropies were characterised by enhanced activity for centripetal or centrifugal patterns that changed systematically with eccentricity in visual areas V1-V3 and hV4 (but not V3A/B or V5/MT+). Responses evolved from a preference for centrifugal over centripetal patterns close to the fovea, to a preference for centripetal over centrifugal at the most peripheral region stimulated, in agreement with previous work. These effects were strongest in V2 and V3. In a second experiment, the stimuli were restricted to within narrow annuli either close to the fovea (0.75-1.88°) or further in the periphery (4.82-6.28°), in a way that preserved the local motion information available in the first experiment. In this configuration a preference for radial motion (centripetal or centrifugal) persisted but the dependence upon eccentricity disappeared. Again this was clearest in V2 and V3. A novel interpretation of the dependence upon eccentricity of motion anisotropies in early visual cortex is offered that takes into account the spatiotemporal

  3. Global gene expression analysis of early response to chemotherapy treatment in ovarian cancer spheroids.

    PubMed

    L'Espérance, Sylvain; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Tetu, Bernard; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2008-02-26

    Chemotherapy (CT) resistance in ovarian cancer (OC) is broad and encompasses diverse unrelated drugs, suggesting more than one mechanism of resistance. To better understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the immediate response of OC cells to CT exposure, we have performed gene expression profiling in spheroid cultures derived from six OC cell lines (OVCAR3, SKOV3, TOV-112, TOV-21, OV-90 and TOV-155), following treatment with 10,0 microM cisplatin, 2,5 microM paclitaxel or 5,0 microM topotecan for 72 hours. Exposure of OC spheroids to these CT drugs resulted in differential expression of genes associated with cell growth and proliferation, cellular assembly and organization, cell death, cell cycle control and cell signaling. Genes, functionally involved in DNA repair, DNA replication and cell cycle arrest were mostly overexpressed, while genes implicated in metabolism (especially lipid metabolism), signal transduction, immune and inflammatory response, transport, transcription regulation and protein biosynthesis, were commonly suppressed following all treatments. Cisplatin and topotecan treatments triggered similar alterations in gene and pathway expression patterns, while paclitaxel action was mainly associated with induction of genes and pathways linked to cellular assembly and organization (including numerous tubulin genes), cell death and protein synthesis. The microarray data were further confirmed by pathway and network analyses. Most alterations in gene expression were directly related to mechanisms of the cytotoxics actions in OC spheroids. However, the induction of genes linked to mechanisms of DNA replication and repair in cisplatin- and topotecan-treated OC spheroids could be associated with immediate adaptive response to treatment. Similarly, overexpression of different tubulin genes upon exposure to paclitaxel could represent an early compensatory effect to this drug action. Finally, multicellular growth conditions that are known to alter gene

  4. Phosphorylated and sumoylation-deficient progesterone receptors drive proliferative gene signatures during breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Todd P; Daniel, Andrea R; Fan, Danhua; Silverstein, Kevin At; Covington, Kyle R; Fuqua, Suzanne Aw; Lange, Carol A

    2012-06-14

    Progesterone receptors (PR) are emerging as important breast cancer drivers. Phosphorylation events common to breast cancer cells impact PR transcriptional activity, in part by direct phosphorylation. PR-B but not PR-A isoforms are phosphorylated on Ser294 by mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). Phospho-Ser294 PRs are resistant to ligand-dependent Lys388 SUMOylation (that is, a repressive modification). Antagonism of PR small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylation by mitogenic protein kinases suggests a mechanism for derepression (that is, transcriptional activation) of target genes. As a broad range of PR protein expression is observed clinically, a PR gene signature would provide a valuable marker of PR contribution to early breast cancer progression. Global gene expression patterns were measured in T47D and MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing either wild-type (SUMOylation-capable) or K388R (SUMOylation-deficient) PRs and subjected to pathway analysis. Gene sets were validated by RT-qPCR. Recruitment of coregulators and histone methylation levels were determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Changes in cell proliferation and survival were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and western blotting. Finally, human breast tumor cohort datasets were probed to identify PR-associated gene signatures; metagene analysis was employed to define survival rates in patients whose tumors express a PR gene signature. 'SUMO-sensitive' PR target genes primarily include genes required for proliferative and pro-survival signaling. DeSUMOylated K388R receptors are preferentially recruited to enhancer regions of derepressed genes (that is, MSX2, RGS2, MAP1A, and PDK4) with the steroid receptor coactivator, CREB-(cAMP-response element-binding protein)-binding protein (CBP), and mixed lineage leukemia 2 (MLL2), a histone methyltransferase mediator of nucleosome remodeling. PR SUMOylation

  5. Care for Child Development: an intervention in support of responsive caregiving and early child development.

    PubMed

    Lucas, J E; Richter, L M; Daelmans, B

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 43% of children younger than 5 years of age are at elevated risk of failing to achieve their human potential. In response, the World Health Organization and UNICEF developed Care for Child Development (CCD), based on the science of child development, to improve sensitive and responsive caregiving and promote the psychosocial development of young children. In 2015, the World Health Organization and UNICEF identified sites where CCD has been implemented and sustained. The sites were surveyed, and responses were followed up by phone interviews. Project reports provided information on additional sites, and a review of published studies was undertaken to document the effectiveness of CCD for improving child and family outcomes, as well as its feasibility for implementation in resource-constrained communities. The inventory found that CCD had been integrated into existing services in diverse sectors in 19 countries and 23 sites, including child survival, health, nutrition, infant day care, early education, family and child protection and services for children with disabilities. Published and unpublished evaluations have found that CCD interventions can improve child development, growth and health, as well as responsive caregiving. It has also been reported to reduce maternal depression, a known risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and poor child health, growth and development. Although CCD has expanded beyond initial implementation sites, only three countries reported having national policy support for integrating CCD into health or other services. Strong interest exists in many countries to move beyond child survival to protect and support optimal child development. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals depend on children realizing their potential to build healthy and emotionally, cognitively and socially competent future generations. More studies are needed to guide the integration of the CCD approach under different conditions. Nevertheless

  6. Vegetation response to early holocene warming as an analog for current and future changes: Special section

    Cole, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    Temperatures in southwestern North America are projected to increase 3.5-4 ??C over the next 60-90 years. This will precipitate ecological shifts as the ranges of species change in response to new climates. During this shift, rapid-colonizing species should increase, whereas slow-colonizing species will at first decrease, but eventually become reestablished in their new range. This successional process has been estimated to require from 100 to over 300 years in small areas, under a stable climate, with a nearby seed source. How much longer will it require on a continental scale, under a changing climate, without a nearby seed source? I considered this question through an examination of the response of fossil plant assemblages from the Grand Canyon, Arizona, to the most recent rapid warming of similar magnitude that occurred at the start of the Holocene, 11,700 years ago. At that time, temperatures in southwestern North America increased about 4 ??C over less than a century. Grand Canyon plant species responded at different rates to this warming climate. Early-successional species rapidly increased, whereas late-successional species decreased. This shift persisted throughout the next 2700 years. I found two earlier, less-extreme species shifts following rapid warming events around 14,700 and 16,800 years ago. Late-successional species predominated only after 4000 years or more of relatively stable temperature. These results suggest the potential magnitude, duration, and nature of future ecological changes and have implications for conservation plans, especially those incorporating equilibrium assumptions or reconstituting past conditions. When these concepts are extended to include the most rapid early-successional colonizers, they imply that the recent increases in invasive exotics may be only the most noticeable part of a new resurgence of early-successional vegetation. Additionally, my results challenge the reliability of models of future vegetation and carbon

  7. Proliferative reactive gliosis is compatible with glial metabolic support and neuronal function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The response of mammalian glial cells to chronic degeneration and trauma is hypothesized to be incompatible with support of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS) and retina. To test this hypothesis, we developed an inducible model of proliferative reactive gliosis in the absence of degenerative stimuli by genetically inactivating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 (p27 or Cdkn1b) in the adult mouse and determined the outcome on retinal structure and function. Results p27-deficient Müller glia reentered the cell cycle, underwent aberrant migration, and enhanced their expression of intermediate filament proteins, all of which are characteristics of Müller glia in a reactive state. Surprisingly, neuroglial interactions, retinal electrophysiology, and visual acuity were normal. Conclusion The benign outcome of proliferative reactive Müller gliosis suggests that reactive glia display context-dependent, graded and dynamic phenotypes and that reactivity in itself is not necessarily detrimental to neuronal function. PMID:21985191

  8. Phytochemical properties and anti-proliferative activity of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts against pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-07-17

    Olea europaea L. leaves are an agricultural waste product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds; especially oleuropein. Oleuropein has been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative activity against a number of cancer types. However, they have not been tested against pancreatic cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer related death in Western countries. Therefore, water, 50% ethanol and 50% methanol extracts of Corregiola and Frantoio variety Olea europaea L. leaves were investigated for their total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and oleuropein content, antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity against MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. The extracts only had slight differences in their phytochemical properties, and at 100 and 200 μg/mL, all decreased the viability of the pancreatic cancer cells relative to controls. At 50 μg/mL, the water extract from the Corregiola leaves exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity with the effect possibly due to early eluting HPLC peaks. For this reason, olive leaf extracts warrant further investigation into their potential anti-pancreatic cancer benefits.

  9. Longitudinal changes in spouses' HPA responses: Convergence in cortisol patterns during the early years of marriage.

    PubMed

    Laws, Holly B; Sayer, Aline G; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Powers, Sally I

    2015-11-01

    Drawing on theories of bidirectional influence between relationship partners (Butler, 2011; Diamond & Aspinwall, 2003), the authors applied dyadic analytic methods to test convergence in cortisol patterns over time in newlywed couples. Previous studies of bidirectional influence in couples' cortisol levels (Liu, Rovine, Klein, & Almeida, 2013; Papp, Pendry, Simon, & Adam, 2013; Saxbe & Repetti, 2010) found significant covariation in couples' daily cortisol levels over several days, but no studies have tested whether cortisol response similarity increases over time using a longitudinal design. In the present study, 183 opposite sex couples (366 participants) engaged in a conflict discussion in a laboratory visit about 6 months after their marriage, and again about 2 years into the marriage. At each visit, spouses provided saliva samples that indexed cortisol levels before, during, and after the discussion. This multimeasure procedure enabled modeling of spouses' cortisol trajectories around the conflict discussion. Findings showed significant convergence in couples' cortisol trajectories across the early years of marriage; couples showed significantly greater similarity in cortisol trajectories around the conflict discussion as their relationship matured. Cohabitation length predicted stronger convergence in cortisol slopes prior to the conflict discussion. Couples' relationship dissatisfaction was associated with a greater degree of convergence in spouses' acute cortisol levels during the conflict discussion. Findings suggest that spouses increasingly shape each other's cortisol responses as their relationship matures. Findings also indicated that increased similarity in acute cortisol levels during conflict may be associated with poorer relationship functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Visually evoked responses in extrastriate area MT after lesions of striate cortex in early life.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Hao; Chaplin, Tristan A; Egan, Gregory W; Reser, David H; Worthy, Katrina H; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2013-07-24

    Lesions of striate cortex [primary visual cortex (V1)] in adult primates result in blindness. In contrast, V1 lesions in neonates typically allow much greater preservation of vision, including, in many human patients, conscious perception. It is presently unknown how this marked functional difference is related to physiological changes in cortical areas that are spared by the lesions. Here we report a study of the middle temporal area (MT) of adult marmoset monkeys that received unilateral V1 lesions within 6 weeks of birth. In contrast with observations after similar lesions in adult monkeys, we found that virtually all neurons in the region of MT that was deprived of V1 inputs showed robust responses to visual stimulation. These responses were very similar to those recorded in neurons with receptive fields outside the lesion projection zones in terms of firing rate, signal-to-noise ratio, and latency. In addition, the normal retinotopic organization of MT was maintained. Nonetheless, we found evidence of a very specific functional deficit: direction selectivity, a key physiological characteristic of MT that is known to be preserved in many cells after adult V1 lesions, was absent. These results demonstrate that lesion-induced reorganization of afferent pathways is sufficient to develop robust visual function in primate extrastriate cortex, highlighting a likely mechanism for the sparing of vision after neonatal V1 lesions. However, they also suggest that interactions with V1 in early postnatal life are critical for establishing stimulus selectivity in MT.

  11. Longitudinal Changes in Spouses’ HPA Responses: Convergence in Cortisol Patterns During the Early Years of Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Holly; Sayer, Aline G.; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Powers, Sally I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Drawing on theories of bidirectional influence between relationship partners (Butler, 2011; Diamond & Aspinwall, 2003), the authors applied dyadic analytic methods to test convergence in cortisol patterns over time in newlywed couples. Methods Previous studies of bidirectional influence in couples’ cortisol levels (Liu, Rovine, Klein, & Almeida, 2013, Papp, Pendry, Simon, & Adam, 2013; Saxbe & Repetti, 2010) found significant covariation in couples’ daily cortisol levels over several days, but no studies have tested whether cortisol response similarity increases over time using a longitudinal design. In the present study, 183 opposite-sex couples (366 participants) engaged in a conflict discussion in a laboratory visit about 6 months after their marriage, and again about 2 years into the marriage. At each visit, spouses provided saliva samples that indexed cortisol levels before, during, and after the discussion. This multi-measure procedure enabled modeling of spouses’ cortisol trajectories around the conflict discussion. Results Findings showed significant convergence in couples’ cortisol trajectories across the early years of marriage; couples showed significantly greater similarity in cortisol trajectories around the conflict discussion as their relationship matured. Cohabitation length predicted stronger convergence in cortisol slopes prior to the conflict discussion. Couples’ relationship dissatisfaction was associated with a greater degree of convergence in spouses’ acute cortisol levels during the conflict discussion. Conclusions Findings suggest that spouses increasingly shape each other’s cortisol responses as their relationship matures. Findings also indicated that increased similarity in acute cortisol levels during conflict may be associated with poorer relationship functioning. PMID:26010721

  12. Health Plans' Early Response to Federal Parity Legislation for Mental Health and Addiction Services.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Constance M; Hodgkin, Dominic; Stewart, Maureen T; Quinn, Amity; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W; Creedon, Timothy B

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, the federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) passed, prohibiting U.S. health plans from subjecting mental health and substance use disorder (behavioral health) coverage to more restrictive limitations than those applied to general medical care. This require d some health plans to make changes in coverage and management of services. The aim of this study was to examine private health plans' early responses to MHPAEA (after its 2010 implementation), in terms of both intended and unintended effects. Data were from a nationally representative survey of commercial health plans regarding the 2010 benefit year and the preparity 2009 benefit year (weighted N=8,431 products; 89% response rate). Annual limits specific to behavioral health care were virtually eliminated between 2009 and 2010. Prevalence of behavioral health coverage was unchanged, and copayments for both behavioral and general medical services increased slightly. Prior authorization requirements for specialty medical and behavioral health outpatient services continued to decline, and the proportion of products reporting strict continuing review requirements increased slightly. Contrary to expectations, plans did not make significant changes in contracting arrangements for behavioral health services, and 80% reported an increase in size of their behavioral health provider network. The law had the intended effect of eliminating quantitative limitations that applied only to behavioral health care without unintended consequences such as eliminating behavioral health coverage. Plan decisions may also reflect other factors, including anticipation of the 2010 regulations and a continuation of trends away from requiring prior authorization.

  13. Gender differences in response to a school-based mindfulness training intervention for early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoona; Rahrig, Hadley; Eichel, Kristina; Niles, Halsey F; Rocha, Tomas; Lepp, Nathaniel E; Gold, Jonathan; Britton, Willoughby B

    2018-06-01

    Mindfulness training has been used to improve emotional wellbeing in early adolescents. However, little is known about treatment outcome moderators, or individual differences that may differentially impact responses to treatment. The current study focused on gender as a potential moderator for affective outcomes in response to school-based mindfulness training. Sixth grade students (N = 100) were randomly assigned to either the six weeks of mindfulness meditation or the active control group as part of a history class curriculum. Participants in the mindfulness meditation group completed short mindfulness meditation sessions four to five times per week, in addition to didactic instruction (Asian history). The control group received matched experiential activity in addition to didactic instruction (African history) from the same teacher with no meditation component. Self-reported measures of emotional wellbeing/affect, mindfulness, and self-compassion were obtained at pre and post intervention. Meditators reported greater improvement in emotional wellbeing compared to those in the control group. Importantly, gender differences were detected, such that female meditators reported greater increases in positive affect compared to females in the control group, whereas male meditators and control males displayed equivalent gains. Uniquely among females but not males, increases in self-reported self-compassion were associated with improvements in affect. These findings support the efficacy of school-based mindfulness interventions, and interventions tailored to accommodate distinct developmental needs of female and male adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early response of wheat antioxidant system with special reference to Fusarium head blight stress.

    PubMed

    Spanic, Valentina; Viljevac Vuletic, Marija; Abicic, Ivan; Marcek, Tihana

    2017-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive fungal disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that causes significant grain yield losses and end-use quality reduction associated with contamination by the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Three winter wheat varieties ('Vulkan', 'Kraljica' and 'Golubica') were screened for FHB resistance using artificial inoculation technique under field conditions. The aim of this study was to examine a relationship between FHB resistance and the effectiveness of enzyme antioxidant system of wheat varieties under different sampling times (3, 15, 24, 48, 96, 120 and 336 hai). In the time-course experiments FHB-resistant variety 'Vulkan' showed rapid induction of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in the early stages after infection (3 hai) and it seems that in 'Vulkan' FHB-resistance is associated with antioxidative enzymes activity. Moderately FHB resistant variety 'Kraljica' showed the higher guaiacol peroxidase (POD) activity and higher H 2 O 2 content after 24 hai, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content at the beginning of infection (3, 15 hai) while induction of catalase (CAT), APX and PPO was delayed. FHB-susceptible variety 'Golubica' involved antioxidant enzymes in defense response much later. Based on our results the activity of antioxidant enzymes (APX and PPO) was more pronounced in 'Vulkan' than in FHB-medium resistant variety 'Kraljica' and FHB-susceptible 'Golubica'. The differences in antioxidant response of wheat varieties under Fusarium infestation could be the result of genetic properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced response cluster size in early visual areas explains the acuity deficit in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yufeng; Feng, Lixia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2017-05-03

    Focal visual stimulation typically results in the activation of a large portion of the early visual cortex. This spread of activity is attributed to long-range lateral interactions. Such long-range interactions may serve to stabilize a visual representation or to simply modulate incoming signals, and any associated dysfunction in long-range activation may reduce sensitivity to visual information in conditions such as amblyopia. We sought to measure the dispersion of cortical activity following local visual stimulation in a group of patients with amblyopia and matched normal. Twenty adult anisometropic amblyopes and 10 normal controls participated in this study. Using a multifocal stimulation, we simultaneously measured cluster sizes to multiple stimulation points in the visual field. We found that the functional MRI (fMRI) response cluster size that corresponded to the fellow eye was significantly larger as opposed to that corresponding to the amblyopic eye and that the fMRI response cluster size at the two more central retinotopic locations correlated with amblyopia acuity deficit. Our results suggest that the amblyopic visual cortex has a diminished long-range communication as evidenced by significantly smaller cluster of activity as measured with fMRI. These results have important implications for models of amblyopia and approaches to treatment.

  16. Fluidity of HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Responses during Acute and Early Subtype C HIV-1 Infection and Associations with Early Disease Progression ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mlotshwa, Mandla; Riou, Catherine; Chopera, Denis; de Assis Rosa, Debra; Ntale, Roman; Treunicht, Florette; Woodman, Zenda; Werner, Lise; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Mlisana, Koleka; Abdool Karim, Salim; Williamson, Carolyn; Gray, Clive M.

    2010-01-01

    Deciphering immune events during early stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is critical for understanding the course of disease. We characterized the hierarchy of HIV-1-specific T-cell gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay responses during acute subtype C infection in 53 individuals and associated temporal patterns of responses with disease progression in the first 12 months. There was a diverse pattern of T-cell recognition across the proteome, with the recognition of Nef being immunodominant as early as 3 weeks postinfection. Over the first 6 months, we found that there was a 23% chance of an increased response to Nef for every week postinfection (P = 0.0024), followed by a nonsignificant increase to Pol (4.6%) and Gag (3.2%). Responses to Env and regulatory proteins appeared to remain stable. Three temporal patterns of HIV-specific T-cell responses could be distinguished: persistent, lost, or new. The proportion of persistent T-cell responses was significantly lower (P = 0.0037) in individuals defined as rapid progressors than in those progressing slowly and who controlled viremia. Almost 90% of lost T-cell responses were coincidental with autologous viral epitope escape. Regression analysis between the time to fixed viral escape and lost T-cell responses (r = 0.61; P = 0.019) showed a mean delay of 14 weeks after viral escape. Collectively, T-cell epitope recognition is not a static event, and temporal patterns of IFN-γ-based responses exist. This is due partly to viral sequence variation but also to the recognition of invariant viral epitopes that leads to waves of persistent T-cell immunity, which appears to associate with slower disease progression in the first year of infection. PMID:20826686

  17. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Mediates Proliferative GN via CD74

    PubMed Central

    Djudjaj, Sonja; Lue, Hongqi; Rong, Song; Papasotiriou, Marios; Klinkhammer, Barbara M.; Zok, Stephanie; Klaener, Ole; Braun, Gerald S.; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Bucala, Richard; Tittel, Andre P.; Kurts, Christian; Moeller, Marcus J.; Floege, Juergen; Ostendorf, Tammo

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic proliferation of mesangial and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) is a hallmark of various glomerulonephritides. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that mediates inflammation by engagement of a receptor complex involving the components CD74, CD44, CXCR2, and CXCR4. The proliferative effects of MIF may involve CD74 together with the coreceptor and PEC activation marker CD44. Herein, we analyzed the effects of local glomerular MIF/CD74/CD44 signaling in proliferative glomerulonephritides. MIF, CD74, and CD44 were upregulated in the glomeruli of patients and mice with proliferative glomerulonephritides. During disease, CD74 and CD44 were expressed de novo in PECs and colocalized in both PECs and mesangial cells. Stress stimuli induced MIF secretion from glomerular cells in vitro and in vivo, in particular from podocytes, and MIF stimulation induced proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells via CD74. In murine crescentic GN, Mif-deficient mice were almost completely protected from glomerular injury, the development of cellular crescents, and the activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells, whereas wild-type mice were not. Bone marrow reconstitution studies showed that deficiency of both nonmyeloid and bone marrow–derived Mif reduced glomerular cell proliferation and injury. In contrast to wild-type mice, Cd74-deficient mice also were protected from glomerular injury and ensuing activation and proliferation of PECs and mesangial cells. Our data suggest a novel molecular mechanism and glomerular cell crosstalk by which local upregulation of MIF and its receptor complex CD74/CD44 mediate glomerular injury and pathologic proliferation in GN. PMID:26453615

  18. Insulin-sensitizing and Anti-proliferative Effects of Argania spinosa Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-01-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases. PMID:16951716

  19. Substance P promotes expansion of human mesenteric preadipocytes through proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Gross, Kara; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Thomou, Thomas; Koon, Hon Wai; Bowe, Collin; Kim, Ho; Giorgadze, Nino; Tchkonia, Tamara; Pirtskhalava, Tamara; Kirkland, James L; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2009-05-01

    White adipose tissue is intimately involved in the regulation of immunity and inflammation. We reported that human mesenteric preadipocytes express the substance P (SP)-mediated neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), which signals proinflammatory responses. Here we tested the hypothesis that SP promotes proliferation and survival of human mesenteric preadipocytes and investigated responsible mechanism(s). Preadipocytes were isolated from mesenteric fat biopsies during gastric bypass surgery. Proliferative and antiapoptotic responses were delineated in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), caspase-3, and TUNEL assays, as well as Western immunoanalysis. SP (10(-7) M) increased MTS and proliferation (BrdU) and time dependently (15-30 min) induced Akt, EGF receptor, IGF receptor, integrin alphaVbeta3, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and PKC-theta phosphorylation. Furthermore, pharmacological antagonism of Akt and PKC-theta activation significantly attenuated SP-induced preadipocyte proliferation. Exposure of preadipocytes to the proapoptotic Fas ligand (FasL, 100 microM) resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), as well as increased cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cleaved caspase-7, and caspase-3 expression. Cotreatment with SP almost completely abolished these responses in a NK-1R-dependent fashion. SP (10(-7) M) also time dependently stimulated expression 4E binding protein 1 and phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, which increased protein translation efficiency. SP increases preadipocyte viability, reduces apoptosis, and stimulates proliferation, possibly via cell cycle upregulation and increased protein translation efficiency. SP-induced proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways in fat depots may contribute to development of the creeping fat and inflammation characteristic of Crohn's disease.

  20. Discrimination of amygdala response predicts future separation anxiety in youth with early deprivation.

    PubMed

    Green, Shulamite A; Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Louie, Jennifer; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-10-01

    Significant disruption in caregiving is associated with increased internalizing symptoms, most notably heightened separation anxiety symptoms during childhood. It is also associated with altered functional development of the amygdala, a neurobiological correlate of anxious behavior. However, much less is known about how functional alterations of amygdala predict individual differences in anxiety. Here, we probed amygdala function following institutional caregiving using very subtle social-affective stimuli (trustworthy and untrustworthy faces), which typically result in large differences in amygdala signal, and change in separation anxiety behaviors over a 2-year period. We hypothesized that the degree of differentiation of amygdala signal to trustworthy versus untrustworthy face stimuli would predict separation anxiety symptoms. Seventy-four youths mean (SD) age = 9.7 years (2.64) with and without previous institutional care, who were all living in families at the time of testing, participated in an fMRI task designed to examine differential amygdala response to trustworthy versus untrustworthy faces. Parents reported on their children's separation anxiety symptoms at the time of scan and again 2 years later. Previous institutional care was associated with diminished amygdala signal differences and behavioral differences to the contrast of untrustworthy and trustworthy faces. Diminished differentiation of these stimuli types predicted more severe separation anxiety symptoms 2 years later. Older age at adoption was associated with diminished differentiation of amygdala responses. A history of institutional care is associated with reduced differential amygdala responses to social-affective cues of trustworthiness that are typically exhibited by comparison samples. Individual differences in the degree of amygdala differential responding to these cues predict the severity of separation anxiety symptoms over a 2-year period. These findings provide a biological

  1. Early virologic response to abacavir/lamivudine and tenofovir/emtricitabine during ACTG A5202

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Philip M.; Tierney, Camlin; Budhathoki, Chakra; Daar, Eric S.; Sax, Paul E.; Collier, Ann C.; Fischl, Margaret A.; Zolopa, Andrew R.; Balamane, Maya; Katzenstein, David

    2014-01-01

    Background ACTG A5202 randomized treatment-naive individuals to tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) or abacavir-lamivudine (ABC/3TC) combined with efavirenz (EFV) or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r). Individuals in the high screening viral load (VL) stratum (≥100,000 copies/mL) had increased rates of virologic failure with ABC/3TC. Objective Compare regimen-specific early virologic response. Methods Using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, we compared regimen-specific VL changes from entry to week 4 in A5202 subjects (n=1813) and from entry to week 1, 2 and 4 in a 179-patient substudy. We evaluated associations between week 4 VL change and time to virologic failure with Cox proportional-hazards models. Results TDF/FTC- and ABC/3TC produced similar Week 4 viral load declines in the entire study population and in the high VL stratum. EFV produced greater VL declines from baseline at week 4 than ATV/r (median −2.1 vs. −1.9 log10 copies/mL; p<0.001). In the substudy of subjects with week 1, 2 and 4 VL data, there was no difference in viral load decline in those randomized to TDF/FTC versus ABC/3TC, but EFV resulted in greater VL decline from entry at each of these timepoints than ATV/r. Smaller Week 4 viral load decline was associated with increased risk of virologic failure. Conclusions Within all treatment arms, a less robust week 4 virologic response was associated with higher risk for subsequent virologic failure. However, between-regimen differences in week 4 VL declines did not parallel the previously reported differences in longer term virologic efficacy in A5202, suggesting that between-regimen differences in responses were not due to intrinsic differences in antiviral activity. PMID:24334181

  2. Early transcriptional responses of internalization defective Brucella abortus mutants in professional phagocytes, RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seung Bin; Lee, Won Jung; Shin, Min Kyoung; Jung, Myung Hwan; Shin, Seung Won; Yoo, An Na; Kim, Jong Wan; Yoo, Han Sang

    2013-06-27

    Brucella abortus is an intracellular zoonotic pathogen which causes undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis and osteomyelitis in human and abortion and infertility in cattle. This bacterium is able to invade and replicate in host macrophage instead of getting removed by this defense mechanism. Therefore, understanding the interaction between virulence of the bacteria and the host cell is important to control brucellosis. Previously, we generated internalization defective mutants and analyzed the envelope proteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in early transcriptional responses between wild type and internalization defective mutants infected mouse macrophage, RAW 264.7. Both of the wild type and mutant infected macrophages showed increased expression levels in proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis and G-protein coupled receptors (Gpr84, Gpr109a and Adora2b) while the genes related with small GTPase which mediate intracellular trafficking was decreased. Moreover, cytohesin 1 interacting protein (Cytip) and genes related to ubiquitination (Arrdc3 and Fbxo21) were down-regulated, suggesting the survival strategy of this bacterium. However, we could not detect any significant changes in the mutant infected groups compared to the wild type infected group. In summary, it was very difficult to clarify the alterations in host cellular transcription in response to infection with internalization defective mutants. However, we found several novel gene changes related to the GPCR system, ubiquitin-proteosome system, and growth arrest and DNA damages in response to B. abortus infection. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions and need to be studied further.

  3. Early transcriptional responses of internalization defective Brucella abortus mutants in professional phagocytes, RAW 264.7

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brucella abortus is an intracellular zoonotic pathogen which causes undulant fever, endocarditis, arthritis and osteomyelitis in human and abortion and infertility in cattle. This bacterium is able to invade and replicate in host macrophage instead of getting removed by this defense mechanism. Therefore, understanding the interaction between virulence of the bacteria and the host cell is important to control brucellosis. Previously, we generated internalization defective mutants and analyzed the envelope proteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in early transcriptional responses between wild type and internalization defective mutants infected mouse macrophage, RAW 264.7. Results Both of the wild type and mutant infected macrophages showed increased expression levels in proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, apoptosis and G-protein coupled receptors (Gpr84, Gpr109a and Adora2b) while the genes related with small GTPase which mediate intracellular trafficking was decreased. Moreover, cytohesin 1 interacting protein (Cytip) and genes related to ubiquitination (Arrdc3 and Fbxo21) were down-regulated, suggesting the survival strategy of this bacterium. However, we could not detect any significant changes in the mutant infected groups compared to the wild type infected group. Conclusions In summary, it was very difficult to clarify the alterations in host cellular transcription in response to infection with internalization defective mutants. However, we found several novel gene changes related to the GPCR system, ubiquitin-proteosome system, and growth arrest and DNA damages in response to B. abortus infection. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions and need to be studied further. PMID:23802650

  4. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  5. Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Jeffrey M.; Braine, Catherine E.; Williams, Pete A.; Zhu, Xianjun; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Sousa, Gregory L.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Smith, Richard S.; Howell, Gareth R.; John, Simon W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wlds allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J.Wlds mice develop high intraocular pressure (IOP) but are protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and neuroglial changes that otherwise occur early in DBA/2J glaucoma. Despite this, immune pathways are still altered in DBA/2J.Wlds mice. This suggests that immune changes are not secondary to RGC dysfunction or altered neuroglial interactions, but may be directly induced by the increased strain imposed by high IOP. One early immune response following IOP elevation is up-regulation of complement C3 in astrocytes of DBA/2J and DBA/2J.Wlds mice. Unexpectedly, because the disruption of other complement components, such as C1Q, is protective in glaucoma, C3 deficiency significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with nerve damage and RGC loss at an early time point after IOP elevation. Transcriptional profiling of C3-deficient cultured astrocytes implicated EGFR signaling as a hub in C3-dependent responses. Treatment with AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, also significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with glaucoma at the same early time point. These findings suggest that C3 protects from early glaucomatous damage, a process that may involve EGFR signaling and other immune responses in the optic nerve head. Therefore, therapies that target specific components of the complement cascade, rather than global inhibition, may be more applicable for treating human glaucoma. PMID:28446616

  6. Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective.

    PubMed

    Harder, Jeffrey M; Braine, Catherine E; Williams, Pete A; Zhu, Xianjun; MacNicoll, Katharine H; Sousa, Gregory L; Buchanan, Rebecca A; Smith, Richard S; Libby, Richard T; Howell, Gareth R; John, Simon W M

    2017-05-09

    Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wld s allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J .Wld s mice develop high intraocular pressure (IOP) but are protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and neuroglial changes that otherwise occur early in DBA/2J glaucoma. Despite this, immune pathways are still altered in DBA/2J .Wld s mice. This suggests that immune changes are not secondary to RGC dysfunction or altered neuroglial interactions, but may be directly induced by the increased strain imposed by high IOP. One early immune response following IOP elevation is up-regulation of complement C3 in astrocytes of DBA/2J and DBA/2J. Wld s mice. Unexpectedly, because the disruption of other complement components, such as C1Q, is protective in glaucoma, C3 deficiency significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with nerve damage and RGC loss at an early time point after IOP elevation. Transcriptional profiling of C3-deficient cultured astrocytes implicated EGFR signaling as a hub in C3-dependent responses. Treatment with AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, also significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with glaucoma at the same early time point. These findings suggest that C3 protects from early glaucomatous damage, a process that may involve EGFR signaling and other immune responses in the optic nerve head. Therefore, therapies that target specific components of the complement cascade, rather than global inhibition, may be more applicable for treating human glaucoma.

  7. Oestrogen status in relation to the early training responses in human thumb adductor muscles.

    PubMed

    Onambele, G N L; Bruce, S A; Woledge, R C

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the mechanisms for the early response to training in women of different oestrogen status and to determine whether any oestrogen and exercise effects on these would be additive. We monitored training (ten 5-s contractions per day for 12 weeks)-induced changes in the size, strength, voluntary activation capacity and index of crossbridge force state (i.e. rapid stretch to isometric torque ratio), in the thumb adductor muscles of postmenopausal [eight who had never used, and 14 who were using, hormone replacement therapy (HRT)] and seven premenopausal eumenorrhoeic women. The contralateral untrained muscle was used as a control. There was a significant effect of oestrogen status on the magnitude of training-induced strength increment, with the non-HRT postmenopausal group exhibiting the greatest benefits (28 +/- 6%, P = 0.024) from training. There were no significant or commensurate changes in either cross-sectional area or voluntary activation capacity. The index of crossbridge force state improved most in the no-HRT group (19 +/- 7%, P < 0.05). Presence, rather than absence of oestrogen, is associated with relatively higher muscle function which limits the potential for any further training-induced increments in muscle performance, as would be expected if the muscle strengthening actions of training and oestrogen share a common, partially saturable physiological pathway. The mechanism that is involved in the early training-induced strength increment in the three differing oestrogen groups cannot be due to increased size or recruitment. It would appear instead that increased motor unit firing frequency is involved.

  8. A local complement response by RPE causes early-stage macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Godino, Rosario; Garland, Donita L.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited and age-related macular degenerations (AMDs) are important causes of vision loss. An early hallmark of these disorders is the formation of sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) basal deposits. A role for the complement system in MDs was suggested by genetic association studies, but direct functional connections between alterations in the complement system and the pathogenesis of MD remain to be defined. We used primary RPE cells from a mouse model of inherited MD due to a p.R345W mutation in EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) to investigate the role of the RPE in early MD pathogenesis. Efemp1R345W RPE cells recapitulate the basal deposit formation observed in vivo by producing sub-RPE deposits in vitro. The deposits share features with basal deposits, and their formation was mediated by EFEMP1R345W or complement component 3a (C3a), but not by complement component 5a (C5a). Increased activation of complement appears to occur in response to an abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM), generated by the mutant EFEMP1R345W protein and reduced ECM turnover due to inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 2 by EFEMP1R345W and C3a. Increased production of C3a also stimulated the release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1B, which appear to have a role in deposit formation, albeit downstream of C3a. These studies provide the first direct indication that complement components produced locally by the RPE are involved in the formation of basal deposits. Furthermore, these results suggest that C3a generated by RPE is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of EFEMP1-associated MD as well as AMD. PMID:26199322

  9. Early-Life Social Isolation Stress Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Responsiveness and Downregulates the Dopamine System

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Rose, Jamie H; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic early-life stress increases vulnerability to alcoholism and anxiety disorders during adulthood. Similarly, rats reared in social isolation (SI) during adolescence exhibit augmented ethanol intake and anxiety-like behaviors compared with group housed (GH) rats. Prior studies suggest that disruption of dopamine (DA) signaling contributes to SI-associated behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not fully understood. Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have an important role in regulating mesolimbic DA signaling, and other kinds of stressors have been shown to augment KOR function. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SI-induced increases in KOR function contribute to the dysregulation of NAc DA and the escalation in ethanol intake associated with SI. Our ex vivo voltammetry experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of the kappa agonist U50,488 on DA release were significantly enhanced in the NAc core and shell of SI rats. Dynorphin levels in NAc tissue were observed to be lower in SI rats. Microdialysis in freely moving rats revealed that SI was also associated with reduced baseline DA levels, and pretreatment with the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) increased DA levels selectively in SI subjects. Acute ethanol elevated DA in SI and GH rats and nor-BNI pretreatment augmented this effect in SI subjects, while having no effect on ethanol-stimulated DA release in GH rats. Together, these data suggest that KORs may have increased responsiveness following SI, which could lead to hypodopaminergia and contribute to an increased drive to consume ethanol. Indeed, SI rats exhibited greater ethanol intake and preference and KOR blockade selectively attenuated ethanol intake in SI rats. Collectively, the findings that nor-BNI reversed SI-mediated hypodopaminergic state and escalated ethanol intake suggest that KOR antagonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders, particularly

  10. Sequence stratigraphic control on prolific HC reservoir development, Southwest Iran

    Lasemi, Y.; Kondroud, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    An important carbonate formation in the Persian Gulf and the onshore oil fields of Southwest Iran is the Lowermost Cretaceous Fahliyan formation. The formation in Darkhowain field consists of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences containing prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs of contrasting origin. Located in the high stand systems tract (HST) of the lower sequence encompassing over 200m of oil column are the most prolific reservoir. Another reservoir is over 80m thick consisting of shallowing-upward cycles that are best developed within the transgressive systems tract of the upper sequence. Vertical facies distribution and their paleobathymetry and geophysical log signatures of the Fahliyan formation in the Darkhowain platform reveal the presence of two unconformity-bounded depositional sequences in Vail et al., Van Wagoner et al., and Sarg. The Fahliyan formation mainly consists of platform carbonates composed of restricted bioclastic lime mudstone to packstone of the platform interior, Lithocodium boundstone or ooid-intraclast-bioclast grainstone of the high energy platform margin and the bioclast packstone to lime mudstone related to the off-platform setting.

  11. [(Pro) renin receptor in the pathogenesis of proliferative diabetic retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Kanda, Atsuhiro

    2014-11-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), originally regarded as an important controller of systemic blood pressure (circulatory RAS), plays a pivotal role in pathological vascular conditions including inflammation and angiogenesis (tissue RAS). (Pro) renin receptor [(P) RR] is known to bind with prorenin causing the dual activation of tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) together with RAS-independent intracellular signaling pathways and contributes to the molecular pathogenesis of end-organ damage. In this review, we investigated localization and expression of (P)RR in fibrovascular tissues and vitreous fluids from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and evaluated the molecular mechanisms in vitro in order to confirm the conclusions regarding (P) RR from animal studies. (P)RR immunoreactivity was detected in vascular endothelial cells, co-localized with prorenin, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Protein levels of soluble (P) RR in the vitreous fluids were higher in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) eyes than in non-diabetic control eyes, and were significantly correlated with vitreous VEGF levels and the vascular density of fibrovascular tissues. We herein report the first evidence that shows the close association of (P) RR with angiogenic activity in human PDR. The present data suggest the validity of (P) RR as a molecular target for the treatment of PDR.

  12. Early activation of teleost B cells in response to rhabdovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Abós, Beatriz; Castro, Rosario; González Granja, Aitor; Havixbeck, Jeffrey J; Barreda, Daniel R; Tafalla, Carolina

    2015-02-01

    To date, the response of teleost B cells to specific pathogens has been only scarcely addressed. In this work, we have demonstrated that viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a fish rhabdovirus, has the capacity to infect rainbow trout spleen IgM-positive (IgM(+)) cells, although the infection is not productive. Consequently, we have studied the effects of VHSV on IgM(+) cell functionality, comparing these effects to those elicited by a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, poly(I·C). We found that poly(I·C) and VHSV significantly upregulated TLR3 and type I interferon (IFN) transcription in spleen and blood IgM(+) cells. Further effects included the upregulated transcription of the CK5B chemokine. The significant inhibition of some of these effects in the presence of bafilomycin A1 (BAF), an inhibitor of endosomal acidification, suggests the involvement of an intracellular TLR in these responses. In the case of VHSV, these transcriptional effects were dependent on viral entry into B cells and the initiation of viral transcription. VHSV also provoked the activation of NF-κB and the upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) cell surface expression on IgM(+) cells, which, along with the increased transcription of the costimulatory molecules CD80/86 and CD83, pointed to VHSV-induced IgM(+) cell activation toward an antigen-presenting profile. Finally, despite the moderate effects of VHSV on IgM(+) cell proliferation, a consistent effect on IgM(+) cell survival was detected. Innate immune responses to pathogens established through their recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been traditionally ascribed to innate cells. However, recent evidence in mammals has revealed that innate pathogen recognition by B lymphocytes is a crucial factor in shaping the type of immune response that is mounted. In teleosts, these immediate effects of viral encounter on B lymphocytes have not been addressed to date. In our study, we have

  13. Maternal buffering beyond glucocorticoids: impact of early life stress on corticolimbic circuits that control infant responses to novelty

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Brittany R.; McMurray, Matthew S.; Guzman, Dora B.; Nair, Govind; Shi, Yundi; McCormack, Kai M.; Hu, Xiaoping; Styner, Martin A.; Sanchez, Mar M.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal presence has a potent buffering effect on infant fear and stress responses in primates. We previously reported that maternal presence is not effective in buffering the endocrine stress response in infant rhesus monkeys reared by maltreating mothers. We have also reported that maltreating mothers show low maternal responsiveness and permissiveness/secure-base behavior. Although still not understood, it is possible that this maternal buffering effect is mediated, at least partially, through deactivation of amygdala response circuits when mothers are present. Here we studied rhesus monkey infants that differed in the quality of early maternal care to investigate how this early experience modulated maternal buffering effects on behavioral responses to novelty during the weaning period. We also examined the relationship between these behavioral responses and structural connectivity in one of the underlying regulatory neural circuits: amygdala-prefrontal pathways. Our findings suggest that infant exploration in a novel situation is predicted by maternal responsiveness and structural integrity of amygdala-prefrontal white matter depending on maternal presence (positive relationships when mother is absent). These results provide evidence that maternal buffering of infant behavioral inhibition is dependent on the quality of maternal care and structural connectivity of neural pathways that are sensitive to early life stress. PMID:27295326

  14. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  15. Characterization of the early local immune response to Ixodes ricinus tick bites in human skin.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Means, Terry; Haas, Josef; Steere, Allen C; Müllegger, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (<24 hours of tick attachment) were characterized by a predominance of macrophages and dendritic cells, elevated mRNA levels of macrophage chemoattractants (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4) and neutrophil chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL8), of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-5. In contrast, the numbers of lymphocytes and mRNA levels of lymphocyte cell markers (CD4, CD8, CD19), lymphocyte chemoattractants (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13, CCL1, CCL22), dendritic cell chemoattractants (CCL20), and other pro- (IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β) did not differ from normal skin. With longer tick attachment (>24 hours), the numbers of innate immune cells and mediators (not significantly) declined, whereas the numbers of lymphocytes (not significantly) increased. Natural tick bites by Ixodes ricinus ticks initially elicit a strong local innate immune response in human skin. Beyond 24 hours of tick attachment, this response usually becomes less, perhaps because of immunomodulation by tick saliva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Family history of psychosis moderates early auditory cortical response abnormalities in non-psychotic bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jordan P; Ethridge, Lauren E; Shapiro, John R; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Thaker, Gunvant K; Clementz, Brett A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar I disorder is a disabling illness affecting 1% of people worldwide. Family and twin studies suggest that psychotic bipolar disorder (BDP) represents a homogenous subgroup with an etiology distinct from non-psychotic bipolar disorder (BDNP) and partially shared with schizophrenia. Studies of auditory electrophysiology [e.g., paired-stimulus and oddball measured with electroencephalography (EEG)] consistently report deviations in psychotic groups (schizophrenia, BDP), yet such studies comparing BDP and BDNP are sparse and, in some cases, conflicting. Auditory EEG responses are significantly reduced in unaffected relatives of psychosis patients, suggesting that they may relate to both psychosis liability and expression. Methods While 64-sensor EEGs were recorded, age- and gender-matched samples of 70 BDP, 35 BDNP {20 with a family history of psychosis [BDNP(+)]}, and 70 psychiatrically healthy subjects were presented typical auditory paired-stimuli and auditory oddball paradigms. Results Oddball P3b reductions were present and indistinguishable across all patient groups. P2s to paired-stimuli were abnormal only in BDP and BDNP(+). Conversely, N1 reductions to stimuli in both paradigms and P3a reductions were present in both BDP and BDNP(−) groups but were absent in BDNP(+). Conclusions While nearly all auditory neural response components studied were abnormal in BDP, BDNP abnormalities at early- and mid-latencies were moderated by family psychosis history. The relationship between psychosis expression, heritable psychosis risk, and neurophysiology within bipolar disorder, therefore, may be complex. Consideration of such clinical disease heterogeneity may be important for future investigations of the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disturbance. PMID:23941660

  17. Caregiver responses to early cleft palate care: A mixed method approach.

    PubMed

    Sischo, Lacey; Clouston, Sean A P; Phillips, Ceib; Broder, Hillary L

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to understand caregivers' (CGs') responses to early cleft lip/palate care for their infants. A prospective, mixed methods multicenter longitudinal study was conducted among CGs (N = 118) seeking treatment for their infants' cleft lip and palate or cleft lip only at 1 of 6 cleft treatment centers in the United States. Participants were in 1 of 2 treatment groups: traditional care only or nasoalveolar molding (NAM) plus traditional care. The CGs completed semistructured interviews and standardized questionnaires assessing psychosocial well-being and family impact at 3 time points: the beginning of treatment (∼1 month of age), prelip surgery (∼3-5 months of age), and postpalate surgery (∼12-13 months of age). Multilevel modeling was used to longitudinally assess CGs' psychosocial outcomes. Although the first year was demanding for all CGs, NAM onset and the child's lip surgery were particularly stressful times. CGs used optimism, problem-solving behavior, and social support to cope with this stress. Qualitatively, CGs' ability to balance cleft treatment demands with their psychosocial resources and coping strategies influenced family adaptation. Qualitative and quantitative results indicated CGs of NAM-treated infants experienced more rapid declines in anxiety and depressive symptoms and better coping skills over time than CGs whose infants had traditional care. CGs of NAM-treated infants experienced more positive psychosocial outcomes than CGs whose infants had traditional care. Results from the mixed model support the family adjustment and adaptation response model as used in pediatric chronic condition research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Lipoxins Regulate the Early Growth Response-1 Network and Reverse Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Eoin P; Mohan, Muthukumar; McClelland, Aaron; Tikellis, Christos; Ziemann, Mark; Kaspi, Antony; Gray, Stephen P; Pickering, Raelene; Tan, Sih Min; Ali-Shah, Syed Tasadaque; Guiry, Patrick J; El-Osta, Assam; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Cooper, Mark E; Godson, Catherine; Kantharidis, Phillip

    2018-05-01

    Background The failure of spontaneous resolution underlies chronic inflammatory conditions, including microvascular complications of diabetes such as diabetic kidney disease. The identification of endogenously generated molecules that promote the physiologic resolution of inflammation suggests that these bioactions may have therapeutic potential in the context of chronic inflammation. Lipoxins (LXs) are lipid mediators that promote the resolution of inflammation. Methods We investigated the potential of LXA 4 and a synthetic LX analog (Benzo-LXA 4 ) as therapeutics in a murine model of diabetic kidney disease, ApoE -/- mice treated with streptozotocin. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LXs attenuated the development of diabetes-induced albuminuria, mesangial expansion, and collagen deposition. Notably, LXs administered 10 weeks after disease onset also attenuated established kidney disease, with evidence of preserved kidney function. Kidney transcriptome profiling defined a diabetic signature (725 genes; false discovery rate P ≤0.05). Comparison of this murine gene signature with that of human diabetic kidney disease identified shared renal proinflammatory/profibrotic signals (TNF- α , IL-1 β , NF- κ B). In diabetic mice, we identified 20 and 51 transcripts regulated by LXA 4 and Benzo-LXA 4 , respectively, and pathway analysis identified established (TGF- β 1, PDGF, TNF- α , NF- κ B) and novel (early growth response-1 [EGR-1]) networks activated in diabetes and regulated by LXs. In cultured human renal epithelial cells, treatment with LXs attenuated TNF- α -driven Egr-1 activation, and Egr-1 depletion prevented cellular responses to TGF- β 1 and TNF- α Conclusions These data demonstrate that LXs can reverse established diabetic complications and support a therapeutic paradigm to promote the resolution of inflammation. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Predicting Mountainous Watershed Biogeochemical Dynamics, Including Response to Droughts and Early Snowmelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P.; Agarwal, D.; Banfield, J. F.; Beller, H. R.; Bouskill, N.; Brodie, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Nico, P. S.; Steefel, C. I.; Steltzer, H.; Tokunaga, T. K.; Wainwright, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change, extreme weather, land-use change, and other perturbations are significantly reshaping interactions with in watersheds throughout the world. While mountainous watersheds are recognized as the water towers for the world, hydrological processes in watersheds also mediate biogeochemical processes that support all terrestrial life. Developing predictive understanding of watershed hydrological and biogeochemical functioning is challenging, as complex interactions occurring within a heterogeneous watershed can lead to a cascade of effects on downstream water availability and quality. Although these interactions can have significant implications for energy production, agriculture, water quality, and other benefits valued by society, uncertainty associated with predicting watershed function is high. The Watershed Function project aims to substantially reduce this uncertainty through developing a predictive understanding of how mountainous watersheds retain and release downgradient water, nutrients, carbon, and metals. In particular, the project is exploring how early snowmelt, drought, and other disturbances will influence mountainous watershed dynamics at seasonal to decadal timescales. The Watershed Function project is being carried out in a headwater mountainous catchment of the Upper Colorado River Basin, within a watershed characterized by significant gradients in elevation, vegetation and hydrogeology. A system-within system project perspective posits that the integrated watershed response to disturbances can be adequately predicted through consideration of interactions and feedbacks occurring within a limited number of subsystems, each having distinct vegetation-subsurface biogeochemical-hydrological characteristics. A key technological goal is the development of scale-adaptive simulation capabilities that can incorporate genomic information where and when it is useful for predicting the overall watershed response to disturbance. Through developing

  20. Health Plans’ Early Response to Federal Parity Legislation for Mental Health and Addiction Services

    PubMed Central

    Horgan, Constance M.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Stewart, Maureen T.; Merrick, Elizabeth L.; Reif, Sharon; Garnick, Deborah W.; Quinn, Amity E.; Creedon, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In 2008 the federal Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) passed, prohibiting U.S. health plans from subjecting mental health and substance use disorder (behavioral health) coverage to more restrictive limitations than those applied to general medical care. This require d some health plans to make changes in coverage and management of services. The aim of this study was to examine private health plans’ early responses to MHPAEA (after its 2010 implementation), in terms of both the intended and unintended effects. Methods Data were from a nationally representative survey of commercial health plans regarding the 2010 benefit year and the preparity 2009 benefit year (weighted N=8,431 products; 89% response rate). Results Annual limits specific to behavioral health care were virtually eliminated between 2009 and 2010. Prevalence of behavioral health coverage was unchanged, and copayments for both behavioral and general medical services increased slightly. Prior authorization requirements for specialty medical and behavioral health outpatient services continued to decline, and the proportion of products reporting strict continuing review requirements increased slightly. Contrary to expectations, plans did not make significant changes in contracting arrangements for behavioral health services, and 80% reported an increase in size of their behavioral health provider network. Conclusions The law had the intended effect of eliminating quantitative limitations that applied only to behavioral health care without unintended consequences such as eliminating behavioral health coverage. Plan decisions may also reflect other factors, including anticipation of the 2010 regulations and a continuation of trends away from requiring prior authorization. PMID:26369886

  1. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems on nurses' competence: An integrative literature review and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jørghild Karlotte; Skår, Randi; Tveit, Bodil

    2018-04-01

    To describe, interpret and synthesise the current research findings on the impact of the Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems on nurses' competence in identifying and managing deteriorating patients in general hospital wards. As patient safety initiatives designed to ensure the early identification and management of deteriorating patients, the Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems have broad appeal. However, it is still unclear how these systems impact nurses' competence when these systems are used in general hospital wards. CINAHL, PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE and Ovid MEDLINE databases were systematically searched for relevant articles. Articles were appraised, a thematic analysis was conducted, and similar and divergent perspectives on emergent themes and subthemes were extracted by a team of researchers. Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. The analysis of findings showed how the Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems impacted three competence areas: (i) Nurses' competence in assessing and caring for patients related to the subthemes: (a) sensing clinical deterioration and (b) the development of skills and knowledge. (ii). Nurses' competence in referring patients, related to the subthemes: (a) deciding whether to summon help and (b) the language and communication lines in the referral process. (ii) Nurses' coping and mastery experiences. The impact of the Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems on nurses' competence in identifying and managing deteriorating patients is beneficial but also somewhat contradictory. A greater understanding of nurses' development of competence when using the Early Warning Score and Rapid Response Systems will facilitate the design of implementation strategies and the use of these systems to improve practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Early versus later response to treatment in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: analysis of the REACH study.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Francesco; Ostermann, Helmut; Racketa, Jill; Medina, Jesús; McBride, Kyle; Garau, Javier

    2014-01-22

    Key goals in the treatment of CAP include early response to treatment and achievement of clinical stability. The US FDA recommends early response endpoints (72 hours after initiation of treatment) in clinical trials for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. REACH (REtrospective Study to Assess the Clinical Management of Patients With Moderate-to-Severe Complicated Skin and Soft Tissue Infections [cSSTI] or CAP in the Hospital Setting) was a retrospective observational study, providing current data on the clinical management and resource burden of CAP in real-life settings in European hospitals. This analysis reviews the characteristics and outcomes of patients showing early positive response to treatment (time to clinical stability [TCS] ≤4 days, as assessed by Halm's criteria) compared with patients with later positive response (TCS >4 days). Patients were adults, hospitalized with CAP (2010-2011) and requiring in-hospital treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Of the 2039 patients included in REACH, 585 (28.7%) had TCS assessed by Halm's criteria: 332 (56.8%) showed early response (median 3.0 days), and 253 (43.2%) showed later response to treatment (median 7.0 days). Use of Halm's criteria varied across participating countries, ranging from 0% (Belgium) to 49.1% (UK). Patient characteristics and relevant medical history were similar between the two groups. There were no notable differences in initial antibiotic therapy between groups, except that more early responders had been treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate and amoxicillin monotherapy (22.6%; 7.5%, respectively) than later responders (5.9%; 1.2%, respectively). Initial treatment modification and re-infection or recurrences were less frequent in early responders compared with later responders (14.2% and 3.3% vs. 34.8% and 5.9%, respectively). Early responders had a shorter duration of hospitalization (mean 9.4 ± SD 7.0; median 8.0 days vs. mean 15.6 ± SD 10.5; median 12

  4. Light-chain cardiac amyloidosis: strategies to promote early diagnosis and cardiac response

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Martha; Dispenzieri, Angela; Gertz, Morie A

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterised by the aggregation of misfolded immunoglobulin light chain (LC), predominantly in the heart and kidneys, causing organ failure. If untreated, the median survival of patients with cardiac AL amyloidosis is 6 months from the onset of heart failure. Protracted time to establish a diagnosis, often lasting >1 year, is a frequent factor in poor treatment outcomes. Cardiologists, to whom patients are often referred, frequently miss the opportunity to diagnose cardiac AL amyloidosis. Nearly all typical cardiac support measures, with the exception of diuretics, are ineffective and may even worsen clinical symptoms, emphasising the need for accurate diagnosis. Patients with severe cardiac involvement face poor outcomes; heart transplantation is rarely an option because of multiorgan involvement, rapid clinical decline and challenges in predicting which patients will respond to treatment of the underlying plasma cell disorder. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with ‘source therapies’ that limit the production of amyloidogenic LC are associated with better survival and improvement in organ function after a median of 2.4 months following haematological complete response. However, organ recovery is often incomplete because these source therapies do not directly target deposited amyloid. Emerging amyloid-directed therapies may attenuate, and potentially reverse, organ dysfunction by clearing existing amyloid and inhibiting fibril formation of circulating aggregates. Improved recognition of AL amyloidosis by cardiologists allows for earlier treatment and improved outcomes. PMID:28456755

  5. The effects of early experience on subsequent feeding responses in the Tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Squamata : Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Punzo, F

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of early feeding experiences on subsequent responses to prey in the tegu, Tupinambis teguixin. Five-day old lizards were exposed to the odors of various prey and control substances on cotton-tipped applicators with the tongue-flick attack score (TFAS) chosen as the dependent variable. Each lizard was exposed to four stimuli: two controls (deionised water and cologne), and extracts from a mouse Mus musculus, and a lizard Ameiva ameiva, in a repeated measures, randomized block design, receiving one stimulus training session / day over a 40-day period. Tongue-flicks directed toward the applicator were counted over a 1 min period as well as the amount of time that elapsed from the first tongue flick to any bite that may have occurred. Live neonatal mice (but not A. ameiva), offered on a weekly basis, were used as a food source for tegus over a 10-month period. After 10 months, tegus were exposed to applicators containing control odors as well as those containing extracts from mice and lizards (A. ameiva). Mouse extracts elicited significantly higher TFAS as compared to those elicited by A. ameiva or control odors, suggesting that prey odors encountered in the environment shortly after hatching can influence prey preferences by these lizards later in life. These results also indicate that tegu lizards can learn to use specific odor cues associated with naturally occurring prey as releasers for subsequent hunting behaviors.

  6. Monitoring early tumor response to drug therapy with diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Vlachos, Fotios; Kim, Hyun Keol; Sirsi, Shashank R.; Huang, Jianzhong; Hernandez, Sonia L.; Johung, Tessa B.; Gander, Jeffrey W.; Reichstein, Ari R.; Lampl, Brooke S.; Wang, Antai; Borden, Mark A.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Kandel, Jessica J.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    Although anti-angiogenic agents have shown promise as cancer therapeutics, their efficacy varies between tumor types and individual patients. Providing patient-specific metrics through rapid noninvasive imaging can help tailor drug treatment by optimizing dosages, timing of drug cycles, and duration of therapy--thereby reducing toxicity and cost and improving patient outcome. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive three-dimensional imaging modality that has been shown to capture physiologic changes in tumors through visualization of oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin concentrations, using non-ionizing radiation with near-infrared light. We employed a small animal model to ascertain if tumor response to bevacizumab (BV), an anti-angiogenic agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), could be detected at early time points using DOT. We detected a significant decrease in total hemoglobin levels as soon as one day after BV treatment in responder xenograft tumors (SK-NEP-1), but not in SK-NEP-1 control tumors or in non-responder control or BV-treated NGP tumors. These results are confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxometry and lectin perfusion studies. Noninvasive DOT imaging may allow for earlier and more effective control of anti-angiogenic therapy.

  7. The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to social stress.

    PubMed

    Sundag, Johanna; Ascone, Leonie; Lincoln, Tania M

    2018-01-01

    Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD). Patients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed. Patients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia. EMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Recruitment of DNA polymerase eta by FANCD2 in the early response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dechen; Dudimah, Fred Duafalia; Zhang, Jun; Pickering, Anna; Paneerselvam, Jayabal; Palrasu, Manikandan; Wang, Hong; Fei, Peiwen

    2013-03-01

    How Fanconi anemia (FA) protein D2 (FANCD2) performs DNA damage repair remains largely elusive. We report here that translesion synthesis DNA polymerase (pol) eta is a novel mediator of FANCD2 function. We found that wild type (wt) FANCD2, not K561R (mt) FANCD2, can interact with pol eta. Upon DNA damage, the interaction of pol eta with FANCD2 occurs earlier than that with PCNA, which is in concert with our finding that FANCD2 monoubiquitination peaks at an earlier time point than that of PCNA monoubiquitination. FANCD2-null FA patient cells (PD20) carrying histone H2B-fused pol eta and wtFANCD2, respectively, show a similar tendency of low Mitomycin C (MMC) sensitivity, while cells transfected with empty vector control or pol eta alone demonstrate a similar high level of MMC sensitivity. It therefore appears that FANCD2 monoubiquitination plays a similar anchor role as histone to bind DNA in regulating pol eta. Collectively, our study indicates that, in the early phase of DNA damage response, FANCD2 plays crucial roles in recruiting pol eta to the sites of DNA damage for repair.

  9. Recruitment of DNA polymerase eta by FANCD2 in the early response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dechen; Dudimah, Fred Duafalia; Zhang, Jun; Pickering, Anna; Paneerselvam, Jayabal; Palrasu, Manikandan; Wang, Hong; Fei, Peiwen

    2013-01-01

    How Fanconi anemia (FA) protein D2 (FANCD2) performs DNA damage repair remains largely elusive. We report here that translesion synthesis DNA polymerase (pol) eta is a novel mediator of FANCD2 function. We found that wild type (wt) FANCD2, not K561R (mt) FANCD2, can interact with pol eta. Upon DNA damage, the interaction of pol eta with FANCD2 occurs earlier than that with PCNA, which is in concert with our finding that FANCD2 monoubiquitination peaks at an earlier time point than that of PCNA monoubiquitination. FANCD2-null FA patient cells (PD20) carrying histone H2B-fused pol eta and wtFANCD2, respectively, show a similar tendency of low Mitomycin C (MMC) sensitivity, while cells transfected with empty vector control or pol eta alone demonstrate a similar high level of MMC sensitivity. It therefore appears that FANCD2 monoubiquitination plays a similar anchor role as histone to bind DNA in regulating pol eta. Collectively, our study indicates that, in the early phase of DNA damage response, FANCD2 plays crucial roles in recruiting pol eta to the sites of DNA damage for repair. PMID:23388460

  10. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  11. Children's parasympathetic reactivity to specific emotions moderates response to intervention for early-onset aggression.

    PubMed

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Greenberg, Mark; Bierman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Following theories that individual differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) denote differential sensitivity to environmental influences, this study examines whether differences in RSA reactivity to specific emotional challenges predict differential response to intervention. We present data from a randomized clinical trial of a targeted intervention for early onset aggression. In collaboration with a high-risk urban school district, 207 kindergarten children (73% African American, 66% male), identified by their teachers as having high levels of aggressive and disruptive behavior, were recruited. All children received a universal social-emotional curriculum. One hundred children were randomly assigned to an additional intervention consisting of weekly peer-based social skills training. Complete RSA data were available for 139 of the children. Teacher-reported externalizing symptoms and emotion regulation in 1st grade (post intervention) were examined controlling for baseline levels. First-grade peer nominations of aggressive behavior, controlling for baseline nominations, were also examined as outcomes. No effect of resting RSA was found. However, greater reactivity to anger was associated with higher externalizing symptoms and lower emotion regulation skills in 1st grade relative to low reactive children. Lower reactivity to fear was associated with greater improvement over time, an effect that was enhanced in the targeted intervention condition. Results suggest that measures of affective reactivity may provide insight into children's capacity to benefit from different types of interventions.

  12. Early growth response 2 and Egr3 are unique regulators in immune system.

    PubMed

    Taefehshokr, Sina; Key, Yashar Azari; Khakpour, Mansour; Dadebighlu, Pourya; Oveisi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is evolved to defend the body against pathogens and is composed of thousands of complicated and intertwined pathways, which are highly controlled by processes such as transcription and repression of cellular genes. Sometimes the immune system malfunctions and a break down in self-tolerance occurs. This lead to the inability to distinguish between self and non-self and cause attacks on host tissues, a condition also known as autoimmunity, which can result in chronic debilitating diseases. Early growth response genes are family of transcription factors comprising of four members, Egr1, Egr2, Egr3 and Egr4. All of which contain three cyc2-His2 zinc fingers. Initially, Egr2 function was identified in the regulation of peripheral nerve myelination, hindbrain segmentation. Egr3, on the other hand, is highly expressed in muscle spindle development. Egr2 and Egr3 are induced due to the antigen stimulation and this signaling is implemented through the B and T cell receptors in the adaptive immunity. T cell receptor signaling plays a key role in Egr 2 and 3 expressions via their interaction with NFAT molecules. Egr 2 and 3 play a crucial role in regulation of the immune system and their involvement in B and T cell activation, anergy induction and preventing the autoimmune disease has been investigated. The deficiency of these transcription factors has been associated to deficient Cbl-b expression, a resistant to anergy phenotype, and expression of effector and activated T cells.

  13. pH modulates the binding of early growth response protein 1 transcription factor to DNA.

    PubMed

    Mikles, David C; Bhat, Vikas; Schuchardt, Brett J; Deegan, Brian J; Seldeen, Kenneth L; McDonald, Caleb B; Farooq, Amjad

    2013-08-01

    The transcription factor early growth response protein (EGR)1 orchestrates a plethora of signaling cascades involved in cellular homeostasis, and its downregulation has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Herein, using a battery of biophysical tools, we show that the binding of EGR1 to DNA is tightly regulated by solution pH. Importantly, the binding affinity undergoes an enhancement of more than an order of magnitude with an increase in pH from 5 to 8, implying that the deprotonation of an ionizable residue accounts for such behavior. This ionizable residue is identified as His382 by virtue of the fact that its replacement by nonionizable residues abolishes the pH dependence of the binding of EGR1 to DNA. Notably, His382 inserts into the major groove of DNA, and stabilizes the EGR1-DNA interaction via both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals contacts. Remarkably, His382 is mainly conserved across other members of the EGR family, implying that histidine protonation-deprotonation may serve as a molecular switch for modulating the protein-DNA interactions that are central to this family of transcription factors. Collectively, our findings reveal an unexpected but a key step in the molecular recognition of the EGR family of transcription factors, and suggest that they may act as sensors of pH within the intracellular environment. © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Overexpression of early growth response-1 as a metastasis-regulatory factor in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamada, Mikako; Kamagata, Chinatsu; Kaneko, Reiko; Tsuji, Naoki; Nakamura, Masashi; Yagihashi, Atsuhito; Watanabe, Naoki

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the potential role of a nuclear transcription factor, early growth response-1 (Egr-1), in formation and progression of gastric cancer, we compared its expression in gastric cancers with that in non-cancerous tissues. Egr-1 mRNA expression was measured using TaqMan RT-PCR. The corresponding protein expression was examined immunohistochemically. Egr-1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues than in normal mucosa (p < 0.0005). These differences were also reflected by protein product expression. Moreover, Egr-1 mRNA expression was higher in cases with metastasis to lymph nodes or remote organs. In cultured gastric cancer cells known to have a high metastatic potential, expression of this mRNA was higher than that of parental cells. It was suggested that Egr-1 has a significant role in carcinogenesis and in cancer progression, especially metastasis. Measurement of this mRNA should be useful for evaluation of the metastatic potential of gastric cancer.

  15. Distress Responses in a Routine Vaccination Context: Relationships to Early Childhood Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Racine, Nicole M.; Gennis, Hannah G.; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2018-01-01

    Social and emotional competencies, such as distress regulation, are established in early childhood and are critical for the development of children’s mental health and wellbeing. Routine vaccinations in primary care provide a unique opportunity to relate responses to a universal, relatively standardized, distress regulation paradigm (i.e., pain-related distress) to key developmental outcomes. The current study sought to examine distress regulation during routine vaccination in infancy and preschool as predictors of outcomes related to socioemotional competence in preschool. It was hypothesized that children with poorer distress regulation abilities post-vaccination would have lower socioemotional development. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that insensitive parenting would exacerbate this relationship for children with poor distress regulation abilities. As part of an ongoing longitudinal cohort, 172 parent–child dyads were videotaped during vaccinations in infancy and preschool, and subsequently participated in a full-day psychological assessment in a university lab. Videotapes were coded for child pre-needle distress (baseline distress), immediate post-needle pain-related distress reactivity (immediate distress reactivity), and pain-related distress regulation (distress regulation). Parent sensitivity during the preschool vaccination was also coded. Baseline distress prior to vaccination predicted greater externalizing problems and behavioral symptoms. Parent sensitivity did not moderate the association between any child distress behaviors and socioemotional development indicators. Child distress behaviors prior to injection, regardless of parent behavior, during the vaccination context may provide valuable information to health care professionals about child socioemotional functioning in the behavioral and emotional domains. PMID:29466307

  16. Gene expression profiles characterize early graft response in living donor small bowel transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S P; Pahari, M; Uknis, M E; Rastellini, C; Cicalese, L

    2006-01-01

    The cellular and histological events that occur during the regeneration process in invertebrates have been studied in the field of visceral regeneration. We would like to explore the molecular aspects of the regeneration process in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to characterize the gene expression profiles of the intestinal graft to identify which genes may have a role in regeneration of graft tissue posttransplant. In a patient undergoing living related small bowel transplantation (LRSBTx) in our institution, mucosal biopsies were obtained from the recipient intestine and donor graft at the time of transplant and at weeks 1, 2, 3, and 6 posttransplant. Total RNA was isolated from sample biopsies followed by gene expression profiles determined from the replicate samples (n = 3) for each biopsy using the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Human GeneChip set. Two profiles were obtained from the data. One profile showed rapid increase of 45 genes immediately after transplant by week 1 with significant changes (P < .05) greater than threefold including the chemokine CXC9 and glutathione-related stress factors, GPX2 and GSTA4. The second profile identified 133 genes that were significantly decreased by threefold or greater immediately after transplant week 1, including UCC1, the human homolog of the Ependymin gene. We have identified two gene expression profiles representing early graft responses to small bowel transplantation. These profiles will serve to identify and study those genes whose products may play a role in accelerating tissue regeneration following segmental LRSBTx.

  17. HTLV-1 Tax upregulates early growth response protein 1 through nuclear factor-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jingxian; Liu, Xihong; Lv, Zhuangwei; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Lixiang; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Shuming; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xinxiang

    2017-01-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation. Tax mutants unable to activate NF-κB induced only slight EGR1 upregulation as compared with wild-type Tax, confirming NF-κB pathway involvement in EGR1 regulation. Tax also directly interacted with the EGR1 protein and increased endogenous EGR1 stability. Elevated EGR1 in turn promoted p65 nuclear translocation and increased NF-κB activation. These results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between EGR1 expression and NF-κB activation in HTLV-1-infected and Tax-expressing cells. Both NF-κB activation and Tax-induced EGR1 stability upregulated EGR1, which in turn enhanced constitutive NF-κB activation and facilitated ATL progression in HTLV-1-infected cells. These findings suggest EGR1 may be an effective anti-ATL therapeutic target. PMID:28881635

  18. HTLV-1 Tax upregulates early growth response protein 1 through nuclear factor-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingsong; Niu, Zhiguo; Han, Jingxian; Liu, Xihong; Lv, Zhuangwei; Li, Huanhuan; Yuan, Lixiang; Li, Xiangping; Sun, Shuming; Wang, Hui; Huang, Xinxiang

    2017-08-01

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) in susceptible individuals. The HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax induces persistent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is overexpressed in HTLV-1-infected T cell lines and ATL cells. Here, we showed that both Tax expression and HTLV-1 infection promoted EGR1 overexpression. Loss of the NF-κB binding site in the EGR1 promotor or inhibition of NF-κB activation reduced Tax-induced EGR1 upregulation. Tax mutants unable to activate NF-κB induced only slight EGR1 upregulation as compared with wild-type Tax, confirming NF-κB pathway involvement in EGR1 regulation. Tax also directly interacted with the EGR1 protein and increased endogenous EGR1 stability. Elevated EGR1 in turn promoted p65 nuclear translocation and increased NF-κB activation. These results demonstrate a positive feedback loop between EGR1 expression and NF-κB activation in HTLV-1-infected and Tax-expressing cells. Both NF-κB activation and Tax-induced EGR1 stability upregulated EGR1, which in turn enhanced constitutive NF-κB activation and facilitated ATL progression in HTLV-1-infected cells. These findings suggest EGR1 may be an effective anti-ATL therapeutic target.

  19. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  20. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  1. Canine corneal epithelial cells possess a sustained proliferative capacity and generate a spontaneously derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Morita, Maresuke; Fujita, Naoki; Abe, Momoko; Hayashimoto, Koji; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Nishimura, Ryohei; Tsuzuki, Keiko

    2018-06-01

    We have previously reported characteristics of canine corneal epithelial cells in vitro and found that canine corneal epithelial cells could maintain their proliferative capacity even after continuous culture without the use of feeder cells and growth promoting additives. The objective of this study was to elucidate proliferative characteristics of canine corneal epithelial cells independent of feeder cells and growth promoting additives, with the aim of developing a spontaneously derived corneal epithelial cell line. Canine and rabbit corneal epithelial cells were harvested from the limbus and cultured with, or without, feeder cells and growth promoting additives, and both were passaged continuously until growth arrest. Canine corneal epithelial cells could proliferate independently, and could be passaged more times than rabbit cells. A canine corneal epithelial cell line, cCEpi, which could be passaged more than 100 times without using feeder cells and growth promoting additives, was established. cCEpi cells maintained a cell morphology close to the primary culture and expressed p63, cytokeratin 15 (K15), and K3. Although changes in colony morphology, shortening of the population doubling time and a heteroploid karyotype were observed, cCEpi was not tumorigenic. Stratified cell sheets cultured from cCEpi were morphologically and immunohistologically similar to sheets cultivated from early passage cells. In conclusion, canine corneal epithelial cells can proliferate independent of feeder cells and growth promoting additives. cCEpi maintains properties similar to normal corneal epithelial cells and could be a useful source for studies in cellular biology and for developing novel therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proliferative glomerulonephritis with acute renal failure-a rare manifestation in seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Dutta, P K; Khan, I H

    2009-01-01

    A 55 years old lady with advanced rheumatoid arthritis (RA) presented with severe acute renal failure with significant proteinuria preceded by fever for 14 days. She had no history of taking drugs usually responsible for glomerulonephritis, neither had she any clinico-biochemical evidence of peri-infectious glomerulonephritis. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) was excluded by absence of eosinophilia and eosinophils in urine. Renal biopsy reveled absence of amyloidosis and showed Focal segmental proliferative glomerulonephritis (FSGN). Patient was successfully managed with methyl-prednisolone followed by steroid and immunosuppressive and patient came over renal failure. So FSGN should be considered as one of the causes of acute renal failure in a patient with seronegative RA which may respond to immune-therapy like rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

  3. Surgical management of fibrotic encapsulation of the fluocinolone acetonide implant in CAPN5-associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tlucek, Paul S; Folk, James C; Sobol, Warren M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review fibrosis of fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implants in subjects with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). Methods A retrospective case series was assembled from ADNIV patients in which there was fibrotic encapsulation of a fluocinolone acetonide implant. CAPN5 genotypes and surgical repair techniques were reviewed. Results Two eyes of two ADNIV patients developed a fibrotic capsule over the fluocinolone acetonide implant. Both patients had Stage IV disease. Patient A had a c.731T > C mutation in the CAPN5 gene and patient B had a c.728G > T mutation. The fibrotic membrane was surgically excised and the implant function was restored. Conclusion The exuberant fibrotic response in later stages of ADNIV may be resistant to local immunosuppression with steroids. Surgical excision of fibrotic membranes over FA implants can reestablish local steroid delivery in cases of severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy. PMID:23785231

  4. Surgical management of fibrotic encapsulation of the fluocinolone acetonide implant in CAPN5-associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tlucek, Paul S; Folk, James C; Sobol, Warren M; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2013-01-01

    To review fibrosis of fluocinolone acetonide (FA) implants in subjects with CAPN5 autosomal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV). A retrospective case series was assembled from ADNIV patients in which there was fibrotic encapsulation of a fluocinolone acetonide implant. CAPN5 genotypes and surgical repair techniques were reviewed. Two eyes of two ADNIV patients developed a fibrotic capsule over the fluocinolone acetonide implant. Both patients had Stage IV disease. Patient A had a c.731T > C mutation in the CAPN5 gene and patient B had a c.728G > T mutation. The fibrotic membrane was surgically excised and the implant function was restored. The exuberant fibrotic response in later stages of ADNIV may be resistant to local immunosuppression with steroids. Surgical excision of fibrotic membranes over FA implants can reestablish local steroid delivery in cases of severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

  5. Retinol induces morphological alterations and proliferative focus formation through free radical-mediated activation of multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Daniel Pens; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Caregnato, Fernanda Freitas; Castro, Mauro Antonio Alves; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Toxicity of retinol (vitamin A) has been previously associated with apoptosis and/or cell malignant transformation. Thus, we investigated the pathways involved in the induction of proliferation, deformation and proliferative focus formation by retinol in cultured Sertoli cells of rats. Sertoli cells were isolated from immature rats and cultured. The cells were subjected to a 24-h treatment with different concentrations of retinol. Parameters of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were analyzed. The effects of the p38 inhibitor SB203580 (10 μmol/L), the JNK inhibitor SP600125 (10 μmol/L), the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10 μmol/L), the ERK inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (10 μmol/L) and the PKA inhibitor H89 (1 μmol/L) on morphological and proliferative/transformation-associated modifications were studied. Retinol (7 and 14 μmol/L) significantly increases the reactive species production in Sertoli cells. Inhibition of p38, JNK, ERK1/2, Akt, and PKA suppressed retinol-induced [(3)H]dT incorporation into the cells, while PKC inhibition had no effect. ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition also blocked retinol-induced proliferative focus formation in the cells, while Akt and JNK inhibition partially decreased focus formation. ERK1/2 and p38 inhibition hindered transformation-associated deformation in retinol-treated cells, while other treatments had no effect. Our results suggest that activation of multiple kinases is responsible for morphological and proliferative changes associated to malignancy development in Sertoli cells by retinol at the concentrations higher than physiological level.

  6. Perfusion MDCT enables early detection of therapeutic response to antiangiogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Adeel; Schor-Bardach, Rachel; Wilcox, Carol J; Rahmanuddin, Syed; Atkins, Michael B; Kruskal, Jonathan B; Signoretti, Sabina; Raptopoulos, Vassilios D; Goldberg, S Nahum

    2008-07-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether perfusion CT can be used to detect early changes in therapeutic response to antiangiogenic therapy in an animal tumor model. Twenty-five rats implanted with R3230 mammary adenocarcinoma (diameter, 1.2-2.0 cm) randomly received 7.5 or 30 mg/kg of an antiangiogenic agent, sorafenib, by daily gavage for 4 (n = 4), 9 (n = 9), or 14 (n = 5) days. Seven untreated animals served as a control group. Perfusion MDCT was performed at days 0, 4, 9, and 14 with 0.4 mL of ioversol (350 mg/mL) and included four 5-mm slices covering the entire tumor volume. Changes in tumor growth were determined by volumetric analysis of CT data. Serial changes in tumor volume and blood flow were assessed and correlated with pathology findings. All control tumors grew larger (from 2.0 +/- 0.7 cm(3) at day 0 to 5.9 +/- 1.0 cm(3) at day 14), whereas all treated tumors shrank (from 2.5 +/- 1.1 to 2.1 +/- 1.0 cm(3)), with a statistically significant rate of growth or shrinkage in both groups (p < 0.05). Although perfusion in the control tumors changed little from day 0 to day 14 (day 0, 18.1 +/- 9.2 mL/min/100 g; day 4, 15.8 +/- 5.6; day 9, 21.7 +/- 12.2; day 14, 27.7 +/- 34), in the sorafenib group, the mean blood flow was significantly lower at day 4 (5.2 +/- 3.2 mL/min/100 g, 77% decrease), day 9 (6.4 +/- 4.0 mL/min/100 g, 66% decrease), and day 14 (6.3 +/- 5.2 mL/min/100 g, 83% decrease) compared with day 0 (23.8 +/- 11.6 mL/min/100 g) (p < 0.05). Poor correlation was seen between changes in blood flow and tumor volume for days 0-9 (r(2) = 0.34), 4-9 (r(2) = 0.0004), and 9-14 (r(2) = 0.16). However, when comparing day 4 images with days 9 and 14 images, seven of 14 (50%) sorafenib-treated tumors had focal areas of new perfusion that correlated with areas of histopathologic viability despite the fact that these tumors were shrinking in size from day 4 onward (day 4, 2.18 +/- 0.8 cm(3); day 9, 1.98 +/- 0.8 cm(3)). Perfusion MDCT can detect focal

  7. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator for serum response factor-dependent induction of immediate early genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunha; Tyagi, Richa; Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Young-ran; Beon, Jiyoon; Chen, Po Yu; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Kim, Seyun

    2013-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a notably pleiotropic protein. It displays both inositol phosphate kinase and phosphatidylinositol kinase catalytic activities. Noncatalytically, IPMK stabilizes the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and acts as a transcriptional coactivator for CREB-binding protein/E1A binding protein p300 and tumor suppressor protein p53. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor for a wide range of immediate early genes. We report that IPMK, in a noncatalytic role, is a transcriptional coactivator for SRF mediating the transcription of immediate early genes. Stimulation by serum of many immediate early genes is greatly reduced by IPMK deletion. IPMK stimulates expression of these genes, an influence also displayed by catalytically inactive IPMK. IPMK acts by binding directly to SRF and thereby enhancing interactions of SRF with the serum response element of diverse genes. PMID:24248338

  8. Letrozole: a review of its use in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2009-08-20

    Letrozole (Femara) is a third-generation, nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. Adjuvant therapy with letrozole is more effective than tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer, and extended adjuvant therapy with letrozole after the completion of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy is more effective than placebo in this patient population; letrozole is generally well tolerated. Ongoing trials will help answer outstanding questions regarding the optimal duration of letrozole therapy in early breast cancer and its efficacy compared with other third-generation aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole. In the meantime, letrozole should be considered a valuable option in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer, both as adjuvant and extended adjuvant therapy.

  9. Prenatal and Early Postnatal Odorant Exposure Heightens Odor-Evoked Mitral Cell Responses in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Early sensory experience shapes the anatomy and function of sensory circuits. In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), prenatal and early postnatal odorant exposure through odorized food (food/odorant pairing) not only increases the volume of activated glomeruli but also increases the number of mitral and tufted cells (M/TCs) connected to activated glomeruli. Given the importance of M/TCs in OB output and in mediating lateral inhibitory networks, increasing the number of M/TCs connected to a single glomerulus may significantly change odorant representation by increasing the total output of that glomerulus and/or by increasing the strength of lateral inhibition mediated by cells connected to the affected glomerulus. Here, we seek to understand the functional impact of this long-term odorant exposure paradigm on the population activity of mitral cells (MCs). We use viral expression of GCaMP6s to examine odor-evoked responses of MCs following prenatal and early postnatal odorant exposure to two dissimilar odorants, methyl salicylate (MS) and hexanal, which are both strong activators of glomeruli on the dorsal OB surface. Previous work suggests that odor familiarity may decrease odor-evoked MC response in rodents. However, we find that early food-based odorant exposure significantly changes MC responses in an unexpected way, resulting in broad increases in the amplitude, number, and reliability of excitatory MC responses across the dorsal OB. PMID:28955723

  10. Correction to: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Modulate Early Astrocyte Response after Spinal Cord Contusion.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Fabrício; Marques, Marília Rossato; Odorcyk, Felipe; Petenuzzo, Letícia; Aristimunha, Dirceu; Vizuete, Adriana; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Pereira, Daniela Pavulack; Maurmann, Natasha; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Pranke, Patricia; Netto, Carlos Alexandre

    2018-06-16

    The authors hereby declare that the Figure 4 in page eight of the paper "Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth modulate early astrocyte response after spinal cord contusion" authored by Fabrício Nicola and colleagues (DOI: 10.1007/s12035-018-1127-4) was mistakenly included.

  11. Pathways to Conscience: Early Mother-Child Mutually Responsive Orientation and Children's Moral Emotion, Conduct, and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Forman, David R.; Aksan, Nazan; Dunbar, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Associations between early mother-child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) and children's conscience have been previously established, but the mechanisms accounting for those links are not understood. We examined three such mediational mechanisms: (a) the child's enhanced enjoyment of interactions with the mother, (b) increased…

  12. The Importance of Predictive Power in Early Screening Assessments: Implications for Placement in the Response to Intervention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Kim, Young-Suk; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2011-01-01

    As schools implement response to intervention to identify and serve students with learning difficulties, it is critical for educators to know how to evaluate screening measures. In the present study, "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills" Oral Reading Fluency was used to compare the differential decisions that might occur in…

  13. Changes in Early Adolescents' Sense of Responsibility to Their Parents in the United States and China: Implications for Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Chen, Huichang

    2011-01-01

    This research examined American and Chinese children's sense of responsibility to their parents during early adolescence, with a focus on its implications for children's academic functioning. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 children (mean age = 12.73 years) in the United States and China reported on their sense of responsibility…

  14. Building Respectful Relationships Early: Educating Children on Gender Variance and Sexual Diversity. A Response to Damien Riggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kerry H.

    2013-01-01

    This article, which is a response to Damien Riggs' article, "Heteronormativity in Online Information about Sex: A South Australian Case Study", focuses on three main areas relevant to children's early education in this area. Firstly, it is important to increase parents', educators', and children's awareness of gender variance or gender…

  15. Early Response-to-Intervention Measures and Criteria as Predictors of Reading Disability in 3rd Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Kristen Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Reading is the most valuable skill children must master early in schooling. Unfortunately, many students struggle to read and may be identified as having a Reading Disability (RD). In this dissertation, I explored the usefulness of the Response-to-Intervention (RtI) framework for identifying children with RD by examining the use of 1st and 2nd…

  16. The Use of Literacy Materials in Early Childhood English Language and Literacy Programmes in Singapore: Local Responses to Global Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Alice

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores local responses by Singapore pre-school teachers to the global trend towards English as the medium of instruction at the early childhood level of education. The paper reports research into how teachers have responded to the national literacy agenda, as outlined in the Curriculum Framework for Kindergartens in Singapore, using…

  17. Early Adolescents' Responses upon Witnessing Peer Victimization: A Cross-Culture Comparison between Students in Taiwan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Ting-Lan; Bellmore, Amy

    2016-01-01

    To examine cross-cultural differences in behavior upon witnessing peer victimization and the reasons behind the behavior, this study evaluated the responses of early adolescents from both the United States and Taiwan. Two questions were addressed: (1) Do adolescents in Taiwan and in the United States differ in their willingness to help peer…

  18. Early Social Deprivation and the Social Buffering of Cortisol Stress Responses in Late Childhood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of early social deprivation in shaping the effectiveness of parent support to alleviate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis-stress responses of children (ages 8.9-11, M = 9.83 years, SD = 0.55). The sample was equally divided between children who had been adopted internationally from…

  19. Early Sensory Over-Responsivity in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders as a Predictor of Family Impairment and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, A.; Soto, T. W.; Martinez-Pedraza, F.; Carter, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) affects many individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), often leading to stressful encounters during daily routines. Methods: This study describes the associations between early SOR symptoms and the longitudinal course of restrictions in family life activities and parenting stress across three…

  20. Indirubin and Indirubin Derivatives for Counteracting Proliferative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Blažević, Tina; Heiss, Elke H.; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Breuss, Johannes M.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Uhrin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Indirubin is the active component of Danggui Longhui Wan, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation. The encouraging clinical results from the 1980s obtained in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients treated with indirubin stimulated numerous studies on this compound. These investigations explored the use of indirubin in different types of cancer and reported the synthesis of novel derivatives with improved chemical and pharmacokinetic properties. In this paper, we review the impressive progress that has been made in elucidating the mechanistic understanding of how indirubin and its derivatives affect physiological and pathophysiological processes, mainly by inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of cell death. Furthermore, we survey the therapeutic use of these compounds in combating proliferative diseases such as cancer, restenosis, and psoriasis. PMID:26457112

  1. Cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with proliferative diabetes retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kei; Ogawa, Manabu; Mochizuki, Manabu; Takeuchi, Masaru

    2013-06-01

    To report a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in an immunocompetent patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Case report. A 69-year-old man presented with a 44-year history of diabetes mellitus and 4 years of PDR. Fundus of left eye could not be visualized because of vitreous hemorrhage. Laboratory tests indicated normal immunological status. Yellowish white retinal exudative lesion and whitening inside vascular arcades were observed during vitrectomy. Multiplex PCR using vitreous sample detected CMV DNA at 4.37 × 10(4) copies/mL. CMV retinitis was diagnosed. If atypical findings of PDR are observed, a multiplex PCR test should be performed for further investigation.

  2. Anti-Myeloperoxidase Antibodies Associate with Future Proliferative Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. J.; Poirier, M.; Little, D. J.; Prince, L. K.; Baker, T. P.; Edison, J. D.; Abbott, K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The subclinical pathophysiology of proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN) has not been fully elucidated. Myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) is associated with PLN, but prediagnostic levels have not been reported. Methods We performed a retrospective case-control Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) study comparing MPO-ANCA levels in longitudinal prediagnostic serum samples for 23 biopsy confirmed proliferative lupus nephritis (PLN) patients to DoDSR identified age, sex, race, and age of serum matched healthy and SLE without LN disease controls. We also compared the temporal relationship of MPO-ANCA to anti-double stranded DNA antibodies (dsDNAab). Results A greater proportion of PLN patients had prediagnostic MPO-ANCA levels above ≥3 U/mL and ≥6 U/mL compared to SLE without LN (91% versus 43%, p < 0.001; 57% versus 5%, p < 0.001, resp.). In subgroup analysis, the MPO-ANCA threshold of ≥3 U/mL was significant at <1 year (88% versus 39%, p = 0.007) and 1–4 years (87% versus 38%, p = 0.009) prior to diagnosis. Statistically significant subclinical MPO-ANCA levels (≥3 U/mL) occurred prior to statistically significant dsDNAab ≥ 3 IU/ml (89% versus 11%, p = 0.003). Conclusions Subclinical MPO-ANCA levels could distinguish future PLN from SLE without LN. MPO-ANCA manifests prior to clinical disease and subclinical dsDNAab to suggest that it may contribute directly to PLN pathogenicity. PMID:29435367

  3. Identification and expression analysis of leptin-regulated immediate early response and late target genes.

    PubMed

    Waelput, W; Verhee, A; Broekaert, D; Eyckerman, S; Vandekerckhove, J; Beattie, J H; Tavernier, J

    2000-05-15

    Using PC12 cells as an in vitro model system, we have identified a series of transcripts induced through activation of the leptin receptor. On the basis of kinetic studies, two distinct gene sets could be discerned: signal transducer and activator of transciption-3 (STAT-3), suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS-3), MT-II (metallothionein-II), the serine/threonine kinase fibroblast-growth-factor-inducible kinase (Fnk) and modulator recognition factor (MRF-1), which are immediate early response genes, and pancreatitis-associated protein I (PAP I), squalene epoxidase, uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase and annexin VIII, which are late induced target genes. At late time points a strong co-stimulation with beta-nerve growth factor or with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin was observed. To assess the validity of the PC12-cell model system, we examined the effect of leptin administration on the gene transcription of STAT-3, MT-II, Fnk and PAP I in vivo. Leptin treatment of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice increased the STAT-3, SOCS-3, MT-II and Fnk mRNA, and MT-I protein levels in liver, whereas, in jejunum, expression of PAP I mRNA was down-regulated. Furthermore, administration of leptin to starved wild-type mice enhanced the expression of MT-II and Fnk mRNA in liver, but decreased MT-II and PAP I mRNA expression in jejunum. These findings may help to explain the obese phenotype observed in some colonies of MT-I- and MT-II-null mice and/or the observation that leptin protects against tumour-necrosis-factor toxicity in vivo.

  4. Using a Novel Spatial Tool to Inform Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Alisha D.; Fusaro, Abigail J.; Kashian, Donna R.

    2015-07-01

    Management of invasive species has increasingly emphasized the importance of early detection and rapid response (EDRR) programs in limiting introductions, establishment, and impacts. These programs require an understanding of vector and species spatial dynamics to prioritize monitoring sites and efficiently allocate resources. Yet managers often lack the empirical data necessary to make these decisions. We developed an empirical mapping tool that can facilitate development of EDRR programs through identifying high-risk locations, particularly within the recreational boating vector. We demonstrated the utility of this tool in the Great Lakes watershed. We surveyed boaters to identify trips among water bodies and to quantify behaviors associated with high likelihood of species transfer (e.g., not removing organic materials from boat trailers) during that trip. We mapped water bodies with high-risk inbound and outbound boater movements using ArcGIS. We also tested for differences in high-risk behaviors based on demographic variables to understand risk differences among boater groups. Incorporation of boater behavior led to identification of additional high-risk water bodies compared to using the number of trips alone. Therefore, the number of trips itself may not fully reflect the likelihood of invasion. This tool can be broadly applied in other geographic contexts and with different taxa, and can be adjusted according to varying levels of information concerning the vector or species of interest. The methodology is straightforward and can be followed after a basic introduction to ArcGIS software. The visual nature of the mapping tool will facilitate site prioritization by managers and stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  5. [Molecular mechanisms and relationship of M2-polarized macrophages with early response in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Chen, X Y; Sun, R X; Zhang, W Y; Liu, T; Zheng, Y H; Wu, Y

    2017-06-14

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between M2-polarized macrophages and early response in multiple myeloma and its molecular mechanism. Methods: Two hundred and forty bone marrow biopsy tissue were collected and M2-polarized macrophages were stained by anti-CD163 monoclonal antibody. In vitro M2-polarized macrophages were derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cell or THP-1 cells and identified by flow cytometry. Two myeloma cell lines RPMI 8226 and U266 were co-cultured with M2 macrophages using a transwell system. We measured myeloma cells proliferation through CCK-8 method and the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (TNF-α and IL-6) by ELISA. Real time PCR was applied to measure chemokines (CCL2 and CCL3) , chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5) , VEGF and their receptors. In addition, flow cytometry was used to analyze the apoptosis of myeloma cells induced by dexamethasone. Results: ①Patients with high percentage of M2 macrophage involvement in bone marrow showed poorer response (23.9% versus 73.0%, χ (2)=60.31, P <0.001). ② In vitro the proliferation of RPMI 8226 cells ( P =0.005 at 24 h, P =0.020 at 36 h) or U266 myeloma cells ( P = 0.030 at 24h, P =0.020 at 36h) co-cultured with M2-polarized macrophages was higher than control group. ③In vitro the apoptotic rate of RPMI 8226 cells (29.0% versus 71.0%, t =4.97, P =0.008) or U266 myeloma cells (24.9% versus 67.7%, t =6.99, P =0.002) co-cultured with M2-polarized macrophages was lower than control group. ④ In vitro M2-polarized macrophages promoted myeloma cells secreting higher level of IL-6, TNF-α and higher expression of CCL2, CCL3, CCR2, CCR5, VEGFA, VEGFR-1,-2 compared with the non-macrophage co-culture system. Conclusion: M2-polarized macrophages promote myeloma cells proliferation and inhibit apoptosis through a very complex mechanism involving pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, chemokines and related receptors such as CCL2, CCL3, CCR2, CCR3, and VEGF as well as related

  6. Early life vitamin D depletion alters the postnatal response to skeletal loading in growing and mature bone

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Harriet; Owen, Robert; Marin, Ana Campos; Lu, Yongtau; Eyles, Darryl; Lacroix, Damien; Reilly, Gwendolen C.; Skerry, Tim M.; Bishop, Nick J.

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of persistent effects of early life vitamin D exposure on later skeletal health; linking low levels in early life to smaller bone size in childhood as well as increased fracture risk later in adulthood, independently of later vitamin D status. A major determinant of bone mass acquisition across all ages is mechanical loading. We tested the hypothesis in an animal model system that early life vitamin D depletion results in abrogation of the response to mechanical loading, with consequent reduction in bone size, mass and strength during both childhood and adulthood. A murine model was created in which pregnant dams were either vitamin D deficient or replete, and their offspring moved to a vitamin D replete diet at weaning. Tibias of the offspring were mechanically loaded and bone structure, extrinsic strength and growth measured both during growth and after skeletal maturity. Offspring of vitamin D deplete mice demonstrated lower bone mass in the non loaded limb and reduced bone mass accrual in response to loading in both the growing skeleton and after skeletal maturity. Early life vitamin D depletion led to reduced bone strength and altered bone biomechanical properties. These findings suggest early life vitamin D status may, in part, determine the propensity to osteoporosis and fracture that blights later life in many individuals. PMID:29370213

  7. Initial Weight Loss Response as an Indicator for Providing Early Rescue Efforts to Improve Long-term Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Unick, Jessica L; Pellegrini, Christine A; Demos, Kathryn E; Dorfman, Leah

    2017-09-01

    There is a large variability in response to behavioral weight loss (WL) programs. Reducing rates of obesity and diabetes may require more individuals to achieve clinically significant WL post-treatment. Given that WL within the first 1-2 months of a WL program is associated with long-term WL, it may be possible to improve treatment outcomes by identifying and providing additional intervention to those with poor initial success (i.e., "early non-responders"). We review the current literature regarding early non-response to WL programs and discuss how adaptive interventions can be leveraged as a strategy to "rescue" early non-responders. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive interventions, specifically stepped care approaches, offer promise for improving outcomes among early non-responders. Future studies need to determine the optimal time point and threshold for intervening and the type of early intervention to employ. Clinicians and researchers should consider the discussed factors when making treatment decisions.

  8. A Data-Driven Coaching Model Used to Promote Students' Response to Early Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of early reading performance as a foundational prerequisite for student achievement, schools have allocated significant attention over the past decade to training teachers to assess and monitor students' reading progress and to implement instruction or interventions targeting early reading skills (e.g., Fletcher & Vaughn,…

  9. Responses to Struggling, K-2 Readers and Writers: Early Literacy Intervention in Three Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Kathleen C.

    2009-01-01

    An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…

  10. Reversing the Real Brain Drain: Early Years Study--A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Presents concerns over the "Early Years Study" (McCain & Mustard). Focuses on diversity issues related to the readiness measure used, parenting styles, and the importance of first language development. Questions the report's definition of "developmentally-attuned." Concludes by expressing hope that the Early Years Study…

  11. Entitled to What? Public Policy and the Responsibilities of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wesley; Conroy, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Examines early-intervention entitlements currently extended by all states. Perspectives from the legislative process, federal and state implementation, judicial interpretation, and professional views are included. Distinctions among the key provisions for differing early intervention service systems are presented, legal cases are reviewed, and…

  12. Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy symptoms detection and classification using neural network.

    PubMed

    Al-Jarrah, Mohammad A; Shatnawi, Hadeel

    2017-08-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) causes blindness in the working age for people with diabetes in most countries. The increasing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that DR will continue to be major contributors to vision loss. Early detection of retinopathy progress in individuals with diabetes is critical for preventing visual loss. Non-proliferative DR (NPDR) is an early stage of DR. Moreover, NPDR can be classified into mild, moderate and severe. This paper proposes a novel morphology-based algorithm for detecting retinal lesions and classifying each case. First, the proposed algorithm detects the three DR lesions, namely haemorrhages, microaneurysms and exudates. Second, we defined and extracted a set of features from detected lesions. The set of selected feature emulates what physicians looked for in classifying NPDR case. Finally, we designed an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier with three layers to classify NPDR to normal, mild, moderate and severe. Bayesian regularisation and resilient backpropagation algorithms are used to train ANN. The accuracy for the proposed classifiers based on Bayesian regularisation and resilient backpropagation algorithms are 96.6 and 89.9, respectively. The obtained results are compared with results of the recent published classifier. Our proposed classifier outperforms the best in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Early Response to treatment in Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review and a Diagnostic Test Accuracy Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nazar, Bruno Palazzo; Gregor, Louise Kathrine; Albano, Gaia; Marchica, Angelo; Coco, Gianluca Lo; Cardi, Valentina; Treasure, Janet

    2017-03-01

    Early response to eating disorders treatment is thought to predict a later favourable outcome. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analyses examined the robustness of this concept. The criteria used across studies to define early response were summarised following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Diagnostic Test Accuracy methodology was used to estimate the size of the effect. Findings from 24 studies were synthesized and data from 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. In Anorexia Nervosa, the odds ratio of early response predicting remission was 4.85(95%CI: 2.94-8.01) and the summary Area Under the Curve (AUC) = .77. In Bulimia Nervosa, the odds ratio was 2.75(95%CI:1.24-6.09) and AUC = .67. For Binge Eating Disorder, the odds ratio was 5.01(95%CI: 3.38-7.42) and AUC = .71. Early behaviour change accurately predicts later symptom remission for Anorexia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder but there is less predictive accuracy for Bulimia Nervosa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Early divergent host responses in SHIVsf162P3 and SIVmac251 infected macaques correlate with control of viremia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Morici, Lisa A; Pahar, Bapi; Veazey, Ronald S

    2011-03-25

    We previously showed intravaginal inoculation with SHIVsf162p3 results in transient viremia followed by undetectable viremia in most macaques, and some displayed subsequent immunity to superinfection with pathogenic SIVmac251. Here we compare early T cell activation, proliferation, and plasma cytokine/chemokine responses in macaques intravaginally infected with either SHIVsf162p3 or SIVmac251 to determine whether distinct differences in host responses may be associated with early viral containment. The data show SIVmac251 infection results in significantly higher levels of T cell activation, proliferation, and a mixed cytokine/chemokine "storm" in plasma in primary infection, whereas infection with SHIVsf162p3 resulted in significantly lower levels of T cell activation, proliferation, and better preservation of memory CD4+ T cells in early infection which immediately preceded control of viremia. These results support the hypothesis that early systemic immune activation, T cell proliferation, and a more prominent and broader array of cytokine/chemokine responses facilitate SIV replication, and may play a key role in persistence of infection, and the progression to AIDS. In contrast, immune unresponsiveness may be associated with eventual clearance of virus, a concept that may have key significance for therapy and vaccine design.

  15. Desquamation takes center stage at the origin of proliferative inflammatory atrophy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and stromal growth in benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Danilo; Biancardi, Manoel F; Nishan, Umar; Rosa-Ribeiro, Rafaela; Carvalho, Hernandes F

    2017-11-01

    In this commentary, we propose a relationship between desquamation, initially described as the collective detachment and deletion of epithelial cell in the prostate gland after castration, and proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and stromal growth in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). First, in response to diverse stimuli, including inflammatory mediators, epithelial cells desquamate and leave a large surface of the luminal side of the basement membrane (BM) exposed. Basal cells are activated into intermediate-type cells, which change morphology to cover and remodel the exposed BM (simple atrophy) to a new physiological demand (such as in the hypoandrogen environment, simulated by surgical and/or chemical castration) and/or to support re-epithelialization (under normal androgen levels). In the presence of inflammation (that might be the cause of desquamation), the intermediate-type cells proliferate and characterize PIA. Second, in other circumstances, desquamation is an early step of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to stromal growth, as suggested by some experimental models of BPH. The proposed associations correlate unexplored cell behaviors and reveal the remarkable plasticity of the prostate epithelium that might be at the origin of prostate diseases. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  16. Response to Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for autism--an umbrella approach to issues critical to treatment individualization.

    PubMed

    Fava, Leonardo; Strauss, Kristin

    2014-12-01

    Integrating knowledge across the disciplines of genetics, neurological, and behavioral science targets, so far, early identification of children with autism and thus early access to intervention. Cross-discipline collaboration might be substantially improve treatment efficacy via individualized treatment based on the child and family needs, consistency across treatment providers and careful planning of skill curricula, setting and techniques. This paper documents the current state of five main issues critical to treatment individualization where cross-discipline collaboration is warranted: (1) developmental timing, (2) treatment intensity, (3) heterogeneity in treatment response, (4) program breath and flexibility, and (5) formats of treatment provision. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Different lasers and techniques for proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Moutray, Tanya; Evans, Jennifer R; Lois, Noemi; Armstrong, David J; Peto, Tunde; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2018-03-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS). Over the years, there have been modifications of the technique and introduction of new laser technologies. To assess the effects of different types of laser, other than argon laser, and different laser protocols, other than those established by the ETDRS, for the treatment of PDR. We compared different wavelengths; power and pulse duration; pattern, number and location of burns versus standard argon laser undertaken as specified by the ETDRS. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2017, Issue 5); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; LILACS; the ISRCTN registry; ClinicalTrials.gov and the ICTRP. The date of the search was 8 June 2017. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) using standard argon laser for treatment of PDR compared with any other laser modality. We excluded studies of lasers that are not in common use, such as the xenon arc, ruby or Krypton laser. We followed Cochrane guidelines and graded the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. We identified 11 studies from Europe (6), the USA (2), the Middle East (1) and Asia (2). Five studies compared different types of laser to argon: Nd:YAG (2 studies) or diode (3 studies). Other studies compared modifications to the standard argon laser PRP technique. The studies were poorly reported and we judged all to be at high risk of bias in at least one domain. The sample size

  18. Secretion of cytokines in breast cancer cells: the molecular mechanism of procathepsin D proliferative effects.

    PubMed

    Fusek, Martin; Vetvickova, Jana; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2007-03-01

    Procathepsin D (pCD) is a major secreted protein in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cell lines. Several independent studies have documented pronounced mitogenic effect of secreted pCD on cancer tissue-derived cell lines, including those from breast, lung, and prostate cancer. It has also been shown that the proliferative effect of pCD involves both autocrine and paracrine modes of action. Recent studies have suggested that pCD could act as a key paracrine communicator between cancer and stromal cells. We have shown earlier that the proliferative activity of pCD depends on the activation peptide sequence of pCD. The present study casts light on the mechanism by which pCD influences the proliferation of cancer cells expressing the ER. Results described in the current paper clearly show that pCD initiates secretion of cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta and (MIP-1beta) from such tumor cells. Secreted cytokines take part in the proliferation of the cancer cells, as proven by selective inhibition using antibodies. In addition, expression of cytokine receptors on tested cell lines corresponded to the effects of individual cytokines. An analogous pattern was also observed for fibroblasts, which, under physiologic conditions, are the cells in closest contact with the tumor tissue and play a role in tumor growth and invasion. Our observations were further supported by coculture experiments that are in agreement. Although very similar in response to addition of pCD, the invasive ER- cells do not secrete cytokines. Together with previous in vivo results, these data point to pCD as one of key molecules for therapeutic attack in breast cancer.

  19. Consumer participation in early detection of the deteriorating patient and call activation to rapid response systems: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Jane; King, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    This review investigated the impact of consumer participation in recognition of patient deterioration and response through call activation in rapid response systems. Nurses and doctors have taken the main role in recognition and response to patient deterioration through hospital rapid response systems. Yet patients and visitors (consumers) have appeared well placed to notice early signs of deterioration. In response, many hospitals have sought to partner health professionals with consumers in detection and response to early deterioration. However, to date, there have been no published research-based reviews to establish the impact of introducing consumer involvement into rapid response systems. A critical research-based review was undertaken. A comprehensive search of databases from 2006-2014 identified 11 studies. Critical appraisal of these studies was undertaken and thematic analysis of the findings revealed four major themes. Following implementation of the consumer activation programmes, the number of calls made by the consumers following detection of deterioration increased. Interestingly, the number of staff calls also increased. Importantly, mortality numbers were found to decrease in one major study following the introduction of consumer call activation. Consumer and staff knowledge and satisfaction with the new programmes indicated mixed results. Initial concerns of the staff over consumer involvement overwhelming the rapid response systems did not eventuate. Evaluation of successful consumer-activated programmes indicated the importance of: effective staff education and training; ongoing consumer education by nurses and clear educational materials. Findings indicated positive patient outcomes following introduction of consumer call activation programmes within rapid response systems. Effective consumer programmes included information that was readily accessible, easy-to-understand and available in a range of multimedia materials accompanied by the

  20. The Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 Type 3 Secretion System Suppresses Early Defense Responses to Effectively Nodulate Soybean.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Pérez-Montaño, Francisco; Monreal, José Antonio; Preston, Gail M; Fones, Helen; Vioque, Blanca; Ollero, Francisco Javier; López-Baena, Francisco Javier

    2015-07-01

    Plants that interact with pathogenic bacteria in their natural environments have developed barriers to block or contain the infection. Phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to subvert these defenses and promote infection. Thus, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) delivers bacterial effectors directly into the plant cells to alter host signaling and suppress defenses, providing an appropriate environment for bacterial multiplication. Some rhizobial strains possess a symbiotic T3SS that seems to be involved in the suppression of host defenses to promote nodulation and determine the host range. In this work, we show that the inactivation of the Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii HH103 T3SS negatively affects soybean nodulation in the early stages of the symbiotic process, which is associated with a reduction of the expression of early nodulation genes. This symbiotic phenotype could be the consequence of the bacterial triggering of soybean defense responses associated with the production of salicylic acid (SA) and the impairment of the T3SS mutant to suppress these responses. Interestingly, the early induction of the transcription of GmMPK4, which negatively regulates SA accumulation and defense responses in soybean via WRKY33, could be associated with the differential defense responses induced by the parental and the T3SS mutant strain.

  1. Stress responsiveness and anxiety-like behavior: The early social environment differentially shapes stability over time in a small rodent.

    PubMed

    Sangenstedt, Susanne; Jaljuli, Iman; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2017-04-01

    The early social environment can profoundly affect behavioral and physiological phenotypes. We investigated how male wild cavy offspring, whose mothers had either lived in a stable (SE) or an unstable social environment (UE) during pregnancy and lactation, differed in their anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. At two different time points in life, we tested the offspring's anxiety-like behavior in a dark-light test and their endocrine reaction to challenge in a cortisol reactivity test. Furthermore, we analyzed whether individual traits remained stable over time. There was no effect of the early social environment on anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness. However, at an individual level, anxiety-like behavior was stable over time in UE- but not in SE-sons. Stress responsiveness, in turn, was rather inconsistent in UE-sons and temporally stable in SE-sons. Conclusively, we showed for the first time that the early social environment differentially shapes the stability of behavioral and endocrine traits. At first glance, these results may be surprising, but they can be explained by the different functions anxiety-like behavior and stress responsiveness have. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Targets Notch to Attenuate the Inflammatory Response in the Immediate Early Stage in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tengfei; Xiang, Zemin; Wang, Ya; Li, Xi; Fang, Chongye; Song, Shuang; Li, Chunlei; Yu, Haishuang; Wang, Han; Yan, Liang; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays important roles at different stages of diabetes mellitus, tumorigenesis, and cardiovascular diseases. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can attenuate inflammatory responses effectively. However, the immediate early mechanism of EGCG in inflammation remains unclear. Here, we showed that EGCG attenuated the inflammatory response in the immediate early stage of EGCG treatment by shutting off Notch signaling and that the effect did not involve the 67-kDa laminin receptor, the common receptor for EGCG. EGCG eliminated mature Notch from the cell membrane and the nuclear Notch intercellular domain, the active form of Notch, within 2 min by rapid degradation via the proteasome pathway. Transcription of the Notch target gene was downregulated simultaneously. Knockdown of Notch 1/2 expression by RNA interference impaired the downregulation of the inflammatory response elicited by EGCG. Further study showed that EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and turned off Notch signaling in human primary macrophages. Taken together, our results show that EGCG targets Notch to regulate the inflammatory response in the immediate early stage. PMID:28443100

  3. Three-dimensional vascular imaging of proliferative diabetic retinopathy by Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Miura, Masahiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Muramatsu, Daisuke; Iwasaki, Takuya; Goto, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the 3-dimensional architecture of neovascularization in proliferative diabetic retinopathy using Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). Prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial. Seventeen eyes of 14 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy were prospectively studied. Prototype Doppler OCT was used to evaluate the 3-dimensional vascular architecture at vitreoretinal adhesions. Proliferative membranes were detected in all eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy by standard OCT images. Doppler OCT images detected blood flow by neovascularization of the disc in 12 eyes and neovascularization elsewhere in 11 eyes. Doppler OCT images showed the 3-dimensional extent of new vessels at various stages of neovascularization, and the extent of new vessels could be clearly confirmed at vitreoretinal adhesions. Doppler OCT is useful for the detection and evaluation of the 3-dimensional vascular structure of neovascularization, and can assist in the noninvasive assessment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Prediction of Acute Antidepressant Treatment Response and Remission in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Rongrong; Emslie, Graham; Mayes, Taryn; Nakonezny, Paul; Kennard, Betsy; Hughes, Carroll

    2009-01-01

    The rate of symptom improvement during the early weeks of acute fluoxetine treatment is a good indicator of remission. This finding was made after evaluating the outcome of the fluoxetine treatment on 168 children and adults with depression.

  5. Exposure-response relationship and risk assessment for cognitive deficits in early welding-induced manganism.

    PubMed

    Park, Robert M; Bowler, Rosemarie M; Roels, Harry A

    2009-10-01

    The exposure-response relationship for manganese (Mn)-induced adverse nervous system effects is not well described. Symptoms and neuropsychological deficits associated with early manganism were previously reported for welders constructing bridge piers during 2003 to 2004. A reanalysis using improved exposure, work history information, and diverse exposure metrics is presented here. Ten neuropsychological performance measures were examined, including working memory index (WMI), verbal intelligence quotient, design fluency, Stroop color word test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and Auditory Consonant Trigram tests. Mn blood levels and air sampling data in the form of both personal and area samples were available. The exposure metrics used were cumulative exposure to Mn, body burden assuming simple first-order kinetics for Mn elimination, and cumulative burden (effective dose). Benchmark doses were calculated. Burden with a half-life of about 150 days was the best predictor of blood Mn. WMI performance declined by 3.6 (normal = 100, SD = 15) for each 1.0 mg/m3 x mo exposure (P = 0.02, one tailed). At the group mean exposure metric (burden; half-life = 275 days), WMI performance was at the lowest 17th percentile of normal, and at the maximum observed metric, performance was at the lowest 2.5 percentiles. Four other outcomes also exhibited statistically significant associations (verbal intelligence quotient, verbal comprehension index, design fluency, Stroop color word test); no dose-rate effect was observed for three of the five outcomes. A risk assessment performed for the five stronger effects, choosing various percentiles of normal performance to represent impairment, identified benchmark doses for a 2-year exposure leading to 5% excess impairment prevalence in the range of 0.03 to 0.15 mg/m3, or 30 to 150 microg/m3, total Mn in air, levels that are far below those permitted by current occupational standards. More than one-third of workers would be impaired after

  6. Early life IgE responses in children living in the tropics: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakzuk, Josefina; Acevedo, Nathalie; Cifuentes, Liliana; Bornacelly, Adriana; Sánchez, Jorge; Ahumada, Velky; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-12-01

    There are few birth cohort studies analyzing IgE sensitization in the tropics. We aimed to describe the evolution of total IgE and specific IgE responses to house-dust mite (HDM) allergens and Ascaris in a birth cohort (Risk Factors for Asthma and Allergy in the Tropics, FRAAT), analyzing their relationships with wheezing. Total and specific IgE were measured by ImmunoCap in mothers and children at four different time points (S1-S4) between 0 and 42 months. Parasite infection was evaluated by stool examination. Maternal total IgE (aOR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.09-5.43; p = 0.03) and socio-demographic factors were associated with high cord blood (CB) total IgE. High CB total IgE was positively associated with higher Blomia tropicalis and Ascaris-specific IgE values during lifetime, but protected from recurrent wheezing (aOR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.88, p = 0.03). Prevalence rates of IgE sensitization were high; at around 3 yr old, they were 33.3, 18.6, and 26.5% for B. tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Ascaris, respectively. Indicators of unhygienic conditions were risk factors for HDM and Ascaris sensitization in children. A weak statistical association between B. tropicalis-specific IgE and ever wheezing was found (aOR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.00-2.28, p = 0.05). In a socioeconomically deprived community from the tropics, sensitization to HDM allergens was very frequent at early life, especially to B. tropicalis. In contrast to expected according to the hygiene hypothesis, unhygienic/poverty conditions were risk factors for allergen sensitization. High CB total IgE levels were a risk factor for allergen sensitization but protected from recurrent wheezing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Breeding, Early-Successional Bird Response to Forest Harvests for Bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Grodsky, Steven M; Moorman, Christopher E; Fritts, Sarah R; Castleberry, Steven B; Wigley, T Bently

    2016-01-01

    Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands. We spot-mapped birds from 15 April- 15 July, 2012-2014, in six woody biomass removal treatments within regenerating stands in North Carolina (n = 4) and Georgia (n = 4), USA. Treatments included clearcut harvest followed by: (1) traditional woody biomass harvest with no specific retention target; (2) 15% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (3) 15% retention with harvest residues clustered; (4) 30% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (5) 30% retention with harvest residues clustered; and (6) no woody biomass harvest (i.e., reference site). We tested for treatment-level effects on breeding bird species diversity and richness, early-successional focal species territory density (combined and individual species), counts of breeding birds detected near, in, or on branches of harvest piles/windrows, counts of breeding bird behaviors, and vegetation composition and structure. Pooled across three breeding seasons, we delineated 536 and 654 territories and detected 2,489 and 4,204 birds in the North Carolina and Georgia treatments, respectively. Woody biomass harvest had limited or short-lived effects on the early-successional, breeding bird community. The successional trajectory of vegetation structure, rather than availability of harvest residues, primarily drove avian use of regenerating stands. However, many breeding bird species

  8. Breeding, Early-Successional Bird Response to Forest Harvests for Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Grodsky, Steven M.; Moorman, Christopher E.; Fritts, Sarah R.; Castleberry, Steven B.; Wigley, T. Bently

    2016-01-01

    Forest regeneration following timber harvest is a principal source of habitat for early-successional birds and characterized by influxes of early-successional vegetation and residual downed woody material. Early-successional birds may use harvest residues for communication, cover, foraging, and nesting. Yet, increased market viability of woody biomass as bioenergy feedstock may intensify harvest residue removal. Our objectives were to: 1) evaluate effects of varying intensities of woody biomass harvest on the early-successional bird community; and (2) document early-successional bird use of harvest residues in regenerating stands. We spot-mapped birds from 15 April– 15 July, 2012–2014, in six woody biomass removal treatments within regenerating stands in North Carolina (n = 4) and Georgia (n = 4), USA. Treatments included clearcut harvest followed by: (1) traditional woody biomass harvest with no specific retention target; (2) 15% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (3) 15% retention with harvest residues clustered; (4) 30% retention with harvest residues dispersed; (5) 30% retention with harvest residues clustered; and (6) no woody biomass harvest (i.e., reference site). We tested for treatment-level effects on breeding bird species diversity and richness, early-successional focal species territory density (combined and individual species), counts of breeding birds detected near, in, or on branches of harvest piles/windrows, counts of breeding bird behaviors, and vegetation composition and structure. Pooled across three breeding seasons, we delineated 536 and 654 territories and detected 2,489 and 4,204 birds in the North Carolina and Georgia treatments, respectively. Woody biomass harvest had limited or short-lived effects on the early-successional, breeding bird community. The successional trajectory of vegetation structure, rather than availability of harvest residues, primarily drove avian use of regenerating stands. However, many breeding bird

  9. Metabolic responses to exogenous ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in humans.

    PubMed

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Antoun, Joseph; Sidani, Reem M; Clements, Austin; Harmata, Emily E; Marks-Shulman, Pam; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Williams, Brandon; Clements, Ronald H; Albaugh, Vance L; Abumrad, Naji N

    2017-09-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg -1  min -1 ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and 2 weeks after RYGB. Central responses were assessed by GH and pancreatic polypeptide (surrogate for vagal activity) secretion. Peripheral responses were assessed by hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Ghrelin-stimulated GH secretion was attenuated in obese subjects, but was restored by RYGB to a response similar to that of lean subjects. The heightened pancreatic polypeptide response to ghrelin infusion in the obese was attenuated after RYGB. Hepatic glucose production and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not altered by ghrelin infusion in RYGB subjects. Skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity was impaired to a similar degree in lean, obese and post-RYGB individuals in response to ghrelin infusion. These data suggest that obesity is characterized by abnormal central, but not peripheral, responsiveness to ghrelin that can be restored early after RYGB before significant weight loss. Further work is necessary to fully elucidate the role of ghrelin in the metabolic changes that occur in obesity and following RYGB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dynamic range of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA class II-restricted immune responses in early HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Brumme, Zabrina L; Jessen, Heiko; Brockman, Mark A; Ueno, Takamasa

    2015-07-31

    HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication, especially in the acute/early infection stage. But, HIV-1 Nef counteracts this immune response by down-regulating HLA-DR and up-regulating the invariant chain associated with immature HLA-II (Ii). Although functional heterogeneity of various Nef activities, including down-regulation of HLA class I (HLA-I), is well documented, our understanding of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA-II-restricted immune responses during acute/early infection remains limited. Here, we examined the ability of Nef clones from 47 subjects with acute/early progressive infection and 46 subjects with chronic progressive infection to up-regulate Ii and down-regulate HLA-DR and HLA-I from the surface of HIV-infected cells. HLA-I down-regulation function was preserved among acute/early Nef clones, whereas both HLA-DR down-regulation and Ii up-regulation functions displayed relatively broad dynamic ranges. Nef's ability to down-regulate HLA-DR and up-regulate Ii correlated positively at this stage, suggesting they are functionally linked in vivo. Acute/early Nef clones also exhibited higher HLA-DR down-regulation and lower Ii up-regulation functions compared to chronic Nef clones. Taken together, our results support enhanced Nef-mediated HLA class II immune evasion activities in acute/early compared to chronic infection, highlighting the potential importance of these functions following transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EF5 PET of Tumor Hypoxia: A Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) for Early Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Predictive Imaging Biomarker of Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Billy W...CONTRACT NUMBER Response to Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy ( SABR ) for Early Lung Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0236 5c...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Purpose and scope: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy ( SABR ) has become a new standard of care for early stage lung

  12. Early warning and response system (EWARS) for dengue outbreaks: Recent advancements towards widespread applications in critical settings

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; Rocklöv, Joacim; Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo; Tejeda, Gustavo; Benitez, David; Gill, Balvinder; Hakim, S. Lokman; Gomes Carvalho, Roberta; Bowman, Leigh; Petzold, Max

    2018-01-01

    Background Dengue outbreaks are increasing in frequency over space and time, affecting people’s health and burdening resource-constrained health systems. The ability to detect early emerging outbreaks is key to mounting an effective response. The early warning and response system (EWARS) is a toolkit that provides countries with early-warning systems for efficient and cost-effective local responses. EWARS uses outbreak and alarm indicators to derive prediction models that can be used prospectively to predict a forthcoming dengue outbreak at district level. Methods We report on the development of the EWARS tool, based on users’ recommendations into a convenient, user-friendly and reliable software aided by a user’s workbook and its field testing in 30 health districts in Brazil, Malaysia and Mexico. Findings 34 Health officers from the 30 study districts who had used the original EWARS for 7 to 10 months responded to a questionnaire with mainly open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis showed that participants were generally satisfied with the tool but preferred open-access vs. commercial software. EWARS users also stated that the geographical unit should be the district, while access to meteorological information should be improved. These recommendations were incorporated into the second-generation EWARS-R, using the free R software, combined with recent surveillance data and resulted in higher sensitivities and positive predictive values of alarm signals compared to the first-generation EWARS. Currently the use of satellite data for meteorological information is being tested and a dashboard is being developed to increase user-friendliness of the tool. The inclusion of other Aedes borne viral diseases is under discussion. Conclusion EWARS is a pragmatic and useful tool for detecting imminent dengue outbreaks to trigger early response activities. PMID:29727447

  13. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  14. Inhibition of connexin 43 hemichannel-mediated ATP release attenuates early inflammation during the foreign body response.

    PubMed

    Calder, Bennett W; Matthew Rhett, Joshua; Bainbridge, Heather; Fann, Stephen A; Gourdie, Robert G; Yost, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In the last 50 years, the use of medical implants has increased dramatically. Failure of implanted devices and biomaterials is a significant source of morbidity and increasing healthcare expenditures. An important cause of implant failure is the host inflammatory response. Recent evidence implicates extracellular ATP as an important inflammatory signaling molecule. A major pathway for release of cytoplasmic ATP into the extracellular space is through connexin hemichannels, which are the unpaired constituents of gap junction intercellular channels. Blockade of hemichannels of the connexin 43 (Cx43) isoform has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve healing. We have developed a Cx43 mimetic peptide (JM2) that targets the microtubule-binding domain of Cx43. The following report investigates the role of the Cx43 microtubule-binding domain in extracellular ATP release by Cx43 hemichannels and how this impacts early inflammatory events of the foreign body reaction. In vitro Cx43 hemichannel-mediated ATP release by cultured human microvascular endothelial cells subjected to hypocalcemic and normocalcemic conditions was measured after application of JM2 and the known hemichannel blocker, flufenamic acid. A submuscular silicone implant model was used to investigate in vivo ATP signaling during the early foreign body response. Implants were coated with control pluronic vehicle or pluronic carrying JM2, ATP, JM2+ATP, or known hemichannel blockers and harvested at 24 h for analysis. JM2 significantly inhibited connexin hemichannel-mediated ATP release from cultured endothelial cells. Importantly, the early inflammatory response to submuscular silicone implants was inhibited by JM2. The reduction in inflammation by JM2 was reversed by the addition of exogenous ATP to the pluronic vehicle. These data indicate that ATP released through Cx43 hemichannels into the vasculature is an important signal driving the early inflammatory response to implanted devices. A vital

  15. Early warning and response system (EWARS) for dengue outbreaks: Recent advancements towards widespread applications in critical settings.

    PubMed

    Hussain-Alkhateeb, Laith; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; Rocklöv, Joacim; Sewe, Maquins Odhiambo; Tejeda, Gustavo; Benitez, David; Gill, Balvinder; Hakim, S Lokman; Gomes Carvalho, Roberta; Bowman, Leigh; Petzold, Max

    2018-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks are increasing in frequency over space and time, affecting people's health and burdening resource-constrained health systems. The ability to detect early emerging outbreaks is key to mounting an effective response. The early warning and response system (EWARS) is a toolkit that provides countries with early-warning systems for efficient and cost-effective local responses. EWARS uses outbreak and alarm indicators to derive prediction models that can be used prospectively to predict a forthcoming dengue outbreak at district level. We report on the development of the EWARS tool, based on users' recommendations into a convenient, user-friendly and reliable software aided by a user's workbook and its field testing in 30 health districts in Brazil, Malaysia and Mexico. 34 Health officers from the 30 study districts who had used the original EWARS for 7 to 10 months responded to a questionnaire with mainly open-ended questions. Qualitative content analysis showed that participants were generally satisfied with the tool but preferred open-access vs. commercial software. EWARS users also stated that the geographical unit should be the district, while access to meteorological information should be improved. These recommendations were incorporated into the second-generation EWARS-R, using the free R software, combined with recent surveillance data and resulted in higher sensitivities and positive predictive values of alarm signals compared to the first-generation EWARS. Currently the use of satellite data for meteorological information is being tested and a dashboard is being developed to increase user-friendliness of the tool. The inclusion of other Aedes borne viral diseases is under discussion. EWARS is a pragmatic and useful tool for detecting imminent dengue outbreaks to trigger early response activities.

  16. How does temporal preparation speed up response implementation in choice tasks? Evidence for an early cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Davranche, Karen; Meynier, Chloé; Burle, Borís; Vidal, Franck; Hasbroucq, Thierry

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the influence of temporal preparation on information processing. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was delivered during a between-hand choice task. The time interval between the warning and the imperative stimulus varied across blocks of trials was either optimal (500 ms) or nonoptimal (2500 ms) for participants' performance. Silent period duration was shorter prior to the first evidence of response selection for the optimal condition. Amplitude of the motor evoked potential specific to the responding hand increased earlier for the optimal condition. These results revealed an early release of cortical inhibition and a faster integration of the response selection-related inputs to the corticospinal pathway when temporal preparation is better. Temporal preparation may induce cortical activation prior to response selection that speeds up the implementation of the selected response. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Changes in early adolescents' sense of responsibility to their parents in the United States and China: implications for academic functioning.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, Eva M; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Chen, Huichang

    2011-01-01

    This research examined American and Chinese children's sense of responsibility to their parents during early adolescence, with a focus on its implications for children's academic functioning. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 children (mean age = 12.73 years) in the United States and China reported on their sense of responsibility to their parents. Information on children's academic functioning was also collected from children as well as school records. Although children's sense of responsibility to their parents declined over the seventh and eighth grades in the United States, this was not the case in China. In both countries, children's sense of responsibility was predictive of enhanced academic functioning among children over time. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Changes in Early Adolescents' Sense of Responsibility to their Parents in the United States and China: Implications for Academic Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Eva M.; Qin, Lili; Wang, Qian; Chen, Huichang

    2011-01-01

    This research examined American and Chinese children's sense of responsibility to their parents during early adolescence, with a focus on its implications for children's academic functioning. Four times over the seventh and eighth grades, 825 children (mean age = 12.73 years) in the United States and China reported on their sense of responsibility to their parents. Information on children's academic functioning was also collected from children as well as school records. Although children's sense of responsibility to their parents declined over the seventh and eighth grades in the United States, this was not the case in China. In both countries, children's sense of responsibility was predictive of enhanced academic functioning among children over time. PMID:21466541

  19. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Liu, Richard T.; Y.Abramson, Lyn; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52% female, 51% Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress. PMID:25911194

  20. Early Antibody Response Contributes to the Virus Eradication and Clinical Recovery of H7N9 Influenza Infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi; Yang, Zheng; Yuan, Jing; Liao, Jian; Duan, Lian; Wang, Wenfei; Zhang, Fuping; Chen, Xinchun; Zhou, Boping

    2017-09-01

    A new type of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H7N9, has been a great threat to public health since its 2013 outbreak. The humoral immune response plays a critical role in protection from the influenza virus, but its role and kinetics in H7N9-infected patients remain to be determined. In this study, we performed a retrospective investigation of the antibody response in plasma samples from 37 cases of hospitalized patients and analysed the relationship between the antibody response and the clinical outcomes. Our results showed that the HA7-binding antibody was generated earlier than the neutralizing antibody. Higher titer of HA7-binding antibody during the first 14 days after disease onset were associated with a shorter virus-positive continuation period, which is an important risk predictor ( P <0.05). Additionally, the titers of HA7-binding antibody were consistently and significantly lower in patients who died than those who recovered from the severe disease. Unexpectedly, no correlation between the titer of neutralizing antibody and the resulting clinical outcomes was found, suggesting that a neutralizing antibody-independent mechanism also contributed to virus control. In summary, our data suggests that an early antibody response against H7N9 influenza virus contributes to the eradication of the virus. A higher, early HA7-binding antibody response is associated with better clinical outcomes in H7N9 patients. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  1. Early myeloma-related death in elderly patients: development of a clinical prognostic score and evaluation of response sustainability role.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Otero, Paula; Mateos, María Victoria; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Hernández, Miguel-Teodoro; Ocio, Enrique M; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez, Rafael; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Bargay, Joan; Bengoechea, Enrique; González, Yolanda; de Oteyza, Jaime Pérez; Gironella, Mercedes; Encinas, Cristina; Martín, Jesús; Cabrera, Carmen; Palomera, Luis; de Arriba, Felipe; Cedena, María Teresa; Paiva, Bruno; Puig, Noemí; Oriol, Albert; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan José; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2018-02-23

    Although survival of elderly myeloma patients has significantly improved there is still a subset of patients who, despite being fit and achieving optimal responses, will die within 2 years of diagnosis due to myeloma progression. The objective of this study was to define a scoring prognostic index to identify this group of patients. We have evaluated the outcome of 490 newly diagnosed elderly myeloma patients included in two Spanish trials (GEM2005-GEM2010). Sixty-eight patients (13.8%) died within 2 years of diagnosis (early deaths) due to myeloma progression. Our study shows that the use of simple scoring model based on 4 widely available markers (elevated LDH, ISS 3, high risk CA or >75 years) can contribute to identify up-front these patients. Moreover, unsustained response (<6 months duration) emerged as one important predictor of early myeloma-related mortality associated with a significant increase in the risk of death related to myeloma progression. The identification of these patients at high risk of early death is relevant for innovative trials aiming to maintain the depth of first response, since many of them will not receive subsequent lines of therapy.

  2. Wingless promotes proliferative growth in a gradient-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Baena-Lopez, Luis Alberto; Franch-Marro, Xavier; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2009-10-06

    Morphogens form concentration gradients that organize patterns of cells and control growth. It has been suggested that, rather than the intensity of morphogen signaling, it is its gradation that is the relevant modulator of cell proliferation. According to this view, the ability of morphogens to regulate growth during development depends on their graded distributions. Here, we describe an experimental test of this model for Wingless, one of the key organizers of wing development in Drosophila. Maximal Wingless signaling suppresses cellular proliferation. In contrast, we found that moderate and uniform amounts of exogenous Wingless, even in the absence of endogenous Wingless, stimulated proliferative growth. Beyond a few cell diameters from the source, Wingless was relatively constant in abundance and thus provided a homogeneous growth-promoting signal. Although morphogen signaling may act in combination with as yet uncharacterized graded growth-promoting pathways, we suggest that the graded nature of morphogen signaling is not required for proliferation, at least in the developing Drosophila wing, during the main period of growth.

  3. Subretinal Perfluorocarbon Liquid for Dissection of Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dalma-Weiszhausz, Jose; Franco-Cardenas, Valentina; Dalma, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a frequent condition following complex retinal detachments or trauma, and subretinal PVR is a common cause of retinal redetachment. Subretinal PVR removal is challenging and may require creating multiple or large retinotomies, making manipulation of the retina difficult and sometimes hazardous. We propose a novel surgical technique that may facilitate subretinal removal of PVR. After peripheral retinotomy of 180 degrees or greater, perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) is carefully introduced into the subretinal space as a single bubble which provides space to perform the maneuvers. The PFCL serves as a second hand which folds the retina over, thereby allowing better visualization for safer and easier subretinal PVR removal. PFCL in then removed by direct aspiration as a single bubble while still under balanced salt solution, taking advantage of its high surface tension which prevents leaving bubbles behind. The described technique allows adequate exposure of the subretinal space for proper dissection of difficult-to-reach subretinal PVR. We applied this technique in five patients with chronic retinal detachment, extensive subretinal PVR and poor visual potential. The utilization of subretinal PFCL can assist dissection of subretinal PVR and may be useful in eyes with complicated retinal detachment and poor visual prognosis. PMID:23502847

  4. Outcome of the acute glomerular injury in proliferative lupus nephritis

    SciT

    Chagnac, A.; Kiberd, B.A.; Farinas, M.C.

    1989-09-01

    Treatment with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and corticosteroids markedly reduced activity of systemic lupus erythematosis in 10 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) complicated by a nephrotic syndrome. Physiologic and morphometric techniques were used serially before, and 12 and 36 mo post-TLI to characterize the course of glomerular injury. Judged by a progressive reduction in the density of glomerular cells and immune deposits, glomerular inflammation subsided. A sustained reduction in the fractional clearance of albumin, IgG and uncharged dextrans of radius greater than 50 A, pointed to a parallel improvement in glomerular barrier size-selectivity. Corresponding changes in GFR weremore » modest, however. A trend towards higher GFR at 12 mo was associated with a marked increase in the fraction of glomerular tuft area occupied by patent capillary loops as inflammatory changes receded. A late trend toward declining GFR beyond 12 mo was associated with progressive glomerulosclerosis, which affected 57% of all glomeruli globally by 36 mo post-TLI. Judged by a parallel increase in volume by 59%, remaining, patent glomeruli had undergone a process of adaptive enlargement. We propose that an increasing fraction of glomeruli continues to undergo progressive sclerosis after DPLN has become quiescent, and that the prevailing GFR depends on the extent to which hypertrophied remnant glomeruli can compensate for the ensuing loss of filtration surface area.« less

  5. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy in the Swine-a new model.

    PubMed

    Umazume, Kazuhiko; Barak, Yoreh; McDonald, Kevin; Liu, Lanhsin; Kaplan, Henry J; Tamiya, Shigeo

    2012-07-24

    To develop a large animal model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) in the swine to eventually study disease pathophysiology, as well as novel therapies. PVR was induced in domestic swine by creation of a posterior vitreous detachment, creation of a retinal detachment by the injection of subretinal fluid, and intravitreal injection of green fluorescent protein-positive retinal pigment epithelial (GFP+ RPE) cells. Control eyes had the same surgical procedures without RPE cell injection. PVR was clinically graded on days 3, 7, and 14. Animals were euthanized on day 14, and enucleated eyes were analyzed by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Injection of GFP+ RPE cells into the vitreous cavity produced localized, traction retinal detachments by day 14 in all eyes (14 of 14); in contrast, the retina spontaneously reattached by day 3 and remained attached in all control eyes (10 of 10). Contractile epiretinal membranes on the inner retinal surface that caused the traction retinal detachments consisted predominantly of GFP+ RPE cells. These cells stained positive for cytokeratin, confirming their epithelial origin, and also expressed α-SMA and fibronectin, markers for myofibroblasts and fibrosis, respectively. We established a swine PVR model that recapitulates key clinical features found in humans and, thus, can be used to study the pathophysiology of PVR, as well as new novel therapies. GFP+ RPE cells injected into the vitreous cavity formed contractile membranes on the inner retinal surface and caused localized traction retinal detachments.

  6. Automated detection of neovascularization for proliferative diabetic retinopathy screening.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Parhi, Keshab K

    2016-08-01

    Neovascularization is the primary manifestation of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) that can lead to acquired blindness. This paper presents a novel method that classifies neovascularizations in the 1-optic disc (OD) diameter region (NVD) and elsewhere (NVE) separately to achieve low false positive rates of neovascularization classification. First, the OD region and blood vessels are extracted. Next, the major blood vessel segments in the 1-OD diameter region are classified for NVD, and minor blood vessel segments elsewhere are classified for NVE. For NVD and NVE classifications, optimal region-based feature sets of 10 and 6 features, respectively, are used. The proposed method achieves classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for NVD and NVE of 74%, 98.2%, 87.6%, and 61%, 97.5%, 92.1%, respectively. Also, the proposed method achieves 86.4% sensitivity and 76% specificity for screening images with PDR from public and local data s