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Sample records for early protein intake

  1. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life: impact on growth and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved and the role of different dietary protein sources and amino acids has increased, but intervention studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms. Avoiding high-protein intake in early life holds promise as a preventive strategy for childhood obesity.

  2. The association of trajectories of protein intake and age-specific protein intakes from 2 to 22 years with BMI in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wright, Melecia; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Mendez, Michelle A; Adair, Linda

    2017-03-01

    No study has analysed how protein intake from early childhood to young adulthood relate to adult BMI in a single cohort. To estimate the association of protein intake at 2, 11, 15, 19 and 22 years with age- and sex-standardised BMI at 22 years (early adulthood), we used linear regression models with dietary and anthropometric data from a Filipino birth cohort (1985-2005, n 2586). We used latent growth curve analysis to identify trajectories of protein intake relative to age-specific recommended daily allowance (intake in g/kg body weight) from 2 to 22 years, then related trajectory membership to early adulthood BMI using linear regression models. Lean mass and fat mass were secondary outcomes. Regression models included socioeconomic, dietary and anthropometric confounders from early life and adulthood. Protein intake relative to needs at age 2 years was positively associated with BMI and lean mass at age 22 years, but intakes at ages 11, 15 and 22 years were inversely associated with early adulthood BMI. Individuals were classified into four mutually exclusive trajectories: (i) normal consumers (referent trajectory, 58 % of cohort), (ii) high protein consumers in infancy (20 %), (iii) usually high consumers (18 %) and (iv) always high consumers (5 %). Compared with the normal consumers, 'usually high' consumption was inversely associated with BMI, lean mass and fat mass at age 22 years whereas 'always high' consumption was inversely associated with male lean mass in males. Proximal protein intakes were more important contributors to early adult BMI relative to early-childhood protein intake; protein intake history was differentially associated with adulthood body size.

  3. Early Life Protein Intake: Food Sources, Correlates, and Tracking across the First 5 Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Abbott, Gavin; Zheng, Miaobing; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    High consumption of protein has been associated with accelerated growth and adiposity in early childhood. To describe intake, food sources, correlates, and tracking of protein in young children. Secondary analysis of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT). Dietary data were collected using three 24-hour dietary recalls at ages 9 and 18 months as well as 3.5 and 5 years. First-time mothers and their child (n=542) participated in an 18-month intervention to prevent childhood obesity and the cohort was followed-up with no intervention when children were aged 3.5 and 5 years. Protein intake, food sources, correlates, and tracking of protein. Child and maternal correlates of protein intake were identified using linear regression and tracking of protein intake was examined using Pearson correlations of residualized protein scores between time points. Mean protein (grams per day) intake was 29.7±11.0, 46.3±11.5, 54.2±13.8, and 60.0±14.8 at 9 and 18 months and 3.5 and 5 years, respectively. Protein intakes at all ages were two to three times greater than age-appropriate Australian recommendations. The primary source of protein at 9 months was breast/formula milk. At later ages, the principal sources were milk/milk products, breads/cereals, and meat/meat products. Earlier breastfeeding cessation, earlier introduction of solids, high dairy milk consumption (≥500 mL), and high maternal education were significant predictors of high protein intake at various times (P<0.05). Slight tracking was found for protein intakes at 9 months, 18 months, and 5 years (r=0.16 to 0.21; P<0.01). This study provides unique insights into food sources and correlates of young children's high protein intakes, and confirms that early protein intakes track slightly up to age 5 years. These finding have potential to inform nutrition interventions and strategies to address high protein intakes and protein-related obesity risk. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and

  4. Effects of high versus standard early protein intake on growth of extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Luca; Cota, Francesco; Gallini, Francesca; Lauriola, Valeria; Zecca, Chiara; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2007-01-01

    Early provision of protein has been shown to limit catabolism and could improve growth. Our objective was to determine whether early aggressive protein intake improved growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. ELBW infants were included in the study if they had no major congenital anomalies or renal failure and were still hospitalized at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 25 infants (HP) the early protein intake was planned to be 20% greater than in 31 historical controls (SP). The 2 groups were similar in the baseline characteristics. The mean protein intake during the first 14 days of life was significantly greater in the HP group (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 2.5 +/- 0.2 g/kg/d; P<0.0001). HP group showed lower postnatal weight loss (-3.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI] -5.9, -0.2) and earlier regain of birth weight (-4.1 days; 95% CI -6.6, -1.7). Mean blood urea nitrogen and bicarbonate levels were similar; mean serum glucose level was lower in the HP group (-21,7 mg/dL; 95% CI -41.9,-1.5). HP infants had a reduced fall in weight z score (-0.57; 95% CI -1.01, -0.12) and in length z score (-0.51; 95% CI -0.97, -0.05) from birth to discharge. Early high protein intake was associated with improved weight and length growth outcomes at discharge. These findings highlight the benefits of aggressive protein intake immediately after birth.

  5. Early Programming by Protein Intake: The Effect of Protein on Adiposity Development and the Growth and Functionality of Vital Organs

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Veronica; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Escribano, Joaquín; Ferré, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of protein intake on metabolic programming early in life. The observations that breastfeeding in infancy reduces the risk of being overweight and obese later in life and the differences in the protein content between formula milk and human milk have generated the early protein hypothesis. The present review focuses on a mechanistic approach to programmed adiposity and the growth and development of other organs by protein intake in infancy, which may be mediated by branched-chain amino acids, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 via the mammalian target of rapamycin. Observational studies and clinical trials have shown that lowering the protein content in infant and follow-on formulas may reduce the risk of becoming obese later in life. The recent body of evidence is currently being translated into new policies. Therefore, the evolution of European regulatory laws and recommendations by expert panels on the protein content of infant and follow-on formulas are also reviewed. Research gaps, such as the critical window for programming adiposity by protein intake, testing formulas with modified amino acids, and the long-term consequences of differences in protein intake on organ functionality among well-nourished infants, have been identified. PMID:27013888

  6. Early energy and protein intakes and associations with growth, BPD, and ROP in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Klevebro, Susanna; Westin, Vera; Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth; Norman, Mikael; Domellöf, Magnus; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Hallberg, Boubou

    2018-05-29

    Extremely preterm infants face substantial neonatal morbidity. Nutrition is important to promote optimal growth and organ development in order to reduce late neonatal complications. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of early nutritional intakes on growth and risks of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a high-risk population. This population-based cohort study includes infants born before 27 0/7 weeks of gestational age without severe malformations and surviving ≥10 days. Intake of energy and protein on postnatal days 4-6 and association with weight standard deviation score (WSDS) from birth to day 7, as well as intakes of energy and protein on postnatal days 4-6 and 7 to 27, respectively, and association with composite outcome of death and BPD and separate outcomes of BPD and ROP were examined, and adjusted for potential confounders. The cohort comprised 296 infants with a median gestational age of 25 3/7 weeks. Expressed as daily intakes, every additional 10 kcal/kg/d of energy during days 4-6 was associated with 0.08 higher WSDS on day 7 (95% CI 0.06-0.11; p < 0.001). Between days 7 and 27, every 10 kcal/kg/d increase in energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of BPD of 9% (95% CI 1-16; p = 0.029) and any grade of ROP with a reduced risk of 6% (95% CI 2-9; p = 0.005) in multivariable models. This association was statistically significant in infants with ≤10 days of mechanical ventilation. In infants with >10 days of mechanical ventilation, a combined higher intake of energy and protein was associated with a reduced risk of BPD. Early provision of energy and protein may reduce postnatal weight loss and risk of morbidity in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary Intake of Protein in Early Childhood Is Associated with Growth Trajectories between 1 and 9 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kim Ve; Erler, Nicole S; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; van den Hooven, Edith H; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-11-01

    High protein intake in infancy might lead to a higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. However, whether these associations differ between different sources of protein is unclear. We investigated associations between the intake of total protein, protein from different sources, and individual amino acids in early childhood and repeatedly measured height, weight, and BMI up to the age of 9 y. This study was performed in 3564 children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, Netherlands. Intakes of total protein, animal protein, vegetable protein, and individual amino acids (including methionine, arginine, lysine, threonine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, histidine, cysteine, tyrosine, alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, proline, and serine) at 1 y were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured at the approximate ages of 14, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 45 mo and at 6 and 9 y, and BMI was calculated. After adjustment for confounders, linear mixed models showed that a 10-g higher total protein intake/d at 1 y was significantly associated with a 0.03-SD greater height (95% CI: 0.00, 0.06), a 0.06-SD higher weight (95% CI: 0.03, 0.09), and a 0.05-SD higher BMI (95% CI: 0.03, 0.08) up to the age of 9 y. Associations were stronger for animal than for vegetable protein intake but did not differ between dairy and nondairy animal protein or between specific amino acids. A higher intake of protein, especially animal protein, at 1 y of age was associated with a greater height, weight, and BMI in childhood up to 9 y of age. Future studies should explore the role of growth hormones and investigate whether protein intake in early childhood affects health later in life. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. [The status of protein intake and energy supply in the early life of very/extremely low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Bi, Chun-Yu; Ru, Xi-Fang; Feng, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xin; Li, Xing; Meng, Jing-Wen

    2013-05-01

    To study the relationship of protein intake and energy supply with the physical growth in very/extremely low birth weight infant at their early life. Retrospective survey was performed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Peking University First Hospital. Inclusion criteria were preterm infant, birth weight < 1500 g, hospitalization for longer than 2 weeks, discharge with body weight greater than 1800 g. The infants were divided into two groups according to gestational age (GA). GA < 32 weeks and ≥ 32 weeks. Physical growth and its relation with the protein intake and energy supply were analyzed. The predictive value of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on protein intake was studied. Ninety-three very/extremely low birth weight infants were involved, 69 in GA < 32 weeks group and 24 in GA ≥ 32 weeks group.Compared with GA ≥ 32 group, GA < 32 weeks preterm infants had more weight loss, (9.2 ± 4.4)% vs. (5.0 ± 3.1)%, P = 0.000; slower birth weight recovery (10.6 ± 3.8) d vs. (7.1 ± 2.6) d, P = 0.000; poorer weight gain at 1, 4, 5 weeks of life, (-4.5 ± 9.3) g/ (kg·d) vs. (3.4 ± 6.9) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.000 , (13.5 ± 7.3) g/ (kg·d) vs. (19.2 ± 4.9) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.001, (14.6 ± 5.6) g/ (kg·d) vs. (18.2 ± 4.5) g/ (kg·d), P = 0.031; less energy supply at 1 to 5 weeks (P value was 0.000,0.000,0.025,0.001,0.008 respectively) and less protein intake at 1, 4, 5 weeks of life (P value was 0.009,0.006,0.032). Extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) was still predominant in our subjects, 47.8% in GA < 32 weeks group, and 95.8% in GA ≥ 32 weeks group, P = 0.000. The incidence increased greater in GA < 32 weeks infants, 43.5% vs. 20.8%, P = 0.000.The duration of weight loss and mechanical ventilation correlated negatively with weight gain rate, respectively β = -0.591, P = 0.000 and β = -0.281, P = 0.005; the average energy supply and time taken to reach full enteral feeding were factors improving weight gain, respectively β = 0.202, P = 0.021 and

  9. Effects of combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation on muscle strength and daily movements in patients with hip fracture in the early postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Masaya; Ichinose, Daisuke; Hirooka, Taku; Mitsutomi, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Yoshitaka; Sarukawa, Junichiro; Nishikino, Shoichi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Kaoru

    2016-08-01

    Elderly patients can be at risk of protein catabolism and malnutrition in the early postoperative period. Whey protein includes most essential amino acids and stimulates the synthesis of muscle protein. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training in combination with whey protein intake in the early postoperative period. We randomized patients to a whey protein group or a control group. The former group received 32.2 g of whey protein pre- and post-rehabilitation in the early postoperative period for two weeks. Outcomes were knee extension strength on either side by Biodex 4.0, and the ability of transfer, walking, toilet use and stair use by the Barthel Index (BI). We performed initial and final assessments in the second and tenth rehabilitation sessions. A total of 38 patients were recruited: 20 in the whey protein group and 18 in the control group. Participants in the whey protein group showed significantly greater improvement in knee extension strength in the operated limb compared with the control group (F = 6.11, P = 0.02). The non-operated limb also showed a similar tendency (F = 3.51, P = 0.07). The abilities of transfer, walking and toilet use showed greater improvements in the whey protein group than in the control group by BI (P < 0.05). The combination of whey protein intake and rehabilitation for two weeks in the early postoperative period has a beneficial effect on knee extension strength in both lower limbs and BI (transfer, walking and toilet use) scores in patients with hip fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    PubMed

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  11. Protein supplements: do they alter dietary intakes?

    PubMed

    Mallard, Alistair R; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of protein versus mixed macronutrient supplementation on total energy intake (TEI) and protein intake during an ad libitum diet were examined. Trained males undertook two, 2-week dietary interventions which were randomized, double blinded, and separated by 2 weeks. These were high-protein supplementation (HP: 1034.5 kJ energy, 29.6 g protein, 8.7 g fat and 12.3 g CHO) and standard meal supplementation (SM: 1039 kJ energy, 9.9 g protein, 9.5 g fat, and 29.4 g CHO) consumed daily following a week of baseline measures. Eighteen participants finished both interventions and one only completed HP. TEI (mean ± SD) was not different between baseline (11148 ± 3347 kJ) and HP (10705 ± 3143 kJ) nor between baseline and SM (12381 ± 3877 kJ), however, TEI was greater with SM than HP (923 ± 4015 kJ p = .043). Protein intake (%TEI) was greater with HP (22.4 ± 6.2%) than baseline (19.4 ± 5.4%; p = .008) but not SM (20.0 ± 5.0%). No differences in absolute daily protein intake were found. Absolute CHO intake was greater with SM than HP (52.0 ± 89.5 g, p = .006). No differences in fat intake were found. Body mass did not change between baseline (82.7 ± 11.2 kg) and either HP (83.1 ± 11.7 kg) or SM (82.9 ± 11.0 kg). Protein supplementation increases the relative proportion of protein in the diet, but doesn't increase the absolute amount of total protein or energy consumed. Thus some compensation by a reduction in other foods occurs. This is in contrast to a mixed nutrient supplement, which does not alter the proportion of protein consumed but does increase TEI.

  12. Increased protein intake in military special operations.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Arny A

    2013-11-01

    Special operations are so designated for the specialized military missions they address. As a result, special operations present some unique metabolic challenges. In particular, soldiers often operate in a negative energy balance in stressful and demanding conditions with little opportunity for rest or recovery. In this framework, findings inferred from the performance literature suggest that increased protein intake may be beneficial. In particular, increased protein intake during negative caloric balance maintains lean body mass and blood glucose production. The addition of protein to mixed macronutrient supplements is beneficial for muscle endurance and power endpoints, and the use of amino acids improves gross and fine motor skills. Increasing protein intake during periods of intense training and/or metabolic demand improves subsequent performance, improves muscular recovery, and reduces symptoms of psychological stress. Consumption of protein before sleep confers the anabolic responses required for the maintenance of lean mass and muscle recovery. A maximal response in muscle protein synthesis is achieved with the consumption of 20-25 g of protein alone. However, higher protein intakes in the context of mixed-nutrient ingestion also confer anabolic benefits by reducing protein breakdown. Restricted rations issued to special operators provide less than the RDA for protein ( ∼ 0.6 g/kg), and these soldiers often rely on commercial products to augment their rations. The provision of reasonable alternatives and/or certification of approved supplements by the U.S. Department of Defense would be prudent.

  13. Dietary protein intake and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortorici, Amanda R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    High-protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low-protein diet (LPD) of 0.6-0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD in the CKD management. Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remains substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the 'Modification of Diet in Renal Disease' (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their ketoanalogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially on nondialysis days. The LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counseling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake, and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting.

  14. Early gene-diet interaction between glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) polymorphism, vegetable and fish intakes in modulating triglyceride levels in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tam, C H T; Wang, Y; Lee, H M; Luk, A O Y; Tong, P C Y; Chan, M H M; Ozaki, R; Kong, A P S; So, W Y; Chan, J C N; Ma, R C W

    2015-10-01

    The benefits of dietary vegetable and fish consumptions on improving glucose and lipid metabolism have been well established. Recently, the T-allele of a common genetic variant rs780094 at glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) was reported to be associated with elevated triglyceride (TG) levels but reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and type 2 diabetes risk. However, the dietary modulation on genetic risk is not clearly understood. A cohort of 2095 Chinese adolescents (mean age 15.6 ± 2.0 years, 45.3% male) recruited from a population-based school survey for cardiovascular risk factor assessment, with dietary data including weekly vegetable and fish consumptions as well as clinical data were genotyped for the GCKR rs780094 polymorphism. In the linear regression analysis with adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, and socioeconomic status (school banding, paternal and maternal education levels), the frequency of vegetable intake per week was inversely associated with FPG (P = 0.044). Individuals with low fish intake generally had elevated TG levels but reduced TC, HDL-C and LDL-C (0.006 < P < 0.029). We also observed significant associations of the minor T-allele of GCKR rs780094 with decreased FPG (P = 0.013) and increased TG levels (P = 2.7 × 10(-8)). There were significant gene-diet interactions between rs780094 and vegetable consumption (P(interaction) = 0.009), and between rs780094 and fish consumption (P(interaction) = 0.031) in modulating TG levels. The T-allele of GCKR locus was associated with higher TG levels amongst individuals with ≥7 vegetable meals per week (P = 6.4 × 10(-9)), and among individuals with <7 fish meals per week (P = 0.020 and 7.0 × 10(-7) for 4-6 and ≤3 meals per week, respectively). High intake of vegetable exerted a reduction in TG levels only among CC genotype carriers (Ptrend = 0.020), while high intake of fish was associated with reduced TG levels only among TT genotype carriers (Ptrend = 0.026). In summary, our data

  15. Dietary Protein Intake and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Gang Jee; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Tortoricci, Amanda R.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review High protein intake may lead to increased intraglomerular pressure and glomerular hyperfiltration. This can cause damage to glomerular structure leading to or aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hence, a low protein diet (LPD) of 0.6–0.8 g/kg/day is often recommended for the management of CKD. We reviewed the effect of protein intake on incidence and progression of CKD and the role of LPD the CKD management. Recent findings Actual dietary protein consumption in CKD patients remain substantially higher than the recommendations for LPD. Notwithstanding the inconclusive results of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, the largest randomized controlled trial to examine protein restriction in CKD, several prior and subsequent studies and meta-analyses including secondary analyses of the MDRD data appear to support the role of LPD on retarding progression of CKD and delaying initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy. LPD can also be used to control metabolic derangements in CKD. Supplemented LPD with essential amino acids or their keto-analogs may be used for incremental transition to dialysis especially in non-dialysis days. An LPD management in lieu of dialysis therapy can reduce costs, enhance psychological adaptation, and preserve residual renal function upon transition to dialysis. Adherence and adequate protein and energy intake should be ensured to avoid protein-energy wasting. Summary A balanced and individualized dietary approach based on LPD should be elaborated with periodic dietitian counselling and surveillance to optimize management of CKD, to assure adequate protein and energy intake and to avoid or correct protein-energy wasting. PMID:27801685

  16. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Emma L.; Collins, Carmel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This review aimed to investigate the relationship between varying levels of enteral protein intake and growth in preterm infants, regardless of feeding method. Data Sources. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, as were review articles, reference lists, and text books. Study Selection. Trials were included if they were randomized or quasirandomized, participants were <37 weeks gestation at birth, and protein intakes were intentionally or statistically different between study groups. Trials reporting weight, length, and head circumference gains in infants fed formula, human milk, or fortified human milk were included. Data Extraction. Studies were categorized by feeding-type and relevant data were extracted into summary tables by one reviewer and cross-checked by a second. Data Synthesis. A meta-analysis could not be conducted due to extensive variability among studies; thus, results were synthesized graphically and narratively. Twenty-four trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in a narrative synthesis and 19 in a graphical synthesis of study results. Conclusions. There was extensive variability in study design, participant characteristics, and study quality. Nonetheless, results are fairly consistent that higher protein intake results in increased growth with graphical representation indicating a potentially linear relationship. Additionally, intakes as high as 4.5 g/kg/day were shown to be safe in infants weighing >1000 g. PMID:27335914

  17. Do recommended protein intakes improve neurodevelopment in extremely preterm babies?

    PubMed

    Cester, E A; Bloomfield, F H; Taylor, J; Smith, S; Cormack, B E

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether achieving recommended protein intakes for extremely low birthweight (ELBW; birth weight <1000 g) babies, resulting in better growth, improves neurodevelopmental outcomes. A prospective cohort study of ELBW babies before and after the introduction of a new nutritional policy designed to meet international consensus protein recommendations. Forty-five children born 'before' and 42 born 'after' the policy change were assessed at 2 years' corrected age (CA). Associations between nutritional intakes, growth and neurodevelopmental outcome (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third edition (Bayley-III), motor and sensory impairment) were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Bayley-III cognitive (mean (SD) 96 (12) vs 96 (15)), motor (96 (13) vs 95 (15)) or language scores (89 (11) vs 91 (17)) were not different between the 'before' and 'after' cohorts. In the 'before' cohort, motor scores were positively associated with enteral nutrition intakes and growth velocity. Neither were sensory impairments different between groups (visual impairment 4 vs 2, hearing impairment 2 vs 0) nor was the gross motor function classification score (any cerebral palsy 2 vs 1). In this prospective cohort study, increasing intravenous and enteral protein intakes to recommended levels in the first month after birth was not associated with improved cognitive, language or motor scores or decreased sensory impairments at 2 years' CA despite significantly improved early growth and reduced postnatal faltering growth. Appropriate randomised controlled trials are needed to answer definitively whether higher early protein intakes improve neurodevelopmental outcome in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Whey proteins in the regulation of food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Akhavan, Tina; Anderson, G Harvey

    2007-12-01

    Whey protein has potential as a functional food component to contribute to the regulation of body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both short-term and long-term food intake regulation. Because whey is an inexpensive source of high nutritional quality protein, the utilization of whey as a physiologically functional food ingredient for weight management is of current interest. At present, the role of individual whey proteins and peptides in contributing to food intake regulation has not been fully defined. However, Whey protein reduces short-term food intake relative to placebo, carbohydrate and other proteins. Whey protein affects satiation and satiety by the actions of: (1) whey protein fractions per se; (2) bioactive peptides; (3) amino-acids released after digestion; (4) combined action of whey protein and/or peptides and/or amino acids with other milk constituents. Whey ingestion activates many components of the food intake regulatory system. Whey protein is insulinotropic, and whey-born peptides affect the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore whey protein has potential as physiologically functional food component for persons with obesity and its co-morbidities (hypertension, type II diabetes, hyper- and dislipidemia). It remains unclear, however, if the favourable effects of whey on food intake, subjective satiety and intake regulatory mechanisms in humans are obtained from usual serving sizes of dairy products. The effects described have been observed in short-term experiments and when whey is consumed in much higher amounts.

  19. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause.

    PubMed

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P -trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P -trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  20. Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources.

    PubMed

    Tieland, Michael; Borgonjen-Van den Berg, Karin J; Van Loon, Luc J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2015-11-25

    Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60%) with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80%) provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, while during breakfast and lunch a large proportion of

  1. Homeostatic regulation of protein intake: in search of a mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Scott D.; Henagan, Tara M.

    2012-01-01

    Free-living organisms must procure adequate nutrition by negotiating an environment in which both the quality and quantity of food vary markedly. Recent decades have seen marked progress in our understanding of neural regulation of feeding behavior. However, this progress has occurred largely in the context of energy intake, despite the fact that food intake is influenced by more than just the energy content of the diet. A large number of behavioral studies indicate that both the quantity and quality of dietary protein can markedly influence food intake. High-protein diets tend to reduce intake, low-protein diets tend to increase intake, and rodent models seem to self-select between diets in order to meet protein requirements and avoid diets that are imbalanced in amino acids. Recent work suggests that the amino acid leucine regulates food intake by altering mTOR and AMPK signaling in the hypothalamus, while activation of GCN2 within the anterior piriform cortex contributes to the detection and avoidance of amino acid-imbalanced diets. This review focuses on the role that these and other signaling systems may play in mediating the homeostatic regulation of protein balance, and in doing so, highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the physiological and neurobiological mechanisms that might underpin such a regulatory phenomenon. PMID:22319049

  2. Relationship between protein intake and dynapenia in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Filion, M E; Barbat-Artigas, S; Dupontgand, S; Fex, A; Karelis, A D; Aubertin-Leheudre, M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between protein intake and dynapenia. A cross-sectional/observational study. Department of Kinanthropology at the University of Quebec at Montreal. Seventy-two non-frail postmenopausal women aged between 50 to 75 years were recruited. Body weight (BW), lean body mass (LBM; %) and skeletal muscle mass (bio-electrical impedancemetry analysis), maximum voluntary handgrip strength (using hand dynamometer), aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and dietary intake were measured. Women were divided according to dynapenia criteria. The strongest correlation between muscle strength and protein intake was observed when we express the amount of protein in g/d/BW. No differences for age, BMI, status of menopause, fat mass and VO2peak were observed between non-dynapenic, type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic women, independently of the criteria used. We observed significant differences in protein intake (g/d/BW) between non-dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) as well as between type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic (p<0.01) when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and in kg/LBM, respectively. It should be noted that no differences in LBM between the three groups were observed when dynapenia was expressed in kg/BW and kg/LBM. Protein intake for all groups respected the RDA of 0.8 to 1.2 g/d/BW (non-dynapenic: 1.44/1.38; type I dynapenic: 1.30/1.33; type II dynapenic: 1.05/1.08 g/d/BW). Protein intake seems to play a role in the development of dynapenia particularly at the level of type II dynapenia. Therefore, an increase in the recommended daily allowance for protein intake may be warranted.

  3. Pressure ulcer healing promoted by adequate protein intake in rats

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhanfen; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yanan; Tian, Yiqing; Sun, Sujuan; Li, Xian

    2018-01-01

    The effect of protein intake on rat pressure ulcer healing was evaluated. One hundred rats were numbered according to body weight and then they were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=25) using the random number table. After rat models of stage II pressure ulcer were established, they were fed with feed containing different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%). Healing time, pressure ulcer area, body weight, albumin (ALB) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels among groups were compared. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was also performed to observe pressure ulcer tissue structure. In the healing process of pressure ulcer, rats with 20% protein intake had the shortest healing time and the smallest pressure ulcer area. Body weight, ALB and Hb levels were much closer to the normal level. H&E staining result also suggested that the pressure ulcer healing degree of rats with 20% protein intake was much better than the others. Adequate protein intake is therefore conducive to pressure ulcer healing, while excessive or insufficient protein intake has negative impact on healing. PMID:29731816

  4. Pressure ulcer healing promoted by adequate protein intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhanfen; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yanan; Tian, Yiqing; Sun, Sujuan; Li, Xian

    2018-05-01

    The effect of protein intake on rat pressure ulcer healing was evaluated. One hundred rats were numbered according to body weight and then they were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=25) using the random number table. After rat models of stage II pressure ulcer were established, they were fed with feed containing different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%). Healing time, pressure ulcer area, body weight, albumin (ALB) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels among groups were compared. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was also performed to observe pressure ulcer tissue structure. In the healing process of pressure ulcer, rats with 20% protein intake had the shortest healing time and the smallest pressure ulcer area. Body weight, ALB and Hb levels were much closer to the normal level. H&E staining result also suggested that the pressure ulcer healing degree of rats with 20% protein intake was much better than the others. Adequate protein intake is therefore conducive to pressure ulcer healing, while excessive or insufficient protein intake has negative impact on healing.

  5. Considerations for protein intake in managing weight loss in athletes.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Hector, Amy J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of evidence now shows that higher protein intakes (2-3 times the protein Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg/d) during periods of energy restriction can enhance fat-free mass (FFM) preservation, particularly when combined with exercise. The mechanisms underpinning the FFM-sparing effect of higher protein diets remain to be fully elucidated but may relate to the maintenance of the anabolic sensitivity of skeletal muscle to protein ingestion. From a practical point of view, athletes aiming to reduce fat mass and preserve FFM should be advised to consume protein intakes in the range of ∼1.8-2.7 g kg(-1) d(-1) (or ∼2.3-3.1 g kg(-1) FFM) in combination with a moderate energy deficit (-500 kcal) and the performance of some form of resistance exercise. The target level of protein intake within this recommended range requires consideration of a number of case-specific factors including the athlete's body composition, habitual protein intake and broader nutrition goals. Athletes should focus on consuming high-quality protein sources, aiming to consume protein feedings evenly spaced throughout the day. Post-exercise consumption of 0.25-0.3 g protein meal(-1) from protein sources with high leucine content and rapid digestion kinetics (i.e. whey protein) is recommended to optimise exercise-induced muscle protein synthesis. When protein is consumed as part of a mixed macronutrient meal and/or before bed slightly higher protein doses may be optimal.

  6. Variation in Protein Intake Induces Variation in Spider Silk Expression

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Wu, Chun-Lin; Tso, I-Min

    2012-01-01

    Background It is energetically expensive to synthesize certain amino acids. The proteins (spidroins) of spider major ampullate (MA) silk, MaSp1 and MaSp2, differ in amino acid composition. Glutamine and proline are prevalent in MaSp2 and are expensive to synthesize. Since most orb web spiders express high proline silk they might preferentially attain the amino acids needed for silk from food and shift toward expressing more MaSp1 in their MA silk when starved. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed three spiders; Argiope aetherea, Cyrtophora moluccensis and Leucauge blanda, high protein, low protein or no protein solutions. A. aetherea and L. blanda MA silks are high in proline, while C. moluccesnsis MA silks are low in proline. After 10 days of feeding we determined the amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of each species' MA silk and compared them between species and treatments with pre-treatment samples, accounting for ancestry. We found that the proline and glutamine of A. aetherea and L. blanda silks were affected by protein intake; significantly decreasing under the low and no protein intake treatments. Glutmaine composition in C. moluccensis silk was likewise affected by protein intake. However, the composition of proline in their MA silk was not significantly affected by protein intake. Conclusions Our results suggest that protein limitation induces a shift toward different silk proteins with lower glutamine and/or proline content. Contradictions to the MaSp model lie in the findings that C. moluccensis MA silks did not experience a significant reduction in proline and A. aetherea did not experience a significant reduction in serine on low/no protein. The mechanical properties of the silks could not be explained by a MaSp1 expressional shift. Factors other than MaSp expression, such as the expression of spidroin-like orthologues, may impact on silk amino acid composition and spinning and glandular processes may impact mechanics. PMID:22363691

  7. Protein Enrichment of Familiar Foods as an Innovative Strategy to Increase Protein Intake in Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Beelen, J; de Roos, N M; de Groot, L C P G M

    2017-01-01

    To increase the protein intake of older adults, protein enrichment of familiar foods and drinks might be an effective and attractive alternative for oral nutritional supplements (ONS). We performed a pilot study to test whether these products could help institutionalized elderly to reach a protein intake of 1.2 gram per kg body weight per day (g/kg/d). Intervention study with one treatment group (no control group). Dietary assessment was done before and at the end of a 10-day intervention. Two care facilities in Gelderland, the Netherlands: a residential care home and a rehabilitation center. 22 elderly subjects (13 women, 9 men; mean age 83.0±9.4 years). We used a variety of newly developed protein enriched regular foods and drinks, including bread, soups, fruit juices, and instant mashed potatoes. Dietary intake was assessed on two consecutive days before and at the end of the intervention, using food records filled out by research assistants. Energy and macronutrient intake was calculated using the 2013 Dutch food composition database. Changes in protein intake were evaluated using paired t-tests. Protein intake increased by 11.8 g/d (P=0.003); from 0.96 to 1.14 g/kg/d (P=0.002). This increase is comparable to protein provided by one standard portion of ONS. The intake of energy and other macronutrients did not change significantly. At the end of the intervention more elderly reached a protein intake level of 1.2 g/kg/d than before (9 vs 4). Protein intake significantly increased during breakfast (+3.7 g) and during the evening (+2.2 g). Including familiar protein enriched foods and drinks in the menu helped to meet protein recommendations in institutionalized elderly.

  8. Perceived protein needs and measured protein intake in collegiate male athletes: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Fox, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Breitbach, Anthony P; Weiss, Edward P

    2011-06-21

    Protein needs for athletes are likely higher than those for the general population. However, athletes may perceive their protein needs to be excessively high. The purpose of this research was to compare collegiate athletes' perceived protein needs and measured protein intake to the recommended protein intake (RDI) for healthy adults (i.e. 0.8 g/kg/d) and to the maximum beneficial level for strength-trained athletes (i.e. 2.0 g/kg/day). Perceived protein needs were quantified in 42 strength-trained collegiate male athletes by using a survey that asked the athletes to provide their perception about protein needs in specific quantitative terms (i.e. g/kg/d). Perceived protein needs were also determined by having the athletes select a daylong menu that they perceived to have adequate protein content from a collection of 5 isoenergetic menus, which differed in terms of protein content. Actual protein intake was quantified using 3-day food records and nutrient analysis. Single sample t-tests were used to compare protein intake and perceived protein needs to 0.8 g/kg/day and 2.0 g/kg/day. When asked to provide, in quantitative terms, protein needs for athletes, 67% of the athletes indicated "do not know." Of the remaining 33% of athletes, all gave values greater than 2.0 g/kg/d (mean 21.5 ± 11.2 g/kg/d, p = 0.14 vs. 2.0 g/kg/d). Based on the menu selection method for determining perceived protein needs, the athletes indicated that their protein needs were 2.4 ± 0.2 g/kg/d, which was greater than the RDI for protein (p < 0.0001) and tended to be greater than the maximally beneficial protein intake of 2.0 g/kg/d (p = 0.13). Measured protein intake was 2.0 ± 0.1 g/kg/d, which was greater than the RDI (p < 0.0001) but not different from the maximally beneficial protein intake of 2.0 g/kg/d (p = 0.84). Male collegiate athletes recognize that their protein needs are higher than that of the general population and consume significantly more protein than recommended in the RDI

  9. High Dietary Protein Intake and Protein-Related Acid Load on Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J

    2017-12-01

    Consumption of high-protein diets is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lean mass and controlling appetite and satiety. The paper is to review recent clinical research assessing dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone health. Epidemiological studies show that long-term, high-protein intake is positively associated with bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fracture incidence. Short-term interventional studies demonstrate that a high-protein diet does not negatively affect calcium homeostasis. Existing evidence supports that the negative effects of the acid load of protein on urinary calcium excretion are offset by the beneficial skeletal effects of high-protein intake. Future research should focus on the role and the degree of contribution of other dietary and physiological factors, such as intake of fruits and vegetables, in reducing the acid load and further enhancing the anabolic effects of protein on the musculoskeletal system.

  10. Associations of Dietary Protein and Energy Intakes With Protein-Energy Wasting Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Wei, Guo; Chen, Xiaorui; Boucher, Robert; Kiani, Rabia; Raj, Dominic; Chonchol, Michel; Greene, Tom; Murtaugh, Maureen A

    2017-09-01

    The associations of dietary protein and/or energy intakes with protein or energy wasting in patients on maintenance hemodialysis are controversial. We examined these in the Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study. In 1487 participants in the HEMO Study, baseline dietary protein intake (grams per kilogram per day) and dietary energy intake (kilocalories per kilograms per day) were related to the presence of the protein-energy wasting (PEW) syndrome at month 12 (defined as the presence of at least 1 criteria in 2 of the 3 categories of low serum chemistry, low body mass, and low muscle mass) in logistic regression models. In additional separate models, protein intake estimated from equilibrated normalized protein catabolic rate (enPCR) was also related to the PEW syndrome. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of baseline dietary protein intake was paradoxically associated with increased risk of the PEW syndrome at month 12 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79-6.05). This relationship was completely attenuated (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 0.88-2.06) with adjustment for baseline body weight, which suggested mathematical coupling. Results were similar for dietary energy intake. Compared with the lowest quartile of baseline enPCR, the highest quartile was not associated with the PEW syndrome at 12 months (OR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.54-1.12). These data do not support the use of dietary protein intake or dietary energy intake criteria in the definition of the PEW syndrome in patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

  11. Protein intake from 0 to 18 years of age and its relation to health: a systematic literature review for the 5th Nordic Nutrition Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Hörnell, Agneta; Lagström, Hanna; Lande, Britt; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The present systematic literature review is a part of the 5th revision of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The aim was to assess the health effects of different levels of protein intake in infancy and childhood in a Nordic setting. The initial literature search resulted in 435 abstracts, and 219 papers were identified as potentially relevant. Full paper selection resulted in 37 quality-assessed papers (4A, 30B, and 3C). A complementary search found four additional papers (all graded B). The evidence was classified as convincing, probable, limited-suggestive, and limited-inconclusive. Higher protein intake in infancy and early childhood is convincingly associated with increased growth and higher body mass index in childhood. The first 2 years of life is likely most sensitive to high protein intake. Protein intake between 15 E% and 20 E% in early childhood has been associated with an increased risk of being overweight later in life, but the exact level of protein intake above which there is an increased risk for being overweight later in life is yet to be established. Increased intake of animal protein in childhood is probably related to earlier puberty. There was limited-suggestive evidence that intake of animal protein, especially from dairy, has a stronger association with growth than vegetable protein. The evidence was limited-suggestive for a positive association between total protein intake and bone mineral content and/or other bone variables in childhood and adolescence. Regarding other outcomes, there were too few published studies to enable any conclusions. In conclusion, the intake of protein among children in the Nordic countries is high and may contribute to increased risk of later obesity. The upper level of a healthy intake is yet to be firmly established. In the meantime, we suggest a mean intake of 15 E% as an upper limit of recommended intake at 12 months, as a higher intake may contribute to increased risk for later obesity. PMID:23717219

  12. Protein leverage affects energy intake of high-protein diets in humans.

    PubMed

    Martens, Eveline A; Lemmens, Sofie G; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-01

    The protein leverage hypothesis requires specific evidence that protein intake is regulated more strongly than energy intake. The objective was to determine ad libitum energy intake, body weight changes, and appetite profile in response to protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratio over 12 consecutive days and in relation to age, sex, BMI, and type of protein. A 12-d randomized crossover study was performed in 40 men and 39 women [mean ± SD age: 34.0 ± 17.6 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 23.7 ± 3.4] with the use of diets containing 5%, 15%, and 30% of energy from protein from a milk or plant source. Protein-content effects did not differ by age, sex, BMI, or type of protein. Total energy intake was significantly lower in the high-protein (7.21 ± 3.08 MJ/d) condition than in the low-protein (9.33 ± 3.52 MJ/d) and normal-protein (9.62 ± 3.51 MJ/d) conditions (P = 0.001), which was predominantly the result of a lower energy intake from meals (P = 0.001). Protein intake varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet (P = 0.001). The AUC of visual analog scale appetite ratings did not differ significantly, yet fluctuations in hunger (P = 0.019) and desire to eat (P = 0.026) over the day were attenuated in the high-protein condition compared with the normal-protein condition. We found evidence to support the protein leverage hypothesis in that individuals underate relative to energy balance from diets containing a higher protein-to-carbohydrate + fat ratio. No evidence for protein leverage effects from diets containing a lower ratio of protein to carbohydrate + fat was obtained. It remains to be shown whether a relatively low protein intake would cause overeating or would be the effect of overeating of carbohydrate and fat. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01320189.

  13. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants <30 weeks GA at birth in three newborn intensive care units NICUs. Results: During the first week of life, the percentages of prescribed and delivered energy (69% [65 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (p<0.03). A difference of 1 g/kg/day represents a total deficit of 42 - 54 grams over the course of a month. At 36 weeks' PMA, 53% of the VLBW infants had extrauterine growth restriction, or EUGR (<10th percentile) on the Fenton growth grid and 34% had EUGR on the Lubchenco growth grid. Conclusions: The delivered nutrient intakes were consistently less

  14. Early experience with diverse foods increases intake of nonfamiliar flavors and feeds in sheep.

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2012-08-01

    This study determined whether early experiences by sheep with monotonous or diverse diets influence intake of unfamiliar flavors and feeds later in life. Thirty 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatment diets (n = 10): diverse (DIV), diverse with plant toxins (DIV+T), and monotonous (MON). Lambs in DIV received in 9 successive periods of exposure 4-way choice combinations of 2 foods high in energy and 2 foods high in protein from an array of 6 foods: 3 high in energy [beet pulp, oat grain, and a mix of milo:grape pomace (60:40)] and 3 high in digestible protein (DP) (soybean meal, alfalfa, corn gluten meal). Lambs in DIV+T received the same exposure as DIV, but 2 plant toxins, oxalic acid (1.5%) and quebracho tannins (10%), were randomly added to 2 of the feeds in each of the choice combinations. Lambs in MON received a monotonous balanced diet, made with a mixture of all 6 feeds detailed before. All treatments received their feed in 4 separate buckets. During exposure, treatments did not differ in total daily DMI (P = 0.31), but daily intake of ME was less (P < 0.02) and daily intake of DP was greater (P < 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. Treatments did not differ in ADG or G:F (P > 0.05). After exposure, lambs were offered a familiar feed (wheat bran) containing novel flavors (maple, garlic, or bitter) and 2-way choices of novel feeds (fescue hay vs. corn distillers grains, rice vs. calf manna, and green peas vs. rolled oats). Intake of maple-flavored wheat bran tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for lambs in DIV than for lambs in DIV+T and MON. Intake of bitter-flavored and garlic-flavored wheat bran were greater (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in MON. During 2-way choice trials, lambs in DIV, but not in DIV+T, showed greater intakes of fescue hay (P = 0.05) and rice (P = 0.04) than lambs in MON. Intake of green peas was greater (P = 0.03) for lambs in DIV and DIV+T than for lambs in

  15. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Jenna B; Trommelen, Jorn; Wardenaar, Floris C; Brinkmans, Naomi Y J; Versteegen, Joline J; Jonvik, Kristin L; Kapp, Christoph; de Vries, Jeanne; van den Borne, Joost J G C; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-04-01

    Dietary protein intake should be optimized in all athletes to ensure proper recovery and enhance the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. In addition to total protein intake, the use of specific proteincontaining food sources and the distribution of protein throughout the day are relevant for optimizing protein intake in athletes. In the present study, we examined the daily intake and distribution of various proteincontaining food sources in a large cohort of strength, endurance and team-sport athletes. Well-trained male (n=327) and female (n=226) athletes completed multiple web-based 24-hr dietary recalls over a 2-4 wk period. Total energy intake, the contribution of animal- and plant-based proteins to daily protein intake, and protein intake at six eating moments were determined. Daily protein intake averaged 108±33 and 90±24 g in men and women, respectively, which corresponded to relative intakes of 1.5±0.4 and 1.4±0.4 g/kg. Dietary protein intake was correlated with total energy intake in strength (r=0.71, p <.001), endurance (r=0.79, p <.001) and team-sport (r=0.77, p <.001) athletes. Animal and plant-based sources of protein intake was 57% and 43%, respectively. The distribution of protein intake was 19% (19±8 g) at breakfast, 24% (25±13 g) at lunch and 38% (38±15 g) at dinner. Protein intake was below the recommended 20 g for 58% of athletes at breakfast, 36% at lunch and 8% at dinner. In summary, this survey of athletes revealed they habitually consume > 1.2 g protein/kg/d, but the distribution throughout the day may be suboptimal to maximize the skeletal muscle adaptive response to training.

  16. Dietary protein intakes and risk of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Rashvand, Samaneh; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Rashidkhani, Bahram; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) is rising in populations with western-style diet, rich in fat and protein, and low in fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the association between dietary protein intakes and the risk of developing incident UC. Sixty two cases of UC and 124 controls were studied using country-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Group comparisons by each factor were done using χ2 test, and significance level was set at α= 0.05. Logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding variables was carried out. Univariate analysis suggested positive associations between processed meat, red meat and organ meat with risk of ulcerative colitis. Comparing highest versus lowest categories of consumption, multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis accounting for potential confounding variables indicated that patients who consumed a higher amount of processed meat were at a higher risk for developing UC (P value for trend= 0.02). Similarly, patients who consumed higher amounts of red meat were at a higher risk for UC (P value for trend= 0.01). The highest tertile of intake of organ meat was associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis with a statistically significant trend across tertiles (P value for trend= 0.01) when adjusted. In this case-control study we observed that higher consumptions of processed meat, red meat and organ meat were associated with increased risk for UC.

  17. Is the Optimal Level of Protein Intake for Older Adults Greater Than the Recommended Dietary Allowance?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Protein is a macronutrient essential for growth, muscle function, immunity and overall tissue homeostasis. Suboptimal protein intake can significantly impact physical function and overall health in older adults. Methods. This article reviews the literature on the recommendations for protein intake in older adults in light of the new evidence linking protein intake with sarcopenia and physical function. Challenges and opportunities for optimal protein nutrition in older persons are discussed. Results. Recent metabolic and epidemiological studies suggest that the current recommendations of protein intake may not be adequate for maintenance of physical function and optimal health in older adults. Methodological limitations and novel concepts in protein nutrition are also discussed. Conclusion. We conclude that new research and novel research methodologies are necessary to establish the protein needs and optimal patterns of protein intake for older persons. PMID:23183903

  18. Protein intakes and their nutritional sources during the first 2 years of life: secondary data evaluation from the European Childhood Obesity Project.

    PubMed

    Damianidi, L; Gruszfeld, D; Verduci, E; Vecchi, F; Xhonneux, A; Langhendries, J-P; Luque, V; Theurich, M A; Zaragoza-Jordana, M; Koletzko, B; Grote, V

    2016-11-01

    High protein intake in infancy affects future obesity risk and other health outcomes. We aim to describe total protein intake and its sources in a birth cohort in five European countries over the first 2 years of life. A total of 746 formula-fed infants were included. Three-day weighed dietary records at 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months of age were used. Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and Friedman's tests were used to assess possible differences in nutritional intake among countries and over time. Dairy products were the main components of the infants' diets. Cow's milk was rarely introduced before 12 months of age, whereas infants' formula was the main contributor of protein intake. Food choices and protein intake differed among countries (P<0.001). Protein intake often exceeded European recommendations from 9 months onwards, partly because of the substitution of dairy protein (mainly infant formula) by meat protein. Two nutritional patterns were identified that were characterised by differences in energy, fat, protein and animal protein intake. Finally, food consumption was not always in line with protein intakes, and thus infants from some countries showed high consumption of specific food groups but relatively low protein intakes. During weaning, over-limited substitution of dairy products with other sources (especially meat) resulted in relatively high protein intakes in formula-fed infants. Differences in preferences of specific protein sources from complementary foods existed among European countries. Great opportunities in improving early nutrition were revealed, although cultural and geographical differences should always be considered.

  19. Neonatal high protein intake enhances neonatal growth without significant adverse renal effects in spontaneous IUGR piglets.

    PubMed

    Boubred, Farid; Jamin, Agnes; Buffat, Christophe; Daniel, Laurent; Borel, Patrick; Boudry, Gaëlle; Le Huëron-Luron, Isabelle; Simeoni, Umberto

    2017-05-01

    In humans, early high protein (HP) intake has been recommended to prevent postnatal growth restriction and complications of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). However, the impact of such a strategy on the kidneys remains unknown, while significant renal hypertrophy, proteinuria, and glomerular sclerosis have been demonstrated in few experimental studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a neonatal HP formula on renal structure in IUGR piglets. Spontaneous IUGR piglets were randomly allocated to normal protein (NP, n  = 10) formula or to HP formula (+50% protein content, n  = 10) up to day 28 after birth. Body weight, body composition, renal functions, and structure were assessed at the end of the neonatal period. While birth weights were similar, 28-day-old HP piglets were 18% heavier than NP piglets ( P  <   0.01). Carcass protein content was 22% higher in HP than in NP offspring ( P  <   0.01). Despite a HP intake, kidney weight and glomerular fibrosis were unaltered in HP piglets. Only a 20% increase in glomerular volume was noted in HP piglets ( P  < 0.05) and restricted to the inner cortical area nephrons ( P  =   0.03). Plasma urea/creatinine ratio and proteinuria were unchanged in HP piglets. In conclusion, neonatal HP feeding in IUGR piglets significantly enhanced neonatal growth and tissue protein deposition but mildly affected glomerular volume. It can be speculated that a sustained tissue protein anabolism in response to HP intake have limited single nephron glomerular hyperfiltration. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Inadequate dietary protein intake: When does it occur and what are the consequences?

    Previous work with country-level data has shown associations between inadequate protein supply and stunting rates. Inadequate protein intake is known to be deleterious in animals. Low dietary protein intake in children is associated with growth faltering. According to World Health Organization (WHO)...

  1. Agouti-related protein increases food hoarding more than food intake in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Day, Diane E; Bartness, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Agouti-related protein (AgRP), an endogenous melanocortin 3/4 receptor antagonist, appears to play an important role in the control of food intake and energy balance because exogenous administration in rats and overexpression in mice result in hyperphagia and body mass gain. Furthermore, arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA is increased with fasting in laboratory rats and mice and is decreased with refeeding. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also increases arcuate nucleus AgRP mRNA, but these animals increase food hoarding, rather than food intake with refeeding. Therefore, we tested whether exogenous AgRP increased food hoarding in this species. Hamsters were trained in a hoarding/foraging apparatus to run a programmed number of wheel revolutions to earn food pellets. Four doses of AgRP-(83-132) or vehicle were injected into the third ventricle at the beginning of the dark phase, and food hoarding, food intake, and foraging were measured at various time points subsequently. Overall, food hoarding was stimulated as much as 10 times more than food intake, and both responses occurred as early as 1 h after injection. Food hoarding was increased the greatest at the lowest dose (0.1 nmol), whereas food intake was increased the greatest at the second lowest dose (1 nmol). Food intake and especially food hoarding were increased up to seven days after the AgRP injections. Foraging was increased at all AgRP doses except the highest dose (100 nmol). These results suggest that AgRP triggers the search for food in this species, and once they find it, hoarding predominates over eating.

  2. Fruit and Vegetable Intake During Infancy and Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sonia A.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Scanlon, Kelley S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. METHODS: We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). RESULTS: Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. PMID:25183758

  3. Fruit and vegetable intake during infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Kirsten A; Kim, Sonia A; Yaroch, Amy L; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association of timing of introduction and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake during infancy with frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at age 6 years in a cohort of US children. We analyzed data on fruit and vegetable intake during late infancy, age of fruit and vegetable introduction, and frequency of fruit and vegetable intake at 6 years from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II and the Year 6 Follow-Up (Y6FU) Study. We determined the percent of 6-year-old children consuming fruits and vegetables less than once per day and examined associations with infant fruit and vegetable intake using logistic regression modeling, controlling for multiple covariates (n = 1078). Based on maternal report, 31.9% of 6-year-old children consumed fruit less than once daily and 19.0% consumed vegetables less than once daily. In adjusted analyses, children who consumed fruits and vegetables less than once daily during late infancy had increased odds of eating fruits and vegetables less than once daily at age 6 years (fruit, adjusted odds ratio: 2.48; vegetables, adjusted odds ratio: 2.40). Age of introduction of fruits and vegetables was not associated with intake at age 6 years. Our study suggests that infrequent intake of fruits and vegetables during late infancy is associated with infrequent intake of these foods at 6 years of age. These findings highlight the importance of infant feeding guidance that encourages intake of fruits and vegetables and the need to examine barriers to fruit and vegetable intake during infancy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Individual and family correlates of calcium-rich food intake among parents of early adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Reicks, Marla; Ballejos, Miriam Edlefsen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Gunther, Carolyn; Richards, Rickelle; Wong, Siew Sun; Auld, Garry; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine; Cluskey, Mary; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2011-03-01

    Most adults do not meet calcium intake recommendations. Little is known about how individual and family factors, including parenting practices that influence early adolescents' intake of calcium-rich foods, affect calcium intake of parents. This information could inform the development of effective nutrition education programs. To identify individual and family factors associated with intake of calcium-rich foods among parents of early adolescents (aged 10 to 13 years). A cross-sectional survey was used with 14 scales to assess attitudes/preferences and parenting practices regarding calcium-rich foods and a calcium-specific food frequency questionnaire (2006-2007). A convenience sample of self-reporting non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Asian (n=661) parents was recruited in nine states. Parents were the primary meal planner/preparer and completed questionnaires in homes or community settings. Predictors of calcium intake from three food groupings-all food sources, dairy foods, and milk. Multivariate regression analyses identified demographic, attitude/preference, and behavioral factors associated with calcium intake. Most respondents were women (∼90%) and 38% had a college degree. Education was positively associated with calcium intake from all three food groupings, whereas having an Asian spouse compared to a non-Hispanic white spouse was negatively associated with calcium intake only from all food sources and from dairy foods. Expectations for and encouragement of healthy beverage intake for early adolescents were positively associated with calcium intake from dairy foods and milk, respectively. Parental concern regarding adequacy of intake was negatively associated, whereas perception of health benefits from calcium-rich foods was positively associated with calcium intake from all food sources and from dairy foods. Between 20% and 32% of the variance in calcium intake from all food groupings was explained in these models. Individual factors and positive

  5. Predictors for achieving adequate protein and energy intake in nursing home rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    van Zwienen-Pot, J I; Visser, M; Kruizenga, H M

    2018-07-01

    Adequate energy and protein intake could be essential for contributing significantly to the rehabilitations process. Data on the actual nutritional intake of older nursing home rehabilitation patients have not yet been investigated. To investigate the nutritional intake and predictors for achieving protein and energy requirements on the 14th day of admission in nursing home rehabilitation patients. Fifty-nine patients aged 65+ years newly admitted to nursing home rehabilitation wards were included. Data on potential variables were collected on admission. On the fourteenth day nutritional intake was assessed. Intake was considered 'adequate' if patients had achieved ≥ 1.2 g of protein/kg bodyweight and ≥ 85% of their energy needs according to Harris and Benedict + 30%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to select predictors for adequate intake. Protein and energy intake was assessed in 79 patients [67% female, mean age 82 ± (SD) 8 years, BMI 25 ± 6 kg/m 2 ]. Mean energy intake was 1677 kcal (± 433) and mean protein intake was 68 g (± 20). Fourteen patients (18%) achieved an adequate protein and energy intake. Predictors for adequate intake were use of sip/tube feeding (OR = 7.7; 95% CI = 1.35-44.21), BMI (0.68; 0.53-0.87) and nausea (8.59; 1.42-52.01). Only 18% of older nursing home rehabilitation patients had an adequate protein and energy intake at 14 days after admission. Patients with higher BMI were less likely, while those using sip/tube feeding or feeling nauseous were more likely to achieve an adequate protein and energy intake.

  6. Serum uric acid, protein intake and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Christina; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Catabay, Christina J; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-10-01

    The association between serum uric acid (SUA) and mortality has been conflicting among studies using hemodialysis (HD) patients. Given the close link between purine and protein in foods, we hypothesized that normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), a dietary protein intake surrogate, modifies the SUA-mortality association in the HD population. We identified 4298 patients who initiated HD and had one or more SUA measurement in a contemporary cohort of HD patients over 5 years (1 January 2007-31 December 2011), and examined survival probability according to the first uric acid measurement, adjusting for dialysis vintage, case-mix and malnutrition-inflammation complex-related variables. Mean SUA concentration was 6.6 ± 1.8 mg/dL. There was a consistent association of higher SUA with better nutritional status and lower all-cause mortality irrespective of adjusted models (Ptrend < 0.001). In the case-mix adjusted model, the highest SUA category (≥8.0 mg/dL) compared with the reference group (>6.0-7.0 mg/dL) showed no significant mortality risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-1.13], while the lowest category (<5.0 mg/dL) was associated with higher mortality (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.72). The hypouricemia-mortality association was significantly modified by nPCR (Pinteraction = 0.001). Mortality risk of low SUA (<5.0 mg/dL) persisted among patients with low nPCR (<0.9 g/kg/day; HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.10) but not with high nPCR (≥0.9 g/kg/day; HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.74-1.33). SUA may be a nutritional marker in HD patients. Contrary to the general population, low but not high SUA is associated with higher all-cause mortality in HD patients, especially in those with low protein intake. Nutritional features of SUA warrant additional studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean body mass in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Geirsdottir, Olof G; Arnarson, Atli; Ramel, Alfons; Jonsson, Palmi V; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-08-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is important to maintain physical function during aging. We hypothesized that dietary protein intake and leisure-time physical activity are associated with LBM in community-dwelling older adults. To test the hypothesis, participants (n = 237; age, 65-92 years) did 3-day weighed food records and reported physical activity. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Protein intake was 0.98 ± 0.28 and 0.95 ± 0.29 g/kg body weight in male and female participants, respectively. Protein intake (in grams per kilogram of body weight) was associated with LBM (in kilograms); that is, the differences in LBM were 2.3 kg (P < .05) and 2.0 kg (P = .054) between the fourth vs the first and the fourth vs the second quartiles of protein intake, respectively. Only a minor part of this association was explained by increased energy intake, which follows an increased protein intake. Our study shows that dietary protein intake was positively associated with LBM in older adults with a mean protein intake higher than the current recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg per day. Leisure-time physical activity, predominantly consisting of endurance type exercises, was not related to LBM in this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High Protein Intake Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Exacerbates Bone Resorption in Immobility (WISE Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Smith, Scott M.; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Zwart, Sara R.; Baecker, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity, like bed rest (BR), causes insulin resistance (IR) and bone loss even in healthy subjects. High protein intake seems to mitigate this IR but might exacerbate bone loss. We hypothesized that high protein intake (animal:vegetable protein ratio: 60:40), isocaloric, compared to the control group plus high potassium intake would prevent IR without affecting bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 deg head-down-tilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) received 1g/kg body mass/d dietary protein. Nutrition subjects (NUT, n=8) received 1.45g/kg body mass/d dietary protein plus 7.2g branched chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received 1670 kcal/d. Bed rest decreased glucose disposal by 35% (p<0.05) in CON. Isocaloric high protein intake prevented insulin resistance, but exacerbated bed rest induced increase in bone resorption markers C-telopeptide (> 30%) and Ntelopeptide (>20%) (both: p<0.001). Bone formation markers were unaffected by high protein intake. We conclude from these results that high protein intake might positively affect glucose tolerance, but might also foster bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory before high protein intake for diabetic patients, who have an increased fracture risk, might be recommended.

  9. Relationships between early-life growth, intake, and birth season with first-lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chester-Jones, H; Heins, B J; Ziegler, D; Schimek, D; Schuling, S; Ziegler, B; de Ondarza, M B; Sniffen, C J; Broadwater, N

    2017-05-01

    The objective was to determine the relationships between early-life parameters [including average daily gain (ADG), body weight (BW), milk replacer intake, starter intake, and birth season] and the first-lactation performance of Holstein cows. We collected data from birth years 2004 to 2012 for 2,880 Holstein animals. Calves were received from 3 commercial dairy farms and enrolled in 37 different calf research trials at the University of Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center from 3 to 195 d. Upon trial completion, calves were returned to their respective farms. Milk replacer options included varying protein levels and amounts fed, but in the majority of studies, calves were fed a milk replacer containing 20% crude protein and 20% fat at 0.57 kg/calf daily. Most calves (93%) were weaned at 6 wk. Milk replacer dry matter intake, starter intake, ADG, and BW at 6 wk were 21.5 ± 2.2 kg, 17.3 ± 7.3 kg, 0.53 ± 0.13 kg/d, and 62.4 ± 6.8 kg, respectively. Average age at first calving and first-lactation 305-d milk yield were 715 ± 46.5 d and 10,959 ± 1,527 kg, respectively. We conducted separate mixed-model analyses using the REML model-fitting protocol of JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to determine the effect of early-life BW or ADG, milk replacer and starter intake, and birth season on first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and true protein yield. Greater BW and ADG at 6 wk resulted in increased first-lactation milk and milk component yields. Intake of calf starter at 8 wk had a significant positive relationship with first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Milk replacer intake, which varied very little in this data set, had no effect on first-lactation 305-d yield of milk and milk components. Calves born in the fall and winter had greater starter intake, BW, and ADG at 8 wk. However, calves born in the summer had a higher 305-d milk yield during their first lactation than those born in the fall and winter. Improvements were modest, and

  10. [Effects of early supplemental parenteral nutrition on nutrition intakes and clinical outcomes in trauma patients].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gui-zhen; Tang, Li-qun; Duan, Peng-kai; Qiu, Xiao-wen; Su, Lei

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate energy and protein intake changes in early supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) in trauma patients, and to assess its impact on clinical outcomes. Clinical results of patients receiving or not receiving additional PN during the first 7 days after injury were retrospectively analyzed, with a total of 195 patients classified into two groups: control group (n=105) and mixed nutrition group (n=90). The time of nutrition support, intakes of protein and energy within 14 days after trauma, and clinical outcomes were compared between two groups. The degree of injury was comparable between two groups with no significant differences in acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score, injury severity score (ISS) and Glasgow coma score (GCS). Compared with the control group, the mixed nutrition group received parenteral nutritional support earlier (40.0±21.0 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01), with later beginning of enteral nutrition (EN, 75.2±54.5 hours vs. 55.1±23.5 hours, P<0.01) and lower rate of EN in 48 hours after admission [14.4% (13/90) vs. 43.8% (46/105), P<0.01]. The time of restoring oral diet was not different between the mixed nutrition group and control group (10.8±3.7 days vs. 11.4±3.6 days, P>0.05). The energy intake was significantly higher in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group in 3, 7, 14 days (3 days: 3981.6±2209.3 kJ vs. 2683.2±1414.9 kJ, 7 days: 5477.5±2008.4 kJ vs. 3619.1±1429.9 kJ, 14 days: 6250.2±2533.2 kJ vs. 5199.9±1972.7 kJ, P<0.05 or P<0.01). In both groups the protein intake was insufficient, and it was significantly lower in the mixed nutrition group than in the control group on day 3 (20.6±18.4 g vs. 26.5±13.8 g, P<0.05). The patients in the mixed nutrition group had longer hospital stay time (73.9±62.5 days vs. 50.9±33.3 days, P<0.01). The mortality rate of mixed nutrition group and control group was 4.4% (4/90) and 3.8% (4/105) respectively, the rate of infection and acute respiratory

  11. Ultra-processed foods, protein leverage and energy intake in the USA.

    PubMed

    Martínez Steele, Euridice; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that human macronutrient regulation minimizes variation in absolute protein intake and consequently energy intake varies passively with dietary protein density ('protein leverage'). According to the 'protein leverage hypothesis' (PLH), protein leverage interacts with a reduction in dietary protein density to drive energy overconsumption and obesity. Worldwide increase in consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been hypothesized to be an important determinant of dietary protein dilution, and consequently an ecological driving force of energy overconsumption and the obesity pandemic. The present study examined the relationships between dietary contribution of UPF, dietary proportional protein content and the absolute intakes of protein and energy. National representative cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Participants (n 9042) aged ≥2 years with at least one day of 24 h dietary recall data. We found a strong inverse relationship between consumption of UPF and dietary protein density, with mean protein content dropping from 18·2 to 13·3 % between the lowest and highest quintiles of dietary contribution of UPF. Consistent with the PLH, increase in the dietary contribution of UPF (previously shown to be inversely associated with protein density) was also associated with a rise in total energy intake, while absolute protein intake remained relatively constant. The protein-diluting effect of UPF might be one mechanism accounting for their association with excess energy intake. Reducing UPF contribution in the US diet may be an effective way to increase its dietary protein concentration and prevent excessive energy intake.

  12. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate–high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  13. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J.; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect. PMID:26506378

  14. Protein Beverage vs. Protein Gel on Appetite Control and Subsequent Food Intake in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Leidy, Heather J; Vardhanabhuti, Bongkosh

    2015-10-21

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of food form and physicochemical properties of protein snacks on appetite and subsequent food intake in healthy adults. Twelve healthy subjects received a standardized breakfast and then 2.5 h post-breakfast consumed the following snacks, in randomized order: 0 kcal water (CON) or 96 kcal whey protein snacks as beverages with a pH of either 3.0 (Bev-3.0) or 7.0 (Bev-7.0) or gels as acid (Gel-Acid) or heated (Gel-Heated). In-vitro study showed that Bev-3.0 was more resistant to digestion than Bev-7.0, while Gel-Acid and Gel-Heated had similar digestion pattern. Appetite questionnaires were completed every 20 min until an ad libitum lunch was provided. Post-snack hunger, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption were lower following the beverages and gels vs. CON (all, p < 0.05), and post-snack fullness was greater following the snacks (except for the Bev-3.0) vs. CON (all, p < 0.05). Gel-Heated treatment led to lower prospective food consumption vs. Bev-3.0; however, no other differences were detected. Although all snacks reduced energy intake vs. CON, no differences were observed among treatments. This study suggested that whey protein in either liquid or solid form improves appetite, but the physicochemical property of protein has a minimal effect.

  15. Dietary Protein in Older Adults: Adequate Daily Intake but Potential for Improved Distribution.

    PubMed

    Cardon-Thomas, Danielle K; Riviere, Timothy; Tieges, Zoë; Greig, Carolyn A

    2017-02-23

    Daily distribution of dietary protein may be important in protecting against sarcopenia, specifically in terms of per meal amounts relative to a proposed threshold for maximal response. The aims of this study were to determine total and per meal protein intake in older adults, as well as identifying associations with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Three-day food diaries recorded protein intake in 38 participants. Protein distribution, coefficient of variation (CV), and per meal amounts were calculated. Accelerometry was used to collect physical activity data as well as volume and patterns of sedentary time. Average intake was 1.14 g·kg -1 ·day -1 . Distribution was uneven (CV = 0.67), and 79% of participants reported <0.4 g·kg -1 protein content in at least 2/3 daily meals. Protein intake was significantly correlated with step count ( r = 0.439, p = 0.007) and negatively correlated with sedentary time ( r = -0.456, p = 0.005) and Gini index G, which describes the pattern of accumulation of sedentary time ( r = -0.421, p = 0.011). Total daily protein intake was sufficient; however, distribution did not align with the current literature; increasing protein intake may help to facilitate optimization of distribution. Associations between protein and other risk factors for sarcopenia may also inform protective strategies.

  16. Patterns of Protein Food Intake Are Associated with Nutrient Adequacy in the General French Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Gavelle, Erwan de; Huneau, Jean-François; Mariotti, François

    2018-02-17

    Protein food intake appears to partially structure dietary patterns, as most current emergent diets (e.g., vegetarian and flexitarian) can be described according to their levels of specific protein sources. However, few data are available on dietary protein patterns in the general population and their association with nutrient adequacy. Based on protein food intake data concerning 1678 adults from a representative French national dietary survey, and non-negative-matrix factorization followed by cluster analysis, we were able to identify distinctive dietary protein patterns and compare their nutrient adequacy (using PANDiet probabilistic scoring). The findings revealed eight patterns that clearly discriminate protein intakes and were characterized by the intakes of one or more specific protein foods: 'Processed meat', 'Poultry', 'Pork', 'Traditional', 'Milk', 'Take-away', 'Beef' and 'Fish'. 'Fish eaters' and 'Milk drinkers' had the highest overall nutrient adequacy, whereas that of 'Pork' and 'Take-away eaters' was the lowest. Nutrient adequacy could often be accounted for by the characteristics of the food contributing to protein intake: 'Meat eaters' had high probability of adequacy for iron and zinc, for example. We concluded that protein patterns constitute strong elements in the background structure of the dietary intake and are associated with the nutrient profile that they convey.

  17. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery

    PubMed Central

    Klimberg, V. Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas EP

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. Methods In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post‐absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Results Major surgery resulted in an up‐regulation of post‐absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2 = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non‐cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. Conclusions The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the

  18. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R 2  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  19. Protein intake and stress levels in nurses and housewives of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Siddique, Farzana

    2011-01-01

    Stress has many biological effects on human daily life. In the present study, dietary protein intake was correlated with the investigated stress levels of nurses and housewives of the targeted urban population. Age group ranged from 30 to 45 years and both the groups belonged to middle socioeconomic status. After calculations of environmental, psychological and physiological stresses, it was observed that the levels of stress in housewives were significantly higher than those of nurses. Recommended dietary allowances, RDA and actual protein intakes, API were also compared in both the groups. The found protein intake was less in housewives as compared to that of nurses. PMID:23961140

  20. Protein intake and stress levels in nurses and housewives of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Wattoo, Feroza Hamid; Memon, Muhammad Saleh; Memon, Allah Nawaz; Wattoo, Muhammad Hamid Sarwar; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Siddique, Farzana

    2011-07-01

    Stress has many biological effects on human daily life. In the present study, dietary protein intake was correlated with the investigated stress levels of nurses and housewives of the targeted urban population. Age group ranged from 30 to 45 years and both the groups belonged to middle socioeconomic status. After calculations of environmental, psychological and physiological stresses, it was observed that the levels of stress in housewives were significantly higher than those of nurses. Recommended dietary allowances, RDA and actual protein intakes, API were also compared in both the groups. The found protein intake was less in housewives as compared to that of nurses.

  1. Protein intake and lean tissue mass retention following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Moizé, Violeta; Andreu, Alba; Rodríguez, Lucía; Flores, Lilliam; Ibarzabal, Ainitze; Lacy, Antonio; Jiménez, Amanda; Vidal, Josep

    2013-08-01

    Since current protein intake (PI) recommendations for the bariatric surgery (BS) patient are not supported by conclusive evidence, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between PI and lean tissue mass (LTM) loss following BS. Observational study including patients undergoing gastric bypass (GBP; n = 25) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG; n = 25). Dietary advice and daily PI were assessed prior to, and at 2- and 6-weeks, 4-, 8-, and 12-months after surgery. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). LTM loss as percent of weight loss (%LTM loss) at 4- and 12-months after surgery were the main outcome variables. A PI ≥ 60 g/d was associated with lower %LTM loss at 4- (p = 0.030) and 12-months (p = 0.013). Similar results were obtained when a PI ≥ 1.1 g/kg of ideal body weight (IBW)/d was considered. Multilinear regression showed the only independent predictor of %LTM loss at 4-months was PI (expressed as g/kg IBW/d) (OR: -0.376, p = 0.017), whereas PI (OR: -0.468, p = 0.001) and surgical technique (OR: 0.399, p = 0.006) predicted 12-months %LTM loss. Our data provide supportive evidence for the PI goals of >60 g/d or 1.1 g/kg IBW/d as a being associated with better LTM preservation in the BS patient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L M; Cartmel, B; Molinaro, A M; Leffell, D J; Bale, A E; Mayne, S T

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiological studies. To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Basal cell carcinoma cases (n = 380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n = 390) under 40 years of age were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage, during an in-person interview. Self-reported data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall [above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake (OR 1·10, 95% CI 0·69-1·73)] or in women only (OR 1·21, 95% CI 0·73-2·01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or spirits and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (P(interaction) = 0·003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping CIs. Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Alcohol intake and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Ferrucci, L.M.; Cartmel, B.; Molinaro, A.M.; Leffell, D.J.; Bale, A.E.; Mayne, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous epidemiologic studies of overall alcohol intake and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are inconsistent, with some evidence for differences by type of alcoholic beverage. While alcohol may enhance the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) light, this has not been evaluated in existing epidemiologic studies. Objective To evaluate alcohol intake in relation to early-onset BCC, and explore potential interactions with UV exposure. Methods BCC cases (n=380) and controls with benign skin conditions (n=390) under age 40 were identified through Yale Dermatopathology. Participants provided information on lifetime alcohol intake, including type of beverage during an in-person interview. Self-report data on indoor tanning and outdoor sunbathing were used to categorize UV exposure. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using unconditional multivariate logistic regression in the full sample and in women only. Results There was no statistically significant association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC overall (above median intake vs. no regular alcohol intake OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.69-1.73) or in women only (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.73-2.01). Similarly, intake of red wine, white wine, beer or hard liquor and mixed drinks was not associated with early-onset BCC. In exploratory analyses, we saw limited evidence for an interaction (pinteraction=0.003), with highest risk for high alcohol and high UV exposures, especially in women, but subgroup risk estimates had wide and overlapping confidence intervals. Conclusions Overall, we did not observe any clear association between lifetime alcohol intake and early-onset BCC. PMID:25059635

  4. Associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms among middle-aged Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eizaburo; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Uemura, Mayu; Murata, Chiyoe; Otsuka, Rei; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Koji; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Leo; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    Diet is a modifiable factor that may affect sleep, but the associations of macronutrient intakes with insomnia are inconsistent. We investigated the associations of protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes with insomnia symptoms. In this cross-sectional analysis of 4435 non-shift workers, macronutrient intakes were assessed by the brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire, which requires the recall of usual intakes of 58 foods during the preceding month. Presence of insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), and poor quality of sleep (PQS) were self-reported. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for demographic, psychological, and behavioral factors, as well as medical histories. Low protein intake (<16% vs ≥16% of total energy) was associated with DIS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.99-1.56) and PQS (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.48), while high protein intake (≥19% vs <19% of total energy) was associated with DMS (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12-1.76). Low carbohydrate intake (<50% vs ≥50% of total energy) was associated with DMS (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.97-1.45). Protein and carbohydrate intakes in the daily diet were associated with insomnia symptoms. The causality of these associations remains to be explained.

  5. Protein Requirement of Elderly Women: Nitrogen Balance Responses to Three Levels of Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Morse, M. Hannah; Haub, Mark D.; Evans, William J.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Background For elderly women, insufficient data exist to assess the accuracy of the assumed mean protein requirement of 0.6 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1, and the adequacy of the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1. The aims of this study were to assess the mean protein requirement and suggested safe and adequate protein intake (protein allowance) of elderly women using a shorter-term nitrogen balance protocol. Methods During three separate 18-day trials, 11 elderly women (age range, 70–81 years) were randomly fed eucaloric diets designed to provide either 0.50, 0.75, or 1.00 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1. Nitrogen balance was determined at Weeks 2 and 3 (Days 7–10 and 14–17, respectively) of each trial using data from total nitrogen analyses of duplicate food composites, 24-hour urine collections, and stool collections. The mean protein requirement was calculated using linear regression of individual women's data from all three trials and inverse prediction. Results At protein intakes of 0.53 ± 0.02, 0.76 ± 0.02, or 1.06 ± 0.05 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1, net nitrogen balances during Week 2 were −14.5 ± 3.1, 3.8 ± 2.5 and 23.4 ± 3.3 mg of nitrogen · kg−1 · day−1, respectively, for these body weight– and body composition–stable women. At Week 3, the net nitrogen balances were −0.1 ± 2.7, 8.5 ± 3.6 and 42.0 ± 3.0 mg of nitrogen · kg−1 · day−1. From Week 2 to Week 3, shifts to more positive nitrogen balances occurred due to decreases in urinary nitrogen excretion. The mean protein requirement at Week 2 was calculated to be 0.70 ± 0.09 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1 (coefficient of variation [CV] = 13%) and at Week 3 was calculated to be 0.56 ± 0.09 g of protein · kg−1 · day−1 (CV = 17%). From these data, an adequate protein allowance was estimated to be greater than the RDA at Week 2 (0.90 g of protein · kg−1 · day [d]−1), and not different than the RDA

  6. Vitamin D and calcium intake and risk of early menopause12

    PubMed Central

    Purdue-Smithe, Alexandra C; Whitcomb, Brian W; Szegda, Kathleen L; Boutot, Maegan E; Manson, JoAnn E; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard A; Troy, Lisa M; Michels, Karin B; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2017-01-01

    Background: Early menopause, defined as the cessation of ovarian function before the age of 45 y, affects ∼10% of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and other conditions. Few modifiable risk factors for early menopause have been identified, but emerging data suggest that high vitamin D intake may reduce risk. Objective: We evaluated how intakes of vitamin D and calcium are associated with the incidence of early menopause in the prospective Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2). Design: Intakes of vitamin D and calcium from foods and supplements were measured every 4 y with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of incident early menopause were identified from all participants who were premenopausal at baseline in 1991; over 1.13 million person-years, 2041 women reported having natural menopause before the age of 45 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate relations between intakes of vitamin D and calcium and incident early menopause while accounting for potential confounding factors. Results: After adjustment for age, smoking, and other factors, women with the highest intake of dietary vitamin D (quintile median: 528 IU/d) had a significant 17% lower risk of early menopause than women with the lowest intake [quintile median: 148 IU/d; HR: 0.83 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.95); P-trend = 0.03]. Dietary calcium intake in the highest quintile (median: 1246 mg/d) compared with the lowest (median: 556 mg/d) was associated with a borderline significantly lower risk of early menopause (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.00; P-trend = 0.03). Associations were stronger for vitamin D and calcium from dairy sources than from nondairy dietary sources, whereas high supplement use was not associated with lower risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that high intakes of dietary vitamin D and calcium may be modestly associated with a lower risk of early menopause. Further studies evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, other

  7. Higher Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Associated with Lower Cord Blood Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-II, IGF Binding Protein 3, and Insulin, but Not IGF-I, in a Cohort of Women with High Protein Intake.

    PubMed

    Switkowski, Karen M; Jacques, Paul F; Must, Aviva; Hivert, Marie-France; Fleisch, Abby; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Oken, Emily

    2017-07-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to dietary protein may program growth-regulating hormones, consequently influencing early-life growth patterns and later risk of associated chronic diseases. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is of particular interest in this context given its influence on pre- and postnatal growth and its sensitivity to the early nutritional environment. Objective: Our objective was to examine associations of maternal protein intake during pregnancy with cord blood concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and insulin. Methods: We studied 938 mother-child pairs from early pregnancy through delivery in the Project Viva cohort. Using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, parity, height, and gestational weight gain and for child sex, we examined associations of second-trimester maternal protein intake [grams per kilogram (weight before pregnancy) per day], as reported on a food frequency questionnaire, with IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and insulin concentrations in cord blood. We also examined how these associations may differ by child sex and parity. Results: Mothers were predominantly white (71%), college-educated (64%), and nonsmokers (67%). Mean ± SD protein intake was 1.35 ± 0.35 g ⋅ kg -1 ⋅ d -1 Each 1-SD increment in second-trimester protein intake corresponded to a change of -0.50 ng/mL (95% CI: -2.26, 1.26 ng/mL) in IGF-I and -0.91 μU/mL (95% CI: -1.45, -0.37 μU/mL) in insulin. Child sex and parity modified associations of maternal protein intake with IGF-II and IGFBP-3: protein intake was inversely associated with IGF-II in girls ( P -interaction = 0.04) and multiparous mothers ( P -interaction = 0.05), and with IGFBP-3 in multiparous mothers ( P -interaction = 0.04). Conclusions: In a cohort of pregnant women with relatively high mean protein intakes, higher intake was associated with lower concentrations of growth-promoting hormones in cord

  8. Protein intake induced an increase in exercise stimulated fat oxidation during stable body weight.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Plasqui, Guy; Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    Protein-rich weight-loss diets spare fat-free mass at the cost of fat mass. The objective was to examine if there is a change in stimulated fat oxidation related to protein intake during stable body weight. Subjects' (BMI 22±2kg/m(2), age 25±8 years) maximal fat oxidation (Fat(max)) was assessed during a graded bicycle test, before and after a 3-month dietary-intervention of 2MJ/day supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group and an isocaloric combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group. Daily protein intake was determined according to 24-h urine nitrogen. Body composition was measured according to a 4-compartment model by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their physical activity. The protein group (n=12) increased protein intake (11±14g, P<0.05) and had significantly higher daily protein intake vs. control (n=4) (80±21 vs.59±11g, P<0.05). Fat(max) increased significantly in the protein group (0.08±0.08g/min, P<0.01). Fat-free mass increased independent of change in body weight (P<0.01), and fat mass and fat percentage decreased (P<0.05). Change in Fat(max) was a function of change in protein intake (r=0.623, P<0.05), and not of changes in body composition or VO(2)max. Increased stimulated fat oxidation was related to increased protein intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Controversies Surrounding High-Protein Diet Intake: Satiating Effect and Kidney and Bone Health12

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. PMID:25979491

  10. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Protein for Life: Review of Optimal Protein Intake, Sustainable Dietary Sources and the Effect on Appetite in Ageing Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, Emma; Green, Mark A.; Stevenson, Emma J.; Penson, Simon; Johnstone, Alexandra M.

    2018-01-01

    With an ageing population, dietary approaches to promote health and independence later in life are needed. In part, this can be achieved by maintaining muscle mass and strength as people age. New evidence suggests that current dietary recommendations for protein intake may be insufficient to achieve this goal and that individuals might benefit by increasing their intake and frequency of consumption of high-quality protein. However, the environmental effects of increasing animal-protein production are a concern, and alternative, more sustainable protein sources should be considered. Protein is known to be more satiating than other macronutrients, and it is unclear whether diets high in plant proteins affect the appetite of older adults as they should be recommended for individuals at risk of malnutrition. The review considers the protein needs of an ageing population (>40 years old), sustainable protein sources, appetite-related implications of diets high in plant proteins, and related areas for future research. PMID:29547523

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-06

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  13. Oral nutritional supplementation increases caloric and protein intake in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Boudville, Neil; Rangan, Anna; Moody, Harry

    2003-03-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and is associated with a poor prognosis. Attempts to improve nutritional status with enteral supplements have yielded poor results. We performed a crossover-design trial on 13 PD patients to investigate whether these patients reduce their food intake after drinking oral nutritional supplements. Patients attended three visits in which they were administered a standard oral nutritional supplement either 2 hours or 30 minutes before lunch or a placebo drink 30 minutes before lunch. Lunch was provided as a self-select buffet-style meal, and food intake was measured. Total intake was calculated by adding the nutritional content of the oral supplement. Patients showed poor food intake, with mean values equaling only 18% of the recommended daily intake for calories and 34% for protein. Drinking the supplement 2 hours before lunch resulted in a significant increase compared with the placebo visit in total caloric (430 to 843 kcal; P < 0.001) and protein intake (27.6 to 41.3 g; P = 0.006). No significant difference in total intake was detected between drinking the supplement 2 hours versus 30 minutes before lunch. These results indicate that oral nutritional supplements administered before a meal may significantly increase caloric and protein intakes of PD patients. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  14. Protein and amino acid intakes in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Heck, Julia E; Nieves, Jeri W; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W; Howe, Geoffrey R; Ahsan, Habibul

    2010-06-01

    Few studies have described protein and amino acid intakes in rural Bangladesh, a country with considerable undernutrition. The purpose of this population-based study was to assess and describe protein and amino acid intakes in Araihazar, Bangladesh. The study participants were 11,170 adult men and women who participated in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS), which had a 98% participation rate. Dietary exposures were assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire that had been designed and validated for the HEALS study population. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 19.7 among all participants, and 34.9% of women and 44.4% of men had a BMI below 18.5. The average caloric intake was 2142 and 2394 kcal/day among women and men, respectively, and the mean protein intake was 67.5 and 78.2 g/day. The largest sources of protein were from rice and fish. Greater protein intake was related to younger age and several socioeconomic measures, including more years of education, land and television ownership, and employment in business, farming, or as a laborer (for men) or as a homemaker (for women). This study found a high prevalence of underweight among study participants. Nonetheless, most participants had adequate protein intake according to Food and Agriculture Organization standards for body weight.

  15. Protein intake trends and conformity with the Dietary Reference Intakes in the United States: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001-2014.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Claire E; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2018-06-21

    Systematic analysis of dietary protein intake may identify demographic groups within the American population that are not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). This cross-sectional study analyzed protein intake trends (2001-2014) and evaluated recent conformity to the DRIs (2011-2014) according to age, sex, and race or ethnicity in the US population. Protein intakes and trends during 2-y cycles of NHANES 2001-2014 (n = 57,980; ≥2 y old) were calculated as absolute (grams per day) and relative [grams per kilogram of ideal body weight (IBW) per day] intakes and as a percentage of total energy. Sex and race or ethnicity [Asian, Hispanic, non-Hispanic black (NHB), and non-Hispanic white (NHW)] differences were determined for protein intake and percentage of the population below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and Recommended Dietary Allowance, and above and below the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR). Usual protein intakes (mean ± SE) averaged from 55.3 ± 0.9 (children aged 2-3 y) to 88.2 ± 1.1 g/d (adults aged 19-30 y). Protein comprised 14-16% of total energy intakes. Relative protein intakes averaged from 1.10 ± 0.01 (adults aged ≥71 y) to 3.63 ± 0.07 g · kg IBW-1 · d-1 (children aged 2-3 y), and were above the EAR in all demographic groups. Asian and Hispanic populations aged >19 y consumed more relative protein (1.32 ± 0.02 and 1.32 ± 0.02 g · kg IBW-1 · d-1, respectively) than did NHB and NHW (1.18 ± 0.01 g · kg IBW-1 · d-1). Relative protein intakes did not differ by race or ethnicity in the 2-18 y population. Adolescent (aged 14-18 y) females and older (aged ≥71 y) NHB men had the largest population percentages below the EAR (11% and 13%, respectively); <1% of any demographic group had intakes above the AMDR. The majority of the US population exceeds minimum recommendations for protein intake. Protein intake remains well below the upper end of the AMDR, indicating that protein intake, as a

  16. Dietary protein intake by meal type in adults aged 51 years and over: WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012

    Evenly distributing daily protein intake at meals has been suggested to improve muscle mass among older adults. The aim of this research is to evaluate protein intake and its distribution across three meal types (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Nationally representative dietary intake data of adult...

  17. Healthy pregnant women in Canada are consuming more dietary protein at 16- and 36-week gestation than currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes, primarily from dairy food sources.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Trina V; Woo, Hillary; Innis, Sheila M; Elango, Rajavel

    2014-07-01

    Adequate dietary protein intake throughout pregnancy is essential to ensure healthy fetal development. Insufficient and excessive maternal dietary protein intakes are both associated with intrauterine growth restriction, resulting in low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to analyze the dietary protein intake patterns of healthy pregnant women in Vancouver, British Columbia, during early and late gestation. We hypothesized that women would be consuming higher protein during late stages of pregnancy compared with early stages of pregnancy. Interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaires were collected prospectively from 270 women at 16- and 36-week gestation; food frequency questionnaires from 212 women met study criteria. Maternal anthropometrics at both stages and infant weight at birth were collected. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to determine significant gestational differences in protein intakes. Spearman correlation was used to determine the influence of protein intakes and maternal anthropometrics on pregnancy outcomes. Median (25th and 75th percentiles) protein intakes adjusted for body weight were 1.5 (1.18 and 1.79) and 1.3 (1.04 and 1.60) g/kg per day at 16- than 36-week gestation, respectively. Primary protein sources were identified as dairy products. Protein intakes were negatively correlated with birth weight (P < .05), whereas maternal height, weight, body mass index, and weight gain to 36-week gestation were positively correlated with birth weight (P < .05). This study provides current dietary protein intake patterns among healthy Canadian women during pregnancy and indicates higher intakes than current Dietary Reference Intakes recommended dietary allowance of 1.1 g/kg per day, especially during early gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Positive effect of protein-supplemented hospital food on protein intake in patients at nutritional risk: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Munk, T; Beck, A M; Holst, M; Rosenbom, E; Rasmussen, H H; Nielsen, M A; Thomsen, T

    2014-04-01

    New evidence indicates that increased dietary protein ingestion promotes health and recovery from illness, and also maintains functionality in older adults. The present study aimed to investigate whether a novel food service concept with protein-supplementation would increase protein and energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. A single-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted. Eighty-four participants at nutritional risk, recruited from the departments of Oncology, Orthopaedics and Urology, were included. The intervention group (IG) received the protein-supplemented food service concept. The control group (CG) received the standard hospital menu. Primary outcome comprised the number of patients achieving ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. Secondary outcomes comprised mean energy and protein intake, body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay. In IG, 76% versus 70% CG patients reached ≥75% of their energy requirements (P = 0.57); 66% IG versus 30% CG patients reached ≥75% of their protein requirements (P = 0.001). The risk ratio for achieving ≥75% of protein requirements: 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.3-3.7); number needed to treat = 3 (95% confidence interval = 2-6). IG had a higher mean intake of energy and protein when adjusted for body weight (CG: 82 kJ kg(-1) versus IG: 103 kJ kg(-1) , P = 0.013; CG: 0.7 g protein kg(-1) versus 0.9 g protein kg(-1) , P = 0.003). Body weight, handgrip strength and length of hospital stay did not differ between groups. The novel food service concept had a significant positive impact on overall protein intake and on weight-adjusted energy intake in hospitalised patients at nutritional risk. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of subsequent preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chunfang; Coughlin, Kara B; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Sorensen, Tanya K; Williams, Michelle A

    2008-08-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence documents diverse health benefits, including reduced risks of hypertension, associated with diets high in fiber. Few studies, however, have investigated the extent to which dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy is associated with reductions in preeclampsia risk. We assessed the relationship between maternal dietary fiber intake in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. We also evaluated cross-sectional associations of maternal early pregnancy plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations with fiber intake. The study population comprised 1,538 pregnant Washington State residents. A 121-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess maternal dietary intake, 3 months before and during early pregnancy; and generalized linear regression procedures were used to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Dietary total fiber intake was associated with reduced preeclampsia risk. After adjusting for confounders, the RR of preeclampsia for women in the highest (> or =21.2 g/day) vs. the lowest quartile (<11.9 g/day) was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.11-0.75). We observed associations of similar magnitude when the highest vs. the lowest quartiles of water-soluble fiber (RR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.86) and insoluble fiber (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.14-0.87) were evaluated. Mean triglyceride concentrations were lower (-11.9 mg/dl, P = 0.02) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were higher (+2.63 mg/dl, P = 0.09) for women in the highest quartile vs. those in the lowest quartile. These findings of reduced preeclampsia risk with higher total fiber intake corroborate an earlier report; and expand the literature by providing evidence, which suggests that dietary fiber may attenuate pregnancy-associated dyslipidemia, an important clinical characteristic of preeclampsia.

  20. Higher versus lower protein intake in formula-fed low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Premji, Shahirose S; Al-Wassia, Heidi; Sauve, Reg S

    2014-04-21

    The ideal quantity of dietary protein for formula-fed low birth weight infants is still a matter of debate. Protein intake must be sufficient to achieve normal growth without negative effects such as acidosis, uremia, and elevated levels of circulating amino acids. To determine whether higher (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d) versus lower (< 3.0 g/kg/d) protein intake during the initial hospital stay of formula-fed preterm infants or low birth weight infants (< 2.5 kilograms) results in improved growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes without evidence of short- and long-term morbidity.To examine the following distinctions in protein intake. 1. Low protein intake if the amount was less than 3.0 g/kg/d. 2. High protein intake if the amount was equal to or greater than 3.0 g/kg/d but less than 4.0 g/kg/d. 3. Very high protein intake if the amount was equal to or greater than 4.0 g/kg/d.If the reviewed studies combined alterations of protein and energy, subgroup analyses were to be carried out for the planned categories of protein intake according to the following predefined energy intake categories. 1. Low energy intake: less than 105 kcal/kg/d. 2. Medium energy intake: greater than or equal to 105 kcal/kg/d and less than or equal to 135 kcal/kg/d. 3. High energy intake: greater than 135 kcal/kg/d.As the Ziegler-Fomon reference fetus estimates different protein requirements for infants based on birth weight, subgroup analyses were to be undertaken for the following birth weight categories. 1. < 800 grams. 2. 800 to 1199 grams. 3. 1200 to 1799 grams. 4. 1800 to 2499 grams. The standard search methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library) were searched. Randomized controlled trials contrasting levels of formula protein intake as low (< 3.0 g/kg/d), high (≥ 3.0 g/kg/d but < 4.0 g/kg/d), or very high (≥ 4.0 g/kg/d) in formula-fed hospitalized neonates

  1. Protein requirements of healthy pregnant women during early and late gestation are higher than current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Trina V; Payne, Magdalene; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Adequate maternal dietary protein intake is necessary for healthy pregnancy. However, current protein intake recommendations for healthy pregnant women are based on factorial calculations of nitrogen balance data derived from nonpregnant adults. Thus, an estimate of protein requirements based on pregnancy-specific data is needed. The objective of this study was to determine protein requirements of healthy pregnant women at 11-20 (early) and 31-38 (late) wk of gestation through use of the indicator amino acid oxidation method. Twenty-nine healthy women (24-37 y) each randomly received a different test protein intake (range: 0.22-2.56 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) during each study day in early (n = 35 observations in 17 women) and late (n = 43 observations in 19 women) gestation; 7 women participated in both early and late gestation studies. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 × resting energy expenditure. Protein was given as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on egg protein composition, except phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained constant across intakes. Protein requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation rate of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 (F(13)CO2). Breath and urine samples were collected at baseline and isotopic steady state. Linear regression crossover analysis identified a breakpoint (requirement) at minimal F(13)CO2 in response to different protein intakes. The estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein in early and late gestation was determined to be 1.22 (R(2) = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.66 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) (R(2) = 0.63; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.77 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), respectively. These estimates are considerably higher than the EAR of 0.88 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to directly estimate gestational stage-specific protein requirements in healthy pregnant women and suggests that current

  2. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    PubMed

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P < 0.01), maintained a fairly high correlation with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  3. A randomized controlled trial on early physiotherapy intervention versus usual care in acute care unit for elderly: potential benefits in light of dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Blanc-Bisson, C; Dechamps, A; Gouspillou, G; Dehail, P; Bourdel-Marchasson, I

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate effects of early intensive physiotherapy during acute illness on post hospitalization activity daily living autonomy (ADL). Prospective randomized controlled trial of intensive physiotherapy rehabilitation on day 1 to 2 after admission until clinical stability or usual care. acute care geriatric medicine ward. A total of 76 acutely ill patients, acutely bedridden or with reduced mobility but who were autonomous for mobility within the previous 3 months. Patients in palliative care or with limiting mobility pathology were excluded. Mean age was 85.4 (SD 6.6) years. At admission, at clinical stability and one month later: anthropometry, energy and protein intakes, hand grip strength, ADL scores, and baseline inflammatory parameters. An exploratory principal axis analysis was performed on the baseline characteristics and general linear models were used to explore the course of ADL and nutritional variables. A 4-factor solution was found explaining 71.7% of variance with a factor "nutrition", a factor "function" (18.8% of variance) for ADL, handgrip strength, bedridden state, energy and protein intakes, serum albumin and C-reactive protein concentrations; a factor "strength" and a fourth factor . During follow-up, dietary intakes, handgrip strength, and ADL scores improved but no changes occurred for anthropometric variables. Intervention was associated only with an increase in protein intake. Better improvement in ADL was found in intervention group when model was adjusted on "function" factor items. Physical intervention programs should be proposed according to nutritional intakes with the aim of preventing illness induced disability.

  4. Dietary proteins in the regulation of food intake and body weight in humans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Moore, Shannon E

    2004-04-01

    This review presents 4 lines of evidence supporting a role for proteins in the regulation of food intake and maintenance of healthy body weights. It is concluded that the protein content of food, and perhaps its source, is a strong determinant of short-term satiety and of how much food is eaten. Although the role of protein in the regulation of long-term food intake and body weight is less clear, the evidence reviewed suggests that further research to define its role is merited. Such research has the potential to lead to new functional foods, food formulations, and dietary recommendations for achieving healthy body weights.

  5. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  6. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol, saccharin, and quinine: early ontogeny of taste responsiveness and intake.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Andrey P; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E

    2008-02-01

    Rat pups demonstrate high levels of immediate acceptance of ethanol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Given that the taste of ethanol is most likely perceived by infant rats as a combination of sweet and bitter, high intake of ethanol early in ontogeny may be associated with age-related enhanced responsiveness to the sweet component of ethanol taste, as well as with ontogenetic decreases in sensitivity to its bitter component. Therefore, the present study compared responsiveness to ethanol and solutions with bitter (quinine) and sweet (saccharin) taste in terms of intake and palatability across the first 2 weeks of postnatal life. Characteristic patterns of responsiveness to 10% (v/v) ethanol, 0.1% saccharin, 0.2% quinine, and water in terms of taste reactivity and fluid intake were assessed in rat pups tested on postnatal day (P) 4, 9, or 12 using a new technique of on-line monitoring of fluid flow through a two-channel intraoral cannula. Taste reactivity included analysis of ingestive and aversive responses following six intraoral infusions of the test fluids. This taste reactivity probe was followed by the intake test, in which animals were allowed to voluntarily ingest fluids from an intraoral cannula. Pups of all ages showed more appetitive responses to saccharin and ethanol than to water or quinine. No age-related differences were apparent in taste responsiveness to saccharin and ethanol. However, the age-related pattern of ethanol intake drastically differed from that of saccharin. Intake of saccharin increased from P4 to P9 and decreased substantially by P12, whereas intake of ethanol gradually increased from P4 to P12. Intake of ethanol was significantly lower than intake of saccharin on P9, whereas P12 pups took in more ethanol than saccharin. The findings of the present study indicate ontogenetic dissociations between taste reactivity to ethanol and saccharin and intake of these solutions, and suggest that high acceptance of ethanol early in

  8. Energy and macronutrient intake after gastric bypass for morbid obesity: a 3-y observational study focused on protein consumption.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Vittorio; Theytaz, Fanny; Di Vetta, Véronique; Clarisse, Muriel; Suter, Michel; Tappy, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on body weight has been amply documented, but few studies have simultaneously assessed the evolution of energy and macronutrient intakes, energy expenditure, and changes in body composition over time after an RYGB. We evaluated energy and macronutrient intakes, body composition, and the basal metabolic rate (BMR) in obese female patients during the initial 3 y after an RYGB. Sixteen women with a mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 44.1 ± 1.6 were included in this prospective observational study. The women were studied on 6 different occasions as follows: before and 1, 3, 6, 12 (n = 16), and 36 (n = 8) mo after surgery. On each occasion, food intake was evaluated from 4- or 7-d dietary records, body composition was assessed with the use of bio-impedancemetry, and energy expenditure was measured with the use of indirect calorimetry. Body weight evolution showed the typical pattern reported after an RYGB. Total energy intake was 2072 ± 108 kcal/d at baseline and decreased to 681 ± 58 kcal/d at 1 mo after surgery (P < 0.05 compared with at baseline). Total energy intake progressively increased to reach 1240 ± 87 kcal/d at 12 mo after surgery (P < 0.05 compared with at 1 mo after surgery) and 1448 ± 57 kcal/d at 36 mo after surgery (P < 0.05 compared with at 12 mo after surgery). Protein intake was 87 ± 4 g/d at baseline and ± 2 g/d 1 mo after surgery (P < 0.05 compared with at baseline) and increased progressively thereafter to reach 57 ± 3 g/d at 36 mo after surgery (P < 0.05 compared with at 1 mo after surgery). Carbohydrate and fat intakes over time showed similar patterns. Protein intake from meat and cheese were significantly reduced early at 1 mo after surgery but increased thereafter (P < 0.05). The BMR decreased from 1.12 ± 0.04 kcal/min at baseline to 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.86 ± 0.03, and 0.85 ± 0.04 kcal/min at 3, 12, and 36 mo after surgery, respectively (all P < 0.05 compared with at baseline

  9. Assessment of food intakes for women adopting the high protein Dukan diet.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Malczyk, Ewa; Misiarz, Marta; Zołoteńka-Synowiec, Marzena; Całyniuk, Beata; Baczyńska, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are metabolic disorders affecting both adults and children. Effective treatment of these conditions is focused on decreasing the body mass, through individually tailored and well balanced diets, along with increasing physical activity. Obese persons often, however, choose high protein diets for losing weight. Recently in Poland, the high-protein Dukan-diet has become very popular. To assess dietary consumption in women adopting the Dukan-diet, including intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrate as well as vitamins and minerals. Subjects were 51 women aged 19-64 years on the Dukan-diet, who were surveyed by individually conducted interview. Women were asked to provide typical menus from each phase of their diets. Quantitative dietary intake assessment was achieved by an officially used 'Photograph album of foodstuffs and dishes' as custom-designed by the National Food and Nutrition Institute (IZZ) in Warsaw. Protein intakes in all subjects were excessive, especially those of animal origin when compared to recommended nutritional standards. In contrast, dietary carbohydrate intakes were low due to poor consumption of fruit and vegetables. Mineral and vitamin intakes revealed high potassium, iron and vitamins A, D and B2, but low vitamin C and folates. Women's average weight reduction after 8-10 weeks of dieting was approximately 15 kilograms. Many nutritional abnormalities were found in women on the high protein Dukan-diet. Adopting this diet in the long-term may pose health threats through acquiring kidney and liver disease, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.

  10. Association between obesity and glomerular hyperfiltration: the confounding effect of smoking and sodium and protein intakes.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Bochud, Murielle; Guessous, Idris; Paccaud, Fred; Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire

    2016-04-01

    Glomerular hyperfiltration has been suggested as a possible mechanism linking obesity and chronic kidney disease (CKD), independently of classical risk factors. We explored the association of overweight and obesity with glomerular hyperfiltration in a large sample of the Swiss adult population, accounting for several confounders including dietary factors. Data from a 2010 to 2012 cross-sectional population-based survey in Switzerland were used. Creatinine clearance (CrCl) was determined from 24-h urine collection; CrCl > 140 ml/min was used to define glomerular hyperfiltration. Participants were categorized into lean (<25 kg/m(2)), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (≥30 kg/m(2)) according to body mass index (BMI). A total of 1339 participants were included in the analysis [median (IQR) age 49.4 (34.3-63.5) years, 48.9 % men]. The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 32.2 and 14.2 %, respectively. Median CrCl was 102[84-121] ml/min in lean, 110 [87-136] ml/min in overweight and 124 [97-150] ml/min in obese participants (p < 0.001). The prevalence of glomerular hyperfiltration increased across BMI categories (10.4, 20.8 and 34.7 %, respectively; p < 0.001). This positive association remained significant after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking and dietary factors (sodium and protein intakes): odds ratio [95 %CI] 2.39 [1.52-3.76] (p < 0.001) for overweight versus lean and 4.10[2.31-7.27] (p < 0.001) for obesity versus lean. BMI categories and glomerular hyperfiltration are positively associated, independently of other known CKD risk factors and dietary confounders, suggesting that glomerular hyperfiltration may represent an early renal phenotype in obesity. Our observations confirm the significant association of glomerular hyperfiltration with sodium and protein intakes and identify sodium intake as an important modifying factor of the association between hyperfiltration and obesity.

  11. Dietary acid load and chronic kidney disease in elderly adults: Protein and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byung-Joon; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Kim, Eun Mi; Lee, Mi Yeon; Hyun, Young Youl; Lee, Kyu-Beck

    2017-01-01

    Dietary net endogenous acid production (NEAP), which represents total dietary load of nonvolatile acid, may affect kidney function. Estimated NEAP (eNEAP) is calculated indirectly by the ratio of protein and potassium intake. A few studies are available assessing the association between eNEAP and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and its relation to dietary protein and potassium intake in the elderly. A total 1,369 community-dwelling elderly Koreans in the Kangbuk Samsung Cohort Study (KSCS) were evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and comprehensive health examination. We evaluated the association between eNEAP and the CKD. We also examined their relation to protein and potassium intake. eNEAP was correlated with potassium intake (r = -0.410, P < 0.001), but was not correlated with protein intake (r = -0.004, P = 0.879). In a full multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic factors, dietary factors, and comorbidities, the participants with higher eNEAP quartiles (Q2, Q3, Q4) had higher odds of CKD compared to the lowest eNEAP quartile (Q1); OR (95% CI) were 1.47 (0.78-2.72), 1.66 (0.85-3.23), and 2.30 (1.16-4.60) respectively (P for trend = 0.019). The odds of CKD decreased for participants with higher potassium intake quartiles (Q2, Q3, Q4) compared to the lowest potassium intake quartile (Q1); OR (95% CI) were 0.52 (0.28-0.95), 0.50 (0.26-0.96), and 0.50 (0.21-0.99) respectively (P for trend = 0.050). Protein intake was not associated with CKD. The association between eNEAP and CKD was similar in subgroup analysis. Dietary acid load was associated with CKD. Among the nutrients related to dietary acid load, potassium intake was negatively associated with CKD, but protein intake was not associated with CKD in elderly adults.

  12. Effect of early nutritional intake on long-term growth and bone mineralization of former very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Christmann, V; van der Putten, M E; Rodwell, L; Steiner, K; Gotthardt, M; van Goudoever, J B; van Heijst, A F J

    2018-03-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for impaired bone mineralization and growth in length later in life due to inadequate nutritional intake in the early postnatal period. To investigate whether increased nutritional supplementation of calcium, phosphate and protein in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants during the first 14days after birth was associated with improvement in length and bone development until 9-10years of age. Observational follow-up study of VLBW infants (birth weight<1500g or gestational age<32weeks) born in two consecutive years (eligible infants: 2004 n: 63 and 2005: n: 66). Cohort 2005 received higher intake of calcium, phosphate and protein with parenteral nutrition compared to Cohort 2004. Anthropometric data were collected during standard follow-up visits until five years, and additionally at 9-10years of age including measurements of bone mineral content, bone mineral density of the whole body and lumbar spine determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Long-term growth trajectories of both cohorts were evaluated separately for participants born appropriate (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA), stratified by gender. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the effect of nutritional intake and clinical covariates on length and bone mineralization. Both cohorts achieved a catch-up in length to SDS within the normal range by 6months (length SDS: estimated mean (95% confidence interval (CI): 6months: Cohort 2004: -0.7 (-1.1, -0.3) Cohort 2005: -0.5 (-0.8, -0.2)). Bone mineral content and density were within the normal range and not different between the cohorts. SGA children achieved a catch-up in length at 5years with bone mineralization comparable to AGA children. Only for girls birth weight was significantly associated with length SDS (per gram: β 0.001; 95% CI (0.000, 0.003); p=0.03) There was no evidence of an association between early nutritional intake and bone mineralization. Children born as appropriate or small for

  13. Effect of Increased Enteral Protein Intake on Growth in Human Milk-Fed Preterm Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Mathes, Michaela; Bleeker, Christine; Vek, Julia; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Wiechers, Cornelia; Peter, Andreas; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein, supplied in currently available commercial fortifiers, may be inadequate to meet the requirements of very preterm infants; in addition, intraindividual and interindividual variability of human milk protein and energy content potentially contribute to unsatisfactory early postnatal growth. To determine effects on growth of different levels of enteral protein supplementation in predominantly human milk-fed preterm infants. This randomized clinical and partially blinded single-center trial was conducted in a neonatal tertiary referral center in Germany. Sixty preterm infants (gestation <32 weeks and weight <1500 g at birth) were recruited from October 2012 to October 2014 and included 35% of 173 eligible infants. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) gestational age at birth was 29.9 (28.7-31.2) weeks. All analyses were conducted in an intention-to-treat population. Infants were randomly assigned to either a lower-protein (adding 1 g of bovine protein/100 mL of breast milk through a commercial human milk fortifier; n = 30) or a higher-protein group at a median (IQR) postnatal age of 7 (6-8) days. The higher-protein group (n = 30) received either standardized higher-protein supplementation (study fortifier adding 1.8 g of bovine protein/100 mL of breast milk [n = 15]) or individualized high-protein supplementation based on protein and fat content of administered breast milk (n = 15). Study interventions were continued for a median (IQR) of 41 (30-57) days and until definite discharge planning. Primary outcome was weight gain (g/kg/d) from birth to the end of intervention. Sixty preterm infants (gestation <32 weeks and weight <1500 g at birth), 33 girls, were recruited from October 2012 to October 2014 and included 35% of 173 eligible infants. Median (IQR) gestational age at birth was 29.9 (28.7-31.2) weeks. Demographic characteristics and hospital courses were similar in both groups, and birth weights ranged from 580 to 1495 g in the lower-protein

  14. High-protein intake enhances the positive impact of physical activity on BMC in prepubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Chevalley, Thierry; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2008-01-01

    In 232 healthy prepubertal boys, increased physical activity was associated with greater BMC at both axial and appendicular sites under high-protein intake. Physical activity is an important lifestyle determinant of bone mineral mass acquisition. Its impact during childhood can be modulated by nutrition, particularly by protein and calcium intakes. We analyzed the relationship between physical activity levels and protein compared with calcium intake on BMC. In 232 healthy prepubertal boys (age: 7.4 +/- 0.4 [SD] yr; standing height: 125.7 +/- 5.9 cm; body weight: 25.3 +/- 4.6 kg), physical activity and protein and calcium intakes were recorded. BMC was measured by DXA at the radial metaphysis, radial diaphysis, total radius, femoral neck, total hip, femoral diaphysis, and L(2)-L(4) vertebrae. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients r with BMC of the various skeletal sites were as follows: physical activity, from 0.26 (p = 0.0001) to 0.40 (p = 0.0001); protein intake, from 0.18 (p = 0.005) to 0.27 (p = 0.0001); calcium intake, from 0.09 (p = 0.181) to 0.17 (p = 0.007). By multiple regression analysis, the beta-adjusted values remained correlated with BMC, ranging as follows: physical activity, from 0.219 (p = 0.0007) to 0.340 (p < 0.0001); protein intake, from 0.120 (p = 0.146) to 0.217 (p = 0.009). In contrast, it was not correlated for calcium intake: from -0.069 (p = 0.410) to 0.001 (p = 0.986). With protein intake (mean = 2.0 g/kg body weight/d) above the median, increased physical activity from 168 to 321 kcal/d was associated with greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.6, p = 0.0005). In contrast with protein intake (mean = 1.5 g/kg body weight/d) below the median, increased physical activity from 167 to 312 kcal/d was not associated with a significantly greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.2, p = 0.371). The interaction between physical activity and protein intake was close to statistical significance for mean BMC Z-score (p = 0.055) and significant for femoral

  15. Intake of protein, calcium and sodium in public child day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Longo-Silva, Giovana; Toloni, Maysa Helena de A.; de Menezes, Risia Cristina E.; Temteo, Tatiane Leocádio; Oliveira, Maria Alice A.; Asakura, Leiko; Costa, Emília Chagas; Taddei, José Augusto de A. C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess calcium, protein and sodium intake, of children that attend public day-care centers and to compare it with the recommended one. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study in seven public day care centers of São Paulo city, Southeast Brazil, which enrolled 366 children between 12 and 36 months of age. The data collection occurred between September and December 2010. Each day care center was evaluated for three non-consecutive days, totaling 42 days and 210 meals. Dietary intake was assessed by a direct food weighing method. For the nutritional calculation, DietWin(r) Profissional 2.0 was used, and the adequacy was calculated according to the recommendations of the National School Feeding Program for energy, protein, calcium and sodium. The calcium/protein relation was also calculated, as well as calcium density (mg/1,000kcal). RESULTS: The energy (406.4kcal), protein (18.2g) and calcium (207.6mg) consumption did not reach the recommended values ​​in all the evaluated day care centers. Sodium intake exceeded up to three times the recommendation. The calcium/protein ratio of 11.7mg/g was less than the adequate one (20mg/g). CONCLUSIONS: There was inadequacy of calcium, protein and sodium dietary intake, in children attending public day-care centers. PMID:25119750

  16. Does a reduced glucose intake prevent hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery? a randomized controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycemia in children after cardiac surgery can be treated with intensive insulin therapy, but hypoglycemia is a potential serious side effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reducing glucose intake below standard intakes to prevent hyperglycemia, on blood glucose concentrations, glucose kinetics and protein catabolism in children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methods Subjects received a 4-hour low glucose (LG; 2.5 mg/kg per minute) and a 4-hour standard glucose (SG; 5.0 mg/kg per minute) infusion in a randomized blinded crossover setting. Simultaneously, an 8-hour stable isotope tracer protocol was conducted to determine glucose and leucine kinetics. Data are presented as mean ± SD or median (IQR); comparison was made by paired samples t test. Results Eleven subjects (age 5.1 (20.2) months) were studied 9.5 ± 1.9 hours post-cardiac surgery. Blood glucose concentrations were lower during LG than SG (LG 7.3 ± 0.7 vs. SG 9.3 ± 1.8 mmol/L; P < 0.01), although the glycemic target (4.0-6.0 mmol/L) was not achieved. No hypoglycemic events occurred. Endogenous glucose production was higher during LG than SG (LG 2.9 ± 0.8 vs. SG 1.5 ± 1.1 mg/kg per minute; P = 0.02), due to increased glycogenolysis (LG 1.0 ± 0.6 vs. SG 0.0 ± 1.0 mg/kg per minute; P < 0.05). Leucine balance, indicating protein balance, was negative but not affected by glucose intake (LG -54.8 ± 14.6 vs. SG -58.8 ± 16.7 μmol/kg per hour; P = 0.57). Conclusions Currently recommended glucose intakes aggravated hyperglycemia in children early after cardiac surgery with CPB. Reduced glucose intake decreased blood glucose concentrations without causing hypoglycemia or affecting protein catabolism, but increased glycogenolysis. Trial registration Dutch trial register NTR2079. PMID:23031354

  17. The association between serum C-reactive protein and macronutrients and antioxidants intake in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kooshki, A; Samadipour, E; Akbarzadeh, R

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the high levels of inflammation in hemodialysis patients and the effects of diet on systemic inflammation, such as the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, few studies have evaluated the relationship of macronutrients and antioxidants intake with serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Therefore, this study assessed the relationship between serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) with macronutrients and antioxidants intake and serum albumin. Methods:This cross-sectional study used census sampling to select 75 hemodialysis patients (35 men and 40 women) who attended the hemodialysis department of Vaseie Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran. After obtaining the written consent, all the patients were interviewed and dietary data was collected by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 160 food items. Diet analysis was performed with Nutritionist IV. Before being connected to the dialysis machine, 5 cc fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum hs-CRP and albumin levels were measured. All the statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS -for Windows, version 16.0. Results:The patients’ mean body mass index was 20.09 ± 3.27 kg/ m2. The participants’ intake of antioxidants and all macronutrients, except for carbohydrates and proteins, was less than the standard levels. Moreover, the hs-CRP had significant inverse relationships with serum albumin (P=0.0001) and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy (P=0.002) and protein (P=0.0001). Conclusion:Our findings indicated hs-CRP levels of hemodialysis patients to have significant inverse relationships with serum albumin and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy and protein. PMID:28255396

  18. The association between serum C-reactive protein and macronutrients and antioxidants intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kooshki, A; Samadipour, E; Akbarzadeh, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the high levels of inflammation in hemodialysis patients and the effects of diet on systemic inflammation, such as the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, few studies have evaluated the relationship of macronutrients and antioxidants intake with serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Therefore, this study assessed the relationship between serum high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) with macronutrients and antioxidants intake and serum albumin. Methods: This cross-sectional study used census sampling to select 75 hemodialysis patients (35 men and 40 women) who attended the hemodialysis department of Vaseie Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran. After obtaining the written consent, all the patients were interviewed and dietary data was collected by using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 160 food items. Diet analysis was performed with Nutritionist IV. Before being connected to the dialysis machine, 5 cc fasting blood samples were obtained from all participants and serum hs-CRP and albumin levels were measured. All the statistical analyses were conducted with SPSS -for Windows, version 16.0. Results: The patients' mean body mass index was 20.09 ± 3.27 kg/ m2. The participants' intake of antioxidants and all macronutrients, except for carbohydrates and proteins, was less than the standard levels. Moreover, the hs-CRP had significant inverse relationships with serum albumin (P=0.0001) and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy (P=0.002) and protein (P=0.0001). Conclusion: Our findings indicated hs-CRP levels of hemodialysis patients to have significant inverse relationships with serum albumin and vitamin E and C intakes but was not significant. Also, a significant relationship was observed between hs-CRP levels and the intake of energy and protein.

  19. Validation of a plate diagram sheet for estimation of energy and protein intake in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Bjornsdottir, Rannveig; Oskarsdottir, Erna S; Thordardottir, Friða R; Ramel, Alfons; Thorsdottir, Inga; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg

    2013-10-01

    Validation of simple methods for estimating energy and protein intakes in hospital wards are rarely reported in the literature. The aim was to validate a plate diagram sheet for estimation of energy and protein intakes of patients by comparison with weighed food records. Subjects were inpatients at the Cardio Thoracic ward, Landspitali National University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland (N = 73). The ward personnel used a plate diagram sheet to record the proportion (0%, 25%, 50%, 100%) of meals consumed by each subjects, for three days. Weighed food records where used as a reference method. On average the plate diagram sheet overestimated energy intake by 45 kcal/day (1119 ± 353 kcal/day versus 1074 ± 360 kcal/day, p = 0.008). Estimation of protein intake was not significantly different between the two methods (50.2 ± 16.4 g/day versus 48.7 ± 17.7 g/day, p = 0.123). By analysing only the meals where ≤50% of the served meals were consumed, according to the plate diagram recording, a slight underestimation was observed. A plate diagram sheet can be used to estimate energy and protein intakes with fair accuracy in hospitalized patients, especially at the group level. Importantly, the plate diagram sheet did not overestimate intakes in patients with a low food intake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Feasibility of a Clinical Pathway with Early Oral Intake and Discharge for Laparoscopic Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Tomii, C; Inokuchi, M; Otsuki, S; Kojima, K

    2017-12-01

    Although some studies have reported the safety of early oral intake after gastrectomy, it still remains controversial. This study focused on the feasibility of a clinical pathway with early oral intake and discharge setting for exclusively laparoscopic distal gastrectomy. A clinical pathway was applied to 403 patients until December 2014. In the protocol, patients are allowed to take a sip of water and a soft diet on the first and second days after the operation, respectively, and the discharge day is set as the fifth to seventh day after the operation. Clinicopathological variables were prospectively collected, and risk factors for discharge variances were analyzed. The completion rate of the clinical pathway was 76.9%. There were five re-admissions (1.2%). The overall morbidity rate was 18% ( n = 72), and major complications (Clavien-Dindo IIIa or greater) occurred in 13 patients (3%). Complications were the causes for discharge variances in 68 cases (73%), while the attending surgeons' judgment was the cause in 25 cases (27%). On multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio = 2.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.38-3.60, p = 0.001) and operative time (odds ratio = 2.38, 95% confidence interval = 1.45-3.98, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for discharge variances. A high completion rate of a clinical pathway with early oral intake and discharge setting for laparoscopic distal gastrectomy was achievable with an acceptably low re-admission rate. Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy is recommended as a first step for a clinical pathway with an early oral intake and discharge protocol.

  1. Is the Macronutrient Intake of Formula-Fed Infants Greater Than Breast-Fed Infants in Early Infancy?

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Hustead, Deborah S.; Mackey, Amy D.; Singhal, Atul; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Faster weight gain early in infancy may contribute to a greater risk of later obesity in formula-fed compared to breast-fed infants. One potential explanation for the difference in weight gain is higher macronutrient intake in formula-fed infants during the first weeks of life. A systematic review was conducted using Medline to assess the macronutrient and energy content plus volume of intake in breast-fed and formula-fed infants in early infancy. All studies from healthy, term, singleton infants reporting values for the composition of breast milk during the first month of life were included. The energy content of colostrum (mean, SEM: 53.6 ± 2.5 kcal/100 mL), transitional milk (57.7 ± 4.2 kcal/100 mL), and mature milk (65.2 ± 1.1 kcal/100 mL) was lower than conventional infant formula (67 kcal/100 mL) on all days analyzed. The protein concentration of colostrum (2.5 ± 0.2 g/100 mL) and transitional milk (1.7 ± 0.1 g/100 mL) was higher than formula (1.4 g/100 mL), while the protein content of mature milk (1.3 ± 0.1 g/100 mL) was slightly lower. Formula-fed infants consume a higher volume and more energy dense milk in early life leading to faster growth which could potentially program a greater risk of long-term obesity. PMID:23056929

  2. Effect of increasing energy and protein intake on body growth and carcass composition of heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Brown, E G; Vandehaar, M J; Daniels, K M; Liesman, J S; Chapin, L T; Keisler, D H; Nielsen, M S Weber

    2005-02-01

    The objective was to determine whether increased energy and protein intake between 2 and 14 wk of age would increase growth rates of heifer calves without fattening. At 2 wk of age, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of protein and energy intake (moderate [M]; high [H]) in period 1 (2 to 8 wk of age) by 2 levels of protein and energy intake (low [L]; high [H]) in period 2 (8 to 14 wk of age) to produce similar initial BW for all 4 treatments. Treatments were ML, MH, HL, and HH, indicating moderate or high energy and protein intake during the first period and low or high intake during the second period. The M diet consisted of a standard milk replacer (21.3% CP, 21.3% fat) fed at 1.1% of BW on a DM basis and a 16.5% CP grain mix fed at restricted intake to promote 400 g of average daily gain (ADG), whereas the L diet consisted only of the grain mix. The H diet consisted of a high-protein milk replacer (30.3% CP, 15.9% fat) fed at 2% of BW on a DM basis and a 21.3% CP grain mix available ad libitum. Calves were weaned gradually from milk replacer by 7 wk and slaughtered at 8 (n = 11) or 14 wk of age (n = 41). In periods 1 and 2, ADG and the gain:feed ratio were greater for calves fed the H diet. Calves fed the H diet were taller after both periods 1 and 2. No difference was observed in carcass composition at 8 wk, but at 14 wk calves fed MH and HH had less water and more fat than calves fed ML and HL. Plasma IGF-I concentrations were greatest for calves fed the H diet during either period. Plasma leptin concentrations were increased in calves fed the H diet during period 1 from 4 to 6 wk of age. Increasing energy and protein intake from 2 to 8 wk and 8 to 14 wk of age increased BW, withers height, and gain:feed ratio. Calves fed the H diet from 8 to 14 wk of age had more body fat than calves fed the L diet. Increased energy and protein intake can increase the rate of body growth of heifer calves

  3. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Hector, Amy J; McGlory, Chris; Damas, Felipe; Mazara, Nicole; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-01-01

    Preservation of lean body mass (LBM) may be important during dietary energy restriction (ER) and requires equal rates of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). Currently, the relative contribution of MPS and MPB to the loss of LBM during ER in humans is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary protein intake and resistance exercise on MPS and MPB during a controlled short-term energy deficit. Adult men (body mass index, 28.6 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 ; age 22 ± 1 yr) underwent 10 d of 40%-reduced energy intake while performing unilateral resistance exercise and consuming lower protein (1.2 g/kg/d, n = 12) or higher protein (2.4 g/kg/d, n = 12). Pre- and postintervention testing included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, primed constant infusion of ring -[ 13 C 6 ]phenylalanine, and 15 [N]phenylalanine to measure acute postabsorptive MPS and MPB; D 2 O to measure integrated MPS; and gene and protein expression. There was a decrease in acute MPS after ER (higher protein, 0.059 ± 0.006 to 0.051 ± 0.009%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.005 to 0.045 ± 0.006%/h; P < 0.05) that was attenuated with resistance exercise (higher protein, 0.067 ± 0.01%/h; lower protein, 0.061 ± 0.006%/h), and integrated MPS followed a similar pattern. There was no change in MPB (energy balance, 0.080 ± 0.01%/hr; ER rested legs, 0.078 ± 0.008%/hr; ER exercised legs, 0.079 ± 0.006%/hr). We conclude that a reduction in MPS is the main mechanism that underpins LBM loss early in ER in adult men.-Hector, A. J., McGlory, C., Damas, F., Mazara, N., Baker, S. K., Phillips, S. M. Pronounced energy restriction with elevated protein intake results in no change in proteolysis and reductions in skeletal muscle protein synthesis that are mitigated by resistance exercise. © FASEB.

  4. Diet Modeling in Older Americans: The Impact of Increasing Plant-Based Foods or Dairy Products on Protein Intake.

    PubMed

    Houchins, J A; Cifelli, C J; Demmer, E; Fulgoni, V L

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy products on protein intake in older Americans by performing diet modeling. Data from What We Eat in America (WWEIA), the dietary component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010 for Americans aged 51 years and older (n=5,389), divided as 51-70 years (n=3,513) and 71 years and older (n=1,876) were used. Usual protein intake was compared among three dietary models that increased intakes by 100%: (1) plant-based foods; (2) higher protein plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (3) dairy products (milk, cheese, and yogurt). Models (1) and (2) had commensurate reductions in animal-based protein intake. Doubling intake of plant-based foods (as currently consumed) resulted in a drop of protein intake by approximately 22% for males and females aged 51+ years. For older males and females, aged 71+ years, doubling intake of plant-based foods (as currently consumed) resulted in an estimated usual intake of 0.83±0.02 g/kg ideal body weight (iBW))/day and 0.78±0.01 g/kg iBW/day, respectively. In this model, 33% of females aged 71+ years did not meet the estimated average requirement for protein. Doubling dairy product consumption achieved current protein intake recommendations. These data illustrate that increasing plant-based foods and reducing animal-based products could have unintended consequences on protein intake of older Americans. Doubling dairy product intake can help older adults get to an intake level of approximately 1.2 g/kg iBW/day, consistent with the growing consensus that older adults need to consume higher levels of protein for health.

  5. Protein Intake and Breast Cancer Survival in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Michelle D; Wang, Jun; Hankinson, Susan E; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy E

    2017-01-20

    Purpose Greater protein intake has been associated with better breast cancer survival in several prospective studies, including among 1,982 women in the Nurses' Health Study. We proposed to extend this previous finding. We hypothesized that protein, essential amino acid, branched-chain amino acid, and leucine intakes are associated with improved survival and that these associations are stronger in tumors expressing insulin receptor (IR). Patients and Methods We included 6,348 women diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer between 1976 and 2004. There were 1,046 distant recurrences. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated according to quintiles of updated postdiagnostic diet using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models based on follow-up until 2010. Results There was an inverse association between energy-adjusted protein intake and recurrence. Multivariable RRs for increasing quintiles of intake compared with the lowest were 0.95 (95% CI, 0.79 to 1.15), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.11), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61 to 0.91), and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.03; trend P = .02). For animal protein intake, the RRs were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.06), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.70 to 1.02), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.92), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.95; trend P = .003). Neither essential amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, nor any individual amino acid stood out as being the source of the association. The association also did not differ by IR status. There was no clear association with any protein-containing foods. Conclusion We found a modest survival advantage with higher intake of protein, regardless of IR status. There was no clear mechanism for this association, although it is consistent with prior studies. Our data suggest that there is likely no advantage for women with a history of breast cancer in restricting protein intake or protein-containing foods.

  6. Impacts of maternal dietary protein intake on fetal survival, growth, and development.

    PubMed

    Herring, Cassandra M; Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A; Wu, Guoyao

    2018-03-01

    Maternal nutrition during gestation, especially dietary protein intake, is a key determinant in embryonic survival, growth, and development. Low maternal dietary protein intake can cause embryonic losses, intra-uterine growth restriction, and reduced postnatal growth due to a deficiency in specific amino acids that are important for cell metabolism and function. Of note, high maternal dietary protein intake can also result in intra-uterine growth restriction and embryonic death, due to amino acid excesses, as well as the toxicity of ammonia, homocysteine, and H 2 S that are generated from amino acid catabolism. Maternal protein nutrition has a pronounced impact on fetal programming and alters the expression of genes in the fetal genome. As a precursor to the synthesis of molecules (e.g. nitric oxide, polyamines, and creatine) with cell signaling and metabolic functions, L-arginine (Arg) is essential during pregnancy for growth and development of the conceptus. With inadequate maternal dietary protein intake, Arg and other important amino acids are deficient in mother and fetus. Dietary supplementation of Arg during gestation has been effective in improving embryonic survival and development of the conceptus in many species, including humans, pigs, sheep, mice, and rats. Both the balance among amino acids and their quantity are critical for healthy pregnancies and offspring. Impact statement This review aims at: highlighting adverse effects of elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus on embryonic/fetal survival, growth, and development; helping nutritionists and practitioners to understand the mechanisms whereby elevated levels of ammonia in mother or fetus results in embryonic/fetal death, growth restriction, and developmental abnormalities; and bringing, into the attention of nutritionists and practitioners, the problems of excess or inadequate dietary intake of protein or amino acids on pregnancy outcomes in animals and humans. The article provides new

  7. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  8. Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingyang; Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Longo, Valter D; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-10-01

    Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome. To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with the risk for mortality. This prospective cohort study of US health care professionals included 131 342 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (1980 to end of follow-up on June 1, 2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986 to end of follow-up on January 31, 2012). Animal and plant protein intake was assessed by regularly updated validated food frequency questionnaires. Data were analyzed from June 20, 2014, to January 18, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Of the 131 342 participants, 85 013 were women (64.7%) and 46 329 were men (35.3%) (mean [SD] age, 49 [9] years). The median protein intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th-95th percentile, 9%-22%) and 4% for plant protein (5th-95th percentile, 2%-6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was not associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.02 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05; P for trend = .33) but was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.08 per 10% energy increment; 95% CI, 1.01-1.16; P for trend = .04). Plant protein was associated with lower all-cause mortality (HR, 0.90 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.86-0.95; P for trend < .001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.88 per 3% energy increment; 95% CI, 0.80-0.97; P for trend = .007). These associations were confined to participants with at least 1 unhealthy lifestyle factor based on smoking, heavy alcohol intake, overweight or obesity, and physical

  9. Protein v. carbohydrate intake differentially affects liking- and wanting-related brain signalling.

    PubMed

    Born, Jurriaan M; Martens, Mieke J I; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Goebel, Rainer; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-01-28

    Extreme macronutrient intakes possibly lead to different brain signalling. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ingesting high-protein v. high-carbohydrate food on liking and wanting task-related brain signalling (TRS) and subsequent macronutrient intake. A total of thirty female subjects (21.6 (SD 2.2) years, BMI 25.0 (SD 3.7) kg/m²) completed four functional MRI scans: two fasted and two satiated on two different days. During the scans, subjects rated all food items for liking and wanting, thereby choosing the subsequent meal. The results show that high-protein (PROT) v. high-carbohydrate (CARB) conditions were generated using protein or carbohydrate drinks at the first meal. Energy intake and hunger were recorded. PROT (protein: 53.7 (SD 2.1) percentage of energy (En%); carbohydrate: 6.4 (SD 1.3) En%) and CARB conditions (protein: 11.8 (SD 0.6) En%; carbohydrate: 70.0 (SD 2.4) En%) were achieved during the first meal, while the second meals were not different between the conditions. Hunger, energy intake, and behavioural liking and wanting ratings were decreased after the first meal (P< 0.001). Comparing the first with the second meal, the macronutrient content changed: carbohydrate -26.9 En% in the CARB condition, protein -37.8 En% in the PROT condition. After the first meal in the CARB condition, wanting TRS was increased in the hypothalamus. After the first meal in the PROT condition, liking TRS was decreased in the putamen (P< 0.05). The change in energy intake from the first to the second meal was inversely related to the change in liking TRS in the striatum and hypothalamus in the CARB condition and positively related in the PROT condition (P< 0.05). In conclusion, wanting and liking TRS were affected differentially with a change in carbohydrate or protein intake, underscoring subsequent energy intake and shift in macronutrient composition.

  10. Energy expenditure and caloric and protein intake in infants following the Norwood procedure.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Herridge, Joann; Holtby, Helen; Humpl, Tilman; Redington, Andrew N; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2008-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass in infants results in a hypermetabolic response. Energy requirements of these patients have not been well studied. We assessed energy expenditure and caloric and protein intake during the first 3 days following the Norwood procedure. Clinical investigation. Children's hospital. Seventeen infants (15 boys, age 4-92 days, median 7 days). VO2 and VCO2 were continuously measured using respiratory mass spectrometry in 17 infants for the first 72 hrs following the Norwood procedure. The respiratory quotient was determined as VCO2/VO2. Energy expenditure was calculated using the modified Weir equation. Measurements were collected at 2- to 4-hr intervals. The mean values in the first 8 hrs, hours 8-32, hours 32-56, and the last 16 hrs were used as representative values for postoperative days 0, 1, 2, and 3. Total caloric and protein intakes were recorded for each day. Energy expenditure, VO2, and VCO2 were initially high; declined rapidly during the first 8 hrs; and were maintained relatively stable in the following hours (p < .0001). Respiratory quotient showed a significant linear increase over the 72 hrs (p = .002). Energy expenditure on days 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 43 +/- 11, 39 +/- 8, 39 +/- 8, and 41 +/- 6 kcal/kg/day, respectively. Total caloric intake was 3 +/- 1, 14 +/- 5, 31 +/- 16, and 51 +/- 16 kcal/kg/day. Protein intake was 0, 0.2 +/- 0.2, 0.6 +/- 0.5, and 0.9 +/- 0.5 g/kg/day on days 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Infants exhibit a hypermetabolic response immediately following the Norwood procedure. Caloric and protein intake was inadequate to meet energy expenditure during the first 2 days after surgery. Further studies are warranted to examine the effects of caloric and protein supplementation on postoperative outcomes in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  11. Early oxytocin inhibition of salt intake after furosemide treatment in rats?

    PubMed

    Core, Sheri L; Curtis, Kathleen S

    2017-05-01

    Body fluid homeostasis requires a complex suite of physiological and behavioral processes. Understanding of the role of the central nervous system (CNS) in integrating these processes has been advanced by research employing immunohistochemical techniques to assess responses to a variety of body fluid challenges. Such techniques have revealed sex/estrogen differences in CNS activation in response to hypotension and hypernatremia. In contrast, it has been difficult to conclusively identify specific CNS areas and neurotransmitter systems that are activated by hyponatremia using these techniques. In part, this difficulty is due to the temporal disconnect between the physiological effects of treatments commonly used to deplete body sodium and the behavioral response to such depletion. In some methods, sodium ingestion is delayed in association with increased oxytocin (OT), suggesting an inhibitory role for OT in sodium intake. Urinary sodium loss increases within an hour after treatment with furosemide, a natriuretic-diuretic, but sodium intake is delayed for 18-24h. Accordingly, we hypothesized that acute furosemide-induced sodium loss activates centrally-projecting OT neurons which provide an initial inhibition of sodium intake, and tested this hypothesis in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats with or without estrogen using immunohistochemical methods. Neuronal activation in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) after administration of furosemide corresponded to the timing of the physiological effects. The activation was not different in estrogen-treated rats, nor did estrogen alter the initial suppression of sodium intake. However, virtually no fos immunoreactive (fos-IR) neurons in the parvocellular PVN were also immunolabeled for OT. Thus, acute sodium loss after furosemide produces neural activation and an early inhibition of sodium intake that does not appear to involve activation of centrally-projecting OT neurons and is not influenced by estrogen

  12. Estimation of daily protein intake based on spot urine urea nitrogen concentration in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hiroko; Kanda, Eiichiro; Sato, Asako; Sakamoto, Kaori; Kanno, Yoshihiko

    2016-04-01

    Determination of daily protein intake in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires precision. Inaccuracies in recording dietary intake occur, and estimation from total urea excretion presents hurdles owing to the difficulty of collecting whole urine for 24 h. Spot urine has been used for measuring daily sodium intake and urinary protein excretion. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated whether urea nitrogen (UN) concentration in spot urine can be used to predict daily protein intake instead of the 24-h urine collection in 193 Japanese CKD patients (Stages G1-G5). After patient randomization into 2 datasets for the development and validation of models, bootstrapping was used to develop protein intake estimation models. The parameters for the candidate multivariate regression models were male gender, age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, serum albumin level, spot urinary UN and creatinine level, and spot urinary UN/creatinine levels. The final model contained BMI and spot urinary UN level. The final model was selected because of the higher correlation between the predicted and measured protein intakes r = 0.558 (95 % confidence interval 0.400, 0.683), and the smaller distribution of the difference between the measured and predicted protein intakes than those of the other models. The results suggest that UN concentration in spot urine may be used to estimate daily protein intake and that a prediction formula would be useful for nutritional control in CKD patients.

  13. [Protein intake in selected youth groups of different physical activity and requirements for athletes].

    PubMed

    Nazarewicz, Rafał; Babicz-Zielińska, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate protein intake in groups of different physical activity. The research was undertaken over a group of young people of different physical activity (age group 15-18 years) including ballet dancers, karate fighters, cross runners as well as adolescents of average physical activity (female and male). The investigation was performed in two series. The first--before intense exercise training and the second--after intense exercise training. In control group there was only one series. Urea was estimated by using urease which converts urea into ammonia, CO2 and glutamic dehydrogenase reaction via measurements of ammonia derived from urea. The amounts of urea were applied for counting quantity of consumed proteins. In the physically active groups the protein intake was too low in comparison to required.

  14. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  15. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  16. Increasing the protein content of meals and its effect on daily energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Blatt, Alexandria D.; Roe, Liane S.

    2011-01-01

    High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. In order to investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitumlunch and dinner entrées one day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10, 15, 20, 25, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Un-manipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/d in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/d in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake, however, did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1870±93, 1887±93, 1848±111, 1876±100, and 1807±98 kcal). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. PMID:21272705

  17. Increasing the protein content of meals and its effect on daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-02-01

    High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. To investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitum lunch and dinner entrées 1 day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Unmanipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/day in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/day in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1,870±93, 1,887±93, 1,848±111, 1,876±100, and 1,807±98 kcal in the 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% energy groups, respectively). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen balance study in young Nigerian adult males using four levels of protein intake.

    PubMed

    Atinmo, T; Mbofung, C M; Egun, G; Osotimehin, B

    1988-11-01

    1. The present study was carried out to estimate precisely, via the nitrogen balance technique, the protein requirement of Nigerians (earlier estimated via the obligatory N method) using graded levels of protein intake. 2. Fifteen medical students of the University of Ibadan who volunteered to participate in the study were given graded levels of protein (0.3, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg body-weight per d) derived from foods similar to those usually consumed by the subjects. 3. Each subject was given each of the dietary protein levels for a period of 10 d. Subjects were divided into two groups and the feeding pattern followed a criss-cross design with one group starting with the highest level of protein intake (0.3 g). Mean energy intake during each of the eleven experimental periods was maintained at 0.2 MJ/kg per d. After an initial 5 d adaptation period in each experimental period, 24 h urine and faecal samples were collected in marked containers for five consecutive days for N determination. 4. Mean N balance during consumption of the four protein levels (0.30, 0.45, 0.6 and 0.75 g/kg) were -11.02 (SD 8.07), -9.90 (SD 6.64), +9.70 (SD 4.15) and +5.13 (SD 4.62) respectively. Using regression analysis, the mean daily N requirement was estimated at 110.25 mg N/kg body-weight (0.69 g protein/kg body-weight). Estimates of allowances for individual variations to cover 97.5% of the population adjusted this value to 0.75 g protein/kg body-weight. Net protein utilization for the diet at maintenance level was estimated at 57.5.

  19. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    PubMed

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (- 2 to 2). Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  20. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  1. Bumble bees regulate their intake of essential protein and lipid pollen macronutrients.

    PubMed

    Vaudo, A D; Stabler, D; Patch, H M; Tooker, J F; Grozinger, C M; Wright, G A

    2016-12-15

    Bee population declines are linked to the reduction of nutritional resources due to land-use intensification, yet we know little about the specific nutritional needs of many bee species. Pollen provides bees with their primary source of protein and lipids, but nutritional quality varies widely among host-plant species. Therefore, bees might have adapted to assess resource quality and adjust their foraging behavior to balance nutrition from multiple food sources. We tested the ability of two bumble bee species, Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, to regulate protein and lipid intake. We restricted B. terrestris adults to single synthetic diets varying in protein:lipid ratios (P:L). The bees over-ate protein on low-fat diets and over-ate lipid on high-fat diets to reach their targets of lipid and protein, respectively. The bees survived best on a 10:1 P:L diet; the risk of dying increased as a function of dietary lipid when bees ate diets with lipid contents greater than 5:1 P:L. Hypothesizing that the P:L intake target of adult worker bumble bees was between 25:1 and 5:1, we presented workers from both species with unbalanced but complementary paired diets to determine whether they self-select their diet to reach a specific intake target. Bees consumed similar amounts of proteins and lipids in each treatment and averaged a 14:1 P:L for B. terrestris and 12:1 P:L for B. impatiens These results demonstrate that adult worker bumble bees likely select foods that provide them with a specific ratio of P:L. These P:L intake targets could affect pollen foraging in the field and help explain patterns of host-plant species choice by bumble bees. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. An Even Distribution of Protein Intake Daily Promotes Protein Adequacy but Does Not Influence Nutritional Status in Institutionalized Elderly.

    PubMed

    Tieland, Michael; Beelen, Janne; Laan, Anna C M; Poon, Shirley; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Seeman, Ego; Wang, Xiaofang; Iuliano, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Although it has been established that sufficient protein is required to maintain good nutritional status and support healthy aging, it is not clear if the pattern of protein consumption may also influence nutritional status, especially in institutionalized elderly who are at risk of malnutrition. Therefore, we aim to determine the association between protein intake distribution and nutritional status in institutionalized elderly people. Cross-sectional study among 481 institutionalized older adults. Dietary data from 481 ambulant elderly people (68.8% female, mean age 87.5 ± 6.3 years) residing in 52 aged-care facilities in Victoria, Australia, were assessed over 2 days using plate waste analysis. Nutritional status was determined using the Mini-Nutritional Assessment tool and serum (n = 208) analyzed for albumin, hemoglobin, and IGF-1. Protein intake distribution was classified as: spread (even distribution across 3 meals, n = 65), pulse (most protein consumed in one meal, n = 72) or intermediate (n = 344). Regression analysis was used to investigate associations. Mean protein intakes were higher in the spread (60.5 ± 2.0 g/d) than intermediate group (56.0 ± 0.8 g/d, P = .037), and tended to be higher than those in the pulse group (55.9 ± 1.9 g/d, P = .097). Residents with an even distribution of protein intake achieved a higher level of the recommended daily intake for protein (96.2 ± 30.0%) than the intermediate (86.3 ± 26.2%, P = .008) and pulse (87.4 ± 30.5%, P = .06) groups, and also achieved a greater level of their estimated energy requirements (intermediate; P = .039, pulse; P = .001). Nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment score) did not differ between groups (pulse; 20.5 ± 4.5, intermediate; 21.0 ± 2.5, spread; 20.5 ± 3.5), nor did any other indices of nutritional status. Meeting protein requirements is required before protein distribution may influence nutritional status in institutionalized

  3. Change in daily energy intake associated with pairwise compositional change in carbohydrate, fat and protein intake among US adults, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    An, Ruopeng; Burd, Nicholas A

    2015-06-01

    To assess the change in daily energy intake associated with pairwise compositional change in carbohydrate, fat and protein intake among US adults stratified by sex, race/ethnicity and weight status. Linear mixture model was performed to estimate the relationship between daily energy intake and macronutrient composition, adjusted for age and alcohol consumption, and accounting for survey design. Study sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2010 waves. A total of 27 589 US adults aged 20 years and older were included in the study. Dietary macronutrient intake was calculated from 24 h dietary recall and BMI from objectively measured weight/height. Across all population subgroups, substituting protein or carbohydrate for fat and substituting protein for carbohydrate were associated with decreased daily energy intake, with the largest effect resulting from substituting protein for fat. A 1 % increase in the percentage of energy from protein substituted for a 1 % decrease in the percentage of energy from fat was associated with a decrease in daily energy intake of 268.2 (95 % CI 169.0, 367.4) kJ, 289.5 (95 % CI 215.9, 363.2) kJ and 293.7 (95 % CI 210.0, 377.4) kJ among normal-weight (18.5≤BMI, kg/m2<25.0), overweight (25.0≤BMI, kg/m2<30.0) and obese (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2) men, and 177.4 (95 % CI 130.5, 224.3) kJ, 188.7 (95 % CI 139.3, 238.1) kJ and 204.2 (95 % CI 158.2, 250.2) kJ among normal-weight, overweight and obese women, respectively. The relationship between macronutrient composition and daily energy intake varied substantially across sex, race/ethnicity and weight status. Policies promoting higher daily protein intake at the expense of lower fat intake could be effective in reducing total energy intake among US adults.

  4. Milk protein intake, the metabolic-endocrine response, and growth in infancy: data from a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Socha, Piotr; Grote, Veit; Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Janas, Roman; Demmelmair, Hans; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Subías, Joaquín Escribano; Scaglioni, Silvia; Verduci, Elvira; Dain, Elena; Langhendries, Jean-Paul; Perrin, Emmanuel; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    Protein intake in early infancy has been suggested to be an important risk factor for later obesity, but information on potential mechanisms is very limited. This study examined the influence of protein intake in infancy on serum amino acids, insulin, and the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis and its possible relation to growth in the first 2 y of life. In a multicenter European study, 1138 healthy, formula-fed infants were randomly assigned to receive cow-milk-based infant and follow-on formulas with lower protein (LP; 1.77 and 2.2 g protein/100 kcal) or higher protein (HP; 2.9 and 4.4 g protein/100 kcal) contents for the first year. Biochemical variables were measured at age 6 mo in 339 infants receiving LP formula and 333 infants receiving HP formula and in 237 breastfed infants. Essential amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, IGF-I, and urinary C-peptide:creatinine ratio, were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the HP group than in the LP group, whereas IGF-binding protein (IGF-BP) 2 was lower and IGF-BP3 did not differ significantly. The median IGF-I total serum concentration was 48.4 ng/mL (25th, 75th percentile: 27.2, 81.8 ng/mL) in the HP group and 34.7 ng/mL (17.7, 57.5 ng/mL) in the LP group; the urine C-peptide:creatinine ratios were 140.6 ng/mg (80.0, 203.8 ng/mg) and 107.3 ng/mg (65.2, 194.7 ng/mg), respectively. Most essential amino acids, IGF-I, C-peptide, and urea increased significantly in both the LP and HP groups compared with the breastfed group. Total IGF-I was significantly associated with growth until 6 mo but not thereafter. HP intake stimulates the IGF-I axis and insulin release in infancy. IGF-I enhances growth during the first 6 mo of life. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00338689.

  5. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-03-07

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of psychosocial factors on the energy and protein intake of older people on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lina; Hickson, Mary; Brown, Edwina A

    2013-09-01

    To explore the relationship between nutritional parameters and psychosocial factors in older people on dialysis. A cross-sectional observational study in prevalent older people on hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). A secondary analysis from a quality of life study in older people (Broadening Options for Long-term Dialysis in the Elderly). One-hundred and six patients 65 years of age or older and on dialysis for at least 90 days were purposively recruited (HD patients matched to PD patients by age, sex, dialysis vintage, ethnicity and Index of Deprivation). Half were on HD, the mean age was 72.7 years, 72% were male, 92% were from a White ethnic background, and 26% had diabetes. The patients attended one visit at which they completed nutritional assessments (3-day food diary, subjective global assessment, handgrip strength, and body mass index) and questionnaires: Short Form-12 (SF-12), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Mini Mental State Exam, and social networks. The differences in nutritional parameters between patients on PD and HD were determined by univariate analyses, and the relationships between nutritional intake and demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables were determined by multivariate analyses. There was no difference in the energy and protein intake and nutritional status between older people on HD and PD. For the whole sample, multivariate analyses found that lower energy intake was related to fewer social networks (P = .002) and lower SF-12 Physical Component Scale (PCS) scores (P = .021). A lower protein intake was related to worsening Index of Deprivation scores (P = .028) and an interaction between SF-12 PCS and presence of possible depression (P = .015). Energy and protein intake in older people (regardless of modality) appears to be independently associated with psychosocial variables. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antenatal dietary advice and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake.

    PubMed

    Ota, Erika; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Mori, Rintaro; Farrar, Diane

    2012-09-12

    Gestational weight gain is positively associated with fetal growth, and observational studies of food supplementation in pregnancy have reported increases in gestational weight gain and fetal growth. To assess the effects of advice during pregnancy to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, on energy and protein intakes, and the effect on maternal and infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (22 July 2011) and contacted researchers in the field. We updated the search on 12 July 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Randomised controlled trials of dietary advice to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data and checked for accuracy. Extracted data were supplemented by additional information from the trialists we contacted. We examined 110 reports corresponding to 46 trials. Of these trials, 15 were included, 30 were excluded, and one is ongoing. Overall, 15 trials involving 7410 women were included.Nutritional advice (four trials, 790 women)Women given nutritional advice had a lower relative risk of having a preterm birth (two trials, 449 women) (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98 ), head circumference at birth was increased in one trial (389 women) (mean difference (MD) 0.99 cm, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.55) and protein intake increased (three trials, 632 women) (protein intake: MD +6.99 g/day, 95% CI 3.02 to 10.97). No significant differences were observed on any other outcomes.Balanced energy and protein supplementation (11 trials, 5385 women)Risk of stillbirth was significantly reduced for women given balanced energy and protein supplementation (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.98, five trials, 3408 women), mean birthweight was

  8. High proportions of older people with normal nutritional status have poor protein intake and low diet quality.

    PubMed

    Jyväkorpi, S K; Pitkälä, K H; Puranen, T M; Björkman, M P; Kautiainen, H; Strandberg, T E; Soini, H H; Suominen, M H

    2016-01-01

    The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) is a well-validated instrument examining the nutritional status of older people. The aim of this study was to examine how older people's energy and nutrient intakes are associated with the MNA and to determine how sensitive and specific MNA is in identifying those having low energy and protein intakes. This cross-sectional study combined data from five nutritional studies (N=900): both home-dwelling and institutionalized older people without and with disabilities. Their nutritional status was assessed with MNA, and nutrient intakes were retrieved from 1 to 3day food diaries. Nutrient intakes were divided according to MNA status (normal nutritional status, at-risk of malnutrition, malnourished). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios of MNA of various cut-off points were tested with recommended protein and energy intakes. ROC curves was constructed. Energy, protein and most nutrient intakes showed logical linear trends according to MNA classes. However, more than three-fourths of the participants with MNA>23.5 had lower than recommended protein intakes. Sensitivity of MNA ranged from 0.32 to 0.82 for recommended energy (F:1570kcal/d/M:2070kcal/d) and protein intakes (1.0g/kg BW or 1.2g/kgBW) cut-off points, and specificity from 0.75 to 0.25, respectively. AUC values were low (0.52-0.53). MNA status was consistently associated with nutrient intakes and diet quality. However, a high proportion of older people even with normal nutritional status had poor energy and protein intakes. Thus, MNA does not identify all those with poor nutrient intakes who may be at risk of developing malnutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Habituation to low or high protein intake does not modulate basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Stefan Hm; Horstman, Astrid Mh; Franssen, Rinske; Kouw, Imre Wk; Wall, Benjamin T; Burd, Nicholas A; de Groot, Lisette Cpgm; van Loon, Luc Jc

    2017-02-01

    Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by basal muscle protein synthesis rates and the ability to increase muscle protein synthesis after protein ingestion. To our knowledge, no previous studies have evaluated the impact of habituation to either low protein intake (LOW PRO) or high protein intake (HIGH PRO) on the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response. We assessed the impact of LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO on basal and postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates after the ingestion of 25 g whey protein. Twenty-four healthy, older men [age: 62 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25.9 ± 0.4 (mean ± SEM)] participated in a parallel-group randomized trial in which they adapted to either a LOW PRO diet (0.7 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) or a HIGH PRO diet (1.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; n = 12) for 14 d. On day 15, participants received primed continuous l-[ring- 2 H 5 ]-phenylalanine and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine infusions and ingested 25 g intrinsically l-[1- 13 C]-phenylalanine- and l-[1- 13 C]-leucine-labeled whey protein. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were collected to assess muscle protein synthesis rates as well as dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics. Plasma leucine concentrations and exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased after protein ingestion (P < 0.01) with no differences between treatments (P > 0.05). Plasma exogenous phenylalanine availability over the 5-h postprandial period was greater after LOW PRO than after HIGH PRO (61% ± 1% compared with 56% ± 2%, respectively; P < 0.05). Muscle protein synthesis rates increased from 0.031% ± 0.004% compared with 0.039% ± 0.007%/h in the fasted state to 0.062% ± 0.005% compared with 0.057% ± 0.005%/h in the postprandial state after LOW PRO compared with HIGH PRO, respectively (P < 0.01), with no differences between treatments (P = 0.25). Habituation to LOW PRO (0.7 g · kg -1 · d -1 ) compared with HIGH PRO (1.5 g · kg -1 · d -1 ) augments the postprandial availability

  10. Time trends in alcohol intake in early pregnancy and official recommendations in Denmark, 1998-2013.

    PubMed

    Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Petersen, Gitte L; Henriksen, Tine B; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2016-07-01

    In 1999, Danish health authorities modified their recommendation to pregnant women, condoning some alcohol intake. In 2007, the recommendation was changed to one of alcohol abstention. We aimed to assess changes in average alcohol intake (drinks/week) and alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy from 1998 to 2013 in relation to the changes in official recommendations in 1999 (condoning some intake) and 2007 (abstention). All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, between September 1998 and June 2013 were invited to participate. During the study period, 68 395 pregnant women filled in a self-administered questionnaire at gestational week 11 (median). From 1998, questions on binge drinking included data on the number of binge episodes (≥5 drinks on a single occasion), and the timing (gestational week) of these episodes. Additional questions on binge drinking defined as ≥3 drinks on a single occasion were asked separately from 2000. A question assessed the average number of alcohol-containing drinks per week the woman consumed currently at the time of filling in the questionnaire. From 1998 to 2013 the proportion of women reporting no alcohol intake increased from 31.2 to 83.3% (p < 0.001), the main decline occurring between 1998 and 2007. The proportion of binge drinkers decreased (p < 0.001) but remained more stable across the period. The decline in the proportion of pregnant women consuming alcohol occurred independently of official recommendations. Increasing national and international awareness may partly explain the changes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal.

    PubMed

    Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J

    2018-03-01

    Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P < 0.05). These results suggest whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.

  12. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-05-01

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality. Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6-35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score of each child's diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements. Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6-8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9-12 mo and was very low in all sites (0-2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density. Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects of infection

  13. Dietary Protein Intake in Young Children in Selected Low-Income Countries Is Generally Adequate in Relation to Estimated Requirements for Healthy Children, Except When Complementary Food Intake Is Low123

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Joanne E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous research indicates that young children in low-income countries (LICs) generally consume greater amounts of protein than published estimates of protein requirements, but this research did not account for protein quality based on the mix of amino acids and the digestibility of ingested protein. Objective: Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake by young children in LICs, accounting for protein quality. Methods: Seven data sets with information on dietary intake for children (6–35 mo of age) from 6 LICs (Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bangladesh, Uganda, and Zambia) were reanalyzed to estimate protein and amino acid intake and assess adequacy. The protein digestibility–corrected amino acid score of each child’s diet was calculated and multiplied by the original (crude) protein intake to obtain an estimate of available protein intake. Distributions of usual intake were obtained to estimate the prevalence of inadequate protein and amino acid intake for each cohort according to Estimated Average Requirements. Results: The prevalence of inadequate protein intake was highest in breastfeeding children aged 6–8 mo: 24% of Bangladeshi and 16% of Peruvian children. With the exception of Bangladesh, the prevalence of inadequate available protein intake decreased by age 9–12 mo and was very low in all sites (0–2%) after 12 mo of age. Inadequate protein intake in children <12 mo of age was due primarily to low energy intake from complementary foods, not inadequate protein density. Conclusions: Overall, most children consumed protein amounts greater than requirements, except for the younger breastfeeding children, who were consuming low amounts of complementary foods. These findings reinforce previous evidence that dietary protein is not generally limiting for children in LICs compared with estimated requirements for healthy children, even after accounting for protein quality. However, unmeasured effects

  14. Self-reported dietary intake and appetite predict early treatment outcome among low-BMI adults initiating HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Koethe, John R; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire; Nyirenda, Christopher; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Mwango, Albert; Kasongo, Webster; Zulu, Isaac; Shepherd, Bryan E; Heimburger, Douglas C

    2013-03-01

    Low BMI is a major risk factor for early mortality among HIV-infected persons starting antiretrovial therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa and the common patient belief that antiretroviral medications produce distressing levels of hunger is a barrier to treatment adherence. We assessed relationships between appetite, dietary intake and treatment outcome 12 weeks after ART initiation among HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and immunosuppression. A prospective, observational cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall survey. The relationships of appetite, intake and treatment outcome were analysed using time-varying Cox models. A public-sector HIV clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. One hundred and forty-two HIV-infected adults starting ART with BMI <16 kg/m2 and/or CD4+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/μl. Median age, BMI and CD4+ lymphocyte count were 32 years, 16 kg/m2 and 34 cells/μl, respectively. Twenty-five participants (18%) died before 12 weeks and another thirty-three (23%) were lost to care. A 500 kJ/d higher energy intake at any time after ART initiation was associated with an approximate 16% reduction in the hazard of death (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.84; P = 0.01), but the relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein or fat to total energy was not a significant predictor of outcome. Appetite normalized gradually among survivors and hunger was rarely reported. Poor early ART outcomes were strikingly high in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition and mortality was predicted by lower dietary intake. Intervention trials to promote post-ART intake in this population may benefit survival and are warranted.

  15. Self-reported Dietary Intake and Appetite Predict Early Treatment Outcome among Low Body Mass Index Adults Initiating HIV Treatment in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, John R.; Blevins, Meridith; Bosire, Claire; Nyirenda, Christopher; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Mwango, Albert; Kasongo, Webster; Zulu, Isaac; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Heimburger, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Low body mass index (BMI) is a major risk factor for early mortality among HIV infected persons starting antiretrovial therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, and the common patient belief that antiretroviral medications produce distressing levels of hunger is a barrier to treatment adherence. We assessed relationships between appetite, dietary intake, and treatment outcome 12 weeks after ART initiation among HIV infected adults with advanced malnutrition and immunosuppression. Design A prospective, observational cohort study. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall survey. The relationships of appetite, intake, and treatment outcome were analyzed using time-varying Cox models. Setting A public-sector HIV clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. Subjects 142 HIV-infected adults starting ART with BMI <16 kg/m2 and/or CD4+ lymphocyte count <50 cells/µl. Results Median age, BMI, and CD4+ lymphocyte count were 32 years, 16 kg/m2, and 34 cells/µL, respectively. Twenty-five participants (18%) died before 12 weeks, and another 33 (23%) were lost to care. A 500 kJ/day higher energy intake at any time after ART initiation was associated with an approximate 16% reduction in the hazard of death (AHR 0.84; p=0.01), but the relative contribution of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to total energy was not a significant predictor of outcome. Appetite normalized gradually among survivors, and hunger was rarely reported. Conclusions Poor early ART outcomes were strikingly high in a cohort of HIV-infected adults with advanced malnutrition, and mortality was predicted by lower dietary intake. Intervention trials to promote post-ART intake in this population may benefit survival and are warranted. PMID:22691872

  16. Urea synthesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis: relation to glucagon secretion and dietary protein intake.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, O; Andersen, V; Sonne, J; Larsen, S; Vilstrup, H

    2001-12-01

    Up-regulation of urea synthesis by amino acids and dietary protein intake may be impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) due to the reduced glucagon secretion. Conversely, urea synthesis may be increased as a result of the chronic inflammation. The aims of the study were to determine urea synthesis kinetics in CP patients in relation to glucagon secretion (study I) and during an increase in protein intake (study II). In study I, urea synthesis rate, calculated as urinary excretion rate corrected for accumulation in total body water and intestinal loss, was measured during infusion of alanine in 7 CP patients and 5 control subjects on spontaneous protein intake. The functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC), i.e. urea synthesis expressed independent of changes in plasma amino acid concentration, was calculated as the slope of the linear relation between urea synthesis rate and plasma alpha -amino nitrogen concentration. In study II, 6 of the patients of study I had urea synthesis and FHNC determined before and after a period of 14 days of supplementation with a protein-enriched liquid (dietary sequence randomized). Study I: Alanine infusion increased urea synthesis rate by a factor of 10 in the control subjects, and by a factor of 5 in the CP patients (P<0.01). FHNC was 31.9+/-2.4 l/h in the control subjects and 16.5+/-2.0 l/h (P<0.05) in the CP patients. The glucagon response to alanine infusion (AUC) was reduced by 75 % in the CP patients. The reduction in FHNC paralleled the reduced glucagon response (r(2)=0.55, P<0.01). Study II: The spontaneous protein intake was 0.75+/-0.14 g/(kg x day) and increased during the high protein period to 1.77+/-0.12 g/(kg x day). This increased alanine stimulated urea synthesis by a factor of 1.3 (P<0.05), FHNC from 13.5+/-2.6 l/h to 19.4+/-3.1 l/h (P<0.01), and the glucagon response to alanine infusion (AUC) by a factor of 1.8 (P<0.05). Urea synthesis rate and FHNC are markedly reduced in CP patients. This is

  17. Protein dietary reference intakes may be inadequate for vegetarians if low amounts of animal protein are consumed.

    PubMed

    Kniskern, Megan A; Johnston, Carol S

    2011-06-01

    The health benefits of vegetarian diets are well-recognized; however, long-term adherence to these diets may be associated with nutrient inadequacies, particularly vitamins B12 and D, calcium, iron, zinc, and protein. The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) expert panels recommended adjustments to the iron, zinc, and calcium DRIs for vegetarians to account for decreased bioavailability, but no adjustments were considered necessary for the protein DRI under the assumption that vegetarians consume about 50% of protein from animal (dairy/egg) sources. This study examined dietary protein sources in a convenience sample of 21 young adult vegetarian women who completed food logs on 4 consecutive days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day). The daily contribution percentages of protein consumed from cereals, legumes, nuts/seeds, fruits/vegetables, and dairy/egg were computed, and the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score of the daily diets was calculated. The calculated total dietary protein digestibility score for participants was 82 ± 1%, which differed significantly (P < 0.001) from the DRI reference score, 88%, and the 4-d average protein digestibility corrected amino acid score for the sample was 80 ± 2%, which also differed significantly (P < 0.001) from the DRI reference value, 100%. The analyses indicated that animal protein accounted for only 21% of dietary protein. This research suggests that the protein DRI for vegetarians consuming less than the expected amounts of animal protein (45% to 50% of total protein) may need to be adjusted from 0.8 to about 1.0 g/kg to account for decreased protein bioavailability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Energy and Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Laurence S.; Commins, John M.; Moler, James E.; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J.; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Prentice, Ross L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Willett, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes. Results were similar across sexes, but there was heterogeneity across studies. Using a FFQ, the average correlation coefficients for reported versus true intakes for energy, protein, and protein density were 0.21, 0.29, and 0.41, respectively. Using a single 24-hour recall, the coefficients were 0.26, 0.40, and 0.36, respectively, for the same nutrients and rose to 0.31, 0.49, and 0.46 when three 24-hour recalls were averaged. The average rate of under-reporting of energy intake was 28% with a FFQ and 15% with a single 24-hour recall, but the percentages were lower for protein. Personal characteristics related to under-reporting were body mass index, educational level, and age. Calibration equations for true intake that included personal characteristics provided improved prediction. This project establishes that FFQs have stronger correlations with truth for protein density than for absolute protein intake, that the use of multiple 24-hour recalls substantially increases the correlations when compared with a single 24-hour recall, and that body mass index strongly predicts under-reporting of energy and protein intakes. PMID:24918187

  19. Sex Difference in the Association Between Protein Intake and Frailty: Assessed Using the Kihon Checklist Indexes Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Nanri, Hinako; Yamada, Yosuke; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Okabe, Yuki; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Itoi, Aya; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yuya; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Kimura, Misaka

    2018-05-31

    Dietary protein intake is inversely associated with physical frailty risk. However, it is unknown whether an association exists between dietary protein intake and comprehensive frailty. To evaluate the association between protein intake and comprehensive frailty in older Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 5638 Japanese participants (2707 men and 2931 women) aged ≥65 years from Kameoka City, Kyoto, Japan. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Comprehensive frailty was assessed using a 25-item Kihon Checklist (KCL), which comprised instrumental activities of daily living, mobility disability, malnutrition, oral or eating function, socialization and housebound, cognitive function, and depression domains. A KCL score of 4 to 6 was defined as prefrailty, and ≥7 as frailty. In women, but not in men, protein intake showed a lower prevalence for prefrailty (Q1-Q4, 40.2%, 34.3%, 34.3%, and 36.0%). Higher protein intake was associated with lower prevalence of frailty both in men (32.5%, 28.4%, 28.3%, and 27.3%) and women (35.7%, 31.4%, 27.6%, and 28.2%). Moreover, higher dietary protein intake decreased the odds ratio (OR) for frailty after adjustment for potential confounding factors in both men (OR for highest vs lowest quartile, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43-0.89; P for trend = 0.016) and women (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.45-0.91; P for trend = 0.017). The higher dietary protein intake may be inversely associated with the prevalence of comprehensive frailty in Japanese men and women. Future studies are needed to examine associations of dietary protein intake within KCL domains. Copyright © 2018 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    PubMed

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( < 0.0001) in feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial

  1. High dietary protein intake and protein-related acid load on bone health

    Protein is an essential nutrient for humans and is required for maintaining optimal bone structure and growth. Consumption of high protein diets in excess of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of (0.8 g protein/kg body weight/d) is increasingly popular due to the benefits of protein on preserving lea...

  2. Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease.

    PubMed

    Marangella, M; Bianco, O; Martini, C; Petrarulo, M; Vitale, C; Linari, F

    1989-04-01

    Oxalate excretion was measured in healthy subjects and idiopathic calcium stone-formers on dietary regimens which differed in the type and amount of protein allowed; 24-h urine collections were obtained from 41 practising vegetarians and 40 normal persons on a free, mixed, "mediterranean" diet. Twenty idiopathic calcium stone-formers were also studied while on two low calcium, low oxalate diets which differed in that animal protein was high in one and restricted in the other. Vegetarians had higher urinary oxalate levels than controls and although the calcium levels were markedly lower, urinary saturation with calcium/oxalate was significantly higher. This mild hypercalciuria was interpreted as being secondary to both a higher intake and increased fractional intestinal absorption of oxalate. Changing calcium stone-formers from a high to a low animal protein intake produced a significant decrease in calcium excretion but there was no variation in urinary oxalate. As a result, the decrease in calcium oxalate saturation was only marginal and not significant. It was concluded that dietary animal protein has a minimal effect on oxalate excretion. Mild hyperoxaluria of idiopathic calcium stone disease is likely to be intestinal in origin. Calcium stone-formers should be advised to avoid an excess of animal protein but the risks of a vegetable-rich diet should also be borne in mind.

  3. Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group

    PubMed Central

    Deutz, Nicolaas E. P.; Bauer, Jurgen M.; Barazzoni, Rocco; Biolo, Gianni; Boirie, Yves; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Cederholm, Tommy; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Krznaric, Zeljko; Nair, K. Sreekumaran; Singer, Pierre; Teta, Daniel; Tipton, Kevin; Calder, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    The aging process is associated with gradual and progressive loss of muscle mass along with lowered strength and physical endurance. This condition, sarcopenia, has been widely observed with aging in sedentary adults. Regular aerobic and resistance exercise programs have been shown to counteract most aspects of sarcopenia. In addition, good nutrition, especially adequate protein and energy intake, can help limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and functional abilities. Protein nutrition in combination with exercise is considered optimal for maintaining muscle function. With the goal of providing recommendations for health care professionals to help older adults sustain muscle strength and function into older age, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) hosted a Workshop on Protein Requirements in the Elderly, held in Dubrovnik on November 24 and 25, 2013. Based on the evidence presented and discussed, the following recommendations are made: (1) for healthy older people, the diet should provide at least 1.0 to 1.2 g protein/kg body weight/day (2) for older people who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition because they have acute or chronic illness, the diet should provide 1.2 to 1.5 g protein/kg body weight/day, with even higher intake for individuals with severe illness or injury, and (3) daily physical activity or exercise (resistance training, aerobic exercise) should be undertaken by all older people, for as long as possible. PMID:24814383

  4. Daily Intake of Milk Powder and Risk of Celiac Disease in Early Childhood: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Hård Af Segerstad, Elin M; Lee, Hye-Seung; Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Yang, Jimin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Rayner, Marilyn; Kurppa, Kalle; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M; Agardh, Daniel

    2018-04-28

    Milk powder and gluten are common components in Swedish infants' diets. Whereas large intakes of gluten early in life increases the risk of celiac disease in genetically at-risk Swedish children, no study has yet evaluated if intake of milk powder by 2 years of age is associated with celiac disease. A 1-to-3 nested case-control study, comprised of 207 celiac disease children and 621 controls matched for sex, birth year, and HLA genotype, was performed on a birth cohort of HLA-DR3-DQ2 and/or DR4-DQ8-positive children. Subjects were screened annually for celiac disease using tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Three-day food records estimated the mean intake of milk powder at ages 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months. Conditional logistic regression calculated odds ratios (OR) at last intake prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity, and for each time-point respectively and adjusted for having a first-degree relative with celiac disease and gluten intake. Intake of milk powder prior to seroconversion of tTGA positivity was not associated with celiac disease (OR = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.99, 1.03; p = 0.763). In conclusion, intake of milk powder in early childhood is not associated with celiac disease in genetically susceptible children.

  5. Effect of protein intake and weight gain velocity on body fat mass at 6 months of age: the EU Childhood Obesity Programme.

    PubMed

    Escribano, J; Luque, V; Ferre, N; Mendez-Riera, G; Koletzko, B; Grote, V; Demmelmair, H; Bluck, L; Wright, A; Closa-Monasterolo, R

    2012-04-01

    Higher protein intake during the first year of life is associated with increased weight gain velocity and body mass index (BMI). However, the relationship of protein intake and weight gain velocity with body composition is unclear. To assess if the increases in weight gain velocity and BMI induced by protein intake early in life are related to an increase in fat or fat-free mass. In all, 41 infants randomized at birth to a higher or lower protein content formula (HP=17 and LP=24, respectively) and 25 breastfed infants were included. Anthropometric measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months, and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were assessed by isotope dilution at 6 months. Weight gain velocity (g per month) during the first 6 months of life was significantly higher among HP infants (807.8 (±93.8) vs 724.2 (±110.0) (P=0.015)). Weight gain velocity strongly correlated with FM z-score (r=0.564, P<0.001) but showed no association with FFM z-scores. FFM showed no association with BMI. Nevertheless, FM strongly correlated with BMI at 6, 12 and 24 months (r=0.475, P<0.001; r=0.332, P=0.007 and r=0.247, P=0.051, respectively). FFM and FM z-scores did not differ significantly between HP and LP infants (0.32±1.75 vs -0.31±1.17 and 0.54±2.81 vs -0.02±1.65, respectively). Our findings support the hypothesis that higher protein intakes early in life are associated with faster weight gain and in turn to higher adiposity. This mechanism could be a determinant factor for later obesity risk.

  6. The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake is a predictor of bone resorption in space flight analogues and in ambulatory subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bone loss is a critical concern for space travelers, and a dietary countermeasure would be of great benefit. Dietary protein and potassium-associated bicarbonate precursors may have opposing effects on the acid-base balance in the body and therefore on bone loss. OBJECTIVE: In 2 studies, we examined the ability of dietary protein and potassium to predict markers of bone metabolism. DESIGN: In the first study, 8 pairs of male identical twins were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, or SED, group) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower-body negative pressure chamber (EX group). In a second study, groups of 4 subjects lived in a closed chamber for 60 or 91 d, and dietary data were collected for two or three 5-d sessions. Urinary calcium, N-telopeptide, and pyridinium cross-links were measured before bed rest; on bed rest days 5-6, 12-13, 19-20, and 26-27; and daily during the chamber studies. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation (P < 0.05). RESULTS: The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake was significantly correlated with N-telopeptide in the SED group during bed rest weeks 3 and 4 (r = 0.77 and 0.80) and during the 91-d chamber study (r = 0.75). The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake was positively correlated with pyridinium cross-links before bed rest in the EX group (r = 0.83), in the EX group during bed rest week 1 (r = 0.84), and in the SED group during bed rest week 2 (r = 0.72) but not during either chamber study. In both studies, these relations were not significant with the ratio of vegetable protein intake to potassium intake. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of animal protein intake to potassium intake may affect bone in ambulatory and bed-rest subjects. Changing this ratio may help to prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  7. Management of protein-energy wasting in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease: reconciling low protein intake with nutritional therapy1234

    PubMed Central

    Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2013-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW), characterized by a decline in body protein mass and energy reserves, including muscle and fat wasting and visceral protein pool contraction, is an underappreciated condition in early to moderate stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. The prevalence of PEW in early to moderate CKD is ≥20–25% and increases as CKD progresses, in part because of activation of proinflammatory cytokines combined with superimposed hypercatabolic states and declines in appetite. This anorexia leads to inadequate protein and energy intake, which may be reinforced by prescribed dietary restrictions and inadequate monitoring of the patient's nutritional status. Worsening uremia also renders CKD patients vulnerable to potentially deleterious effects of uncontrolled diets, including higher phosphorus and potassium burden. Uremic metabolites, some of which are anorexigenic and many of which are products of protein metabolism, can exert harmful effects, ranging from oxidative stress to endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide disarrays, renal interstitial fibrosis, sarcopenia, and worsening proteinuria and kidney function. Given such complex pathways, nutritional interventions in CKD, when applied in concert with nonnutritional therapeutic approaches, encompass an array of strategies (such as dietary restrictions and supplementations) aimed at optimizing both patients’ biochemical variables and their clinical outcomes. The applicability of many nutritional interventions and their effects on outcomes in patients with CKD with PEW has not been well studied. This article reviews the definitions and pathophysiology of PEW in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD, examines the current indications for various dietary modification strategies in patients with CKD (eg, manufactured protein-based supplements, amino acids and their keto acid or hydroxyacid analogues), discusses the rationale behind their potential use in

  8. Associations between fluorosis of permanent incisors and fluoride intake from infant formula, other dietary sources and dentifrice during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Marshall, Teresa A.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M.; Warren, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The authors describe associations between dental fluorosis and fluoride intakes, with an emphasis on intake from fluoride in infant formula. Methods The authors administered periodic questionnaires to parents to assess early fluoride intake sources from beverages, selected foods, dentifrice and supplements. They assessed relationships between fluorosis of the permanent maxillary incisors and fluoride intake from beverages and other sources, both for individual time points and cumulatively using area-under-the-curve (AUC) estimates. The authors determined effects associated with fluoride in reconstituted powdered infant formulas, along with risks associated with intake of fluoride from dentifrice and other sources. Results Considering only fluoride intake from age 3 to 9 months, the authors found that participants with fluorosis (97 percent of which was mild) had significantly greater cumulative fluoride intake (AUC) from reconstituted powdered infant formula, other beverages with added water or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. For participants aged 16 to 36 months, participants with fluorosis had significantly higher fluoride intake from water by itself, dentifrice or a combination of these than did those without fluorosis. In a model combining both the 3- to 9-month and 16- to 36-months age groups, the significant variables were fluoride intake from reconstituted powder concentrate formula (by participants aged 3–9 months), other beverages with added water (also by participants aged 3–9 months) and dentifrice (by participants aged 16–36 months). Conclusions Greater fluoride intakes from reconstituted powdered formulas (when participants were aged 3–9 months) and other water-added beverages (when participants were aged 3–9 months) increased fluorosis risk as did higher dentifrice intake by participants when aged 16 to 36 months. Clinical Implications Results suggest that prevalence of mild dental fluorosis could be

  9. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

    PubMed Central

    Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

  10. Role of Hypothalamic Melanocortin System in Adaptation of Food Intake to Food Protein Increase in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pillot, Bruno; Duraffourd, Céline; Bégeot, Martine; Joly, Aurélie; Luquet, Serge; Houberdon, Isabelle; Naville, Danielle; Vigier, Michèle; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Magnan, Christophe; Mithieux, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The hypothalamic melanocortin system—the melanocortin receptor of type 4 (MC4R) and its ligands: α-melanin-stimulating hormone (α-MSH, agonist, inducing hypophagia), and agouti-related protein (AgRP, antagonist, inducing hyperphagia)—is considered to play a central role in the control of food intake. We tested its implication in the mediation of the hunger-curbing effects of protein-enriched diets (PED) in mice. Whereas there was a 20% decrease in food intake in mice fed on the PED, compared to mice fed on an isocaloric starch-enriched diet, there was a paradoxical decrease in expression of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene, precursor of α-MSH, and increase in expression of the gene encoding AgRP. The hypophagia effect of PED took place in mice with invalidation of either MC4R or POMC, and was even strengthened in mice with ablation of the AgRP-expressing neurons. These data strongly suggest that the hypothalamic melanocortin system does not mediate the hunger-curbing effects induced by changes in the macronutrient composition of food. Rather, the role of this system might be to defend the body against the variations in food intake generated by the nutritional environment. PMID:21544212

  11. Protective Effect of High Protein and Calcium Intake on the Risk of Hip Fracture in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Shivani; Cupples, L Adrienne; Mclean, Robert R; Tucker, Katherine L; Broe, Kerry E; Kiel, Douglas P; Hannan, Marian T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of protein on bone is controversial, and calcium intake may modify protein's effect on bone. We evaluated associations of energy-adjusted tertiles of protein intake (ie, total, animal, plant, animal/plant ratio) with incident hip fracture and whether total calcium intake modified these associations in the Framingham Offspring Study. A total of 1752 men and 1972 women completed a baseline food frequency questionnaire (1991–1995 or 1995–1998) and were followed for hip fracture until 2005. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusting for confounders. Baseline mean age was 55 years (SD 9.9 years, range 26 to 86 years). Forty-four hip fractures occurred over 12 years of follow-up. Owing to significant interaction between protein (total, animal, animal/plant ratio) and calcium intake (p interaction range = .03 to .04), stratified results are presented. Among those with calcium intakes less than 800 mg/day, the highest tertile (T3) of animal protein intake had 2.8 times the risk of hip fracture [HR = 2.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.20–6.74, p = .02] versus the lowest tertile (T1, p trend = .02). In the 800 mg/day or more group, T3 of animal protein had an 85% reduced hip fracture risk (HR = 0.15, 95% CI 0.02–0.92, p = .04) versus T1 (p trend = .04). Total protein intake and the animal/plant ratio were not significantly associated with hip fracture (p range = .12 to .65). Our results from middle-aged men and women show that higher animal protein intake coupled with calcium intake of 800 mg/day or more may protect against hip fracture, whereas the effect appears reversed for those with lower calcium intake. Calcium intake modifies the association of protein intake and the risk of hip fracture in this cohort and may explain the lack of concordance seen in previous studies. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20662074

  12. Effect of dietary protein and GABA on food intake, growth and tissue amino acids in cats.

    PubMed

    Tews, J K; Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G; Harper, A E

    1984-02-01

    GABA at 5%, but not 3%, of a low protein diet depressed food intake and growth of kittens. Adaptation to high protein prevented these effects. When cats adapted to low or high protein were fed a meal containing GABA, plasma GABA concentration after 2 hr was 8-fold higher in the low than in the high protein group; clearance was almost complete within 6 hr. Concentrations of proline, branched-chain, other large neutral and basic (especially ornithine) amino acids increased more when cats were fed a high rather than a low protein meal; glycine decreased. At 6 hr, concentrations had consistently returned to initial levels only in the low protein group. Feeding the high protein diet ad lib increased tissue concentrations of threonine, proline and the branched-chain amino acids. Hepatic or renal GABA-aminotransferase activity was not altered in kittens fed the high protein diet. Kidney activity was 10-fold that of liver, which may contribute to the better tolerance of GABA by cats than by rats.

  13. Carbohydrate (CHO), protein and fat intake of healthy Pakistani school children in a 24 hour period.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sina; Hosain, Kehkashan

    2014-11-01

    To determine the frequency pattern of CHO, protein and fat intake in 24 hours by Pakistani school children of different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds) 6 to 16 years of age. The cross-sectional study was a multistage stratified sampling, done in a part of nationwide survey funded by the Higher Education Commission, Pakistan (HEC, Ref no: 20-441/R&D/2008). Sample collection of the study was done from 2006-2009, and growth centile charts have already been published (JPMA 2012; 62:367-77). This is the final paper of the completed project and includes data on only the nutritional status. Final statistical analysis of the nutrition aspect was done from 2012 to 2013 and comprised assessment of quality and quantity of CHO, protein and fats consumed by healthy schoolchildren in a 24 hrs recall (breakfast, brunch, lunch, tea time, dinner and bed time). Food records of 11, 237 school children were subjected to United States Department of Agriculture food exchange list. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. The age range of the study subjects was 6-16 years, and they represented different areas of Pakistan. The consumption of CHO was high (range: 60-74%) compared to protein (10-12%) and fat (18-32%). Schoolchildren in Pakistan were found to be taking a deficient amount of protein and fat in their daily diet, while. CHO intake was higher than normal.

  14. Antenatal dietary education and supplementation to increase energy and protein intake.

    PubMed

    Ota, Erika; Hori, Hiroyuki; Mori, Rintaro; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Farrar, Diane

    2015-06-02

    Gestational weight gain is positively associated with fetal growth, and observational studies of food supplementation in pregnancy have reported increases in gestational weight gain and fetal growth. To assess the effects of education during pregnancy to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, on energy and protein intake, and the effect on maternal and infant health outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2015), reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials of dietary education to increase energy and protein intake, or of actual energy and protein supplementation, during pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors independently extracted data and checked for accuracy. Extracted data were supplemented by additional information from the trialists we contacted. We examined 149 reports corresponding to 65 trials. Of these trials, 17 were included, 46 were excluded, and two are ongoing. Overall, 17 trials involving 9030 women were included. For this update, we assessed methodological quality of the included trials using the standard Cochrane criteria (risk of bias) and the GRADE approach. The overall risk of bias was unclear. Nutritional education (five trials, 1090 women) Women given nutritional education had a lower relative risk of having a preterm birth (two trials, 449 women) (risk ratio (RR) 0.46, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.98, low-quality evidence), and low birthweight (one trial, 300 women) (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.14). Head circumference at birth was increased in one trial (389 women) (mean difference (MD) 0.99 cm, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.55), while birthweight was significantly increased among undernourished women in two trials (320 women) (MD 489.76 g, 95% CI 427.93 to 551.59, low-quality evidence), but did not significantly increase for

  15. Vitamin B12 intake and status in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tinu Mary; Duggan, Christopher; Thomas, Tinku; Bosch, Ronald; Rajendran, Ramya; Virtanen, Suvi M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura V

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the vitamin B12 status of South Indian women in early pregnancy and its relationship with sociodemographic, anthropometry and dietary intake. Methods Cross-sectional study among 366 pregnant urban South Indian women ≤14 weeks of gestation with outcome variables defined as low vitamin B12 blood concentration (<150 pmol/L) and impaired vitamin B12 status [low vitamin B12 plus elevated methylmalonic acid (MMA) >0.26 μmol/L)]. Results Low plasma vitamin B12 concentration was observed in 51.1% of the women, while 42.4% had impaired B12 status. Elevated MMA, elevated homocysteine ( >10 μmol/L) and low erythrocyte folate (<283 nmol/L) was observed among 75.8%, 43.3% and 22.2% of women, respectively. The median (25th, 75th percentile) dietary intake of vitamin B12 was 1.25 (0.86, 1.96) μg/day. Lower maternal body weight was associated with higher vitamin B12 concentration [prevalence ratios (PR) (95% CI) 0.57 (0.39, 0.84)). The predictors of impaired vitamin B12 status were non-use of yoghurt [PR (95%CI) 1.63 (1.03, 2.58)], non-use of fish [PR (95% CI) 1.32 (1.01, 1.71)] and primiparity [PR (95% CI) 1.41 (1.05, 1.90)]. Conclusion A high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in early pregnancy among urban South Indian women was related to primiparity and to a low consumption of yoghurt and fish. PMID:23344013

  16. Higher Maternal Dietary Protein Intake Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Asian Cohort.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Wei; Colega, Marjorelee; Cai, Shirong; Chan, Yiong Huak; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Chen, Ling-Wei; Soh, Shu-E; Han, Wee Meng; Tan, Kok Hian; Lee, Yung Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; van Dam, Rob M; Chong, Mary Ff

    2017-04-01

    Background: Dietary protein may affect glucose metabolism through several mechanisms, but results from studies on dietary protein intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have been inconsistent. Objective: We examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary protein intake from different food sources during pregnancy with the risk of GDM in a multiethnic Asian population. Methods: We included 980 participants with singleton pregnancies from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Protein intake was ascertained from 24-h dietary recall and 3-d food diaries at 26-28 wk gestation. GDM was defined as fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L and/or 2-h postload glucose ≥7.8 mmol/L at 26-28 wk gestation. We evaluated the association of dietary protein intake with GDM risk by substituting carbohydrate with protein in an isocaloric model with the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of GDM was 17.9% among our participants. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher total dietary protein intake was associated with a higher risk of GDM; the OR comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of intake was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.27, 3.62; P -trend = 0.016). Higher intake levels of both animal protein (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 1.58, 5.20; P -trend = 0.001) and vegetable protein (OR: 1.78; 95% CI: 0.99, 3.20; P -trend = 0.009) were associated with a higher risk of GDM. Among the animal protein sources, higher intake levels of seafood protein (OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.26, 3.72; P -trend = 0.023) and dairy protein (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.15; P -trend = 0.017) were significantly associated with a higher GDM risk. Conclusion: Higher intake levels of both animal and vegetable protein were associated with a higher risk of GDM in Asian women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Early water intake restriction to prevent inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following transsphenoidal surgery: low BMI predicts postoperative SIADH.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Junko; Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Sato, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Koh; Ohashi, Genichiro; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the incidence of and risk factors for the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in patients following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and to validate the effectiveness of early prophylactic restriction of water intake. Retrospective analysis was performed for 207 patients who had undergone TSS, including 156 patients not placed on early prophylactic water restriction. Sixty-four patients received treatment for SIADH. We compared the incidence of SIADH between patients with and without early water intake restriction, and analyzed various risk factors for SIADH using statistical analyses. BMI was significantly lower for patients with SIADH than for those patients without SIADH. Statistical analysis revealed that the threshold BMI predicting SIADH was 26. Serum sodium levels on postoperative days 5-10 and daily urine volumes on postoperative days 5-10 were significantly lower in patients with SIADH than in those without SIADH. Postoperative body weight loss on days 6, 8, 10, and 11 was significantly higher in patients with SIADH. The incidence of SIADH after starting prophylactic water intake restriction (14%) was significantly lower than the rate before early water restriction (38%; P<0.05). SIADH is relatively common after TSS, and serum sodium concentrations and daily urine volumes should be carefully monitored. Patients with low preoperative BMI should be closely observed, as this represented a significant preoperative risk factor for SIADH. Early prophylactic water intake restriction appears effective at preventing postoperative SIADH. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. A dynamic model to predict fat and protein fluxes and dry matter intake associated with body reserve changes in cattle.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Luis O; Fox, Danny G; Kononoff, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop the structure and concepts of a dynamic model to simulate dry matter intake (DMI) pattern and the fluxes of fat and protein in the body reserves of cattle associated with changes in body condition score (BCS) for application within the structure of applied nutrition models. This model was developed to add the capability of evaluating the effects of factors affecting pre- and postcalving DMI, daily energy and protein balances, and changes in BCS over a reproductive cycle. Input variables are average DMI, diet metabolizable energy, and animal information (body weight, BCS, milk production, and calf birth body weight) from each diet fed over the reproductive cycle. Because the depletion and repletion of body reserves in cattle is a complex system of coordinated metabolic processes that reflect hormonal and physiological changes caused by negative or positive energy balances, the system dynamics modeling methodology was used to develop this model. The model was used to evaluate the effect of the dynamic interactions between dietary supply and animal requirements for energy and protein on the fluxes of body fat and body protein of dairy cows over the reproductive cycle and Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the sensitivity of the parameters. The main long-term factor affecting DMI pattern was the growth of the gravid uterus causing an increase in the volume of abdominal organs and a compression of the rumen, consequentially reducing feed intake. Changes in body reserves (fat and protein) were computed based on metabolizable energy balance, assuming different efficiency of utilization coefficients for fat and protein during repletion and mobilization. The model was evaluated with data from 37 dairy cows individually fed 3 different diets over the lactation and dry periods. The model was successful in simulating the observed pattern of DMI (mean square error was 3.59, 3.97, and 3.66 for diets A, B, and C, respectively

  19. Effect of exercise and protein intake on energy expenditure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Barenys, M; Recasens, M A; Martí-Henneberg, C; Salas-Salvadó, J

    1993-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of physical exercise and protein intake on Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and Postprandial Energy Expenditure (PEE), 16 healthy, normal-weight, 15 year-old, adolescent males at the same stage of pubertal development were studied. They were assigned to two dietary groups receiving the same energy intake (1.3 x by measured RMR) and different proportions of macronutrients (13% protein, 39% fat, 48% CHO in Group A; 30% protein, 32% fat, 38% CHO in Group B). An increase in postprandial energy expenditure, relative to basal, was observed in all individuals. The postprandial energy expenditure was higher in group B than in group A. Postprandial Post-exercise Thermogenesis (expressed as Kcal/3 h) was significantly higher in group B than group A (p < 0.05). Although the RMR on the test day was not different between the groups, the RMR on day 2 was significantly higher than on day 1 in group B (p < 0.01). In group B, the post-exercise RQ was significantly lower than the preexercise RQ (p < 0.01). It is concluded that in normal-weight-adolescents, a hyperproteic diet followed by moderately-intensive exercise induces increases in EE and decreases in RQ in the postprandial post-exercise period and is accompanied by increase in the RMR the following day.

  20. Dietary Protein Intake and Lean Muscle Mass in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Report From the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Boland, Alexandra M; Gibson, Todd M; Lu, Lu; Kaste, Sue C; DeLany, James P; Partin, Robyn E; Lanctot, Jennifer Q; Howell, Carrie R; Nelson, Heather H; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Hudson, Melissa M; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-07-01

    Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for low lean muscle mass and muscle weakness, which may contribute to inactivity and early development of chronic diseases typically seen in older adults. Although increasing protein intake, in combination with resistance training, improves lean muscle mass in other populations, it is not known whether muscular tissue among survivors of ALL, whose impairments are treatment-related, will respond similarly. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations among dietary protein intake, resistance training, and lean muscle mass in survivors of ALL and age-, sex-, and race-matched controls. This was a cross-sectional study. Lean muscle mass was determined with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary information with 24-hour recalls, and participation in resistance training with a questionnaire. Participants were 365 survivors of ALL (52% male; 87% white; median age=28.5 years, range=23.6-31.7) and 365 controls with no previous cancer. Compared with controls, survivors of ALL had lower lean muscle mass (55.0 versus 57.2 kg, respectively) and lower percentage of lean muscle mass (68.6% versus 71.4%, respectively) than controls. Similar proportions of survivors (71.1%) and controls (69.7%) met recommended dietary protein intake (0.8 g/kg/d). Survivors (45.4%) were less likely to report resistance training than controls (53.8%). In adjusted models, 1-g higher protein intake per kilogram of body mass per day was associated with a 7.9% increase and resistance training ≥1×wk, with a 2.8% increase in lean muscle mass. The cross-sectional study design limits temporal evaluation of the association between protein intake and lean muscle mass. The findings suggest that survivors of childhood ALL with low lean muscle mass may benefit from optimizing dietary protein intake in combination with resistance training. Research is needed to determine whether resistance training with protein supplementation

  1. Dietary Protein Intake and Lean Muscle Mass in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Report From the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Alexandra M.; Gibson, Todd M.; Lu, Lu; Kaste, Sue C.; DeLany, James P.; Partin, Robyn E.; Lanctot, Jennifer Q.; Howell, Carrie R.; Nelson, Heather H.; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for low lean muscle mass and muscle weakness, which may contribute to inactivity and early development of chronic diseases typically seen in older adults. Although increasing protein intake, in combination with resistance training, improves lean muscle mass in other populations, it is not known whether muscular tissue among survivors of ALL, whose impairments are treatment-related, will respond similarly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate associations among dietary protein intake, resistance training, and lean muscle mass in survivors of ALL and age-, sex-, and race-matched controls. Design This was a cross-sectional study. Methods Lean muscle mass was determined with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary information with 24-hour recalls, and participation in resistance training with a questionnaire. Participants were 365 survivors of ALL (52% male; 87% white; median age=28.5 years, range=23.6–31.7) and 365 controls with no previous cancer. Results Compared with controls, survivors of ALL had lower lean muscle mass (55.0 versus 57.2 kg, respectively) and lower percentage of lean muscle mass (68.6% versus 71.4%, respectively) than controls. Similar proportions of survivors (71.1%) and controls (69.7%) met recommended dietary protein intake (0.8 g/kg/d). Survivors (45.4%) were less likely to report resistance training than controls (53.8%). In adjusted models, 1-g higher protein intake per kilogram of body mass per day was associated with a 7.9% increase and resistance training ≥1×wk, with a 2.8% increase in lean muscle mass. Limitations The cross-sectional study design limits temporal evaluation of the association between protein intake and lean muscle mass. Conclusions The findings suggest that survivors of childhood ALL with low lean muscle mass may benefit from optimizing dietary protein intake in combination with resistance training. Research is needed to

  2. The early postnatal nutritional intake of preterm infants affected neurodevelopmental outcomes differently in boys and girls at 24 months.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Viola; Roeleveld, Nel; Visser, Reina; Janssen, Anjo J W M; Reuser, Jolanda J C M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; van Heijst, Arno F J

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed whether increased amino acid and energy intake in preterm infants during the first week of life was associated with improved neurodevelopment at the corrected age (CA) of 24 months. We evaluated preterm infants from two consecutive cohorts in 2004 (Cohort 1) and 2005 (Cohort 2) with different nutritional intakes in the Netherlands. Nutritional intake and growth were recorded until week 5 and after discharge. Neurodevelopment was determined using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - Second Edition at a CA of 24 months. Compared to Cohort 1 (n = 56), Cohort 2 (n = 56) received higher nutritional intake during week 1 (p < 0.001). The weight gain in Cohort 2 was higher until week 5, especially among boys (p < 0.002). The mean Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores did not differ, but Cohort 2 was associated with an increased chance of having an MDI ≥ 85, with an odds ratio of 6.4 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.5-27.4, among all girls with a higher protein intake (5.3, 1.2-23.3). The Psychomotor Developmental Index increased with increasing nutritional intake, especially among boys (β-coefficient 3.1, 95% CI 0.2-6.0). Higher nutritional intake was associated with different improvements in growth and neurodevelopment in boys and girls. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Effect of increasing energy and protein intake on mammary development in heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Brown, E G; Vandehaar, M J; Daniels, K M; Liesman, J S; Chapin, L T; Forrest, J W; Akers, R M; Pearson, R E; Nielsen, M S Weber

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if increased energy and protein intake from 2 to 14 wk of age would affect mammary development in heifer calves. At 2 wk of age, Holstein heifer calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of protein and energy intake (moderate, M; high, H) in period 1 (2 to 8 wk of age) and 2 levels of protein and energy intake (low, L; high, H) in period 2 (8 to 14 wk of age), so that mean initial body weights were approximately equal for all 4 treatments (ML, MH, HL, and HH). The M diet in period 1 consisted of a standard milk replacer (21.3% CP, 21.3% fat) fed at 1.1% of BW on a DM basis and a 16.5% CP grain mix fed at restricted intake to promote 400 g of daily gain, whereas the L diet in period 2 consisted only of the grain mix. The H diet in period 1 consisted of a high-protein milk replacer (30.3% CP, 15.9% fat) fed at 2.0% of body weight on a DM basis and a 21.3% CP grain mix available ad libitum. In period 2, the H diet consisted of just the 21.3% grain mix. Calves were gradually weaned from milk replacer by 7 wk and slaughtered at 8 (n = 11) or 14 wk of age (n = 41). Parenchyma from the distal region, midgland, and proximal region relative to the teat from one half of the udder was collected, fixed, and embedded in paraffin. The other half of the gland was used to determine parenchymal mass, protein, fat, DNA, RNA, and extraparenchymal mass. Total parenchymal tissue, parenchymal DNA, parenchymal RNA, and concentrations of DNA and RNA were higher for calves on the H diet during period 1, but were not affected by diet during period 2. Parenchymal fat percentage was increased by the H diet during period 2. The H diet increased extraparenchymal fat during both periods. The area of parenchyma occupied by epithelium was not affected by treatment, but at the end of period 2, the percentage of proliferating epithelial cells as indicated by Ki67, an marker of cell proliferation, expression

  4. Effects of different dietary protein intakes on body composition and vascular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, L A; Innelli, P; Palmieri, V; Limauro, S; De Luca, G; Ferrara, F; Liccardo, E; Celentano, A

    2006-05-01

    To assess the effects of a diet rich in protein of animal origin in comparison to one with a protein intake of about 15% of the total daily calories on body composition and arterial function. Randomized prospective study with parallel groups. Body weight (BW), blood pressure (BP), main parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, body mass composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis, forearm blood flow at rest and in the postischaemic phase by strain gauge plethysmography and flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery by echography were measured at baseline and after 6 months of the dietary intervention. In total, 15 clinically healthy male volunteers, regularly performing a mixed training three times weekly for 90 min. The participants were randomly prescribed a diet with high (1.9 g/kg BW) or normal (1.3 g/kg BW) protein content. Differences between means were evaluated by the t-tests for paired or unpaired data and by one way analysis of variance. The strength of correlation between variables was investigated by bivariate Pearson correlation. Serum cholesterol significantly decreased with both diets in comparison to baseline values, whereas BW was slightly but significantly reduced only by the high-protein (HP) diet. No change was detected in BP and the other metabolic parameters. Body mass composition was not significantly modified by either diet. On the other hand, postischaemic flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was enhanced by the sole normal protein (NP) diet, whereas no change in the forearm blood flow, both at rest and in the postischaemic phase, was detected. These preliminary results indicate that HP diet was found to be not useful in increasing the muscle mass in comparison to a NP intake. In contrast to this, the latter diet seems to enhance the endothelial function of the arterial vessels with a more pronounced dilatation of the lumen in response to the increase in blood flow.

  5. Soda Intake Is Directly Associated with Serum C-Reactive Protein Concentration in Mexican Women.

    PubMed

    Tamez, Martha; Monge, Adriana; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Fagherazzi, Guy; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Yunes, Elsa; Romieu, Isabelle; Lajous, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Soda intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of diet sodas, often considered healthy alternatives to sodas, could also increase the likelihood of cardiovascular outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the relation between soda and diet soda and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among 825 Mexican women free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and for whom serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), C-peptide, adiponectin, and leptin were available. Mean ± SD age was 45.9 ± 6.6 y, the majority of women were premenopausal (60.4%), and the prevalence of obesity was 35%. We estimated the adjusted percentage differences in biomarkers and 95% CIs by performing multiple linear regression models comparing categories of consumption for soda and diet soda adjusting for age, family history of heart disease, menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, socioeconomic status, region, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, and dietary patterns. In the entire study sample we observed a 50% higher serum CRP concentration in women in the highest soda intake quartile (median intake: 202.9 mL/d, IQR: 101.4, 304.3 mL/d) compared to those in the lowest (median intake: 11.8 mL/d, IQR: 0.0, 152.1 mL/d). After stratification by menopausal status, results remained significant only for premenopausal women. Premenopausal women in the highest quartile of soda intake had 56% higher CRP concentration relative to women in the lowest quartile. We observed no significant association with the other biomarkers. After further adjustment for body mass index, a potential mediator, results remained significant only for CRP. Diet soda consumption was not associated with any of the biomarkers. Consumption of soda was associated with adverse levels in a biomarker of inflammation and cardiovascular risk, serum CRP, in Mexican women. These results add to the accumulating evidence on soda and cardiovascular

  6. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Taylor C.; Fulgoni, Victor L.

    2017-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%). Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001). Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood) consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001) to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement. PMID:28783055

  7. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Taylor C; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2017-08-05

    Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005-2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2-3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4-8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%). Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001). Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood) consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001) to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  8. High protein intake is associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein intake has been inversely associated with frailty. However, no study has examined the effect of the difference of protein sources (animal or plant) or the amino acid composing the protein on frailty. Therefore, we examined the association of protein and amino acid intakes with frailty among elderly Japanese women. Methods A total of 2108 grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetic students aged 65 years and older participated in this cross-sectional multicenter study, which was conducted in 85 dietetic schools in 35 prefectures of Japan. Intakes of total, animal, and plant protein and eight selected amino acids were estimated from a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire and amino acid composition database. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following four components: slowness and weakness (two points), exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintentional weight loss. Results The number of subjects with frailty was 481 (23%). Adjusted ORs (95% CI) for frailty in the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles of total protein intake were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.72, 1.45), 0.64 (0.45, 0.93), 0.62 (0.43, 0.90), and 0.66 (0.46, 0.96), respectively (P for trend = 0.001). Subjects categorized to the third, fourth, and fifth quintiles of total protein intake (>69.8 g/d) showed significantly lower ORs than those to the first quintile (all P <0.03). The intakes of animal and plant protein and all selected amino acids were also inversely associated with frailty (P for trend <0.04), with the multivariate adjusted OR in the highest compared to the lowest quintile of 0.73 for animal protein and 0.66 for plant protein, and 0.67-0.74 for amino acids, albeit that the ORs for these dietary variables were less marked than those for total protein. Conclusions Total protein intake was significantly inversely associated with frailty in elderly Japanese women. The association of total protein with

  9. Protein intake, nitrogen balance and nutritional status in patients with Parkinson's disease; time for a change?

    PubMed

    Zilli Canedo Silva, Maryanne; Carol Fritzen, Natali; de Oliveira, Marlon; Paes da Silva, Michel; Rasmussen Petterle, Ricardo; Teive, Hélio Afonso; de Mesquita Barros Almeida Leite, Christiane; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Madalozzo Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana; Carvalho, Mauricio

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate protein intake, nitrogen balance and nutritional status of clinically stable patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A cross-sectional study of PD patients Hoehn-Yahr scale stage 1-3 and subjects with no neurologic disease (controls) matched for age and gender. All participants underwent a diet history interview, anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance and food record over three non-consecutive days, including a weekend. A 24-hour urine collection and fasting venous blood sampling were collected from the participants for evaluation of creatinine clearance, creatinine height index and the nitrogen balance. The mean age of PD patients was 58.9 ± 12.8 year compared to 54.7 ± 12.6 year of the controls, P = 0.34. One third of PD group had symptoms of dysphagia and ingested less water and fibers when compared to controls. Calf circumference was small in PD group (35.5 ± 2.8 vs. 38.4 ± 3.5 cm, P = 0.012). Intake of nitrogen was significantly lower and nitrogen balance was negative in PD patients (-1.8 ± 3.9 vs. 1.1 ± 4.2 controls, P = 0.06). The antioxidants folate and vitamin E were consumed in small amounts in both groups, although significantly less in PD patients (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Daily intakes of protein of approximately 1.1 g/kg by clinically stable PD patients may not be enough to ensure a neutral calorie-nitrogen balance and muscle tissue conservation. Larger studies are necessary to provide a more comprehensive picture of PD patients' metabolic status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  11. Estimated Effects of Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations on Protein Intake and the Risk of Protein Deficiency by Country and Region

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel; Myers, Samuel S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Crops grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (eCO2) contain less protein. Crops particularly affected include rice and wheat, which are primary sources of dietary protein for many countries. Objectives: We aimed to estimate global and country-specific risks of protein deficiency attributable to anthropogenic CO2 emissions by 2050. Methods: To model per capita protein intake in countries around the world under eCO2, we first established the effect size of eCO2 on the protein concentration of edible portions of crops by performing a meta-analysis of published literature. We then estimated per-country protein intake under current and anticipated future eCO2 using global food balance sheets (FBS). We modeled protein intake distributions within countries using Gini coefficients, and we estimated those at risk of deficiency from estimated average protein requirements (EAR) weighted by population age structure. Results: Under eCO2, rice, wheat, barley, and potato protein contents decreased by 7.6%, 7.8%, 14.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Consequently, 18 countries may lose >5% of their dietary protein, including India (5.3%). By 2050, assuming today’s diets and levels of income inequality, an additional 1.6% or 148.4 million of the world’s population may be placed at risk of protein deficiency because of eCO2. In India, an additional 53 million people may become at risk. Conclusions: Anthropogenic CO2 emissions threaten the adequacy of protein intake worldwide. Elevated atmospheric CO2 may widen the disparity in protein intake within countries, with plant-based diets being the most vulnerable. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP41 PMID:28885977

  12. High Dietary Selenium Intake Alters Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Liver and Muscle of Pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zeping; Barcus, Matthew; Kim, Jonggun; Lum, Krystal L; Mills, Courtney; Lei, Xin Gen

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged high intakes of dietary selenium have been shown to induce gestational diabetes in rats and hyperinsulinemia in pigs. Two experiments were conducted to explore metabolic and molecular mechanisms for the diabetogenic potential of high dietary selenium intakes in pigs. In Expt. 1, 16 Yorkshire-Landrace-Hampshire crossbred pigs (3 wk old, body weight = 7.5 ± 0.81 kg, 50% males and 50% females) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 1.0 mg Se/kg (as selenium-enriched yeast for 6 wk). In Expt. 2, 12 pigs of the same crossbreed (6 wk old, body weight = 16.0 ± 1.8 kg) were fed a similar basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 3.0 mg Se/kg for 11 wk. Biochemical and gene and protein expression profiles of lipid and protein metabolism and selenoproteins in plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues were analyzed. In Expt. 1, the 1-mg-Se/kg diet did not affect body weight or plasma concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids. In Expt. 2, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet, compared with the 0.3-mg-Se/kg diet, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of plasma insulin (0.2 compared with 0.4 ng/mL), liver and adipose lipids (41% to 2.4-fold), and liver and muscle protein (10-14%). In liver, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the expression, activity, or both of key factors related to gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); 13%], lipogenesis [sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FASN); 46-90%], protein synthesis [insulin receptor (INSR), P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6); 88-105%], energy metabolism [AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); up to 2.8-fold], and selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3; 1.4-fold) and suppressed (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of lipolysis gene cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1; 88%) and selenoprotein gene selenoprotein W1 (SEPW1; 46%). In muscle

  13. Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day.

    PubMed

    Rustad, Per I; Sailer, Manuela; Cumming, Kristoffer T; Jeppesen, Per B; Kolnes, Kristoffer J; Sollie, Ove; Franch, Jesper; Ivy, John L; Daniel, Hannelore; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Intake of protein immediately after exercise stimulates protein synthesis but improved recovery of performance is not consistently observed. The primary aim of the present study was to compare performance 18 h after exhaustive cycling in a randomized diet-controlled study (175 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) when subjects were supplemented with protein plus carbohydrate or carbohydrate only in a 2-h window starting immediately after exhaustive cycling. The second aim was to investigate the effect of no nutrition during the first 2 h and low total energy intake (113 kJ·kg(-1) during 18 h) on performance when protein intake was similar. Eight endurance-trained subjects cycled at 237±6 Watt (~72% VO2max) until exhaustion (TTE) on three occasions, and supplemented with 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO), 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein·kg(-1)·h(-1) (CHO+PRO) or placebo without energy (PLA). Intake of CHO+PROT increased plasma glucose, insulin, and branch chained amino acids, whereas CHO only increased glucose and insulin. Eighteen hours later, subjects performed another TTE at 237±6 Watt. TTE was increased after intake of CHO+PROT compared to CHO (63.5±4.4 vs 49.8±5.4 min; p<0.05). PLA reduced TTE to 42.8±5.1 min (p<0.05 vs CHO). Nitrogen balance was positive in CHO+PROT, and negative in CHO and PLA. In conclusion, performance was higher 18 h after exhaustive cycling with intake of CHO+PROT compared to an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate during the first 2 h post exercise. Intake of a similar amount of protein but less carbohydrate during the 18 h recovery period reduced performance.

  14. Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day

    PubMed Central

    Rustad, Per I.; Kolnes, Kristoffer J.; Sollie, Ove; Franch, Jesper; Ivy, John L.; Daniel, Hannelore; Jensen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Intake of protein immediately after exercise stimulates protein synthesis but improved recovery of performance is not consistently observed. The primary aim of the present study was to compare performance 18 h after exhaustive cycling in a randomized diet-controlled study (175 kJ·kg-1 during 18 h) when subjects were supplemented with protein plus carbohydrate or carbohydrate only in a 2-h window starting immediately after exhaustive cycling. The second aim was to investigate the effect of no nutrition during the first 2 h and low total energy intake (113 kJ·kg-1 during 18 h) on performance when protein intake was similar. Eight endurance-trained subjects cycled at 237±6 Watt (~72% VO2max) until exhaustion (TTE) on three occasions, and supplemented with 1.2 g carbohydrate·kg-1·h-1 (CHO), 0.8 g carbohydrate + 0.4 g protein·kg-1·h-1 (CHO+PRO) or placebo without energy (PLA). Intake of CHO+PROT increased plasma glucose, insulin, and branch chained amino acids, whereas CHO only increased glucose and insulin. Eighteen hours later, subjects performed another TTE at 237±6 Watt. TTE was increased after intake of CHO+PROT compared to CHO (63.5±4.4 vs 49.8±5.4 min; p<0.05). PLA reduced TTE to 42.8±5.1 min (p<0.05 vs CHO). Nitrogen balance was positive in CHO+PROT, and negative in CHO and PLA. In conclusion, performance was higher 18 h after exhaustive cycling with intake of CHO+PROT compared to an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate during the first 2 h post exercise. Intake of a similar amount of protein but less carbohydrate during the 18 h recovery period reduced performance. PMID:27078151

  15. Dietary Protein Intake Is Protective Against Loss of Grip Strength Among Older Adults in the Framingham Offspring Cohort

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Robert R.; Mangano, Kelsey M.; Hannan, Marian T.; Kiel, Douglas P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Age-related decline in muscle strength is an important public health issue for older adults. Dietary protein has been associated with maintenance of muscle mass, yet its relation to muscle strength remains unclear. Methods: We determined the association of dietary protein (total, animal, and plant) intake, measured by food frequency questionnaire, with change in grip strength over 6 years in 1,746 men and women from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Results: Mean age at baseline was 58.7 years (range: 29–85), and mean total, animal, and plant protein intakes were 79, 57, and 22g/d, respectively. Adjusted baseline mean grip strength did not differ across quartiles of energy-adjusted total, animal or protein intake. Greater protein intake, regardless of source, was associated with less decrease in grip strength (all p for trend ≤.05): participants in the lowest quartiles lost 0.17% to 0.27% per year while those in the highest quartiles gained 0.52% to 0.60% per year. In analyses stratified by age, participants aged 60 years or older ( n = 646) had similar linear trends on loss of grip strength for total and animal (all p for trend <.03) but not plant protein, while the trends in participants younger than 60 years ( n = 896) were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Higher dietary intakes of total and animal protein were protective against loss of grip strength in community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older. Increasing intake of protein from these sources may help maintain muscle strength and support prevention of mobility impairment in older adults. PMID:26525088

  16. US youths in the early stages of HIV disease have low intakes of some micronutrients important for optimal immune function.

    PubMed

    Kruzich, Laurie A; Marquis, Grace S; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Wilson, Craig M; Stephensen, Charles B

    2004-07-01

    We examined the association between micronutrient intakes and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in youths who were at increased nutritional risk because of the demands of growth and disease as well as poor dietary habits. This was a cross-sectional study to collect dietary intake data using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (98.2). Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and sociodemographic data were available.Subjects/Setting Participants included 264 HIV-infected and 127 HIV-uninfected adolescents and young adults from the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health network, a multisite observational study on HIV progression. Statistical analyses CD4(+) T cells were stratified for HIV-infected youths: >/=500, 200 to 499, and <200 cells/microL. Micronutrient intakes were compared by presence of HIV infection, using two-sample Student's t tests. Categoric analyses used chi(2) test. Generalized linear regression determined predictors of vitamins A, C, and E; iron; and zinc intakes. Almost half (49.0%) of the HIV-infected participants had CD4(+) T cells >/=500 cells/microL. After controlling for other factors, HIV-infected participants with CD4(+) T cells >/=500 had decreased iron intake (P<.05) and tended to be associated with lower intakes of vitamins C and E (P<.10) compared with those with more advanced disease and HIV-uninfected youths. Among those youths with CD4(+) T cells between 200 and 499 cells/microL, a high anxiety score was associated with a sixfold increase in vitamin A intake as compared with those with a low score.Applications/conclusions Given the increased micronutrient requirements, nutrition counseling with HIV-infected youths should focus on early increase of intake of foods rich in micronutrients to improve growth, slow disease progression, and increase survival.

  17. Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1) decreases fluid intake in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) decreases fluid intake in the female rat and recent studies from our lab demonstrate that the effect is at least in part mediated by membrane-associated estrogen receptors. Because multiple estrogen receptor subtypes can localize to the cell membrane, it is unclear which receptor(s) is generating the anti-dipsogenic effect of E2. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1) is a particularly interesting possibility because it has been shown to regulate blood pressure; many drinking-regulatory systems play overlapping roles in the control of blood pressure. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that activation of GPER-1 is sufficient to decrease fluid intake in female rats. In support of this hypothesis we found that treatment with the selective GPER-1 agonist G1 reduced AngII-stimulated fluid intake in OVX rats. Given the close association between food and fluid intakes in rats, and previous reports suggesting GPER-1 plays a role in energy homeostasis, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of GPER-1 on fluid intake was caused by a more direct effect on food intake. We found, however, that G1-treatment did not influence short-term or overnight food intake in OVX rats. Together these results reveal a novel effect of GPER-1 in the control of drinking behavior and provide an example of the divergence in the controls of fluid and food intakes in female rats. PMID:26093261

  18. Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1) decreases fluid intake in female rats.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Daniels, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Estradiol (E2) decreases fluid intake in the female rat and recent studies from our lab demonstrate that the effect is at least in part mediated by membrane-associated estrogen receptors. Because multiple estrogen receptor subtypes can localize to the cell membrane, it is unclear which receptor(s) is generating the anti-dipsogenic effect of E2. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER-1) is a particularly interesting possibility because it has been shown to regulate blood pressure; many drinking-regulatory systems play overlapping roles in the control of blood pressure. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that activation of GPER-1 is sufficient to decrease fluid intake in female rats. In support of this hypothesis we found that treatment with the selective GPER-1 agonist G1 reduced AngII-stimulated fluid intake in OVX rats. Given the close association between food and fluid intakes in rats, and previous reports suggesting GPER-1 plays a role in energy homeostasis, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of GPER-1 on fluid intake was caused by a more direct effect on food intake. We found, however, that G1-treatment did not influence short-term or overnight food intake in OVX rats. Together these results reveal a novel effect of GPER-1 in the control of drinking behavior and provide an example of the divergence in the controls of fluid and food intakes in female rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of different levels of protein intake and physical training on growth and nutritional status of young rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; de Campos, Patrícia Lopes; Luz, Silmara dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herber; Tirapegui, Julio

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of physical training, and different levels of protein intake in the diet, on the growth and nutritional status of growing rats. Newly-weaned Wistar rats (n=48) were distributed into six experimental groups; three of them were subjected to physical swim training (1 h per day, 5 d per week, for 4 wk, after 2 wk of familiarization) and the other three were considered as controls (non-trained). Each pair of groups, trained and non-trained, received diets with a different level of protein in their composition: 14%, 21% or 28%. The animals were euthanized at the end of the training period and the following analyses were performed: proteoglycan synthesis as a biomarker of bone and cartilage growth, IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I) assay as a biomarker of growth and nutritional status, total RNA and protein concentration and protein synthesis measured in vivo using a large-dose phenylalanine method. As a main finding, increased dietary protein, combined with physical training, was able to improve neither tissue protein synthesis nor muscle growth. In addition, cartilage and bone growth seem to be deteriorated by the lower and the higher levels of protein intake. Our data allow us to conclude that protein enhancement in the diet, combined with physical exercise, does not stimulate tissue protein synthesis or muscle mass growth. Furthermore, physical training, combined with low protein intake, was not favorable to bone development in growing animals.

  20. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  1. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan; Wilborn, Colin; Urbina, Stacie L; Hayward, Sara E; Krieger, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) ( n  = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) ( n  = 12). The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied ( p  > 0.05). These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  2. Age and sex affect protein metabolism at protein intakes that span the range of adequacy: comparison of leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance data.

    PubMed

    Conley, Travis B; McCabe, George P; Lim, Eunjung; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Johnson, Craig A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that changes in leucine oxidation (leuox) with feeding may reflect adult protein requirements. We evaluated this possibility by assessing the effects of age, sex, and different protein intakes on whole-body leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance. Thirty-four young (n=18, 22-46 years) and old (n=16, 63-81 years) men and women completed three 18-day trials with protein intakes of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g protein·kg body weight(-1)·d(-1). Fasting and fed-state leucine kinetics were quantified on day 12 of each trial using a primed, constant infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. Protein requirement was estimated using classical nitrogen balance measurements and calculations. Leucine kinetics parameters were influenced by age and sex across all protein intakes. With feeding, leuox increased more in old vs. young adults. Independent of age, fasting and fed-state leuox were lower, and net leucine balance (fasting+fed-state) was higher in women vs. men. Among all subjects and protein intakes, nitrogen balance was correlated with fed-state leuox (r=0.39), fed-state leucine balance (r=0.60), net leucine balance (r=0.49) and the change in leuox from the fasting to fed state (r=0.49) (P<.05 for all results). At the highest protein intake, the change in leuox with feeding was inversely correlated with protein requirement (r=-0.39). These findings indicate that leucine kinetics, especially leuox, reflect nitrogen balance-based estimates of the need for dietary protein and generally support the view that protein requirement is comparable between young and old adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age and sex affect protein metabolism at protein intakes that span the range of adequacy: comparison of leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance data☆

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Travis B.; McCabe, George P.; Lim, Eunjung; Yarasheski, Kevin E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that changes in leucine oxidation (leuox) with feeding may reflect adult protein requirements. We evaluated this possibility by assessing the effects of age, sex, and different protein intakes on whole-body leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance. Thirty-four young (n = 18, 22–46 years) and old (n= 16, 63–81 years) men and women completed three 18-day trials with protein intakes of 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g protein·kg body weight−1·d−1. Fasting and fed-state leucine kinetics were quantified on day 12 of each trial using a primed, constant infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine. Protein requirement was estimated using classical nitrogen balance measurements and calculations. Leucine kinetics parameters were influenced by age and sex across all protein intakes. With feeding, leuox increased more in old vs. young adults. Independent of age, fasting and fed-state leuox were lower, and net leucine balance (fasting+fed-state) was higher in women vs. men. Among all subjects and protein intakes, nitrogen balance was correlated with fed-state leuox (r=0.39), fed-state leucine balance (r=0.60), net leucine balance (r=0.49) and the change in leuox from the fasting to fed state (r=0.49) (P<.05 for all results). At the highest protein intake, the change in leuox with feeding was inversely correlated with protein requirement (r=−0.39). These findings indicate that leucine kinetics, especially leuox, reflect nitrogen balance-based estimates of the need for dietary protein and generally support the view that protein requirement is comparable between young and old adults. PMID:22841544

  4. High consumption foods and their influence on energy and protein intake in institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Mila, R; Abellana, R; Padro, L; Basulto, J; Farran, A

    2012-02-01

    women. We conclude that there is a need to improve the residents' energy intake and to redistribute their energy and protein intake among the various food groups. An alternative to increasing food portions so as to improve energy intake might involve enriching certain food types.

  5. Vitamin k intake and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Boxma, Paul Y; van den Berg, Else; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Laverman, Gozewijn D; Schurgers, Leon J; Vermeer, Cees; Kema, Ido P; Muskiet, Frits A; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J L; de Borst, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for activation of γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)-proteins including the vascular calcification inhibitor matrix Gla-protein (MGP). Insufficient vitamin K intake leads to production of uncarboxylated, mostly inactive proteins and contributes to an increased cardiovascular risk. In kidney transplant recipients, cardiovascular risk is high but vitamin K intake and status have not been defined. We investigated dietary vitamin K intake, vascular vitamin K status and its determinants in kidney transplant recipients. We estimated vitamin K intake in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients (n = 60) with stable renal function (creatinine clearance 61 [42-77] (median [interquartile range]) ml/min), who were 75 [35-188] months after transplantation, using three-day food records and food frequency questionnaires. Vascular vitamin K status was assessed by measuring plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP). Total vitamin K intake was below the recommended level in 50% of patients. Lower vitamin K intake was associated with less consumption of green vegetables (33 vs 40 g/d, p = 0.06) and increased dp-ucMGP levels (621 vs 852 pmol/L, p<0.05). Accordingly, dp-ucMGP levels were elevated (>500 pmol/L) in 80% of patients. Multivariate regression identified creatinine clearance, coumarin use, body mass index, high sensitivity-CRP and sodium excretion as independent determinants of dp-ucMGP levels. In a considerable part of the kidney transplant population, vitamin K intake is too low for maximal carboxylation of vascular MGP. The high dp-ucMGP levels may result in an increased risk for arterial calcification. Whether increasing vitamin K intake may have health benefits for kidney transplant recipients should be addressed by future studies.

  6. New Stable Isotope Method to Measure Protein Digestibility and Response to Pancreatic Enzyme Intake in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, M.P.K.J.; Com, G.; Anderson, P.J.; Deutz, N.E.P.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Adequate protein intake and digestion are necessary to prevent muscle wasting in cystic fibrosis (CF). Accurate and easy-to-use methodology to quantify protein maldigestion is lacking in CF. Objective To measure protein digestibility and the response to pancreatic enzyme intake in CF by using a new stable isotope methodology. Design In 19 CF and 8 healthy subjects, protein digestibility was quantified during continuous (sip) feeding for 6 hours by adding 15N-labeled spirulina protein and L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine (PHE) to the nutrition and measuring plasma ratio [15N]PHE to [2H5]PHE. Pancreatic enzymes were ingested after 2 h in CF and the response in protein digestibility was assessed. To exclude difference in mucosal function, postabsorptive whole-body citrulline (CIT) production rate was measured by L-[5-13C-5,5-2H2]-CIT pulse and blood samples were taken to analyze tracer-tracee ratios. Results Protein digestibility was severely reduced in the CF group (47% of healthy subjects; P<0.001). Intake of pancreatic enzymes induced a slow increase in protein digestibility in CF until 90% of values obtained by healthy subjects. Maximal digestibility was reached at 100 min and maintained for 80 min. Stratification into CF children (n=10) and adults showed comparable values for protein digestibility and similar kinetic responses to pancreatic enzyme intake. Whole-body citrulline production was elevated in CF indicating preserved mucosal function. Conclusion Protein digestibility is severely compromised in patients with CF as measured by this novel and easy-to-use stable isotope approach. Pancreatic enzymes are able to normalize protein digestibility in CF, albeit with a severe delay. PMID:24268783

  7. New stable isotope method to measure protein digestibility and response to pancreatic enzyme intake in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Engelen, M P K J; Com, G; Anderson, P J; Deutz, N E P

    2014-12-01

    Adequate protein intake and digestion are necessary to prevent muscle wasting in cystic fibrosis (CF). Accurate and easy-to-use methodology to quantify protein maldigestion is lacking in CF. To measure protein digestibility and the response to pancreatic enzyme intake in CF by using a new stable isotope methodology. In 19 CF and 8 healthy subjects, protein digestibility was quantified during continuous (sip) feeding for 6 h by adding (15)N-labeled spirulina protein and L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine (PHE) to the nutrition and measuring plasma ratio [(15)N]PHE to [(2)H5]PHE. Pancreatic enzymes were ingested after 2 h in CF and the response in protein digestibility was assessed. To exclude difference in mucosal function, postabsorptive whole-body citrulline (CIT) production rate was measured by L-[5-(13)C-5,5-(2)H2]-CIT pulse and blood samples were taken to analyze tracer-tracee ratios. Protein digestibility was severely reduced in the CF group (47% of healthy subjects; P < 0.001). Intake of pancreatic enzymes induced a slow increase in protein digestibility in CF until 90% of values obtained by healthy subjects. Maximal digestibility was reached at 100 min and maintained for 80 min. Stratification into CF children (n = 10) and adults showed comparable values for protein digestibility and similar kinetic responses to pancreatic enzyme intake. Whole-body citrulline production was elevated in CF indicating preserved mucosal function. Protein digestibility is severely compromised in patients with CF as measured by this novel and easy-to-use stable isotope approach. Pancreatic enzymes are able to normalize protein digestibility in CF, albeit with a severe delay. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov = NCT01494909. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Can fortified foods and snacks increase the energy and protein intake of hospitalised older patients? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mills, S R; Wilcox, C R; Ibrahim, K; Roberts, H C

    2018-06-01

    Undernutrition affects over 44% of hospitalised older people, who often dislike oral nutritional supplements (ONS). This review summarises the evidence for an alternative strategy, using energy and protein dense meals (via fortification) or snacks (supplementation) to increase the dietary energy and protein intake of older inpatients. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews (May 1996 to May 2016) that used fortification or supplementation to increase the energy or protein intake of patients (mean age ≥60 years) in hospitals or rehabilitation centres. Ten articles (546 patients, mean age 60-83 years) were identified. Compared with usual nutritional care, six studies using either energy or protein based fortification and supplementation significantly increased intake of energy (250-450 kcal day -1 ) or protein (12-16 g day -1 ). Two studies enriched menus with both energy and protein, and significantly increased both energy (698 kcal day -1 and 21 kJ kg -1 ) and protein (16 g and 0.2 g kg -1 ) intake compared to usual care. ONS was similar to supplementation in one study but superior to fortification in another. Four studies reported good acceptability of enriched products and two studies that found they were cost-effective. Compared with usual nutritional care, energy- and protein-based fortification and supplementation could be employed as an effective, well-tolerated and cost-effective intervention to improve dietary intake amongst older inpatients. This strategy may be particularly useful for patients with cognitive impairment who struggle with ONS, and clinical trials are required to compare these approaches and establish their impact on functional outcomes. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  9. Comparison of energy and protein intakes of older people consuming a texture modified diet with a normal hospital diet.

    PubMed

    Wright, L; Cotter, D; Hickson, M; Frost, G

    2005-06-01

    There are very few studies looking at the energy and protein requirements of patients requiring texture modified diets. Dysphagia is the main indication for people to be recommended texture-modified diets. Older people post-stroke are the key group in the hospital setting who consume this type of diet. The diets can be of several consistencies ranging from pureed to soft textures. To compare the 24-hour dietary intake of older people consuming a texture modified diet in a clinical setting to older people consuming a normal hospital diet. Weighed food intakes and food record charts were used to quantify the patients' intakes, which were compared to their individual requirements. The oral intake of 55 patients was measured. Twenty-five of the patients surveyed were eating a normal diet and acted as controls for 30 patients who were prescribed a texture-modified diet. The results showed that the texture-modified group had significantly lower intakes of energy (3877 versus 6115 kJ, P < 0.0001) and protein (40 versus 60 g, P < 0.003) compared to consumption of the normal diet. The energy and protein deficit from estimated requirements was significantly greater in the texture-modified group (2549 versus 357 kJ, P < 0.0001; 6 versus 22 g, P = 0.013; respectively). These statistically significant results indicate that older people on texture-modified diets have a lower intake of energy and protein than those consuming a normal hospital diet and it is likely that other nutrients will be inadequate. All patients on texture-modified diets should be assessed by the dietitian for nutritional support. Evidence based strategies for improving overall nutrient intake should be identified.

  10. Dietary Protein Intake in a Multi-ethnic Asian Population of Healthy Participants and Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Teo, Boon Wee; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Yang, Adonsia Y T; Lin, Tingxuan; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Evan J C

    2015-04-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend different levels of dietary protein intake in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is unknown how effectively these recommendations perform in a multi-ethnic Asian population, with varied cultural beliefs and diets. We assess the profi le of protein intake in a multi-ethnic Asian population, comparing healthy participants and CKD patients. We analysed the 24-hour urine collections of the Asian Kidney Disease Study (AKDS) and the Singapore Kidney Function Study (SKFS) to estimate total protein intake (TPI; g/day). We calculated ideal body weight (IDW; kg): 22.99 × height2 (m). Standard statistical tests were applied where appropriate, and linear regression was used to assess associations of continuous variables with protein intake. There were 232 CKD patients and 103 healthy participants with 35.5% diabetics. The mean TPI in healthy participants was 58.89 ± 18.42 and the mean TPI in CKD patients was 53.64 ± 19.39. By US National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guidelines, 29/232 (12.5%) of CKD patients with measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <25 (in mL/min/1.73 m2) had a TPI-IDW of <0.6 g/kg/day. By Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment (CARI) guidelines, 76.3% (177/232) of CKD patients had TPI-IDW >0.75g/kg/ day. By American Dietetic Association (ADA) guidelines, 34.7% (44/127) of CKD patients with GFR <50 had TPI-IDW between 0.6 to 0.8 g/kg/day. Only 1/6 non-diabetic CKD patients with GFR <20 had a protein intake of between 0.3 to 0.5 g/kg/day. A total of 21.9% (25/114) of diabetic CKD patients had protein intake between 0.8 to 0.9 g/kg/day. On average, the protein intake of most CKD patients exceeds the recommendations of guidelines. Diabetic CKD patients should aim to have higher protein intakes.

  11. Temporal microbiota changes of high-protein diet intake in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-10-01

    Alterations of specific microbes serve as important indicators that link gut health with specific diet intake. Although a six-week high-protein diet (45% protein) upregulates the pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress in colon of rats, the dynamic alteration of gut microbiota remains unclear. To dissect temporal changes of microbiota, dynamic analyses of fecal microbiota were conducted using a rat model. Adult rats were fed a normal-protein diet or an HPD for 6 weeks, and feces collected at different weeks were used for microbiota and metabolite analysis. The structural alteration of fecal microbiota was observed after 4 weeks, especially for the decreased appearance of bands related to Akkermansia species. HPD increased numbers of Escherichia coli while decreased Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, Ruminococcus bromii, and Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale (P < 0.05), compared to the normal-protein diet. HPD also decreased the copies of genes encoding butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and Prevotella-associated methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase α-subunit (P < 0.05). The concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were decreased by HPD (P < 0.05). Additionally, HPD tended to decrease (P = 0.057) the concentration of IgG in the colonic lumen, which was positively correlated with fecal butyrate at week 6 (P < 0.05). Collectively, this study found the temporal alteration of fecal microbiota related to the decreased numbers and activity of propionate- and butyrate-producing bacteria in feces after the HPD. These findings may provide important reference for linking changes of specific fecal microbes with gut health under high-protein diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mitochondrial complex I protein differs among residual feed intake phenotype in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M H; Kerley, M S

    2013-07-01

    Four experiments were performed to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) was related to mitochondrial complex I (CI) protein. For Exp. 1, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 270 ± 2.0 kg) were fed for a total of 170 d (n = 72). For Exp. 2, crossbred Braunvieh steers (initial BW 280 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 150 d (n = 50). For Exp. 3, crossbred Braunvieh heifers (initial BW 260 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). For Exp. 4, crossbred Angus steers (initial BW 290 ± 3.0 kg) were fed for a total of 160 d (n = 40). All cattle in all experiments were fed the same diet. The variable RFI was calculated as the difference between predicted and actual DMI. Predicted DMI was calculated from regressing intake on ADG and metabolic body weight. Blood was collected, lymphocytes were isolated, and antibody used to capture CI. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI quantity was measured using an ELISA commercial kit (Mitosciences, OR). For Exp. 4, CI subunits were separated by gel electrophoresis and bands were analyzed for differences in concentration (absorbance) among RFI phenotypes. For all 4 experiments, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between RFI and DMI but no difference (P > 0.05) was reported for ADG and metabolic midweight. For Exp. 1, 2, and 3, CI concentration in mitochondria was greater (P < 0.05) for low RFI compared with other treatments. For Exp. 4, animals with low RFI had a trend (P = 0.07) for greater concentration of Band I (protein S1) than high RFI. Correlation between RFI and Band I was -0.72 (P = 0.04). We concluded that mitochondrial function was at least in part responsible for differences among animals in metabolic efficiency.

  13. Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher Lean Mass and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Shivani; Mangano, Kelsey M; Hannan, Marian T; Kiel, Douglas P; McLean, Robert R

    2015-07-01

    The impact of dietary protein intake on lower extremity lean mass and strength in community-dwelling adult Americans is not fully understood. The objective was to determine the associations between total protein (TP), animal protein (AP), and plant protein (PP) intakes and lean mass of the legs and quadriceps muscle strength. We further examined whether the associations with quadriceps strength may be explained by lean mass of the legs. This cross-sectional study included men (n = 1166) and women (n = 1509) from the Framingham Offspring Cohort in Massachusetts. Protein intake in grams per day was measured in either 1995-1998 or 1998-2001. Leg lean mass and isometric quadriceps strength, both in kilograms, were measured in 1996-2001. Multilinear regression models estimated adjusted least squares means of each of the muscle measures by quartile categories of protein intake, adjusting for relevant confounders and covariates. Mean age was 59 ± 9 y (range: 29-86 y) and TP intake was 80 ± 27 g/d in men and 76 ± 26 g/d in women. In men and women, leg lean mass was higher in participants in the highest quartiles of TP and AP intake compared with those in the lowest quartiles of intake [least squares means (kg): TP-17.6 vs. 17.1 in men, P-trend: 0.005, and 11.7 vs. 11.4 in women, P-trend: 0.006; AP-17.6 vs. 17.1 in men, P-trend: 0.002, and 11.7 vs. 11.4 in women, P-trend: 0.003]. PP intake was not associated with lean mass in either sex. In men and women, quadriceps strength was higher in participants in the highest quartile of PP intake compared with those in the lowest quartile [least squares means (kg): 22.9 vs. 21.7 in men, P-trend: 0.01, and 19.0 vs. 18.2 in women, P-trend: 0.01]; this association was no longer significant after adjustment for fruit and vegetable intake (P-trend: 0.06 in men and 0.10 in women). Although no significant association was observed for AP intake in either sex, nonsignificant protective trends were observed for TP intake (P-trend: 0.08 in

  14. Lean Mass Loss Is Associated with Low Protein Intake during Dietary-Induced Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    BOPP, MELANIE J.; HOUSTON, DENISE K.; LENCHIK, LEON; EASTER, LINDA; KRITCHEVSKY, STEPHEN B.; NICKLAS, BARBARA J.

    2013-01-01

    The health and quality-of-life implications of overweight and obesity span all ages in the United States. We investigated the association between dietary protein intake and loss of lean mass during weight loss in postmenopausal women through a retrospective analysis of a 20-week randomized, controlled diet and exercise intervention in women aged 50 to 70 years. Weight loss was achieved by differing levels of caloric restriction and exercise. The diet-only group reduced caloric intake by 2,800 kcal/week, and the exercise groups reduced caloric intake by 2,400 kcal/week and expended ~400 kcal/week through aerobic exercise. Total and appendicular lean mass was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between changes in lean mass and appendicular lean mass and dietary protein intake. Average weight loss was 10.8±4.0 kg, with an average of 32% of total weight lost as lean mass. Protein intake averaged 0.62 g/kg body weight/day (range=0.47 to 0.8 g/kg body weight/day). Participants who consumed higher amounts of dietary protein lost less lean mass and appendicular lean mass r(=0.3, P=0.01 and r=0.41, P<0.001, respectively). These associations remained significant after adjusting for intervention group and body size. Therefore, inadequate protein intake during caloric restriction may be associated with adverse body-composition changes in postmenopausal women. PMID:18589032

  15. Dietary protein intake may reduce hospitalisation due to infection in Māori of advanced age: LiLACS NZ.

    PubMed

    Wham, Carol; Baggett, Fiona; Teh, Ruth; Moyes, Simon; Kēpa, Mere; Connolly, Martin; Jatrana, Santosh; Kerse, Ngaire

    2015-08-01

    To investigate factors related to hospital admission for infection, specifically examining nutrient intakes of Māori in advanced age (80+ years). Face-to-face interviews with 200 Māori (85 men) to obtain demographic, social and health information. Diagnoses were validated against medical records. Detailed nutritional assessment using the 24-hour multiple-pass recall method was collected on two separate days. FOODfiles was used to analyse nutrient intake. National Health Index (NHI) numbers were matched to hospitalisations over a two-year period (12 months prior and 12 months following dietary assessment). Selected International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes were used to identify admissions related to infection. A total of 18% of participants were hospitalised due to infection, most commonly lower respiratory tract infection. Controlling for age, gender, NZ deprivation index, diabetes, CVD and chronic lung disease, a lower energy-adjusted protein intake was independently associated with hospitalisation due to infection: OR (95%CI) 1.14 (1.00-1.29), p=0.046. Protein intake may have a protective effect on the nutrition-related morbidity of older Māori. Improving dietary protein intake is a simple strategy for dietary modification aiming to decrease the risk of infections that lead to hospitalisation and other morbidities. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. C1q/TNF-related Protein 4 (CTRP4) Is a Unique Secreted Protein with Two Tandem C1q Domains That Functions in the Hypothalamus to Modulate Food Intake and Body Weight*

    PubMed Central

    Byerly, Mardi S.; Petersen, Pia S.; Ramamurthy, Santosh; Seldin, Marcus M.; Lei, Xia; Provost, Elayne; Wei, Zhikui; Ronnett, Gabriele V.; Wong, G. William

    2014-01-01

    CTRP4 is a unique member of the C1q family, possessing two tandem globular C1q domains. Its physiological function is poorly defined. Here, we show that CTRP4 is an evolutionarily conserved, ∼34-kDa secretory protein expressed in the brain. In human, mouse, and zebrafish brain, CTRP4 expression begins early in development and is widespread in the central nervous system. Neurons, but not astrocytes, express and secrete CTRP4, and secreted proteins form higher-order oligomeric complexes. CTRP4 is also produced by peripheral tissues and circulates in blood. Its serum levels are increased in leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice. Functional studies suggest that CTRP4 acts centrally to modulate energy metabolism. Refeeding following an overnight fast induced the expression of CTRP4 in the hypothalamus. Central administration of recombinant protein suppressed food intake and altered the whole-body energy balance in both chow-fed and high-fat diet-fed mice. Suppression of food intake by CTRP4 is correlated with a decreased expression of orexigenic neuropeptide (Npy and Agrp) genes in the hypothalamus. These results establish CTRP4 as a novel nutrient-responsive central regulator of food intake and energy balance. PMID:24366864

  17. Effects of dietary cation-anion difference on intake, milk yield, and blood components of the early lactation cow.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K; Fernandez, J M

    2005-12-01

    Early lactation Holsteins cows (15 primiparous and 18 multiparous) were offered rations with dietary cation-anion difference, calculated as mEq (Na + K - Cl - S)/100 g of feed dry matter (DCAD:S), of 20, 35, or 50 mEq from d 0 (calving) to 42 d postpartum (August 20, 2000 to January 9, 2001) to determine the effects of increasing DCAD:S on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and blood metabolites. For DCAD:S of 20, 35, and 50, DMI was 3.30, 3.38, 2.96 kg/100 kg of body weight (BW); milk yield was 25.5, 24.2, and 22.4 kg/d, respectively. No differences were observed for concentration or yield of milk fat or milk protein. Serum Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, cation-anion difference, insulin, and glucose did not differ with DCAD. Serum HCO3- was 26.07, 25.88, and 27.64 mEq/L for 20, 35, and 50 DCAD:S. Serum Ca, Mg, Na, and K concentrations were greater for primiparous cows (9.52 mg/dL, 2.35 mg/dL, 140.03 mEq/L, 4.66 mEq/L, respectively) than for multiparous cows (9.27 mg/dL, 2.12 mg/dL, 137.63 mEq/L, 4.46 mEq/ L, respectively). A DCAD:S between 23 and 33 mEq/100 g of dry matter (DM) appears to be adequate during cool weather for the milk yield that occurred in the present study based on DMI (kg/100 kg of BW), whereas DCAD:S of 50 mEq/100 g of DM may be excessive and could be too alkaline or unpalatable, resulting in decreased DMI (kg/100 kg of BW).

  18. The effect of a whey protein supplement dose on satiety and food intake in resistance training athletes.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie-Shalders, Kristen L; Byrne, Nuala M; Slater, Gary J; King, Neil A

    2015-09-01

    Many athletes perform resistance training and consume dietary protein as a strategy to promote anabolic adaptation. Due to its high satiety value, the regular addition of supplemented dietary protein could plausibly displace other key macronutrients such as carbohydrate in an athlete's diet. This effect will be influenced by the form and dose of protein. Therefore, this study assessed the impact of liquid whey protein dose manipulation on subjective sensations of appetite and food intake in a cohort of athletes. Ten male athletes who performed both resistance and aerobic (endurance) training (21.2 ± 2.3 years; 181.7 ± 5.7 cm and 80.8 ± 6.1 kg) were recruited. In four counter-balanced testing sessions they consumed a manipulated whey protein supplement (20, 40, 60 or 80 g protein) 1 hour after a standardised breakfast. Subsequent energy intake was measured 3 hours after the protein supplement using an ad libitum test meal. Subjective appetite sensations were measured periodically during the test day using visual analogue scales. All conditions resulted in a significant decrease in ratings of hunger (50-65%; P < 0.05) at the time of supplement consumption. However, there were no significant differences between the conditions at any time point for subjective appetite sensations or for energy consumed in the ad libitum meal: 4382 ± 1004, 4643 ± 982, 4514 ± 1112, 4177 ± 1494 kJ respectively. Increasing whey protein supplement dose above 20 g did not result in a measurable increase in satiety or decrease in food intake. However, the inclusion of additional whey protein supplementation where not otherwise consumed could plausibly reduce dietary intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein/energy ratios of current diets in developed and developing countries compared with a safe protein/energy ratio: implications for recommended protein and amino acid intakes.

    PubMed

    Millward, D Joe; Jackson, Alan A

    2004-05-01

    Revised estimates of protein and amino acid requirements are under discussion by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organizaion (WHO), and have been proposed in a recent report on Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from the USA. The nature and magnitude of these requirements are not entirely resolved, and no consideration has been given to the potential influence of metabolic adaptation on dietary requirements. We have examined the implications of these new values, and of the conceptual metabolic framework in which they are used, for defining the nutritional adequacy of protein intakes in developed and developing countries. We have expressed proposed values for protein requirements in relation to energy requirements, predicted for physical activity levels of 1.5, 1.75 and 2.0 times basal metabolic rate, in order to generate reference ratios for protein energy/total energy (reference P/E ratio) as a function of age, body weight, gender and physical activity level. Proposed values for amino acid requirements have been used to adjust the available digestible P/E ratio of foods and diets for protein quality. Focusing on the diets of UK omnivores and vegetarians and on diets in India, the risk of protein deficiency is evaluated from a comparison of P/E ratios of metabolic requirements with protein-quality-adjusted P/E ratios of intakes. A qualitative and conservative estimate of risk of deficiency is made by comparing the adjusted P/E ratio of the intake with a reference P/E ratio calculated for age, body weight, gender and physical activity according to FAO/WHO/United Nations University. A semi-quantitative estimate of risk of deficiency has also been made by the cut point approach, calculated as the proportion of the intake distribution below the mean P/E ratio of the requirement. Values for the quality-adjusted P/E ratio of the diet range from 0.126 for the UK omnivore diet to 0.054 for a rice-based diet of adults in West Bengal, which is lysine

  20. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  1. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-08-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Protein quality control in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Anelli, Tiziana; Sitia, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are able to discriminate between native and non-native polypeptides, selectively transporting the former to their final destinations. Secretory proteins are scrutinized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi interface. Recent findings reveal novel features of the underlying molecular mechanisms, with several chaperone networks cooperating in assisting the maturation of complex proteins and being selectively induced to match changing synthetic demands. ‘Public' and ‘private' chaperones, some of which enriched in specializes subregions, operate for most or selected substrates, respectively. Moreover, sequential checkpoints are distributed along the early secretory pathway, allowing efficiency and fidelity in protein secretion. PMID:18216874

  3. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  4. Effect of intake of different dietary protein sources on plasma amino acid profiles at rest and after exercise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Winter, Julie A; Cameron-Smith, David; Enslen, Marc; Farnfield, Michelle; Decombaz, Jacques

    2012-12-01

    The authors undertook 2 crossover-designed studies to characterize plasma amino acid (AA) responses to the intake of 20 g of protein. In Study 1, 15 untrained and overnight-fasted subjects consumed 20 g protein from skim milk, soy milk, beefsteak, boiled egg, and a liquid meal supplement. In Study 2, 10 fasted endurance-trained subjects consumed 20 g protein from a protein-rich sports bar at rest and after a 60-min submaximal ride. Plasma AA concentrations were measured immediately before and for 180 min after food ingestion using a gas-chromatography flame-ionization detection technique. A pharmacokinetic analysis was undertaken for profiles of total AAs (TAA), essential AAs, branched-chain AAs (BCAA), and leucine. Although area-under-the-curve values for plasma TAA were similar across protein sources, the pattern of aminoacidemia showed robust differences between foods, with liquid forms of protein achieving peak concentrations twice as quickly after ingestion as solid protein-rich foods (e.g., ~50 min vs ~100 min) and skim milk achieving a significantly faster peak leucine concentration than all other foods (~25 min). Completing exercise before ingesting protein sources did not cause statistically significant changes in the pattern of delivery of key AAs, BCAAs, and leucine apart from a 20-40% increase in the rate of elimination. These results may be useful to plan the type and timing of intake of protein-rich foods to maximize the protein synthetic response to various stimuli such as exercise.

  5. The most effective factors to offset sarcopenia and obesity in the older Korean: Physical activity, vitamin D, and protein intake.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chorong; Jeon, Byeong Hwan; Reid Storm, Shaun Nicholas; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights. The non-obese sarcopenia subgroup showed health problems related to insulin resistance and metabolic-related factors compared with the nonsarcopenic group. The total metabolic equivalent was significantly different in both obese categories, regardless of sarcopenic status. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity relatively increased with a diet deficient of protein intake and vitamin D. These data suggest that sarcopenia had a significant association with metabolic-related factors; physical activity, especially vigorous activity; and protein intake and vitamin D levels in a non-obese elderly population. Therefore, maintaining healthy body weight by means of resistance exercise and enhanced protein intake and vitamin D may help offset sarcopenia in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth Patterns in the Irish Pyridoxine Nonresponsive Homocystinuria Population and the Influence of Metabolic Control and Protein Intake

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Aoife; Grant, Tim; McNulty, Jenny; Clark, Anne; Deverell, Deirdre; Mayne, Philip; Hughes, Joanne; Monavari, Ahmad; Knerr, Ina; Crushell, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    A low methionine diet is the mainstay of treatment for pyridoxine nonresponsive homocystinuria (HCU). There are various guidelines for recommended protein intakes for HCU and clinical practice varies. Poor growth has been associated with low cystine levels. This retrospective review of 48 Irish pyridoxine nonresponsive HCU patients assessed weight, height, body mass index (BMI), protein intake, and metabolic control up to 18 years at nine set time points. Patients diagnosed through newborn screening (NBS) were compared to late diagnosed (LD) patients. At 18 years the LD group (n = 12, mean age at diagnosis 5.09 years) were heavier (estimated effect +4.97 Kg, P = 0.0058) and taller (estimated effect +7.97 cm P = 0.0204) than the NBS group (n = 36). There was no difference in growth rate between the groups after 10 years of age. The HCU population were heavier and taller than the general population by one standard deviation with no difference in BMI. There was no association between intermittently low cystine levels and height. Three protein intake guidelines were compared; there was no difference in adult height between those who met the lowest of the guidelines (Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International) and those with a higher protein intake. PMID:29270317

  7. The influence of nutritional supplement drinks on providing adequate calorie and protein intake in older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Allen, V; Methven, L; Gosney, M

    2013-09-01

    Investigate the impact of the provision of ONS on protein and energy intake from food and ability to meet protein and calorie requirements in people with dementia. After consent by proxy was obtained, participants took part in a cross over study comparing oral intake on an intervention day to an adjacent control day. The study occurred in Nursing homes and hospitalised settings. Older adults with dementia over the age of 65 were recruited. 26 participants (aged 83.9+/-8.4years, MMSE 13.08+/-8.13) took part. Intervention (if any): On the intervention day nutritional supplement drinks were provided three times. Each drink provided 283.3+/-41.8 Kcal of energy and 13.8+/-4.7g of protein. Supplements were removed approximately 1 hour before meals were served and weighed waste (g) was obtained. Intake of food consumed was determined on intervention and control days using the quartile method (none, quarter, half, three quarters, all) for each meal component. More people achieved their energy and protein requirements with the supplement drink intervention with no sufficient impact on habitual food consumption. Findings from these 26 participants with dementia indicate that supplement drinks may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of malnutrition within the group as more people meet their nutritional requirements. As the provision of supplement drinks is also demonstrated to have an additive effect to consumption of habitual foods these can be used alongside other measures to also improve oral intake.

  8. Effects of gestational dietary metabolizable protein level and dry matter intake on subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous heifers. Tw...

  9. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL DIETARY METABOLIZABLE PROTEIN LEVEL AND DRY MATTER INTAKE ON SUBSEQUENT PRODUCTION TRAITS IN PRIMIPAROUS HEIFERS

    ABSTRACT: The objective of this experiment was to determine if feeding two levels of dietary metabolizable protein (102% vs. 119% of NRC requirements) and biological variation in feed intake during the second and third trimesters of gestation influenced subsequent production traits in primiparous h...

  10. Higher protein intake strategies in human milk fortification for preterms infants feeding. Auxological and neurodevelopmental outcome.

    PubMed

    Biasini, A; Neri, C; China, M C; Monti, F; Di Nicola, P; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Postnatal growth restriction and failure to thrive still remain a major problem in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants . The goal for the nutritional care of these infants is to achieve rate of growth similar to those of the fetus in utero at the equivalent gestational age. Human milk fortified remains the best food for all these preterms. Two groups of preterm of weight 580-1250 g and gestational age 23-32 wk, were fed with different protein intake in the human/maternal milk fortified ( 3,5 g Kg-1 per day and 4,8 g Kg-1 per day in the control and intervention group respectively).The feeding tolerance, intrahospital growth, neurological outcome and anthropometric data until 12 months of corrected age, were evaluated. The protein supplemented group (PSG) showed an intrahospital highter growth rate ( mostly in head circumference, p 0,02, and length growth, p 0,04) only in the preterms with 580-980 g and 23-30 wk. In the same preterms, Griffith Development Mental Score at 3 and 12 months corrected age showed higher score than in the control group in the Performance (p 0,04) and Hearing/Language (p 0,03) items. The auxological evaluation in the postdischarge period showed in the PSG group mean z-score values for length higher than those in the control group at 9 (p 0,04) months of corrected age.

  11. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.

  12. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake

    PubMed Central

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children. PMID:26825887

  13. High Intake of Nonmilk Extrinsic Sugars Is Associated With Protein and Micronutrient Dilution in Home-Dwelling and Institutionalized Older People.

    PubMed

    Jyväkorpi, Satu K; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Puranen, Taija M; Björkman, Mikko P; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo E; Soini, Helena; Suominen, Merja H

    2017-04-01

    High dietary sugar intake may compromise protein and micronutrient intakes in people with low energy intakes. The results of micronutrient dilution studies in older people have been few and conflicting. We examined the nutritional status and nutrient intakes associated with nonmilk extrinsic sugars (NMES) intakes in older people representing a broad spectrum of both healthy and vulnerable older populations. This cross-sectional study combined five Finnish data sets covering home-dwelling (n = 526) and institutionalized (n = 374) older people. Their nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and nutrient intakes retrieved from 1- to 3-day food records. The participants were divided into quartiles corresponding to the proportions of energy received from NMES. Energy, nutrient, and fiber intakes were classified according to the NMES quartiles, and the participants were divided according to their places of residence (home, institution). High NMES intakes were associated with older age, female sex, poor cognition, low MNA scores, immobility, and institutionalization. In all, 90% of the participants in the highest NMES quartile (Q4) were institutionalized. In the institutionalized individuals, low protein and micronutrient intakes were observed in both those with low energy intake (Q1) and in those with very high NMES intakes (Q4). In home-dwelling individuals, the nutrient intakes tended to decline linearly with increasing NMES intakes in protein and most micronutrients. Institutionalized older people consumed diets high in NMES, compared with those living at home, and their low energy and high NMES intakes were associated with low protein and micronutrient intakes. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  15. Implementation of Nutrition Support Guidelines May Affect Energy and Protein Intake in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Ursula G; Lucas, Laura A; Mackey, Guisela; Silva, Jaime C; Lusk, Jennifer; Orellana, Renan; Shekerdemian, Lara S; Coss-Bu, Jorge A

    2016-05-01

    Critically ill children are at risk of developing malnutrition, and undernutrition is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The study evaluated changes in the energy and protein intake before and after implementation of nutrition support (NS) guidelines for a pediatric critical care unit (PICU). This retrospective study documented energy and protein intake for the first 8 days of PICU stay. Basal metabolic rate and protein needs were estimated by Schofield and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Guidelines, respectively. Three hundred thirty-five children from August to December 2012 (pre-implementation) and 185 from October to December 2013 (post-implementation). Implementation of NS Guidelines. Changes in actual energy and protein intake in the post- compared with the pre-Implementation period. Unpaired t tests, Pearson's χ(2) (unadjusted analysis) were used. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for protein and energy intake, adjusted for age, sex, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality score. After the implementation of guidelines, significant improvements were seen during days 5 through 8 in energy intake among children 2 years of age and older, and in protein intake in both age groups (P<0.05). For the 8-day period, statistically or clinically significant improvements occurred in the cumulative protein deficit/kg/day, as follows: younger than 2-year-olds, -1.5±0.7 g/kg/day vs -1.3±0.8 g/kg/day, P=0.02; 2-year-olds or older, -1.0±0.6 g/kg/day vs -0.7±0.8 g/kg/day, P=0.01; and for the energy deficit/kg/d in 2-year-olds and older, -17.2±13.6 kcal/kg/day vs -13.3±18.1 kcal/kg/day, unpaired t test, P=0.07, in the pre- vs post-implementation period, respectively. The implementation of NS guidelines was associated with improvements in total energy in 2-year-olds and older and protein in younger than 2 and 2 years and older children by days 5 through 8, and protein deficits were significantly

  16. The relationship between maternal serum iron and zinc levels and their nutritional intakes in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Behboudi-Gandevani, Samira; Safary, Kolsum; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Lamyian, Minoor; Goshtasebi, Azita; Goshtasbi, Azita; Alian-Moghaddam, Narges

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal iron/zinc serum levels and their nutritional intake in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes. The maternal serum zinc/iron levels were measured in 1,033 healthy singleton pregnant women aged 20-35 between 14 and 20 weeks of gestation, within two groups: namely, normal and gestational diabetes, and participants were followed up to 24-28 weeks of gestation. Food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutritional intakes of iron/zinc. The main outcome was gestational diabetes screened with the 50-g glucose challenge test and diagnosed with oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Gestational diabetes occurred in 72 (6.96 %) of 1,033 women in study. There was a statistical relationship between early pregnancy maternal serum iron and gestational diabetes, mean (SD), 143.8 (48.7) vs. 112.5 (83.5) μg/dl, P value of <0.0001. There was no statistical significant difference in zinc levels and iron/zinc nutritional intake between groups. The results remained unchanged after using regression model for adjustment of potential risk factors with an adjusted OR of 1.006 (95 % CI 1.002 to 1.009; P = 0.001) for early pregnancy maternal serum iron to cause gestational diabetes. The receiver-operator characteristic curve identified that a maternal serum iron above 100 μg/dl in early pregnancy is the optimum cutoff value for predicting gestational diabetes, which showed a sensitivity and specificity of 80.6 and 50.7 %, respectively. In conclusion, high maternal serum iron in early pregnancy could increase the risk of gestational diabetes. Also, it could be used as a sensitive and specific predictor for gestational diabetes.

  17. Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Zerbi, Valerio; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Noordman, Rikko H J; Bolijn, Simone; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Dederen, Pieter J W C; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Schoemaker, Marieke H; Heerschap, Arend; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, and the number of children with obesity is especially worrisome. These developments raise concerns about the physical, psychosocial and cognitive consequences of obesity. It was shown that early dietary intake of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the detrimental effects of later obesogenic feeding on lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in an animal model of mild obesity. In the present study, the effects of early dietary ARA and DHA on cognition and brain structure were examined in mildly obesogenic ApoE*3Leiden mouse model. We used cognitive tests and neuroimaging during early and later life. During their early development after weaning (4-13weeks of age), mice were fed a chow diet or ARA and DHA diet for 8 weeks and then switched to a high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet for 12weeks (14-26weeks of age). An HFHC-diet led to increased energy storage in white adipose tissue, increased cholesterol levels, decreased triglycerides levels, increased cerebral blood flow and decreased functional connectivity between brain regions as well as cerebrovascular and gray matter integrity. ARA and DHA intake reduced the HFHC-diet-induced increase in body weight, attenuated plasma triglycerides levels and improved cerebrovasculature, gray matter integrity and functional connectivity in later life. In conclusion, an HFHC diet causes adverse structural brain and metabolic adaptations, most of which can be averted by dietary ARA and DHA intake early in life supporting metabolic flexibility and cerebral integrity later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between high sensitivity C-reactive protein and dietary intake in Vietnamese young women.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ahra; Kim, Hyesook; Han, Chan-Jung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Chung, Hye-Won; Chang, Namsoo

    2014-08-01

    High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a strong independent predictor of future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We evaluated the relationship between hsCRP and dietary intake in apparently healthy young women living in southern Vietnam. Serum hsCRP was measured and dietary intake data were obtained using the 1-day 24-hour recall method in women (n = 956; mean age, 25.0 ± 5.7 years) who participated in the International Collaboration Study for the Construction of Asian Cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) in 2011. Women in the high risk group (> 3 mg/L) consumed fewer fruits and vegetables, total plant food, potassium, and folate than those in the low risk group (< 1 mg/L). A multiple regression analysis after adjusting for covariates revealed a significant negative association between hsCRP and fruit and vegetable consumption. A logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio (OR) of having a high hsCRP level in women with the highest quartiles of consumption of fruits and vegetables [OR, 0.391; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.190-0.807], potassium [OR, 0.425; 95% CI, 0.192-0.939] and folate [OR, 0.490; 95% CI, 0.249-0.964] were significantly lower than those in the lowest quartiles. These results suggest that, in young Vietnamese women, an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables might be beneficial for serum hsCRP, a risk factor for future CVD events.

  19. Effect of Protein Intake on Lean Body Mass in Functionally Limited Older Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bhasin, Shalender; Apovian, Caroline M; Travison, Thomas G; Pencina, Karol; Moore, Lynn L; Huang, Grace; Campbell, Wayne W; Li, Zhuoying; Howland, Andrew S; Chen, Ruo; Knapp, Philip E; Singer, Martha R; Shah, Mitali; Secinaro, Kristina; Eder, Richard V; Hally, Kathleen; Schram, Haley; Bearup, Richelle; Beleva, Yusnie M; McCarthy, Ashley C; Woodbury, Erin; McKinnon, Jennifer; Fleck, Geeta; Storer, Thomas W; Basaria, Shehzad

    2018-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein at 0.8 g/kg/d for the entire adult population. It remains controversial whether protein intake greater than the RDA is needed to maintain protein anabolism in older adults. To investigate whether increasing protein intake to 1.3 g/kg/d in older adults with physical function limitations and usual protein intake within the RDA improves lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, fatigue, and well-being and augments LBM response to a muscle anabolic drug. This randomized clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design was conducted in a research center. A modified intent-to-treat analytic strategy was used. Participants were 92 functionally limited men 65 years or older with usual protein intake less thanor equal to 0.83 g/kg/d within the RDA. The first participant was randomized on September 21, 2011, and the last participant completed the study on January 19, 2017. Participants were randomized for 6 months to controlled diets with 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone enanthate (100 mg weekly), or 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone. Prespecified energy and protein contents were provided through custom-prepared meals and supplements. The primary outcome was change in LBM. Secondary outcomes were muscle strength, power, physical function, health-related quality of life, fatigue, affect balance, and well-being. Among 92 men (mean [SD] age, 73.0 [5.8] years), the 4 study groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. Changes from baseline in LBM (0.31 kg; 95% CI, -0.46 to 1.08 kg; P = .43) and appendicular (0.04 kg; 95% CI, -0.48 to 0.55 kg; P = .89) and trunk (0.24 kg; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.66 kg; P = .24) lean mass, as well as muscle strength and power, walking speed and stair-climbing power, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and well-being, did not differ between men

  20. Protein and vitamin B6 intake are associated with liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography, especially in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Yvelise; Carè, Ilaria; Mazza, Elisa; Provenzano, Francesco; Colica, Carmela; Torti, Carlo; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2017-09-01

    Although the detrimental effects of several dietary components on the promotion of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are well known, no studies have assessed the role of dietary vitamin B6. Moreover, studies on the associations between dietary components or body composition indices and liver steatosis assessed by transient elastography are rare. Our aim was to identify the nutritional factors and anthropometric parameters associated with liver steatosis. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals (35% obese) who underwent a liver steatosis assessment by Controlled Attenuation Parameter measurement and nutritional assessment. Tertiles of vitamin B6 intake were positively associated with hepatic steatosis (B=1.89, P =0.026, confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.80) as well as with triglycerides, glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and body mass index . In obese individuals, after multivariable analysis, the Controlled Attenuation Parameter score was still associated with triglycerides, ALT, and total protein intake (B=0.56, P =0.01, CI 0.10-1.02). Participants in tertile I (low intake) had a lower Controlled Attenuation Parameter than those in tertile III ( P =0.01). We found a positive association between hepatic steatosis or Controlled Attenuation Parameter score and vitamin B6/total protein intake, probably related to the high intake of meat. Vitamin B6 might have a pathogenic role related to the increase of hepatic steatosis.

  1. Nutritional Status and Daytime Pattern of Protein Intake on Match, Post-Match, Rest and Training Days in Senior Professional and Youth Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Bettonviel A, E O; Brinkmans N, Y J; Russcher, Kris; Wardenaar, Floris C; Witard, Oliver C

    2016-06-01

    The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar "balanced" daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

  2. Association of energy and protein intakes with length of stay, readmission and mortality in hospitalised patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ingadottir, Arora R; Beck, Anne M; Baldwin, Christine; Weekes, C Elizabeth; Geirsdottir, Olof G; Ramel, Alfons; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg

    2018-03-01

    Low energy and protein intakes have been associated with an increased risk of malnutrition in outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the energy and protein intakes of hospitalised COPD patients according to nutritional risk status and requirements, and the relative contribution from meals, snacks, drinks and oral nutritional supplements (ONS), and to examine whether either energy or protein intake predicts outcomes. Subjects were COPD patients (n 99) admitted to Landspitali University Hospital in 1 year (March 2015-March 2016). Patients were screened for nutritional risk using a validated screening tool, and energy and protein intake for 3 d, 1-5 d after admission to the hospital, was estimated using a validated plate diagram sheet. The percentage of patients reaching energy and protein intake ≥75 % of requirements was on average 59 and 37 %, respectively. Malnourished patients consumed less at mealtimes and more from ONS than lower-risk patients, resulting in no difference in total energy and protein intakes between groups. No clear associations between energy or protein intake and outcomes were found, although the association between energy intake, as percentage of requirement, and mortality at 12 months of follow-up was of borderline significance (OR 0·12; 95 % CI 0·01, 1·15; P=0·066). Energy and protein intakes during hospitalisation in the study population failed to meet requirements. Further studies are needed on how to increase energy and protein intakes during hospitalisation and after discharge and to assess whether higher intake in relation to requirement of hospitalised COPD patients results in better outcomes.

  3. The Origin and Early Evolution of Membrane Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Schweighofer, Karl; Wilson, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Membrane proteins mediate functions that are essential to all cells. These functions include transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls, capture of energy and its transduction into the form usable in chemical reactions, transmission of environmental signals to the interior of the cell, cellular growth and cell volume regulation. In the absence of membrane proteins, ancestors of cell (protocells), would have had only very limited capabilities to communicate with their environment. Thus, it is not surprising that membrane proteins are quite common even in simplest prokaryotic cells. Considering that contemporary membrane channels are large and complex, both structurally and functionally, a question arises how their presumably much simpler ancestors could have emerged, perform functions and diversify in early protobiological evolution. Remarkably, despite their overall complexity, structural motifs in membrane proteins are quite simple, with a-helices being most common. This suggests that these proteins might have evolved from simple building blocks. To explain how these blocks could have organized into functional structures, we performed large-scale, accurate computer simulations of folding peptides at a water-membrane interface, their insertion into the membrane, self-assembly into higher-order structures and function. The results of these simulations, combined with analysis of structural and functional experimental data led to the first integrated view of the origin and early evolution of membrane proteins.

  4. Association of Protein Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Content among Elderly Women: The OSTPRE Fracture Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, M; Sirola, J; Mursu, J; Kröger, H; Tuppurainen, M; Erkkilä, A T

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that high protein intakes are associated with lower bone mineral content (BMC). Previous studies yield conflicting results and thus far no studies have undertaken the interaction of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity with protein intakes in relation to BMC and bone mineral density (BMD). To evaluate the associations of dietary total protein (TP), animal protein (AP) and plant protein (PP) intakes with BMC and BMD and their changes. We tested also the interactions of protein intake with, obesity (BMI ≤30 vs. >30 kg/m2) and physical activity level (passive vs. active). Design/ Setting: Prospective cohort study (Osteoporosis Risk-Factor and Fracture-Prevention Study). Participants/measures: At the baseline, 554 women aged 65-72 years filled out a 3-day food record and a questionnaire covering data on lifestyle, physical activity, diseases, and medications. Intervention group received calcium 1000 mg/d and cholecalciferol 800 IU for 3 years. Control group received neither supplementation nor placebo. Bone density was measured at baseline and year 3, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between protein intake and BMD and BMC. In cross-sectional analyses energy-adjusted TP (P≤0·029) and AP (P≤0·045) but not PP (g/d) were negatively associated with femoral neck (FN) BMD and BMC. Women with TP≥1·2 g/kg/body weight (BW) (Ptrend≤0·009) had lower FN, lumbar spine (LS) and total BMD and BMC. In follow-up analysis, TP (g/kg/BW) was inversely associated with LS BMD and LS BMC. The detrimental associations were stronger in women with BMI<30 kg/m2. In active women, TP (g/kg/BW) was positively associated with LS BMD and FN BMC changes. This study suggests detrimental associations between protein intake and bone health. However, these negative associations maybe counteracted by BMI>30 kg/m2 and physical activity.

  5. Maternal Protein Intake during Pregnancy Is Not Associated with Offspring Birth Weight in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Chia, Ai-Ru; Colega, Marjorelee; Tint, Mya-Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter; Godfrey, Keith M; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Yap, Fabian; van Dam, Rob M; Lee, Yung Seng

    2015-06-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence fetal growth. However, the relation between maternal macronutrient intake and birth size outcomes is less clear. We examined the associations between maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy and infant birth size. Pregnant women (n = 835) from the Singapore GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) mother-offspring cohort were studied. At 26-28 wk of gestation, the macronutrient intake of women was ascertained with the use of 24 h dietary recalls and 3 d food diaries. Weight, length, and ponderal index of their offspring were measured at birth. Associations were assessed by substitution models with the use of multiple linear regressions. Mean ± SD maternal energy intake and percentage energy from protein, fat, and carbohydrates per day were 1903 ± 576 kcal, 15.6% ± 3.9%, 32.7% ± 7.5%, and 51.6% ± 8.7% respectively. With the use of adjusted models, no associations were observed for maternal macronutrient intake and birth weight. In male offspring, higher carbohydrate or fat intake with lower protein intake was associated with longer birth length (β = 0.08 cm per percentage increment in carbohydrate; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13; β = 0.08 cm per percentage increment in fat; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.13) and lower ponderal index (β = -0.12 kg/m(3) per percentage increment in carbohydrate; 95% CI: -0.19, -0.05; β = -0.08 kg/m(3) per percentage increment in fat; 95% CI: -0.16, -0.003), but this was not observed in female offspring (P-interaction < 0.01). Maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy was not associated with infant birth weight. Lower maternal protein intake was significantly associated with longer birth length and lower ponderal index in male but not female offspring. However, this finding warrants further confirmation in independent studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Animal-Protein Intake Is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) Calibration Substudy Participants: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azemati, Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: High intakes of total and animal protein are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The influence of protein type on insulin resistance, a key precursor of T2D, has not been extensively studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associations between dietary total, animal, and plant protein intakes as well as the animal-to-plant protein (AP) intake ratio with insulin resistance in middle-aged and older adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis in 548 participants (mean ± SD age: 66.2 ± 13.7 y) from the calibration substudy of the AHS-2 (Adventist Health Study 2) cohort. Participants consumed diets with a low AP intake ratio. Dietary intakes of total and particular types of protein were calculated from six 24-h dietary recalls. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic, lifestyle, health, diet intake, and physical activity characteristics. Anthropometric variables including weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated by using fasting serum glucose and insulin. Multiple linear regression models were used to test the relations between total and specific protein intakes with insulin resistance. Results: The ranges of dietary intakes of animal and plant protein and the AP intake ratio were 0.4–87.4 and 14.0–79.2 g/d and 0.02–4.43, respectively. Dietary intakes per 10-g/d increments of total protein (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.21) and animal protein (β: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.20) and the AP intake ratio (β: 1.82; 95% CI: 0.80, 2.84) were positively related to HOMA-IR. Plant protein was not significantly related to insulin resistance. Conclusion: Total and animal protein intakes and the AP intake ratio were positively associated with HOMA-IR in adults with relatively a low intake of animal protein and a high consumption of plant protein.

  7. Regulation of bone morphogenetic proteins in early embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), a large subgroup of the TGF-β family of secreted growth factors, control fundamental events in early embryonic development, organogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. The plethora of dose-dependent cellular processes regulated by BMP signalling demand a tight regulation of BMP activity. Over the last decade, a number of proteins have been identified that bind BMPs in the extracellular space and regulate the interaction of BMPs with their cognate receptors, including the secreted BMP antagonist Chordin. In the early vertebrate embryo, the localized secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip establishes a functional BMP signalling gradient that is required for the determination of the dorsoventral or back to belly body axis. In particular, inhibition of BMP activity is essential for the formation of neural tissue in the development of vertebrate and invertebrate embryos. Here we review recent studies that have provided new insight into the regulation of BMP signalling in the extracellular space. In particular, we discuss the recently identified Twisted gastrulation protein that modulates, in concert with metalloproteinases of the Tolloid family, the interaction of Chordin with BMP and a family of proteins that share structural similarities with Chordin in the respective BMP binding domains. In addition, genetic and functional studies in zebrafish and frog provide compelling evidence that the secreted protein Sizzled functionally interacts with the Chd BMP pathway, despite being expressed ventrally in the early gastrula-stage embryo. These intriguing discoveries may have important implications, not only for our current concept of early embryonic patterning, but also for the regulation of BMP activity at later developmental stages and tissue homeostasis in the adult.

  8. The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ellis, Vanessa

    2010-10-01

    Different dietary proteins vary in their ability to influence satiety and reduce food intake. The present study compared the effects of four protein meals, whey, tuna, turkey and egg albumin, on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations as well as on appetite measures and energy intake in twenty-two lean, healthy men. This was a randomised, cross-over design study where participants consumed four liquid test meals on separate occasions followed by the collection of regular blood samples (fasting, +30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). They were then offered a buffet meal 4 h later. The blood glucose response after the consumption of the test meal, as an incremental area under the curve (AUC), was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the turkey (P < 0.023) and egg (P < 0.001) meals, but it was not lower than with the tuna meal (P < 0.34). The AUC blood insulin after the consumption of the test meal was significantly higher with the whey meal than with the tuna, turkey and egg meals (all P < 0.001). The AUC rating of hunger was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the tuna (P < 0.033), turkey (P < 0.001) and egg (P < 0.001) meals. Mean energy intake at the ad libitum meal was significantly lower (P < 0.001) with the whey meal than with the tuna, egg and turkey meals. There was a strong relationship between self-rated appetite, postprandial insulin response and energy intake at lunch. Whey protein meal produced a greater insulin response, reduced appetite and decreased ad libitum energy intake at a subsequent meal compared with the other protein meals, indicating a potential for appetite suppression and weight loss in overweight or obese individuals.

  9. Influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals and plant origin on inflammatory biomarkers among apparently-healthy adults in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Natalia G; Bountziouka, Vassiliki P; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Bonou, Maria S; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos D; Barbetseas, John D; Avgerinos, Peter C; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-12-01

    Intake of different types of protein may be associated with differences in biomarkers among various populations. This work investigated the influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals as well as protein from plants on haematological and biochemical parameters in inflammation among apparently-healthy adults living in Greece, a Mediterranean country. Four hundred and ninety apparently-healthy subjects (46 +/- 16 years, 40% men), who consecutively visited Polykliniki General Hospital for routine examinations, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study (participation rate 85%). Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Participants completed a valid, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Protein intake was classified into three sources: protein from haem animals, protein from non-haem animals, and protein from plant origin. Fasting blood samples were taken from all participants; uric acid, creatinine, lipids, cystatin C, haptoglobin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, ferritin, white blood cells, monocytes, platelets, and C-reactive protein were measured. Protein intake from only haem animals was associated with increased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels (p < 0.05) whereas intake of protein from non-haem animals and plant origin was not associated with the investigated haematological and biochemical markers of low-grade chronic inflammation when lifestyle factors and overall dietary habits were taken into account. Intake of protein from only haem animals seems to be consistently associated with haematological markers. The confounding role of dietary habits and lifestyle variables on the tested parameters deserves further attention in future research.

  10. Postpartum Consequences of an Overlap of Breastfeeding and Pregnancy: Reduced Breast Milk Intake and Growth During Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Grace S.; Penny, Mary E.; Diaz, Judith M.; Marín, R. Margot

    2006-01-01

    Objective Despite cultural pressure to wean when a new pregnancy occurs, some women choose to continue breastfeeding. We determined the effect of an overlap of lactation and late pregnancy on breastfeeding and growth in early infancy. Methods We studied 133 Peruvian pregnant women who were ≥18 years of age, had a child <4 years old, and who then had a vaginal birth with a healthy, normal weight infant. Of the 133 women, 68 breastfed during the last trimester of pregnancy (BFP), and 65 had not breastfed during pregnancy (NBFP). On day 2 and at 1-month postpartum, 24-hour intake of breast milk and other liquids was measured. Twice weekly home surveillance documented infant morbidity and dietary intakes. Anthropometry was taken at birth and at 1 month. Maternal anthropometric, health, and socioeconomic status data were collected pre- and postpartum. Results Pregnant BFP mothers breastfed 5.3 ± 4.3 times/day. BFP and NBFP infants did not differ in breastfeeding behavior or in colostrum intake on day 2. BFP infants breastfed longer per feed and per 24 hours (35.2 minutes/24 hours) than did NBFP infants; however, 1-month intakes per feed tended to be lower among the BFP infants. After controlling for confounders, BFP infants gained 125 g less than did NBFP infants (about 15% of mean weight gain). A sustained decline would result in a −0.7 z score change in weight-for-age by 6 months. Conclusions A lactation-pregnancy overlap had a negative effect on early infant outcomes. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the effect continues past 1 month of age. PMID:11927729

  11. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Halkjaer, J; Olsen, A; Bjerregaard, L J; Deharveng, G; Tjønneland, A; Welch, A A; Crowe, F L; Wirfält, E; Hellstrom, V; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Linseisen, J; Steffen, A; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Chirlaque, M D; Larrañaga, N; Ferrari, P; Contiero, P; Frasca, G; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Misirli, G; Kosti, M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.

  12. Association of habitual high-fat intake and desire for protein and sweet food.

    PubMed

    Tatano, Hiroshi; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Zhou, Bei; Adachi, Chisaki; Kawakami, Yuka; Katayama, Takafumi; Masuda, Masashi; Takeda, Eiji; Taketani, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Reducing dietary calorie density (CD) is useful in body weight management. This study investigates the association between dietary habits and preferences for different CDs. We conducted a randomized crossover study of 232 healthy subjects who consumed packed lunch boxes containing a control, high-meat and low-rice, low-vegetable, medium-fat and low-vegetable, high-fat, and high-fat and low-vegetable meals over six sessions. The subjective levels of sensory properties were assessed over time using a visual analog scale and the area under the curve. Subjects were assessed for dietary habits using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) and were divided into two groups based on a daily fat energy ratio ≥ 25% (high fat [HF], n=116) and < 25% (normal, n=116) that was matched for age, body mass index, and sex ratio. Our findings indicate that the desire for sweetness was higher in the HF group than in the normal group, regardless of the meals consumed. Particularly, among the 500-kcal low-CD meals, a high-protein meal provided greater fullness and satisfaction and lower prospective consumption in the HF group than in the normal group. Therefore, our study demonstrates that postprandial appetite sensation is associated with dietary habits of fat intake. J. Med. Invest. 63: 241-247, August, 2016.

  13. Dietary sources of animal and plant protein intake among Flemish preschool children and the association with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the intake of animal, plant and food group-specific protein, and to investigate their associations with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors in Flemish preschoolers. Methods Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from 661 preschoolers aged 2.5-6.5 y (338 boys and 323 girls). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between animal, plant, and food group-specific protein intake and socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results Animal proteins (mean 38 g/d) were the main source of total protein (mean 56 g/d), while mean plant protein intake amounted to 18 g/d. The group of meat, poultry, fish and eggs was the main contributor (51%) to animal protein intake, followed by milk and milk products (35%). Bread and cereals (41%) contributed most to the plant protein intake, followed by low-nutritious, energy-dense foods (21%). With higher educated fathers and mothers as reference, respectively, preschoolers with lower secondary and secondary paternal education had lower animal, dairy-, and meat-derived protein intakes, and those with lower secondary and secondary maternal education consumed less plant, and bread and cereal-derived proteins. Compared to children with high physical activity levels, preschoolers with low and moderate physical activity had lower animal and plant protein intakes. Significantly higher potatoes and grains-, and fish- derived proteins were reported for children of smoking mothers and fathers, respectively, compared to those of non-smoking mothers and fathers. Conclusions The total protein intake of Flemish preschoolers was sufficient according to the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Parental level of education and smoking status might play a role in the sources of children's dietary proteins. PMID:21943312

  14. Signatures of unfolding in the early stages of protein denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Harry B.; Winkler, Jay R.; Kozak, John J.

    2012-04-01

    A comparative study of the early stages of unfolding of five proteins: cyt c, c-b 562, cyt c‧, azurin, and lysozyme is reported. From crystallographic data, helical regions and intervening non-helical (or 'turning') regions are identified in each. Exploiting a previously introduced geometrical model, the paper describes quantitatively the stepwise extension of a polypeptide chain subject to the geometrical constraint that the spatial relationship among the residues of each triplet is fixed by native-state crystallographic data. Despite differences among the above-cited proteins, remarkable universality of behavior is found in the early stages of unfolding. At the very earliest stages, internal residues in each helical region have a common unfolding history; the terminal residues, however, are extraordinarily sensitive to structural perturbations. Residues in non-helical sections of the polypeptide unfold after residues in the internal helical regions, but with increasing steric perturbation playing a dominant role in advancing denaturation.

  15. Effects of healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions on feeding practices and dietary intake: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Toomey, Elaine; Delaney, Lisa; Harrington, Janas; Byrne, Molly; Kearney, Patricia M

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a global public health challenge. Parental feeding practices, such as responsive feeding, are implicated in the etiology of childhood obesity. This systematic review aimed to examine of effects of healthcare professional-delivered early feeding interventions, on parental feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes for children up to 2 years. The role of responsive feeding interventions was also specifically examined. Databases searched included: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care. participants are parents of children ≤2 years; intervention includes focus on early child feeding to prevent overweight and obesity; intervention delivered by healthcare professionals. Sixteen papers, representing 10 trials, met inclusion criteria for review. Six interventions included responsive feeding components. Interventions demonstrated inconsistent effects on feeding practices, dietary intake, and weight outcomes. Findings suggest some reductions in pressure to eat and infant consumption of non-core beverages. Responsive feeding based interventions demonstrate greater improvements in feeding approaches, and weight outcomes. The findings of this review highlight the importance of incorporating responsive feeding in healthcare professional delivered early feeding interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Observed inconsistencies across trials may be explained by methodological limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraduodenal Administration of Intact Pea Protein Effectively Reduces Food Intake in Both Lean and Obese Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Geraedts, Maartje C. P.; Troost, Freddy J.; Munsters, Marjet J. M.; Stegen, Jos H. C. H.; de Ridder, Rogier J.; Conchillo, Jose M.; Kruimel, Joanna W.; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human duodenal mucosa secretes increased levels of satiety signals upon exposure to intact protein. However, after oral protein ingestion, gastric digestion leaves little intact proteins to enter the duodenum. This study investigated whether bypassing the stomach, through intraduodenal administration, affects hormone release and food-intake to a larger extent than orally administered protein in both lean and obese subjects. Methods Ten lean (BMI:23.0±0.7 kg/m2) and ten obese (BMI:33.4±1.4 kg/m2) healthy male subjects were included. All subjects randomly received either pea protein solutions (250 mg/kg bodyweight in 0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water) or placebo (0.4 ml/kg bodyweight of water), either orally or intraduodenally via a naso-duodenal tube. Appetite-profile, plasma GLP-1, CCK, and PYY concentrations were determined over a 2 h period. After 2 h, subjects received an ad-libitum meal and food-intake was recorded. Results CCK levels were increased at 10(p<0.02) and 20(p<0.01) minutes after intraduodenal protein administration (IPA), in obese subjects, compared to lean subjects, but also compared to oral protein administration (OPA)(p<0.04). GLP-1 levels increased after IPA in obese subjects after 90(p<0.02) to 120(p<0.01) minutes, compared to OPA. Food-intake was reduced after IPA both in lean and obese subjects (-168.9±40 kcal (p<0.01) and −298.2±44 kcal (p<0.01), respectively), compared to placebo. Also, in obese subjects, food-intake was decreased after IPA (−132.6±42 kcal; p<0.01), compared to OPA. Conclusions Prevention of gastric proteolysis through bypassing the stomach effectively reduces food intake, and seems to affect obese subjects to a greater extent than lean subjects. Enteric coating of intact protein supplements may provide an effective dietary strategy in the prevention/treatment of obesity. PMID:21931864

  17. Beverage intake and obesity in early childhood: evidence form primary health care clients in Northwest Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alderete, E; Bejarano, I; Rodríguez, A

    2015-12-07

    Sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) are thought to play an important role in weight gain. We examined the relationship between the intake of caloric and noncaloric beverages (SSB and water) and the nutritional status of children. In 2014, we randomly selected 16 public health clinics in four cities of Northwest Argentina and conducted a survey among mothers of children 0-6 years of age. Children's beverage intake was ascertained by 24-h dietary recall provided by the mothers. Children's weight and height measures were obtained from clinic's registries. We calculated the body mass index using the International Obesity Task Force standards. The analysis included 562 children 25 months to 6 years of age with normal or above normal nutritional status. Children's beverage consumption was as follows, water 81.8%, carbonated soft drinks (CSD) 49.7%, coffee/tea/cocoa 44.0%, artificial fruit drinks 35.6%, flavored water 17.9%, natural fruit juice 14.5%. In multivariate logistic regression models the likelihood of being obese v. being overweight or having normal weight doubled with an intake of one to five glasses of CSD (OR=2.2) and increased by more than three-fold with an intake of more than five glasses (OR=3.5). Drinking more than five glasses of water decreased the likelihood of being obese by less than half (OR=0.3). The percentage of children drinking more than five glasses of other beverages was low (3.3-0.9%) and regression models did not yield significant results. The study contributed evidence for reducing children's CSD intake and for promoting water consumption, together with the implementation of comprehensive regulatory public health policies.

  18. Increased salt intake during early ontogenesis lead to development of arterial hypertension in salt-resistant Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Svitok, Pavel; Molcan, Lubos; Vesela, Anna; Kruzliak, Peter; Moravcik, Roman; Zeman, Michal

    2015-01-01

    A direct relationship exists between salt consumption and hypertension. Increased sodium intake does not automatically lead to a rise in blood pressure (BP) because of marked intra-individual variability in salt sensitivity. Wistar rats are a salt-resistant strain and increased salt intake in adults does not induce hypertension. Mechanisms regulating BP develop during early ontogenesis and increased sodium consumption by pregnant females leads to an increase in BP of their offspring, but early postnatal stages have not been sufficiently analyzed in salt-resistant strains of rats. The aim of this work was to study the effects of increased salt during early ontogeny on cardiovascular characteristics of Wistar rats. We used 16 control (C; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a standard diet (0.2% sodium) and 16 experimental (S; 8 males + 8 females) rats fed with a diet containing 0.8% sodium. BP was measured weekly and plasma renin activity, aldosterone and testosterone concentrations were assayed by radioimmunoassay after the experiment in 16-week-old animals. In the kidney, AT1 receptors were determined by the western blot. BP was higher in the S as compared with the C rats and did not differ between males and females. The relative left ventricle mass was increased in S as compared with C males and no differences were recorded in females. No significant differences between groups were found in hormonal parameters and AT1 receptors. Results indicate that moderately increased salt intake during postnatal ontogeny results in a BP rise even in salt-resistant rats.

  19. Maximum likelihood estimation of between and within variations in energy and protein intakes from infancy to adolescence for the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A; Bouis, H

    1992-02-28

    The assessment of subjects' 'usual' intake of nutrients is important in assessing relationships between diet and disease and in identifying malnourished sub-groups of the populations. Estimation of the variation in intakes within subjects over time ('within variation') has importance in epidemiologic research; estimation of the between subject variation in the sample has use in defining the recommended dietary allowances that take into account the inter-individual differences. This paper estimates the between and within variances in the energy and protein intakes of 1189 Filipino children, based on 4 rounds of 24-hour recall data within a dynamic framework by means of maximum likelihood. The main findings are that the proportion of variation due to the within variance is higher for children from poorer households. Also, from the estimates of dynamic regression models for nutrient intakes of children and adults, it appears that school programmes that provide subsidized foods with good sources of protein to the poorest among school attendees will be cost effective.

  20. The Origin and Early Evolution of Membrane Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Schweighofter, Karl; Wilson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The origin and early evolution of membrane proteins, and in particular ion channels, are considered from the point of view that the transmembrane segments of membrane proteins are structurally quite simple and do not require specific sequences to fold. We argue that the transport of solute species, especially ions, required an early evolution of efficient transport mechanisms, and that the emergence of simple ion channels was protobiologically plausible. We also argue that, despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. These properties can be subtly modulated by local modifications to the sequence rather than global changes in molecular architecture. In order to address the evolution and development of ion channels, we focus on identifying those protein domains that are commonly associated with ion channel proteins and are conserved throughout the three main domains of life (Eukarya, Prokarya, and Archaea). We discuss the potassium-sodium-calcium superfamily of voltage-gated ion channels, mechanosensitive channels, porins, and ABC-transporters and argue that these families of membrane channels have sufficiently universal architectures that they can readily adapt to the diverse functional demands arising during evolution.

  1. Frustration Sculpts the Early Stages of Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Di Silvio, Eva; Brunori, Maurizio; Gianni, Stefano

    2015-09-07

    The funneled energy landscape theory implies that protein structures are minimally frustrated. Yet, because of the divergent demands between folding and function, regions of frustrated patterns are present at the active site of proteins. To understand the effects of such local frustration in dictating the energy landscape of proteins, here we compare the folding mechanisms of the two alternative spliced forms of a PDZ domain (PDZ2 and PDZ2as) that share a nearly identical sequence and structure, while displaying different frustration patterns. The analysis, based on the kinetic characterization of a large number of site-directed mutants, reveals that although the late stages for folding are very robust and biased by native topology, the early stages are more malleable and dominated by local frustration. The results are briefly discussed in the context of the energy-landscape theory. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A systematic review of dietary protein during caloric restriction in resistance trained lean athletes: a case for higher intakes.

    PubMed

    Helms, Eric R; Zinn, Caryn; Rowlands, David S; Brown, Scott R

    2014-04-01

    Caloric restriction occurs when athletes attempt to reduce body fat or make weight. There is evidence that protein needs increase when athletes restrict calories or have low body fat. The aims of this review were to evaluate the effects of dietary protein on body composition in energy-restricted resistance-trained athletes and to provide protein recommendations for these athletes. Database searches were performed from earliest record to July 2013 using the terms protein, and intake, or diet, and weight, or train, or restrict, or energy, or strength, and athlete. Studies (N = 6) needed to use adult (≥ 18 yrs), energy-restricted, resistance-trained (> 6 months) humans of lower body fat (males ≤ 23% and females ≤ 35%) performing resistance training. Protein intake, fat free mass (FFM) and body fat had to be reported. Body fat percentage decreased (0.5-6.6%) in all study groups (N = 13) and FFM decreased (0.3-2.7kg) in nine of 13. Six groups gained, did not lose, or lost nonsignificant amounts of FFM. Five out of these six groups were among the highest in body fat, lowest in caloric restriction, or underwent novel resistance training stimuli. However, the one group that was not high in body fat that underwent substantial caloric restriction, without novel training stimuli, consumed the highest protein intake out of all the groups in this review (2.5-2.6g/kg). Protein needs for energy-restricted resistance-trained athletes are likely 2.3-3.1g/kg of FFM scaled upwards with severity of caloric restriction and leanness.

  3. Optimizing protein and energy intake in hospitals by improving individualized meal serving, hosting and the eating environment.

    PubMed

    Holst, Mette; Beermann, Tina; Mortensen, Marie Nerup; Skadhauge, Lotte Boa; Køhler, Marianne; Lindorff-Larsen, Karen; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2017-02-01

    Optimizing protein and energy intake by food in nutritional risk patients is difficult. The aim of this study was to improve the ≥75% of energy and protein requirements. We would like to see nurses take on the role of hosting the nutritional-risk patients, including focusing on bringing nutrition to the forefront in the collaboration between nurses and patients. This was an interventional study that included patients admitted to the Departments of Infectious Diseases, Hematology, and Heart-Lung Surgery in a baseline and follow-up investigation. It included 24-h food intake registrations (FRs) for 3 d consecutively, a questionnaire, and a semistructured patient interview. The interventions included in this study helped to improve the eating environment and serving, integrated nutrition into the nurse-patient welcome interview, and targeted individual preferences and challenges for eating. The study comprised 76 24-h FRs at baseline and 108 FRs at follow-up. The total group had improved food intake; 75% of individual energy requirements were met by (67.6% vs. 40%; P = 0.036) and the Heart-Lung Surgery group (85.7 vs. 38.5; P = 0.036). This was not reflected for protein (NS). Energy intake improved for the entire group, albeit not significantly (P = 0.862). Patients reported being happy with the interventions regarding individualized food serving, nurse communication, and improved meal environments. Only insignificant improvements to overall energy intake were seen in two of the three departments and in the overall group, and no statistical or clinically significant improvements to protein intake were observed. The relative risk of meeting 75% of energy requirements was improved in the overall group and in patients in the Department of Heart-Lung Surgery. This did not include the meeting of protein requirements. Improvements were welcomed by patients and staff. Focus on individualized nutrition from the nursing staff also improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  4. Effect of a protein preload on food intake and satiety feelings in response to duodenal fat perfusions in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Oesch, Sibylle; Degen, Lukas; Beglinger, Christoph

    2005-10-01

    The control of food intake and satiety requires a coordinated interplay. Oral protein and duodenal fat inhibit food intake and induce satiety, but their interactive potential is unclear. Our aim was therefore to investigate the interactions between an oral protein preload and intraduodenal (ID) fat on food intake and satiety feelings. Twenty healthy male volunteers were studied in a randomized, double-blind, four-period crossover design. On each study day, subjects underwent one of the following treatments: 1) water preload plus ID saline perfusion, 2) water preload plus ID fat perfusion, 3) protein preload plus ID saline perfusion, or 4) protein preload plus ID fat perfusion. Subjects were free to eat and drink as much as they wished. An oral protein preload significantly reduced caloric intake (19%, P < 0.01). Simultaneous administration of an oral protein preload and ID fat did not result in a positive synergistic effect with respect to caloric consumption, rejecting the initial hypothesis that the two nutrients exert a positive synergistic effect on food intake. An oral protein preload but not ID fat altered the feelings of hunger and fullness. These data indicate that the satiety effect of an oral protein preload is not amplified by ID fat; indeed, the effect of a protein preload does not seem to be mediated by cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, or peptide YY. Much more information is necessary to understand the basic physiological mechanisms that control food intake and satiety.

  5. The association of protein intake (amount and type) with ovarian antral follicle counts among infertile women: results from the EARTH prospective study cohort.

    PubMed

    Souter, I; Chiu, Y-H; Batsis, M; Afeiche, M C; Williams, P L; Hauser, R; Chavarro, J E

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between protein intake (amount and type) and antral follicle count (AFC). Prospective cohort. Academic fertility centre. Two hundred and sixty-five women undergoing fertility treatments at an academic fertility centre and participating in an ongoing study on environment and reproductive health. We measured AFC in ultrasonographic evaluation among women undergoing infertility treatments. Women completed a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the relation between protein intake and AFC while adjusting for age, body mass index, race, smoking status, and total energy intake. Antral follicle count. Among 265 women (mean age: 35.0 ± 3.9 years, 85% Caucasian), total protein intake (% energy) was unrelated to AFC. When protein from different food sources was considered separately, we found a negative association between dairy protein intake and AFC. The mean AFC was 14.4% (3.9-23.7%) lower for women in the highest quintile of dairy protein intake than for women in the bottom quintile after adjusting for potential confounders (P-trend = 0.04). This association was stronger among women who had never smoked (P-trend = 0.002) but was not observed among previous smokers (P-trend = 0.36). There were no associations between protein intake from either non-dairy animal or vegetable sources and AFC. Higher dairy protein intake (≥5.24% of energy) was associated with lower antral follicle counts among women presenting for infertility treatment. These findings should be further investigated in prospective studies also designed to clarify the biology underlying the observed associations. Higher dairy protein intake was associated with lower antral follicle counts in an infertile population. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Daily Distribution of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat Intake in Elite Youth Academy Soccer Players Over a 7-Day Training Period.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Morgans, Ryland; Abayomi, Julie; Davies, Ian G; Morton, James P; Mahon, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    While traditional approaches to dietary analysis in athletes have focused on total daily energy and macronutrient intake, it is now thought that daily distribution of these parameters can also influence training adaptations. Using 7-day food diaries, we quantified the total daily macronutrient intake and distribution in elite youth soccer players from the English Premier League in U18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25) and U13/14 squads (n = 21). Total energy (43.1 ± 10.3, 32.6 ± 7.9, 28.1 ± 6.8 kcal·kg -1 ·day -1 ), CHO (6 ± 1.2, 4.7 ± 1.4, 3.2 ± 1.3 g·kg - 1 ·day -1 ) and fat (1.3 ± 0.5, 0.9 ± 0.3, 0.9 ± 0.3 g·kg- 1 ·day -1 ) intake exhibited hierarchical differences (p < .05) such that U13/14 > U15/16 > U18. In addition, CHO intake in U18s was lower (p < .05) at breakfast, dinner and snacks when compared with both squads but no differences were apparent at lunch. Furthermore, the U15/16s reported lower relative daily protein intake than the U13/14s and U18s (1.6 ± 0.3 vs. 2.2 ± 0.5, 2.0 ± 0.3 g·kg -1 ). A skewed distribution (p < .05) of daily protein intake was observed in all squads, with a hierarchical order of dinner (~0.6 g·kg -1 ) > lunch (~0.5 g·kg -1 ) > breakfast (~0.3 g·kg -1 ). We conclude elite youth soccer players do not meet current CHO guidelines. Although daily protein targets are achieved, we report a skewed daily distribution in all ages such that dinner > lunch > breakfast. Our data suggest that dietary advice for elite youth players should focus on both total daily macronutrient intake and optimal daily distribution patterns.

  7. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, early growth, and body fat distribution at school age.

    PubMed

    Voerman, Ellis; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Gaillard, Romy

    2016-05-01

    The associations of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy with offspring growth patterns and body fat and insulin levels at school age were examined. In a population-based birth cohort among 7,857 mothers and their children, maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaires. Growth characteristics were measured from birth onward. At 6 years, body fat and insulin levels were measured. Compared to children whose mothers consumed <2 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy (1 unit of caffeine is equivalent to 1 cup of coffee (90 mg caffeine)), those whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day tended to have a lower weight at birth, higher weight gain from birth to 6 years, and higher body mass index from 6 months to 6 years. Both children whose mothers consumed 4-5.9 and ≥6 units of caffeine per day during pregnancy tended to have a higher childhood body mass index and total body fat mass. Only children whose mothers consumed ≥6 units of caffeine per day had a higher android/gynoid fat mass ratio. These results suggest that high levels of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy are associated with adverse offspring growth patterns and childhood body fat distribution. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Insufficient amounts and inadequate distribution of dietary protein intake in apparently healthy older adults in a developing country: implications for dietary strategies to prevent sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Roxana E Ruiz; Ponce, José A; Morales-Figueroa, Gloria Guadalupe; Muro, Karina Aguilar; Carreón, Virginia Ramírez; Alemán-Mateo, Heliodoro

    2013-01-01

    Background Both low dietary protein intake and inadequate distribution of protein over the three mealtimes have been reported in older Caucasian adults, but the association between protein intake at each meal and muscle mass has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dietary protein intake and distribution by mealtimes, and to explore their association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass in apparently healthy older adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study that included 78 people over the age of 60 years. Caloric and protein intake were estimated on the basis of three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls and appendicular skeletal muscle mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Men consumed 13.4 g of protein/day more than women (P < 0.05). The estimated value of dietary protein intake was 0.9 g/kg/day. In this sample, 28% of subjects did not cover 100% of the dietary reference intake for protein. Lower consumption of dietary protein was found at breakfast and dinnertime compared with the recommended amount of 25–30 g (P < 0.05). Also, the study observed that appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men and women who consumed <25 g of protein at each mealtime was different from that found in the group that consumed >25 g of protein at one, two, or three mealtimes. Conclusion While protein intake was higher than current recommendations, it failed to achieve the values reported as necessary to prevent sarcopenia. In addition, there was under-consumption of protein per mealtime, especially at breakfast and dinner. PMID:24039411

  9. Validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Minatsu; Jwa, Seung Chik; Ogawa, Kohei; Morisaki, Naho; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    The relative validity of food frequency questionnaires for estimating long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) intake among pregnant Japanese women is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to verify the external validity of a food frequency questionnaire, originally developed for non-pregnant adults, to assess the dietary intake of LC-PUFA using dietary records and serum phospholipid levels among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. A validation study involving 188 participants in early pregnancy and 169 participants in late pregnancy was conducted. Intake LC-PUFA was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and evaluated using a 3-day dietary record and serum phospholipid concentrations in both early and late pregnancy. The food frequency questionnaire provided estimates of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake with higher precision than dietary records in both early and late pregnancy. Significant correlations were observed for LC-PUFA intake estimated using dietary records in both early and late pregnancy, particularly for EPA and DHA (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.34 to 0.40, p < 0.0001). Similarly, high correlations for EPA and DHA in serum phospholipid composition were also observed in both early and late pregnancy (correlation coefficients ranged 0.27 to 0.34, p < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that the food frequency questionnaire, which was originally designed for non-pregnant adults and was evaluated in this study against dietary records and biological markers, has good validity for assessing LC-PUFA intake, especially EPA and DHA intake, among Japanese women in early and late pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inadequate protein intake after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgery is associated with a greater fat free mass loss.

    PubMed

    Sherf Dagan, Shiri; Tovim, Tali Ben; Keidar, Andrei; Raziel, Asnat; Shibolet, Oren; Zelber-Sagi, Shira

    2017-01-01

    Low postoperative protein intake may represent a modifiable risk factor that leads to fat free mass (FFM) loss postlaparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), but data concerning this phenomenon is scarce. To evaluate the association between daily protein intake and relative FFM loss at 6 (M6) and 12 (M12) months after LSG surgery. Private hospital and university hospital. A prospective cohort study with 12 months follow-up of 77 patients who underwent LSG surgery. Anthropometrics including body composition analysis measured by multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, 3-day food diaries, food intolerance, and habitual physical activity were evaluated at baseline and at M3, M6, and M12. Repeated body composition measurements and food diary were available for 77 patients (45 women) at M6 and for 68 patients at M12. Mean age was 42.7±9.4 years and mean preoperative body mass index was 42.2±4.8 kg/m 2 . A protein intake of≥60 g/d was achieved in 13.3%, 32.5% and 39.7% of the study participants at M3, M6 and M12, respectively. FFM significantly decreased at M6 and stabilized at M12. Protein intake of≥60 g/d was associated with a significantly lower relative FFM loss at M6 among women (8.9±6.5% versus 12.4±4.1%; P = .039) and this trend was also reported among men (9.5±5.5% versus 13.4±6.0%; P = .068). A logistic regression for the prediction of FFM loss of≥10% at M6, indicated that protein intake≥60 g/d is a strong protective factor (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval .09-.96, P = .043). Our study supports the currently recommended protein intake goal of≥60 g/d as an efficient strategy for better preservation of FFM post-LSG. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Pregnancy Cravings, Dietary Intake, and Development of Abnormal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Farland, Leslie V; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the relationships between pregnancy cravings, maternal diet, and development of abnormal glucose tolerance. We examined relationships of pregnancy cravings with dietary intake and risk of developing isolated hyperglycemia (IH), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or gestational diabetes (GDM) later in pregnancy. Among 2,022 mothers in Project Viva, a prospective birth cohort recruited from medical practices in eastern Massachusetts between 1999 and 2002, we assessed type of pregnancy craving based on self-report at mean gestation of 10.9 weeks. The outcomes were cross-sectional dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire and incident IH, IGT, or GDM determined by glucose tolerance screening at 26 to 28 weeks. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional relationships between pregnancy cravings and dietary intake and multinomial logistic regression to analyze the prospective relationships among pregnancy cravings and development of IH, IGT, or GDM. During the first trimester, 443 (22%) women craved sweets, 225 (11%) craved salty foods, 261 (13%) craved savory foods, and 100 (4.9%) craved starchy foods. Sweet cravings were associated with increased intake of sucrose (1.9 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 3.7), total fat (1.5 g/day; 95% CI 0.1 to 2.9), and saturated fat (0.8 g/day; 95% CI 0.2 to 1.4); salty cravings were associated with increased fiber (0.7 servings/day; 95% CI -0.1 to 1.6); savory cravings were associated with increased n-3 fatty acids (0.10 g/day; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.17); and starchy cravings were associated with increased carbohydrates (8.0 g/day; 95% CI 0.3 to 15.7) and decreased total fat (-2.6 g/day; 95% CI -5.2 to -0.1). Salty cravings were associated with lower risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.97). New cravings in the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with dietary intake. Craving salty foods may predict reduced risk of developing GDM, whereas craving sweet food does not appear to alter one

  12. High protein and cholesterol intakes associated with emergence of glucose intolerance in a low-risk Canadian Inuit population.

    PubMed

    Sefidbakht, Saghar; Johnson-Down, Louise; Young, T Kue; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-07-01

    The rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus among Inuit is 12·2 % in individuals over 50 years of age, similar to the Canadian prevalence. Given marked dietary transitions in the Arctic, we evaluated the dietary and other correlates of not previously diagnosed glucose intolerance, defined as type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance. Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults with a completed 2 h oral glucose tolerance test and without pre-existing diabetes. Anthropometric assessments, health and medication usage questionnaires and a 24 h dietary recall were administered. Canadian International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (2007-2008). Inuit adults (n 777). Glucose intolerance was associated with older age and adiposity. Percentage of energy from protein above the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range of 35 %, compared with intake within the range, was associated with increased odds of glucose intolerance (OR=1·98; 95 % CI 1·09, 3·61) in multivariable analyses. Further, cholesterol intake in the highest three quartiles combined (median exposures of 207, 416 and 778 mg/d, respectively) compared with the lowest quartile (median intake of 81 mg/d) was associated with glucose intolerance (OR=2·15; 95 % CI 1·23, 3·78) in multivariable analyses. Past-day traditional food consumption was borderline protective of glucose intolerance (P=0·054) and high fibre intake was not significantly protective (P=0·08). The results contribute to the existing literature on high protein and cholesterol intakes as they may relate to diabetes risk.

  13. Early sugar-sweetened beverage consumption frequency is associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Hirota, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from Western countries shows that higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is associated with lower quality of young children's diets, but little is known about these relations in non-Western countries with relatively low consumption levels of SSBs. We hypothesized that SSB consumption in infancy would be associated with poor quality of later food and nutrient intake patterns among Japanese young children. The study subjects were 493 Japanese mother-child pairs from a prospective birth cohort study. Dietary data on children were collected from the mothers using self-administered questionnaires when the children were aged 16-24 months and 41-49 months. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between SSB consumption frequency in infancy and later intake of foods and nutrients. At 16-24 months of age, more than half of the children (56.4%) consumed SSBs less than once a week, whereas 11.6% consumed SSBs at least once daily. More frequent consumption of SSBs in infancy was associated with higher intake of confectionaries and SSBs and lower intake of fruits and vegetables at 41-49 months of age. These associations were still evident after adjustment for maternal SSB consumption and socioeconomic status. At the nutrient level, SSB consumption frequency was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with intake of many nutrients, such as protein, dietary fiber, and most of the micronutrients examined. In conclusion, higher consumption frequency of SSBs at an early age is associated with poor quality of overall dietary intake among young Japanese children 1.5-2.5 years later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein requirements of man: comparative nitrogen balance response within the submaintenance-to-maintenance range of intakes of wheat and beef proteins.

    PubMed

    Young, V R; Fajardo, L; Murray, E; Rand, W M; Scrimshaw, N S

    1975-05-01

    Sixteen young male students participated in two studies designed to determine the nitrogen balance response to beef or stone-ground, whole wheat protein over the submaintenance-to-maintenance range of protein intake. The objective of the studies was to evaluate the relative capacities of these proteins to meet the minimum protein needs in young adult males. A modified Latin-square design was used to allocate subjects to the four 15-day metabolic balance diet periods in each study. The last 10 days were used for fecal nitrogen determination and the last 5 days for evaluation of urinary nitrogen excretion. The diet periods were separated by a 4-day break period and began with 1 day on a "protein-free" diet. The levels of protien (N times 6.25) intake tested were 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 g/kg body weight/day in the beef study. The results have been compared with those obtained in a previous similar study with egg protein. The regression of estimated "true" nitrogen balance (Y) (mg N/kg/day) on nitrogen intake (X) (mg N/kg/day) was: Y equals 0.51(plus or minus 0.08)X minus 41.9(plus or minus 4.6) for beef and Y equals 0.27(plus or minus 0.06)X minus 33.6(plus or minus 5.0) for whole wheat protein. The amounts of beef and wheat proteins estimated to be requried to support body nitrogen balance in 97.5% of the population supplied 96 and 178 mg N/kg/day, respectively. The relative protein value of beef and wheat proteins, in comparison with egg protein, was 78 plus or minus 12 and 41 plus or minus 10, respectively. It is concluded that the variations in dietary protein quality should be taken into account in assessing the protein adequacy of diets for individuals and population groups.

  15. Changes in Lean Mass and Serum Myostatin with Habitual Protein Intake and High-Velocity Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Binns, A; Gray, M; Henson, A C; Fort, I L

    2017-01-01

    Examine the associations between dietary protein intake, lean mass (LM), and serum myostatin (Mstn) levels among community-dwelling older adults participating in a 20-week high-velocity resistance training (HVRT) program. This longitudinal study consisted of 33 community-dwelling, older adults (mean age 77.0 years, SD = 6.4); all of which obtained physician clearance prior to study participation. Twenty-five females and eight males were randomized to a control (CON) or HVRT group. Anthropometric measures were obtained via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral venous blood draw used for serum myostatin analysis. Exercise was performed twice per week for 20 consecutive weeks. Food intake estimation with a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) was used for protein intake comparison to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). All measures were recorded both prior to and following study participation. Altogether, protein was consumed in amounts more generous (1.01 ± 0.47 g·kg-1·d-1) than that of the RDA (0.8 g·kg-1·d-1). As a result of significant LM differences among men and women (p < 0.01), additional data were analyzed specific to sex. Serum myostatin was greater among females (6681.8 ± 3155.0 pg·mL-1) than males (5560.0 ± 2946.1 pg·mL-1); however, these values were not significantly different (p = 0.39). Combined, protein consumption and serum myostatin did not significantly influence LM among males (p = 0.09) or females (p = 0.71). Irrespective of training group, significant changes were not exhibited in dietary intake patterns, LM, or serum myostatin. Contrary to the proposed hypothesis, results suggest protein consumption and circulating serum myostatin levels did not significantly influence LM among older adults. Although HVRT positively impacts LM, neither exercise group displayed significant changes in LM. Therefore, further research is needed examining dietary intake, exercise modality, and myostatin downregulation as non

  16. Comparison of "Nil by Mouth" Versus Early Oral Intake in Three Different Diet Regimens Following Esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Kristine Elisabeth; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rolff, Hans Christian; Belmouhand, Mohamed; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Thorsteinsson, Morten

    2017-06-01

    The literature on oral intake after esophagectomy and its influence on anastomotic leakage and complications is sparse. This retrospective study included 359 patients undergoing esophagectomy between January 2011 and August 2015. Three oral intake protocols were evaluated: regimen 1, nil by mouth until postoperative day (POD) 7 followed by a normal diet; regimen 2, oral intake of clear fluids from POD 1 followed by a normal diet; regimen 3, nil by mouth until POD 7 followed by a slow increase to a blended diet. The outcome endpoints were: (1) anastomotic leakage, (2) complications [severity and number described using the Dindo-Clavien Classification and Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI)] and (3) length of stay. A multivariate logistic regression model was obtained for CCI and anastomotic leakage using Wald's stepwise selection. CCI was significantly lower in regimen 3 (16 vs. 22 and 26 in regimen 1 and 2, p = 0.027). Additionally, significantly fewer patients in regimen 3 suffered from severe complications of Dindo-Clavien grade IIIb-IV (p = 0.025). The incidence of anastomotic leakage reached its lowest in regimen 3, 2%, compared to 7-9%. Multivariate analyses revealed that high American Society of Anesthesiologist score was a predicting factor for both CCI and anastomotic leakage. The study indicates that nil by mouth until postoperative day 7 followed by a slow increase to a blended diet after esophagectomy results in less severe complications and a tendency of fewer anastomotic leakages. Multiple comorbidities proved to be an important predictive factor of the postoperative course.

  17. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroyasu

    2014-08-06

    Resistance exercise alters the post-exercise response of anabolic and catabolic hormones. A previous study indicated that the turnover of muscle protein in trained individuals is reduced due to alterations in endocrine factors caused by resistance training, and that muscle protein accumulation varies between trained and untrained individuals due to differences in the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake. We investigated the effect of the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men. Subjects were 10 trained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 173.8 ± 3.1 cm; weight, 72.3 ± 4.3 kg) and 10 untrained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 1 years; height, 171.8 ± 5.0 cm; weight, 64.5 ± 5.0 kg). All subjects performed four sets of 8 to 10 repetitions of a resistance exercise (comprising bench press, shoulder press, triceps pushdown, leg extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, rowing, and biceps curl) at 80% one-repetition maximum. After each resistance exercise session, subjects were randomly divided into two groups with respect to intake of protein (0.3 g/kg body weight) and carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg body weight) immediately after (P0) or 6 h (P6) after the session. All subjects were on an experimental diet that met their individual total energy requirement. We assessed whole-body protein metabolism by measuring nitrogen balance at P0 and P6 on the last 3 days of exercise training. The nitrogen balance was significantly lower in the trained men than in the untrained men at both P0 (P <0.05) and P6 (P <0.01). The nitrogen balance in trained men was significantly higher at P0 than at P6 (P <0.01), whereas that in the untrained men was not significantly different between the two periods. The timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise influences nitrogen balance differently in trained and untrained young men.

  19. Effect of timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance exercise alters the post-exercise response of anabolic and catabolic hormones. A previous study indicated that the turnover of muscle protein in trained individuals is reduced due to alterations in endocrine factors caused by resistance training, and that muscle protein accumulation varies between trained and untrained individuals due to differences in the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake. We investigated the effect of the timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise on nitrogen balance in trained and untrained young men. Methods Subjects were 10 trained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 4 years; height, 173.8 ± 3.1 cm; weight, 72.3 ± 4.3 kg) and 10 untrained healthy men (mean age, 23 ± 1 years; height, 171.8 ± 5.0 cm; weight, 64.5 ± 5.0 kg). All subjects performed four sets of 8 to 10 repetitions of a resistance exercise (comprising bench press, shoulder press, triceps pushdown, leg extension, leg press, leg curl, lat pulldown, rowing, and biceps curl) at 80% one-repetition maximum. After each resistance exercise session, subjects were randomly divided into two groups with respect to intake of protein (0.3 g/kg body weight) and carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg body weight) immediately after (P0) or 6 h (P6) after the session. All subjects were on an experimental diet that met their individual total energy requirement. We assessed whole-body protein metabolism by measuring nitrogen balance at P0 and P6 on the last 3 days of exercise training. Results The nitrogen balance was significantly lower in the trained men than in the untrained men at both P0 (P <0.05) and P6 (P <0.01). The nitrogen balance in trained men was significantly higher at P0 than at P6 (P <0.01), whereas that in the untrained men was not significantly different between the two periods. Conclusion The timing of protein and carbohydrate intake after resistance exercise influences nitrogen balance differently in trained and

  20. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Norman, H D; Olson, K M; Van Tassell, C P; Leith, J M; Baldwin, R L

    2013-08-01

    Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of individual feed intake measurements for lactating cows. Feed intake was measured in Holstein cows during the first 90 d of lactation to estimate the heritability and repeatability of RFI, minimum test duration for evaluating RFI in early lactation, and its association with other production traits. Data were obtained from 453 lactations (214 heifers and 239 multiparous cows) from 292 individual cows from September 2007 to December 2011. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and monitored for individual daily feed consumption using the GrowSafe 4000 System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada). Animals were fed a total mixed ration 3 times daily, milked twice daily, and weighed every 10 to 14 d. Milk yield was measured at each milking. Feed DM percentage was measured daily, and nutrient composition was analyzed from a weekly composite. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, alternating between morning and evening milking periods. Estimates of RFI were determined as the difference between actual energy intake and predicted intake based on a linear model with fixed effects of parity (1, 2, ≥ 3) and regressions on metabolic BW, ADG, and energy-corrected milk yield. Heritability was estimated to be moderate (0.36 ± 0.06), and repeatability was estimated at 0.56 across lactations. A test period through 53 d in milk (DIM) explained 81% of the variation provided by a test through 90 DIM. Multiple regression analysis indicated that high efficiency was associated with less time feeding per day and slower feeding rate, which may contribute to differences in RFI among cows. The heritability and repeatability of RFI suggest an opportunity to improve feed efficiency through genetic

  1. Contingency Table Browser - prediction of early stage protein structure.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Barbara; Krzykalski, Artur; Roterman, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The Early Stage (ES) intermediate represents the starting structure in protein folding simulations based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop (FOD) model. The accuracy of FOD predictions is greatly dependent on the accuracy of the chosen intermediate. A suitable intermediate can be constructed using the sequence-structure relationship information contained in the so-called contingency table - this table expresses the likelihood of encountering various structural motifs for each tetrapeptide fragment in the amino acid sequence. The limited accuracy with which such structures could previously be predicted provided the motivation for a more indepth study of the contingency table itself. The Contingency Table Browser is a tool which can visualize, search and analyze the table. Our work presents possible applications of Contingency Table Browser, among them - analysis of specific protein sequences from the point of view of their structural ambiguity.

  2. Dynamics of protein and lipid intake regulation of rainbow trout studied with a wide lipid range of encapsulated diets and self-feeders.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Antti; Ruohonen, Kari

    2009-01-08

    Feed intake in fish is examined extensively but there is not much information about the dynamics of regulation i.e. how fish react to different diets, and how these reactions change, over a longer period of time. The present study was designed to evaluate the dynamics of food intake regulation in rainbow trout over a very wide range of dietary protein and lipid levels; from a very low lipid level (5%) to an extremely high level (55%). The study was conducted with three subsequent 40-day blocks of 20 fish and the intake dynamics of the lipid effect were studied by splitting the 40-day experimental period to shorter periods of 10 days. Depending on a diet the rainbow trout were more willing to ingest larger surpluses of both protein and lipid during the periods 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 days if compared with the anticipated nutritional intake target of rainbow trout. A strong regulatory response against high lipid intake was seen during the last period (days 30-40) leading not only to a decrease in lipid intake but much more drastic decrease in protein intake. Thus, a significant nonlinear interaction between time and dietary protein and lipid was found indicating that the effect of protein and lipid was dynamic.

  3. Salivary proteins and early childhood caries: A gel electrophoretic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Sumati; Tandon, Shobha; Satyamoorthy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a common disease process that afflicts a large proportion of the child population worldwide. Extensive research in past indicates that it is the result of bacterial infection, also influenced by host and dietary factors. Current caries research seeks to identify risk factors as well as natural oral defenses that may protect against or prevent caries development. Saliva, in spite of being the strongest defense system, still has a wide array of properties and proteins whose role is yet not clearly known. Aim: To compare the resting human whole salivary characteristics in children with ECC and those who are caries free. Settings and Design: The study was conducted over a period of 9 months in 4- to 6-year-old 100 children comprising two groups – 50 with ECC and 50 caries free. Materials and Methods: The whole salivary flow rate, pH, mean protein concentration, and the electrophoretic profile of salivary proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE) were compared among both groups. Statistical Analysis: The SPSS (version 11.0) software package was used to conduct the chi-square, Fisher's exact and Pearson's chi-square tests to compare the data. Results: On gel electrophoresis, there was a significant difference among both groups with caries-free subjects having a higher number of proline-rich protein bands, substantiating the protective role of this protein. A significantly higher number of glycoprotein bands were observed in the whole saliva of subjects with ECC. A significant inverse correlation between the mean protein concentration and the whole salivary flow rate was observed in both groups. PMID:22114372

  4. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident. PMID:22691622

  5. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study.

    PubMed

    van Baak, Marleen A; Larsen, Thomas M; Jebb, Susan A; Martinez, Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kafatos, Anthony; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kunešová, Marie; Astrup, Arne

    2017-12-06

    An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.

  6. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study

    PubMed Central

    Jebb, Susan A.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunešová, Marie; Astrup, Arne

    2017-01-01

    An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations. PMID:29211027

  7. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

    Short-term (5-10 days) calorie restriction (CR) downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic ta...

  8. Associations of dietary protein intake on subsequent decline in muscle mass and physical functions over four years in ambulant older Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Chan, R; Leung, J; Woo, J; Kwok, T

    2014-01-01

    To examine the association of dietary protein intake with 4-year change in physical performance measures and muscle mass in Chinese community-dwelling older people aged 65 and older in Hong Kong. Prospective cohort study design. Hong Kong, People's of Republic of China. There were 2,726 (1411 male, 1315 female) community-dwelling older people aged 65 and older. Baseline total, animal and vegetable protein intakes were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Relative protein intake expressed as g/kg body weight was calculated and divided into quartiles for data analysis. Baseline and 4-year physical performance measures (normal and narrow 6-meters walking speed and step length in a 6-meters walk) were measured and 4-year change in appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) from baseline was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Univariate analysis identified age and sex as significant factors associated with change in physical performance measures or ASM, thus adjustments for these factors were made for subsequent analysis of covariance. Median relative total protein intake was 1.3 g/kg body weight in men and 1.1 g/kg body weight in women. After adjustment for age and sex, relative total protein intake and animal protein intake were not associated with change in physical performance measures and ASM. In contrast, participants in the highest quartile (>0.72 g/kg body weight) of relative vegetable protein intake lost significantly less ASM over 4-year than those in the lowest quartile of relative vegetable protein intake (<=0.40 g/kg body weight) (adjusted mean ± SE: 0.270 ± 0.029 vs. 0.349 ± 0.030 kg, ptrend=0.025). There was no association between relative vegetable protein intake and change in physical performance measures. Higher protein intake from vegetable source was associated with reduced muscle loss in Chinese community-dwelling older people in Hong Kong whereas no association between total and animal protein intake and subsequent

  9. [Relationship of food groups intake and C-reactive protein in healthy adults from Mexicali, Baja California, México].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Esparza, Josefina; Robinson-Navarro, Octavio; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Diaz-Molina, Raúl; Carrillo-Cedillo, Eugenia Gabriela; Soria-Rodriguez, Carmen G

    2013-09-01

    The high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important biomarker in inflammatory processes. The objective was to analyze the relationship between the concentrations of hs-CRP in adults from a northern Mexico region with their typical food intake patterns. A sample of 72 university professors underwent clinical and anthropometric assessments and their hs-CRP levels were quantified with an immunoenzymometric assay. Additionally, they filled out a food intake frequency questionnaire, from which the servings of different food groups were obtained with the ESHA software. The average age of participants was 49.75 +/- 10.05 years and the average hs-CRP concentration was 1.66 (0.97, 3.52) mg/L. The value of the association between fruit consumption and hs-CRP level was protective, according to the logistic regression analysis, being the Odds Ratio (OR) 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05, 1.03); while for vegetables the OR was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.12, 3.68). Furthermore, high protein content foods, dairy products, oils and fats were associated with elevated levels of hs-CRP. In conclusion, in our study, the intake of some food groups like fruits and vegetables, and to a lesser extent cereals, were associated with low values of hs-PCR.

  10. Early Ethanol and Water Intake: Choice Mechanism and Total Fluid Regulation Operate in Parallel in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol / water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol / water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol / water choice. PMID:24095933

  11. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations between Prenatal and Early Childhood Fish and Processed Food Intake, Conduct Problems, and Co-Occurring Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Mesirow, Maurissa Sc; Cecil, Charlotte; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about early life diet as a risk factor for early-onset persistent conduct problems (EOP CP). To investigate this, we used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK-based prospective epidemiological birth cohort. 5727 mother-child pairs (49.9 % boys) monitored since pregnancy (delivery date between 1 April, 1991 and 31 December, 1992) reported intake of fish and processed foods at 32 weeks gestation and, for the child, at 3 years; EOP (n = 666) and Low conduct problem (Low CP, n = 5061) trajectories were measured from 4 to 13 years; hyperactivity and emotional difficulties were assessed in childhood (4-10 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), in addition to potential confounding factors (family adversity, birth complications, income). Compared to Low CP, mothers of EOP children consumed less fish (p < 0.01) and more processed food (p < 0.05) prenatally, while EOP children consumed more processed food at 3 years (p < 0.05). For EOP, but not Low CP children, consuming less than two servings/week of fish (vs. two or more servings/week, p < 0.05), and one or more servings/day of processed food (vs. less than one serving/day, p < 0.01), was associated with higher emotional difficulties in early adolescence. Findings suggest that prenatal and postnatal diets high in processed food, and low in fish, associate with an EOP CP trajectory and co-occurring difficulties in early adolescence. As small effect size differences were found, further studies are needed to investigate the long-term impact of early unhealthy diet.

  13. The potential impact of animal protein intake on global and abdominal obesity: evidence from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study.

    PubMed

    Alkerwi, Ala'a; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Buckley, Jonathan D; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Albert, Adelin; Guillaume, Michèle; Crichton, Georgina E

    2015-07-01

    To examine the association of total animal protein intake and protein derived from different dietary sources (meat; fish and shellfish; eggs; milk products) with global and abdominal obesity among adults in Luxembourg. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between animal protein intake (as a percentage of total energy intake) and global obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women), after controlling for potential confounders. Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study. The study population was derived from a national cross-sectional stratified sample of 1152 individuals aged 18-69 years, recruited between November 2007 and January 2009. There was an independent positive association between total animal protein intake and both global (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.12, 1.25) and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.14; 95% CI 1.08, 1.20) after adjustment for age, gender, education, smoking, physical activity and intakes of total fat, carbohydrate, fibre, and fruit and vegetables. Protein intakes from meat, fish and shellfish were positively associated with global and abdominal obesity with further adjustment for vegetal protein and other sources of animal-derived protein (all P < 0.01). Protein derived from eggs or milk products was unrelated to global or abdominal obesity. Our findings suggest that protein derived from animal sources, in particular from meat, fish and shellfish, may be associated with increased risk of both global and abdominal obesity among presumably healthy adults in Luxembourg. These findings suggest that lower animal protein intakes may be important for maintenance of healthy body weight.

  14. Influence of starter protein content on growth of dairy calves in an enhanced early nutrition program.

    PubMed

    Stamey, J A; Janovick, N A; Kertz, A F; Drackley, J K

    2012-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine the effect of starter crude protein (CP) content on growth of Holstein calves from birth to 10 wk of age in an enhanced early nutrition program, and to compare the enhanced program to a conventional milk replacer program. Calves (64 female, 25 male) were assigned to 3 treatments in a randomized block design: 1) conventional milk replacer (20% CP, 20% fat) plus conventional starter [19.6% CP, dry matter (DM) basis], 2) enhanced milk replacer (28.5% CP, 15% fat) plus conventional starter, and 3) enhanced milk replacer plus high-CP starter (25.5% CP, DM basis). Calves began treatments (n=29, 31, and 29 for treatments 1 to 3) at 3 d of age. Conventional milk replacer (12.5% solids) was fed at 1.25% of birth body weight (BW) as DM daily in 2 feedings from wk 1 to 5 and at 0.625% of birth BW once daily during wk 6. Enhanced milk replacer (15% solids) was fed at 1.5% of BW as DM during wk 1 and 2% of BW as DM during wk 2 to 5, divided into 2 daily feedings. During wk 6, enhanced milk replacer was fed at 1% of BW as DM once daily. Calves were weaned at d 42. Starter was available for ad libitum intake starting on d 3. Starter intake was greater for calves fed conventional milk replacer. For calves fed enhanced milk replacer, starter intake tended to be greater for calves fed enhanced starter. During the weaning period, enhanced starter promoted greater starter DM intake than the conventional starter. Over the 10-wk study, the average daily gain of BW (0.64, 0.74, and 0.80 kg/d) was greater for calves fed enhanced milk replacer with either starter and, for calves fed enhanced milk replacer, tended to be greater for calves fed high-CP starter. Rates of change in withers height, body length, and heart girth were greater for calves fed enhanced milk replacer but did not differ between starter CP concentrations. The postweaning BW for enhanced milk replacer treatments was greater for calves receiving the enhanced starter at wk 8 (73.7, 81.3, and

  15. Reducing discretionary food and beverage intake in early childhood: a systematic review within an ecological framework.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brittany J; Hendrie, Gilly A; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-06-01

    To systematically review the literature and map published studies on 4-8-year-olds' intake of discretionary choices against an ecological framework (ANalysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity; ANGELO). Articles were identified through database searches (PubMed, PyscINFO®, Web of Science) in February and March 2014 and hand-searching reference lists. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and mapped against the ANGELO framework by environment size (macro and micro setting) and type (physical, economic, policy and socio-cultural influences). Studies were conducted in the USA (n 18), Australia (n 6), the UK (n 3), the Netherlands (n 3), Belgium (n 1), Germany (n 1) and Turkey (n 1). Children aged 4-8 years, or parents/other caregivers. Thirty-three studies met the review criteria (observational n 23, interventions n 10). Home was the most frequently studied setting (67 % of exposures/strategies), with the majority of these studies targeting family policy-type influences (e.g. child feeding practices, television regulation). Few studies were undertaken in government (5·5 %) or community (11 %) settings, or examined economic-type influences (0 %). Of the intervention studies only four were categorised as effective. The present review is novel in its focus on mapping observational and intervention studies across a range of settings. It highlights the urgent need for high-quality research to inform interventions that directly tackle the factors influencing children's excess intake of discretionary choices. Interventions that assist in optimising a range of environmental influences will enhance the impact of future public health interventions to improve child diet quality.

  16. High protein intake along with paternal part-time employment is associated with higher body fat mass among girls from South China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Zhe; Xue, Hong-Mei; Pan, Jay; Libuda, Lars; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Yang, Min; Quan, Liming; Cheng, Guo

    2017-05-23

    Protein intake has been suggested to be associated with body composition among western children. Our aim was to determine whether protein intake is associated with body composition among Chinese children and to investigate whether parental socioeconomic status modifies these associations. Cross-sectional data were collected from the baseline survey of an ongoing population-based prospective open cohort study conducted in 2013. In this survey, 2039 children in South China were recruited using cluster random sampling. Information of 1704 children (47% girls), aged 7-12 years from three primary schools (42 classes), on diet and anthropometry was included finally. Their daily protein intake was obtained by 3-day 24-h dietary recalls. Skinfold thickness, body height, and weight were measured to calculate percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Parental characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Among girls, protein intake was positively associated with %BF and FMI [estimate (SE) for %BF: 0.007 (0.003), p = 0.04; for FMI: 0.092 (0.002), p = 0.03], adjusted for pubertal stage, breast-feeding, maternal overweight, carbohydrate intake, energy intake, and physical activity level. Furthermore, there was interaction between paternal occupation and the relations of dietary protein with %BF and FMI (p for interaction  ≤ 0.04). None of the associations between protein intake and %BF, FMI, or FFMI was found among boys. Our data indicate that school-aged girls, but not boys, living in South China with higher dietary protein intake might have higher body fat mass, which could be modified by paternal occupation.

  17. A 5-year cohort study of the effects of high protein intake on lean mass and BMC in elderly postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xingqiong; Zhu, Kun; Devine, Amanda; Kerr, Deborah A; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L

    2009-11-01

    Long-term effects of high dietary protein intake on muscle and bone structure in the elderly are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between baseline protein intake and lean mass and BMC 5 yr later in a cohort of elderly postmenopausal women. A total of 862 community-dwelling women 75 +/- 3 yr of age provided baseline data including nutrient intake assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. At 5 yr, upper arm muscle area (UAMA) and body composition using DXA were measured. Baseline protein intake was 81 +/- 28 g/d (1.2 +/- 0.4 g/kg/d), contributing 19 +/- 3% of total energy intake. There were positive correlations between baseline protein intake and whole body and appendicular bone-free lean mass and BMC (r = 0.14-0.18, p < 0.001) and UAMA (r = 0.08, p < 0.05). Compared with those in the lowest tertile of protein intake (<66 g/d), women in the top tertile (>87 g/d) had 5.4-6.0% higher whole body and appendicular lean mass and UAMA and 5.3-6.0% higher whole body and appendicular BMC. These effects remained after adjusting for potential confounders. However, the effect on BMC disappeared after further adjustment for lean mass. This study shows that high protein intake is associated with long-term beneficial effects on muscle mass and size and bone mass in elderly women. The protein effect on bone may be partly mediated by its effects on muscle.

  18. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage.

    PubMed

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tamir, Berhan; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-12-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P<0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P>0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P<0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet.

  19. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    PubMed Central

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P < 0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P < 0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet. PMID:20577806

  20. Early Fluid and Protein Shifts in Men During Water Immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Harrison, M. H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    High precision blood and plasma densitometry was used to measure transvascular fluid shifts during water immersion to the neck. Six men (28-49 years) undertook 30 min of standing immersion in water at 35.0 +/- 0.2 C; immersion was preceded by 30 min control standing in air at 28 +/- 1 C. Blood was sampled from an antecubital catheter for determination of Blood Density (BD), Plasma Density (PD), Haematocrit (Ht), total Plasma Protein Concentration (PPC), and Plasma Albumin Concentration (PAC). Compared to control, significant decreases (p less than 0.01) in all these measures were observed after 20 min immersion. At 30 min, plasma volume had increased by 11.0 +/- 2.8%; the average density of the fluid shifted from extravascular fluid into the vascular compartment was 1006.3 g/l; albumin moved with the fluid and its albumin concentration was about one-third of the plasma protein concentration during early immersion. These calculations are based on the assumption that the F-cell ratio remained unchanged. No changes in erythrocyte water content during immersion were found. Thus, immersion-induced haemodilution is probably accompanied by protein (mainly albumin) augmentation which accompanies the intra-vascular fluid shift.

  1. Effect of protein and energy intakes on body composition in non-diabetic maintenance-hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yoko; Hiramatsu, Fumie; Hamada, Hisayo; Sakai, Atsuko; Hara, Keiko; Kogirima, Miho; Kawahara, Kazuhiko; Minakuchi, Jun; Kawashima, Shu; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2007-10-01

    This cross sectional study was performed to find the adequate amount and combination of dietary protein and energy for maintaining better nutritional status for stable non-diabetic maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. The body composition including body fat, total body water, body cell mass and body protein were measured by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis in 200 stable MHD patients without diabetes (124 men, 76 women). Dietary energy intake (DEI) and dietary protein intake (DPI) were assessed by a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ), the DPI value being confirmed by calculating the normalized protein equivalent of total nitrogen appearance (nPNA). The nutritional status and the body composition were compared among 4 groups of patients in each gender that were divided by the combination of DEI and DPI; high energy (HE)/high protein (HP), HE/low protein (LP), low energy (LE)/HP and LE/LP groups. The mean DPI ranged between 1.17-1.23 and 0.89-0.95 g/kg IBW/d in the HP and LP groups, respectively for both genders, and the mean DEI was 35-37 and 24-25 kcal/kg IBW/d in HE and LE groups, respectively. BMI and serum albumin concentration were not different among the 4 groups. Body cell mass index (BCMI) was maintained in the HE groups regardless of DPI, and it was significantly higher in the HE/HP group than in the LE/LP group. Multiple regression analysis also showed that the BCMI was more greatly affected by DEI than DPI. These results indicated that a DPI of 0.89-0.95 g/kg IBW/d could be sufficient for maintaining BCMI, if DEI is kept over 35 kcal/kg IBW/d in stable non-diabetic MHD patients. This DPI level is lower than the recommended DPI proposed by dietary guidelines in the US and Japan.

  2. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Pieper, Carl F; Orenduff, Melissa C; McDonald, Shelley R; McClure, Luisa B; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E; Bales, Connie W

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m(2)) older (≥60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performance Battery score of 4-10 were randomly assigned to a traditional (Control) weight loss regimen or one with higher protein intake (>30g) at each meal (Protein). All participants were prescribed a hypo-caloric diet, and weighed and provided dietary guidance weekly. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) and lean mass (BOD POD), along with secondary measures, were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. At the 6-month endpoint, there was significant (p < .001) weight loss in both the Control (-7.5±6.2kg) and Protein (-8.7±7.4kg) groups. Both groups also improved function but the increase in the Protein (+2.4±1.7 units; p < .001) was greater than in the Control (+0.9±1.7 units; p < .01) group (p = .02). Obese, functionally limited older adults undergoing a 6-month weight loss intervention with a meal-based enhancement of protein quantity and quality lost similar amounts of weight but had greater functional improvements relative to the Control group. If confirmed, this dietary approach could have important implications for improving the functional status of this vulnerable population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01715753). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  3. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pieper, Carl F.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; McDonald, Shelley R.; McClure, Luisa B.; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. Methods: In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m2) older (≥60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performance Battery score of 4–10 were randomly assigned to a traditional (Control) weight loss regimen or one with higher protein intake (>30g) at each meal (Protein). All participants were prescribed a hypo-caloric diet, and weighed and provided dietary guidance weekly. Physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) and lean mass (BOD POD), along with secondary measures, were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. Results: At the 6-month endpoint, there was significant (p < .001) weight loss in both the Control (−7.5±6.2kg) and Protein (−8.7±7.4kg) groups. Both groups also improved function but the increase in the Protein (+2.4±1.7 units; p < .001) was greater than in the Control (+0.9±1.7 units; p < .01) group (p = .02). Conclusion: Obese, functionally limited older adults undergoing a 6-month weight loss intervention with a meal-based enhancement of protein quantity and quality lost similar amounts of weight but had greater functional improvements relative to the Control group. If confirmed, this dietary approach could have important implications for improving the functional status of this vulnerable population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01715753). PMID:26786203

  4. Low-dose dialysis combined with low protein intake can maintain nitrogen balance in peritoneal dialysis patients in poor economies
.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-Yan; Wang, Tao; Lu, Xin-Hong; Ma, Sha; Tang, Wen; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2017-02-01

    Due to limited economic conditions, we tried to provide "fitted" dialysis doses instead of the doses recommended by the international guidelines to the individual patients. In the present cross-sectional study, we studied the dialysis adequacy and nutritional status of 5 peritoneal dialysis patients who had a low dialysis dose (2 bags, 4,000 mL/day). The 3-day dietary records were reviewed to calculate patients' energy, protein, and nitrogen intake (NI). The nitrogen removal (NR) from urine and dialysate was measured by Kjeldahl technique. Fecal nitrogen was estimated as 0.0155 g/kg/day. Subjective global nutritional assessment was used to evaluate the nutritional status. Among the 5 patients, 1 male and 4 female, mean age was 59 (42 - 81) years, dialysis duration 43 (33 - 74) months, body weight 51.05 ± 2.53 kg. The mean dietary protein intake was 0.66 g/kg/day, total weekly Kt/v was 1.25 (residual kidney Kt/v was 0.09), and total daily fluid removal was 699 mL. However, they achieved lower-level neutral nitrogen balance (NI 5.26 ± 0.93 g/day vs. NR 5.33 ± 0.81 g/day, N balance -0.07 ± 0.60 g/day). All of them maintained good nutritional status (SGA "A") without symptoms of nitrogen retention (serum urea 22 ± 4.18 mmol/L). Lower dialysis dose with lower daily protein intake can achieve a lower-level nitrogen balance and does not lead to malnutrition. It may be an effective approach to solve the dialysis problem for the economically week population in China, especially for people with a smaller body size with lower transport membrane.
.

  5. Protein requirement of young adult Nigerian females on habitual Nigerian diet at the usual level of energy intake.

    PubMed

    Egun, G N; Atinmo, T

    1993-09-01

    A short-term N balance study was conducted in twelve healthy female adults aged 21-32 years to determine their protein requirement. Four dietary protein levels (0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d) were used. Energy intake of the subjects was kept constant at 0.18 MJ/kg per d. All subjects maintained their normal activity throughout the study period. N excretion was determined from the measurements of N in a total collection of urine, faeces, sweat and menstrual fluid for each dietary period. N balance during the four protein levels were -15.15 (SD 5.95), -5.53 (SD 6.71), +6.15 (SD 4.76) and +12.05 (SD 8.63) mg N/kg per d for 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 g protein/kg per d respectively. The calculated average N requirements from regression analysis was 76.0 (SD 3.37) mg N/kg per d (0.48 g protein/kg per d). The estimate of allowance for individual variation to cover the 97.5% population was 95 mg N/kg per d (0.6 g protein/kg per d). The net protein utilization (NPU) of the diet was 0.55. When compared with a similar study with men, there was a significant difference in the protein requirement between sexes. Thus, the unjustifiable sex difference in the protein allowance recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Expert Consultation group must be reviewed.

  6. Influence of carbohydrate and fat intake on diet-induced thermogenesis and brown fat activity in rats fed low protein diets.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N J; Stock, M J

    1987-10-01

    Voluntary intake of protein, fat and carbohydrate (CHO) was modified by feeding young rats either a control purified diet [% metabolizable energy (ME): protein 21, fat 7, CHO 72], a control diet plus sucrose solution (20%) to drink (final intakes 17, 6 and 77% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively) or a low protein diet substituted with either CHO (8, 7 and 85% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively) or fat (8, 20 and 72% ME as protein, fat and CHO, respectively). Total ME intakes corrected for body size were similar for all rats, but body weight, energy gain and net energetic efficiency were lower in both low protein-fed groups than in the control group. The acute thermogenic response (% rise in oxygen consumption) to a standard balanced-nutrient meal was higher (12%) in sucrose-supplemented and in low protein groups (15-16%) than in control rats (8%). Brown adipose tissue protein content and thermogenic capacity (assessed from purine nucleotide binding to isolated mitochondria) were greater than control values in sucrose-fed and protein-deficient animals, and the greatest levels of activity were seen in low protein-fed rats with a high fat intake. The results demonstrate that the changes in energy balance, thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity that result from protein deficiency cannot be ascribed to changes in the level of energy intake or to a specific increase in the amount or proportion of either CHO or fat. They suggest that the protein-to-energy ratio must be the primary influence on thermogenesis and brown fat activity in these animals.

  7. Association between intake of dietary protein and 3-year-change in body growth among normal and overweight 6-year-old boys and girls (CoSCIS).

    PubMed

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Heitmann, Berit L; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Veldhorst, Margriet A B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Hasselstrom, Henriette; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) affects linear growth and body composition, by increasing the secretion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis. The intake of protein (PROT) as well as the specific amino acids arginine (ARG) and lysine (LYS) stimulates GH/IGF-I secretion. The present paper aimed to investigate associations between PROT intake as well as intake of the specific amino acids ARG and LYS, and subsequent 3-year-change in linear growth and body composition among 6-year-old children. Children's data were collected from Copenhagen (Denmark), during 2001-2002, and again 3 years later. Boys and girls were separated into normal weight and overweight, based on BMI quintiles. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were calculated. Associations between change (Delta) in height, FMI and FFMI, respectively, and habitual PROT intake as well as ARG and LYS were analysed by multiple linear regressions, adjusted for baseline height, FMI or FFMI and energy intake, age, physical activity and socio-economic status. Eighteen schools in two suburban communities in the Copenhagen (Denmark) area participated in the study. In all, 223 children's data were collected for the present study. High ARG intake was associated with linear growth (beta = 1.09 (se 0.54), P = 0.05) among girls. Furthermore, in girls, DeltaFMI had a stronger inverse association with high ARG intake, if it was combined with high LYS intake, instead of low LYS intake (P = 0.03). No associations were found in boys.ConclusionIn prepubertal girls, linear growth may be influenced by habitual ARG intake and body fat gain may be relatively prevented over time by the intake of the amino acids ARG and LYS.

  8. Functional analysis of chloroplast early light inducible proteins (ELIPs)

    SciT

    Wetzel, Carolyn M

    The objectives of this project were to characterize gene expression patterns of early light inducible protein (ELIP) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Lycopersicon esculentum, to identify knock mutants of the 2 ELIP genes in Arabidopsis, and to characterize the effects of the knockouts. Expression in Arabidopsis was studied in response to thylakoid electron transport chain (PETC) capacity, where it was found that there is a signal for expression associated with reduction of the PETC. Expression in response to salt was also studied, with different responses of the two gene copies. Knockout lines for ELIP1 and ELIP2 have been identifiedmore » and are being characterized. In tomato, it was found that the single-copy ELIP gene is highly expressed in ripening fruit during the chloroplast-to-chromoplast transition. Studies of expression in tomato ripening mutants are ongoing.« less

  9. Alcohol Intake More than Doubles the Risk of Early Cardiovascular Events in Young Hypertensive Smokers.

    PubMed

    Palatini, Paolo; Fania, Claudio; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Saladini, Francesca; Casiglia, Edoardo

    2017-08-01

    An interactive effect of tobacco and alcohol use has been described for cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the joint effect of smoking and alcohol intake on major adverse cardiovascular and renal events (MACE) in young subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension. A total of 1204 untreated patients aged from 18 to 45 years (mean 33.1) were included in this prospective cohort study. Subjects were classified into 4 categories of cigarette smoking and 3 classes of alcohol use. Main outcome variable was risk for MACE. During a 12.6-year follow-up, there were 74 fatal and nonfatal MACE. In multivariable Cox models, current smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with risk of MACE. In a multivariable model also including follow-up changes in blood pressure and body weight, hazard ratio (HR) was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.83) for smoking and was 1.82 (95% CI, 1.05-3.15) for alcohol use. In addition, an interactive effect was found between smoking and alcohol on risk of MACE (P <.001). Among the 142 smokers who also drank alcoholic beverages, the risk of MACE (HR 4.02; 95% CI, 1.98-8.15) was more than doubled compared with the 112 smokers who abstained from drinking (HR 1.64; 95% CI, 0.63-4.27). In the group of heavy smokers who also were alcohol drinkers (n = 51), the risk of MACE was even quadrupled (HR 7.79; 95% CI, 4.22-14.37). Alcohol use potentiates the deleterious cardiovascular effects of heavy smoking in stage 1 hypertensive subjects younger than 45 years. These results call for prompt intervention addressed to improve unhealthy behaviors in these subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-Term Intake of a High-Protein Diet Affects Body Phenotype, Metabolism, and Plasma Hormones in Mice.

    PubMed

    Vu, John P; Luong, Leon; Parsons, William F; Oh, Suwan; Sanford, Daniel; Gabalski, Arielle; Lighton, John Rb; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2017-12-01

    Background: High-protein diets (HPDs) recently have been used to obtain body weight and fat mass loss and expand muscle mass. Several studies have documented that HPDs reduce appetite and food intake. Objective: Our goal was to determine the long-term effects of an HPD on body weight, energy intake and expenditure, and metabolic hormones. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice (8 wk old) were fed either an HPD (60% of energy as protein) or a control diet (CD; 20% of energy as protein) for 12 wk. Body composition and food intakes were determined, and plasma hormone concentrations were measured in mice after being fed and after overnight feed deprivation at several time points. Results: HPD mice had significantly lower body weight (in means ± SEMs; 25.73 ± 1.49 compared with 32.5 ± 1.31 g; P = 0.003) and fat mass (9.55% ± 1.24% compared with 15.78% ± 2.07%; P = 0.05) during the first 6 wk compared with CD mice, and higher lean mass throughout the study starting at week 2 (85.45% ± 2.25% compared with 75.29% ± 1.90%; P = 0.0001). Energy intake, total energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were significantly lower in HPD compared with CD mice as shown by cumulative energy intake and eating rate. Water vapor was significantly higher in HPD mice during both dark and light phases. In HPD mice, concentrations of leptin [feed-deprived: 41.31 ± 11.60 compared with 3041 ± 683 pg/mL ( P = 0.0004); postprandial: 112.5 ± 102.0 compared with 8273 ± 1415 pg/mL ( P < 0.0001)] and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) [feed-deprived: 5.664 ± 1.44 compared with 21.31 ± 1.26 pg/mL ( P = <0.0001); postprandial: 6.54 ± 2.13 compared with 50.62 ± 11.93 pg/mL ( P = 0.0037)] were significantly lower, whereas postprandial glucagon concentrations were higher than in CD-fed mice. Conclusions: In male mice, the 12-wk HPD resulted in short-term body weight and fat mass loss, but throughout the study preserved body lean mass and significantly reduced energy intake and expenditure as well as

  11. Chronic social isolation and chronic variable stress during early development induce later elevated ethanol intake in adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Becker, Howard C

    2011-06-01

    Experience with stress situations during early development can have long-lasting effects on stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Importantly, this can also favor drug self-administration. These studies examined the effects of chronic social isolation and/or variable stress experiences during early development on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. The experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 1), chronic isolation during adulthood (Experiment 2), and chronic variable stress (CVS) alone or in combination with chronic social isolation between weaning and adulthood (Experiment 3) on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake. Mice were born in our facility and were separated into two housing conditions: isolate housed (one mouse/cage) or group housed (four mice/cage) according to sex. Separate groups were isolated for 40 days starting either at time of weaning postnatal day 21 (PD 21) (early isolation, Experiments 1 and 3) or at adulthood (PD 60: late isolation, Experiment 2). The effects of housing condition on subsequent ethanol intake were assessed starting at around PD 65 in Experiments 1 and 3 or PD 105 days in Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, starting at PD 32, isolate-housed and group-housed mice were either subjected to CVS or left undisturbed. CVS groups experienced random presentations of mild stressors for 14 days, including exposure to an unfamiliar open field, restraint, physical shaking, and forced swim, among others. All mice were tested for ethanol intake for 14 days using a two-bottle choice (ethanol 15% vol/vol vs. water) for a 2-h limited access procedure. Early social isolation resulted in greater ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 1). In contrast, social isolation during adulthood (late isolation) did not increase subsequent ethanol intake compared with the corresponding group-housed mice (Experiment 2

  12. Long-term effect of modification of dietary protein intake on the progression of diabetic nephropathy: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Koya, D; Haneda, M; Inomata, S; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, D; Makino, H; Shikata, K; Murakami, Y; Tomino, Y; Yamada, K; Araki, S I; Kashiwagi, A; Kikkawa, R

    2009-10-01

    There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend a low-protein diet for type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. We assessed whether a low-protein diet could prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy. This was a multi-site parallel randomised controlled trial for prevention of diabetic nephropathy progression among 112 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with overt nephropathy. It was conducted in Japan from 1 December 1997 to 30 April 2006. The participants were randomly assigned using a central computer-generated schedule to either low-protein diet (0.8 g kg(-1) day(-1)) and normal-protein diet (1.2 g kg(-1) day(-1)), and were followed for 5 years. The participants and investigators were not blinded to the assignment. The primary outcomes were the annual change in estimated GFR and creatinine clearance, the incidence of doubling of serum creatinine and the time to doubling of baseline serum creatinine. The study was completed by 47 (84%) of 56 participants in the low-protein diet group and 41 (73%) of 56 participants in the normal-diet group. During the study period, the difference in mean annual change in estimated GFR between the low-protein diet and the normal-protein diet groups was -0.3 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) (95% CI -3.9, 4.4; p = 0.93). The difference in mean annual change in creatinine clearance between the low-protein diet and the normal-protein diet groups was -0.006 ml s(-1) 1.73 m(-2) (95% CI -0.089, 0.112; p = 0.80). A doubling of serum creatinine was reached in 16 patients of the low-protein group (34.0%), compared with 15 in the normal-protein group (36.6%), the difference between groups being -2.6% (95% CI -22.6, 17.5; p = 0.80). The time to doubling of serum creatinine was similar in both groups (p = 0.66). It is extremely difficult to get patients to follow a long-term low-protein diet. Although in the low-protein group overall protein intake was slightly (but not significantly) lower, it did not confer renoprotection

  13. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project.

    PubMed

    Halkjær, J; Olsen, A; Overvad, K; Jakobsen, M U; Boeing, H; Buijsse, B; Palli, D; Tognon, G; Du, H; van der A, D L; Forouhi, N G; Wareham, N J; Feskens, E J M; Sørensen, T I A; Tjønneland, A

    2011-08-01

    As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance. The objective of this study is to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary protein, and subsequent changes in weight and waist circumference (WC). 89,432 men and women from five countries participating in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were followed for a mean of 6.5 years. Associations between the intake of protein or subgroups of protein (from animal and plant sources) and changes in weight (g per year) or WC (cm per year) were investigated using gender and centre-specific multiple regression analyses. Adjustments were made for other baseline dietary factors, baseline anthropometrics, demographic and lifestyle factors and follow-up time. We used random effect meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates across centres. Higher intake of total protein, and protein from animal sources was associated with subsequent weight gain for both genders, strongest among women, and the association was mainly attributable to protein from red and processed meat and poultry rather than from fish and dairy sources. There was no overall association between intake of plant protein and subsequent changes in weight. No clear overall associations between intakes of total protein or any of the subgroups and changes in WC were present. The associations showed some heterogeneity between centres, but pooling of estimates was still considered justified. A high intake of protein was not found associated with lower weight or waist gain in this observational study. In contrast, protein from food items of animal origin, especially meat and poultry, seemed to be positively associated with long-term weight gain. There were no clear associations for waist changes.

  14. The IGF-system is not affected by a twofold change in protein intake in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Christina A; Frystyk, Jan; Fridell, Karin; Jönsson, Anna; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Lindström, Torbjörn; Arnqvist, Hans J

    2005-08-01

    In type 1 diabetes the circulating IGF-system is altered with low IGF-I and changes in levels of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) which may be of importance for the development of diabetes complications. Our aim was to study if IGF-I, as supported by experimental data in animals, can be affected by dietary protein intake. Twelve patients with type 1 diabetes, age 37.5+/-10.0 years (mean+/-SD), diabetes duration 20.1+/-9.3 years and HbA1c 6.3+/-0.6% were allocated to isocaloric diets with either low normal protein content (LNP), (10 E%; 0.9 g protein/kg body weight) or high normal protein content (HNP) (20 E%; 1.8 g protein/kg body weight) in an open randomised cross-over study. Each diet was taken for 10 days with a wash-out period of 11 days in between. Circulating levels of total and free IGF-I and -II, IGFBP-1, -2 and -3 and GH-binding protein (GHBP) as well as ghrelin were measured with validated in-house immunoassays. At day 10, urinary urea excretion was 320+/-75 mmol/24h during LNP diet compared with 654+/-159 mmol/24h during HNP diet (p<0.001). There were no changes in body weight or glycaemic control between the diets. Fasting levels of total IGF-I were 121+/-33 microg/L after LNP and 117+/-28 microg/L after HNP diet (ns) and the corresponding concentrations of IGFBP-1 were 142(141) and 132(157)mug/L [median (IQR)] (ns). There were no differences in plasma concentrations of total IGF-II, free IGF-I and -II, IGFBP-3, GHBP and ghrelin, whereas a small difference was found for IGFBP-2 (302+/-97 vs. 263+/-66 microg/L; LNP vs. HNP; p<0.04). A twofold change of the dietary protein intake does not influence the altered circulating IGF-system in type 1 diabetes. In order to affect the IGF-system other interventions must be used.

  15. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mette; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Bibby, Bo Martin; Sollie, Ove; Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Madsen, Klavs

    2016-01-01

    Training camps for top-class endurance athletes place high physiological demands on the body. Focus on optimizing recovery between training sessions is necessary to minimize the risk of injuries and improve adaptations to the training stimuli. Carbohydrate supplementation during sessions is generally accepted as being beneficial to aid performance and recovery, whereas the effect of protein supplementation and timing is less well understood. We studied the effects of protein ingestion during training sessions on performance and recovery of elite cyclists during a strenuous training camp. In a randomized, double-blinded study, 18 elite cyclists consumed either a whey protein hydrolysate-carbohydrate beverage (PRO-CHO, 14 g protein/h and 69 g CHO/h) or an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage (CHO, 84 g/h) during each training session for six days (25-29 h cycling in total). Diet and training were standardized and supervised. The diet was energy balanced and contained 1.7 g protein/kg/day. A 10-s peak power test and a 5-min all-out performance test were conducted before and after the first training session and repeated at day 6 of the camp. Blood and saliva samples were collected in the morning after overnight fasting during the week and analyzed for biochemical markers of muscle damage, stress, and immune function. In both groups, 5-min all-out performance was reduced after the first training session and at day 6 compared to before the first training session, with no difference between groups. Peak power in the sprint test did not change significantly between tests or between groups. In addition, changes in markers for muscle damage, stress, and immune function were not significantly influenced by treatment. Intake of protein combined with carbohydrate during cycling at a training camp for top cyclists did not result in marked performance benefits compared to intake of carbohydrates when a recovery drink containing adequate protein and carbohydrate was ingested

  16. High Dietary Selenium Intake Alters Lipid Metabolism and Protein Synthesis in Liver and Muscle of Pigs123

    PubMed Central

    Barcus, Matthew; Kim, Jonggun; Lum, Krystal L; Mills, Courtney; Lei, Xin Gen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged high intakes of dietary selenium have been shown to induce gestational diabetes in rats and hyperinsulinemia in pigs. Objective: Two experiments were conducted to explore metabolic and molecular mechanisms for the diabetogenic potential of high dietary selenium intakes in pigs. Methods: In Expt. 1, 16 Yorkshire-Landrace-Hampshire crossbred pigs (3 wk old, body weight = 7.5 ± 0.81 kg, 50% males and 50% females) were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 1.0 mg Se/kg (as selenium-enriched yeast for 6 wk). In Expt. 2, 12 pigs of the same crossbreed (6 wk old, body weight = 16.0 ± 1.8 kg) were fed a similar basal diet supplemented with 0.3 or 3.0 mg Se/kg for 11 wk. Biochemical and gene and protein expression profiles of lipid and protein metabolism and selenoproteins in plasma, liver, muscle, and adipose tissues were analyzed. Results: In Expt. 1, the 1-mg-Se/kg diet did not affect body weight or plasma concentrations of glucose and nonesterified fatty acids. In Expt. 2, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet, compared with the 0.3-mg-Se/kg diet, increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of plasma insulin (0.2 compared with 0.4 ng/mL), liver and adipose lipids (41% to 2.4-fold), and liver and muscle protein (10–14%). In liver, the 3-mg-Se/kg diet upregulated (P < 0.05) the expression, activity, or both of key factors related to gluconeogenesis [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK); 13%], lipogenesis [sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthase (FASN); 46–90%], protein synthesis [insulin receptor (INSR), P70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (P70), and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-S6); 88–105%], energy metabolism [AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); up to 2.8-fold], and selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3; 1.4-fold) and suppressed (P < 0.05) mRNA levels of lipolysis gene cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1; 88%) and

  17. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    PubMed

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P < 0.01) as animals got older in connection with marked increases in urinary glucose and urea excretion. The AHP and TEF components of HP were not affected by stage or FL and averaged 8.4% and 7.8% of ME intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the

  18. Effect of resistance training and protein intake pattern on myofibrillar protein synthesis and proteome kinetics in older men in energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Caoileann H; Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Mitchell, Cameron J; Kolar, Nathan M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Kassis, Amira; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Li, Kelvin; King, Chelsea; Hellerstein, Marc; Phillips, Stuart M

    2018-06-01

    Strategies to enhance the loss of fat while preserving muscle mass during energy restriction are of great importance to prevent sarcopenia in overweight older adults. We show for the first time that the integrated rate of synthesis of numerous individual contractile, cytosolic and mitochondrial skeletal muscle proteins was increased by resistance training (RT) and unaffected by dietary protein intake pattern during energy restriction in free-living, obese older men. We observed a correlation between the synthetic rates of skeletal muscle-derived proteins obtained in serum (creatine kinase M-type, carbonic anhydrase 3) and the synthetic rates of proteins obtained via muscle sampling; and that the synthesis rates of these proteins in serum revealed the stimulatory effects of RT. These results have ramifications for understanding the influence of RT on skeletal muscle and are consistent with the role of RT in maintaining muscle protein synthesis and potentially supporting muscle mass preservation during weight loss. We determined how the pattern of protein intake and resistance training (RT) influenced longer-term (2 weeks) integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) during energy restriction (ER). MyoPS and proteome kinetics were measured during 2 weeks of ER alone and 2 weeks of ER plus RT (ER + RT) in overweight/obese older men. Participants were randomized to consume dietary protein in a balanced (BAL: 25% daily protein per meal × 4 meals) or skewed (SKEW: 7:17:72:4% daily protein per meal) pattern (n = 10 per group). Participants ingested deuterated water during the consecutive 2-week periods, and skeletal muscle biopsies and serum were obtained at the beginning and conclusion of ER and ER + RT. Bulk MyoPS (i.e. synthesis of the myofibrillar protein sub-fraction) and the synthetic rates of numerous individual skeletal muscle proteins were quantified. Bulk MyoPS was not affected by protein distribution during ER or ER + RT (ER: BAL = 1.24

  19. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein intake distribution pattern does not affect anabolic response, lean body mass, muscle strength or function over 8 weeks in older adults: A randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Young; Schutzler, Scott; Schrader, Amy M; Spencer, Horace J; Azhar, Gohar; Wolfe, Robert R; Ferrando, Arny A

    2018-04-01

    In our recent acute metabolic study, we found no differences in the anabolic response to differing patterns of dietary protein intake. To confirm this in a chronic study, we investigated the effects of protein distribution pattern on functional outcomes and protein kinetics in older adults over 8 weeks. To determine chronic effects of protein intake pattern at 1.1 g protein/kg/day in mixed meals on lean body mass (LBM), functional outcomes, whole body protein kinetics and muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (MPS) over 8-week respective dietary intervention, fourteen older subjects were randomly divided into either EVEN or UNVEN group. The UNEVEN group (n = 7) consumed the majority of dietary protein with dinner (UNEVEN, 15/20/65%; breakfast, lunch, dinner), while the EVEN group (n = 7) consumed dietary protein evenly throughout the day (EVEN: 33/33/33%). We found no significant differences in LBM, muscle strength, and other functional outcomes between EVEN and UNEVEN before and after 8-week intervention. Consistent with these functional outcomes, we did not find significant differences in the 20-h integrated whole body protein kinetics [net protein balance (NB), protein synthesis (PS), and breakdown (PB)] above basal states and MPS between EVEN and UNEVEN intake patterns. We conclude that over an 8-week intervention period, the protein intake distribution pattern in mixed meals does not play an important role in determining anabolic response, muscle strength, or functional outcomes. This trial is registered at https://ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02787889. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P < 0.05) MAFbx mRNA by 30 and 50% in the resting and exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P < 0.05) in the exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P < 0.05) only in the placebo condition. Phosphorylation of p70(S6k) increased to a larger extent (∼2-fold; P < 0.05) in the early recovery period with BCAA supplementation, whereas the expression of genes regulating mTOR activity was not influenced by BCAA. Muscle levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine were reduced (13-17%) throughout recovery (P < 0.05) in the placebo condition and to a greater extent (32-43%; P < 0.05) following BCAA supplementation in both resting and exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  2. Low dietary protein is associated with an increase in food intake and a decrease in the in vitro release of radiolabeled glutamate and GABA from the lateral hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    White, B D; Du, F; Higginbotham, D A

    2003-12-01

    Moderately low-protein diets lead to a rapid increase in food intake and body fat. The increase in feeding is associated with a decrease in the concentration of serum urea nitrogen, suggesting that the low-protein-induced increase in food intake may be related to the decreased metabolism of nitrogen from amino acids. We hypothesized that low dietary protein would be associated with a decrease in the synaptic release of two nitrogen-containing neurotransmitters, GABA and glutamate, whose nitrogen can be derived from amino acids. In this study, we examined the effects of a low-protein diet (10% casein) in Sprague-Dawley rats on the in vitro release of 3H-GABA and 14C-glutamate from the lateral and medial hypothalamus. The low-protein diet increased food intake by about 25% after one day. After four days, the in vitro release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate was assessed. The calcium-dependent, potassium-stimulated release of radiolabeled GABA and glutamate from the lateral hypothalamus was decreased in rats fed the low-protein diet. The magnitude of neurotransmitter release from the lateral hypothalamus inversely correlated with food intake. No dietary differences in the release of neurotransmitters from the medial hypothalamus were observed. These results support the contention that alterations in nitrogen metabolism are associated with low-protein-induced feeding.

  3. The addition of a protein-rich breakfast and its effects on acute appetite control and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leidy, H J; Racki, E M

    2010-07-01

    Breakfast skipping (BS) is closely associated with overeating (in the evening), weight gain and obesity. It is unclear whether the addition of breakfast, with emphasis on dietary protein, leads to better appetite and energy intake regulation in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of addition of a normal-protein (PN) breakfast vs protein-rich (PR) breakfast on appetite and food intake in 'breakfast-skipping' adolescents. A total of 13 adolescents (age 14.3+/-0.3 years; body mass index percentile 79+/-4 percentile; skipped breakfast 5+/-1 x per week) randomly completed 3 testing days that included a PN (18+/-1 g protein), PR (48+/-2 g protein) or BS. Breakfast was 24% of estimated daily energy needs. Appetite, satiety and hormonal responses were collected over 5 h followed by an ad libitum lunch and 24-h food intake assessments. Perceived appetite was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to greater reductions vs BS (P<0.01) and PN (P<0.001). Fullness was greater following both breakfast meals vs BS (P<0.01) but was not different between meals. Ghrelin was not different among treatments. Greater PYY concentrations were observed following both breakfast meals vs BS (P<0.01) but was not different between meals. Lunch energy intake was not different following PN vs BS; PR led to fewer kcal consumed vs BS (P<0.01) and PN (P<0.005). Daily food intake was not different among treatments. Breakfast led to increased satiety through increased fullness and PYY concentrations in 'breakfast skipping' adolescents. A breakfast rich in dietary protein provides additional benefits through reductions in appetite and energy intake. These findings suggest that the addition of a protein-rich breakfast might be an effective strategy to improve appetite control in young people.

  4. Rice Protein Matrix Enhances Circulating Levels of Xanthohumol Following Acute Oral Intake of Spent Hops in Humans.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Annalouise; Konda, Veera; Reed, Ralph L; Christensen, J Mark; Stevens, Jan F; Contractor, Nikhat

    2018-03-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid found in hops, exhibits anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, poor bioavailability may limit therapeutic applications. As food components are known to modulate polyphenol absorption, the objective is to determine whether a protein matrix could enhance the bioavailability of XN post oral consumption in humans. This is a randomized, double-blind, crossover study in healthy participants (n = 6) evaluating XN and its major metabolites (isoxanthohumol [IX], 6- and 8-prenylnaringenin [6-PN, 8-PN]) for 6 h following consumption of 12.4 mg of XN delivered via a spent hops-rice protein matrix preparation or a control spent hops preparation. Plasma XN and metabolites are measured by LC-MS/MS. C max , T max , and area-under-the-curve (AUC) values were determined. Circulating XN and metabolite response to each treatment was not bioequivalent. Plasma concentrations of XN and XN + metabolites (AUC) are greater with consumption of the spent hops-rice protein matrix preparation. Compared to a standard spent hops powder, a protein-rich spent hops matrix demonstrates enhanced plasma levels of XN and metabolites following acute oral intake. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Dietary protein intake, energy deficit, and nitrogen balance in normal-weight adults: a randomized controlled

    Consuming protein at levels higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) may be metabolically advantageous for overweight and obese individuals attempting weight loss. However, the dose-response characteristics that define the optimal level of dietary protein necessary to sustain measures of...

  6. Influence of Protein Intake, Race, and Age on Responses to a Weight-Reduction Intervention in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Bales, Connie W; Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Orenduff, Melissa C; McDonald, Shelley R; Molnar, Karen; Jarman, Aubrey K; Onyenwoke, Ann; Mulder, Hillary; Payne, Martha E; Pieper, Carl F

    2017-05-01

    Women have higher rates of obesity than men and develop more pronounced functional deficits as a result. Yet, little is known about how obesity reduction affects their functional status, including whether their responses differ when protein intake is enhanced. The aim of this study was to confirm the feasibility of delivery of a higher-protein (balanced at each meal) calorie-restricted diet in obese women and determine its efficacy for influencing function and retention of lean mass. Obese community-dwelling women [ n = 80; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ), in means ± SDs: 37.8 ± 5.9; aged 45-78 y; 58.8% white] were enrolled in a weight-loss (-500 kcal/d) study and randomly assigned to either a Control-Weight-Loss (C-WL; 0.8 g protein/kg body weight) group or a High-Protein-Weight-Loss (HP-WL; 1.2 g protein/kg body weight; 30 g protein 3 times/d) group in a 1:2 allocation. Primary outcomes were function by 6-min walk test (6MWT) and lean mass by using the BodPod (Life Measurement, Inc.) at 0, 4, and 6 mo. Both groups reduced calorie intakes and body weights ( P < 0.001), and the feasibility of the HP-WL intervention was confirmed. The 6MWT results improved ( P < 0.01) at 4 mo in the HP-WL group and at 6 mo in both groups ( P < 0.001). Both groups improved function by several other measures while slightly decreasing ( P < 0.01) lean mass (-1.0 kg, C-WL; -0.6 kg, HP-WL). Weight loss was greater in white than in black women at both 4 mo (6.0 ± 3.6 compared with 3.7 ± 3.4 kg; P < 0.02) and 6 mo (7.2 ± 4.8 compared with 4.0 ± 4.7 kg; P < 0.04) and tended to be positively related to age ( P < 0.06). A clinically important functional benefit of obesity reduction was confirmed in both study groups, with no significant group effect. Our findings of racial differences in response to the intervention and a potential influence of participant age lend support for further studies sufficiently powered to explore the interaction of race and age with functional responses to

  7. Chronic Intake of Sucrose Accelerates Sarcopenia in Older Male Rats through Alterations in Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gatineau, Eva; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Migné, Carole; Polakof, Sergio; Dardevet, Dominique; Mosoni, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    Today, high chronic intake of added sugars is frequent, which leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. These 3 factors could reduce meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and thus aggravate the age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia). Our aims were to determine if added sugars could accelerate sarcopenia and to assess the capacity of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents to prevent this. For 5 mo, 16-mo-old male rats were starch fed (13% sucrose and 49% wheat starch diet) or sucrose fed (62% sucrose and 0% wheat starch diet) with or without rutin (5 g/kg diet), vitamin E (4 times), vitamin A (2 times), vitamin D (5 times), selenium (10 times), and zinc (+44%) (R) supplementation. We measured the evolution of body composition and inflammation, plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) concentration and total antioxidant status, insulin sensitivity (oral-glucose-tolerance test), muscle weight, superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione concentration, and in vivo protein synthesis rates. Sucrose-fed rats lost significantly more lean body mass (-8.1% vs. -5.4%, respectively) and retained more fat mass (+0.2% vs. -33%, respectively) than starch-fed rats. Final muscle mass was 11% higher in starch-fed rats than in sucrose-fed rats. Sucrose had little effect on inflammation, oxidative stress, and plasma IGF-I concentration but reduced the insulin sensitivity index (divided by 2). Meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis was significantly lower in sucrose-fed rats (+7.3%) than in starch-fed rats (+22%). R supplementation slightly but significantly reduced oxidative stress and increased muscle protein concentration (+4%) but did not restore postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. High chronic sucrose intake accelerates sarcopenia in older male rats through an alteration of postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. This effect could be explained by a decrease of insulin sensitivity rather

  8. Water swallow screening test for patients after surgery for head and neck cancer: early identification of dysphagia, aspiration and limitations of oral intake.

    PubMed

    Hey, Christiane; Lange, Benjamin P; Eberle, Silvia; Zaretsky, Yevgen; Sader, Robert; Stöver, Timo; Wagenblast, Jens

    2013-09-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at high risk for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) following surgical therapy. Early identification of OD can improve outcomes and reduce economic burden. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of a water screening test using increasing volumes postsurgically for patients with HNC (N=80) regarding the early identification of OD in general, and whether there is a need for further instrumental diagnostics to investigate the presence of aspiration as well as to determine the limitations of oral intake as defined by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. OD in general was identified in 65%, with aspiration in 49%, silent aspiration in 21% and limitations of oral intake in 56%. Despite a good sensitivity, for aspiration of 100% and for limitations of oral intake of 97.8%, the presented water screening test did not satisfactorily predict either of these reference criteria due to its low positive likelihood ratio (aspiration=2.6; limitations of oral intake=3.1). However, it is an accurate tool for the early identification of OD in general, with a sensitivity of 96.2% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.4 in patients after surgery for HNC.

  9. Association between macronutrient intake and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boeun; Jin, Youri; Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Yongsoon

    2018-04-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and the nutritional state of ALS patients is associated with survival. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether macronutrient intake at early stage of the disease was positively associated with survival and duration from symptom onset to death, tracheostomy, or non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in ALS. ALS patients diagnosed according to EI Escorial criteria were recruited from 2011 to 2016 and followed up until 2017, when they reached the endpoint of death, tracheostomy, or NIV use. Dietary intake was estimated based on a 24-hour recall conducted less than 2 years from symptom onset, and the survival time was defined as the duration from symptom onset to the endpoint. ALS patients were categorized as short-term group (n=79) and long-term group (n=69) according to the mean survival time (33.03±14.01 months). Short-term survival was negatively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake, and positively associated with carbohydrate intake after adjustment for confounders. In addition, the survival time was positively associated with fat, protein, and meat intake but was not associated with carbohydrate intake. The present study suggested that higher intake of fat and protein, particularly from meat at early stage of the disease, could prolong the survival of ALS patients. However, further clinical trials are necessary to confirm the beneficial effects of higher fat and protein intake on mortality in ALS patients.

  10. Muscle strength gains during resistance exercise training are attenuated with soy compared with dairy or usual protein intake in older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Brinkworth, Grant D; Noakes, Manny; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-02-01

    Maintenance of muscle mass and strength into older age is critical to maintain health. The aim was to determine whether increased dairy or soy protein intake combined with resistance training enhanced strength gains in older adults. 179 healthy older adults (age 61.5 ± 7.4 yrs, BMI 27.6 ± 3.6 kg/m(2)) performed resistance training three times per week for 12 weeks and were randomized to one of three eucaloric dietary treatments which delivered >20 g of protein at each main meal or immediately after resistance training: high dairy protein (HP-D, >1.2 g of protein/kg body weight/d; ∼27 g/d dairy protein); high soy protein (HP-S, >1.2 g of protein/kg body weight/d; ∼27 g/d soy protein); usual protein intake (UP, <1.2 g of protein/kg body weight/d). Muscle strength, body composition, physical function and quality of life were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Treatments effects were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. 83 participants completed the intervention per protocol (HP-D = 34, HP-S = 26, UP = 23). Protein intake was higher in HP-D and HP-S compared with UP (HP-D 1.41 ± 0.14 g/kg/d, HP-S 1.42 ± 0.61 g/kg/d, UP 1.10 ± 0.10 g/kg/d; P < 0.001 treatment effect). Strength increased less in HP-S compared with HP-D and UP (HP-D 92.1 ± 40.8%, HP-S 63.0 ± 23.8%,UP 92.3 ± 35.4%; P = 0.002 treatment effect). Lean mass, physical function and mental health scores increased and fat mass decreased (P ≤ 0.006), with no treatment effect (P > 0.06). Increased soy protein intake attenuated gains in muscle strength during resistance training in older adults compared with increased intake of dairy protein or usual protein intake. ACTRN12612000177853 www.anzctr.org.au. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Trahair, Laurence G; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Hausken, Trygve; Standfield, Scott; Jones, Karen L; Lange, Kylie; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-09-01

    Background: Protein- and energy-rich supplements are used widely for the management of malnutrition in the elderly. Information about the effects of protein on energy intake and related gastrointestinal mechanisms and whether these differ between men and women is limited. Objective: We determined the effects of whey protein on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and gut hormones in healthy older men and women. Design: Eight older women and 8 older men [mean ± SEM age: 72 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 25 ± 1] were studied on 3 occasions in which they received protein loads of 30 g (120 kcal) or 70 g (280 kcal) or a flavored water control drink (0 kcal). At regular intervals over 180 min, appetite (visual analog scales), gastric emptying (3-dimensional ultrasonography), and blood glucose and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake was quantified from a buffet meal (180-210 min; energy intake, appetite, and gastric emptying in the men have been published previously). Results: Energy intake at the buffet meal was ∼80% higher in older men than in older women ( P < 0.001). Energy intake was not suppressed by protein compared with the control in men or women ( P > 0.05). There was no effect of sex on gastric emptying, appetite, gastrointestinal symptoms, glucose, or gut hormones ( P > 0.05). There was a protein load-dependent slowing of gastric emptying, an increase in concentrations of insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, GIP, GLP-1, and PYY, and an increase in total energy intake (drink plus meal: 12% increase with 30 g and 32% increase with 70 g; P < 0.001). Energy intake at the buffet meal was inversely related to the stomach volume and area under the curve of hormone concentrations ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: In older men and women, whey-protein drinks load

  12. The Acute-Phase Protein Orosomucoid Regulates Food Intake and Energy Homeostasis via Leptin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Yang, Yili; Qin, Zhen; Cai, Jinya; Guo, Xiuming; Tang, Yun; Wan, Jingjing; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The acute-phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) exhibits a variety of activities in vitro and in vivo, notably modulation of immunity and transportation of drugs. We found in this study that mice lacking ORM1 displayed aberrant energy homeostasis characterized by increased body weight and fat mass. Further investigation found that ORM, predominantly ORM1, is significantly elevated in sera, liver, and adipose tissues from the mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and db/db mice that develop obesity spontaneously due to mutation in the leptin receptor (LepR). Intravenous or intraperitoneal administration of exogenous ORM decreased food intake in C57BL/6, HFD, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which was absent in db/db mice and was significantly reduced in mice with arcuate nucleus (ARC) LepR knockdown, whereas enforced expression of ORM1 in ARC significantly decreased food intake, body weight, and serum insulin level. Furthermore, we found that ORM is able to bind directly to LepR and activate the receptor-mediated JAK2-STAT3 signaling in hypothalamus tissue and GT1-7 cells, which was derived from hypothalamic tumor. These data indicated that ORM could function through LepR to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis in response to nutrition status. Modulating the expression of ORM is a novel strategy for the management of obesity and related metabolic disorders. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  13. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Tong, Tammy Y N; Key, Timothy J

    2017-12-02

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment ( n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes.

  14. Dietary Intake of High-Protein Foods and Other Major Foods in Meat-Eaters, Poultry-Eaters, Fish-Eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans in UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are defined by the absence of meat and fish, but differences in the intake of other foods between meat-eaters and low or non-meat eaters are also important to document. We examined intakes of high-protein foods (meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, vegetarian protein alternatives, dairy products, and eggs) and other major food groups (fruit, vegetables, bread, pasta, rice, snack foods, and beverages) in regular meat-eaters, low meat-eaters, poultry-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans of white ethnicity participating in UK Biobank who had completed at least one web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n = 199,944). In regular meat-eaters, around 25% of total energy came from meat, fish, dairy and plant milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. In vegetarians, around 20% of energy came from dairy and plant milk, cheese, yoghurt, eggs, legumes, nuts, and vegetarian protein alternatives, and in vegans around 15% came from plant milk, legumes, vegetarian alternatives, and nuts. Low and non-meat eaters had higher intakes of fruit and vegetables and lower intakes of roast or fried potatoes compared to regular meat-eaters. The differences in the intakes of meat, plant-based high-protein foods, and other foods between meat-eaters and low and non-meat eaters in UK Biobank may contribute to differences in health outcomes. PMID:29207491

  15. Urinary Excretion of Sodium, Nitrogen, and Sugar Amounts Are Valid Biomarkers of Dietary Sodium, Protein, and High Sugar Intake in Nonobese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lori B; Liu, Sarah V; Halliday, Tanya M; Neilson, Andrew P; Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Background: Objective indicators of dietary intake (e.g., biomarkers) are needed to overcome the limitations of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods in adolescents. To our knowledge, no controlled feeding studies to date have evaluated the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, or sugar excretion as dietary biomarkers in adolescents. Objective: This investigation aimed to evaluate the validity of urinary sodium, nitrogen, and total sugars (TS) excretion as biomarkers for sodium, protein, and added sugars (AS) intake in nonobese adolescents. Methods: In a crossover controlled feeding study design, 33 adolescents [12-18 y of age, 47 ± 25th percentile (mean ± SD) of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) for age] consumed 5% AS [low added sugars (LAS)] and 25% AS [high added sugars (HAS)] isocaloric, macronutrient-matched (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat, and 15% protein) diets for 7 d each, in a randomly assigned order, with a 4-wk washout period between diets. On the final 2 d of each diet period, 24-h urine samples were collected. Thirty-two adolescents completed all measurements (97% retention). Results: Urinary sodium was not different from the expected 90% recovery (mean ± SD: 88% ± 18%, P = 0.50). Urinary nitrogen was correlated with protein intake ( r = 0.69, P < 0.001), although it was below the 80% expected recovery (62% ± 7%, P < 0.001). Urinary TS values were correlated with AS intake during the HAS diet ( r = 0.77, P < 0.001) and had a higher R 2 value of 0.28 than did AS intake ( R 2 = 0.36). TS excretion differed between LAS (0.226 ± 0.09 mg/d) and HAS (0.365 ± 0.16 mg/d) feeding periods ( P < 0.001). Conclusions: Urinary sodium appears to be a valid biomarker for sodium intake in nonobese adolescents. Urinary nitrogen is associated with protein intake, but nitrogen excretion rates were less than previously reported for adults, possibly owing to adolescent growth rates. TS excretion reflects AS at 25% AS intake and was responsive to the change in

  16. Animal and plant protein intake and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: results from two prospective US cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mingyang; Fung, Teresa T.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter C.; Longo, Valter; Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome. Objective To examine the associations of animal and plant protein intake with risk of mortality Design Prospective cohort study Setting Health professionals in the United States Participants 85,013 women and 46,329 men from the Nurses’ Health Study (1980–2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2012) Exposure Animal and plant protein intake as assessed by regularly updated validated food questionnaires Main outcomes and measures Hazard ratio (HR) of mortality Results The median intake, as assessed by percentage of energy, was 14% for animal protein (5th–95th percentile: 9–22%) and 4% for plant protein (2–6%). After adjusting for major lifestyle and dietary risk factors, animal protein intake was weakly associated with higher mortality, particularly cardiovascular mortality (HR=1.08 per 10%-energy increment, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.16, Ptrend=0.04), whereas plant protein was associated with lower mortality (HR=0.90 per 3%-energy increment, 95% CI, 0.86–0.95, Ptrend<0.001). These associations were confined to participants with at least one of the unhealthy lifestyle factors based on smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, overweight or obesity, and physical inactivity, but not evident among those without any of these risk factors (Pinteraction<0.001). Replacing animal protein of various origins with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. In particular, the HRs (95% CI) of all-cause mortality were 0.66 (0.59–0.75) when 3% of energy from plant protein was substituted for an equivalent amount of protein from processed red meat, 0.88 (0.84–0.92) from

  17. Association between dietary protein intake and grip strength among adults aged 51 years and over: What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suruchi; Goldman, Joseph D; Sahyoun, Nadine R; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2018-01-01

    Distributing daily protein intake evenly across meals (∼25-30g/meal) has been suggested to improve muscle mass. The aim of this research is to examine the association between grip strength, total protein intake and its distribution across day's meals in older adults. Nationally representative dietary intake data of adults aged 51 years and older (n = 4,123) who participated in What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011-2014 were analyzed. Protein intake per day and per eating occasion (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) were determined. Combined grip strength was calculated and expressed in kilograms. Grip strength of individuals consuming ≥25g protein at 1 eating occasion was compared with those consuming same level of protein at 2 and 3 or more eating occasions. Grip strength of individuals in quartile 1 of daily protein intake was compared to those in the other quartiles. All associations were examined without and with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, health status, and smoking status. The comparison involving eating occasions and protein intake quartiles were further adjusted for daily protein intake and energy intake, respectively. Only 33% of men and 19% of women had protein intake of ≥25g at 2 or more eating occasions. These individuals also had higher grip strength and daily protein intake. Grip strength was positively associated with consumption of ≥25g protein at 2 eating occasions as compared to consumption of same level of protein at 1 eating occasion (p<0.05) in unadjusted model, but not when adjusted. Grip strength was positively associated with daily protein intake among women in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05) of protein intake in both unadjusted and adjusted models compared to lowest protein intake. Among men, grip strength was associated with daily protein intake in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05) in the unadjusted model, but not when adjusted. In a nationally representative sample of older adults, consuming ≥25g protein at 2 or

  18. Association between dietary protein intake and grip strength among adults aged 51 years and over: What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Joseph D.; Sahyoun, Nadine R.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Distributing daily protein intake evenly across meals (∼25–30g/meal) has been suggested to improve muscle mass. The aim of this research is to examine the association between grip strength, total protein intake and its distribution across day’s meals in older adults. Methods Nationally representative dietary intake data of adults aged 51 years and older (n = 4,123) who participated in What We Eat in America, NHANES 2011–2014 were analyzed. Protein intake per day and per eating occasion (breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snack) were determined. Combined grip strength was calculated and expressed in kilograms. Grip strength of individuals consuming ≥25g protein at 1 eating occasion was compared with those consuming same level of protein at 2 and 3 or more eating occasions. Grip strength of individuals in quartile 1 of daily protein intake was compared to those in the other quartiles. All associations were examined without and with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, health status, and smoking status. The comparison involving eating occasions and protein intake quartiles were further adjusted for daily protein intake and energy intake, respectively. Results Only 33% of men and 19% of women had protein intake of ≥25g at 2 or more eating occasions. These individuals also had higher grip strength and daily protein intake. Grip strength was positively associated with consumption of ≥25g protein at 2 eating occasions as compared to consumption of same level of protein at 1 eating occasion (p<0.05) in unadjusted model, but not when adjusted. Grip strength was positively associated with daily protein intake among women in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05) of protein intake in both unadjusted and adjusted models compared to lowest protein intake. Among men, grip strength was associated with daily protein intake in quartiles 3 and 4 (p<0.05) in the unadjusted model, but not when adjusted. Conclusion In a nationally representative sample of

  19. Carbohydrate and protein intake and risk of ulcerative colitis: Systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Feng, Juerong; Gao, Qian; Ma, Minxing; Lin, Xue; Liu, Jing; Li, Jin; Zhao, Qiu

    2017-10-01

    Dietary carbohydrate and protein intake is generally thought as risk factors for onset of ulcerative colitis (UC), while epidemiological data had been controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the role of carbohydrate and protein intake in the development of UC. Comprehensive search in PubMed and Embase was conducted to identify all relevant studies, and the role of carbohydrate and protein intake in the development of UC was quantitatively assessed by dose-response meta-analysis. Nine studies (5 case-control and 4 prospective cohort) were identified with a total of 975 UC cases and 239352 controls. The summary relative risks (RR) for per 10 g increment/day were 1.005 (95%CI: 0.991-1.019, I 2  = 31.5%, n = 5) for total carbohydrate intake, 1.001 (95%CI: 0.971-1.032, I 2  = 0.0%, n = 7) for the subtype of fiber intake, 1.029 (95%CI: 0.962-1.101, I 2  = 68.9%, n = 2) for the subtype of sugar intake, and 1.010 (95%CI: 0.975-1.047, I 2  = 12.4%, n = 7) for total protein intake. Among sugar subtypes, only sucrose intake was found positively related with UC risk (RR for per 10 g increment/day: 1.098, 95%CI: 1.024-1.177, I 2  = 0.0%, n = 3). No evidence of a non-linear dose-response association was found between the nutrient intake and UC risk, except for the subtype of sucrose (P for non-linear trend = 0.032). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results. This meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between dietary carbohydrate or protein intake and the risk of UC, except for the subtype of sucrose which played a significant role in the development of UC. Large-scale prospective designed studies are needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Nitrogen balance in older individuals in energy balance depends on timing of protein intake.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Leora Y; Melanson, Edward L; Melby, Christopher L; Hickey, Matthew S; Miller, Benjamin F

    2010-10-01

    To explore whether nitrogen retention can differ on an isonitrogenous diet by changing when protein is consumed, we performed a short-term study in older individuals (64.5 ± 2.0 years) performing daily exercise while in energy balance. Participants consumed an isonitrogenous-isocaloric diet with the timing of a protein or carbohydrate beverage after exercise (protein after exercise [PRO], carbohydrate after exercise [CHO]) versus earlier in the day. Three-day mean energy balance (PRO: 202 ± 36 kcal and CHO: 191 ± 44 kcal; p = .68) did not differ between trials, but 3-day mean nitrogen balance was significantly more positive in the PRO (1.2 ± 0.32 g N) trial than the CHO trial (0.8 ± 0.45 g N; p < .05). Older individuals were better able to maintain nitrogen balance by simply changing when a portion of an identical amount of daily protein was consumed.

  1. Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Nicklas, Barbara J; Ding, Jingzhong; Harris, Tamara B; Tylavsky, Frances A; Newman, Anne B; Lee, Jung Sun; Sahyoun, Nadine R; Visser, Marjolein; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2008-01-01

    Dietary surveys suggest that many older, community-dwelling adults consume insufficient dietary protein, which may contribute to the age-related loss of lean mass (LM). The objective of the study was to determine the association between dietary protein and changes in total LM and nonbone appendicular LM (aLM) in older, community-dwelling men and women. Dietary protein intake was assessed by using an interviewer-administered 108-item food-frequency questionnaire in men and women aged 70-79 y who were participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study (n=2066). Changes in LM and aLM over 3 y were measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The association between protein intake and 3-y changes in LM and aLM was examined by using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for potential confounders, energy-adjusted protein intake was associated with 3-y changes in LM [beta (SE): 8.76 (3.00), P=0.004] and aLM [beta (SE): 5.31 (1.64), P=0.001]. Participants in the highest quintile of protein intake lost approximately 40% less LM and aLM than did those in the lowest quintile of protein intake (x+/-SE: -0.501+/-0.106 kg compared with -0.883+/-0.104 kg for LM; -0.400+/-0.058 kg compared with -0.661+/-0.057 kg for aLM; P for trend<0.01). The associations were attenuated slightly after adjustment for change in fat mass, but the results remained significant. Dietary protein may be a modifiable risk factor for sarcopenia in older adults and should be studied further to determine its effects on preserving LM in this population.

  2. Increased protein-energy intake promotes anabolism in critically ill infants with viral bronchiolitis: a double‑blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    de Betue, Carlijn T; van Waardenburg, Dick A; Deutz, Nicolaas E; van Eijk, Hans M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Luiking, Yvette C; Zimmermann, Luc J; Joosten, Koen F

    2011-01-01

    Objective The preservation of nutritional status and growth is an important aim in critically ill infants, but difficult to achieve due to the metabolic stress response and inadequate nutritional intake, leading to negative protein balance. This study investigated whether increasing protein and energy intakes can promote anabolism. The primary outcome was whole body protein balance, and the secondary outcome was first pass splanchnic phenylalanine extraction (SPEPhe). Design This was a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Infants (n=18) admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with respiratory failure due to viral bronchiolitis were randomised to continuous enteral feeding with protein and energy enriched formula (PE-formula) (n=8; 3.1±0.3 g protein/kg/24 h, 119±25 kcal/kg/24 h) or standard formula (S-formula) (n=10; 1.7±0.2 g protein/kg/24 h, 84±15 kcal/kg/24 h; equivalent to recommended intakes for healthy infants <6 months). A combined intravenous-enteral phenylalanine stable isotope protocol was used on day 5 after admission to determine whole body protein metabolism and SPEPhe. Results Protein balance was significantly higher with PE-formula than with S-formula (PE-formula: 0.73±0.5 vs S-formula: 0.02±0.6 g/kg/24 h) resulting from significantly increased protein synthesis (PE-formula: 9.6±4.4, S-formula: 5.2±2.3 g/kg/24 h), despite significantly increased protein breakdown (PE-formula: 8.9±4.3, S-formula: 5.2±2.6 g/kg/24 h). SPEPhe was not statistically different between the two groups (PE-formula: 39.8±18.3%, S-formula: 52.4±13.6%). Conclusions Increasing protein and energy intakes promotes protein anabolism in critically ill infants in the first days after admission. Since this is an important target of nutritional support, increased protein and energy intakes should be preferred above standard intakes in these infants. Dutch Trial Register number: NTR 515. PMID:21673183

  3. Increased protein-energy intake promotes anabolism in critically ill infants with viral bronchiolitis: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Betue, Carlijn T; van Waardenburg, Dick A; Deutz, Nicolaas E; van Eijk, Hans M; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Luiking, Yvette C; Zimmermann, Luc J; Joosten, Koen F

    2011-09-01

    The preservation of nutritional status and growth is an important aim in critically ill infants, but difficult to achieve due to the metabolic stress response and inadequate nutritional intake, leading to negative protein balance. This study investigated whether increasing protein and energy intakes can promote anabolism. The primary outcome was whole body protein balance, and the secondary outcome was first pass splanchnic phenylalanine extraction (SPE(Phe)). This was a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Infants (n=18) admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit with respiratory failure due to viral bronchiolitis were randomised to continuous enteral feeding with protein and energy enriched formula (PE-formula) (n=8; 3.1 ± 0.3 g protein/kg/24 h, 119 ± 25 kcal/kg/24 h) or standard formula (S-formula) (n=10; 1.7 ± 0.2 g protein/kg/24 h, 84 ± 15 kcal/kg/24 h; equivalent to recommended intakes for healthy infants <6 months). A combined intravenous-enteral phenylalanine stable isotope protocol was used on day 5 after admission to determine whole body protein metabolism and SPE(Phe). Protein balance was significantly higher with PE-formula than with S-formula (PE-formula: 0.73 ± 0.5 vs S-formula: 0.02 ± 0.6 g/kg/24 h) resulting from significantly increased protein synthesis (PE-formula: 9.6 ± 4.4, S-formula: 5.2 ± 2.3 g/kg/24 h), despite significantly increased protein breakdown (PE-formula: 8.9 ± 4.3, S-formula: 5.2 ± 2.6 g/kg/24 h). SPE(Phe) was not statistically different between the two groups (PE-formula: 39.8 ± 18.3%, S-formula: 52.4 ± 13.6%). Increasing protein and energy intakes promotes protein anabolism in critically ill infants in the first days after admission. Since this is an important target of nutritional support, increased protein and energy intakes should be preferred above standard intakes in these infants. Dutch Trial Register number: NTR 515.

  4. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P < 0.05) with changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P < 0.05) among groups that consumed <1.0 (n = 43) vs. ≥1.0 to <1.2 (n = 29) vs. ≥1.2 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 45). The TPro group with ≥1.0 to <1.2 g ·: kg(-1) ·: d(-1) reduced FM and %FM and increased percentage of LM (%LM) compared with the lowest TPro group, whereas the TPro group with ≥1.2 g ·: kg(-1) ·: d(-1) presented intermediate responses on changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. [Role of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in the control of food intake].

    PubMed

    Fijałkowski, Franciszek; Jarzyna, Robert

    2010-05-21

    AMP-activated kinase is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme found in every eukaryotic organism examined for its presence. It plays a critical role in the shift between catabolic and anabolic metabolism. Its activity is under the control of many factors, but basically it integrates the level of intracellular AMP with signals transduced by upstream kinases. It acts through the control of the activities of other enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis, vesicular transport, and gene expression. From a physiological point of view its effects are pleiotropic and tissue dependent. In 2004, the control of food intake in hypothalamic neurons was added to the long list of its varied functions. Since then, its crucial role in transmitting signals from all important factors that inform the brain about the body's energy level, including leptin, insulin, glucose, ghrelin, and adiponectin, has been well established. Much attention was also paid to the molecular basis of this regulation. It seems that the main targets of hypothalamic AMPK are acetyl-CoA carboxylase and mTOR and the main candidate for upstream kinase is CaMKKbeta. These discoveries seem interesting not only due to their cognitive value, but because they may also carry significant practical aspects, both in the context of AMPK activators, such as the use of metformin in diabetes mellitus therapy, and in the recent trend to look for new ways to deal with the increase in obesity in well-developed countries. A better understanding of the role of AMPK in the control of food intake may create the possibility for new therapeutic approaches in this disease.

  6. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat- and protein-corrected milk, and liveweight in first-parity Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Manzanilla Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L; Zom, R; van Knegsel, A; Pryce, J E; De Haas, Y

    2014-09-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between traits across lactation difficult, let alone the possibility for selection of breeding animals. However, estimating national breeding values through cheaper and more easily measured correlated traits, such as milk yield and liveweight (LW), could be a first step to predict DMI. Combining DMI data across historical nutritional experiments might help to expand the data sets. Therefore, the objective was to estimate genetic parameters for DMI, fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) yield, and LW across the entire first lactation using a relatively large data set combining experimental data across the Netherlands. A total of 30,483 weekly records for DMI, 49,977 for FPCM yield, and 31,956 for LW were available from 2,283 Dutch Holstein-Friesian first-parity cows between 1990 and 2011. Heritabilities, covariance components, and genetic correlations were estimated using a multivariate random regression model. The model included an effect for year-season of calving, and polynomials for age of cow at calving and days in milk (DIM). The random effects were experimental treatment, year-month of measurement, and the additive genetic, permanent environmental, and residual term. Additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using a third-order orthogonal polynomial. Estimated heritabilities ranged from 0.21 to 0.40 for DMI, from 0.20 to 0.43 for FPCM yield, and from 0.25 to 0.48 for LW across DIM. Genetic correlations between DMI at different DIM were relatively low during early and late lactation, compared with mid lactation. The genetic correlations between DMI and FPCM yield varied across DIM. This correlation was negative (up to -0.5) between FPCM yield in

  7. Supplementing a ruminally undegradable protein supplement to maintain essential amino acid supply to the small intestine when forage intake is restricted in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Scholljegerdes, E J; Weston, T R; Ludden, P A; Hess, B W

    2005-09-01

    Twelve Angus crossbred cattle (eight heifers and four steers; average initial BW = 594 +/- 44.4 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas and fed restricted amounts of forage plus a ruminally undegradable protein (RUP) supplement were used in a triplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment to determine intestinal supply of essential AA. Cattle were fed four different levels of chopped (2.54 cm) bromegrass hay (11.4% CP, 57% NDF; OM basis): 30, 55, 80, or 105% of the forage intake required for maintenance. Cattle fed below maintenance were given specified quantities of a RUP supplement (6.8% porcine blood meal, 24.5% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 68.7% menhaden fish meal; DM basis) designed to provide duodenal essential AA flow equal to that of cattle fed forage at 105% of maintenance. Experimental periods lasted 21 d (17 d of adaptation and 4 d of sampling). Total OM intake and duodenal OM flow increased linearly (P < 0.001) as cattle consumed more forage; however, OM truly digested in the rumen (% of intake) did not change (P = 0.43) as intake increased. True ruminal N degradation (% of intake) tended (P = 0.07) to increase linearly, and true ruminal N degradation (g/d) decreased quadratically (P = 0.02) as intake increased from 30 to 105%. Duodenal N flow was equal (P = 0.33) across intake levels, even though microbial N flow increased linearly (P < 0.001) as forage OM intake increased. Total and individual essential AA intake decreased (cubic; P < 0.001) as forage intake increased because the supply of nonammonia, nonmicrobial N flow from RUP was decreased (linear; P < 0.001) by design. Total duodenal flow of essential AA did not differ (P = 0.39) across these levels of forage intake. Although the profile of essential AA reaching the duodenum differed (P < or = 0.02) for all 10 essential AA, the range of each essential AA as a proportion of total essential AA was low (11.1 to 11.2% of total essential AA for phenylalanine to 12.3 to 14.3% of total essential

  8. Protein intakes are associated with reduced length of stay: a comparison between Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) and conventional care after elective colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Sophia E; Hilkewich, Leslee; Gillis, Chelsia; Heine, John A; Fenton, Tanis R

    2017-07-01

    Background: Protein can modulate the surgical stress response and postoperative catabolism. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are evidence-based care bundles that reduce morbidity. Objective: In this study, we compared protein adequacy as well as energy intakes, gut function, clinical outcomes, and how well nutritional variables predict length of hospital stay (LOS) in patients receiving ERAS protocols and conventional care. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study in adult elective colorectal resection patients after conventional ( n = 46) and ERAS ( n = 69) care. Data collected included preoperative Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) score, 3-d food records, postoperative nausea, LOS, and complications. Multivariable regression analysis assessed whether low protein intakes and the MST score were predictive of LOS. Results: Total protein intakes were significantly higher in the ERAS group due to the inclusion of oral nutrition supplements (conventional group: 0.33 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; ERAS group: 0.54 g · kg -1 · d -1 ; P < 0.02). This group difference in protein intake was maintained in a multivariable model that controlled for differences between baseline and surgical variables ( P = 0.001). Oral food intake did not differ between the 2 groups. The ERAS group had shorter LOS ( P = 0.049) and fewer total infectious complications ( P = 0.01). Nausea was a predictor of protein intake. Nutrition variables were independent predictors of earlier discharge after potential confounders were controlled for. Each unit increase in preoperative MST score predicted longer LOSs of 2.5 d (95% CI: 1.5, 3.5 d; P < 0.001), and the consumption of ≥60% of protein requirements during the first 3 d of hospitalization was associated with a shorter LOS of 4.4 d (95% CI: -6.8, -2.0 d; P < 0.001). Conclusions: ERAS patients consumed more protein due to the inclusion of oral nutrition supplements. However, total protein intake remained inadequate to meet

  9. Effect of protein source in liquid formula diets on food intake, physiologic values, and growth of equine neonates.

    PubMed

    Buffington, C A; Knight, D A; Kohn, C W; Madigan, J E; Scaman, P A

    1992-10-01

    The effects of 2 liquid formula diets differing in protein source were evaluated in orphan foals. The response of 7 foals fed a diet containing casein as the protein source, and 6 foals fed a diet containing a combination of whey and casein, was compared with the response in a reference group of 8 mare-raised foals. Orphaned foals were fed 150 kcal/kg of body weight/d, divided into 6 equal feedings of 25 kcal/kg. Formula intake was comparable among the experimental groups, and foals fed the liquid formula diet grew as well as mare-raised foals. There was no difference among groups in mean daily body weight gain, wither height, heart girth, body temperature, pulse, respiration rate, capillary refill time, or skin tenting. Insulin and blood glucose concentrations increased in both groups of foals fed formula diets, returning to prefeeding values within 4 hours. Differences among groups were found for serum alkaline phosphatase, alanine transaminase, cholesterol, creatinine, and glucose values; all other serum chemical values were comparable among groups. Plasma amino acid determinations revealed that arginine and ornithine were significantly lower in foals in both experimental groups than in reference foals, suggesting that arginine may have been the limiting amino acid in these diets. Diarrhea developed in foals in all treatment groups, but in most cases was self-limiting. These results suggest that the protein source of liquid formula diets may be less important in foals than in infants.

  10. Leucine acts in the brain to suppress food intake but does not function as a physiological signal of low dietary protein

    PubMed Central

    Laeger, Thomas; Reed, Scott D.; Henagan, Tara M.; Fernandez, Denise H.; Taghavi, Marzieh; Addington, Adele; Münzberg, Heike; Martin, Roy J.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular injections of leucine are sufficient to suppress food intake, but it remains unclear whether brain leucine signaling represents a physiological signal of protein balance. We tested whether variations in dietary and circulating levels of leucine, or all three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), contribute to the detection of reduced dietary protein. Of the essential amino acids (EAAs) tested, only intracerebroventricular injection of leucine (10 μg) was sufficient to suppress food intake. Isocaloric low- (9% protein energy; LP) or normal- (18% protein energy) protein diets induced a divergence in food intake, with an increased consumption of LP beginning on day 2 and persisting throughout the study (P < 0.05). Circulating BCAA levels were reduced the day after LP diet exposure, but levels subsequently increased and normalized by day 4, despite persistent hyperphagia. Brain BCAA levels as measured by microdialysis on day 2 of diet exposure were reduced in LP rats, but this effect was most prominent postprandially. Despite these diet-induced changes in BCAA levels, reducing dietary leucine or total BCAAs independently from total protein was neither necessary nor sufficient to induce hyperphagia, while chronic infusion of EAAs into the brain of LP rats failed to consistently block LP-induced hyperphagia. Collectively, these data suggest that circulating BCAAs are transiently reduced by dietary protein restriction, but variations in dietary or brain BCAAs alone do not explain the hyperphagia induced by a low-protein diet. PMID:24898843

  11. Optimal and safe upper limits of iodine intake for early pregnancy in iodine-sufficient regions: a cross-sectional study of 7190 pregnant women in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoguang; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Fan, Chenling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    The WHO Technical Consultation recommends urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) from 250 to 499 μg/L as more-than-adequate iodine intake and UIC ≥ 500 μg/L as excessive iodine for pregnant and lactating women, but scientific evidence for this is weak. We investigated optimal and safe ranges of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region of China. Seven thousand one hundred ninety pregnant women at 4-8 weeks gestation were investigated and their UIC, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was lowest in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L, which corresponded to the lowest serum Tg concentration (10.18 μg/L). Prevalences of subclinical hypothyroidism (2.4%) and isolated hypothyroxinemia (1.7%) were lower in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that more-than-adequate iodine intake (UIC 250-499 μg/L) and excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 500 μg/L) were associated with a 1.72-fold and a 2.17-fold increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Meanwhile, excessive iodine intake was associated with a 2.85-fold increased risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia. Moreover, the prevalence of TPOAb positivity and TgAb positivity presented a U-shaped curve, ranging from mild iodine deficiency to iodine excess. The upper limit of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region should not exceed UIC 250 μg/L, because this is associated with a significantly high risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, and a UIC of 500 μg/L should not be exceeded, as it is associated with a significantly high risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia.

  12. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production.

  13. Evidence-based recommendations for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: a position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jürgen; Biolo, Gianni; Cederholm, Tommy; Cesari, Matteo; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Morley, John E; Phillips, Stuart; Sieber, Cornel; Stehle, Peter; Teta, Daniel; Visvanathan, Renuka; Volpi, Elena; Boirie, Yves

    2013-08-01

    New evidence shows that older adults need more dietary protein than do younger adults to support good health, promote recovery from illness, and maintain functionality. Older people need to make up for age-related changes in protein metabolism, such as high splanchnic extraction and declining anabolic responses to ingested protein. They also need more protein to offset inflammatory and catabolic conditions associated with chronic and acute diseases that occur commonly with aging. With the goal of developing updated, evidence-based recommendations for optimal protein intake by older people, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in cooperation with other scientific organizations, appointed an international study group to review dietary protein needs with aging (PROT-AGE Study Group). To help older people (>65 years) maintain and regain lean body mass and function, the PROT-AGE study group recommends average daily intake at least in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 g protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Both endurance- and resistance-type exercises are recommended at individualized levels that are safe and tolerated, and higher protein intake (ie, ≥ 1.2 g/kg body weight/d) is advised for those who are exercising and otherwise active. Most older adults who have acute or chronic diseases need even more dietary protein (ie, 1.2-1.5 g/kg body weight/d). Older people with severe kidney disease (ie, estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), but who are not on dialysis, are an exception to this rule; these individuals may need to limit protein intake. Protein quality, timing of ingestion, and intake of other nutritional supplements may be relevant, but evidence is not yet sufficient to support specific recommendations. Older people are vulnerable to losses in physical function capacity, and such losses predict loss of independence, falls, and even mortality. Thus, future studies aimed at pinpointing optimal protein intake in specific populations of older people

  14. High-Protein Intake during Weight Loss Therapy Eliminates the Weight-Loss-Induced Improvement in Insulin Action in Obese Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Yoshino, Jun; Kelly, Shannon C; Reeds, Dominic N; Okunade, Adewole; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2016-10-11

    High-protein (HP) intake during weight loss (WL) therapy is often recommended because it reduces the loss of lean tissue mass. However, HP intake could have adverse effects on metabolic function, because protein ingestion reduces postprandial insulin sensitivity. In this study, we compared the effects of ∼10% WL with a hypocaloric diet containing 0.8 g protein/kg/day and a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g protein/kg/day on muscle insulin action in postmenopausal women with obesity. We found that HP intake reduced the WL-induced decline in lean tissue mass by ∼45%. However, HP intake also prevented the WL-induced improvements in muscle insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as the WL-induced adaptations in oxidative stress and cell structural biology pathways. Our data demonstrate that the protein content of a WL diet can have profound effects on metabolic function and underscore the importance of considering dietary macronutrient composition during WL therapy for people with obesity. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracking of dietary intake and factors associated with dietary change from early adolescence to adulthood: the ASH30 study.

    PubMed

    Lake, Amelia A; Adamson, Ashley J; Craigie, Angela M; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew J; Mathers, John C

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the tracking of food intake from adolescence to adulthood according to location as an adult (at the time of the follow-up study) and gender. Additionally this paper explores factors associated with change in food intake. Two 3-day food diaries, demographic and socio-economic information were collected in 1980 and 2000 from the same 198 participants (81 male, 117 female). Foods consumed were assigned to the five categories in The Balance of Good Health (BGH) food model. The tracking of food intake was assessed using Pearson correlation analyses. In 2000 two questionnaires were completed. Demographic and key attributional factors, derived from closed and open-ended responses to the questionnaire, were compared with measured change using regression analysis. There was significant tracking of intake by food group from adolescence to adulthood according to location as an adult and gender. Eight combinations of descriptive variables and questionnaire factors were associated with change in intake of four of the five BGH food groups. Between adolescence and adulthood, dietary tracking is influenced by variables including gender and location. Attributions for change in food intake were associated with measured changes in food intake. In order to support healthier eating habits, it is important to be aware of factors contributing to changes in food intake, such as parental influences and perceived influences of time and work. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Promotion of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Increased Vitamin A Intakes and Reduced the Odds of Low Retinol-Binding Protein among Postpartum Kenyan Women.

    PubMed

    Girard, Amy Webb; Grant, Frederick; Watkinson, Michelle; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Wanjala, Rose; Cole, Donald; Levin, Carol; Low, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Background: Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) improves vitamin A (VA) status of young children; research with pregnant and lactating women is limited. Objective: We examined the effectiveness of the Mama SASHA (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) program to improve nutrition knowledge, diets, and nutritional status of pregnant and lactating women (PLW) in Western Kenya. Methods: Eight health facilities were allocated to the Mama SASHA intervention or comparison arms. PLW in intervention facilities received enhanced nutrition counseling at health clinics, were linked with community-based maternal support groups, and received vouchers for OFSP vine cuttings. Control PLW received clinic-based nutrition counseling only. A total of 505 women in early and midpregnancy, attending their first antenatal care visit, and with no previous engagement in project activities were enrolled from the 8 facilities. Nutrition and health-seeking knowledge, food security, dietary patterns, and anthropometric measurements were collected at 4 time points at ≤9 mo postpartum. VA intakes were assessed with multipass 24-h recalls in a subsample of 206 mothers at 8-10 mo postpartum. VA status was assessed by using serum retinol-binding protein (RBP). Impacts were estimated with multilevel mixed models adjusted for clustering and differences at enrollment. Results: At enrollment, 22.9% of women had RBP <1.17 μmol/L. By 9 mo postpartum, intervention women had significantly higher intakes of VA [adjusted difference = 297.0 retinol activity equivalent (RAE) units; 95% CI: 82, 513 RAE units; P = 0.01; n = 206], greater consumption of VA-rich fruit and vegetables in the previous 7 d (difference-in-difference estimate: 0.40 d; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.56 d; P < 0.01), and a 45% reduction in the odds of RBP <1.17 μmol/L (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.92; P = 0.01). Conclusion: Promotion of OFSP to PLW through health services is a feasible strategy to improve women's nutrition knowledge, VA

  17. Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Miwa; Yamada, Yosuke; Nanri, Hinako; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Itoi, Aya; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yuya; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Goto, Chiho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Kimura, Misaka

    2018-01-13

    We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as "seafood", "meat", "dairy products", "eggs", and "soy products". The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42, 0.99) and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91). The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty ( p -value = 0.013). Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence.

  18. Association between the Frequency of Protein-Rich Food Intakes and Kihon-Checklist Frailty Indices in Older Japanese Adults: The Kyoto-Kameoka Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Miwa; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Itoi, Aya; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Watanabe, Yuya; Yoshida, Tsukasa; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Goto, Chiho; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Kimura, Misaka

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether frequencies of protein-rich food intake were associated with frailty among older Japanese adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011 among 3843 men and 4331 women in a population-based cohort of Kameoka city, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Frailty was assessed by the weighted score based on the 25-item Kihon-Checklist. The frequency of protein-rich food intake was examined as “seafood”, “meat”, “dairy products”, “eggs”, and “soy products”. The outcome of frailty was analyzed with a multiple logistic regression model using the frequency of protein-rich food intake. When compared to the first quartile, it was observed that there was a significant association between the lower adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for frailty and the frequency of seafood intake in the fourth quartile among men (PR 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42, 0.99) and from the second quartile to the third quartile among women (PR 0.61, 95% CI, 0.43, 0.85; PR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.46, 0.91). The frequency of dairy products intake in the third quartile among women was significantly associated with a lower PR for frailty (p-value = 0.013). Our findings suggest that the consumption of seafood and dairy products may help older adults in maintaining their independence. PMID:29342873

  19. Intake patterns and dietary associations of soya protein consumption in adults and children in the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2.

    PubMed

    Mudryj, Adriana N; Aukema, Harold M; Yu, Nancy

    2015-01-28

    Soya foods are one of the recommended alternatives to meat in many dietary guidelines. While this is expected to increase the intake of some nutrients, potential concerns regarding others have been raised. The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and the association of soya food consumption with nutrient intakes and dietary patterns of Canadians (age ≥ 2 years). Cross-sectional data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 2.2; n 33,218) were used to classify soya consumers and non-consumers. Soya consumers were further divided into two groups based on their soya protein intake. Sample weights were applied and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between nutrient intakes and soya consumption, with cultural background, sex, age and economic status being included as covariates. On any given day, 3.3% (n 1085) of Canadians consume soya foods, with females, Asian Canadians and adults with post-secondary education being more likely to be soya consumers. As a whole, adolescent and adult respondents who had consumed at least one soya food during their 24 h dietary recall had higher energy intakes, as well as increased intakes of nutrients such as protein, fibre, vitamin C, vitamin B6, naturally occurring folate, thiamin, Ca, P, Mg, PUFA, Fe and K and lowered intakes of saturated fat. These data indicate that soya food consumption is associated with improved diet quality of Canadians. However, future research is necessary to investigate the association between increased energy intake and soya consumption.

  20. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, R. Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F.; Tamer, Gregory G.; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A.; Talavage, Thomas M.; McCrory, Megan A.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults. PMID:26742068

  1. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults.

    PubMed

    Sayer, R Drew; Amankwaah, Akua F; Tamer, Gregory G; Chen, Ningning; Wright, Amy J; Tregellas, Jason R; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Kareken, David A; Talavage, Thomas M; McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2016-01-05

    Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m²; aged 26 ± 1 year) consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g) + normal fiber (2 g), normal protein (12 g) + high fiber (8 g), high protein (25 g) + normal fiber (2 g), high protein (25 g) + high fiber (8 g)). The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  2. Effects of decreasing metabolizable protein and rumen-undegradable protein on milk production and composition and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Bahrami-Yekdangi, H; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Jahanian, R; Kamalian, E

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of decreasing dietary protein and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on production performance, nitrogen retention, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing Holstein cows in early lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein lactating cows (2 lactations; 50 ± 7 d in milk; 47 kg/d of milk production) were used in a Latin square design with 4 treatments and 3 replicates (cows). Treatments 1 to 4 consisted of diets containing 18, 17.2, 16.4, and 15.6% crude protein (CP), respectively, with the 18% CP diet considered the control group. Rumen-degradable protein levels were constant across the treatments (approximately 10.9% on a dry matter basis), whereas RUP was gradually decreased. All diets were calculated to supply a postruminal Lys:Met ratio of about 3:1. Dietary CP had no significant effects on milk production or milk composition. In fact, 16.4% dietary CP compared with 18% dietary CP led to higher milk production; however, this effect was not significant. Feed intake was higher for 16.4% CP than for 18% CP (25.7 vs. 24.3 kg/d). Control cows had greater CP and RUP intakes, which resulted in higher concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen; cows receiving 16.4 and 15.6% CP, respectively, exhibited lower concentrations of milk urea nitrogen (15.2 and 15.1 vs. 17.3 mg/dL). The control diet had a significant effect on predicted urinary N. Higher CP digestibility was recorded for 18% CP compared with the other diets. Decreasing CP and RUP to 15.6 and 4.6% of dietary dry matter, respectively, had no negative effects on milk production or composition when the amounts of Lys and Met and the Lys:Met ratio were balanced. Furthermore, decreasing CP and RUP to 16.4 and 5.4%, respectively, increased dry matter intake. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary fiber intake is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk, but not protein nutritional status, in adults with CKD.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei

    Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (<25 g/day) group (p<0.05). Differences in IL-6 and indoxyl sulfate levels were more significant in patients in the higher protein intake group (p<0.05). Dietary fiber intake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.

  4. Prenatal caffeine intake differently affects synaptic proteins during fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Marques, Daniela M; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Rocha, Andréia S; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Costa, Marcelo S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. However, little is known about its effects during fetal brain development. In this study, adult female Wistar rats received caffeine in drinking water (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during the active cycle in weekdays, two weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus from embryonic stages 18 or 20 (E18 or E20, respectively) were collected for immunodetection of the following synaptic proteins: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB receptor, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) and Synaptosomal-associated Protein 25 (SNAP-25). Besides, the estimation of NeuN-stained nuclei (mature neurons) and non-neuronal nuclei was verified in both brain regions and embryonic periods. Caffeine (1.0 g/L) decreased the body weight of embryos at E20. Cortical BDNF at E18 was decreased by caffeine (1.0 g/L), while it increased at E20, with no major effects on TrkB receptors. In the hippocampus, caffeine decreased TrkB receptor only at E18, with no effects on BDNF. Moderate and high doses of caffeine promoted an increase in Shh in both brain regions at E18, and in the hippocampus at E20. Caffeine (0.3g/L) decreased GAP-43 only in the hippocampus at E18. The NeuN-stained nuclei increased in the cortex at E20 by lower dose and in the hippocampus at E18 by moderate dose. Our data revealed that caffeine transitorily affect synaptic proteins during fetal brain development. The increased number of NeuN-stained nuclei by prenatal caffeine suggests a possible acceleration of the telencephalon maturation. Although some modifications in the synaptic proteins were transient, our data suggest that caffeine even in lower doses may alter the fetal brain development. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of drinking compared with eating sugars or whey protein on short-term appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, T; Luhovyy, B L; Anderson, G H

    2011-04-01

    It is hypothesized that a solid form of food or food components suppresses subjective appetite and short-term food intake (FI) more than a liquid form. To compare the effect of eating solid vs drinking liquid forms of gelatin, sucrose and its component mixtures, and whey protein, on subjective appetite and FI in young men. A randomized crossover design was used in three experiments in which the subjects were healthy males of normal weight. Solid and liquid forms of gelatin (6 g) (experiment 1, n=14), sucrose (75 g) and a mixture of 50% glucose/50% fructose (G50:F50) (experiment 2, n=15), and acid and sweet whey protein (50 g) (experiment 3, n=14) were compared. The controls were water (experiments 1 and 3) and calorie-free sweetened water with gelatin (sweet gelatin, experiment 1) or calorie-free sweetened water (sweet control, experiment 2). Subjective average appetite was measured by visual analog scales over 1 h and ad libitum FI was measured 1 h after treatment consumption. Average appetite area under the curve was not different between solid and liquid forms of sugars, but was larger, indicating greater satiety for solid compared with liquid forms of gelatin and sweet, but not acid whey protein. The FI was not different from that of control because of solid or liquid sugars or gelatin treatments. However, both solid and liquid forms of whey protein, with no difference among them, suppressed FI compared with control (P<0.05). Macronutrient composition is more important than physical state of foods in determining subjective appetite and FI.

  6. Balanced intake of protein and carbohydrate maximizes lifetime reproductive success in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Rho, Myung Suk; Lee, Kwang Pum

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in insect gerontological and nutritional research have suggested that the dietary protein:carbohydrate (P:C) balance is a critical determinant of lifespan and reproduction in many insects. However, most studies investigating this important role of dietary P:C balance have been conducted using dipteran and orthopteran species. In this study, we used the mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to test the effects of dietary P:C balance on lifespan and reproduction. Regardless of their reproductive status, both male and female beetles had the shortest lifespan at the protein-biased ratio of P:C 5:1. Mean lifespan was the longest at P:C 1:1 for males and at both P:C 1:1 and 1:5 for females. Mating significantly curtailed the lifespan of both males and females, indicating the survival cost of mating. Age-specific egg laying was significantly higher at P:C 1:1 than at the two imbalanced P:C ratios (1:5 or 5:1) at any given age throughout their lives, resulting in the highest lifetime reproductive success at P:C 1:1. When given a choice, beetles actively regulated their intake of protein and carbohydrate to a slightly carbohydrate-biased ratio (P:C 1:1.54-1:1.64 for males and P:C 1:1.3-1:1.36 for females). The self-selected P:C ratio was significantly higher for females than males, reflecting a higher protein requirement for egg production. Collectively, our results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting the key role played by dietary macronutrient balance in shaping lifespan and reproduction in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dietary protein intake on body composition changes after weight loss in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Eun; O’Connor, Lauren E.; Sands, Laura P.; Slebodnik, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The impact of dietary protein on body composition changes after older adults purposefully lose weight requires systematic evaluation. Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effects of protein intake (<25% vs ≥25% of energy intake or 1.0 g/kg/d) on energy restriction–induced changes in body mass, lean mass, and fat mass in adults older than 50 years. Data Sources: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using the keywords “dietary proteins,” “body composition,” “skeletal muscle,” and “muscle strength.” Study Selection: Two researchers independently screened 1542 abstracts. Data Extraction: Information was extracted from 24 articles. Data Synthesis: Twenty randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Older adults retained more lean mass and lost more fat mass during weight loss when consuming higher protein diets. PMID:26883880

  8. Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on intake, performance, and mammary gland development in prepubertal and pubertal dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L; Detmann, E; Dijkstra, J; Pedroso, A M; Silva, L H P; Machado, A F; Sousa, F C; Dos Santos, G B; Marcondes, M I

    2018-04-04

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different amounts of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on intake, N balance, performance, mammary gland development, carcass traits, and hormonal status of Holstein heifers at different physiological stages (PS). Sixteen prepubertal (PRE) heifers (initial BW = 106 ± 7.6 kg; age = 4.3 ± 0.46 mo) and 16 pubertal (PUB) heifers (initial BW = 224 ± 7.9 kg; age = 12.6 ± 0.45 mo) were used in an experiment over a period of 84 d. Four diets with increasing RUP contents (38, 44, 51, and 57% of dietary crude protein) and heifers at 2 PS (PRE or PUB) were used in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a completely randomized design. Throughout the experiment, 2 digestibility trials were performed over 5 consecutive days (starting at d 36 and 78) involving feed and ort sampling and spot collections of feces and urine. At d 0 and 83, body ultrasound images were obtained for real-time carcass trait evaluation. The mammary gland was ultrasonically scanned at d 0 and every 3 wk during the experiment. Blood samples were taken at d 0 and 84 to determine serum concentrations of progesterone, estrogen, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and insulin. No interaction between PS and the level of RUP was found for any trait. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein was not affected by RUP level but was lower for PRE compared with PUB heifers. Sorting against neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (tendency only) and for crude protein was greater for PUB than PRE heifers. Pubertal heifers had greater average daily gain (905 vs. 505 g/d) and N retention (25.9 vs. 12.5 g/d) than PRE heifers. In addition, average daily gain and N retention were greatest at 51% RUP of dietary protein. Mammary ultrasonography indicated no effects of RUP amounts on mammary gland composition, whereas PRE heifers had greater pixel values than PUB

  9. Interplay of atherogenic factors, protein intake and betatrophin levels in obese-metabolic syndrome patients treated with hypocaloric diets.

    PubMed

    Crujeiras, A B; Zulet, M A; Abete, I; Amil, M; Carreira, M C; Martínez, J A; Casanueva, F F

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of the potential role of betatrophin in human metabolic disorders is a current challenge. The present research evaluated circulating betatrophin levels in obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) features under energy-restricted weight-loss programs and in normal weight in order to establish the putative interplay between the levels of this hormone, diet and metabolic risk factors linked to obesity and associated comorbidities. One hundred forty-three participants were enrolled in the study (95 obese-MetSyn; age 49.5±9.4 years; body mass index (BMI) 35.7±4.5 kg m(-2) and 48 normal weight; age 35.71±8.8 years; BMI 22.9±2.2 kg m(-2)). A nutritional therapy consisting in two hypocaloric strategies (control diet based on the AHA recommendations and the RESMENA (MEtabolic Syndrome REduction in Navarra) diet, a novel dietary program with changes in the macronutrient distribution) was only prescribed to obese-MetSyn participants who were randomly allocated to the dietary strategies. Dietary records, anthropometrical and biochemical variables as well as betatrophin levels were analyzed before (pre-intervention, week 0), at 8 weeks (post-intervention, week 8) and after 4 additional months of self-control period (follow-up, week 24). Betatrophin levels were higher in obese-MetSyn patients than normal-weight subjects (1.24±0.43 vs 0.97±0.69 ng ml(-1), respectively, P=0.012), and levels were positively associated with body composition, metabolic parameters, leptin and irisin in all participants at baseline. Notably, low pre-intervention (week 0) betatrophin levels in obese patients were significantly associated with higher dietary-induced changes in atherogenic risk factors after 8 weeks. Moreover, protein intake, especially proteins from animal sources, was an independent determinant of betatrophin levels after dietary treatment (B=-0.27; P=0.012). Betatrophin is elevated in obese patients with MetSyn features and is associated with

  10. Energy gradients for VT-signal migration in the CNS: studies on melanocortin receptors, mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and food intake.

    PubMed

    Agnati, L F; Vergoni, A V; Leo, G; Genedani, S; Franco, R; Bertolini, A; Fuxe, K

    2004-01-01

    The present paper enlightens a new point of view on brain homeostasis and communication, namely how the brain takes advantage of different chemical-physical phenomena such as pressure waves, and temperature and concentration gradients to allow the homeostasis of the brain internal milieu as well as some forms of intercellular communications (volume transmission, VT) at an energy cost much lower than the classical synaptic transmission (the prototype of wiring transmission, WT). The possible melanocortin control of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression (hence of local brain temperature gradients) has been studied in relation to food intake in male Wistar rats. Osmotic minipumps were subcutaneously (sc) implanted in the midscapular region for intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion. The control rats received an icv infusion of 0.5 microl/h of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), while experimental rats received either an icv infusion of 0.16 nmol/h of HS024 or of 0.16 nmol/h of adrenocorticotropin-(1-24) [ACTH-(1-24)]. The ACTH-treated group ate significantly less than the ACSF-treated group during the first three days of infusion, while, subsequently, food intake of the two groups was similar. On the other hand, the HS024-treated group ate significantly more (up to 153% of the control value) than ACSF- and ACTH-treated rats during the entire period. UCP2 mRNA analysis in arcuate nuclei of ACTH, HS024 and ACSF-treated animals showed a significant 75% decrease (p<0.05 vs saline) of the total specific mRNA level in the HS024-treated group vs ACSF-treated animals (control group), while no significant change was observed between ACTH- and ACSF-treated animals. Melanocortin antagonist HS024 via blockade of MCR4 increases food intake and via a reduction of UCP2 expression enhances the food consumption ratio. This result underlines the fact that UCP2 expression and food intake can be differentially regulated. In other words, via a peptidergic control the central nervous

  11. Higher protein intake is associated with increased risk for incident end-stage renal disease among blacks with diabetes in the Southern Community Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, R; Cavanaugh, K L; Blot, W J; Ikizler, T A; Lipworth, L; Kabagambe, E K

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes, a risk factor for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is associated with impaired protein metabolism. We investigated whether protein intake is associated with ESRD and whether the risk is higher among blacks with diabetes. We conducted a nested case-control study of ESRD within the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study of low-income blacks and whites in the southeastern US (2002-2009). Through 2012, 1057 incident ESRD cases were identified by linkage with the United States Renal Data System and matched to 3198 controls by age, sex, and race. Dietary intakes were assessed from a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from logistic regression models that included matching variables, BMI, education, income, hypertension, total energy intake, and percent energy from saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mean (±SD) daily energy intake from protein was higher among ESRD cases than controls (15.7 ± 3.3 vs. 15.1 ± 3.1%, P < 0.0001). For a 1% increase in percent energy intake from protein, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for ESRD were 1.06 (1.02-1.10) for blacks with diabetes, 1.02 (0.98-1.06) for blacks without diabetes, 0.99 (0.90-1.09) for whites with diabetes and 0.94 (0.84-1.06) for whites without diabetes. Protein intake in g/kg/day was also associated with ESRD (4th vs. 1st quartile OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.17-2.65). Our results raise the possibility that among blacks with diabetes, increased dietary protein is associated with increased incidence of ESRD. Studies on how protein intake and metabolism affect ESRD are needed. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Association between dietary protein intake and grip strength among adults aged 51 years and over: What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014

    Distributing daily protein intake evenly across meals (~25–30g/meal) has been suggested to improve muscle mass. The aim of this research is to examine the association between grip strength, total protein intake, and its distribution across day’s meals in older adults. Nationally representative die...

  14. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium intake affect rates of bone calcium deposition during pregnancy and the early postpartum period123

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Kimberly O; Donangelo, Carmen M; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Gildengorin, Ginny; Abrams, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background: Factors affecting bone calcium deposition across pregnancy and lactation are not well characterized. Objective: The impact of maternal age, calcium intake, race-ethnicity, and vitamin D status on the rate of bone calcium deposition (VO+) was assessed across pregnancy and lactation. Design: Stable calcium isotopes were given to 46 women at pre- or early pregnancy (trimester 1), late pregnancy (trimester 3), and 3–10 wk postpartum. Three cohorts were included: 23 adolescents from Baltimore (MD), aged 16.5 ± 1.4 y (mean ± SD; Baltimore cohort); 13 adults from California, aged 29.5 ± 2.6 y (California cohort); and 10 adults from Brazil, aged 30.4 ± 4.0 y (Brazil cohort). The total exchangeable calcium pool, VO+, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], parathyroid hormone, and calcium intake were evaluated. Results: At trimester 3, inverse associations between 1,25(OH)2D and VO+ were evident in the Baltimore (P = 0.059) and Brazil (P = 0.008) cohorts and in the whole group (P = 0.029); calcium intake was not a significant determinant of VO+ in any group during pregnancy. At postpartum, a significant positive association was evident between VO+ and calcium intake (P ≤ 0.002) and between VO+ and African ethnicity (P ≤ 0.004) in the whole group and within the Baltimore and Brazil cohorts. Conclusions: Elevated 1,25(OH)2D was associated with decreased rates of bone calcium deposition during late pregnancy, a finding that was particularly evident in pregnant adolescents and adult women with low calcium intakes. Higher dietary calcium intakes and African ethnicity were associated with elevated rates of bone calcium deposition in the postpartum period. PMID:22648718

  15. Renoprotective mechanisms of soy protein intake in the obese Zucker rat

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Joyce; Cruz, Cristino; Tovar, Armando; Vaidya, Vishal; Zambrano, Elena; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Gamba, Gerardo; Torres, Nimbe; Bobadilla, Norma A.

    2008-01-01

    We previously showed that long-term consumption of a soy protein diet (SoyP) reduces renal damage in obese Zucker (ObeseZ) rats by restoring urinary NO2 and NO3 excretion (UNO2/NO3V), suggesting that nitric oxide (NO) deficiency may contribute to the renal progression observed in this model. In addition, there is compelling evidence that hyperleptinemia produced deleterious effects on the kidney through its interaction with the short leptin receptor (ObRa). This study was designed to evaluate the contribution of the NO/endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) system, renal oxidative stress, and ObRa expression to the renoprotection conferred by the consumption of a SoyP in ObeseZ rats. Ten lean and ten male ObeseZ rats were included. One-half of each group was fed with a 20% SoyP and the other half with a 20% casein protein diet (CasP) over the course of 160 days. eNOS protein levels and phosphorylation, renal lipoperoxidation (rLPO), and antioxidant enzyme activity were assessed. In addition, renal ObRa, TGF-β, and kidney injury molecule (Kim-1) mRNA levels, as well as urinary Kim-1 levels, were measured. Renal injury observed in ObeseZ rats fed with CasP was not associated with changes in eNOS expression or phosphorylation. However, this group did present with increased rLPO, reduced catalase activity, and upregulation of ObRa, TGF-β1, and Kim-1. In contrast, ObeseZ rats fed with a SoyP exhibited a reduction in NOS-Thr495 phosphorylation and rLPO, as well as an enhanced catalase activity. These findings were associated with a significant reduction of ObRa, TGF-β1, and Kim-1 mRNA levels and urinary Kim-1 protein. Our results show that renoprotection by SoyP in ObeseZ rats is in part mediated by increased NO availability secondary to a reduction in eNOS-T495 phosphorylation and oxidative stress, together with a significant reduction in ObRa and TGF-β expression. PMID:18815216

  16. Energy, Protein, Carbohydrate, and Lipid Intakes and Their Effects on Morbidity and Mortality in Critically Ill Adult Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Patkova, Anna; Joskova, Vera; Havel, Eduard; Kovarik, Miroslav; Kucharova, Monika; Zadak, Zdenek; Hronek, Miloslav

    2017-07-01

    The guidelines for nutritional support in critically ill adult patients differ in various aspects. The optimal amount of energy and nutritional substrates supplied is important for reducing morbidity and mortality, but unfortunately this is not well known, because the topic is complex and every patient is individual. The aim of this review was to gather recent pertinent information concerning the nutritional support of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with respect to the energy, protein, carbohydrate, and lipid intakes and the effect of their specific utilization on morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition (EN) is generally recommended over parenteral nutrition (PN) and is beneficial when administered within 24-48 h after ICU admission. In contrast, early PN does not provide substantial advantages in terms of morbidity and mortality, and the time when it is safe and beneficial remains unclear. The most advantageous recommendation seems to be administration of a hypocaloric (<20 kcal · kg -1 · d -1 ), high-protein diet (amino acids at doses of ≥2 g · kg -1 · d -1 ), at least during the first week of critical illness. Another important factor for reducing morbidity is the maintenance of blood glucose concentrations at 120-150 mg/dL, which is accomplished with the use of insulin and lower doses of glucose of 1-2 g · kg -1 · d -1 , because this prevents the risk of hypoglycemia and is associated with a better prognosis according to recent studies. A fat emulsion is used as a source of required calories because of insulin resistance in the majority of patients. In addition, lipid oxidation in these patients is ∼25% higher than in healthy subjects. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    PubMed

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P < .001]). Relative to baseline, within-group mean changes from WPC were significant for appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition (P < .001). In the SPI group, mean changes were significant, relative to baseline, for all variables except lean muscle (P = .37). According to this 12-week study, WPC preloads conducted 30 minutes prior to the ad libitum main meal exerted stronger beneficial effects than did SPI preloads on appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of cowpea hay, groundnut hay, cotton seed meal and maize meal supplementation to maize stover on intake, digestibility, microbial protein supply and acetate kinetics in weaner lambs.

    PubMed

    Chakeredza, S; ter Meulen, U; Ndlovu, L R

    2002-02-01

    Ten weaner lambs were used in a double 5 x 5 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of supplementing maize stover (MS) with cowpea hay (CW), groundnut hay (GN), cotton seed meal (CSM) or maize meal (MM) on the intake, digestion kinetics and acetate clearance rate. CW and GN were offered at 30% w/w to MS, while CSM and MM were given at 15 g/kg0.75 per day. Supplementation reduced (p < 0.01) MS intake but enhanced (p < 0.01) total dry matter intake. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in digestibility. However, the estimated ME intake was significantly (p < 0.05) improved by supplementation. The estimated microbial protein supply was almost significantly (p < 0.06) improved by 22.68%, 5.35%, 17.58% and 47.90% on the CW-, GN-, CSM- and MM-supplemented diets, compared to the control (7.85 g/day). Microbial protein synthesis efficiency was not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by diet, and nor were the acetate clearance rates (p > 0.05), which averaged 0.0475 +/- 0.0078/min. The improvement in ME intake may have been due to a faster flow rate of digesta and a better balance of nutrients in the end-products of digestion. These results demonstrate that small amounts of forage supplements can improve nutrient intake when animals consume low-quality forages and provide a basis for comparing such supplements with bought-in protein and energy supplements.

  19. The Effects of Carbohydrate, Unsaturated Fat, and Protein Intake on Measures of Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gadgil, Meghana D.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Yeung, Edwina; Anderson, Cheryl A.M.; Sacks, Frank M.; Miller, Edgar R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Impaired insulin sensitivity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Although calorie restriction and weight loss increase insulin sensitivity, the effects of modifying macronutrient composition on insulin sensitivity are uncertain. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects on insulin sensitivity of a carbohydrate-rich diet (CARB; similar to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] diet), a protein-rich diet (PROT; protein predominantly from plant sources), and an unsaturated fat–rich diet (UNSAT; predominantly monounsaturated). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study was a randomized, controlled, three-period, crossover feeding study. The study participants were 164 individuals with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension without diabetes. Diets were administered for 6 weeks each, with a washout period between diets of 2–4 weeks. Weight was held constant throughout the study. For our primary outcome, we calculated the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) using the end-of-period fasting serum glucose and insulin. QUICKI is a validated measure of insulin sensitivity. The primary analyses used generalized estimating equations. RESULTS At baseline, mean (SD) BMI was 30.2 (6.1) kg/m2, and mean (SD) QUICKI was 0.35 (0.04). The UNSAT diet increased QUICKI by 0.005, more than the CARB diet (P = 0.04). PROT had no significant effect compared with CARB. CONCLUSIONS A diet that partially replaces carbohydrate with unsaturated fat may improve insulin sensitivity in a population at risk for cardiovascular disease. Given the well-recognized challenges of sustaining weight loss, our results suggest an alternative approach for improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:23223345

  20. Resistant starch and protein intake enhances fat oxidation and feelings of fullness in lean and overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Christopher L; Ward, Emery; Holst, Jens Juul; Astrup, Arne; Ormsbee, Michael J; Connelly, Scott; Arciero, Paul J

    2015-10-29

    Diets high in either resistant starch or protein have been shown to aid in weight management. We examined the effects of meals high in non-resistant or resistant starch with and without elevated protein intake on substrate utilization, energy expenditure, and satiety in lean and overweight/obese women. Women of varying levels of adiposity consumed one of four pancake test meals in a single-blind, randomized crossover design: 1) waxy maize (control) starch (WMS); 2) waxy maize starch and whey protein (WMS+WP); 3) resistant starch (RS); or 4) RS and whey protein (RS+WP). Total post-prandial energy expenditure did not differ following any of the four test meals (WMS = 197.9 ± 8.9; WMS+WP = 188 ± 8.1; RS = 191.9 ± 8.9; RS+WP = 195.8 ± 8.7, kcals/180 min), although the combination of RS+WP, but not either intervention alone, significantly increased (P <0.01) fat oxidation (WMS = 89.5 ± 5.4; WMS+WP = 84.5 ± 7.2; RS = 97.4 ± 5.4; RS+WP = 107.8 ± 5.4, kcals/180 min). Measures of fullness increased (125% vs. 45%) and hunger decreased (55% vs. 16%) following WP supplemented versus non-whey conditions (WMS+WP, RS+WP vs. WMS, RS), whereas circulating hunger and satiety factors were not different among any of the test meals. However, peptide YY (PYY) was significantly elevated at 180 min following RS+WP meal. The combined consumption of dietary resistant starch and protein increases fat oxidation, PYY, and enhances feelings of satiety and fullness to levels that may be clinically relevant if maintained under chronic conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02418429.

  1. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  3. Dietary nutrient levels regulate protein and carbohydrate intake, gluconeogenic/glycolytic flux and blood trehalose level in the insect Manduca sexta L.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S N; Borchardt, D B; Wang, L-W

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the effects of dietary casein and sucrose levels on nutrient intake, and distinguished the effects of carbohydrate and protein consumption on growth, fat content, pyruvate metabolism and blood trehalose level of 5th instar Manduca sexta larvae. Growth increased with increasing casein consumption but was unaffected by carbohydrate intake. Fat content also increased with carbohydrate consumption, but on carbohydrate-free diets fat content increased with increased protein consumption. Blood trehalose level and pyruvate metabolism were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of blood following administration of (3-(13)C)pyruvate. On diets containing sucrose, blood trehalose increased with increasing carbohydrate intake, and on most diets trehalose was synthesized entirely from dietary sucrose. Pyruvate cycling, indicated by the alanine C2/C3 (13)C enrichment ratio, increased with carbohydrate consumption reflecting increased glycolysis, and pyruvate decarboxylation exceeded carboxylation on all sucrose diets. Larvae that consumed <75 mg/day sucrose were gluconeogenic, based on the [2 (trehalose C6)(Glx C3/C2)]/alanine C2] (13)C enrichment ratio. On carbohydrate-free diets, blood trehalose levels were low and maintained entirely by gluconeogenesis. Blood trehalose level increased with increasing protein intake. Pyruvate cycling was very low, although many insects displayed higher levels of pyruvate decarboxylation than carboxylation. All gluconeogenic larvae displayed alanine (13)C enrichment ratios <0.35 and had blood trehalose levels <50 mM.

  4. Acute effects of protein composition and fibre enrichment of yogurt consumed as snacks on appetite sensations and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Doyon, Caroline Y; Tremblay, Angelo; Rioux, Laurie-Eve; Rhéaume, Caroline; Cianflone, Katherine; Poursharifi, Pegah; Turgeon, Sylvie L

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of protein composition and/or fibre enrichment of yogurt on appetite sensations and subsequent energy intake. In this double-blind crossover study, 20 healthy men (aged 32.4 ± 9.1 years) were submitted to 5 randomized testing sessions, during which they had to consume 5 isocaloric and isonproteinemic yogurt snacks (120-g servings, ∼230 kJ, ∼4.5 g protein) differing by their casein-to-whey protein ratio (C:W) or dietary fibre content: (i) control C:W = 2.8:1; (ii) high whey (HW) C:W = 1.5:1, and fibre-enriched formulations using control; (iii) 2.4 g of inulin; (iv) 1.9 g of inulin and 0.5 g of β-glucan (+IN-βG); and (v) 0.5 g of β-glucan. Appetite sensations were assessed using 150-mm visual analog scales. Plasma variables (glucose, insulin, ghrelin) were measured at 30-min intervals post-yogurt consumption for 2 h. Finally, energy intakes during ad libitum lunches offered 2 h after yogurt snacks were recorded. None of the yogurts impacted appetite sensations. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly different only between HW and control yogurts (-812 kJ; p = 0.03). Regarding post-yogurt plasma variables, a significant difference was found only between ghrelin area under the curve of the +IN-βG and the HW yogurts (-15 510 pmol/L per 120 min, p = 0.04). In conclusion, although appetite sensations were not influenced by variations in yogurts' protein compositions, a reduced energy intake was observed during the ad libitum lunch after the HW yogurt that may be attributable to its lower C:W. Surprisingly, the fibre enrichments studied did not exert effect on appetite sensations and energy intake.

  5. Effect of Daily Exposure to an Isolated Soy Protein Supplement on Body Composition, Energy and Macronutrient Intake, Bone Formation Markers, and Lipid Profile in Children in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mejía, Wilson; Córdoba, Diana; Durán, Paola; Chacón, Yersson; Rosselli, Diego

    2018-01-16

    A soy protein-based supplement may optimize bone health, support physical growth, and stimulate bone formation. This study aimed to assess the effect of a daily soy protein supplement (SPS) on nutritional status, bone formation markers, lipid profile, and daily energy and macronutrient intake in children. One hundred seven participants (62 girls), ages 2 to 9, started the study and were randomly assigned to lunch fruit juice with (n = 57, intervention group) or without (n = 50, control group) addition of 45 g (230 Kcal) of a commercial SPS during 12 months; 84 children (51 girls, 33 boys) completed the study (45 and 39 intervention and control, respectively). Nutritional assessment included anthropometry and nutrient intakes; initial and final blood samples were taken; insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were analyzed. Statistically significant changes (p < .05) in body mass index and weight for age Z scores were observed between groups while changes in body composition were not. Changes in energy, total protein, and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in the intervention group (p < .01). Calorie intake changes were statistically significant between groups (p < .001), and BAP decreased in both groups, with values within normal ranges. Osteocalcin, IGFBP-3, and lipid profile were not different between groups. IGF-I levels and IGF/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, changes in macronutrient and energy intake and nutritional status in the intervention group compared to control group may ensure harmonious and adequate bone health and development.

  6. Energy and protein intakes and their association with a decline in functional capacity among diabetic older adults from the NuAge cohort.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Berna; Morais, José A; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna

    2016-06-01

    Diabetic older adults (OA) are at greater risk of muscle strength (MS) loss and functional capacity (FC) decline than non-diabetics. Protein and energy intakes are important determinants of muscle mass and MS maintenance and indirectly affect FC. The study sought to determine whether low protein and energy intakes were associated with FC decline and whether this association was mediated by MS in diabetic OA over a 3-year follow-up, in secondary analyses of the Quebec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging. In 172 diabetic OA (62 % men, mean age = 75 years), FC decline was defined as the change between SMAF (Système de Mesure de l'Autonomie Fonctionnelle) scores at baseline (T1) and 3 years later (T4). Baseline adequate protein and energy intakes were set at ≥1 g/kg BW and ≥30 kcal/kg BW, respectively. Sex-stratified linear regressions were controlled for confounding variables. Mean body weight (BW) was 85.42 ± 13.8 in men and 79.7 ± 11.5 in women (p ≤ .001). Adequate protein intake in women was associated with lesser FC decline (mean ± SE) (2.11 ± 0.81 vs. 4.91 ± 0.72; p = .029), while adequate energy intake was not associated with FC decline either in men or in women. In women, 1 g protein/kg BW helped maintain MS, hence minimizing FC decline. These results demonstrate that protein intake is important in maintaining FC in diabetic OA, albeit with sex differences. This study provides further evidence that protein requirements may be greater than the 0.8 g/kg BW currently recommended for OA. Future research in larger samples over longer follow-up is needed to confirm these results.

  7. The Influence of Early Protein Energy Malnutrition on Subsequent Behavior and Intellectual Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sarita

    1990-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition in early childhood, as seen in many developing countries, influences subsequent behavior and intellectual performance. These impairments are associated with further reduction in fine motor skills and academic performance. (Author)

  8. Assessment of dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rodríguez, María; Pocovi, Gabriela; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Rueda-Medina, Blanca

    2018-05-01

    Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data. Intake of energy, protein, fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol was significantly lower (p<0.001) in university students compared to controls, while fiber intake showed the opposite trend (p<0.001). Total fat and carbohydrate intake was consistent with recommendations, but protein intake was lower than recommended. Intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) was markedly higher than nutrition goals, while intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) was lower. Both students and the reference control group did not reach the optimal dietary intake of iodine and vitamins D and E, while sodium intake was excessive in both groups. Dietary habits of university students were mainly characterized by low intakes of energy, protein, fats, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and high intake of fiber as compared to the general population. Intake of iodine and vitamins D and E was low, while sodium intake was excessive in both university students and the general population. Dietary interventions should be considered to prevent nutritional deficiencies and to ensure a balanced diet. Copyright © 2018 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. High animal fat intake enhances prostate cancer progression and reduces glutathione peroxidase 3 expression in early stages of TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Juhee; Abdelkader, Tamer Said; Kim, Tae-Hyoun; Lee, Ji Min; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Western men, and more men have been diagnosed at younger ages in recent years. A high-fat Western-style diet is a known risk factor for prostate cancer and increases oxidative stress. We evaluated the association between dietary animal fat and expression of antioxidant enzymes, particularly glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), in the early stages of transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Six-week-old male nontransgenic and TRAMP mice were placed on high animal fat (45% Kcal fat) or control (10% Kcal fat) diets and sacrificed after 5 or 10 weeks. The histopathological score increased with age and high-fat diet consumption. The histopathological scores in dorsal and lateral lobes increased in the 10-week high-fat diet group (6.2±0.2 and 6.2±0.4, respectively) versus the 10-week control diet group (5.3±0.3 and 5.2±0.2, respectively). GPx3 decreased both at the mRNA and protein levels in mouse prostate. GPx3 mRNA expression decreased (∼36.27% and ∼23.91%, respectively) in the anterior and dorsolateral prostate of TRAMP mice fed a high-fat diet compared to TRAMP mice fed a control diet. Cholesterol treatment increased PC-3 human prostate cancer cell proliferation, decreased GPx3 mRNA and protein levels, and increased H2 O2 levels in culture medium. Moreover, increasing GPx3 mRNA expression by troglitazone in PC-3 cells decreased cell proliferation and lowered H2 O2 levels. Dietary fat enhances prostate cancer progression, possibly by suppressing GPx3 expression and increasing proliferation of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) epithelial cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Variability in CNR1 locus influences protein intake and smoking status in the Central-European population.

    PubMed

    Bienertova-Vasku, Julie; Bienert, Petr; Slovackova, Lenka; Sablikova, Lenka; Piskackova, Zlata; Forejt, Martin; Splichal, Zbynek; Zlamal, Filip; Vasku, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The endocannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is encoded by the CNR1 gene and has been recently recognized to play an important role in the regulation of satiety and feeding behaviour with a huge potential of modulating metabolic response and feeding control. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential of three selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CNR1 locus on native dietary composition in the Central-European Caucasian population. A total of 258 unrelated individuals originating from the Central-European Caucasian population were enrolled into the study and rs1049353, rs12720071, and rs806368 polymorphisms in CNR1 locus were examined in these individuals using PCR-based methodology. Body composition was assessed using a bioimpedance method, various anthropometric parameters were investigated (waist and hip circumference, skin folds), and native dietary composition was analysed using 7-day food records as well as a food frequency questionnaire. Allelic variations and common haplotypes in the CNR1 gene were associated with the daily intake of proteins, fluids, and fibre, regardless of the physical activity of the individuals. The common haplotype in the CNR1 gene was associated with self-reported smoking (number of cigarettes per day, smoking years). Our results indicate that specific genetic variations in the CNR1 gene may act as susceptibility markers for specific dietary composition in the Central-European population.

  11. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  12. A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, You Jeong; Park, Bo Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period. Methods We performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=100), pre-diabetes (n=73), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=11). Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery. Results Eating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups. Conclusion Although diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM. PMID:21977455

  13. Early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate intestinal enzymes, but not inducible heat shock proteins in young adult Swine.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Messori, Stefano; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but also

  14. Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Intestinal Enzymes, but Not Inducible Heat Shock Proteins in Young Adult Swine

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Marie-Edith; Zhang, Jing; Messori, Stefano; Bosi, Paolo; Smidt, Hauke; Lallès, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP). The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12) or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11), and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27) and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced) and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively) of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently, but

  15. Dietary Intake of Proteins and Calories Is Inversely Associated With The Oxidation State of Plasma Thiols in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Paolo; Giustarini, Daniela; Rossi, Ranieri; Cunningham, Sue E D; Folli, Franco; Khazim, Khaled; Cornell, John; Matteucci, Elena; Bansal, Shweta

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of protein-energy wasting in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients, but knowledge of specific effectors and mechanisms remains fragmented. Aim of the study was to define whether and how food intake is involved in the causal relationship between oxidative stress and protein-energy wasting. Seventy-one adult MHD patients and 24 healthy subjects (control) were studied cross-sectionally with analyses of diet record and of oxidative stress, as measured by a battery of plasma thiols including the protein sulfhydryl (-SH) group (PSH) levels (a marker of total protein-SH reducing capacity), the protein thiolation index (PTI, the ratio between disulfide, i.e., oxidized and reduced -SH groups in proteins), low molecular mass (LMM) thiols, LMM disulfides, and mixed LMM-protein disulfides. In addition, interleukin-6 (IL-6), albumin, C-reactive protein, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured as markers of inflammation. The patients showed low energy (22.0 ± 8.4 kcal/kg/day) and adequate protein (1.0 ± 0.4 g/kg/day) intakes, high levels of cystine (CySS; patients vs. 113.5 [90.9-132.8] vs. 68.2 [56.2-75.7] μM), cysteinylated proteins (CySSP; 216.0 [182.8-254.0] vs. 163.5 [150.0-195.5] μM), and high PTI (0.76 [0.61-0.88] vs. 0.43 [0.40-0.54]; P < .001 in all comparisons). In patients, variation of CySSP was explained by a standard regression model (R = 0.775; P = .00001) that included significant contributions of protein intake (β = -0.361), NGAL (β = 0.387), age (β = 0.295), and albumin (β = 0.457). In the same model, variation of PTI (R = 0.624; P = .01) was explained by protein intake (β = -0.384) and age (β = 0.326) and NGAL (β = 0.311). However, when PSH was entered as dependent variable (R = 0.730; P = .0001), only serum albumin (β = 0.495) and age (β = -0.280), but not dietary intake or NGAL, contributed to the model. In MHD, markers of thiol

  16. Higher protein intake increases cardiac function parameters in healthy children: metabolic programming by infant nutrition-secondary analysis from a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Collell, Rosa; Closa-Monasterolo, Ricardo; Ferré, Natalia; Luque, Veronica; Koletzko, Berthold; Grote, Veit; Janas, Roman; Verduci, Elvira; Escribano, Joaquín

    2016-06-01

    Protein intake may modulate cardiac structure and function in pathological conditions, but there is a lack of knowledge on potential effects in healthy infants. Secondary analysis of an ongoing randomized clinical trial comparing two groups of infants receiving a higher (HP) or lower (LP) protein content formula in the first year of life, and compared with an observational group of breastfed (BF) infants. Growth and dietary intake were assessed periodically from birth to 2 y. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis parameters were analyzed at 6 mo in a blood sample. At 2 y, cardiac mass and function were assessed by echocardiography. HP infants (n = 50) showed a higher BMI z-score at 2 y compared with LP (n = 47) or BF (n = 44). Cardiac function parameters were increased in the HP group compared with the LP and were directly related to the protein intake during the first 6 mo of life. Moreover, there was an increase in free IGF-1 in the HP group at 6 mo. A moderate increase in protein supply during the first year of life is associated with higher cardiac function parameters at 2 y. IGF-1 axis modifications may, at least in part, underlie these effects.

  17. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 43) with lower and group 2 (n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma—FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl—DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 (p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP. PMID:28698489

  18. Dietary Vitamin C, E and β-Carotene Intake Does Not Significantly Affect Plasma or Salivary Antioxidant Indices and Salivary C-Reactive Protein in Older Subjects.

    PubMed

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Guligowska, Agnieszka; Prymont-Przymińska, Anna; Godala, Małgorzata; Kolmaga, Agnieszka; Nowak, Dariusz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kostka, Tomasz

    2017-07-09

    It is not clear whether habitual dietary intake influences the antioxidant or inflammatory status. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of antioxidative vitamins C, E, and β-carotene obtained from daily food rations on plasma and salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), uric acid and salivary C-reactive protein (CRP). The study involved 80 older subjects (66.9 ± 4.3 years), divided into two groups: group 1 ( n = 43) with lower and group 2 ( n = 37) with higher combined vitamins C, E and β-carotene intake. A 24-h dietary recall was obtained from each individual. TAC was assessed simultaneously with two methods in plasma (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma-FRAP, 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH) and in saliva (FRAS and DPPHS test). Lower vitamin C intake corresponded to higher FRAS. There were no other correlations between vitamins C, E or β-carotene intake and antioxidant indices. Salivary CRP was not related to any antioxidant indices. FRAS was decreased in group 2 ( p < 0.01) but no other group differences for salivary or for plasma antioxidant parameters and salivary CRP were found. Habitual, not extra supplemented dietary intake does not significantly affect plasma or salivary TAC and salivary CRP.

  19. Early Lung Cancer Detection via Global Protein Modification Profiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Increased DNMT1 protein expression has also been shown to play a critical role in the malignant progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and be a...the Malignant Potential and Poor Prognosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinomas , Int. J. Cancer, 105:527-532.

  20. Cell Wall Localization of Two DUF642 Proteins, BIIDXI and TEEBE, during Meloidogyne incognita Early Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Iribe, Alexis; Zúñiga-Sánchez, Esther; Mejía, Emma Zavaleta; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infects a variety of plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana. During migration, root-knot nematodes secrete different proteins to modify cell walls, which include pectolytic enzymes. However, the contribution of host cell wall proteins has not been described during this process. The function of two DUF642 cell wall proteins, BIIDXI (BDX, At4g32460) and TEEBE (TEB, At2g41800), in plant development could be related to the regulation of pectin methyl esterification status in the cell walls of different tissues. Accordingly, the expression of these two genes is up-regulated by auxin. BDX and TEB were highly induced during early M. incognita inoculation. Moreover, cell wall localization of the proteins was also induced. The cell wall localization of BDX and TEB DUF642 proteins during M. incognita early inoculation suggested that these two proteins could be involved in the regulation of the degree