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Sample records for early proximal tubule

  1. SGLT2 mediates glucose reabsorption in the early proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Vallon, Volker; Platt, Kenneth A; Cunard, Robyn; Schroth, Jana; Whaley, Jean; Thomson, Scott C; Koepsell, Hermann; Rieg, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding for the Na(+)-glucose co-transporter SGLT2 (SLC5A2) associate with familial renal glucosuria, but the role of SGLT2 in the kidney is incompletely understood. Here, we determined the localization of SGLT2 in the mouse kidney and generated and characterized SGLT2-deficient mice. In wild-type (WT) mice, immunohistochemistry localized SGLT2 to the brush border membrane of the early proximal tubule. Sglt2(-/-) mice had glucosuria, polyuria, and increased food and fluid intake without differences in plasma glucose concentrations, GFR, or urinary excretion of other proximal tubular substrates (including amino acids) compared with WT mice. SGLT2 deficiency did not associate with volume depletion, suggested by similar body weight, BP, and hematocrit; however, plasma renin concentrations were modestly higher and plasma aldosterone levels were lower in Sglt2(-/-) mice. Whole-kidney clearance studies showed that fractional glucose reabsorption was significantly lower in Sglt2(-/-) mice compared with WT mice and varied in Sglt2(-/-) mice between 10 and 60%, inversely with the amount of filtered glucose. Free-flow micropuncture revealed that for early proximal collections, 78 ± 6% of the filtered glucose was reabsorbed in WT mice compared with no reabsorption in Sglt2(-/-) mice. For late proximal collections, fractional glucose reabsorption was 93 ± 1% in WT and 21 ± 6% in Sglt2(-/-) mice, respectively. These results demonstrate that SGLT2 mediates glucose reabsorption in the early proximal tubule and most of the glucose reabsorption by the kidney, overall. This mouse model mimics and explains the glucosuric phenotype of individuals carrying SLC5A2 mutations.

  2. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    SciT

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}mol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12more » weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, {alpha}-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.« less

  3. Ontogeny of NHE8 in the rat proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Amy M.; Zhang, Jianning; Goyal, Sunita; Dwarakanath, Vangipuram; Aronson, Peter S.; Moe, Orson W.; Baum, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Proximal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption is primarily mediated via the Na+/H+ exchanger, identified as NHE3 in adults. Previous studies have demonstrated a maturational increase in rat proximal tubule NHE3 expression, with a paucity of NHE3 expression in neonates, despite significant Na+-dependent proton secretion. Recently, a novel Na+/H+ antiporter (NHE8) was identified and found to be expressed on the apical membrane of the proximal tubule. To determine whether NHE8 may be the antiporter responsible for proton secretion in neonates, the present study characterized the developmental expression of NHE8 in rat proximal tubules. RNA blots and real-time RT-PCR demonstrated no developmental difference in the mRNA of renal NHE8. Immunoblots, however, demonstrated peak protein abundance of NHE8 in brush border membrane vesicles of 7- and 14-day-old compared with adult rats. In contrast, the level of NHE8 expression in total cortical membrane protein was higher in adults than in neonates. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of NHE8 on the apical membrane of the proximal tubules of neonatal and adult rats. These data demonstrate that NHE8 does undergo maturational changes on the apical membrane of the rat proximal tubule and may account for the Na+-dependent proton flux in neonatal proximal tubules. PMID:17429030

  4. Impaired organic ion transport in proximal tubules of rats with Heymann nephritis.

    PubMed

    Park, E K; Hong, S K; Goldinger, J; Andres, G; Noble, B

    1985-10-01

    Organic ion transport across the basolateral membrane of proximal tubules was measured by means of the tissue slice technique in each of the four different stages of Heymann nephritis. Impairment of both organic anion and cation transport was detected early in Stage 2, and became more severe in Stage 3 of Heymann nephritis. The decreased transport function was associated with extensive damage to proximal tubule cells, including loss of brush border microvilli and basal infoldings. Despite these abnormalities of structure and function, oxygen consumption of proximal tubule cells remained essentially normal. Partial recovery of organic cation transport was noted late in Heymann nephritis (Stage 4). Recovery of the cation transport function was associated with a partial restoration of brush border microvilli and basal infoldings to proximal tubule cells. However, organic anion transport remained depressed throughout the entire course of disease. Impairment of organic ion transport in rats with Heymann nephritis appeared to result from damage to basolateral membrane transport elements rather than general deterioration of the metabolic machinery of proximal tubule cells. Decreased organic cation transport appeared to be the consequence of a reduction in the number of carrier sites, a phenomenon that could have resulted from decreased membrane surface area. However, the depression of organic anion transport was associated with decreased substrate affinity of the anion carrier, indicating that qualitative, rather than quantitative changes, were primarily responsible for that defect. Specific antibody-mediated damage to the anion transport elements in basolateral membranes of proximal tubules is postulated to occur in Heymann nephritis.

  5. Urinary podocyte-associated mRNA levels correlate with proximal tubule dysfunction in early diabetic nephropathy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Petrica, Ligia; Ursoniu, Sorin; Gadalean, Florica; Vlad, Adrian; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Dumitrascu, Victor; Vlad, Daliborca; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Velciov, Silvia; Bob, Flaviu; Matusz, Petru; Milas, Oana; Secara, Alina; Simulescu, Anca; Popescu, Roxana

    2017-01-01

    The study assessed mRNA expression of podocyte-associated molecules in urinary sediments of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in relation to urinary podocytes, biomarkers of podocyte injury and of proximal tubule (PT) dysfunction. A total of 76 patients with type 2 DM and 20 healthy subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, and assessed concerning urinary podocytes, urinary mRNA of podocyte-associated genes, urinary biomarkers of podocyte damage and of PT dysfunction. We found significant differences between urinary mRNA of podocyte-associated molecules in relation with albuminuria stage. In multivariable regression analysis, urinary mRNA of nephrin, podocin, alpha-actinin-4, CD2-associated protein, glomerular epithelial protein 1 (GLEPP1), ADAM 10, and NFκB correlated directly with urinary podocytes, albuminuria, urinary alpha 1 -microglobulin, urinary kidney-injury molecule-1, nephrinuria, urinary vascular endothelial growth factor, urinary advanced glycation end-products (AGE), and indirectly with eGFR (p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.808; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.825; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.805; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.663; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.726; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.720; p < 0.0001, R 2  = 0.724). In patients with type 2 DM there is an association between urinary mRNA of podocyte-associated molecules, biomarkers of podocyte damage, and of PT dysfunction. GLEPP1, ADAM10, and NFκB may be considered additional candidate molecules indicative of early diabetic nephropathy. AGE could be involved in this association.

  6. Tight junctions of the proximal tubule and their channel proteins.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Michael; Piontek, Jörg; Rosenthal, Rita; Günzel, Dorothee; Krug, Susanne M

    2017-08-01

    The renal proximal tubule achieves the majority of renal water and solute reabsorption with the help of paracellular channels which lead through the tight junction. The proteins forming such channels in the proximal tubule are claudin-2, claudin-10a, and possibly claudin-17. Claudin-2 forms paracellular channels selective for small cations like Na + and K + . Independently of each other, claudin-10a and claudin-17 form anion-selective channels. The claudins form the paracellular "pore pathway" and are integrated, together with purely sealing claudins and other tight junction proteins, in the belt of tight junction strands surrounding the tubular epithelial cells. In most species, the proximal tubular tight junction consists of only 1-2 (pars convoluta) to 3-5 (pars recta) horizontal strands. Even so, they seal the tubule very effectively against leak passage of nutrients and larger molecules. Remarkably, claudin-2 channels are also permeable to water so that 20-25% of proximal water absorption may occur paracellularly. Although the exact structure of the claudin-2 channel is still unknown, it is clear that Na + and water share the same pore. Already solved claudin crystal structures reveal a characteristic β-sheet, comprising β-strands from both extracellular loops, which is anchored to a left-handed four-transmembrane helix bundle. This allowed homology modeling of channel-forming claudins present in the proximal tubule. The surface of cation- and anion-selective claudins differ in electrostatic potentials in the area of the proposed ion channel, resulting in the opposite charge selectivity of these claudins. Presently, while models of the molecular structure of the claudin-based oligomeric channels have been proposed, its full understanding has only started.

  7. Cyclophilin B expression in renal proximal tubules of hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kainer, D B; Doris, P A

    2000-04-01

    Rat cyclophilin-like protein (Cy-LP) is a candidate hypertension gene initially identified by differential hybridization and implicated in renal mechanisms of salt retention and high blood pressure. We report the molecular characterization of rat cyclophilin B (CypB) and demonstrate, through sequence analysis and an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction primer assay, that CypB but not Cy-LP is expressed in rat kidney. CypB is an endoplasmic reticulum-localized prolyl-isomerase that interacts with elongation initiation factor 2-beta, an important regulator of protein translation and a central component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response to hypoxia or ATP depletion. Active renal transport of sodium is increased in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and there is evidence that this coincides with hypoxia and ATP depletion in the renal cortex. In the present studies we have examined expression of CypB in rat proximal tubules, which contributes to the increased renal sodium reabsorption in this model of hypertension. We report that CypB transcript abundance is significantly elevated in proximal convoluted tubules from SHR compared with the control Wistar-Kyoto strain. This upregulation occurs in weanling animals and precedes the development of hypertension, indicating that it is not a simple response to hypertension in SHR. Further, CypB expression is also higher in a proximal tubule cell line derived from SHR compared with a similar line derived from Wistar-Kyoto rats, indicating that this difference is genetically determined. No sequence differences were observed in the CypB cDNA from these 2 strains. These observations suggest that a genetically determined alteration in proximal tubules from SHR occurs that leads to increased expression of CypB. In view of evidence linking CypB to the regulation of elongation initiation factor-2, the upregulation of CypB may result from metabolic stress.

  8. Diadenosine polyphosphate-stimulated gluconeogenesis in isolated rat proximal tubules.

    PubMed Central

    Edgecombe, M; Craddock, H S; Smith, D C; McLennan, A G; Fisher, M J

    1997-01-01

    Diadenosine polyphosphates released into the extracellular environment influence a variety of metabolic and other cellular activities in a wide range of target tissues. Here we have studied the impact of these novel nucleotides on gluconeogenesis in isolated rat proximal tubules. Gluconeogenesis was stimulated following exposure of isolated proximal tubules to a range of adenine-containing nucleotides including ADP, ATP, Ap3A, Ap4A, Ap5A and Ap6A. The concentration-dependence of ATP-, Ap3A- and Ap4A-mediated stimulation of gluconeogenesis was similar and was consistent with a role for these agents in the physiological control of renal metabolism. Nucleotide-stimulated gluconeogenesis was diminished in the presence of agents that interfere with phospholipase C activation or intracellular Ca2+ metabolism, indicative of a role for polyphosphoinositide-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in the mechanism of action of ATP, Ap3A and Ap4A. The characteristics of binding of [2-3H]Ap4A to renal plasma-membrane preparations suggest that Ap4A mediates its effects on proximal tubule gluconeogenesis via interaction with P2y-like purinoceptor(s) also recognized by extracellular ATP. PMID:9163337

  9. Calcium sensitivity of dicarboxylate transport in cultured proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Schiro, Faith R.; Pajor, Ana M.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium nephrolithiasis and is primarily determined by proximal tubule reabsorption. The major transporter to reabsorb citrate is Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter (NaDC1), which transports dicarboxylates, including the divalent form of citrate. We previously found that opossum kidney (OK) proximal tubule cells variably express either divalent or trivalent citrate transport, depending on extracellular calcium. The present studies were performed to delineate the mechanism of the effect of calcium on citrate and succinate transport in these cells. Transport was measured using isotope uptake assays. In some studies, NaDC1 transport was studied in Xenopus oocytes, expressing either the rabbit or opossum ortholog. In the OK cell culture model, lowering extracellular calcium increased both citrate and succinate transport by more than twofold; the effect was specific in that glucose transport was not altered. Citrate and succinate were found to reciprocally inhibit transport at low extracellular calcium (<60 μM), but not at normal calcium (1.2 mM); this mutual inhibition is consistent with dicarboxylate transport. The inhibition varied progressively at intermediate levels of extracellular calcium. In addition to changing the relative magnitude and interaction of citrate and succinate transport, decreasing calcium also increased the affinity of the transport process for various other dicarboxylates. Also, the affinity for succinate, at low concentrations of substrate, was increased by calcium removal. In contrast, in oocytes expressing NaDC1, calcium did not have a similar effect on transport, indicating that NaDC1 could not likely account for the findings in OK cells. In summary, extracellular calcium regulates constitutive citrate and succinate transport in OK proximal tubule cells, probably via a novel transport process that is not NaDC1. The calcium effect on citrate transport parallels in vivo studies that demonstrate the

  10. Basolateral choline transport in isolated rabbit renal proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Dantzler, W H; Evans, K K; Wright, S H

    1998-11-01

    Choline can undergo both net secretion and net reabsorption by renal proximal tubules, but at physiological plasma levels net reabsorption occurs. During this process, choline enters the cells at the luminal side down an electrochemical gradient via a specific transporter with a high affinity for choline. It appeared likely that choline was then transported out of the cells against an electrochemical gradient at the basolateral membrane by countertransport for another organic cation. This possibility was examined by studying net transepithelial reabsorption and basolateral uptake and efflux of [14C]choline in isolated S2 segments of rabbit renal proximal tubules. Basolateral uptake, which was inhibited by other organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA), appeared to occur by the standard organic cation transport pathway. However, the addition of TEA to the bathing medium not only failed to trans-stimulate net transepithelial reabsorption and basolateral efflux of [14C]choline but it actually inhibited transepithelial reabsorption by @60%. The results do not support the presence of a countertransport step for choline against an electrochemical gradient at the basolateral membrane. Instead, they suggest that choline crosses this membrane by some form of carrier-mediated diffusion even during the reabsorptive process.

  11. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic model of the rat proximal tubule epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, A M

    1983-01-01

    The rat proximal tubule epithelium is represented as well-stirred, compliant cellular and paracellular compartments bounded by mucosal and serosal bathing solutions. With a uniform pCO2 throughout the epithelium, the model variables include the concentrations of Na, K, Cl, HCO3, H2PO4, HPO4, and H, as well as hydrostatic pressure and electrical potential. Except for a metabolically driven Na-K exchanger at the basolateral cell membrane, all membrane transport within the epithelium is passive and is represented by the linear equations of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In particular, this includes the cotransport of Na-Cl and Na-H2PO4 and countertransport of Na-H at the apical cell membrane. Experimental constraints on the choice of ionic conductivities are satisfied by allowing K-Cl cotransport at the basolateral membrane. The model equations include those for mass balance of the nonreacting species, as well as chemical equilibrium for the acidification reactions. Time-dependent terms are retained to permit the study of transient phenomena. In the steady state the energy dissipation is computed and verified equal to the sum of input from the Na-K exchanger plus the Gibbs free energy of mass addition to the system. The parameter dependence of coupled water transport is studied and shown to be consistent with the predictions of previous analytical models of the lateral intercellular space. Water transport in the presence of an end-proximal (HCO3-depleted) luminal solution is investigated. Here the lower permeability and higher reflection coefficient of HCO3 enhance net sodium and water transport. Due to enhanced flux across the tight junction, this process may permit proximal tubule Na transport to proceed with diminished energy dissipation. PMID:6652211

  12. Functional similarities between pleura and the renal proximal tubule--membrane and cellular considerations.

    PubMed

    Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Hatzoglou, Chryssi; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam

    2005-01-01

    The small amount of liquid that, under physiological conditions, is presented in the pleural cavity has been the focus of extensive research for more than a century. However, there are still unanswered questions and considerable controversies about the nature of the forces governing its movement into and out of the pleural cavity. Early in the 20th century has been proposed that pleural fluid turnover is simple based on the balance between hydraulic and colloid osmotic pressures existing across the pleural membranes. This original hypothesis has not been validated by data accumulating over the last 20 years. Pleural tissues and renal proximal tubules present high water permeability, small transepithelial electrical resistance (22.02 Omega cm2) and the same cation transportation such as Na+ channels, Na+-K+ ATPase channels, and Na+-H+ exchanger. In contrast to previous conflicting theories concerning pleura fluid movement, the same functional characteristics suggest the hypothesis that physiology of pleura is similar to proximal tubules.

  13. Reduced Insulin Receptor Expression Enhances Proximal Tubule Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaurav; Shankar, Kripa; Makhija, Ekta; Gaikwad, Anil; Ecelbarger, Carolyn; Mandhani, Anil; Srivastava, Aneesh; Tiwari, Swasti

    2017-02-01

    Reduced insulin receptor protein levels have been reported in the kidney cortex from diabetic humans and animals. We recently reported that, targeted deletion of insulin receptor (IR) from proximal tubules (PT) resulted in hyperglycemia in non-obese mice. To elucidate the mechanism, we examined human proximal tubule cells (hPTC) and C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat for 20 weeks). Immunoblotting revealed a significantly lower protein level of IR in HFD compare to normal chow diet (NCD). Furthermore, a blunted rise in p-AKT 308 levels in the kidney cortex of HFD mice was observed in response to acute insulin (0.75 IU/kg body weight, i.p) relative to NCD n = 8/group, P < 0.05). Moreover, we found significantly higher transcript levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, a key gluconeogenic enzyme) in the kidney cortex from HFD, relative to mice on NCD. The higher level of PEPCK in HFD was confirmed by immunoblotting. However, no significant differences were observed in cortical glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) or fructose-1,6, bisphosphosphatase (FBPase) enzyme transcript levels. Furthermore, we demonstrated insulin inhibited glucose production in hPTC treated with cyclic AMP and dexamethasone (cAMP/DEXA) to stimulate gluconeogenesis. Transcript levels of the gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK were significantly increased in cAMP/DEXA-stimulated hPTC cells (n = 3, P < 0.05), and insulin attenuated this upregulation Furthermore, the effect of insulin on cAMP/DEXA-induced gluconeogenesis and PEPCK induction was significantly attenuated in IR (siRNA) silenced hPTC (n = 3, P < 0.05). Overall the above data indicate a direct role for IR expression as a determinant of PT-gluconeogenesis. Thus reduced insulin signaling of the proximal tubule may contribute to hyperglycemia in the metabolic syndrome via elevated gluconeogenesis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 276-285, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Discerning the role of mechanosensors in regulating proximal tubule function

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Ora A.

    2015-01-01

    All cells in the body experience external mechanical forces such as shear stress and stretch. These forces are sensed by specialized structures in the cell known as mechanosensors. Cells lining the proximal tubule (PT) of the kidney are continuously exposed to variations in flow rates of the glomerular ultrafiltrate, which manifest as changes in axial shear stress and radial stretch. Studies suggest that these cells respond acutely to variations in flow by modulating their ion transport and endocytic functions to maintain glomerulotubular balance. Conceptually, changes in the axial shear stress in the PT could be sensed by three known structures, namely, the microvilli, the glycocalyx, and primary cilia. The orthogonal component of the force produced by flow exhibits as radial stretch and can cause expansion of the tubule. Forces of stretch are transduced by integrins, by stretch-activated channels, and by cell-cell contacts. This review summarizes our current understanding of flow sensing in PT epithelia, discusses challenges in dissecting the role of individual flow sensors in the mechanosensitive responses, and identifies potential areas of opportunity for new study. PMID:26662200

  15. Visualization of Calcium Dynamics in Kidney Proximal Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Csohány, Rózsa; Prókai, Ágnes; Kis-Petik, Katalin; Szabó, Attila; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Tóvári, József; Enyedi, Ágnes; Orbán, Tamás I.

    2015-01-01

    Intrarenal changes in cytoplasmic calcium levels have a key role in determining pathologic and pharmacologic responses in major kidney diseases. However, cell-specific delivery of calcium-sensitive probes in vivo remains problematic. We generated a transgenic rat stably expressing the green fluorescent protein-calmodulin–based genetically encoded calcium indicator (GCaMP2) predominantly in the kidney proximal tubules. The transposon-based method used allowed the generation of homozygous transgenic rats containing one copy of the transgene per allele with a defined insertion pattern, without genetic or phenotypic alterations. We applied in vitro confocal and in vivo two-photon microscopy to examine basal calcium levels and ligand- and drug-induced alterations in these levels in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Notably, renal ischemia induced a transient increase in cellular calcium, and reperfusion resulted in a secondary calcium load, which was significantly decreased by systemic administration of specific blockers of the angiotensin receptor and the Na-Ca exchanger. The parallel examination of in vivo cellular calcium dynamics and renal circulation by fluorescent probes opens new possibilities for physiologic and pharmacologic investigations. PMID:25788535

  16. Electrophysiology of sodium-coupled transport in proximal renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Lang, F; Messner, G; Rehwald, W

    1986-06-01

    Effects of sodium-coupled transport on intracellular electrolytes and electrical properties of proximal renal tubule cells are described in this review. Simultaneous with addition of substrate for sodium-coupled transport to luminal perfusates, both cell membranes depolarize. The luminal cell membrane depolarizes due to opening of sodium-cotransport pathways. The depolarization of the peritubular cell membrane during sodium-coupled transport is primarily due to a circular current reentering the lumen via the paracellular pathway. The depolarization leads to a transient decrease of basolateral potassium conductance that in turn amplifies the depolarization. However, within 5-10 min of continued exposure to substrate, potassium conductance increases again, and peritubular cell membrane repolarizes. During depolarization the driving force of peritubular bicarbonate exit is reduced. As a result net alkalinization of the cell prevails despite an increase of intracellular sodium activity, which reduces the driving force for the sodium-hydrogen ion exchanger and would thus have been expected to acidify the cell. No evidence is obtained for regulatory inhibition of sodium-coupled transport by intracellular sodium or calcium. Rather, luminal cotransport is altered by the change of driving forces.

  17. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Mark C.; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wean, Sarah E.; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M.; Wiggins, Roger C.; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level. PMID:26054544

  19. NMR-based urine analysis in rats: prediction of proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Kai; Plötz, Thomas; Pestel, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of safety pharmacology is early detection of compound-induced side-effects. NMR-based urine analysis followed by multivariate data analysis (metabonomics) identifies efficiently differences between toxic and non-toxic compounds; but in most cases multiple administrations of the test compound are necessary. We tested the feasibility of detecting proximal tubule kidney toxicity and phospholipidosis with metabonomics techniques after single compound administration as an early safety pharmacology approach. Rats were treated orally, intravenously, inhalatively or intraperitoneally with different test compounds. Urine was collected at 0-8 h and 8-24 h after compound administration, and (1)H NMR-patterns were recorded from the samples. Variation of post-processing and feature extraction methods led to different views on the data. Support Vector Machines were trained on these different data sets and then aggregated as experts in an Ensemble. Finally, validity was monitored with a cross-validation study using a training, validation, and test data set. Proximal tubule kidney toxicity could be predicted with reasonable total classification accuracy (85%), specificity (88%) and sensitivity (78%). In comparison to alternative histological studies, results were obtained quicker, compound need was reduced, and very importantly fewer animals were needed. In contrast, the induction of phospholipidosis by the test compounds could not be predicted using NMR-based urine analysis or the previously published biomarker PAG. NMR-based urine analysis was shown to effectively predict proximal tubule kidney toxicity after single compound administration in rats. Thus, this experimental design allows early detection of toxicity risks with relatively low amounts of compound in a reasonably short period of time.

  20. Drug transporter expression profiling in a three-dimensional kidney proximal tubule in vitro nephrotoxicity model.

    PubMed

    Diekjürgen, Dorina; Grainger, David W

    2018-05-09

    Given currently poor toxicity translational predictions for drug candidates, improved mechanistic understanding underlying nephrotoxicity and drug renal clearance is needed to improve drug development and safety screening. Therefore, better relevant and well-characterized in vitro screening models are required to reliably predict human nephrotoxicity. Because kidney proximal tubules are central to active drug uptake and secretion processes and therefore to nephrotoxicity, this study acquired regio-specific expression data from recently reported primary proximal tubule three-dimensional (3D) hyaluronic acid gel culture and non-gel embedded cultured murine proximal tubule suspensions used in nephrotoxicity assays. Quantitative assessment of the mRNA expression of 21 known kidney tubule markers and important proximal tubule transporters with known roles in drug transport was obtained. Asserting superior gene expression levels over current commonly used two-dimensional (2D) kidney cell culture lines was the study objective. Hence, we compare previously published gel-based 3D proximal tubule fragment culture and their non-gel suspensions for up to 1 week. We demonstrate that 3D tubule culture exhibits superior gene expression levels and profiles compared to published commonly used 2D kidney cell lines (Caki-1 and HK-2) in plastic plate monocultures. Additionally, nearly all tested genes retain mRNA expression after 7 days in both proximal tubule cultures, a limitation of 2D cell culture lines. Importantly, gel presence is shown not to interfere with the gene expression assay. Western blots confirm protein expression of OAT1 and 3 and OCT2. Functional transport assays confirm their respective transporter functions in vitro. Overall, results validate retention of essential toxicity-relevant transporters in this published 3D proximal tubule model over conventional 2D kidney cell cultures, producing opportunities for more reliable, sensitive, and comprehensive drug

  1. Depression of fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog without sodium diuresis

    PubMed Central

    Howards, Stuart S.; Davis, Bernard B.; Knox, Franklyn G.; Wright, Fred S.; Berliner, Robert W.

    1968-01-01

    The effect of infusions of hyperoncotic solutions on fractional sodium reabsorption by the proximal tubule of the dog was studied by the recollection micropuncture method. Tubule fluid to plasma inulin concentration ratios were measured for identified proximal tubule segments before and after infusion of 25% albumin or dextran solutions. Results were compared with changes in fractional reabsorption during saline diuresis. Plasma volume increased 66% ± SE 5.8 after infusion of albumin solution and 94% ± SE 8.2 after infusion of dextran solution. Fractional sodium reabosorption by the proximal tubule was depressed after infusion of both of these hyperoncotic solutions. Nevertheless, changes in sodium excretion after infusion of albumin and dextran were small. In contrast, after infusions of isotonic sodium chloride solution, which increased plasma volume 61% ± SE 5.8, a decrease in fractional reabsorption of 50.7% ± SE 7.2 was associated with large changes in sodium excretion. PMID:5658588

  2. Effects of lead intoxication on intercellular junctions and biochemical alterations of the renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Moreno, L G; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González, S; Mondragón, R; Cerbón-Solorzáno, J; Valdés, J; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2009-10-01

    Lead intoxication is a worldwide health problem which frequently affects the kidney. In this work, we studied the effects of chronic lead intoxication (500 ppm of Pb in drinking water during seven months) on the structure, function and biochemical properties of rat proximal tubule cells. Lead-exposed animals showed increased lead concentration in kidney, reduction of calcium and amino acids uptake, oxidative damage and glucosuria, proteinuria, hematuria and reduced urinary pH. These biochemical and physiological alterations were related to striking morphological modifications in the structure of tubule epithelial cells and in the morphology of their mitochondria, nuclei, lysosomes, basal and apical membranes. Interestingly, in addition to the nuclei, inclusion bodies were found in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria. The epithelial cell structure modifications included an early loss of the apical microvillae, followed by a decrement of the luminal space and the respective apposition and proximity of apical membranes, resulting in the formation of atypical intercellular contacts and adhesion structures. Similar but less marked alterations were observed in subacute lead intoxication as well. Our work contributes in the understanding of the physiopathology of lead intoxication on the structure of renal tubular epithelial cell-cell contacts in vivo.

  3. Uptake of leptin and albumin via separate pathways in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Jessica F; Grinfeld, Esther; Poronnik, Philip; McAinch, Andrew J; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2016-10-01

    The adipokine leptin and oncotic protein albumin are endocytosed in the proximal tubule via the scavenger receptor megalin. Leptin reduces megalin expression and activates cell signalling pathways that upregulate fibrotic protein expression. The aim of this study was to investigate if leptin uptake in proximal tubule cells was via the albumin-megalin endocytic complex. In immortalised proximal tubule Opossum kidney cells (OK) fluorescent leptin and albumin co-localised following 5min exposure, however there was no co-localisation at 10, 20 and 30min exposure. In OK cells, acute exposure to leptin for 2h did not alter NHE3, ClC-5, NHERF1 and NHERF2 mRNA. However, acute leptin exposure increased NHERF2 protein expression in proximal tubule cells. In OK cells, immunoprecipitation experimentation indicated leptin did not bind to ClC-5. Leptin uptake in OK cells was enhanced by bafilomycin and ammonium chloride treatment, demonstrating that uptake was not dependent on lysosomal pH. Thus, it is likely that two pools of megalin exist in proximal tubule cells to facilitate separate uptake of leptin and albumin by endocytosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Changes in Hydrostatic Pressure in Peritubular Capillaries on the Permeability of the Proximal Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Hayslett, John P.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of increased hydrostatic pressure in the peritubular vessels on net sodium reabsorption from the proximal tubule was examined in the Necturus. An increase in the pressure gradient of 2.0 cm H2O across the wall of the proximal tubule, produced by ligation of the postcaval vein was associated with a marked reduction in net reabsorption and an increased back flux of water and electrolytes. This change was accompanied by a slight, but significant drop in the transepithelial electrical potential but not by an alteration in the steady-state chemical gradient. These studies highlight the importance of changes in the permeability characteristics of the proximal tubule on net sodium transport. Images PMID:4703221

  5. Bioprinting of 3D Convoluted Renal Proximal Tubules on Perfusable Chips

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Kimberly A.; Kolesky, David B.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Herrmann, Jessica; Obuobi, Humphrey; Moisan, Annie; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional models of kidney tissue that recapitulate human responses are needed for drug screening, disease modeling, and, ultimately, kidney organ engineering. Here, we report a bioprinting method for creating 3D human renal proximal tubules in vitro that are fully embedded within an extracellular matrix and housed in perfusable tissue chips, allowing them to be maintained for greater than two months. Their convoluted tubular architecture is circumscribed by proximal tubule epithelial cells and actively perfused through the open lumen. These engineered 3D proximal tubules on chip exhibit significantly enhanced epithelial morphology and functional properties relative to the same cells grown on 2D controls with or without perfusion. Upon introducing the nephrotoxin, Cyclosporine A, the epithelial barrier is disrupted in a dose-dependent manner. Our bioprinting method provides a new route for programmably fabricating advanced human kidney tissue models on demand. PMID:27725720

  6. Bioprinting of 3D Convoluted Renal Proximal Tubules on Perfusable Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Kimberly A.; Kolesky, David B.; Skylar-Scott, Mark A.; Herrmann, Jessica; Obuobi, Humphrey; Moisan, Annie; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-10-01

    Three-dimensional models of kidney tissue that recapitulate human responses are needed for drug screening, disease modeling, and, ultimately, kidney organ engineering. Here, we report a bioprinting method for creating 3D human renal proximal tubules in vitro that are fully embedded within an extracellular matrix and housed in perfusable tissue chips, allowing them to be maintained for greater than two months. Their convoluted tubular architecture is circumscribed by proximal tubule epithelial cells and actively perfused through the open lumen. These engineered 3D proximal tubules on chip exhibit significantly enhanced epithelial morphology and functional properties relative to the same cells grown on 2D controls with or without perfusion. Upon introducing the nephrotoxin, Cyclosporine A, the epithelial barrier is disrupted in a dose-dependent manner. Our bioprinting method provides a new route for programmably fabricating advanced human kidney tissue models on demand.

  7. 3D Proximal Tubule Tissues Recapitulate Key Aspects of Renal Physiology to Enable Nephrotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    King, Shelby M.; Higgins, J. William; Nino, Celina R.; Smith, Timothy R.; Paffenroth, Elizabeth H.; Fairbairn, Casey E.; Docuyanan, Abigail; Shah, Vishal D.; Chen, Alice E.; Presnell, Sharon C.; Nguyen, Deborah G.

    2017-01-01

    Due to its exposure to high concentrations of xenobiotics, the kidney proximal tubule is a primary site of nephrotoxicity and resulting attrition in the drug development pipeline. Current pre-clinical methods using 2D cell cultures and animal models are unable to fully recapitulate clinical drug responses due to limited in vitro functional lifespan, or species-specific differences. Using Organovo's proprietary 3D bioprinting platform, we have developed a fully cellular human in vitro model of the proximal tubule interstitial interface comprising renal fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and primary human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells to enable more accurate prediction of tissue-level clinical outcomes. Histological characterization demonstrated formation of extensive microvascular networks supported by endogenous extracellular matrix deposition. The epithelial cells of the 3D proximal tubule tissues demonstrated tight junction formation and expression of renal uptake and efflux transporters; the polarized localization and function of P-gp and SGLT2 were confirmed. Treatment of 3D proximal tubule tissues with the nephrotoxin cisplatin induced loss of tissue viability and epithelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion, and cimetidine rescued these effects, confirming the role of the OCT2 transporter in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The tissues also demonstrated a fibrotic response to TGFβ as assessed by an increase in gene expression associated with human fibrosis and histological verification of excess extracellular matrix deposition. Together, these results suggest that the bioprinted 3D proximal tubule model can serve as a test bed for the mechanistic assessment of human nephrotoxicity and the development of pathogenic states involving epithelial-interstitial interactions, making them an important adjunct to animal studies. PMID:28337147

  8. The small molecule probe PT-Yellow labels the renal proximal tubules in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sander, Veronika; Patke, Shantanu; Sahu, Srikanta; Teoh, Chai Lean; Peng, Zhenzhen; Chang, Young-Tae; Davidson, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a small fluorescent molecule, BDNCA3-D2, herein referred to as PT-Yellow. Soaking zebrafish embryos in PT-Yellow or intraperitoneal injection into adults results in non-toxic in vivo fluorescent labeling of the renal proximal tubules, the major site of blood filtrate reabsorption and a common target of injury in acute kidney injury. We demonstrate the applicability of this new compound as a rapid and simple readout for zebrafish kidney filtration and proximal tubule reabsorption function.

  9. Mechanisms of Cadmium-Induced Proximal Tubule Injury: New Insights with Implications for Biomonitoring and Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is an important industrial agent and environmental pollutant that is a major cause of kidney disease. With chronic exposure, cadmium accumulates in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, resulting in a generalized reabsorptive dysfunction characterized by polyuria and low-molecular-weight proteinuria. The traditional view has been that as cadmium accumulates in proximal tubule cells, it produces a variety of relatively nonspecific toxic effects that result in the death of renal epithelial cells through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. However, a growing volume of evidence suggests that rather than merely being a consequence of cell death, the early stages of cadmium-induced proximal tubule injury may involve much more specific changes in cell-cell adhesion, cellular signaling pathways, and autophagic responses that occur well before the onset of necrosis or apoptosis. In this commentary, we summarize these recent findings, and we offer our own perspectives as to how they relate to the toxic actions of cadmium in the kidney. In addition, we highlight recent findings, suggesting that it may be possible to detect the early stages of cadmium toxicity through the use of improved biomarkers. Finally, some of the therapeutic implications of these findings will be considered. Because cadmium is, in many respects, a model cumulative nephrotoxicant, these insights may have broader implications regarding the general mechanisms through which a variety of drugs and toxic chemicals damage the kidney. PMID:22669569

  10. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptosis in murine proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Manish M; Messer, Kurt J; Mayeux, Philip R

    2006-06-01

    Since inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and proximal tubule injury are known to be critical determinants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal failure, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in proximal tubule cell apoptosis was examined. An 18-h treatment with a combination of LPS (5 microg/ml) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, 100 units/ml) synergistically induced iNOS and produced a 20-fold increase in NO generation in the TKPTS murine proximal tubule cell line. NO generation by LPS + IFN-gamma was blocked by a specific iNOS blocker, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL, 1 mM). To assess the role of iNOS-derived NO in proximal tubule cell apoptosis, annexin V- and propidium iodide-labeled cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. Neither the induction of iNOS nor its inhibition produced significant apoptotic cell death in TKPTS cells. Two exogenous NO donors were used to examine the role of NO more directly in proximal tubule apoptosis. Although both sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an iron-containing, nitrosonium cation donor, and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), a noniron-containing, NO generator, produced a concentration-dependent increase in NO generation, only SNP increased apoptotic cell death in TKPTS cells (5.9 +/- 0.7% in control cells vs. 21.6 +/- 3.8% in SNP [500 microM]-treated cells; n = 4-9; p < 0.01). SNP-mediated tubule cell apoptosis was not dependent on the activation of caspases or p53 but was possibly related to the generation of reactive oxygen species by SNP. Thus, in TKPTS cells induction of iNOS and generation of NO by LPS does not lead to tubular epithelial cell death.

  11. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage. PMID:26465605

  12. Expression of Cyt-c-Mediated Mitochondrial Apoptosis-Related Proteins in Rat Renal Proximal Tubules during Development.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Feng; Tian, He; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhen-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis regulates embryogenesis, organ metamorphosis and tissue homeostasis. Mitochondrial signaling is an apoptotic pathway, in which Cyt-c and Apaf-1 are transformed into an apoptosome, which activates procaspase-9 and triggers apoptosis. This study evaluated Cyt-c, Apaf-1 and caspase-9 expression during renal development. Kidneys from embryonic (E) 16-, 18-, and 20-day-old fetuses and postnatal (P) 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 14-, and 21-day-old pups were obtained. Immunohistochemical analysis, dual-labeled immunofluorescence, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique assay and Western blot were performed in addition to histological analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that Cyt-c was strongly expressed in proximal and distal tubules (DTs) at all time points. Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 were strongly expressed in proximal tubules (PTs) but only weakly expressed in DTs. Dual-labeled immunofluorescence showed that most tubules expressed both Cyt-c and Apaf-1, except for some tubules that only expressed Cyt-c. The TUNEL assay showed a greater percentage of apoptotic cells in PTs compared to DTs. Apaf-1 and cleaved caspase-9 protein expression gradually increased during the embryonic period and peaked during the early postnatal period but apparently declined from P7. Cyt-c protein expression was weak during the embryonic period but obviously increased after P1. This study showed that PTs are more sensitive to apoptosis than DTs during rat renal development, even though both tubule segments contain a large number of mitochondria. Furthermore, Cyt-c-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis-related proteins play an important role in PTs during the early postnatal kidney development. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The effect of big endothelin-1 in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Beara-Lasić, Lada; Knotek, Mladen; Čejvan, Kenan; Jakšić, Ozren; Lasić, Zoran; Skorić, Boško; Brkljačić, Vera; Banfić, Hrvoje

    1997-01-01

    An obligatory step in the biosynthesis of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the conversion of its inactive precursor, big ET-1, into the mature form by the action of specific, phosphoramidon-sensitive, endothelin converting enzyme(s) (ECE). Disparate effects of big ET-1 and ET-1 on renal tubule function suggest that big ET-1 might directly influence renal tubule function. Therefore, the role of the enzymatic conversion of big ET-1 into ET-1 in eliciting the functional response (generation of 1,2-diacylglycerol) to big ET-1 was studied in the rat proximal tubules.In renal cortical slices incubated with big ET-1, pretreatment with phosphoramidon (an ECE inhibitor) reduced tissue immunoreactive ET-1 to a level similar to that of cortical tissue not exposed to big ET-1. This confirms the presence and effectiveness of ECE inhibition by phosphoramidon.In freshly isolated proximal tubule cells, big ET-1 stimulated the generation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Neither phosphoramidon nor chymostatin, a chymase inhibitor, influenced the generation of DAG evoked by big ET-1.Big ET-1-dependent synthesis of DAG was found in the brush-border membrane. It was unaffected by BQ123, an ETA receptor antagonist, but was blocked by bosentan, an ETA,B-nonselective endothelin receptor antagonist.These results suggest that the proximal tubule is a site for the direct effect of big ET-1 in the rat kidney. The effect of big ET-1 is confined to the brush-border membrane of the proximal tubule, which may be the site of big ET-1-sensitive receptors. PMID:9051300

  14. Cellular localization of uranium in the renal proximal tubules during acute renal uranium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Kitahara, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kyoko; Blyth, Benjamin J; Suya, Noriyoshi; Konishi, Teruaki; Terada, Yasuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2015-12-01

    Renal toxicity is a hallmark of uranium exposure, with uranium accumulating specifically in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules causing tubular damage. As the distribution, concentration and dynamics of accumulated uranium at the cellular level is not well understood, here, we report on high-resolution quantitative in situ measurements by high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis in renal sections from a rat model of uranium-induced acute renal toxicity. One day after subcutaneous administration of uranium acetate to male Wistar rats at a dose of 0.5 mg uranium kg(-1) body weight, uranium concentration in the S3 segment of the proximal tubules was 64.9 ± 18.2 µg g(-1) , sevenfold higher than the mean renal uranium concentration (9.7 ± 2.4 µg g(-1) ). Uranium distributed into the epithelium of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and highly concentrated uranium (50-fold above mean renal concentration) in micro-regions was found near the nuclei. These uranium levels were maintained up to 8 days post-administration, despite more rapid reductions in mean renal concentration. Two weeks after uranium administration, damaged areas were filled with regenerating tubules and morphological signs of tissue recovery, but areas of high uranium concentration (100-fold above mean renal concentration) were still found in the epithelium of regenerating tubules. These data indicate that site-specific accumulation of uranium in micro-regions of the S3 segment of the proximal tubules and retention of uranium in concentrated areas during recovery are characteristics of uranium behavior in the kidney. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Grouper tshβ Promoter-Driven Transgenic Zebrafish Marks Proximal Kidney Tubule Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Sun, Zhi-Hui; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Kidney tubule plays a critical role in recovering or secreting solutes, but the detailed morphogenesis remains unclear. Our previous studies have found that grouper tshβ (gtshβ) is also expressed in kidney, however, the distribution significance is still unknown. To understand the gtshβ role and kidney tubule morphogenesis, here, we have generated a transgenic zebrafish line Tg(gtshβ:GFP) with green fluorescent protein driven by the gtshβ promoter. Similar to the endogenous tshβ in zebrafish or in grouper, the gtshβ promoter-driven GFP is expressed in pituitary and kidney, and the developing details of proximal kidney tubule are marked in the transgenic zebrafish line. The gfp initially transcribes at 16 hours post fertilization (hpf) above the dorsal mesentery, and partially co-localizes with pronephric tubular markers slc20a1a and cdh17. Significantly, the GFP specifically localizes in proximal pronephric segments during embryogenesis and resides at kidney duct epithelium in adult fish. To test whether the gtshβ promoter-driven GFP may serve as a readout signal of the tubular development, we have treated the embryos with retinoic acid signaing (RA) reagents, in which exogenous RA addition results in a distal extension of the proximal segments, while RA inhibition induces a weakness and shortness of the proximal segments. Therefore, this transgenic line provides a useful tool for genetic or chemical analysis of kidney tubule. PMID:24905828

  16. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Glucotoxicity and Tumorigenesis Downstream the Renal Proximal Tubule?

    PubMed

    Bertinat, Romina; Nualart, Francisco; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    At present, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Effective glycaemic management is the most powerful tool to delay the establishment of diabetic complications, such as diabetic kidney disease. Together with reducing blood glucose levels, new anti-diabetic agents are expected not only to control the progression but also to restore known defects of the diabetic kidney. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are promising anti-diabetic agents that reduce hyperglycaemia by impairing glucose reabsorption in proximal tubule of the kidney and increasing glucosuria. SGLT2 inhibitors have shown to reduce glucotoxicity in isolated proximal tubule cells and also to attenuate expression of markers of overall kidney damage in experimental animal models of diabetes, but the actual renoprotective effect for downstream nephron segments is still unknown and deserves further attention. Here, we briefly discuss possible undesired effects of enhanced glucosuria and albuminuria in nephron segments beyond the proximal tubule after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, offering new lines of research to further understand the renoprotective action of these anti-diabetic agents. Strategies blocking glucose reabsorption by renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) may be protective for RPTEC, but downstream nephron segments will still be exposed to high glucose and albumin levels through the luminal face. The actual effect of constant enhanced glucosuria over distal nephron segments remains to be established. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1635-1637, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Koral, Kelly; Li, Hui; Ganesh, Nandita; Birnbaum, Morris J; Hallows, Kenneth R; Erkan, Elif

    2014-12-15

    Proximal tubule epithelial cells have a highly sophisticated endocytic machinery to retrieve the albumin in the glomerular filtrate. The megalin-cubilin complex and the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) play a pivotal role in albumin endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that protein kinase B (Akt) regulates albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule through an interaction with Dab2. Here, we examined the nature of Akt-Dab2 interaction. The pleckstrin homology (PH) and catalytic domains (CD) of Akt interacted with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of Dab2 based on yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Pull-down experiments utilizing the truncated constructs of Dab2 demonstrated that the initial 11 amino acids of Dab2-PRD were sufficient to mediate the interaction between Akt and Dab2. Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; therefore, Akt1 and Akt2 may play a compensatory role in albumin endocytosis. Furthermore, both Akt isoforms phosphorylated Dab2 at Ser residues 448 and 449. Ser-to-Ala mutations of these Dab2 residues inhibited albumin endocytosis and resulted in a shift in location of Dab2 from the peripheral to the perinuclear area, suggesting the physiological relevance of these phosphorylation sites in albumin endocytosis. We conclude that both Akt1 and Akt2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of Dab2 by Akt induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Further delineation of how Akt affects expression/phosphorylation of endocytic adaptors and receptors will enhance our understanding of the molecular network triggered by albumin overload in the proximal tubule. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. A microperfusion study of sucrose movement across the rat proximal tubule during renal vein constriction

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Norman; Yarger, William E.; Aynedjian, Hagop S.

    1971-01-01

    Constriction of the renal vein has been shown to inhibit net sodium and water reabsorption by the rat proximal tubule. The mechanism is unknown but might be the result of inhibition of the active sodium pump induced by changes in the interstitial fluid compartment of the kidney, or to enhanced passive backflux of sodium and water into the cell or directly into the tubular lumen. Since passive movement of solutes across epithelial membranes is determined in part by the permeability characteristics of the epithelium, an increase in the permeability of the proximal tubule during venous constriction would suggest that enhanced passive flux is involved in the inhibition of reabsorption. In the present experiments, isolated segments of rat proximal convoluted tubules were microperfused in vivo with saline while the animals were receiving 14C-labeled sucrose intravenously. In normal control animals, no sucrose was detected in the majority of the collected tubular perfusates. In rats with renal vein constriction (RVC), however, sucrose consistently appeared in the tubular perfusates. The rate of inflow of sucrose correlated with the length of the perfused segment, estimated by fractional water reabsorption. In another group of animals with renal vein constriction, inulin-14C was given intravenously and the proximal tubules similarly microperfused. Inulin did not appear in the majority of collected perfusates in these animals. These observations indicate that a physiological alteration in the permeability of the proximal tubule occurs during RVC. Such an increase in permeability is consistent with the view that enhanced passive extracellular back-flux plays a role in the reduction of net sodium and water reabsorption in this experimental condition. PMID:5540167

  19. Modeling oxygen consumption in the proximal tubule: effects of NHE and SGLT2 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vallon, Volker; Edwards, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how physiological, pharmacological, and pathological conditions that alter sodium reabsorption (TNa) in the proximal tubule affect oxygen consumption (QO2) and Na+ transport efficiency (TNa/QO2). To do so, we expanded a mathematical model of solute transport in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney. The model represents compliant S1, S2, and S3 segments and accounts for their specific apical and basolateral transporters. Sodium is reabsorbed transcellularly, via apical Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) and Na+-glucose (SGLT) cotransporters, and paracellularly. Our results suggest that TNa/QO2 is 80% higher in S3 than in S1–S2 segments, due to the greater contribution of the passive paracellular pathway to TNa in the former segment. Inhibition of NHE or Na-K-ATPase reduced TNa and QO2, as well as Na+ transport efficiency. SGLT2 inhibition also reduced proximal tubular TNa but increased QO2; these effects were relatively more pronounced in the S3 vs. the S1–S2 segments. Diabetes increased TNa and QO2 and reduced TNa/QO2, owing mostly to hyperfiltration. Since SGLT2 inhibition lowers diabetic hyperfiltration, the net effect on TNa, QO2, and Na+ transport efficiency in the proximal tubule will largely depend on the individual extent to which glomerular filtration rate is lowered. PMID:25855513

  20. Anaerobic and aerobic pathways for salvage of proximal tubules from hypoxia-induced mitochondrial injury

    PubMed Central

    WEINBERG, JOEL M.; VENKATACHALAM, MANJERI A.; ROESER, NANCY F.; SAIKUMAR, POTHANA; DONG, ZHENG; SENTER, RUTH A.; NISSIM, ITZHAK

    2010-01-01

    We have further examined the mechanisms for a severe mitochondrial energetic deficit, deenergization, and impaired respiration in complex I that develop in kidney proximal tubules during hypoxia-reoxygenation, and their prevention and reversal by supplementation with α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) + aspartate. The abnormalities preceded the mitochondrial permeability transition and cytochrome c loss. Anaerobic metabolism of α-KG + aspartate generated ATP and maintained mitochondrial membrane potential. Other citric-acid cycle intermediates that can promote anaerobic metabolism (malate and fumarate) were also effective singly or in combination with α-KG. Succinate, the end product of these anaerobic pathways that can bypass complex I, was not protective when provided only during hypoxia. However, during reoxygenation, succinate also rescued the tubules, and its benefit, like that of α-KG + malate, persisted after the extra substrate was withdrawn. Thus proximal tubules can be salvaged from hypoxia-reoxygenation mitochondrial injury by both anaerobic metabolism of citric-acid cycle intermediates and aerobic metabolism of succinate. These results bear on the understanding of a fundamental mode of mitochondrial dysfunction during tubule injury and on strategies to prevent and reverse it. PMID:11053054

  1. Local pH domains regulate NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Burford, James L.; McDonough, Alicia A.; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    2014-01-01

    The proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), located in the apical dense microvilli (brush border), plays a major role in the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the renal proximal tubule. In response to a rise in blood pressure NHE3 redistributes in the plane of the plasma membrane to the base of the brush border, where NHE3 activity is reduced. This NHE3 redistribution is assumed to provoke pressure natriuresis; however, it is unclear how NHE3 redistribution per se reduces NHE3 activity. To investigate if the distribution of NHE3 in the brush border can change the reabsorption rate, we constructed a spatiotemporal mathematical model of NHE3-mediated Na+ reabsorption across a proximal tubule cell and compared the model results with in vivo experiments in rats. The model predicts that when NHE3 is localized exclusively at the base of the brush border, it creates local pH microdomains that reduce NHE3 activity by >30%. We tested the model's prediction experimentally: the rat kidney cortex was loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and cells of the proximal tubule were imaged in vivo using confocal fluorescence microscopy before and after an increase of blood pressure by ∼50 mmHg. The experimental results supported the model by demonstrating that a rise of blood pressure induces the development of pH microdomains near the bottom of the brush border. These local changes in pH reduce NHE3 activity, which may explain the pressure natriuresis response to NHE3 redistribution. PMID:25298526

  2. Proximal tubule glutamine synthetase expression is necessary for the normal response to dietary protein restriction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2017-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion changes in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of [Formula: see text] and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation. Because renal proximal tubule GS expression increases during dietary protein restriction, this could contribute to the decreased ammonia excretion. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of proximal tubule GS in the renal response to protein restriction. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Cre-negative (Control) and PT-GS-KO mice in metabolic cages were provided 20% protein diet for 2 days and were then changed to low-protein (6%) diet for the next 7 days. Additional PT-GS-KO mice were maintained on 20% protein diet. Dietary protein restriction caused a rapid decrease in urinary ammonia excretion in both genotypes, but PT-GS-KO blunted this adaptive response significantly. This occurred despite no significant genotype-dependent differences in urinary pH or in serum electrolytes. There were no significant differences between Control and PT-GS-KO mice in expression of multiple other proteins involved in renal ammonia handling. We conclude that proximal tubule GS expression is necessary for the appropriate decrease in ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  3. Basolateral phosphate transport in renal proximal-tubule-like OK cells.

    PubMed

    Barac-Nieto, M; Alfred, M; Spitzer, A

    2002-09-01

    It is generally assumed that phosphate (Pi) effluxes from proximal tubule cells by passive diffusion across the basolateral (BL) membrane. We explored the mechanism of BL Pi efflux in proximal tubule-like OK cells grown on permeable filters and then loaded with 32P. BL efflux of 32P was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by exposing the BL side of the monolayer to 12.5 mM Pi, to 10 mM citrate, or by acid-loading the cells, and was inhibited by exposure to 0.05 mM Pi or 25 mM HCO3; by contrast, BL exposure to high (8.4) pH, 40 mM K+, 140 mM Na gluconate (replacing NaCl), 10 mM lactate, 10 mM succinate, or 10 mM glutamate did not affect BL 32P efflux. These data are consistent with BL Pi efflux from proximal tubule-like cells occurring, in part, via an electro-neutral sodium-sensitive anion transporter capable of exchanging two moles of intracellular acidic H2PO4- for each mole of extracellular basic HPO4= or for citrate.

  4. Proximal tubule hydrogen ion transport processes in diuretic-induced metabolic alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, S S; Ware, R A; Kleinman, J G

    1985-07-01

    Transport systems involved in proximal tubule HCO-3 reabsorption were examined in disaggregated renal cortical tubules from rabbits with metabolic alkalosis. The acid-base disorder was induced by first treating the animals with furosemide, and then maintaining them on low Cl--high HCO-3 diets. On this regimen, the rabbits had increases in blood pH and total CO2 values and decreases in serum K+ concentrations. Urine Cl- concentrations were less than 15 mEq/L in all cases. Na+-H+ exchange was evaluated by incubating tubules in rotenone in an Na+-free medium to deplete them of Na+ and adenosine triphosphate. Then the tubules were resuspended in media containing 65 or 12.5 mEq/L Na+ at either pH 7.1 or pH 7.6. The rise in cell pH estimated by dimethadione distribution was taken as a measure of Na+-H+ exchanger activity. At the high incubation pH, Na+-H+ exchanger activity appeared to be the same in tubules taken from alkalotic rabbits compared with those prepared from normal rabbits. At the low incubation pH, the activity of this transport system appeared to be depressed by 40% to 50% in alkalosis, with kinetics that suggested a decreased Vmax for the exchanger. Na+-independent H+ transport, presumably reflecting activity of an H+-adenosine triphosphatase, was evaluated by preincubating tubules in a Na+-free medium in the presence of ouabain, and then sequentially exposing them to and removing them from a solution containing 20 mmol/L NH4Cl.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Electrochemical forces for chloride transport in the proximal tubules of the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Sohtell, M

    1978-08-01

    The electrochemical forces for chloride transport in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney were studied using micropuncture techniques. Electrical transmembrane potentials were recorded in randomly punctured tubules with Ling-Gerhard electrodes. Chloride activities in the luminal, cellular and interstitial compartments were measured with ion selective micro-electrodes. Electrical potential measurements between cell to interstitium and lumen to interstitium were -72.1 +/- 2.6 mV and +0.5 +/- 1.4 mV (mean +/- S.D.) respectively. The calculated chloride concentrations for lumen, cell and interstitium were 133.0 +/- 10.3 mM, 8.5 +/- 1.0 mM and 99.1 +/- 3.2 mM (mean +/- S.D.) respectively. The net electrochemical forces, qualitatively, offer a passive chloride ion pathway through the tubular wall and a chloride equilibrium over the luminal membrane seems to exist.

  6. Characterization of injury in isolated rat proximal tubules during cold incubation and rewarming.

    PubMed

    Bienholz, Anja; Walter, Björn; Pless-Petig, Gesine; Guberina, Hana; Kribben, Andreas; Witzke, Oliver; Rauen, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Organ shortage leads to an increased utilization of marginal organs which are particularly sensitive to storage-associated damage. Cold incubation and rewarming-induced injury is iron-dependent in many cell types. In addition, a chloride-dependent component of injury has been described. This work examines the injury induced by cold incubation and rewarming in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. The tissue storage solution TiProtec® and a chloride-poor modification, each with and without iron chelators, were used for cold incubation. Incubation was performed 4°C for up to 168 h, followed by rewarming in an extracellular buffer (3 h at 37°C). After 48, 120 and 168 h of cold incubation LDH release was lower in solutions containing iron chelators. After rewarming, injury increased especially after cold incubation in chelator-free solutions. Without addition of iron chelators LDH release showed a tendency to be higher in chloride-poor solutions. Following rewarming after 48 h of cold incubation lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased and metabolic activity was tendentially better in tubules incubated with iron chelators. Morphological alterations included mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation being partially reversible during rewarming. ATP content was better preserved in chloride-rich solutions. During rewarming, there was a further decline of ATP content in the so far best conditions and minor alterations under the other conditions, while oxygen consumption was not significantly different compared to non-stored control tubules. Results show an iron-dependent component of preservation injury during cold incubation and rewarming in rat proximal renal tubules and reveal a benefit of chloride for the maintenance of tubular energy state during cold incubation.

  7. Characterization of injury in isolated rat proximal tubules during cold incubation and rewarming

    PubMed Central

    Bienholz, Anja; Walter, Björn; Pless-Petig, Gesine; Guberina, Hana; Kribben, Andreas; Witzke, Oliver; Rauen, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Organ shortage leads to an increased utilization of marginal organs which are particularly sensitive to storage-associated damage. Cold incubation and rewarming-induced injury is iron-dependent in many cell types. In addition, a chloride-dependent component of injury has been described. This work examines the injury induced by cold incubation and rewarming in isolated rat renal proximal tubules. The tissue storage solution TiProtec® and a chloride-poor modification, each with and without iron chelators, were used for cold incubation. Incubation was performed 4°C for up to 168 h, followed by rewarming in an extracellular buffer (3 h at 37°C). After 48, 120 and 168 h of cold incubation LDH release was lower in solutions containing iron chelators. After rewarming, injury increased especially after cold incubation in chelator-free solutions. Without addition of iron chelators LDH release showed a tendency to be higher in chloride-poor solutions. Following rewarming after 48 h of cold incubation lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased and metabolic activity was tendentially better in tubules incubated with iron chelators. Morphological alterations included mitochondrial swelling and fragmentation being partially reversible during rewarming. ATP content was better preserved in chloride-rich solutions. During rewarming, there was a further decline of ATP content in the so far best conditions and minor alterations under the other conditions, while oxygen consumption was not significantly different compared to non-stored control tubules. Results show an iron-dependent component of preservation injury during cold incubation and rewarming in rat proximal renal tubules and reveal a benefit of chloride for the maintenance of tubular energy state during cold incubation. PMID:28672023

  8. Partitioning-Defective 1a/b Depletion Impairs Glomerular and Proximal Tubule Development.

    PubMed

    Akchurin, Oleh; Du, Zhongfang; Ramkellawan, Nadira; Dalal, Vidhi; Han, Seung Hyeok; Pullman, James; Müsch, Anne; Susztak, Katalin; Reidy, Kimberly J

    2016-12-01

    The kidney is a highly polarized epithelial organ that develops from undifferentiated mesenchyme, although the mechanisms that regulate the development of renal epithelial polarity are incompletely understood. Partitioning-defective 1 (Par1) proteins have been implicated in cell polarity and epithelial morphogenesis; however, the role of these proteins in the developing kidney has not been established. Therefore, we studied the contribution of Par1a/b to renal epithelial development. We examined the renal phenotype of newborn compound mutant mice carrying only one allele of Par1a or Par1b. Loss of three out of four Par1a/b alleles resulted in severe renal hypoplasia, associated with impaired ureteric bud branching. Compared with kidneys of newborn control littermates, kidneys of newborn mutant mice exhibited dilated proximal tubules and immature glomeruli, and the renal proximal tubular epithelia lacked proper localization of adhesion complexes. Furthermore, Par1a/b mutants expressed low levels of renal Notch ligand Jag1, activated Notch2, and Notch effecter Hes1. Together, these data demonstrate that Par1a/b has a key role in glomerular and proximal tubule development, likely via modulation of Notch signaling. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Uric acid upregulates the adiponectin-adiponectin receptor 1 pathway in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingmei; Fu, Chensheng; Xiao, Jing; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-01-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is a protein hormone that is primarily derived from adipocytes. It can also be secreted by renal cells. Hypoadiponectinemia has been documented in patients with hyperuricemia, however, whether soluble uric acid (SUA) regulates the expression of APN and APN receptor 1 (AdipoR1) in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated the expression of APN and AdipoR1 in cultured PTECs that were exposed to SUA through immunofluorescence and western blot analysis. In addition, Sprague-Dawley rats with oxonic acid-induced hyperuricemia (HUA) with or without febuxostat treatment were employed as an animal model to measure 24 h urine protein, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, uric acid and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Renal pathology was evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. APN and AdipoR1 expression in the renal cortex were evaluated by western blotting. The results demonstrated that, in PTECs, the expression of APN and AdipoR1 was constant and increased upon SUA exposure. Similar observations were made within the proximal renal tubules of rats, and the oxonic acid-induced increases in APN and AdipoR1 were offset by febuxostat treatment. Furthermore, SUA-treated PTECs exhibited an increase in the expression of NLR family pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) 3, which was dose-dependent. NLRP3 expression was also significantly increased in the renal cortex of HUA rats compared with control and febuxostat-treated rats. In conclusion, SUA enhanced the expression of APN and AdipoR1 in PTECs, which was associated with an increase in NLRP3 expression. The APN-AdipoR1 pathway was demonstrated to have an important role in in vitro and in vivo models of renal proximal tubule inflammatory injury. Therefore, this pathway may be a potential therapy target in urate nephropathy. PMID:29359786

  10. Far infrared radiation promotes rabbit renal proximal tubule cell proliferation and functional characteristics, and protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-Ni; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Young, Tai-Horng

    2017-01-01

    Far infrared radiation, a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum, is beneficial for long-term tissue healing, anti-inflammatory effects, growth promotion, sleep modulation, acceleration of microcirculation, and pain relief. We investigated if far infrared radiation is beneficial for renal proximal tubule cell cultivation and renal tissue engineering. We observed the effects of far infrared radiation on renal proximal tubules cells, including its effects on cell proliferation, gene and protein expression, and viability. We also examined the protective effects of far infrared radiation against cisplatin, a nephrotoxic agent, using the human proximal tubule cell line HK-2. We found that daily exposure to far infrared radiation for 30 min significantly increased rabbit renal proximal tubule cell proliferation in vitro, as assessed by MTT assay. Far infrared radiation was not only beneficial to renal proximal tubule cell proliferation, it also increased the expression of ATPase Na+/K+ subunit alpha 1 and glucose transporter 1, as determined by western blotting. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that far infrared radiation enhanced CDK5R1, GNAS, NPPB, and TEK expression. In the proximal tubule cell line HK-2, far infrared radiation protected against cisplatin-mediated nephrotoxicity by reducing apoptosis. Renal proximal tubule cell cultivation with far infrared radiation exposure resulted in better cell proliferation, significantly higher ATPase Na+/K+ subunit alpha 1 and glucose transporter 1 expression, and significantly enhanced expression of CDK5R1, GNAS, NPPB, and TEK. These results suggest that far infrared radiation improves cell proliferation and differentiation. In HK-2 cells, far infrared radiation mediated protective effects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by reducing apoptosis, as indicated by flow cytometry and caspase-3 assay.

  11. Phosphoproteomic analysis of AT1 receptor-mediated signaling responses in proximal tubules of angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Zhuo, Jia L

    2011-09-01

    The signaling mechanisms underlying the effects of angiotensin II in proximal tubules of the kidney are not completely understood. Here we measured signal protein phosphorylation in isolated proximal tubules using pathway-specific proteomic analysis in rats continuously infused with pressor or non-pressor doses of angiotensin II over a 2-week period. Of the 38 phosphoproteins profiled, 14 were significantly altered by the pressor dose. This included increased phosphorylation of the protein kinase C isoenzymes, PKCα and PKCβII, and the glycogen synthase kinases, GSK3α and GSK3β. Phosphorylation of the cAMP-response element binding protein 1 and PKCδ were decreased, whereas PKCɛ remained unchanged. By contrast, the phosphorylation of only seven proteins was altered by the non-pressor dose, which increased that of PKCα, PKCδ, and GSKα. Phosphorylation of MAP kinases, ERK1/2, was not increased in proximal tubules in vivo by the pressor dose, but was in proximal tubule cells in vitro. Infusion of the pressor dose decreased, whereas the non-pressor dose of angiotensin II increased the phosphorylation of the sodium and hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE-3) in membrane fractions of proximal tubules. Losartan largely blocked the signaling responses induced by the pressor dose. Thus, PKCα and PKCβII, GSK3α and GSK3β, and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways may have important roles in regulating proximal tubular sodium and fluid transport in Ang II-induced hypertensive rats.

  12. Primary proximal tubule injury leads to epithelial cell cycle arrest, fibrosis, vascular rarefaction, and glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, Joseph V

    2014-01-01

    Tubular injury has a major etiological role in fibrosis. For many years, this relationship has been dominated by the perception that epithelial cells are transformed into myofibroblasts that proliferate and generate fibrotic matrix—the so-called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Here we focus on mechanisms by which injury to the tubule results in fibrosis because of paracrine mechanisms. Specific injury to the proximal tubule results in inflammation, reversible injury, and adaptive repair if the insult is mild, self-limited in time, and occurs in a background of a normal kidney. Repeated injury, in contrast, leads to maladaptive repair with sustained tubule injury, chronic inflammation, proliferation of interstitial myofibroblasts, vascular rarefaction, interstitial fibrosis, and glomerular sclerosis. During the maladaptive repair process after the renal insult, many tubular cells become arrested in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. This results in activation of the DNA repair response with the resultant synthesis and secretion of pro-fibrotic factors. Pharmacologic interventions that enhance the movement through G2/M or facilitate apoptosis of cells that otherwise would be blocked in G2/M may reduce the development of fibrosis after kidney injury and reduce the progression of chronic kidney disease. PMID:26310195

  13. Serum-free culture of rat proximal tubule cells with enhanced function on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Hsuan; Chiang, I-Ni; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Young, Tai-Horng

    2013-11-01

    The proximal tubule performs a variety of important renal functions and is the major site for nutrient reabsorption. The purpose of this study is to culture rat renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs) on chitosan without serum to maintain a transcellular pathway to transport water and ions effectively without loss of highly differentiated cell function. The effect of chitosan, which is structurally similar to glycosaminoglycans, in the absence of serum on the primary cultured PTCs was compared that of collagen with or without serum. Two days after seeding, more tubule fragments and higher PTC viability were observed on chitosan than on collagen with or without serum. Proliferation marker Ki-67 immunostaining and phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) expression results displayed similar proliferation capability of PTCs established on chitosan without serum and collagen with 2% fetal bovine serum after 4 days of incubation. When grown to confluence, PTCs formed a monolayer with well-organized tight junctions and formation of domes on chitosan without serum. Moreover, evaluation of the transepithelial electrical resistance showed that both chitosan and serum were involved in the modification of water and ion transport in confluent cells. By showing the direct suppression of PTC growth and dome formation treated with heparinase, we demonstrated that the interaction between cell surface heparin sulfate proteoglycan and chitosan played an important role in PTC proliferation and differentiation. A successful primary culture of PTCs has now been produced on chitosan in serum-free culture condition, which offers potential applications for chitosan in renal tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of the Na+/H+ antiporter in rat proximal tubule bicarbonate absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Preisig, P A; Ives, H E; Cragoe, E J; Alpern, R J; Rector, F C

    1987-01-01

    Amiloride and the more potent amiloride analog, 5-(N-t-butyl) amiloride (t-butylamiloride), were used to examine the role of the Na+/H+ antiporter in bicarbonate absorption in the in vivo microperfused rat proximal convoluted tubule. Bicarbonate absorption was inhibited 29, 46, and 47% by 0.9 mM or 4.3 mM amiloride, or 1 mM t-butylamiloride, respectively. Sensitivity of the Na+/H+ antiporter to these compounds in vivo was examined using fluorescent measurements of intracellular pH with (2', 7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). Amiloride and t-butylamiloride were shown to be as potent against the antiporter in vivo as in brush border membrane vesicles. A model of proximal tubule bicarbonate absorption was used to correct for changes in the luminal profiles for pH and inhibitor concentration, and for changes in luminal flow rate in the various series. We conclude that the majority of apical membrane proton secretion involved in transepithelial bicarbonate absorption is mediated by the Na+-dependent, amiloride-sensitive Na+H+ antiporter. However, a second mechanism of proton secretion contributes significantly to bicarbonate absorption. This mechanism is Na+-independent and amiloride-insensitive. PMID:2888788

  15. A protein with anion exchange properties found in the kidney proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, M; Bizal, G L; Anderson, C C

    1993-09-01

    One important mechanism for reabsorption of chloride in the kidney proximal tubule involves anion exchange of chloride for a base. Anion exchange transport systems in general demonstrate sensitivity to inhibition by disulfonic stilbenes, probenecid, furosemide, and the arginyl amino group modifier phenylglyoxal. Using disulfonic stilbene affinity chromatography, we have identified and partially purified a protein with anion exchanger properties in luminal membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney cortex. This protein has a molecular weight of 162 kD. The binding of the 162 kD protein to the stilbene affinity matrix is inhibited by disulfonic stilbenes, probenecid, furosemide, and phenylglyoxal. Reconstitution of the proteins eluted from the affinity matrix into liposomes demonstrates anion exchange activity as assayed by radiolabeled chloride influx. Deletion of the 162 kD protein from the eluted mixture by probenecid diminishes the anion exchanger activity in the reconstituted liposomes. Further purification of the disulfonic stilbene column eluant by Econo-Pac Q ion exchange chromatography resulted in significant enrichment in 162 kD protein abundance and also anion exchange activity in reconstituted liposomes. The results of the above experiments strongly suggest that the 162 kD protein is an anion exchanger. Insight into the functional and molecular characteristics of this protein should provide important information about the mechanism(s) of chloride reabsorption in the kidney proximal tubule.

  16. Lipids in the proximal convoluted tubule of the cat kidney and the reabsorption of cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Bargmann, W; Krisch, B; Leonhardt, H

    1977-02-14

    Lipid deposits in the cat kidney are mainly located in the epithelium of the proximal tubuli contorti, particularly in the pars contorta. As the amount of fatty acids in the blood of renal arteries is higher than in renal veins, the lipid inclusions are likely to be formed in the proximal convoluted tubule. Whether fat occurring in the urine has been released from the nephron epithelium and the mode of this release remains obscure. The structural equivalent of lipid extrusion into the tubules has not been observed. Components of the tubular lipids include triglycerides, phosphoglycerides and cholesterol. The results of the digitonin-cholesterol reaction favour the assumption that cholesterol is eliminated in the glomeruli and pinocytotically reabsorbed by the brush border cells, this process possibly serving recycling of this compound. The dilated basal labyrinth and intercellular space contain perpendicularly oriented lipid accumulations that reach the basal lamina. The ultrastructure of the lipid storing cells of pars contorta reacting positively for phosphoglyceride and cholesterol is characterised mainly by bodies with marginal plates. As far as can be judged from their morphology, these bodies are interpreted as large peroxisomes. A special feature of the pars recta are dumbbell shaped bodies and elongated or cup-like mitochondria concentrically surrounding cytoplasmic areas, as well as a well-developed smooth ER. In what way the organelles of the brush border cells are involved in catabolic and anabolic processes as far as renal lipid metabolism is concerned remains to be answered.

  17. Mechanism of increased clearance of glycated albumin by proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Mark C.; Myslinski, Jered; Pratap, Shiv; Flores, Brittany; Rhodes, George; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Sandoval, Ruben M.; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Patel, Monika; Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin is the most abundant plasma protein and has a long half-life due to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated transcytosis by many cell types, including proximal tubule cells of the kidney. Albumin also interacts with, and is modified by, many small and large molecules. Therefore, the focus of the present study was to address the impact of specific known biological albumin modifications on albumin-FcRn binding and cellular handling. Binding at pH 6.0 and 7.4 was performed since FcRn binds albumin strongly at acidic pH and releases it after transcytosis at physiological pH. Equilibrium dissociation constants were measured using microscale thermophoresis. Since studies have shown that glycated albumin is excreted in the urine at a higher rate than unmodified albumin, we studied glucose and methylgloxal modified albumins (21 days). All had reduced affinity to FcRn at pH 6.0, suggesting these albumins would not be returned to the circulation via the transcytotic pathway. To address why modified albumin has reduced affinity, we analyzed the structure of the modified albumins using small-angle X-ray scattering. This analysis showed significant structural changes occurring to albumin with glycation, particularly in the FcRn-binding region, which could explain the reduced affinity to FcRn. These results offer an explanation for enhanced proximal tubule-mediated sorting and clearance of abnormal albumins. PMID:26887834

  18. Urinary and proximal tubule acidification during reduction of renal blood flow in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Juárez, F; Aires, M M; Malnic, G

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of reduction in renal blood flow (RBF) on urinary acidification and proximal tubule H+ ion secretion were studied after partial aortic clamping in rats. 2. Acute reduction of the renal perfusion pressure (from 109 +/- 3.88 to 77.4 +/- 1.05 mmHg) decreased both inulin and PAH (p-aminohippurate) clearances to about one-third of their control values. Absolute levels of urinary sodium excretion also decreased markedly, but fractional sodium excretion did not change significantly. 3. Urine pH and bicarbonate levels were not affected, but titratable acidity increased significantly from 0.12 +/- 0.011 to 0.25 +/- 0.042 muequiv min-1 ml-1 glomerular filtration rate (GFR). During aortic clamping, cortical PCO2 as determined by means of Severinghaus microelectrodes was reduced by a mean value of 7.0 +/- 1.5 mmHg. 4. Proximal tubule acidification kinetics were studied by stationary microperfusion techniques in which the time course of pH changes was monitored by pH microelectrodes. Steady-state pH fell from a mean control value of 6.77 +/- 0.03 to 6.65 +/- 0.02, and stationary bicarbonate concentrations from 4.70 +/- 0.27 to 2.84 +/- 0.18 mM. Acidification half-time decreased from 5.07 +/- 0.30 to 4.39 +/- 0.19 s, and net bicarbonate reabsorption increased from 1.63 +/- 0.14 to 1.99 +/- 0.12 nmol cm-2 s-1, these changes being statistically significant. 5. The experiments demonstrate that both overall acid excretion and proximal acid secretion are not compromised by a large decrease of RBF to about one-third of the control value; titratable acid excretion and proximal net bicarbonate reabsorption were even moderately increased under these conditions. PMID:2348400

  19. A Telomerase Immortalized Human Proximal Tubule Cell Line with a Truncation Mutation (Q4004X) in Polycystin-1

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Grimes, Brenda R.; Xu, Wei Min; Werner, Michael; Ward, Christopher; Rossetti, Sandro; Harris, Peter; Bello-Reuss, Elsa; Ward, Heather H.; Miller, Caroline; Gattone, Vincent H.; Phillips, Carrie L.; Wandinger-Ness, Angela; Bacallao, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with a variety of cellular phenotypes in renal epithelial cells. Cystic epithelia are secretory as opposed to absorptive, have higher proliferation rates in cell culture and have some characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transitions [1], [2]. In this communication we describe a telomerase immortalized cell line that expresses proximal tubule markers and is derived from renal cysts of an ADPKD kidney. These cells have a single detectable truncating mutation (Q4004X) in polycystin-1. These cells make normal appearing but shorter cilia and fail to assemble polycystin-1 in the cilia, and less uncleaved polycystin-1 in membrane fractions. This cell line has been maintained in continuous passage for over 35 passages without going into senescence. Nephron segment specific markers suggest a proximal tubule origin for these cells and the cell line will be useful to study mechanistic details of cyst formation in proximal tubule cells. PMID:23383103

  20. The proximal straight tubule (PST) basolateral cell membrane water channel: selectivity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A M; González, E; Echevarría, M; Hernández, C S; Whittembury, G

    1995-02-01

    Proximal straight tubules (PST) were dissected from rabbit kidneys, held by crimping pipettes in a chamber and bathed in a buffered isosmotic (295 mOsm/kg) solution containing 200 mM mannitol (MBS). Changes in tubule diameter were monitored on line with an inverted microscope, TV camera and image processor. The PST were then challenged for 20 sec with MBS made 35 mOsm/kg hyperosmotic by addition of either NaCl, KCl, mannitol (M), glycerol (G), ethylene glycol (E), glycine (g), urea (U), acetamide (A) or formamide (F). With NaCl, KCl, M, G, E, g, U, and A, tubules shrunk osmometrically within 0.5 sec and remained shrunk for as long as 20 sec without recovering their original volume (sometimes A showed some recovery). PST barely shrunk with F and quickly recovered their original volume. The permeability coefficients were 0 microns/sec (NaCl, M, g, E and U), 1 micron/sec (A), 84 microns/sec (F) and 0.02 micron/sec (G). The reflection coefficients sigma = 1.0 (NaCl, KCl, M, G, E, g and U), 0.95 (A) and 0.62 (F). Similar sigma values were obtained by substituting 200 mOsm/kg M in MBS by either NaCl, KCl, G, E, g, U, a or F. The olive oil/water partition coefficients are 5 (M), 15 (U), 85 (A) and 75 (F) (all x 10(-5)). Thus, part of F permeates the cell membrane through the lipid bilayer. The probing molecules van der Waals diameters are 7.4 x 8.2 x 12.0 (M), 3.6 x 5.2 x 5.4 (U), 3.8 x 5.2 x 5.4 (A) and (3.4 x 4.5 x 5.4 (F) A.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Bicarbonate absorption stimulates active calcium absorption in the rat proximal tubule.

    PubMed Central

    Bomsztyk, K; Calalb, M B

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of luminal bicarbonate on calcium reabsorption, rat proximal tubules were perfused in vivo. Perfusion solution contained mannitol to reduce water flux to zero. Total Ca concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, Ca ion concentration in the tubule lumen (CaL2+) and the peritubular capillary (CaP2+), and luminal pH (pHL) with ion-selective microelectrodes and transepithelial voltage (VTE) with conventional microelectrodes. When tubules were perfused with buffer-free Cl-containing solution, net Ca absorption (JCa) averaged 3.33 pmol/min. Even though VTE was 1.64 mV lumen-positive, CaL2+, 1.05 mM, did not fall below the concentration in the capillary blood, 1.07 mM. When 27 mM of Cl was replaced with HCO3, there was luminal fluid acidification. Despite a decrease in VTE and CaL2+, JCa increased to 7.13 pmol/min, indicating that the enhanced JCa could not be accounted for by the reduced electrochemical gradient, delta CCa. When acetazolamide or an analogue of amiloride was added to the HCO3 solution, JCa was not different from the buffer-free solution, suggesting that HCO3-stimulated JCa may be linked to acidification. To further test this hypothesis, we used 27 mM Hepes as the luminal buffer. With Hepes there was luminal fluid acidification and JCa was not different from the buffer-free solution but delta CCa was significantly reduced, indicating enhanced active calcium transport. We conclude from the results of the present study that HCO3 stimulates active Ca absorption, a process that may be linked to acidification-mediated HCO3 absorption. PMID:3366902

  2. Novel cystine transporter in renal proximal tubule identified as a missing partner of cystinuria-related plasma membrane protein rBAT/SLC3A1.

    PubMed

    Nagamori, Shushi; Wiriyasermkul, Pattama; Guarch, Meritxell Espino; Okuyama, Hirohisa; Nakagomi, Saya; Tadagaki, Kenjiro; Nishinaka, Yumiko; Bodoy, Susanna; Takafuji, Kazuaki; Okuda, Suguru; Kurokawa, Junko; Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Nunes, Virginia; Palacín, Manuel; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2016-01-19

    Heterodimeric amino acid transporters play crucial roles in epithelial transport, as well as in cellular nutrition. Among them, the heterodimer of a membrane protein b(0,+)AT/SLC7A9 and its auxiliary subunit rBAT/SLC3A1 is responsible for cystine reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The mutations in either subunit cause cystinuria, an inherited amino aciduria with impaired renal reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids. However, an unsolved paradox is that rBAT is highly expressed in the S3 segment, the late proximal tubules, whereas b(0,+)AT expression is highest in the S1 segment, the early proximal tubules, so that the presence of an unknown partner of rBAT in the S3 segment has been proposed. In this study, by means of coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, we have found that a membrane protein AGT1/SLC7A13 is the second partner of rBAT. AGT1 is localized in the apical membrane of the S3 segment, where it forms a heterodimer with rBAT. Depletion of rBAT in mice eliminates the expression of AGT1 in the renal apical membrane. We have reconstituted the purified AGT1-rBAT heterodimer into proteoliposomes and showed that AGT1 transports cystine, aspartate, and glutamate. In the apical membrane of the S3 segment, AGT1 is suggested to locate itself in close proximity to sodium-dependent acidic amino acid transporter EAAC1 for efficient functional coupling. EAAC1 is proposed to take up aspartate and glutamate released into luminal fluid by AGT1 due to its countertransport so that preventing the urinary loss of aspartate and glutamate. Taken all together, AGT1 is the long-postulated second cystine transporter in the S3 segment of proximal tubules and a possible candidate to be involved in isolated cystinuria.

  3. High glucose induces apoptosis via upregulation of Bim expression in proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Dong, Jian-Jun; Cai, Tian; Shen, Xue; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Liao, Lin

    2017-04-11

    Diabetic nephropathy is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease. Apoptosis of tubule epithelial cells is a major feature of diabetic nephropathy. The mechanisms of high glucose (HG) induced apoptosis are not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that, HG induced apoptosis via upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein Bim protein, but not bring a significant change in the baseline level of autophagy in HK2 cells. The increase of Bim expression was caused by the ugregulation of transcription factors, FOXO1 and FOXO3a. Bim expression initiates BAX/BAK-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Silence of Bim by siRNA in HK2 cells prevented HG-induced apoptosis and also sensitized HK2 cells to autophagy during HG treatment. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA increased the injury in Bim knockdown HK2 cells by retriggering apoptosis. The above results suggest a Bim-independent apoptosis pathway in HK2 cells, which normally could be inhibited by autophagy. Overall, our results indicate that HG induces apoptosis via up-regulation of Bim expression in proximal tubule epithelial cells.

  4. External solution driving forces for isotonic fluid absorption in proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, T E; Schafer, J A

    1979-02-01

    We have explored evidence that suggests that lateral intercellular spaces is the mammalian proximal nephron do not serve as a hypertonic "central compartment" driving volume absorption. A primary consideration is the very low transepithelial resistance of this tissue as demonstrated by several laboratories. By making the reasonable assumption that passive ion permeation occurs via a paracellular route, we have concluded that the diffusion resistance of the spaces in insufficient to allow the development of a significant compositional difference between the spaces and the peritubular medium. This conclusion led us to look for potential osmotic gradients existing between the luminal and peritubular solutions. From the perfusion rate dependence of osmotic volume flow in the absence of active transport in isolated convoluted and straight proximal tubules, we calculated that both segments have very high hydraulic conductances, on the order of 3,000-5,000 micron/sec. Consequently, slight differences in the effective osmolality of the external solutions are sufficient to explain net volume absorption both in vivo and in vitro. We have provided evidence for two such driving forces. First, the development of asymmetrical anion concentration differences along the length of the proximal nephron due to preferential reabsorption of HCO-3 provides a driving force if the reflection coefficient for HCO-3 exceeds that for Cl-. Second, slight luminal hypotonicity may develop as a consequence of active solute absorption. Although both mechanisms probably occur simultaneously in vivo, we consider the former to be quantitatively the most important.

  5. A Microperfusion Study of Bicarbonate Accumulation in the Proximal Tubule of the Rat Kidney*

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Norman; Aynedjian, Hagop S.

    1967-01-01

    In order to determine whether HCO3- gains access to the proximal tubular lumen from a source other than the glomerular filtrate, we carried out microperfusion experiments on isolated segments of rat proximal tubules in vivo. The perfusion fluid was essentially free of HCO3- and of a composition that prevented net absorption of sodium and water. It was found that when plasma HCO3- concentration and CO2 tension (PCO2) were normal, the HCO3- concentration in the collected perfusate rose to about 3 mEq per L. Inhibition of renal carbonic anhydrase did not produce an appreciable change in this value in normal rats, but when the enzyme was inhibited in acutely alkalotic rats, a mean concentration of 15 mEq per L was recovered in the perfusate. Addition of HCO3- to the tubular lumen might occur by either intraluminal generation of HCO3- from CO2 and OH- or by influx of ionic bicarbonate from the plasma or tubular cells. Because of the marked increase in HCO3- found when intraluminal carbonic anhydrase was inhibited, generation of new HCO3- from CO2 and OH- seems unlikely. We conclude, therefore, that influx of ionic bicarbonate occurred, either across the luminal membrane or through extracellular aqueous channels. These observations suggest that the proximal epithelium has a finite degree of permeability to HCO3- and that influx of this ion may be a component of the over-all handling of HCO3- by the kidney. PMID:4959907

  6. Mechanism of cisplatin proximal tubule toxicity revealed by integrating transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and biokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Anja; Bielow, Chris; Ranninger, Christina; Bellwon, Patricia; Aschauer, Lydia; Limonciel, Alice; Chassaigne, Hubert; Kristl, Theresa; Aiche, Stephan; Huber, Christian G; Guillou, Claude; Hewitt, Philipp; Leonard, Martin O; Dekant, Wolfgang; Bois, Frederic; Jennings, Paul

    2015-12-25

    Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid tumours. The major dose-limiting factor is nephrotoxicity, in particular in the proximal tubule. Here, we use an integrated omics approach, including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics coupled to biokinetics to identify cell stress response pathways induced by cisplatin. The human renal proximal tubular cell line RPTEC/TERT1 was treated with sub-cytotoxic concentrations of cisplatin (0.5 and 2 μM) in a daily repeat dose treating regime for up to 14 days. Biokinetic analysis showed that cisplatin was taken up from the basolateral compartment, transported to the apical compartment, and accumulated in cells over time. This is in line with basolateral uptake of cisplatin via organic cation transporter 2 and bioactivation via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase located on the apical side of proximal tubular cells. Cisplatin affected several pathways including, p53 signalling, Nrf2 mediated oxidative stress response, mitochondrial processes, mTOR and AMPK signalling. In addition, we identified novel pathways changed by cisplatin, including eIF2 signalling, actin nucleation via the ARP/WASP complex and regulation of cell polarization. In conclusion, using an integrated omic approach together with biokinetics we have identified both novel and established mechanisms of cisplatin toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human kidney proximal tubule cells are vulnerable to the effects of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    PubMed

    Mossoba, Miriam E; Flynn, Thomas J; Vohra, Sanah; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Sprando, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Rauwolfia serpentina (or Snake root plant) is a botanical dietary supplement marketed in the USA for maintaining blood pressure. Very few studies have addressed the safety of this herb, despite its wide availability to consumers. Its reported pleiotropic effects underscore the necessity for evaluating its safety. We used a human kidney cell line to investigate the possible negative effects of R. serpentina on the renal system in vitro, with a specific focus on the renal proximal tubules. We evaluated cellular and mitochondrial toxicity, along with a variety of other kidney-specific toxicology biomarkers. We found that R. serpentina was capable of producing highly detrimental effects in our in vitro renal cell system. These results suggest more studies are needed to investigate the safety of this dietary supplement in both kidney and other target organ systems.

  8. Localization of the Calcium Regulated Citrate Transport Process in Proximal Tubule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.; Mao, Weibo; Schiro, Faith R.; Coleman-Barnett, Joycelynn; Pajor, Ana M.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Urinary citrate is an important inhibitor of calcium stone formation. Most of citrate reabsorption in the proximal tubule is thought to occur via a dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 located in the apical membrane. OK cells, an established opossum kidney proximal tubule cell line, transport citrate but the characteristics change with extracellular calcium such that low calcium solutions stimulate total citrate transport as well as increase the apparent affinity for transport. The present studies address several fundamental properties of this novel process: the polarity of the transport process, the location of the calcium-sensitivity and whether NaDC1 is present in OK cells. OK cells grown on permeable supports exhibited apical > basolateral citrate transport. Apical transport of both citrate and succinate was sensitive to extracellular calcium whereas basolateral transport was not. Apical calcium, rather than basolateral, was the predominant determinant of changes in transport. Also 2,3-dimethylsuccinate, previously identified as an inhibitor of basolateral dicarboxylate transport, inhibited apical citrate uptake. Although the calcium-sensitive transport process in OK cells is functionally not typical NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in OK cells by Western blot and PCR. By immunolocalization studies, NaDC1 was predominantly located in discrete apical membrane or subapical areas. However by biotinylation, apical NaDC1 decreases in the apical membrane with lowering calcium. In sum, OK cells express a calcium-sensitive/regulated dicarboxylate process at the apical membrane which responds to variations in apical calcium. Despite the functional differences of this process compared to NaDC1, NaDC1 is present in these cells, but predominantly in subapical vesicles. PMID:24652587

  9. Podocyte-derived microparticles promote proximal tubule fibrotic signaling via p38 MAPK and CD36

    PubMed Central

    Munkonda, Mercedes N.; Akbari, Shareef; Landry, Chloe; Sun, Suzy; Xiao, Fengxia; Turner, Maddison; Holterman, Chet E.; Nasrallah, Rania; Hébert, Richard L.; Kennedy, Christopher R. J.; Burger, Dylan

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a hallmark of advanced diabetic kidney disease that is linked to a decline in renal function, however the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. Microparticles (MPs) are 100–1000 nm vesicles shed from injured cells that are implicated in intercellular signalling. Our lab recently observed the formation of MPs from podocytes and their release into urine of animal models of type 1 and 2 diabetes and in humans with type 1 diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of podocyte MPs in tubular epithelial cell fibrotic responses. MPs were isolated from the media of differentiated, untreated human podocytes (hPODs) and administered to cultured human proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs). Treatment with podocyte MPs increased p38 and Smad3 phosphorylation and expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fibronectin and collagen type IV. MP-induced responses were attenuated by co-treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB202190. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor inhibitor (LY2109761) blocked MP-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and ECM protein expression but not p38 phosphorylation suggesting that these responses occurred downstream of p38. Finally, blockade of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 completely abrogated MP-mediated p38 phosphorylation, downstream Smad3 activation and fibronectin/collagen type IV induction. Taken together our results suggest that podocyte MPs interact with proximal tubule cells and induce pro-fibrotic responses. Such interactions may contribute to the development of tubular fibrosis in glomerular disease. PMID:29435202

  10. Proximal tubule H-ferritin mediates iron trafficking in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Zarjou, Abolfazl; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Joseph, Reny; Traylor, Amie; Apostolov, Eugene O.; Arosio, Paolo; Balla, Jozsef; Verlander, Jill; Darshan, Deepak; Kuhn, Lukas C.; Agarwal, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism and is made of 24 subunits of 2 types: heavy chain and light chain. The ferritin heavy chain (FtH) has ferroxidase activity that is required for iron incorporation and limiting toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of FtH in acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal iron handling by using proximal tubule–specific FtH-knockout mice (FtHPT–/– mice). FtHPT–/– mice had significant mortality, worse structural and functional renal injury, and increased levels of apoptosis in rhabdomyolysis and cisplatin-induced AKI, despite significantly higher expression of heme oxygenase-1, an antioxidant and cytoprotective enzyme. While expression of divalent metal transporter-1 was unaffected, expression of ferroportin (FPN) was significantly lower under both basal and rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI in FtHPT–/– mice. Apical localization of FPN was disrupted after AKI to a diffuse cytosolic and basolateral pattern. FtH, regardless of iron content and ferroxidase activity, induced FPN. Interestingly, urinary levels of the iron acceptor proteins neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin, hemopexin, and transferrin were increased in FtHPT–/– mice after AKI. These results underscore the protective role of FtH and reveal the critical role of proximal tubule FtH in iron trafficking in AKI. PMID:24018561

  11. Atgl gene deletion predisposes to proximal tubule damage by impairing the fatty acid metabolism

    SciT

    Chen, Wen; Zhang, Qiong; Cheng, Shiwu

    Fibrosis is the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Normal lipid metabolism is integral to renal physiology, and disturbances of renal lipid metabolism are increasingly being linked with CKD, including the fibrosis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme of lipolysis. In the present study, we used Atgl{sup −/−} mice to investigate whether ATGL played a role in the regulation of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) lipid metabolism and renal fibrosis development. ATGL deficiency led to lipid vacuolation of PCT and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, accompanied by massive albuminuria and decreased creatinine clearance rate (Ccr). In vitro experiments indicated that inhibitionmore » of ATGL in proximal tubular cell line HK-2 promoted intracellular lipid deposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell apoptosis. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that ATGL inhibition decreased the renal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα(PPARα) expression, which implied the suppressed lipid metabolism. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could partially reverse the effect of ROS accumulation and cell apoptosis, but could not restore the PPARαdecrease. These data raise the possibility that ATGL deficiency could impair the renal fatty acid metabolism though inhibiting PPARαexpression, which may lead to lipid deposition and cell apoptosis of PCT, and finally contribute to the renal fibrosis and dysfunction. - Highlights: • Atgl{sup −/−} mice develop tubulointerstitial damage and renal dysfunction. • ATGL deficiency results in lipid accumulation and apoptosis of proximal tubular cells. • ROS scavenger alleviates the ATGL-knockdown mediated lipid accumulation and apoptosis. • PPARαdown-regulation is the reason of ROS elevating in ATGL-knockdown HK-2 cells.« less

  12. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    SciT

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org; Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute; Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC.more » Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also

  13. Accumulation of nonesterified fatty acids causes the sustained energetic deficit in kidney proximal tubules after hypoxia-reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Feldkamp, Thorsten; Kribben, Andreas; Roeser, Nancy F; Senter, Ruth A; Weinberg, Joel M

    2006-02-01

    Kidney proximal tubules exhibit decreased ATP and reduced, but not absent, mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) during reoxygenation after severe hypoxia. This energetic deficit, which plays a pivotal role in overall cellular recovery, cannot be explained by loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity, decreased electron transport, or compromised F1F0-ATPase and adenine nucleotide translocase activities. Addition of oleate to permeabilized tubules produced concentration-dependent decreases of Deltapsi(m) measured by safranin O uptake (threshold for oleate = 0.25 microM, 1.6 nmol/mg protein; maximal effect = 4 microM, 26 nmol/mg) that were reversed by delipidated BSA (dBSA). Cell nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels increased from <1 to 17.4 nmol/mg protein during 60- min hypoxia and remained elevated at 7.6 nmol/mg after 60 min reoxygenation, at which time ATP had recovered to only 10% of control values. Safranin O uptake in reoxygenated tubules, which was decreased 85% after 60-min hypoxia, was normalized by dBSA, which improved ATP synthesis as well. dBSA also almost completely normalized Deltapsi(m) when the duration of hypoxia was increased to 120 min. In intact tubules, the protective substrate combination of alpha-ketoglutarate + malate (alpha-KG/MAL) increased ATP three- to fourfold, limited NEFA accumulation during hypoxia by 50%, and lowered NEFA during reoxygenation. Notably, dBSA also improved ATP recovery when added to intact tubules during reoxygenation and was additive to the effect of alpha-KG/MAL. We conclude that NEFA overload is the primary cause of energetic failure of reoxygenated proximal tubules and lowering NEFA substantially contributes to the benefit from supplementation with alpha-KG/MAL.

  14. Dual Regulation of Gluconeogenesis by Insulin and Glucose in the Proximal Tubules of the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Motohiro; Sasako, Takayoshi; Kubota, Naoto; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Kubota, Tetsuya; Inagi, Reiko; Seki, George; Goto, Moritaka; Ueki, Kohjiro; Nangaku, Masaomi; Jomori, Takahito; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    Growing attention has been focused on the roles of the proximal tubules (PTs) of the kidney in glucose metabolism, including the mechanism of regulation of gluconeogenesis. In this study, we found that PT-specific insulin receptor substrate 1/2 double-knockout mice, established by using the newly generated sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2)-Cre transgenic mice, exhibited impaired insulin signaling and upregulated gluconeogenic gene expression and renal gluconeogenesis, resulting in systemic insulin resistance. In contrast, in streptozotocin-treated mice, although insulin action was impaired in the PTs, the gluconeogenic gene expression was unexpectedly downregulated in the renal cortex, which was restored by administration of an SGLT1/2 inhibitor. In the HK-2 cells, the gluconeogenic gene expression was suppressed by insulin, accompanied by phosphorylation and inactivation of forkhead box transcription factor 1 (FoxO1). In contrast, glucose deacetylated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α), a coactivator of FoxO1, via sirtuin 1, suppressing the gluconeogenic gene expression, which was reversed by inhibition of glucose reabsorption. These data suggest that both insulin signaling and glucose reabsorption suppress the gluconeogenic gene expression by inactivation of FoxO1 and PGC1α, respectively, providing insight into novel mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the PTs. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  15. The Endocytic Receptor Megalin and its Associated Proteins in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    De, Shankhajit; Kuwahara, Shoji; Saito, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis in renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) is important for the reabsorption and metabolization of proteins and other substances, including carrier-bound vitamins and trace elements, in glomerular filtrates. Impairment of this endocytic process results in the loss of such substances and development of proteinuria, which is an important clinical indicator of kidney diseases and is also a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. Megalin, a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene family, is a multiligand receptor expressed in the apical membrane of PTECs and plays a central role in the endocytic process. Megalin interacts with various intracellular adaptor proteins for intracellular trafficking and cooperatively functions with other membrane molecules, including the cubilin-amnionless complex. Evidence suggests that megalin and the cubilin-amnionless complex are involved in the uptake of toxic substances into PTECs, which leads to the development of kidney disease. Studies of megalin and its associated molecules will be useful for future development of novel strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases. PMID:25019425

  16. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Verlander, Jill W.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4+ with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na+-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression. PMID:27009341

  17. Short term exposure to elevated levels of leptin reduces proximal tubule cell metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Briffa, Jessica F; Grinfeld, Esther; McAinch, Andrew J; Poronnik, Philip; Hryciw, Deanne H

    2014-01-25

    Leptin plays a pathophysiological role in the kidney, however, its acute effects on the proximal tubule cells (PTCs) are unknown. In opossum kidney (OK) cells in vitro, Western blot analysis identified that exposure to leptin increases the phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p44/42 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Importantly leptin (0.05, 0.10, 0.25 and 0.50 μg/ml) significantly reduced the metabolic activity of PTCs, and significantly decreased protein content per cell. Investigation of the role of p44/42 and mTOR on metabolic activity and protein content per cell, demonstrated that in the presence of MAPK inhibitor U0126 and mTOR inhibitor Ku-63794, that the mTOR pathway is responsible for the reduction in PTC metabolic activity in response to leptin. However, p44/42 and mTOR play no role the reduced protein content per cell in OKs exposed to leptin. Therefore, leptin modulates metabolic activity in PTCs via an mTOR regulated pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  19. Novel Hg2+-Induced Nephropathy in Rats and Mice Lacking Mrp2: Evidence of Axial Heterogeneity in the Handling of Hg2+ Along the Proximal Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Zalups, Rudolfs K.; Joshee, Lucy; Bridges, Christy C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the multi-resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) in the nephropathy induced by inorganic mercuric mercury (Hg2+) was studied in rats (TR−) and mice (Mrp2−/−), which lack functional Mrp2, and control animals. Animals were exposed to nephrotoxic doses of HgCl2. Forty-eight or 24 hours after exposure, tissues were harvested and analyzed for Hg content and markers of injury. Histological analyses revealed that the proximal tubular segments affected pathologically by Hg2+ were significantly different between Mrp2-deficient animals and controls. In the absence of Mrp2, cellular injury localized almost exclusively in proximal tubular segments in the subcapsular (S1) to midcortical regions (early S2) of the kidney. In control animals, cellular death occurred mainly in the proximal tubular segments in the inner cortex (late S2) and outer stripe of the outer medulla (S3). These differences in renal pathology indicate that axial heterogeneity exists along the proximal tubule with respect to how mercuric ions are handled. Total renal and hepatic accumulation of mercury was also greater in animals lacking Mrp2 than in controls, indicating that Mrp2 normally plays a significant role in eliminating mercuric ions from within proximal tubular cells and hepatocytes. Analyses of plasma creatinine, BUN, and renal expression of Kim-1 and Ngal tend to support the severity of the nephropathies detected histologically. Collectively, our findings indicate that a fraction of mercuric ions is normally secreted by Mrp2 in early portions of proximal tubules into the lumen and then is absorbed downstream in straight portions, where mercuric species typically induce toxic effects. PMID:25145654

  20. Proximal tubule proteins are significantly elevated in bladder urine of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction and may represent novel biomarkers: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Claire; Harel, Miriam; Lynch, Miranda L; Herbst, Katherine W; Ferrer, Fernando A; Shapiro, Linda H

    2016-04-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the major cause of hydronephrosis in children and may lead to renal injury and early renal dysfunction. However, diagnosis of the degree of obstruction and severity of renal injury relies on invasive and often inconclusive renal scans. Biomarkers from voided urine that detect early renal injury are highly desirable because of their noninvasive collection and their potential to assist in earlier and more reliable diagnosis of the severity of obstruction. Early in response to UPJO, increased intrarenal pressure directly impacts the proximal tubule brush border. We hypothesize that single-pass, apically expressed proximal tubule brush border proteins will be shed into the urine early and rapidly and will be reliable noninvasive urinary biomarkers, providing the tools for a more reliable stratification of UPJO patients. We performed a prospective cohort study at Connecticut Children's Medical Center. Bladder urine samples from 12 UPJO patients were obtained prior to surgical intervention. Control urine samples were collected from healthy pediatric patients presenting with primary nocturnal enuresis. We determined levels of NGAL, KIM-1 (previously identified biomarkers), CD10, CD13, and CD26 (potentially novel biomarkers) by ELISA in control and experimental urine samples. Urinary creatinine levels were used to normalize the urinary protein levels measured by ELISA. Each of the proximal tubule proteins outperformed the previously published biomarkers. No differences in urinary NGAL and KIM-1 levels were observed between control and obstructed patients (p = 0.932 and p = 0.799, respectively). However, levels of CD10, CD13, and CD26 were significantly higher in the voided urine of obstructed individuals when compared with controls (p = 0.002, p = 0.024, and p = 0.007, respectively) (Figure). Targeted identification of reliable, noninvasive biomarkers of renal injury is critical to aid in diagnosing patients at risk, guiding

  1. 'Special K' and a Loss of Cell-To-Cell Adhesion in Proximal Tubule-Derived Epithelial Cells: Modulation of the Adherens Junction Complex by Ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Claire E.; Jin, Tianrong; Siamantouras, Eleftherios; Liu, Issac K-K; Jefferson, Kieran P.; Squires, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine, a mild hallucinogenic class C drug, is the fastest growing ‘party drug’ used by 16–24 year olds in the UK. As the recreational use of Ketamine increases we are beginning to see the signs of major renal and bladder complications. To date however, we know nothing of a role for Ketamine in modulating both structure and function of the human renal proximal tubule. In the current study we have used an established model cell line for human epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (HK2) to demonstrate that Ketamine evokes early changes in expression of proteins central to the adherens junction complex. Furthermore we use AFM single-cell force spectroscopy to assess if these changes functionally uncouple cells of the proximal tubule ahead of any overt loss in epithelial cell function. Our data suggests that Ketamine (24–48 hrs) produces gross changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal architecture towards a fibrotic phenotype. These physical changes matched the concentration-dependent (0.1–1 mg/mL) cytotoxic effect of Ketamine and reflect a loss in expression of the key adherens junction proteins epithelial (E)- and neural (N)-cadherin and β-catenin. Down-regulation of protein expression does not involve the pro-fibrotic cytokine TGFβ, nor is it regulated by the usual increase in expression of Slug or Snail, the transcriptional regulators for E-cadherin. However, the loss in E-cadherin can be partially rescued pharmacologically by blocking p38 MAPK using SB203580. These data provide compelling evidence that Ketamine alters epithelial cell-to-cell adhesion and cell-coupling in the proximal kidney via a non-classical pro-fibrotic mechanism and the data provides the first indication that this illicit substance can have major implications on renal function. Understanding Ketamine-induced renal pathology may identify targets for future therapeutic intervention. PMID:24009666

  2. Silver ion (Ag+)-induced increases in cell membrane K+ and Na+ permeability in the renal proximal tubule: reversal by thiol reagents.

    PubMed

    Kone, B C; Kaleta, M; Gullans, S R

    1988-04-01

    The initial mechanisms of injury to the proximal tubule following exposure to nephrotoxic heavy metals are not well established. We studied the immediate effects of silver (Ag+) on K+ transport and respiration with extracellular K+ and O2 electrodes in suspensions of renal cortical tubules. Addition of silver nitrate (AgNO3) to tubules suspended in bicarbonate Ringer's solution caused a rapid, dose-dependent net K+ efflux (Km = 10(-4) M, Vmax = 379 nmol K+/min/mg protein) which was not inhibited by furosemide, barium chloride, quinine, tetraethylammonium, or tolbutamide. An increase in the ouabain-sensitive oxygen consumption rate (QO2) (13.9 +/- 1.1 to 25.7 +/- 4.4 nmol O2/min/mg, P less than 0.001), was observed 19 sec after the K+ efflux induced by AgNO3 (10(-4) M), suggesting a delayed increase in Na+ entry into the cell. Ouabain-insensitive QO2, nystatin-stimulated QO2, and CCCP-uncoupled QO2 were not significantly affected, indicating preserved function of the Na+,K+-ATPase and mitochondria. External addition of the thiol reagents dithiothreitol (1 mM) and reduced glutathione (1 mM) prevented and/or immediately reversed the effects on K+ transport and QO2. We conclude that Ag+ causes early changes in the permeability of the cell membrane to K+ and then to Na+ at concentrations that do not limit Na+,K+-ATPase activity or mitochondrial function. These alterations are likely the result of a reversible interaction of Ag+ with sulfhydryl groups of cell membrane proteins and may represent initial cytotoxic effects common to other sulfhydryl-reactive heavy metals on the proximal tubule.

  3. Proteomic profiling and pathway analysis of the response of rat renal proximal convoluted tubules to metabolic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, Kevin L.; Freund, Dana M.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a relatively common pathological condition that is defined as a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration. The renal proximal convoluted tubule responds to this condition by increasing the extraction of plasma glutamine and activating ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis. The combined processes increase the excretion of acid and produce bicarbonate ions that are added to the blood to partially restore acid-base homeostasis. Only a few cytosolic proteins, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, have been determined to play a role in the renal response to metabolic acidosis. Therefore, further analysis was performed to better characterize the response of the cytosolic proteome. Proximal convoluted tubule cells were isolated from rat kidney cortex at various times after onset of acidosis and fractionated to separate the soluble cytosolic proteins from the remainder of the cellular components. The cytosolic proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Spectral counting along with average MS/MS total ion current were used to quantify temporal changes in relative protein abundance. In all, 461 proteins were confidently identified, of which 24 exhibited statistically significant changes in abundance. To validate these techniques, several of the observed abundance changes were confirmed by Western blotting. Data from the cytosolic fractions were then combined with previous proteomic data, and pathway analyses were performed to identify the primary pathways that are activated or inhibited in the proximal convoluted tubule during the onset of metabolic acidosis. PMID:23804448

  4. Substrate modulation of fatty acid effects on energization and respiration of kidney proximal tubules during hypoxia/reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Bienholz, Anja; Al-Taweel, Ahmad; Roeser, Nancy F; Kribben, Andreas; Feldkamp, Thorsten; Weinberg, Joel M

    2014-01-01

    Kidney proximal tubules subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation develop a nonesterified fatty acid-induced energetic deficit characterized by persistent partial mitochondrial deenergization that can be prevented and reversed by citric acid cycle substrates. To further assess the role of competition between fatty acids and substrates on inner membrane substrate carriers in the deenergization and the contribution to deenergization of fatty acid effects on respiratory function, digitonin-permeabilized rabbit and mouse tubules were studied using either addition of exogenous oleate after control normoxic incubation or increases of endogenous fatty acids produced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The results demonstrated major effects of matrix oxaloacetate accumulation on succinate-supported energization and respiration and their modification by fatty acids. Improvements of energization in the presence of fatty acids by glutamate were shown to result predominantly from lowering matrix oxaloacetate rather than from amelioration of transmembrane cycling of fatty acids and uncoupling. Mouse tubules had 2.5 fold higher rates of succinate utilization, which resulted in stronger effects of oxaloacetate accumulation than rabbit tubules. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced respiratory inhibition that was more severe for complex I-dependent substrates. Fatty acids themselves did not acutely contribute to this respiratory inhibition, but lowering them during 60 min. reoxygenation to allow recovery of ATP during that period alleviated it. These data clarify the basis for the nonesterified fatty acid-induced mitochondrial energetic deficit in kidney proximal tubules that impairs structural and functional recovery and provide insight into interactions that need to be considered in the design of substrate-based interventions to improve mitochondrial function.

  5. Mechanism of bicarbonate exit across basolateral membrane of rabbit proximal straight tubule.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Shiigai, T; Yoshiyama, N; Takeuchi, J

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism(s) of HCO3- (or related base) transport across the basolateral membrane, rabbit proximal straight tubules were perfused in vitro, and intracellular pH (pHi) and Na+ activity (aiNa) were measured by double-barreled ion-selective microelectrodes. Lowering bath HCO3- from 25 to 5 mM at constant PCO2 depolarized basolateral membrane potential (Vbl), and reduced pHi. Most of these changes were inhibited by adding 1 mM 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (SITS) to the bath. Total replacement of bath Na+ with choline also depolarized Vbl and reduced pHi, and these changes were also inhibited by SITS. Reduction in aiNa was observed when bath HCO3- was lowered. Taken together, these findings suggest that HCO3- exists the basolateral membrane with Na+ and negative charge. Calculation of the electrochemical driving forces suggests that the stoichiometry of HCO3-/Na+ must be larger than two for maintaining HCO3- efflux. Total replacement of bath Cl- with isethionate depolarized Vbl gradually and increased pHi slightly, implying the existence of a Cl(-)-related HCO3- exit mechanism. The rate of decrease in pHi induced by lowering bath HCO3- was slightly reduced (20%) by the absence of bath Cl-. Therefore, the importance of Cl(-)-related HCO3- transport is small relative to total basolateral HCO3- exit. Accordingly, these data suggest that most of HCO3- exits the basolateral membrane through the rheogenic Na+/HCO3- cotransport mechanism with a stoichiometry of HCO3-/Na+ of more than two.

  6. HK2 Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells Synthesize and Secrete Plasma Proteins Predominantly Through the Apical Surface.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke-Wei; Murray, Elsa J Brochmann; Murray, Samuel S

    2017-04-01

    Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs) are known to reabsorb salts and small plasma proteins filtered through Bowman's capsule. Following acute kidney injury, PTECs assume some characteristics of hepatocytes in producing various plasma proteins. We now demonstrate that even at a resting state, a PTEC cell line, HK2 expresses mRNAs for and synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins in a complex with complement C3, an α 2 -macroglobulin family chaperone, including albumin, transferrin, α 1 -antitrypsin, α 1 -antichymotrypsin, α 2 -HS-glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, C1-inhibitor, secreted phosphoprotein-24, and insulin-like growth factor-1. When grown on transwell inserts, HK2 cells predominantly secrete (∼90%) plasma proteins into the apical side and a smaller fraction into the basolateral side as determined by ELISA assays. When cultured in the presence of exogenous cytokines such as IL1β, IL6, TNFα, BMP2, or TGFβ1, HK2 cell mRNA expressions for plasma proteins were variably affected whereas basolateral secretions were elevated to or in excess of those of the apical level. In addition, HK2 cells produce proTGFβ1 with its intact N-terminal latency associated peptide and latent-TGF-β-binding proteins. The complex cannot be dissociated under conditions of SDS, heating, and electrophoresis. Moreover, HK2 cells maintain their ability to quickly uptake exogenously added serum proteins from the culture medium, as if they are recognized differently by the endocytic receptors. These results provide new insight into the hepatization of PTECs. In addition to their unique uptake of plasma proteins and salts from the filtrate, they are a source of urinary proteins under normal conditions as wells as in chronic and acute kidney diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 924-933, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. In vivo study of transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) in proximal convoluted tubules of rat kidney by synchronization modulation electric field.

    PubMed

    Clausell, Mathis; Fang, Zhihui; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Synchronization modulation (SM) electric field has been shown to effectively activate function of Na(+)/K(+) pumps in various cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocyte, monolayer of cultured cell line, and peripheral blood vessels. We are now reporting the in vivo studies in application of the SM electric field to kidney of living rats. The field-induced changes in the transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) or the lumen potential from the proximal convoluted tubules were monitored. The results showed that a short time (20 s) application of the SM electric field can significantly increase the magnitude of TEPD from 1-2 mV to about 20 mV. The TEPD is an active potential representing the transport current of the Na/K pumps in epithelial wall of renal tubules. This study showed that SM electric field can increase TEPD by activation of the pump molecules. Considering renal tubules, many active transporters are driven by the Na(+) concentration gradient built by the Na(+)/K(+) pumps, activation of the pump functions and increase in the magnitude of TEPD imply that the SM electric field may improve reabsorption functions of the renal tubules.

  8. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 in renal proximal tubule cells: evidence for a role in the response to metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Molinas, Sara M; Trumper, Laura; Marinelli, Raúl A

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondrial ammonia synthesis in proximal tubules and its urinary excretion are key components of the renal response to maintain acid-base balance during metabolic acidosis. Since aquaporin-8 (AQP8) facilitates transport of ammonia and is localized in inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) of renal proximal cells, we hypothesized that AQP8-facilitated mitochondrial ammonia transport in these cells plays a role in the response to acidosis. We evaluated whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown by RNA interference is able to impair ammonia excretion in the human renal proximal tubule cell line, HK-2. By RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we found that AQP8 is expressed in these cells and is localized in IMM. HK-2 cells were transfected with short-interfering RNA targeting human AQP8. After 48 h, the levels of mtAQP8 protein decreased by 53% (P < 0.05). mtAQP8 knockdown decreased the rate of ammonia released into culture medium in cells grown at pH 7.4 (-31%, P < 0.05) as well as in cells exposed to acid (-90%, P < 0.05). We also evaluated mtAQP8 protein expression in HK-2 cells exposed to acidic medium. After 48 h, upregulation of mtAQP8 (+74%, P < 0.05) was observed, together with higher ammonia excretion rate (+73%, P < 0.05). In vivo studies in NH(4)Cl-loaded rats showed that mtAQP8 protein expression was also upregulated after 7 days of acidosis in renal cortex (+51%, P < 0.05). These data suggest that mtAQP8 plays an important role in the adaptive response of proximal tubule to acidosis possibly facilitating mitochondrial ammonia transport.

  9. Effects of advanced glycation end products on ezrin-dependent functions in LLC-PK1 proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Bach, Leon A; Gallicchio, Marisa A; McRobert, E Anne; Tikoo, Anjali; Cooper, Mark E

    2005-06-01

    We have recently shown that advanced glycation products (AGEs) bind to the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of proteins. ERM proteins act as cross-linkers between cell membrane proteins and the actin cytoskeleton. They are also involved in signal transduction pathways. They therefore have a critical role in normal cell processes, including modulation of cell shape, adhesion, and motility. We postulate that AGEs may contribute to diabetic complications by disrupting ERM function. In support of this hypothesis, AGEs inhibit ezrin-dependent tubulogenesis of proximal tubule cells. Phosphorylation is an important activating mechanism for ERM proteins, and AGEs inhibit ezrin phosphorylation mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor.

  10. Renal proximal tubule function is preserved in Cftrtm2camΔF508 cystic fibrosis mice

    PubMed Central

    Kibble, J D; Balloch, K J D; Neal, A M; Hill, C; White, S; Robson, L; Green, R; Taylor, C J

    2001-01-01

    Changes in proximal tubule function have been reported in cystic fibrosis patients. The aim of this study was to investigate proximal tubule function in the Cftrtm2camΔF508 cystic fibrosis (CF) mouse model. A range of techniques were used including renal clearance studies, in situ microperfusion, RT-PCR and whole-cell patch clamping. Renal Na+ clearance was similar in wild-type (1.4 ± 0.3 μl min−1, number of animals, N= 12) and CF mice (1.6 ± 0.4 μl min−1, N= 7) under control conditions. Acute extracellular volume expansion resulted in significant natriuresis in wild-type (7.0 ± 0.8 μl min−1, N= 8) and CF mice (9.3 ± 1.4 μl min−1, N= 9); no difference between genotypes was observed. In situ microperfusion revealed that fluid absorptive rate (Jv) was similar under control conditions between wild-type (2.2 ± 0.4 nl mm−1 min−1, n= 10) and CF mice (1.9 ± 0.3 nl mm−1 min−1, n= 11). Addition of a forskolin-dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) cocktail to the perfusate caused no significant change in Jv in either wild-type (2.6 ± 0.7 nl mm−1 min−1, n= 10) or Cftrtm2camΔF508 mice (2.0 ± 0.5 nl mm−1 min−1, n= 10). CFTR expression was confirmed in samples of outer cortex using RT-PCR. However, no evidence for functional CFTR was obtained when outer cortical cells were stimulated with protein kinase A or forskolin-db-cAMP using whole-cell patch clamping. In conclusion, no functional deficit in proximal tubule function was found in Cftrtm2camΔF508 mice. This may be a consequence of a lack of whole-cell cAMP-dependent Cl− conductance in mouse proximal tubule cells. PMID:11306663

  11. Fluid reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubules of mice with gene deletions of claudin-2 and/or aquaporin1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuning; Mizel, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Deletions of claudin-2 (Cldn2) and aquaporin1 (AQP1) reduce proximal fluid reabsorption (PFR) by about 30% and 50%, respectively. Experiments were done to replicate these observations and to determine in AQP1/claudin-2 double knockout mice (DKO) if the effects of deletions of these established water pores are additive. PFR was determined in inactin/ketamine-anesthetized mice by free-flow micropuncture using single-nephron I125-iothalamate (io) clearance. Animal means of PFR [% of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)] derived from TF/Piothalamate ratios in 12 mice in each of four groups [wild type (WT), Cldn2−/−, AQP1−/−, and DKO) were 45.8 ± 0.85 (51 tubules), 35.4 ± 1 (54 tubules; P < 0.01 vs. WT), 36.8 ± 1 (63 tubules; P < 0.05 vs. WT), and 33.9 ± 1.4 (69 tubules; P < 0.01 vs. WT). Kidney and single-nephron GFRs (SNGFR) were significantly reduced in all mutant strains. The direct relationship between PFR and SNGFR was maintained in mutant mice, but the slope of this relationship was reduced in the absence of Cldn2 and/or AQP1. Transtubular osmotic pressure differences were not different between WT and Cldn2−/− mice, but markedly increased in DKO. In conclusion, the deletion of Cldn2, AQP1, or of both Cldn2 and AQP1 reduces PFR by 22.7%, 19.6%, and 26%, respectively. Our data are consistent with an up to 25% paracellular contribution to PFR. The reduced osmotic water permeability caused by absence of AQP1 augments luminal hypotonicity. Aided by a fall in filtered load, the capacity of non-AQP1-dependent transcellular reabsorption is sufficient to maintain PFR without AQP1 and claudin-2 at 75% of control. PMID:24049145

  12. N-domain angiotensin-I converting enzyme is expressed in immortalized mesangial, proximal tubule and collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Mei Wang, Pamella Huey; Andrade, Maria Claudina; Quinto, Beata Marie Redublo; Di Marco, Giovana; Mortara, Renato Arruda; Vio, Carlos P; Casarini, Dulce Elena

    2015-01-01

    Somatic ACE (sACE) is found in glomerulus, proximal tubule and excreted in urine. We hypothesized that N-domain ACE can also be found at these sites. ACE profile was analyzed in mesangial (IMC), proximal (LLC-PK1), distal tubule (MDCK) and collecting duct (IMCD) cells. Cell lysate and culture medium were submitted to gel filtration chromatography, which separated two peaks with ACE activity from cells and medium, except from distal tubule. The first had a high molecular weight and the second, a lower one (65 kDa; N-domain ACE). We focused on N-domain ACE purification and characterization from LLC-PK1. Total LLC-PK1 N-domain ACE purification was achieved by ion-exchange chromatography, which presented only one peak with ACE activity, denominated ACE(int2A). ACE(int2A) activity was influenced by pH, NaCl and temperature. The purified enzyme was inhibited by Captopril and hydrolyzed AngI, Ang1-7 and AcSDKP. Its ability to hydrolyze AcSDKP characterized it as an N-domain ACE. ACE(int2A) also presented high amino acid sequence homology with the N-terminal part of sACE from mouse, rat, human and rabbit. The presence of secreted and intracellular N-domain ACE and sACE in IMC, LLC-PK1 and IMCD cells confirmed our studies along the nephron. We identified, purified and characterized N-domain ACE from LLC-PK1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition in kidney proximal tubules and its alteration during hypoxia-reoxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Feldkamp, Thorsten; Park, Jeong Soon; Pasupulati, Ratna; Amora, Daniela; Roeser, Nancy F.; Venkatachalam, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Development of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) can importantly contribute to lethal cell injury from both necrosis and apoptosis, but its role varies considerably with both the type of cell and type of injury, and it can be strongly opposed by the normally abundant endogenous metabolites ADP and Mg2+. To better characterize the MPT in kidney proximal tubule cells and assess its contribution to injury to them, we have refined and validated approaches to follow the process in whole kidney proximal tubules and studied its regulation in normoxic tubules and after hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R). Physiological levels of ADP and Mg2+ greatly decreased sensitivity to the MPT. Inhibition of cyclophilin D by cyclosporine A (CsA) effectively opposed the MPT only in the presence of ADP and/or Mg2+. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) had a large role in the decreased resistance to the MPT seen after H/R irrespective of the available substrate or the presence of ADP, Mg2+, or CsA, but removal of NEFA was less effective at restoring normal resistance to the MPT in the presence of electron transport complex I-dependent substrates than with succinate. The data indicate that the NEFA accumulation that occurs during both hypoxia in vitro and ischemic acute kidney injury in vivo is a critical sensitizing factor for the MPT that overcomes the antagonistic effect of endogenous metabolites and cyclophilin D inhibition, particularly in the presence of complex I-dependent substrates, which predominate in vivo. PMID:19741014

  14. Acute renal proximal tubule alterations during induced metabolic crises in a mouse model of glutaric aciduria type 1.

    PubMed

    Thies, Bastian; Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Lamp, Jessica; Schweizer, Michaela; Koeller, David M; Ullrich, Kurt; Braulke, Thomas; Mühlhausen, Chris

    2013-10-01

    The metabolic disorder glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) is caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), leading to accumulation of the pathologic metabolites glutaric acid (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3OHGA) in blood, urine and tissues. Affected patients are prone to metabolic crises developing during catabolic conditions, with an irreversible destruction of striatal neurons and a subsequent dystonic-dyskinetic movement disorder. The pathogenetic mechanisms mediated by GA and 3OHGA have not been fully characterized. Recently, we have shown that GA and 3OHGA are translocated through membranes via sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter (NaC) 3, and organic anion transporters (OATs) 1 and 4. Here, we show that induced metabolic crises in Gcdh(-/-) mice lead to an altered renal expression pattern of NaC3 and OATs, and the subsequent intracellular GA and 3OHGA accumulation. Furthermore, OAT1 transporters are mislocalized to the apical membrane during metabolic crises accompanied by a pronounced thinning of proximal tubule brush border membranes. Moreover, mitochondrial swelling and increased excretion of low molecular weight proteins indicate functional tubulopathy. As the data clearly demonstrate renal proximal tubule alterations in this GA1 mouse model during induced metabolic crises, we propose careful evaluation of renal function in GA1 patients, particularly during acute crises. Further studies are needed to investigate if these findings can be confirmed in humans, especially in the long-term outcome of affected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polarity and transport properties of rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells on collagen IV-coated porous membranes.

    PubMed

    Genestie, I; Morin, J P; Vannier, B; Lorenzon, G

    1995-07-01

    A high degree of functional polarity has been obtained in primary cultures of rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells grown on collagen IV-coated porous membranes. Tight confluency was attained 6 days after seeding and maintained for at least 6 more days, as shown by analysis of paracellular inulin diffusion. From day 6 onward, L-lactate, ammonia, and D-glucose concentration gradient and a pH difference of approximately 1 unit developed between the two nutrient medium compartments. Confluent monolayers expressed organic ion transport properties higher than those formerly reported for other cell models. Transcellular transport of 20 microM tetraethylammonium was directed from basal to apical compartment and was specifically inhibited by mepiperphenidol (1 mM). Unidirectional transport of 2.4 microM p-aminohippurate also occurred from basal to apical compartment, was saturable, and specifically inhibited by probenecid (1 mM). These results suggest that rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells, cultured under the experimental conditions described here, may be a useful model for the in vitro study of highly polarized renal transport processes.

  16. Sodium, phosphate, glucose, bicarbonate, and alanine interactions in the isolated proximal convoluted tubule of the rabbit kidney.

    PubMed

    Dennis, V W; Brazy, P C

    1978-08-01

    Interactions among the transport systems involved with sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, phosphate, and alanine absorption in isolated segments of the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule were examined with radioisotopic techniques to measure glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption rates. The composition of the perfusate and bath varied from normal, physiological fluids to fluids deficient in a single solute. The deletion of glucose from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 5.51 +/- 1.15 to 8.32 +/- 1.34 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01). Similar changes occurred when glucose transport was inhibited by phlorizin 10 micron in the perfusate, The deletion of alanine from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 6.55 +/- 1.08 to 9.00 +/- 1.30 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01) but did not affect glucose transport significantly, 80.1 +/- 10.1 vs. 72.5 +/- 5.4 pmol/mm-min. Replacement of intraluminal sodium with choline, elimination of potassium from the bath, and removal of bicarbonate from the lumen and bath each reduced glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption. These data indicate that the proximal absorptive processes for glucose and for phosphate include elements that are dependent upon some function of sodium transport. Additionally, the effects on phosphate transport of deleting glucose or alanine occur independent of any changes in net sodium transport and are opposite the effects of deleting bicarbonate. These differences may relate to the observations that the transport of glucose and alanine is electrogenic while that of bicarbonate is not. Regardless of possible mechanisms, the data demonstrate that important changes in the absorption rates of different solutes handled significantly by the proximal convoluted tubule may occur in response to changes in specific components of proximal sodium transport.

  17. Sodium, phosphate, glucose, bicarbonate, and alanine interactions in the isolated proximal convoluted tubule of the rabbit kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, V W; Brazy, P C

    1978-01-01

    Interactions among the transport systems involved with sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, phosphate, and alanine absorption in isolated segments of the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule were examined with radioisotopic techniques to measure glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption rates. The composition of the perfusate and bath varied from normal, physiological fluids to fluids deficient in a single solute. The deletion of glucose from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 5.51 +/- 1.15 to 8.32 +/- 1.34 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01). Similar changes occurred when glucose transport was inhibited by phlorizin 10 micron in the perfusate, The deletion of alanine from the perfusate increased the lumen-to-bath flux of phosphate from 6.55 +/- 1.08 to 9.00 +/- 1.30 pmol/mm-min (P less than 0.01) but did not affect glucose transport significantly, 80.1 +/- 10.1 vs. 72.5 +/- 5.4 pmol/mm-min. Replacement of intraluminal sodium with choline, elimination of potassium from the bath, and removal of bicarbonate from the lumen and bath each reduced glucose, phosphate, and fluid absorption. These data indicate that the proximal absorptive processes for glucose and for phosphate include elements that are dependent upon some function of sodium transport. Additionally, the effects on phosphate transport of deleting glucose or alanine occur independent of any changes in net sodium transport and are opposite the effects of deleting bicarbonate. These differences may relate to the observations that the transport of glucose and alanine is electrogenic while that of bicarbonate is not. Regardless of possible mechanisms, the data demonstrate that important changes in the absorption rates of different solutes handled significantly by the proximal convoluted tubule may occur in response to changes in specific components of proximal sodium transport. PMID:670399

  18. Podocyturia parallels proximal tubule dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients independently of albuminuria and renal function decline: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Petrica, Ligia; Vlad, Mihaela; Vlad, Adrian; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Gadalean, Florica; Dumitrascu, Victor; Popescu, Roxana; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Matusz, Petru; Velciov, Silvia; Bob, Flaviu; Ursoniu, Sorin; Vlad, Daliborca

    2017-09-01

    Detection of podocytes in the urine of patients with type 2 diabetes may indicate severe injury to the podocytes. In the course of type 2 diabetes the proximal tubule is involved in urinary albumin processing. We studied the significance of podocyturia in relation with proximal tubule dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. A total of 86 patients with type 2 diabetes (34-normoalbuminuria; 30-microalbuminuria; 22-macroalbuminuria) and 28 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study and assessed concerning urinary podocytes, podocyte-associated molecules, and biomarkers of proximal tubule dysfunction. Urinary podocytes were examined in cell cultures by utilizing monoclonal antibodies against podocalyxin and synaptopodin. Podocytes were detected in the urine of 10% of the healthy controls, 24% of the normoalbuminuric, 40% of the microalbuminuric, and 82% of the macroalbuminuric patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, urinary podocytes correlated with urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (p=0.006), urinary nephrin/creat (p=0.001), urinary vascular endothelial growth factor/creat (p=0.001), urinary kidney injury molecule-1/creat (p=0.003), cystatin C (p=0.001), urinary advanced glycation end-products (p=0.002), eGFR (p=0.001). In patients with type 2 diabetes podocyturia parallels proximal tubule dysfunction independently of albuminuria and renal function decline. Advanced glycation end-products may impact the podocytes and the proximal tubule. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transport of water in proximal kidney tubules from whole tubules to single channels: length and section of the selectivity filter of aquaporin-1.

    PubMed

    Whittembury, G; González, E; Hernández, C S; Gutiérrez, A M; Echevarría, M

    1997-06-27

    Proximal straight tubule (PST) were dissected from rabbit kidneys, held with crimping pipettes in a chamber bathed in a buffered mannitol isosmotic solution (MBS, 295 mOsm/kg). Tubule cell volume changes with time (dV/Adt) after steps in MBS osmolality (delta Cs) were monitored on line with an inverted microscope, a TV camera and an image processor. Reflection coefficients sigma and osmotic permeability coefficients, Pos, for several solutes were measured using two methods. Method 1: sigma was calculated from the delta Csiso of impermeant and permeant solutes at which (dV/Adt)t-->0 = 0 (i.e., by a null point method). It is denoted as sigma 1. sigma 1 = 1.00 for mannitol (M), raffinose (R), sucrose (S), glycerol (G), acetamide (A) and urea (U). With formamide (F), sigma 1, Formamide = 0.62 +/- 0.05. These findings confirm our previous value of dp = 4.5 A for the diameter of the selectivity filter of the basolateral PST cell membrane water channel AQP1. Method 2: PST were exposed for 20 s to MBS made hyperosmotic by addition of a delta Cs of 35 mOsm/kg of R, S, M, G, A and U. Cells shrunk within 500 ms of t = 0 to their osmometric volume and remained shrunk for the 20 s of the osmotic challenge. Pos was measured from the shrinking curves. P(os) = 3000 +/- 25 microns/s with R, S, M, G, A and U. Method 2 also allowed to calculate sigma, denoted as sigma 2. sigma 2 = 1.00 for R, S, M, G, A and U. By contrast, the shrinking curve produced by a delta Cs of 35 mOsm/kg F was 1/5th to 1/6th slower and smaller (i.e., subosmometric) than that produced by a delta Cs of 35 mOsm/kg R, S, M, G, A and U. Furthermore, with F cells did not remain shrunk but recovered their original volume within 3 s. P(os) (measured with F) is denoted as P(os)*, P(os)* = 480 +/- 30 microns/s. sigma 2, Formamide = 0.16 +/- 0.01. Use of sigma 1, sigma 2 and P(os)* values in Hill's equations for the bimodal theory of osmosis leads to n = 2-9. Where n is the number of water molecules single filling

  20. Proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a) receptors induces blood pressure responses to intracellular angiotensin II in AT(1a) receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Zhuo, Jia L

    2013-04-15

    The role of intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney remains poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a) receptors in the cortex mediates intracellular ANG II-induced blood pressure responses in AT(1a) receptor-deficient (Agtr1a-/-) mice. A GFP-tagged AT(1a) receptor, AT(1a)R/GFP, and an enhanced cyan fluorescent intracellular ANG II fusion protein, ECFP/ANG II, were expressed in proximal tubules of Agtr1a-/- mouse kidneys via the adenoviral transfer using a sodium and glucose cotransporter 2 promoter. Transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone or with ECFP/ANG II induced proximal tubule-dominant expression of AT(1a)R/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II with a peak response at 2 wk. No significant AT(1a)R/GFP and/or ECFP/ANG II expression was observed in the glomeruli, medulla, or extrarenal tissues. Transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone, but not ECFP/ANG II, increased systolic blood pressure by 12 ± 2 mmHg by day 14 (n = 9, P < 0.01). However, cotransfer of AT(1a)R/GFP with ECFP/ANG II increased blood pressure by 18 ± 2 mmHg (n = 12, P < 0.01). Twenty-four hour urinary sodium excretion was decreased by day 7 with proximal tubule-dominant transfer of AT(1a)R/GFP alone (P < 0.01) or with AT(1a)R/GFP and ECFP/ANG II cotransfer (P < 0.01). These responses were associated with twofold increases in phosphorylated ERK1/2, lysate, and membrane NHE-3 proteins in freshly isolated proximal tubules (P < 0.01). By contrast, transfer of control CMV-GFP (a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter), ECFP/ANG II, or a scrambled control ECFP/ANG IIc alone in proximal tubules had no effect on all indices. These results suggest that AT(1a) receptors and intracellular ANG II in proximal tubules of the kidney play an important physiological role in blood pressure regulation.

  1. Effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase during impaired mitochondrial function in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peters, Esther; Schirris, Tom; van Asbeck, Alexander H; Gerretsen, Jelle; Eymael, Jennifer; Ashikov, Angel; Adjobo-Hermans, Merel J W; Russel, Frans; Pickkers, Peter; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2017-02-05

    Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury is a multifactorial syndrome in which inflammation and renal microcirculatory dysfunction play a profound role. Subsequently, renal tubule mitochondria reprioritize cellular functions to prevent further damage. Here, we investigated the putative protective effects of human recombinant alkaline phosphatase (recAP) during inhibition of mitochondrial respiration in conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC). Full inhibition of mitochondrial oxygen consumption was obtained after 24h antimycin A treatment, which did not affect cell viability. While recAP did not affect the antimycin A-induced decreased oxygen consumption and increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or adrenomedullin gene expression levels, the antimycin A-induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 was attenuated. Antimycin A tended to induce the release of detrimental purines ATP and ADP, which reached statistical significance when antimycin A was co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide, and were completely converted into cytoprotective adenosine by recAP. As the adenosine A 2A receptor was up-regulated after antimycin A exposure, an adenosine A 2A receptor knockout ciPTEC cell line was generated in which recAP still provided protection. Together, recAP did not affect oxygen consumption but attenuated the inflammatory response during impaired mitochondrial function, an effect suggested to be mediated by dephosphorylating ATP and ADP into adenosine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cadherin Expression, Vectorial Active Transport, and Metallothionein Isoform 3 Mediated EMT/MET Responses in Cultured Primary and Immortalized Human Proximal Tubule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Slusser, Andrea; Bathula, Chandra S.; Sens, Donald A.; Somji, Seema; Sens, Mary Ann; Zhou, Xu Dong; Garrett, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cultures of human proximal tubule cells have been widely utilized to study the role of EMT in renal disease. The goal of this study was to define the role of growth media composition on classic EMT responses, define the expression of E- and N-cadherin, and define the functional epitope of MT-3 that mediates MET in HK-2 cells. Methods Immunohistochemistry, microdissection, real-time PCR, western blotting, and ELISA were used to define the expression of E- and N-cadherin mRNA and protein in HK-2 and HPT cell cultures. Site-directed mutagenesis, stable transfection, measurement of transepithelial resistance and dome formation were used to define the unique amino acid sequence of MT-3 associated with MET in HK-2 cells. Results It was shown that both E- and N-cadherin mRNA and protein are expressed in the human renal proximal tubule. It was shown, based on the pattern of cadherin expression, connexin expression, vectorial active transport, and transepithelial resistance, that the HK-2 cell line has already undergone many of the early features associated with EMT. It was shown that the unique, six amino acid, C-terminal sequence of MT-3 is required for MT-3 to induce MET in HK-2 cells. Conclusions The results show that the HK-2 cell line can be an effective model to study later stages in the conversion of the renal epithelial cell to a mesenchymal cell. The HK-2 cell line, transfected with MT-3, may be an effective model to study the process of MET. The study implicates the unique C-terminal sequence of MT-3 in the conversion of HK-2 cells to display an enhanced epithelial phenotype. PMID:25803827

  3. Development of a living membrane comprising a functional human renal proximal tubule cell monolayer on polyethersulfone polymeric membrane.

    PubMed

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; De Napoli, Ilaria E; Jansen, Jitske; Teixeira, Sandra; Wilmer, Martijn J; Hoenderop, Joost G J; Van den Heuvel, Lambert P W; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2015-03-01

    The need for improved renal replacement therapies has stimulated innovative research for the development of a cell-based renal assist device. A key requirement for such a device is the formation of a "living membrane", consisting of a tight kidney cell monolayer with preserved functional organic ion transporters on a suitable artificial membrane surface. In this work, we applied a unique conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) line with an optimized coating strategy on polyethersulfone (PES) membranes to develop a living membrane with a functional proximal tubule epithelial cell layer. PES membranes were coated with combinations of 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine and human collagen IV (Coll IV). The optimal coating time and concentrations were determined to achieve retention of vital blood components while preserving high water transport and optimal ciPTEC adhesion. The ciPTEC monolayers obtained were examined through immunocytochemistry to detect zona occludens 1 tight junction proteins. Reproducible monolayers were formed when using a combination of 2 mg ml(-1) 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (4 min coating, 1h dissolution) and 25 μg ml(-1) Coll IV (4 min coating). The successful transport of (14)C-creatinine through the developed living membrane system was used as an indication for organic cation transporter functionality. The addition of metformin or cimetidine significantly reduced the creatinine transepithelial flux, indicating active creatinine uptake in ciPTECs, most likely mediated by the organic cation transporter, OCT2 (SLC22A2). In conclusion, this study shows the successful development of a living membrane consisting of a reproducible ciPTEC monolayer on PES membranes, an important step towards the development of a bioartificial kidney. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Proximal tubule sphingosine kinase-1 has a critical role in A1 adenosine receptor-mediated renal protection from ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; Kim, Joo Yun; Brown, Kevin M.; Haase, Volker H.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Lee, H. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Renal ischemia reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury. We previously found that renal A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) activation attenuated multiple cell death pathways including necrosis, apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we tested whether induction of cytoprotective sphingosine kinase (SK)-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) synthesis might be the mechanism of protection. A selective A1AR agonist (CCPA) increased the synthesis of S1P and selectively induced SK-1 in mouse kidney and HK-2 cells. This agonist failed to protect SK1-knockout but protected SK2-knockout mice against renal ischemia reperfusion injury indicating a critical role of SK1 in A1AR-mediated renal protection. Inhibition of SK prevented A1AR-mediated defense against necrosis and apoptosis in HK-2 cells. A selective S1P1R antagonist (W146) and global in vivo gene knockdown of S1P1Rs with small interfering RNA completely abolished the renal protection provided by CCPA. Mice selectively deficient in renal proximal tubule S1P1Rs (S1P1Rflox/flox PEPCKCre/−) were not protected against renal ischemia reperfusion injury by CCPA. Mechanistically, CCPA increased nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in HK-2 cells and selective hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition blocked A1AR-mediated induction of SK1. Thus, proximal tubule SK-1 has a critical role in A1AR-mediated protection against renal ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22695326

  5. The Leptospira outer membrane protein LipL32 induces tubulointerstitial nephritis-mediated gene expression in mouse proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Wu, Mai-Szu; Pan, Ming-Jeng; Hsieh, Wang-Ju; Vandewalle, Alain; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2002-08-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a main renal manifestation caused by pathogenic leptospira that accumulate mostly in the proximal tubules, thereby inducing tubular injury and tubulointerstitial nephritis. To elucidate the role of leptospira outer membrane proteins in tubulointerstitial nephritis, outer membrane proteins from pathogenic Leptospira shermani and nonpathogenic Leptospira patoc extracted by Triton X-114 were administered to cultured mouse proximal tubule cells. A dose-dependent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, nitrite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the culture supernatant was observed 48 h after incubating Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins with mouse proximal tubule cells. RT competitive-PCR experiments showed that Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins (0.2 microg/ml) increased the expression of MCP-1, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), RANTES, and TNF-alpha mRNA by 3.0-, 9.4-, 2.5-, and 2.5-fold, respectively, when compared with untreated cells. Outer membrane proteins extract from avirulent Leptospira patoc did not induce significant effects. The pathogenic outer membrane proteins extract contain a major component of a 32-kD lipoprotein (LipL32), which is absent in the nonpathogenic leptospira outer membrane. An antibody raised against LipL32 prevented the stimulatory effect of Leptospira shermani outer membrane proteins extract on MCP-1 and iNOS mRNA expression in cultured proximal tubule cells, whereas recombinant LipL32 significantly stimulated the expression of MCP-1 and iNOS mRNAs and augmented nuclear binding of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and AP-1 transcription factors in proximal tubule cells. An antibody raised against LipL32 also blunted the effects induced by the recombinant LipL32. This study demonstrates that LipL32 is a major component of pathogenic leptospira outer membrane proteins involved in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  6. 5-Lypoxygenase products are involved in renal tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload in proximal tubules in mice.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Peruchetti, Diogo Barros; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Pinheiro, Carla Silva; Abreu, Thiago Pereira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Benjamin, Claudia Farias; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Canetti, Claudio; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2014-01-01

    The role of albumin overload in proximal tubules (PT) in the development of tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, in the progression of renal disease has become more relevant in recent years. Despite the importance of leukotrienes (LTs) in renal disease, little is known about their role in tubulointerstitial injury. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible role of LTs on tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload. An animal model of tubulointerstitial injury challenged by bovine serum albumin was developed in SV129 mice (wild-type) and 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice (5-LO(-/-)). The changes in glomerular morphology and nestin expression observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult were also observed in 5-LO(-/-) mice. The levels of urinary protein observed in the 5-LO(-/-) mice subjected or not to kidney insult were lower than those observed in respective wild-type mice. Furthermore, the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of tubule damage, observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult did not occur in 5-LO(-/-) mice. LTB4 and LTD4, 5-LO products, decreased the uptake of albumin in LLC-PK1 cells, a well-characterized porcine PT cell line. This effect correlated with activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of protein kinase B. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, increased in mice subjected to kidney insult but this effect was not modified in 5-LO(-/-) mice. However, 5-LO(-/-) mice subjected to kidney insult presented lower macrophage infiltration and higher levels of IL-10 than wild-type mice. Our results reveal that LTs have an important role in tubulointerstitial disease induced by albumin overload.

  7. 5-Lypoxygenase Products Are Involved in Renal Tubulointerstitial Injury Induced by Albumin Overload in Proximal Tubules in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Peruchetti, Diogo Barros; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Pinheiro, Carla Silva; Abreu, Thiago Pereira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Benjamin, Claudia Farias; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Canetti, Claudio; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2014-01-01

    The role of albumin overload in proximal tubules (PT) in the development of tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, in the progression of renal disease has become more relevant in recent years. Despite the importance of leukotrienes (LTs) in renal disease, little is known about their role in tubulointerstitial injury. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible role of LTs on tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload. An animal model of tubulointerstitial injury challenged by bovine serum albumin was developed in SV129 mice (wild-type) and 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice (5-LO–/–). The changes in glomerular morphology and nestin expression observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult were also observed in 5-LO–/– mice. The levels of urinary protein observed in the 5-LO–/– mice subjected or not to kidney insult were lower than those observed in respective wild-type mice. Furthermore, the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of tubule damage, observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult did not occur in 5-LO–/– mice. LTB4 and LTD4, 5-LO products, decreased the uptake of albumin in LLC-PK1 cells, a well-characterized porcine PT cell line. This effect correlated with activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of protein kinase B. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, increased in mice subjected to kidney insult but this effect was not modified in 5-LO–/– mice. However, 5-LO–/– mice subjected to kidney insult presented lower macrophage infiltration and higher levels of IL-10 than wild-type mice. Our results reveal that LTs have an important role in tubulointerstitial disease induced by albumin overload. PMID:25302946

  8. Antenatal betamethasone attenuates the angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor-nitric oxide axis in isolated proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Yixin; Bi, Jianli; Pulgar, Victor M; Chappell, Mark C; Rose, James C

    2017-06-01

    We previously reported a sex-specific effect of antenatal treatment with betamethasone (Beta) on sodium (Na + ) excretion in adult sheep whereby treated males but not females had an attenuated natriuretic response to angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)]. The present study determined the Na + uptake and nitric oxide (NO) response to low-dose Ang-(1-7) (1 pM) in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTC) from adult male and female sheep antenatally exposed to Beta or vehicle. Data were expressed as percentage of basal uptake or area under the curve for Na + or percentage of control for NO. Male Beta RPTC exhibited greater Na + uptake than male vehicle cells (433 ± 28 vs. 330 ± 26%; P < 0.05); however, Beta exposure had no effect on Na + uptake in the female cells (255 ± 16 vs. 255 ± 14%; P > 0.05). Ang-(1-7) significantly inhibited Na + uptake in RPTC from vehicle male (214 ± 11%) and from both vehicle (190 ± 14%) and Beta (209 ± 11%) females but failed to attenuate Na + uptake in Beta male cells. Beta exposure also abolished stimulation of NO by Ang-(1-7) in male but not female RPTC. Both the Na + and NO responses to Ang-(1-7) were blocked by Mas receptor antagonist d-Ala 7 -Ang-(1-7). We conclude that the tubular Ang-(1-7)-Mas-NO pathway is attenuated in males and not females by antenatal Beta exposure. Moreover, since primary cultures of RPTC retain both the sex and Beta-induced phenotype of the adult kidney in vivo they appear to be an appropriate cell model to examine the effects of fetal programming on Na + handling by the renal tubules. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Relationship between cell volume and ion transport in the early distal tubule of the Amphiuma kidney.

    PubMed

    Guggino, W B; Oberleithner, H; Giebisch, G

    1985-07-01

    The roles of apical and basolateral transport mechanisms in the regulation of cell volume and the hydraulic water permeabilities (Lp) of the individual cell membranes of the Amphiuma early distal tubule (diluting segment) were evaluated using video and optical techniques as well as conventional and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes. The Lp of the apical cell membrane calculated per square centimeter of tubule is less than 3% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Calculated per square centimeter of membrane, the Lp of the apical cell membrane is less than 40% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Thus, two factors are responsible for the asymmetry in the Lp of the early distal tubule: an intrinsic difference in the Lp per square centimeter of membrane area, and a difference in the surface areas of the apical and basolateral cell membranes. Early distal tubule cells do not regulate volume after a reduction in bath osmolality. This cell swelling occurs without a change in the intracellular Cl content or the basolateral cell membrane potential. In contrast, reducing the osmolality of the basolateral solution in the presence of luminal furosemide diminishes the magnitude of the increase in cell volume to a value below that predicted from the change in osmolality. This osmotic swelling is associated with a reduction in the intracellular Cl content. Hence, early distal tubule cells can lose solute in response to osmotic swelling, but only after the apical Na/K/Cl transporter is blocked. Inhibition of basolateral Na/K ATPase with ouabain results in severe cell swelling. This swelling in response to ouabain can be inhibited by the prior application of furosemide, which suggests that the swelling is due to the continued entry of solutes, primarily through the apical cotransport pathway.

  10. Relationship between cell volume and ion transport in the early distal tubule of the Amphiuma kidney

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The roles of apical and basolateral transport mechanisms in the regulation of cell volume and the hydraulic water permeabilities (Lp) of the individual cell membranes of the Amphiuma early distal tubule (diluting segment) were evaluated using video and optical techniques as well as conventional and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes. The Lp of the apical cell membrane calculated per square centimeter of tubule is less than 3% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Calculated per square centimeter of membrane, the Lp of the apical cell membrane is less than 40% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Thus, two factors are responsible for the asymmetry in the Lp of the early distal tubule: an intrinsic difference in the Lp per square centimeter of membrane area, and a difference in the surface areas of the apical and basolateral cell membranes. Early distal tubule cells do not regulate volume after a reduction in bath osmolality. This cell swelling occurs without a change in the intracellular Cl content or the basolateral cell membrane potential. In contrast, reducing the osmolality of the basolateral solution in the presence of luminal furosemide diminishes the magnitude of the increase in cell volume to a value below that predicted from the change in osmolality. This osmotic swelling is associated with a reduction in the intracellular Cl content. Hence, early distal tubule cells can lose solute in response to osmotic swelling, but only after the apical Na/K/Cl transporter is blocked. Inhibition of basolateral Na/K ATPase with ouabain results in severe cell swelling. This swelling in response to ouabain can be inhibited by the prior application of furosemide, which suggests that the swelling is due to the continued entry of solutes, primarily through the apical cotransport pathway. PMID:2411847

  11. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    SciT

    Liu, Senyan; Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201; Yao, Yunyi

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity withmore » the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity.« less

  12. Interactive toxicity of inorganic mercury and trichloroethylene in rat and human proximal tubules: Effects on apoptosis, necrosis, and glutathione status

    SciT

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Putt, David A.; Hueni, Sarah E.

    Simultaneous or prior exposure to one chemical may alter the concurrent or subsequent response to another chemical, often in unexpected ways. This is particularly true when the two chemicals share common mechanisms of action. The present study uses the paradigm of prior exposure to study the interactive toxicity between inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and trichloroethylene (TRI) or its metabolite S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) in rat and human proximal tubule. Pretreatment of rats with a subtoxic dose of Hg{sup 2+} increased expression of glutathione S-transferase-{alpha}1 (GST{alpha}1) but decreased expression of GST{alpha}2, increased activities of several GSH-dependent enzymes, and increased GSH conjugation of TRI.more » Primary cultures of rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells exhibited both necrosis and apoptosis after incubation with Hg{sup 2+}. Pretreatment of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells with Hg{sup 2+} caused little or no changes in GST expression or activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, decreased apoptosis induced by TRI or DCVC, but increased necrosis induced by DCVC. In contrast, pretreatment of hPT cells with TRI or DCVC protected from Hg{sup 2+} by decreasing necrosis and increasing apoptosis. Thus, whereas pretreatment of hPT cells with Hg{sup 2+} exacerbated cellular injury due to TRI or DCVC by shifting the response from apoptosis to necrosis, pretreatment of hPT cells with either TRI or DCVC protected from Hg{sup 2+}-induced cytotoxicity by shifting the response from necrosis to apoptosis. These results demonstrate that by altering processes related to GSH status, susceptibilities of rPT and hPT cells to acute injury from Hg{sup 2+}, TRI, or DCVC are markedly altered by prior exposures.« less

  13. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Katherine J.; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F.; Keezer, Susan M.; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser938 were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K·mg protein−1·min−1 and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser938 is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells. PMID:26582472

  14. Inhibition of Na+−H+ exchange impairs receptor-mediated albumin endocytosis in renal proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells from opossum

    PubMed Central

    Gekle, Michael; Drumm, Karina; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Freudinger, Ruth; Gaßner, Birgit; Silbernagl, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is an important mechanism for transport of macromolecules and regulation of cell-surface receptor expression. In renal proximal tubules, receptor-mediated endocytosis mediates the reabsorption of filtered albumin. Acidification of the endocytic compartments is essential because it interferes with ligand-receptor dissociation, vesicle trafficking, fusion events and coat formation. Here we show that the activity of Na+−H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is important for proper receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin and endosomal pH homeostasis in a renal proximal tubular cell line (opossum kidney cells) which expresses NHE3 only. Depending on their inhibitory potency with respect to NHE3 and their lipophilicity, the NHE inhibitors EIPA, amiloride and HOE694 differentially reduced albumin endocytosis. The hydrophilic inhibitor HOE642 had no effect. Inhibition of NHE3 led to an alkalinization of early endosomes and to an acidification of the cytoplasm, indicating that Na+−H+ exchange contributes to the acidification of the early endosomal compartment due to the existence of a sufficient Na+ gradient across the endosomal membrane. Exclusive acidification of the cytoplasm with propionic acid or by removal of Na+ induced a significantly smaller reduction in endocytosis than that induced by inhibition of Na+−H+ exchange. Analysis of the inhibitory profiles indicates that in early endosomes and endocytic vesicles NHE3 is of major importance, whereas plasma membrane NHE3 plays a minor role. Thus, NHE3-mediated acidification along the first part of the endocytic pathway plays an important role in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, the involvement of NHE3 offers new ways to explain the regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:10545138

  15. IgA-kappa type multiple myeloma affecting proximal and distal renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Minemura, K; Ichikawa, K; Itoh, N; Suzuki, N; Hara, M; Shigematsu, S; Kobayashi, H; Hiramatsu, K; Hashizume, K

    2001-09-01

    A 45-year-old male was admitted because of chest pain, lumbago, and bilateral ankle pain. Examination disclosed hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, acquired Fanconi syndrome, and abnormalities in distal nephron such as distal renal tubular acidosis and renal diabetes insipidus. Further exploration revealed IgA kappa multiple myeloma excreting urinary Bence Jones protein (kappa-light chain). Renal biopsy revealed thick basement membranes and elec-tron-dense crystals in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Immunofluorescent studies revealed deposition of kappa-light chain in renal tubular epithelial cells that caused the renal tubular damage. Although the osteomalacia was relieved by medical treatment, the urinary Bence Jones protein and the renal tubular defects were not improved by the chemotherapy for the myeloma. The patient died of exacerbation of multiple myeloma at 50 years of age.

  16. Evaluation of “Dream Herb,” Calea zacatechichi, for Nephrotoxicity Using Human Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Thomas J.; Vohra, Sanah; Wiesenfeld, Paddy; Sprando, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    A recent surge in the use of dietary supplements, including herbal remedies, necessitates investigations into their safety profiles. “Dream herb,” Calea zacatechichi, has long been used in traditional folk medicine for a variety of purposes and is currently being marketed in the US for medicinal purposes, including diabetes treatment. Despite the inherent vulnerability of the renal system to xenobiotic toxicity, there is a lack of safety studies on the nephrotoxic potential of this herb. Additionally, the high frequency of diabetes-associated kidney disease makes safety screening of C. zacatechichi for safety especially important. We exposed human proximal tubule HK-2 cells to increasing doses of this herb alongside known toxicant and protectant control compounds to examine potential toxicity effects of C. zacatechichi relative to control compounds. We evaluated both cellular and mitochondrial functional changes related to toxicity of this dietary supplement and found that even at low doses evidence of cellular toxicity was significant. Moreover, these findings correlated with significantly elevated levels of nephrotoxicity biomarkers, lending further support for the need to further scrutinize the safety of this herbal dietary supplement. PMID:27703475

  17. Proapoptotic effect of a micropollutant (tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate) at environmental level in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianghao; Han, Ho Jae; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Ng, How Yong; Chae, Kyu-Jung; Kim, In S

    2012-12-01

    Being a typical micropollutant, tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) is often found in aquatic environments. However, the potential effects of TCEP at environmental concentrations on apoptotic mechanisms are mostly unknown. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the apoptotic regulatory protein expression of TCEP at environmental concentration in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs). The results show that TCEP at 0.01 and 1 mg L(-1) significantly increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) (135.5 and 138.0% of the control, respectively), and significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and cIAP-2 at all tested concentrations, except for a slight decrease of Bcl-2 at 0.01 mg L(-1). In addition, TCEP significantly increased the expression of caspase-3 at all three concentrations (132.6, 172.6 and 167.9% of the control, respectively) and caspase-9 at 1 and 10 mg L(-1) (128.3 and 144.5% of the control, respectively). Furthermore, TCEP increased the apoptotic cell population in a flow cytometry analysis. In conclusion, environmental TCEP might have a dose-dependent proapoptotic effect with a decrease of DNA synthesis and cell number in primary cultured renal PTCs.

  18. Urinary Excretion of Tetrodotoxin Modeled in a Porcine Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cell Line, LLC-PK₁.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Ishizaki, Yui; Mochizuki, Keika; Aoyagi, Mitsuru; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2017-07-17

    This study examined the urinary excretion of tetrodotoxin (TTX) modeled in a porcine renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line, LLC-PK₁. Time course profiles of TTX excretion and reabsorption across the cell monolayers at 37 °C showed that the amount of TTX transported increased linearly for 60 min. However, at 4 °C, the amount of TTX transported was approximately 20% of the value at 37 °C. These results indicate that TTX transport is both a transcellular and carrier-mediated process. Using a transport inhibition assay in which cell monolayers were incubated with 50 µM TTX and 5 mM of a transport inhibitor at 37 °C for 30 min, urinary excretion was significantly reduced by probenecid, tetraethylammonium (TEA), l-carnitine, and cimetidine, slightly reduced by p -aminohippuric acid (PAH), and unaffected by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), oxaliplatin, and cefalexin. Renal reabsorption was significantly reduced by PAH, but was unaffected by probenecid, TEA and l-carnitine. These findings indicate that TTX is primarily excreted by organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTNs), partially transported by organic anion transporters (OATs) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), and negligibly transported by multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporters (MATEs).

  19. A 2D model of axial symmetry for proximal tubule of an average human nephron: indicative results of diffusion, convection and absorption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insfrán, J. F.; Ubal, S.; Di Paolo, y. J.

    2016-04-01

    A simplified model of a proximal convoluted tubule of an average human nephron is presented. The model considers the 2D axisymmetric flow of the luminal solution exchanging matter with the tubule walls and the peritubular fluid by means of 0D models for the epithelial cells. The tubule radius is considered to vary along the conduit due to the trans-epithelial pressure difference. The fate of more than ten typical solutes is tracked down by the model. The Navier-Stokes and Reaction-Diffusion-Advection equations (considering the electro-neutrality principle) are solved in the lumen, giving a detailed picture of the velocity, pressure and concentration fields, along with trans-membrane fluxes and tubule deformation, via coupling with the 0D model for the tubule wall. The calculations are carried out numerically by means of the finite element method. The results obtained show good agreement with those published by other authors using models that ignore the diffusive transport and disregard a detailed calculation of velocity, pressure and concentrations. This work should be seen as a first approach towards the development of a more comprehensive model of the filtration process taking place in the kidneys, which ultimately helps in devising a device that can mimic/complement the renal function.

  20. Protein kinase C-ε activation induces mitochondrial dysfunction and fragmentation in renal proximal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Bakajsova, Diana; Samarel, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    PKC-ε activation mediates protection from ischemia-reperfusion injury in the myocardium. Mitochondria are a subcellular target of these protective mechanisms of PKC-ε. Previously, we have shown that PKC-ε activation is involved in mitochondrial dysfunction in oxidant-injured renal proximal tubular cells (RPTC; Nowak G, Bakajsova D, Clifton GL Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 286: F307–F316, 2004). The goal of this study was to examine the role of PKC-ε activation in mitochondrial dysfunction and to identify mitochondrial targets of PKC-ε in RPTC. The constitutively active and inactive mutants of PKC-ε were overexpressed in primary cultures of RPTC using the adenoviral technique. Increases in active PKC-ε levels were accompanied by PKC-ε translocation to mitochondria. Sustained PKC-ε activation resulted in decreases in state 3 respiration, electron transport rate, ATP production, ATP content, and activities of complexes I and IV and F0F1-ATPase. Furthermore, PKC-ε activation increased mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidant production and induced mitochondrial fragmentation and RPTC death. Accumulation of the dynamin-related protein in mitochondria preceded mitochondrial fragmentation. Antioxidants blocked PKC-ε-induced increases in the oxidant production but did not prevent mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death. The inactive PKC-ε mutant had no effect on mitochondrial functions, morphology, oxidant production, and RPTC viability. We conclude that active PKC-ε targets complexes I and IV and F0F1-ATPase in RPTC. PKC-ε activation mediates mitochondrial dysfunction, hyperpolarization, and fragmentation. It also induces oxidant generation and cell death, but oxidative stress is not the mechanism of RPTC death. These results show that in contrast to protective effects of PKC-ε activation in cardiomyocytes, sustained PKC-ε activation is detrimental to mitochondrial function and viability in RPTC. PMID:21289057

  1. Angiotensin II stimulates calcineurin activity in proximal tubule epithelia through AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform.

    PubMed

    Lea, Janice P; Jin, Shao G; Roberts, Brian R; Shuler, Michael S; Marrero, Mario B; Tumlin, James A

    2002-07-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) contributes to the maintenance of extracellular fluid volume by regulating sodium transport in the nephron. In nonepithelial cells, activation of phospholipase C (PLC) by AT-1 receptors stimulates the generation of 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and the release of intracellular calcium. Calcineurin, a serine-threonine phosphatase, is activated by calcium and calmodulin, and both PLC and calcineurin have been linked to sodium transport in the proximal tubule. An examination of whether AngII activates calcineurin in a model of proximal tubule epithelia (LLC-PK1 cells) was performed; AngII increased calcineurin activity within 30 s. An examination of whether AngII activates PLC in proximal tubule epithelia was also performed after first showing that all three families of PLC isoforms are present in LLC-PK1 cells. Application of AngII increased IP(3) generation by 60% within 15 s, which coincided with AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC-gamma1 isoform also observed at 15 s. AngII-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was blocked by the AT-1 receptor antagonist, Losartan. Subsequently, an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation blocked the AngII-induced activation of calcineurin, as did coincubation with an inhibitor of PLC activity and with an antagonist of the AT-1 receptor. It is therefore concluded that AngII stimulates calcineurin phosphatase activity in proximal tubule epithelial cells through a mechanism involving AT-1 receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the PLC isoform.

  2. Interaction of chloride and bicarbonate transport across the basolateral membrane of rabbit proximal straight tubule. Evidence for sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, S; Yoshiyama, N

    1988-01-01

    The existence of chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the basolateral membrane and its physiologic significance were examined in rabbit proximal tubules. S2 segments of the proximal straight tubule were perfused in vitro and changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride activity (aCli) were monitored by double-barreled microelectrodes. Total peritubular chloride replacement with gluconate increased pHi by 0.8, and this change was inhibited by a pretreatment with an anion transport inhibitor, SITS. Peritubular bicarbonate reduction increased aCli, and most of this increase was lost when ambient sodium was totally removed. The reduction rates of pHi induced by a peritubular bicarbonate reduction or sodium removal were attenuated by 20% by withdrawal of ambient chloride. SITS application to the bath in the control condition quickly increased pHi, but did not change aCli. However, the aCli slightly decreased in response to SITS when the basolateral bicarbonate efflux was increased by reducing peritubular bicarbonate concentration. It is concluded that sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange is present in parallel with sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the basolateral membrane of the rabbit proximal tubule, and it contributes to the basolateral bicarbonate and chloride transport. PMID:2450891

  3. Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment alters Na+ uptake in renal proximal tubule cells from adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Su, Yixin; Bi, Jianli; Pulgar, Victor M; Figueroa, Jorge; Chappell, Mark; Rose, James C

    2015-06-01

    We have shown a sex-specific effect of fetal programming on Na(+) excretion in adult sheep. The site of this effect in the kidney is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) from adult male sheep exposed to betamethasone (Beta) before birth have greater Na(+) uptake than do RPTCs from vehicle-exposed male sheep and that RPTCs from female sheep similarly exposed are not influenced by antenatal Beta. In isolated RPTCs from 1- to 1.5-yr-old male and female sheep, we measured Na(+) uptake under basal conditions and after stimulation with ANG II. To gain insight into the mechanisms involved, we also measured nitric oxide (NO) levels, ANG II receptor mRNA levels, and expression of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3. Basal Na(+) uptake increased more in cells from Beta-exposed male sheep than in cells from vehicle-exposed male sheep (400% vs. 300%, P < 0.00001). ANG II-stimulated Na(+) uptake was also greater in cells from Beta-exposed males. Beta exposure did not increase Na(+) uptake by RPTCs from female sheep. NO production was suppressed more by ANG II in RPTCs from Beta-exposed males than in RPTCs from either vehicle-exposed male or female sheep. Our data suggest that one site of the sex-specific effect of Beta-induced fetal programming in the kidney is the RPTC and that the enhanced Na(+) uptake induced by antenatal Beta in male RPTCs may be related to the suppression of NO in these cells. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of rMnSOD on Sodium Reabsorption in Renal Proximal Tubule in Ochratoxin A-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Sara; Puzio, Maria V; Squillacioti, Caterina; Mirabella, Nicola; Zona, Enrica; Mancini, Aldo; Borrelli, Antonella; Astarita, Carlo; Boffo, Silvia; Giordano, Antonio; Avallone, Luigi; Florio, Salvatore; Ciarcia, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium that represent toxic real threat for human beings and animal health. In this study we evaluated the effect of a new recombinant mitochondrial manganese containing superoxide dismutase (rMnSOD) on oxidative stress and on the alterations of fluid reabsorption in renal proximal tubule (PT) as possible causes of OTA nephrotoxicity. Finally, we have measured the concentration of O 2 - in the kidney through dihydroethidium assay (DHE) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration through nitrites and nitrates assay. Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 120-150 g were treated for 14 days by gavage, as follows: Control group, 12 rats received a corresponding amount of saline solution (including 10% DMSO); rMnSOD group, 12 rats treated with rMnSOD (10 µg/kg bw); OTA group, 12 rats treated with OTA (0.5 mg/kg bw) dissolved in 10% DMSO and then scaled to required volume with corn oil; rMnSOD + OTA, 12 rats treated with rMnSOD (10 µg/kg bw) plus OTA (0.5 mg/kg bw). Our results have shown that rMnSOD restores the alteration of reabsorption in PT in rats treated with OTA plus rMnSOD, probably through the response to pressure natriuresis, where nitric oxide plays a key role. Moreover, rMnSOD prevents the nephrotoxicity induced by OTA probably restoring the balance between superoxide and NO that is most probably the cause of hypertension and renal functional alterations through the inhibition of NO synthase. In conclusion these data provide important information for understanding of mechanism of toxic action of OTA. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 424-430, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A test of the hypothesis that oxalate secretion produces proximal tubule crystallization in primary hyperoxaluria type I

    PubMed Central

    Evan, Andrew P.; Coe, Fredric L.; Lingeman, James E.; Krambeck, Amy; Sommers, Andre; Phillips, Carrie L.; Milliner, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The sequence of events by which primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) causes renal failure is unclear. We hypothesize that proximal tubule (PT) is vulnerable because oxalate secretion raises calcium oxalate (CaOx) supersaturation (SS) there, leading to crystal formation and cellular injury. We studied cortical and papillary biopsies from two PH1 patients with preserved renal function, and seven native kidneys removed from four patients at the time of transplant, after short-term (2) or longer term (2) dialysis. In these patients, and another five PH1 patients without renal failure, we calculated oxalate secretion, and estimated PT CaOx SS. Plasma oxalate was elevated in all PH1 patients and inverse to creatinine clearance. Renal secretion of oxalate was present in all PH1 but rare in controls. PT CaOx SS was >1 in all nonpyridoxine-responsive PH1 before transplant and most marked in patients who developed end stage renal disease (ESRD). PT from PH1 with preserved renal function had birefringent crystals, confirming the presence of CaOx SS, but had no evidence of cortical inflammation or scarring by histopathology or hyaluronan staining. PH1 with short ESRD showed CaOx deposition and hyaluronan staining particularly at the corticomedullary junction in distal PT while cortical collecting ducts were spared. Longer ESRD showed widespread cortical CaOx, and in both groups papillary tissue had marked intratubular CaOx deposits and fibrosis. CaOx SS in PT causes CaOx crystal formation, and CaOx deposition in distal PT appears to be associated with ESRD. Minimizing PT CaOx SS may be important for preserving renal function in PH1. PMID:24089413

  6. Dietary Fructose Enhances the Ability of Low Concentrations of Angiotensin II to Stimulate Proximal Tubule Na+ Reabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D.; Hong, Nancy J.; Asirwatham, Jessica; Yang, Nianxin; Berthiaume, Jessica M.; Dominici, Fernando P.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2017-01-01

    Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose-enriched diets enhance the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT transport. We measured the effects of a low concentration of Ang II (10−12 mol/L) on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO2), and Na/K-ATPase and Na/H-exchange (NHE) activities and expression in PTs from rats consuming tap water (Control) or 20% fructose (FRUC). In FRUC-treated PTs, Ang II increased QO2 by 14.9 ± 1.3 nmol/mg/min (p < 0.01) but had no effect in Controls. FRUC elevated NHE3 expression by 19 ± 3% (p < 0.004) but not Na/K-ATPase expression. Ang II stimulated NHE activity in FRUC PT (Δ + 0.7 ± 0.1 Arbitrary Fluorescent units (AFU)/s, p < 0.01) but not in Controls. Na/K-ATPase activity was not affected. The PKC inhibitor Gö6976 blocked the ability of FRUC to augment the actions of Ang II. FRUC did not alter the inhibitory effect of dopamine on NHE activity. We conclude that dietary fructose increases the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT Na reabsorption via effects on NHE. PMID:28813008

  7. Intracellular sodium modulates the state of protein kinase C phosphorylation of rat proximal tubule Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, F R; Cheng, S X Jun; Agrén, M; Svensson, L-B; Aizman, O; Aperia, A

    2002-06-01

    The natriuretic hormone dopamine and the antinatriuretic hormone noradrenaline, acting on alpha-adrenergic receptors, have been shown to bidirectionally modulate the activity of renal tubular Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphate (ATPase). Here we have examined whether intracellular sodium concentration influences the effects of these bidirectional forces on the state of phosphorylation of Na+,K+-ATPase. Proximal tubules dissected from rat kidney were incubated with dopamine or the alpha-adrenergic agonist, oxymetazoline, and transiently permeabilized in a medium where sodium concentration ranged between 5 and 70 mM. The variations of sodium concentration in the medium had a proportional effect on intracellular sodium. Dopamine and protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylate the catalytic subunit of rat Na+,K+-ATPase on the Ser23 residue. The level of PKC induced Na+,K+-ATPase phosphorylation was determined using an antibody that only recognizes Na+,K+-ATPase, which is not phosphorylated on its PKC site. Under basal conditions Na+,K+-ATPase was predominantly in its phosphorylated state. When intracellular sodium was increased, Na+,K+-ATPase was predominantly in its dephosphorylated state. Phosphorylation of Na+,K+-ATPase by dopamine was most pronounced when intracellular sodium was high, and dephosphorylation by oxymetazoline was most pronounced when intracellular sodium was low. The oxymetazoline effect was mimicked by the calcium ionophore A23187. An inhibitor of the calcium-dependent protein phosphatase, calcineurin, increased the state of Na+,K+-ATPase phosphorylation. The results imply that phosphorylation of renal Na+,K+-ATPase activity is modulated by the level of intracellular sodium and that this effect involves PKC and calcium signalling pathways. The findings may have implication for the regulation of salt excretion and sodium homeostasis.

  8. Activation of D4 dopamine receptor decreases AT1 angiotensin II receptor expression in rat renal proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ken; Deng, Kun; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Shuo; Ren, Hongmei; He, Duofen; Han, Yu; Asico, Laureano D.; Jose, Pedro A.; Zeng, Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    The dopaminergic and renin angiotensin systems interact to regulate blood pressure. Disruption of the D4 dopamine receptor gene in mice produces hypertension that is associated with increased renal AT1 receptor expression. We hypothesize that the D4 receptor can inhibit AT1 receptor expression and function in renal proximal tubules (RPTs) cells from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats but the D4 receptor regulation of AT1 receptor is aberrant in RPT cells from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The D4 receptor agonist, PD168077, decreased AT1 receptor protein expression in a time and concentration-dependent manner in WKY cells. By contrast, in SHR cells, PD168077 increased AT1 receptor protein expression. The inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on AT1 receptor expression in WKY cells was blocked by a calcium channel blocker, nicardipine, or calcium-free medium, indicating that calcium is involved in the D4 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Angiotensin II increased Na+-K+ ATPase activity in WKY cells. Pretreatment with PD168077 decreased the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II on Na+-K+ ATPase activity in WKY cells. In SHR cells, the inhibitory effect of D4 receptor on angiotensin II-mediated stimulation of Na+-K+ ATPase activity was aberrant; pretreatment with PD168077 augmented the stimulatory effect of AT1 receptor on Na+-K+ ATPase activity in SHR cells. This was confirmed in vivo; pre-treatment with PD128077 for one week augmented the anti-hypertensive and natriuretic effect of losartan in SHRs but not in WKY rats. We suggest that an aberrant interaction between D4 and AT1 receptors may play a role in the abnormal regulation of sodium excretion in hypertension. PMID:25368031

  9. Cationic uremic toxins affect human renal proximal tubule cell functioning through interaction with the organic cation transporter.

    PubMed

    Schophuizen, Carolien M S; Wilmer, Martijn J; Jansen, Jitske; Gustavsson, Lena; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Hoenderop, Joost G J; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Masereeuw, Rosalinde

    2013-12-01

    Several organic cations, such as guanidino compounds and polyamines, have been found to accumulate in plasma of patients with kidney failure due to inadequate renal clearance. Here, we studied the interaction of cationic uremic toxins with renal organic cation transport in a conditionally immortalized human proximal tubule epithelial cell line (ciPTEC). Transporter activity was measured and validated in cell suspensions by studying uptake of the fluorescent substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium-iodide (ASP(+)). Subsequently, the inhibitory potencies of the cationic uremic toxins, cadaverine, putrescine, spermine and spermidine (polyamines), acrolein (polyamine breakdown product), guanidine, and methylguanidine (guanidino compounds) were determined. Concentration-dependent inhibition of ASP(+) uptake by TPA, cimetidine, quinidine, and metformin confirmed functional endogenous organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) expression in ciPTEC. All uremic toxins tested inhibited ASP(+) uptake, of which acrolein required the lowest concentration to provoke a half-maximal inhibition (IC50 = 44 ± 2 μM). A Dixon plot was constructed for acrolein using three independent inhibition curves with 10, 20, or 30 μM ASP(+), which demonstrated competitive or mixed type of interaction (K i = 93 ± 16 μM). Exposing the cells to a mixture of cationic uremic toxins resulted in a more potent and biphasic inhibitory response curve, indicating complex interactions between the toxins and ASP(+) uptake. In conclusion, ciPTEC proves a suitable model to study cationic xenobiotic interactions. Inhibition of cellular uptake transport was demonstrated for several uremic toxins, which might indicate a possible role in kidney disease progression during uremia.

  10. Ischemia/Reperfusion Model Impairs Endocannabinoid Signaling and Na+/K+ ATPase Expression and Activity in Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Luzia S; Iannotti, Fabio A; Veneziani, Luciana; Borelli-Tôrres, Rosa T; De Maio, Fabrizia; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Reis, Ricardo A M; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Einicker-Lamas, Marcelo

    2018-06-08

    LLC-PK1 cells, an immortalized epithelial cell line derived from pig renal proximal tubules, express all the major players of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) such as CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor, as well as the main enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of the major endocannabinoids named 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG and anandamide, AEA. Here we investigated whether the damages caused by ischemic insult either in vitro using LLC-PK1 cells exposed to antimycin A (an inductor of ATP-depletion) or in vivo using Wistar rats in a classic renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) protocol, lead to changes in AEA and 2-AG levels, as well as altered expression of genes from the main enzymes involved in the regulation of the ECS. Our data show that the mRNA levels of CB1 receptor gene were downregulated, while the transcript levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the main 2-AG degradative enzyme, are upregulated in LLC-PK1 cells after IR model. Accordingly, IR was accompanied by a significant reduction in the levels of 2-AG and AEA, as well as of the two endocannabinoid related molecules, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in LLC-PK1 cells. In kidney cortex homogenates, the AEA levels were selectively significantly decreased. In addition, we found that both the in vitro and in vivo model of IR caused a reduction in the expression and activity of the Na + /K + ATPase. These changes were reversed by the CB1/CB2 agonist WIN55,212, in a CB1-receptor dependent manner on LLC-PK1 IR model. In conclusion, the ECS and Na + /K + ATPase are down-regulated following IR model in LLC-PK1 cells and rat kidney. We suggest that CB1 agonists might represent a potential strategy to reverse the consequences of IR injury in kidney tissues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased functional load on mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells causes changes in nucleolar 3-D architecture.

    PubMed

    Chelidze, P V; Dzidziguri, D V; Tumanishvili, G D

    1998-05-01

    Ultrastructural 3-D analysis of nucleolar architecture and Ag-NOR protein distribution in mouse kidney-cortex proximal-tubule epithelium has been performed. A principal scheme of structural changes of the nucleolus and organization of its components during the intensification of pre-rRNA synthesis (dynamic model of a nucleolus) based on computer spatial modelling has been advanced. According to the nucleolar composition, three groups of cells, which differ from each other by rRNA synthesis, are defined in normal kidney. Most nephron proximal-section cells (about 52%) are characterized by lower activity of RNA synthesis. Such kind of cells are defined as group I (nucleolar diameter 0.7-1.5 microm) and always contain resting, ring-shaped or close to ring-shaped dense nucleoli, which have 2 or 3 fibrillar centers. Nucleoli of group II cells (about 37%, nucleolar diameter 1.5-2.5 microm) have a higher level of activity, contain 4-7 fibrillar centers, and their structural organization is close to reticulated forms due to the first indications of vacuolar network (identified as prereticulated nucleoli). The most active cells of group III (about 11%, nucleolar diameter 2.5-3.5 microm) include cells with typical reticulated nucleoli with a well expressed vacuolar network and numerous fibrillar centers (18-22). Increased functional load of the epithelium caused by unilateral nephrectomy and diuretic (4-chlor-H [2-furylmethyl] 5-sulphamyl-antranic acid) injection changed the proportion of the different cell groups: group I decreased (about 25%), whereas groups II and III increased (about 8% and 17%, respectively). The increase of nucleolar activity first causes a deformation of the individual fibrillar centers as well as complication and growth of their surface. Further, a progressive fragmentation of the fibrillar centers and the growth of their total volume is observed. The complication and growth of the total volume of Ag-positive zones is another indication of the

  12. In vitro studies with renal proximal tubule cells show direct cytotoxicity of Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom triggered by oxidative stress, caspase activation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Saidani, Chanez; Hammoudi-Triki, Djelila; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima; Taub, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion envenomation injures a number of organs, including the kidney. Mechanisms proposed to explain the renal tubule injury include direct effects of venom on tubule epithelial cells, as well as indirect effects of the autonomic nervous system, and inflammation. Here, we report direct effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom on the viability of Renal Proximal Tubule (RPT) cells in vitro, unlike distal tubule and collecting duct cells. Extensive NucGreen nuclear staining was observed in immortalized rabbit RPT cells following treatment with Aah venom, consistent with cytotoxicity. The involvement of oxidative stress is supported by the observations that 1) anti-oxidants mitigated the Aah venom-induced decrease in the number of viable RPT cells, and 2) Aah venom-treated RPT cells were intensively stained with the CellROX® Deep Red reagent, an indicator of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Relevance to normal RPT cells is supported by the red fluorescence observed in Aah venom treated primary rabbit RPT cell cultures following their incubation with the Flica reagent (indicative of caspase activation and apoptosis), and the green fluorescence of Sytox Green (indicative of dead cells). PMID:27470530

  13. In vitro studies with renal proximal tubule cells show direct cytotoxicity of Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom triggered by oxidative stress, caspase activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Saidani, Chanez; Hammoudi-Triki, Djelila; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima; Taub, Mary

    2016-09-15

    Scorpion envenomation injures a number of organs, including the kidney. Mechanisms proposed to explain the renal tubule injury include direct effects of venom on tubule epithelial cells, as well as indirect effects of the autonomic nervous system, and inflammation. Here, we report direct effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom on the viability of Renal Proximal Tubule (RPT) cells in vitro, unlike distal tubule and collecting duct cells. Extensive NucGreen nuclear staining was observed in immortalized rabbit RPT cells following treatment with Aah venom, consistent with cytotoxicity. The involvement of oxidative stress is supported by the observations that 1) anti-oxidants mitigated the Aah venom-induced decrease in the number of viable RPT cells, and 2) Aah venom-treated RPT cells were intensively stained with the CellROX(®) Deep Red reagent, an indicator of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Relevance to normal RPT cells is supported by the red fluorescence observed in Aah venom treated primary rabbit RPT cell cultures following their incubation with the Flica reagent (indicative of caspase activation and apoptosis), and the green fluorescence of Sytox Green (indicative of dead cells). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential patterns of injury to the proximal tubule of renal cortical slices following in vitro exposure to mercuric chloride, potassium dichromate, or hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruegg, C E; Gandolfi, A J; Nagle, R B; Brendel, K

    1987-09-15

    The innate susceptibility of renal cell types to these agents was investigated using precision-cut rabbit renal cortical slices made perpendicular to the cortical-papillary axis. Slices were incubated in DME/F12 medium containing 10 microM, 100 microM, or 1 mM concentrations of either metal for 12 hr or in Krebs-Hepes buffer gassed with nitrogen (100%) for 0.75 to 5 hr of hypoxic exposure. To simulate postischemic reperfusion, some slices were transferred to vessels gassed with oxygen after an initial hypoxic period. Mercuric chloride (100 microM) exposure resulted in damage to the straight regions of proximal tubules by 12 hr leaving convoluted regions unaffected. Hypoxia (2.25 hr) and potassium dichromate (100 microM for 12 hr) both caused injury to the convoluted proximal tubules without affecting straight proximal tubular regions. Mercury concentrations of 10 microM and 1 mM had no effect or injured all cell types within the slice, respectively. Similar results were observed for hypoxic periods less than 1.5 hr or greater than 3 hr of exposure. Potassium dichromate had no measurable affect at 10 microM, but at 1 mM focal lesions were observed after 4 hr of exposure, and by 12 hr all cell types within the slice were affected. Intracellular potassium content normalized to DNA correlated well, but always preceded the pathological lesions observed. These results demonstrate that injury to specific regions of the proximal tubule by these agents relates to an innate susceptibility of the intoxicated cell type independent of physiologic feedback or blood delivery patterns proposed as mechanisms of selective injury from in vivo studies.

  15. Absence of renal enlargement in fructose-fed proximal-tubule-select insulin receptor (IR), insulin-like-growth factor receptor (IGF1R) double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijun; Byrd, Marcus; Doh, Kwame; Dixon, Patrice D; Lee, Hwal; Tiwari, Swasti; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M

    2016-12-01

    The major site of fructose metabolism in the kidney is the proximal tubule (PT). To test whether insulin and/or IGF1 signaling in the PT is involved in renal structural/functional responses to dietary fructose, we bred mice with dual knockout (KO) of the insulin receptor (IR) and the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) in PT by Cre-lox recombination, using a γ-glutamyl transferase promoter. KO mice had slightly (~10%) reduced body and kidney weights, as well as, a reduction in mean protein-to-DNA ratio in kidney cortex suggesting smaller cell size. Under control diet, IR and IGF1R protein band densities were 30-50% (P < 0.05) lower than WT, and the relative difference was greater in male animals. Male, but not female KO, also had significantly reduced band densities for Akt (protein kinase B), phosphorylated Akt T308 and IR Y 1162/1163 A high-fructose diet (1-month) led to a significant increase in kidney weight in WT males (12%), but not in KO males or in either genotype of female mice. Kidney enlargement in the WT males was accompanied by a small, insignificant fall in protein-to-DNA ratio, supporting hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy. Fructose feeding of male WT mice led to significantly higher sodium bicarbonate exchanger (NBCe1), sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE3), sodium phosphate co-transporter (NaPi-2), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) abundances, as compared to male KO, suggesting elevated transport capacity and an early feature of fibrosis may have accompanied the renal enlargement. Overall, IR and/or IGF1R appear to have a role in PT cell size and enlargement in response to high-fructose diet. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. pH-responsive, gluconeogenic renal epithelial LLC-PK1-FBPase+cells: a versatile in vitro model to study renal proximal tubule metabolism and function

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Norman P.

    2014-01-01

    Ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis are prominent metabolic features of the renal proximal convoluted tubule that contribute to maintenance of systemic acid-base homeostasis. Molecular analysis of the mechanisms that mediate the coordinate regulation of the two pathways required development of a cell line that recapitulates these features in vitro. By adapting porcine renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells to essentially glucose-free medium, a gluconeogenic subline, termed LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells, was isolated. LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells grow in the absence of hexoses and pentoses and exhibit enhanced oxidative metabolism and increased levels of phosphate-dependent glutaminase. The cells also express significant levels of the key gluconeogenic enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Thus the altered phenotype of LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells is pleiotropic. Most importantly, when transferred to medium that mimics a pronounced metabolic acidosis (9 mM HCO3−, pH 6.9), the LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells exhibit a gradual increase in NH4+ ion production, accompanied by increases in glutaminase and cytosolic PEPCK mRNA levels and proteins. Therefore, the LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells retained in culture many of the metabolic pathways and pH-responsive adaptations characteristic of renal proximal tubules. The molecular mechanisms that mediate enhanced expression of the glutaminase and PEPCK in LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells have been extensively reviewed. The present review describes novel properties of this unique cell line and summarizes the molecular mechanisms that have been defined more recently using LLC-PK1-FBPase+ cells to model the renal proximal tubule. It also identifies future studies that could be performed using these cells. PMID:24808535

  17. Estrogen directly and specifically downregulates NaPi-IIa through the activation of both estrogen receptor isoforms (ERα and ERβ) in rat kidney proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Burris, Dara; Webster, Rose; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Faroqui, Rashma; Levi, Moshe; Hawse, John R; Amlal, Hassane

    2015-03-15

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen (E2) downregulates phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa and causes phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia in ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we examined whether E2 directly targets NaPi-IIa in the proximal tubule (PT) and studied the respective roles of estrogen receptor isoforms (ERα and ERβ) in the downregulation of NaPi-IIa using both in vivo and an in vitro expression systems. We found that estrogen specifically downregulates NaPi-IIa but not NaPi-IIc or Pit2 in the kidney cortex. Proximal tubules incubated in a "shake" suspension with E2 for 24 h exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in NaPi-IIa protein abundance. Results from OVX rats treated with specific agonists for either ERα [4,4',4″;-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol, PPT] or ERβ [4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol, DPN] or both (PPT + DPN), indicated that only the latter caused a sharp downregulation of NaPi-IIa, along with significant phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia. Lastly, heterologous expression studies demonstrated that estrogen downregulated NaPi-IIa only in U20S cells expressing both ERα and ERβ, but not in cells expressing either receptor alone. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that rat PT cells express both ERα and ERβ and that E2 induces phosphaturia by directly and specifically targeting NaPi-IIa in the PT cells. This effect is mediated via a mechanism involving coactivation of both ERα and ERβ, which likely form a functional heterodimer complex in the rat kidney proximal tubule. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Estrogen directly and specifically downregulates NaPi-IIa through the activation of both estrogen receptor isoforms (ERα and ERβ) in rat kidney proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Dara; Webster, Rose; Sheriff, Sulaiman; Faroqui, Rashma; Levi, Moshe; Hawse, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen (E2) downregulates phosphate transporter NaPi-IIa and causes phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia in ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we examined whether E2 directly targets NaPi-IIa in the proximal tubule (PT) and studied the respective roles of estrogen receptor isoforms (ERα and ERβ) in the downregulation of NaPi-IIa using both in vivo and an in vitro expression systems. We found that estrogen specifically downregulates NaPi-IIa but not NaPi-IIc or Pit2 in the kidney cortex. Proximal tubules incubated in a “shake” suspension with E2 for 24 h exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in NaPi-IIa protein abundance. Results from OVX rats treated with specific agonists for either ERα [4,4′,4″;-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol, PPT] or ERβ [4,4′,4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol, DPN] or both (PPT + DPN), indicated that only the latter caused a sharp downregulation of NaPi-IIa, along with significant phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia. Lastly, heterologous expression studies demonstrated that estrogen downregulated NaPi-IIa only in U20S cells expressing both ERα and ERβ, but not in cells expressing either receptor alone. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that rat PT cells express both ERα and ERβ and that E2 induces phosphaturia by directly and specifically targeting NaPi-IIa in the PT cells. This effect is mediated via a mechanism involving coactivation of both ERα and ERβ, which likely form a functional heterodimer complex in the rat kidney proximal tubule. PMID:25608964

  19. The cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 interact with bicarbonate but play only a minor role for amantadine uptake into rat renal proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Goralski, Kerry B; Lou, Ganlu; Prowse, Matthew T; Gorboulev, Valentin; Volk, Christopher; Koepsell, Hermann; Sitar, Daniel S

    2002-12-01

    In renal proximal tubules, the organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 are supposed to mediate the first step in organic cation secretion. We investigated whether previously described differences in amantadine and tetraethylammonium (TEA) uptake into isolated renal proximal tubules could be explained by differences in their transport by rOCT1 and rOCT2. By expressing rOCT1 and rOCT2 in Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells, we demonstrated that both transporters translocated amantadine. In Xenopus oocytes, the inhibitory potency of several rOCT1/2 inhibitors was similar for amantadine compared to TEA uptake and supports amantadine transport by rOCT1 and rOCT2. In proximal tubules, procainamide, quinine, cyanine(863), choline, and guanidine in concentrations that inhibit rOCT1/2-mediated TEA or amantadine uptake in Xenopus oocytes exhibited no effect on amantadine uptake. At variance, these inhibitors blocked TEA uptake into proximal tubules. Amantadine and TEA transport were sensitive to modulation by 25 mM bicarbonate. The effect of bicarbonate on organic cation transport was dependent on substrate (amantadine or TEA), cell system (oocytes, HEK 293 cells, or proximal tubules), and transporter (rOCT1 or rOCT2). In proximal tubules, only amantadine uptake was stimulated by bicarbonate. The data suggested that rat renal proximal tubules contain an organic cation transporter in addition to rOCT1 and rOCT2 that mediates amantadine uptake and requires bicarbonate for optimal function. TEA uptake by the basolateral membrane may be mediated mainly by rOCT1 and rOCT2, but these transporters may be in a different functional or regulatory state when expressed in cells or oocytes compared with expression in vivo.

  20. Basolateral membrane Na/base cotransport is dependent on CO2/HCO3 in the proximal convoluted tubule

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of basolateral membrane base transport was examined in the in vitro microperfused rabbit proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) in the absence and presence of ambient CO2/HCO3- by means of the microfluorometric measurement of cell pH. The buffer capacity of the cells measured using rapid NH3 washout was 42.8 +/- 5.6 mmol.liter-1.pH unit-1 in the absence and 84.6 +/- 7.3 mmol.liter-1.pH unit-1 in the presence of CO2/HCO3-. In the presence of CO2/HCO3-, lowering peritubular pH from 7.4 to 6.8 acidified the cell by 0.30 pH units and lowering peritubular Na from 147 to 0 mM acidified the cell by 0.25 pH units. Both effects were inhibited by peritubular 4-acetamido-4'- isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (SITS). In the absence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-, lowering peritubular pH from 7.4 to 6.8 acidified the cell by 0.25 pH units and lowering peritubular Na from 147 to 0 mM decreased cell pH by 0.20 pH units. Lowering bath pH from 7.4 to 6.8 induced a proton flux of 643 +/- 51 pmol.mm-1.min-1 in the presence of exogenous CO2/HCO3- and 223 +/- 27 pmol.mm-1.min-1 in its absence. Lowering bath Na from 147 to 0 mM induced proton fluxes of 596 +/- 77 pmol.mm-1.min-1 in its absence. The cell acidification induced by lowering bath pH or bath Na in the absence of CO2/HCO3- was inhibited by peritubular SITS or by acetazolamide, whereas peritubular amiloride had no effect. In the absence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-, cyanide blocked the cell acidification induced by bath Na removal, but was without effect in the presence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-. We reached the following conclusions. (a) The basolateral Na/base n greater than 1 cotransporter in the rabbit PCT has an absolute requirement for CO2/HCO3-. (b) In spite of this CO2 dependence, in the absence of exogenous CO2/HCO3-, metabolically produced CO2/HCO3- is sufficient to keep the transporter running at 30% of its control rate in the presence of ambient CO2/HCO3- . (c) There is no apparent amiloride-sensitive Na/H antiporter on

  1. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  2. Uromodulin retention in thick ascending limb of Henle's loop affects SCD1 in neighboring proximal tubule: renal transcriptome studies in mouse models of uromodulin-associated kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Marion; Beckers, Johannes; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rathkolb, Birgit; Wolf, Eckhard; Aigner, Bernhard; Kemter, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD) is a hereditary progressive renal disease which can lead to renal failure and requires renal replacement therapy. UAKD belongs to the endoplasmic reticulum storage diseases due to maturation defect of mutant uromodulin and its retention in the enlarged endoplasmic reticulum in the cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH). Dysfunction of TALH represents the key pathogenic mechanism of UAKD causing the clinical symptoms of this disease. However, the molecular alterations underlying UAKD are not well understood. In this study, transcriptome profiling of whole kidneys of two mouse models of UAKD, UmodA227T and UmodC93F, was performed. Genes differentially abundant in UAKD affected kidneys of both Umod mutant lines at different disease stages were identified and verified by RT-qPCR. Additionally, differential protein abundances of SCD1 and ANGPTL7 were validated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. ANGPTL7 expression was down-regulated in TALH cells of Umod mutant mice which is the site of the mutant uromodulin maturation defect. SCD1 was expressed selectively in the S3 segment of proximal tubule cells, and SCD1 abundance was increased in UAKD affected kidneys. This finding demonstrates that a cross talk between two functionally distinct tubular segments of the kidney, the TALH segment and the S3 segment of proximal tubule, exists.

  3. Inhibition property of green tea extract in relation to reserpine-induced ribosomal strips of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) of the rat kidney proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Majeed, Safer; Mohammad, Afzal; Shaima, Al-Bloushi; Mohammad, Rafique; Mousa, Shaker A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of green tea in inhibiting and reversing the nephrotoxicity of reserpine--a potent oxidative stress inducer--which induced cellular kidney damage. Serum biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and serum transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT)) values and histopathology were systematically evaluated. Reserpine exposure led to increase the oxidative stress and organ injury was significantly observed through biochemical parameters and ultrastructural evaluation. Sprague-Dawely (S.D.) rats were intraperitonealy administered reserpine to induce oxidative kidney damage. Experimental rats were given green tea extract according to the protocol given below. Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups, with 10 rats in each group. Reserpine was found to cause kidney proximal tubule damage, such as stripping and clustering of ribosomes from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and demolishing of mitochondrial christae with elevated level of oxidative stress markers, such as TBARS. While the ultrastructural study showed a revival of kidney proximal tubule cells as a result of the administration of green tea extract to rats. We suggest that green tea might elevate antioxidant defense system, clean up free radicals, lessen oxidative damages and protect kidney against reserpine-induced toxicity and thus had a potential protective effect.

  4. Activation of an ATP-dependent K(+) conductance in Xenopus oocytes by expression of adenylate kinase cloned from renal proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Brochiero, E; Coady, M J; Klein, H; Laprade, R; Lapointe, J Y

    2001-02-09

    In rabbit proximal convoluted tubules, an ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel has been shown to be involved in membrane cross-talk, i.e. the coupling (most likely mediated through intracellular ATP) between transepithelial Na(+) transport and basolateral K(+) conductance. This K(+) conductance is inhibited by taurine. We sought to isolate this K(+) channel by expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes. Injection of renal cortex mRNA into oocytes induced a K(+) conductance, largely inhibited by extracellular Ba(2+) and intracellular taurine. Using this functional test, we isolated from our proximal tubule cDNA library a unique clone, which induced a large K(+) current which was Ba(2+)-, taurine- and glibenclamide-sensitive. Surprisingly, this clone is not a K(+) channel but an adenylate kinase protein (AK3), known to convert NTP+AMP into NDP+ADP (N could be G, I or A). AK3 expression resulted in a large ATP decrease and activation of the whole-cell currents including a previously unknown, endogenous K(+) current. To verify whether ATP decrease was responsible for the current activation, we demonstrated that inhibition of glycolysis greatly reduces oocyte ATP levels and increases an inwardly rectifying K(+) current. The possible involvement of AK in the K(ATP) channel's regulation provides a means of explaining their observed activity in cytosolic environments characterized by high ATP concentrations.

  5. Role of NF-κB in oxidative stress-induced defective dopamine D1 receptor signaling in the renal proximal tubules of Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Fardoun, Riham Zein; Asghar, Mohammad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine promotes sodium excretion, in part, via activation of D1 receptors in renal proximal tubules (PT) and subsequent inhibition of Na, K-ATPase. Recently, we have reported that oxidative stress causes D1 receptors-G-protein uncoupling via mechanisms involving Protein Kinase C (PKC) and G-protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2) in the primary culture of renal PT of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. There are reports suggesting that redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB, is activated in conditions associated with oxidative stress. This study was designed to identify the role of NF-κB in oxidative stress–induced defective renal D1 receptor –G-protein coupling and function. Treatment of the PT with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 50 μM/20 min) induced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, increased PKC activity, and triggered the translocation of GRK2 to the proximal tubular membranes. This was accompanied by hyperphosphorylation of D1 receptors and defective D1 receptor-G-protein coupling. The functional consequence of these changes was decreased D1 receptor activation-mediated inhibition of Na, K-ATPase activity. Interestingly, pre-treatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 25 μM/10min), an NF-κB inhibitor, blocked the H2O2-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, increase in PKC activity, as well as GRK2 translocation and hyperphosphorylation of D1 receptors in the proximal tubular membranes. Furthermore, PDTC restored D1 receptor G-protein coupling and D1 receptor agonist-mediated inhibition of the Na, KATPase activity. Therefore, we suggest that oxidative stress causes nuclear translocation of NF-κB in the renal proximal tubules, which contributes to defective D1-receptor-G-protein coupling and function via mechanism involving PKC, membranous translocation of GRK 2, and subsequent phosphorylation of dopamine D1 receptors. PMID:17320758

  6. Role of ARF6 in internalization of metal-binding proteins, metallothionein and transferrin, and cadmium-metallothionein toxicity in kidney proximal tubule cells

    SciT

    Wolff, Natascha A.; Lee, Wing-Kee; Abouhamed, Marouan

    2008-07-01

    Filtered metal-protein complexes, such as cadmium-metallothionein-1 (CdMT-1) or transferrin (Tf) are apically endocytosed partly via megalin/cubilin by kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells where CdMT-1 internalization causes apoptosis. Small GTPase ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins regulate endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. We investigated roles of ARF6, which has been shown to be involved in internalization of ligands and endocytic trafficking in PT cells, following MT-1/CdMT-1 and Tf uptake by PT cells. WKPT-0293 Cl.2 cells derived from rat PT S1 segment were transfected with hemagglutinin-tagged wild-type (ARF6-WT) or dominant negative (ARF6-T27N) forms of ARF6. Using immunofluorescence, endogenous ARF6 was associated with the plasma membranemore » (PM) as well as juxtanuclear and co-localized with Rab5a and Rab11 involved in early and recycling endosomal trafficking. Immunofluorescence staining of megalin showed reduced surface labelling in ARF6 dominant negative (ARF6-DN) cells. Intracellular Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated MT-1 uptake was reduced in ARF6-DN cells and CdMT-1 (14.8 {mu}M for 24 h) toxicity was significantly attenuated from 27.3 {+-} 3.9% in ARF6-WT to 11.1 {+-} 4.0% in ARF6-DN cells (n = 6, P < 0.02). Moreover, reduced Alexa Fluor 546-conjugated Tf uptake was observed in ARF-DN cells (75.0 {+-} 4.6% versus 3.9 {+-} 3.9% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.01) and/or remained near the PM (89.3 {+-} 5. 6% versus 45.2 {+-} 14.3% of ARF6-WT cells, n = 3, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the data support roles for ARF6 in receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of MT-1/Tf to endosomes/lysosomes and CdMT-1 toxicity of PT cells.« less

  7. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucose metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane.

    PubMed

    Chichger, Havovi; Cleasby, Mark E; Srai, Surjit K; Unwin, Robert J; Debnam, Edward S; Marks, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although SGLT2 inhibitors represent a promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, the influence of metabolic disruption on the expression and function of glucose transporters is largely unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? In vivo models of metabolic disruption (Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rat and junk-food diet) demonstrate increased expression of SGLT1, SGLT2 and GLUT2 in the proximal tubule brush border. In the type II diabetic model, this is accompanied by increased SGLT- and GLUT-mediated glucose uptake. A fasted model of metabolic disruption (high-fat diet) demonstrated increased GLUT2 expression only. The differential alterations of glucose transporters in response to varying metabolic stress offer insight into the therapeutic value of inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors are now in clinical use to reduce hyperglycaemia in type II diabetes. However, renal glucose reabsorption across the brush border membrane (BBM) is not completely understood in diabetes. Increased consumption of a Western diet is strongly linked to type II diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the adaptations that occur in renal glucose transporters in response to experimental models of diet-induced insulin resistance. The study used Goto-Kakizaki type II diabetic rats and normal rats rendered insulin resistant using junk-food or high-fat diets. Levels of protein kinase C-βI (PKC-βI), GLUT2, SGLT1 and SGLT2 were determined by Western blotting of purified renal BBM. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated d-[(3) H]glucose uptake by BBM vesicles was measured in the presence and absence of the SGLT inhibitor phlorizin. GLUT- and SGLT-mediated glucose transport was elevated in type II diabetic rats, accompanied by increased expression of GLUT2, its upstream regulator PKC-βI and SGLT1 protein. Junk-food and high-fat diet feeding also caused higher membrane expression of GLUT2 and its upstream regulator PKC

  8. ZIP8 expression in human proximal tubule cells, human urothelial cells transformed by Cd+2 and As+3 and in specimens of normal human urothelium and urothelial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ZIP8 functions endogenously as a Zn+2/HCO3- symporter that can also bring cadmium (Cd+2) into the cell. It has also been proposed that ZIP8 participates in Cd-induced testicular necrosis and renal disease. In this study real-time PCR, western analysis, immunostaining and fluorescent localization were used to define the expression of ZIP8 in human kidney, cultured human proximal tubule (HPT) cells, normal and malignant human urothelium and Cd+2 and arsenite (As+3) transformed urothelial cells. Results It was shown that in the renal system both the non-glycosylated and glycosylated form of ZIP8 was expressed in the proximal tubule cells with localization of ZIP8 to the cytoplasm and cell membrane; findings in line with previous studies on ZIP8. The studies in the bladder were the first to show that ZIP8 was expressed in normal urothelium and that ZIP8 could be localized to the paranuclear region. Studies in the UROtsa cell line confirmed a paranuclear localization of ZIP8, however addition of growth medium to the cells increased the expression of the protein in the UROtsa cells. In archival human samples of the normal urothelium, the expression of ZIP8 was variable in intensity whereas in urothelial cancers ZIP8 was expressed in 13 of 14 samples, with one high grade invasive urothelial cancer showing no expression. The expression of ZIP8 was similar in the Cd+2 and As+3 transformed UROtsa cell lines and their tumor transplants. Conclusion This is the first study which shows that ZIP8 is expressed in the normal urothelium and in bladder cancer. In addition the normal UROtsa cell line and its transformed counterparts show similar expression of ZIP8 compared to the normal urothelium and the urothelial cancers suggesting that the UROtsa cell line could serve as a model system to study the expression of ZIP8 in bladder disease. PMID:22550998

  9. Coenzyme Q10 protects renal proximal tubule cells against nicotine-induced apoptosis through induction of p66shc-dependent antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Arany, Istvan; Carter, Anthony; Hall, Samuel; Fulop, Tibor; Dixit, Mehul

    2017-02-01

    Chronic nicotine exposure (via smoking, E-cigarettes) increases oxidative stress in the kidney that sensitizes it to additional injury in experimental models and in the renal patient. The pro-apoptotic p66 shc protein-via serine36 phosphorylation that facilitates its mitochondrial translocation and therein cytochrome c binding-generates oxidative stress that leads to injury of renal proximal tubule cells during chronic nicotine exposure. Coenzyme Q10-a clinically safe antioxidant-has been used against nicotine/smoke extract-associated oxidative stress in various non-renal cells. This study explored the anti-oxidant/anti-apoptotic effect of Coenzyme Q10 on nicotine-induced oxidative stress and its impact on p66shc in cultured rat renal proximal tubule cells (NRK52E). We studied the anti-oxidant effect of 10 µM Coenzyme Q10 using various mutants of the p66shc gene and also determined the induction of selected anti-oxidant entities (antioxidant response element, promoter of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene) in reporter luciferase assay during oxidative stress induced by 200 µM nicotine. Our studies revealed that Coenzyme Q10 strongly inhibits nicotine-mediated production of reactive oxygen species and consequent apoptosis that requires serine36 phosphorylation but not mitochondrial translocation/cytochrome c binding of p66 shc . While both nicotine and Coenzyme Q10 stimulates the p66shc promoter, only nicotine exposure results in mitochondrial translocation of p66 shc . In contrast, the Coenzyme Q10-stimulated and non-mitochondrial p66 shc activates the anti-oxidant manganese superoxide dismutase promoter via the antioxidant response elements and hence, rescues cells from nicotine-induced oxidative stress and consequent apoptosis.

  10. Distinct mechanisms underlie adaptation of proximal tubule Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 in response to chronic metabolic and respiratory acidosis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro Henrique Imenez; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2012-04-01

    The Na(+/)H(+) exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is essential for HCO(3)(-) reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. The expression and function of NHE3 must adapt to acid-base conditions. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for higher proton secretion in proximal tubules during acidosis and to evaluate whether there are differences between metabolic and respiratory acidosis with regard to NHE3 modulation and, if so, to identify the relevant parameters that may trigger these distinct adaptive responses. We achieved metabolic acidosis by lowering HCO(3)(-) concentration in the cell culture medium and respiratory acidosis by increasing CO(2) tension in the incubator chamber. We found that cell-surface NHE3 expression was increased in response to both forms of acidosis. Mild (pH 7.21 ± 0.02) and severe (6.95 ± 0.07) metabolic acidosis increased mRNA levels, at least in part due to up-regulation of transcription, whilst mild (7.11 ± 0.03) and severe (6.86 ± 0.01) respiratory acidosis did not up-regulate NHE3 expression. Analyses of the Nhe3 promoter region suggested that the regulatory elements sensitive to metabolic acidosis are located between -466 and -153 bp, where two consensus binding sites for SP1, a transcription factor up-regulated in metabolic acidosis, were localised. We conclude that metabolic acidosis induces Nhe3 promoter activation, which results in higher mRNA and total protein level. At the plasma membrane surface, NHE3 expression was increased in metabolic and respiratory acidosis alike, suggesting that low pH is responsible for NHE3 displacement to the cell surface.

  11. Nephron proximal tubule patterning and corpuscles of Stannius formation are regulated by the sim1a transcription factor and retinoic acid in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christina N; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms that establish nephron segments are poorly understood. The zebrafish embryonic kidney, or pronephros, is a simplified yet conserved genetic model to study this renal development process because its nephrons contain segments akin to other vertebrates, including the proximal convoluted and straight tubules (PCT, PST). The zebrafish pronephros is also associated with the corpuscles of Stannius (CS), endocrine glands that regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis, but whose ontogeny from renal progenitors is largely mysterious. Initial patterning of zebrafish renal progenitors in the intermediate mesoderm (IM) involves the formation of rostral and caudal domains, the former being reliant on retinoic acid (RA) signaling, and the latter being repressed by elevated RA levels. Here, using expression profiling to gain new insights into nephrogenesis, we discovered that the gene single minded family bHLH transcription factor 1a (sim1a) is dynamically expressed in the renal progenitors-first marking the caudal domain, then becoming restricted to the proximal segments, and finally exhibiting specific CS expression. In loss of function studies, sim1a knockdown expanded the PCT and abrogated both the PST and CS populations. Conversely, overexpression of sim1a modestly expanded the PST and CS, while it reduced the PCT. These results show that sim1a activity is necessary and partially sufficient to induce PST and CS fates, and suggest that sim1a may inhibit PCT fate and/or negotiate the PCT/PST boundary. Interestingly, the sim1a expression domain in renal progenitors is responsive to altered levels of RA, suggesting that RA regulates sim1a, directly or indirectly, during nephrogenesis. sim1a deficient embryos treated with exogenous RA formed nephrons that were predominantly composed of PCT segments, but lacked the enlarged PST observed in RA treated wild-types, indicating that RA is not sufficient to rescue the PST in the absence of sim1a expression. Alternately

  12. Effect of acute acid-base disturbances on the phosphorylation of phospholipase C-γ1 and Erk1/2 in the renal proximal tubule

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F

    2015-01-01

    The renal proximal tubule (PT) plays a major role in whole-body pH homeostasis by secreting H+ into the tubule lumen. Previous work demonstrated that PTs respond to basolateral changes in [CO2] and [] by appropriately altering H+ secretion—responses blocked by the ErbB inhibitor PD168393, or by eliminating signaling through AT1 angiotensin receptors. In the present study, we analyze phosphorylation of three downstream targets of both ErbBs and AT1: phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1), extracellular-regulated kinase 1 (Erk1), and Erk2. We expose rabbit PT suspensions for 5 and 20 min to our control (Ctrl) condition (5% CO2, 22 mmol/L , pH 7.40) or one of several conditions that mimic acid-base disturbances. We found that each disturbance produces characteristic phosphorylation patterns in the three enzymes. For example, respiratory acidosis (elevated [CO2], normal []) at 20 min decreases PLC-γ1 phosphorylation at tyrosine-783 (relative to Ctrl). Metabolic acidosis (normal [CO2], decreased []) for 5 min increases Erk1 phosphorylation (p-Erk1) but not p-Erk2, whereas metabolic alkalosis (normal [CO2], elevated []) for 5 min decreases p-Erk1 and p-Erk2. In the presence of CO2/, PD168393 blocks only two of eight induced decreases in phosphorylation. In two cases in which disturbances have no remarkable effects on phosphorylation, PD168393 unmasks decreases and in two others, increases. These drug effects provide insight into the roles of PD168393-sensitive kinases. Our results indicate that PLC-γ1.pY783, p-Erk1, and p-Erk2 in the PT change in characteristic ways in response to acute acid-base disturbances, and thus presumably contribute to the transduction of acid-base signals. PMID:25780091

  13. An angiotensin-(1–7) peptidase in the kidney cortex, proximal tubules, and human HK-2 epithelial cells that is distinct from insulin-degrading enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Bryan A.; Cruz-Diaz, Nildris; Marshall, Allyson C.; Pirro, Nancy T.; Su, Yixin; Gwathmey, TanYa M.; Rose, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin 1–7 [ANG-(1–7)] is expressed within the kidney and exhibits renoprotective actions that antagonize the inflammatory, fibrotic, and pro-oxidant effects of ANG II. We previously identified an peptidase that preferentially metabolized ANG-(1–7) to ANG-(1–4) in the brain medulla and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sheep (Marshall AC, Pirro NT, Rose JC, Diz DI, Chappell MC. J Neurochem 130: 313–323, 2014); thus the present study established the expression of the peptidase in the kidney. Utilizing a sensitive HPLC-based approach, we demonstrate a peptidase activity that hydrolyzed ANG-(1–7) to ANG-(1–4) in the sheep cortex, isolated tubules, and human HK-2 renal epithelial cells. The peptidase was markedly sensitive to the metallopeptidase inhibitor JMV-390; human HK-2 cells expressed subnanomolar sensitivity (IC50 = 0.5 nM) and the highest specific activity (123 ± 5 fmol·min−1·mg−1) compared with the tubules (96 ± 12 fmol·min−1·mg−1) and cortex (107 ± 9 fmol·min−1·mg−1). The peptidase was purified 41-fold from HK-2 cells; the activity was sensitive to JMV-390, the chelator o-phenanthroline, and the mercury-containing compound p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB), but not to selective inhibitors against neprilysin, neurolysin and thimet oligopeptidase. Both ANG-(1–7) and its endogenous analog [Ala1]-ANG-(1–7) (alamandine) were preferentially hydrolyzed by the peptidase compared with ANG II, [Asp1]-ANG II, ANG I, and ANG-(1–12). Although the ANG-(1–7) peptidase and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) share similar inhibitor characteristics of a metallothiolendopeptidase, we demonstrate marked differences in substrate specificity, which suggest these peptidases are distinct. We conclude that an ANG-(1–7) peptidase is expressed within the renal proximal tubule and may play a potential role in the renal renin-angiotensin system to regulate ANG-(1–7) tone. PMID:25568136

  14. Atg5-mediated autophagy deficiency in proximal tubules promotes cell cycle G2/M arrest and renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyan; Peng, Xuan; Wang, Yating; Cao, Shirong; Xiong, Liping; Fan, Jinjin; Wang, Yihan; Zhuang, Shougang; Yu, Xueqing; Mao, Haiping

    2016-09-01

    Macroautophagy/autophagy protects against cellular stress. Renal sublethal injury-triggered tubular epithelial cell cycle arrest at G2/M is associated with interstitial fibrosis. However, the role of autophagy in renal fibrosis is elusive. Here, we hypothesized that autophagy activity in tubular epithelial cells is pivotal for inhibition of cell cycle G2/M arrest and subsequent fibrogenic response. In both renal epithelial cells stimulated by angiotensin II (AGT II) and the murine kidney after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), we observed that occurrence of autophagy preceded increased production of COL1 (collagen, type I). Pharmacological enhancement of autophagy by rapamycin suppressed COL1 accumulation and renal fibrosis. In contrast, genetic ablation of autophagy by proximal tubular epithelial cell-specific deletion of Atg5, with reduction of the LC3-II protein level and degradation of SQSTM1/p62, showed marked cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, robust COL1 deposition, and severe interstitial fibrosis in a UUO model, as compared with wild-type mice. In vitro, AGT II exposure triggered autophagy preferentially in the G1/S phase, and increased COL1 expression in the G2/M phase in renal epithelial cells. Stimulation of Atg5-deficient primary proximal tubular cells with AGT II also resulted in elevated G2/M arrest and COL1 production. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy increased AGT II-mediated G2/M arrest. Enhanced expression of ATG5, but not the autophagy-deficient ATG5 mutant K130R, rescued the G2/M arrest, suggesting the regulation of cell cycle progression by ATG5 is autophagy dependent. In conclusion, Atg5-mediated autophagy in proximal epithelial cells is a critical host-defense mechanism that prevents renal fibrosis by blocking G2/M arrest.

  15. Mechanism of basolateral membrane H+/OH-/HCO-3 transport in the rat proximal convoluted tubule. A sodium-coupled electrogenic process

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    In order to examine the mechanism of basolateral membrane H+/OH-/HCO-3 transport, a method was developed for the measurement of cell pH in the vivo doubly microperfused rat proximal convoluted tubule. A pH- sensitive fluorescein derivative, (2',7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)- carboxyfluorescein, was loaded into cells and relative changes in fluorescence at two excitation wavelengths were followed. Calibration was accomplished using nigericin with high extracellular potassium concentrations. When luminal and peritubular fluids were pH 7.32, cell pH was 7.14 +/- 0.01. Decreasing peritubular pH from 7.32 to 6.63 caused cell pH to decrease from 7.16 +/- 0.02 to 6.90 +/- 0.03. This effect occurred at an initial rate of 2.4 +/- 0.3 pH units/min, and was inhibited by 0.5 mM SITS. Lowering the peritubular sodium concentration from 147 to 25 meq/liter caused cell pH to decrease from 7.20 +/- 0.03 to 6.99 +/- 0.01. The effect of peritubular sodium concentration on cell pH was inhibited by 0.5 mM SITS, but was unaffected by 1 mM amiloride. In addition, when peritubular pH was decreased in the total absence of luminal and peritubular sodium, the rate of cell acidification was 0.2 +/- 0.1 pH units/min, a greater than 90% decrease from that in the presence of sodium. Cell depolarization achieved by increasing the peritubular potassium concentration caused cell pH to increase, an effect that was blocked by peritubular barium or luminal and peritubular sodium removal. Lowering the peritubular chloride concentration from 128 to 0 meq/liter did not affect cell pH. These results suggest the existence of an electrogenic, sodium-coupled H+/OH- /HCO-3 transport mechanism on the basolateral membrane of the rat proximal convoluted tubule. PMID:2999293

  16. Dietary fat composition influences glomerular and proximal convoluted tubule cell structure and autophagic processes in kidneys from calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, M Isabel; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J; Villalba, José M; González-Reyes, José A

    2016-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been repeatedly shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and other age-related diseases in a wide range of animals, including non-human primates and humans. In rodents, CR also increases lifespan and is a powerful tool for studying the aging process. Recently, it has been reported in mice that dietary fat plays an important role in determining lifespan extension with 40% CR. In these conditions, animals fed lard as dietary fat showed an increased longevity compared with mice fed soybean or fish oils. In this paper, we study the effect of these dietary fats on structural and physiological parameters of kidney from mice maintained on 40% CR for 6 and 18 months. Analyses were performed using quantitative electron microcopy techniques and protein expression in Western blots. CR mitigated most of the analyzed age-related parameters in kidney, such as glomerular basement membrane thickness, mitochondrial mass in convoluted proximal tubules and autophagic markers in renal homogenates. The lard group showed improved preservation of several renal structures with aging when compared to the other CR diet groups. These results indicate that dietary fat modulates renal structure and function in CR mice and plays an essential role in the determination of health span in rodents. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The food contaminant and nephrotoxin ochratoxin A enhances Wnt1 inducible signaling protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in human primary proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Hennemeier, Isabell; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Gekle, Michael; Schwerdt, Gerald

    2012-09-01

    The underlying molecular mechanisms of nanomolar ochratoxin A (OTA) concentrations, especially those on pathophysiological relevant gene expression in target tissue and underlying signaling mechanisms are unknown. qPCR arrays showed that 14 days exposure of human primary proximal tubule cells to 10 nM OTA influences the expression of genes that are related to inflammation, malignant transformation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Wnt1 inducible signaling protein 1 (WISP1), an oncogenic, and profibrotic growth factor, turned out to be the gene with the strongest upregulation. Its expression, and that of TNF-α, an important inflammatory mediator, was further investigated in human renal cells and in primary human lung fibroblasts. OTA-induced upregulation of WISP1 and TNF-α occurs only in renal cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation reverses the effect of OTA on WISP1 and TNF-α expression. Wnt or other signaling pathways were not involved. Upregulation of WISP1 and TNF-α occured independently of each other. Long-term exposure of human kidney cells with OTA concentrations expectable in renal tissue due to average dietary intake leads in an ERK1/2-dependent manner to pathogenetic alterations of gene expression, notably WISP1 and TNF-α. Renal long-term risk by OTA is actually not excludable and argues for low but rational safety levels. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Megalin-mediated specific uptake of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles in mouse kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells enables AQP1 gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Hein, San; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Weyer, Kathrin; Yang, Chuanxu; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I; Fenton, Robert A; Kjems, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    RNAi-based strategies provide a great therapeutic potential for treatment of various human diseases including kidney disorders, but face the challenge of in vivo delivery and specific targeting. The chitosan delivery system has previously been shown to target siRNA specifically to the kidneys in mice when administered intravenously. Here we confirm by 2D and 3D bioimaging that chitosan formulated siRNA is retained in the kidney for more than 48 hours where it accumulates in proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs), a process that was strongly dependent on the molecular weight of chitosan. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles, administered to chimeric mice with conditional knockout of the megalin gene, distributed almost exclusively in cells that expressed megalin, implying that the chitosan/siRNA particle uptake was mediated by a megalin-dependent endocytotic pathway. Knockdown of the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) by up to 50% in PTECs was achieved utilizing the systemic i.v. delivery of chitosan/AQP1 siRNA in mice. In conclusion, specific targeting PTECs with the chitosan nanoparticle system may prove to be a useful strategy for knockdown of specific genes in PTECs, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy for treating various kidney diseases.

  19. Megalin-Mediated Specific Uptake of Chitosan/siRNA Nanoparticles in Mouse Kidney Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells Enables AQP1 Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Hein, San; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Weyer, Kathrin; Yang, Chuanxu; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I; Fenton, Robert A; Kjems, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    RNAi-based strategies provide a great therapeutic potential for treatment of various human diseases including kidney disorders, but face the challenge of in vivo delivery and specific targeting. The chitosan delivery system has previously been shown to target siRNA specifically to the kidneys in mice when administered intravenously. Here we confirm by 2D and 3D bioimaging that chitosan formulated siRNA is retained in the kidney for more than 48 hours where it accumulates in proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs), a process that was strongly dependent on the molecular weight of chitosan. Chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles, administered to chimeric mice with conditional knockout of the megalin gene, distributed almost exclusively in cells that expressed megalin, implying that the chitosan/siRNA particle uptake was mediated by a megalin-dependent endocytotic pathway. Knockdown of the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1) by up to 50% in PTECs was achieved utilizing the systemic i.v. delivery of chitosan/AQP1 siRNA in mice. In conclusion, specific targeting PTECs with the chitosan nanoparticle system may prove to be a useful strategy for knockdown of specific genes in PTECs, and provides a potential therapeutic strategy for treating various kidney diseases. PMID:25157280

  20. Sorting Nexin 1 Loss Results in D5 Dopamine Receptor Dysfunction in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells and Hypertension in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Van Anthony M.; Jones, John Edward; Armando, Ines; Asico, Laureano D.; Escano, Crisanto S.; Lee, Hewang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Pascua-Crusan, Annabelle M.; Palmes-Saloma, Cynthia P.; Felder, Robin A.; Jose, Pedro A.

    2013-01-01

    The peripheral dopaminergic system plays a crucial role in blood pressure regulation through its actions on renal hemodynamics and epithelial ion transport. The dopamine D5 receptor (D5R) interacts with sorting nexin 1 (SNX1), a protein involved in receptor retrieval from the trans-Golgi network. In this report, we elucidated the spatial, temporal, and functional significance of this interaction in human renal proximal tubule cells and HEK293 cells stably expressing human D5R and in mice. Silencing of SNX1 expression via RNAi resulted in the failure of D5R to internalize and bind GTP, blunting of the agonist-induced increase in cAMP production and decrease in sodium transport, and up-regulation of angiotensin II receptor expression, of which expression was previously shown to be negatively regulated by D5R. Moreover, siRNA-mediated depletion of renal SNX1 in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice resulted in increased blood pressure and blunted natriuretic response to agonist in salt-loaded BALB/cJ mice. These data demonstrate a crucial role for SNX1 in D5R trafficking and that SNX1 depletion results in D5R dysfunction and thus may represent a novel mechanism for the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. PMID:23152498

  1. Oxidative stress induced by potassium bromate exposure results in altered tight junction protein expression in renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Limonciel, Alice; Wilmes, Anja; Aschauer, Lydia; Radford, Robert; Bloch, Katarzyna M; McMorrow, Tara; Pfaller, Walter; van Delft, Joost H; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P; Lock, Edward A; Jennings, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) is an oxidising agent that has been widely used in the food and cosmetic industries. It has shown to be both a nephrotoxin and a renal carcinogen in in vivo and in vitro models. Here, we investigated the effects of KBrO(3) in the human and rat proximal tubular cell lines RPTEC/TERT1 and NRK-52E. A genome-wide transcriptomic screen was carried out from cells exposed to a sub-lethal concentration of KBrO(3) for 6, 24 and 72 h. Pathway analysis identified "glutathione metabolism", "Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress" and "tight junction (TJ) signalling" as the most enriched pathways. TJ signalling was less impacted in the rat model, and further studies revealed low transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and an absence of several TJ proteins in NRK-52E cells. In RPTEC/TERT1 cells, KBrO(3) exposure caused a decrease in TEER and resulted in altered expression of several TJ proteins. N-Acetylcysteine co-incubation prevented these effects. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress has, in conjunction with the activation of the cytoprotective Nrf2 pathway, a dramatic effect on the expression of tight junction proteins. The further understanding of the cross-talk between these two pathways could have major implications for epithelial repair, carcinogenesis and metastasis.

  2. Aniso Tubule

    2015-04-03

    ISS043E087335 (04/03/2015) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti works to retrieve samples for the Aniso Tubule experiment from the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) on Apr. 3, 2015. Aniso Tubule examines growth modifications of Arabidopsis hypocotyls in space. Scientists will analyze the changes in dynamics of cortical microtubules and microtubule associated proteins with a fluorescence microscope.

  3. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Molecular size and origin do not influence the harmful side effects of hydroxyethyl starch on human proximal tubule cells (HK-2) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Raphael R; Neuhaus, Winfried; Roewer, Norbert; Wunder, Christian; Schick, Martin A

    2014-09-01

    Recently, clinical trials revealed renal impairment induced by hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in septic patients. In prior studies, we managed to demonstrate that HES accumulated in renal proximal tubule cells (PTCs). The related pathomechanism has not yet been discovered. To validate our hypothesis that the HES molecule itself is harmful, regardless of its molecule size or origin, we conducted a comprehensive study to elucidate the influences of different HES preparations on PTC viability in vitro. Cell viability of human PTC was measured with a cytotoxicity assay, quantifying the reduction of tetrazolium salt to colored formazan. Experiments were performed by assessing the influence of different carrier solutions of HES (balanced, nonbalanced, culture medium), different average molecular weights (70, 130, 200 kDa), different origins (potato or corn derived), and various durations of incubation (2-21 hours). Furthermore, HES 130/0.4 was fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the impact on cell viability of average single-size fractions with <3, 3 to 10, 10 to 30, 30 to 50, 50 to 100, and >100 kDa was investigated. We also tested the possible synergistic effects of inflammation induced by tumor necrosis factor-α. All tested HES solutions, regardless of origin or carrier matrix, decreased cell viability in an equivalent, dose-dependent manner. Coincubation with tumor necrosis factor-α did not reduce HES-induced reduction of cell viability. Minor differences were detected comparing 70, 130, and 200 kDa preparations. Analysis of fractionated HES revealed that each fraction decreased cell viability. Even small HES molecules (10-30 kDa) were significantly deleterious. For the first time, we were able to show that only the total mass of HES molecules applied is responsible for the harmful impact on renal PTC in vitro. Neither molecular size nor their origin showed any relevance.

  5. Effect of acute acid-base disturbances on ErbB1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation in rabbit renal proximal tubules.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F

    2013-12-15

    The renal proximal tubule (PT) is a major site for maintaining whole body pH homeostasis and is responsible for reabsorbing ∼80% of filtered HCO3(-), the major plasma buffer, into the blood. The PT adapts its rate of HCO3(-) reabsorption (JHCO3(-)) in response to acute acid-base disturbances. Our laboratory previously showed that single isolated perfused PTs adapt JHCO3(-) in response to isolated changes in basolateral (i.e., blood side) CO2 and HCO3(-) concentrations but, surprisingly, not to pH. The response to CO2 concentration can be blocked by the ErbB family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD-168393. In the present study, we exposed enriched rabbit PT suspensions to five acute acid-base disturbances for 5 and 20 min using a panel of phosphotyrosine (pY)-specific antibodies to determine the influence of each disturbance on pan-pY, ErbB1-specific pY (four sites), and ErbB2-specific pY (two sites). We found that each acid-base treatment generated a distinct temporal pY pattern. For example, the summated responses of the individual ErbB1/2-pY sites to each disturbance showed that metabolic acidosis (normal CO2 concentration and reduced HCO3(-) concentration) produced a transient summated pY decrease (5 vs. 20 min), whereas metabolic alkalosis produced a transient increase. Respiratory acidosis (normal HCO3(-) concentration and elevated CO2 concentration) had little effect on summated pY at 5 min but produced an elevation at 20 min, whereas respiratory alkalosis produced a reduction at 20 min. Our data show that ErbB1 and ErbB2 in the PT respond to acute acid-base disturbances, consistent with the hypothesis that they are part of the signaling cascade.

  6. Effect of acute acid-base disturbances on ErbB1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation in rabbit renal proximal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Skelton, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    The renal proximal tubule (PT) is a major site for maintaining whole body pH homeostasis and is responsible for reabsorbing ∼80% of filtered HCO3−, the major plasma buffer, into the blood. The PT adapts its rate of HCO3− reabsorption (JHCO3−) in response to acute acid-base disturbances. Our laboratory previously showed that single isolated perfused PTs adapt JHCO3− in response to isolated changes in basolateral (i.e., blood side) CO2 and HCO3− concentrations but, surprisingly, not to pH. The response to CO2 concentration can be blocked by the ErbB family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD-168393. In the present study, we exposed enriched rabbit PT suspensions to five acute acid-base disturbances for 5 and 20 min using a panel of phosphotyrosine (pY)-specific antibodies to determine the influence of each disturbance on pan-pY, ErbB1-specific pY (four sites), and ErbB2-specific pY (two sites). We found that each acid-base treatment generated a distinct temporal pY pattern. For example, the summated responses of the individual ErbB1/2-pY sites to each disturbance showed that metabolic acidosis (normal CO2 concentration and reduced HCO3− concentration) produced a transient summated pY decrease (5 vs. 20 min), whereas metabolic alkalosis produced a transient increase. Respiratory acidosis (normal HCO3− concentration and elevated CO2 concentration) had little effect on summated pY at 5 min but produced an elevation at 20 min, whereas respiratory alkalosis produced a reduction at 20 min. Our data show that ErbB1 and ErbB2 in the PT respond to acute acid-base disturbances, consistent with the hypothesis that they are part of the signaling cascade. PMID:24133121

  7. Cyclophilin B Interacts with Sodium-Potassium ATPase and Is Required for Pump Activity in Proximal Tubule Cells of the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Suñé, Guillermo; Sarró, Eduard; Puigmulé, Marta; López-Hellín, Joan; Zufferey, Madeleine; Pertel, Thomas; Luban, Jeremy; Meseguer, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Cyclophilins (Cyps), the intracellular receptors for Cyclosporine A (CsA), are responsible for peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerisation and for chaperoning several membrane proteins. Those functions are inhibited upon CsA binding. Albeit its great benefits as immunosuppressant, the use of CsA has been limited by undesirable nephrotoxic effects, including sodium retention, hypertension, hyperkalemia, interstial fibrosis and progressive renal failure in transplant recipients. In this report, we focused on the identification of novel CypB-interacting proteins to understand the role of CypB in kidney function and, in turn, to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced toxicity. By means of yeast two-hybrid screens with human kidney cDNA, we discovered a novel interaction between CypB and the membrane Na/K-ATPase β1 subunit protein (Na/K-β1) that was confirmed by pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, in proximal tubule-derived HK-2 cells. The Na/K-ATPase pump, a key plasma membrane transporter, is responsible for maintenance of electrical Na+ and K+ gradients across the membrane. We showed that CypB silencing produced similar effects on Na/K-ATPase activity than CsA treatment in HK-2 cells. It was also observed an enrichment of both alpha and beta subunits in the ER, what suggested a possible failure on the maturation and routing of the pump from this compartment towards the plasma membrane. These data indicate that CypB through its interaction with Na/K-β1 might regulate maturation and trafficking of the pump through the secretory pathway, offering new insights into the relationship between cyclophilins and the nephrotoxic effects of CsA. PMID:21085665

  8. Cyclophilin B interacts with sodium-potassium ATPase and is required for pump activity in proximal tubule cells of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Suñé, Guillermo; Sarró, Eduard; Puigmulé, Marta; López-Hellín, Joan; Zufferey, Madeleine; Pertel, Thomas; Luban, Jeremy; Meseguer, Anna

    2010-11-10

    Cyclophilins (Cyps), the intracellular receptors for Cyclosporine A (CsA), are responsible for peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerisation and for chaperoning several membrane proteins. Those functions are inhibited upon CsA binding. Albeit its great benefits as immunosuppressant, the use of CsA has been limited by undesirable nephrotoxic effects, including sodium retention, hypertension, hyperkalemia, interstial fibrosis and progressive renal failure in transplant recipients. In this report, we focused on the identification of novel CypB-interacting proteins to understand the role of CypB in kidney function and, in turn, to gain further insight into the molecular mechanisms of CsA-induced toxicity. By means of yeast two-hybrid screens with human kidney cDNA, we discovered a novel interaction between CypB and the membrane Na/K-ATPase β1 subunit protein (Na/K-β1) that was confirmed by pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy, in proximal tubule-derived HK-2 cells. The Na/K-ATPase pump, a key plasma membrane transporter, is responsible for maintenance of electrical Na+ and K+ gradients across the membrane. We showed that CypB silencing produced similar effects on Na/K-ATPase activity than CsA treatment in HK-2 cells. It was also observed an enrichment of both alpha and beta subunits in the ER, what suggested a possible failure on the maturation and routing of the pump from this compartment towards the plasma membrane. These data indicate that CypB through its interaction with Na/K-β1 might regulate maturation and trafficking of the pump through the secretory pathway, offering new insights into the relationship between cyclophilins and the nephrotoxic effects of CsA.

  9. AT1 receptor-mediated uptake of angiotensin II and NHE-3 expression in proximal tubule cells through a microtubule-dependent endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao C; Hopfer, Ulrich; Zhuo, Jia L

    2009-11-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is taken up by proximal tubule (PT) cells via AT1 (AT1a) receptor-mediated endocytosis, but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study tested the hypothesis that the microtubule- rather than the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway regulates AT1-mediated uptake of ANG II and ANG II-induced sodium and hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE-3) expression in PT cells. The expression of AT1 receptors, clathrin light (LC) and heavy chain (HC) proteins, and type 1 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs; MAP-1A and MAP-1B) in PT cells were knocked down by their respective small interfering (si) RNAs before AT1-mediated FITC-ANG II uptake and ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression were studied. AT1 siRNAs inhibited AT1 expression and blocked ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression in PT cells, as expected (P < 0.01). Clathrin LC or HC siRNAs knocked down their respective proteins by approximately 90% with a peak response at 24 h, and blocked the clathrin-dependent uptake of Alexa Fluor 594-transferrin (P < 0.01). However, neither LC nor HC siRNAs inhibited AT1-mediated uptake of FITC-ANG II or affected ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression. MAP-1A or MAP-1B siRNAs markedly knocked down MAP-1A or MAP-1B proteins in a time-dependent manner with peak inhibitions at 48 h (>76.8%, P < 0.01). MAP protein knockdown resulted in approximately 52% decreases in AT1-mediated FITC-ANG II uptake and approximately 66% decreases in ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression (P < 0.01). These effects were associated with threefold decreases in ANG II-induced MAP kinases ERK 1/2 activation (P < 0.01), but not with altered AT1 expression or clathrin-dependent transferrin uptake. Both losartan and AT1a receptor deletion in mouse PT cells completely abolished the effects of MAP-1A knockdown on ANG II-induced NHE-3 expression and activation of MAP kinases ERK1/2. Our findings suggest that the alternative microtubule-dependent endocytic pathway, rather than the canonical clathrin

  10. Lack of formic acid production in rat hepatocytes and human renal proximal tubule cells exposed to chloral hydrate or trichloroacetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Edward A; Reed, Celia J; McMillan, JoEllyn M; Oatis, John R; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2007-01-01

    The industrial solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) and its major metabolites have been shown to cause formic aciduria in male rats. We have examined whether chloral hydrate (CH) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), known metabolites of TCE, produce an increase in formic acid in vitro in cultures of rat hepatocytes or human renal proximal tubule cells (HRPTC). The metabolism and cytotoxicity of CH was also examined to establish that the cells were metabolically active and not compromised by toxicity. Rat hepatocytes and HRPTC were cultured in serum-free medium and then treated with 0.3–3mM CH for 3 days or 0.03–3mM CH for 10 days respectively and formic acid production, metabolism to trichloroethanol (TCE-OH) and TCA and cytotoxicity determined. No increase in formic acid production in rat hepatocytes or HRPTC exposed to CH was observed over and above that due to chemical degradation, neither was formic acid production observed in rat hepatocytes exposed to TCA. HRPTC metabolised CH to TCE-OH and TCA with a 12-fold greater capacity to form TCE-OH versus TCA. Rat hepatocytes exhibited a 1.6-fold and 3-fold greater capacity than HRPTC to form TCE-OH and TCA respectively. CH and TCA were not cytotoxic to rat hepatocytes at concentrations up to 3mM/day for 3 days. With HRPTC, one sample showed no cytotoxicity to CH at concentrations up to 3mM/day for 10 days, while in another cytotoxicity was seen at 1mM/day for 3 days. In summary, increased formic acid production was not observed in rat hepatocytes or HRPTC exposed to TCE metabolites, suggesting that the in vivo response cannot be modelled in vitro. CH was toxic to HRPTC at millimolar concentrations/day over 10 days, while glutathione derived metabolites of TCE were toxic at micromolar concentrations/day over 10 days (Lock et al., 2006) supporting the view that glutathione derived metabolites are likely to be responsible for nephrotoxicity. PMID:17161896

  11. Antagonistic actions of renal dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine: increase in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal proximal tubules via activation of 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-da-Silva, P.; Pinto-do-O, P. C.; Bertorello, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is antinatriuretic. Since this effect of 5-HT is not accomplished by changes in glomerular haemodynamics, we have examined in this study whether 5-HT may influence sodium excretion by affecting the Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal cortical tubules. 2. Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity was determined as the rate of [32P]-ATP hydrolysis in renal cortical tubules in suspension. Basal Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal tubules was 4.8 +/- 0.4 mumol Pi mg-1 protein h-1 (n = 8). The 5-HT1A receptor agonist, (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline (8-OH-DPAT) (10 to 3000 nM) induced a concentration-dependent increase (P < 0.05) in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity with an EC50 value of 355 nM (95% confidence limits: 178, 708). Maximal stimulation elicited by 3000 nM of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (+)-WAY 100135 10 to 1000 nM) with an IC50 value of 20 nM (14, 29); 0.3 microM (+)-WAY 100135 completely abolished (P < 0.01) the stimulatory effect of 8-OH-DPAT. The stimulatory effect of 8-OH-DPAT was found to be time-dependent (15 +/- 2% and 66 +/- 7% increase at 2.5 and 5.0 min, respectively). The 5-HT2 receptor agonist alpha-methyl-5-HT (100 to 3000 nM) did not induce any significant changes in Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity (5.0 +/- 1.5 mumol Pi mg-1 protein h-1; n = 4). 3. The stimulatory effect 8-OH-DPAT was absent when homogenates were used. Stimulation occurred at a Vmax concentration (70 mM) of sodium supporting the notion that stimulation occurs independently of increasing sodium permeability. 4. The inhibitory effect of dopamine (P < 0.05) on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity was blunted by co-incubation with 8-OH-DPAT (0.5 microM). 5. It is concluded that activation of 5-HT1A receptors increases Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in renal cortical tubules; this effect may represent an important cellular mechanism, at the tubule level, responsible for the antinatriuretic effect of 5-HT. Images Figure 4 PMID:8882616

  12. Uriniferous tubule: structural and functional organization.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Erik Ilsø; Wagner, Carsten A; Kaissling, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    The uriniferous tubule is divided into the proximal tubule, the intermediate (thin) tubule, the distal tubule and the collecting duct. The present chapter is based on the chapters by Maunsbach and Christensen on the proximal tubule, and by Kaissling and Kriz on the distal tubule and collecting duct in the 1992 edition of the Handbook of Physiology, Renal Physiology. It describes the fine structure (light and electron microscopy) of the entire mammalian uriniferous tubule, mainly in rats, mice, and rabbits. The structural data are complemented by recent data on the location of the major transport- and transport-regulating proteins, revealed by morphological means(immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and/or mRNA in situ hybridization). The structural differences along the uriniferous tubule strictly coincide with the distribution of the major luminal and basolateral transport proteins and receptors and both together provide the basis for the subdivision of the uriniferous tubule into functional subunits. Data on structural adaptation to defined functional changes in vivo and to genetical alterations of specified proteins involved in transepithelial transport importantly deepen our comprehension of the correlation of structure and function in the kidney, of the role of each segment or cell type in the overall renal function,and our understanding of renal pathophysiology. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:933-996, 2012.

  13. Proximal Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Jia L.; Li, Xiao C.

    2013-01-01

    The kidney plays a fundamental role in maintaining body salt and fluid balance and blood pressure homeostasis through the actions of its proximal and distal tubular segments of nephrons. However, proximal tubules are well recognized to exert a more prominent role than distal counterparts. Proximal tubules are responsible for reabsorbing approximately 65% of filtered load and most, if not all, of filtered amino acids, glucose, solutes, and low molecular weight proteins. Proximal tubules also play a key role in regulating acid-base balance by reabsorbing approximately 80% of filtered bicarbonate. The purpose of this review article is to provide a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives into current understanding of proximal tubules of nephrons, with an emphasis on the ultrastructure, molecular biology, cellular and integrative physiology, and the underlying signaling transduction mechanisms. The review is divided into three closely related sections. The first section focuses on the classification of nephrons and recent perspectives on the potential role of nephron numbers in human health and diseases. The second section reviews recent research on the structural and biochemical basis of proximal tubular function. The final section provides a comprehensive overview of new insights and perspectives in the physiological regulation of proximal tubular transport by vasoactive hormones. In the latter section, attention is particularly paid to new insights and perspectives learnt from recent cloning of transporters, development of transgenic animals with knockout or knockin of a particular gene of interest, and mapping of signaling pathways using microarrays and/or physiological proteomic approaches. PMID:23897681

  14. Changes in gene expression in human renal proximal tubule cells exposed to low concentrations of S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine, a metabolite of trichloroethylene

    SciT

    Lock, Edward A.; Barth, Jeremy L.; Argraves, Scott W.

    2006-10-15

    Epidemiology studies suggest that there may be a weak association between high level exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and renal tubule cell carcinoma. Laboratory animal studies have shown an increased incidence of renal tubule carcinoma in male rats but not mice. TCE can undergo metabolism via glutathione (GSH) conjugation to form metabolites that are known to be nephrotoxic. The GSH conjugate, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)glutathione (DCVG), is processed further to the cysteine conjugate, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), which is the penultimate nephrotoxic species. We have cultured human renal tubule cells (HRPTC) in serum-free medium under a variety of different culture conditions and observed growth, respiratory controlmore » and glucose transport over a 20 day period in medium containing low glucose. Cell death was time- and concentration-dependent, with the EC{sub 5} for DCVG being about 3 {mu}M and for DCVC about 7.5 {mu}M over 10 days. Exposure of HRPTC to sub-cytotoxic doses of DCVC (0.1 {mu}M and 1 {mu}M for 10 days) led to a small number of changes in gene expression, as determined by transcript profiling with Affymetrix human genome chips. Using the criterion of a mean 2-fold change over control for the four samples examined, 3 genes at 0.1 {mu}M DCVC increased, namely, adenosine kinase, zinc finger protein X-linked and an enzyme with lyase activity. At 1 {mu}M DCVC, two genes showed a >2-fold decrease, N-acetyltransferase 8 and complement factor H. At a lower stringency (1.5-fold change), a total of 63 probe sets were altered at 0.1 {mu}M DCVC and 45 at 1 {mu}M DCVC. Genes associated with stress, apoptosis, cell proliferation and repair and DCVC metabolism were altered, as were a small number of genes that did not appear to be associated with the known mode of action of DCVC. Some of these genes may serve as molecular markers of TCE exposure and effects in the human kidney.« less

  15. Bicarbonate absorption by rabbit cortical collecting tubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    McKinney, T D; Burg, M B

    1978-02-01

    The rate of transport of bicarbonate was studied in isolated perfused rabbit cortical collecting tubules that were absorbing bicarbonate in vitro. Acetazolamide completely inhibited bicarbonate absorption, as was previously observed with isolated proximal tubules. Therefore, carbonic anhydrase probably is important for bicarbonate absorption in both the proximal tubules and collecting tubules. Inhibition of sodium transport by ouabain or elimination of its transport by completely removing the sodium did not cause a decrease in bicarbonate absorption by the collecting tubules. We previously found that inhibition of sodium transport caused a great decrease in bicarbonate absorption by proximal tubules. Therefore, absorption of bicarbonate is not directly related to sodium transport in collecting tubules, but it probably is related to sodium transport in isolated perfused rabbit proximal tubules. Amiloride inhibited bicarbonate absorption by the collecting tubules consistent with previous observations that the drug inhibits urinary acidification. Although amiloride also inhibits sodium transport and reduces the transepithelial voltage across the collecting tubules, the effect of the drug on bicarbonate transport apparently is independent of the other effects.

  16. Electrophysiological analysis of bicarbonate permeation across the peritubular cell membrane of rat kidney proximal tubule. II. Exclusion of HCO3(-)-effects on other ion permeabilities and of coupled electroneutral HCO3(-)-transport.

    PubMed

    Burckhardt, B C; Cassola, A C; Frömter, E

    1984-05-01

    Cell membrane potentials of rat kidney proximal tubules were measured in response to peritubular ion substitutions in vivo with conventional and Cl- sensitive microelectrodes in order to test possible alternative explanations of the bicarbonate dependent cell potential transients reported in the preceding paper. Significant direct effects of bicarbonate on peritubular K+, Na+, and Cl- conductances could be largely excluded by blocking K+ permeability with Ba2+ and replacing all Na+ and Cl- by choline or respectively SO4(2-) isethionate, or gluconate. Under those conditions the cell membrane response to HCO3- was essentially preserved. In addition it was observed that peritubular Cl- conductance is negligibly small, that Cl-/HCO3- exchange - if present at all - is insignificant, and that rheogenic HCO3- flow with coupling to Na+ flow is also absent or insignificant. A transient disturbance of the Na+ pump or a transient unspecific increase of the membrane permeability was also excluded by experiments with ouabain and by the observation that SITS (4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-2,2' disulphonic stilbene) blocked the HCO3- response instantaneously. The data strongly support the notion that the potential changes in response to peritubular HCO3- concentration changes arise from passive rheogenic bicarbonate transfer across the peritubular cell membrane, and hence that this membrane has a high conductance for bicarbonate buffer.

  17. Sulfate transporters involved in sulfate secretion in the kidney are localized in the renal proximal tubule II of the elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii)

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Akira; Watanabe, Taro; Takagi, Wataru; Romero, Michael F.; Bell, Justin D.; Toop, Tes; Donald, John A.; Hyodo, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Most vertebrates, including cartilaginous fishes, maintain their plasma SO42− concentration ([SO42−]) within a narrow range of 0.2–1 mM. As seawater has a [SO42−] about 40 times higher than that of the plasma, SO42− excretion is the major role of kidneys in marine teleost fishes. It has been suggested that cartilaginous fishes also excrete excess SO42− via the kidney. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms for SO42− transport in cartilaginous fish, largely due to the extraordinarily elaborate four-loop configuration of the nephron, which consists of at least 10 morphologically distinguishable segments. In the present study, we determined cDNA sequences from the kidney of holocephalan elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) that encoded solute carrier family 26 member 1 (Slc26a1) and member 6 (Slc26a6), which are SO42− transporters that are expressed in mammalian and teleost kidneys. Elephant fish Slc26a1 (cmSlc26a1) and cmSlc26a6 mRNAs were coexpressed in the proximal II (PII) segment of the nephron, which comprises the second loop in the sinus zone. Functional analyses using Xenopus oocytes and the results of immunohistochemistry revealed that cmSlc26a1 is a basolaterally located electroneutral SO42− transporter, while cmSlc26a6 is an apically located, electrogenic Cl−/SO42− exchanger. In addition, we found that both cmSlc26a1 and cmSlc26a6 were abundantly expressed in the kidney of embryos; SO42− was concentrated in a bladder-like structure of elephant fish embryos. Our results demonstrated that the PII segment of the nephron contributes to the secretion of excess SO42− by the kidney of elephant fish. Possible mechanisms for SO42− secretion in the PII segment are discussed. PMID:27122370

  18. Early gene Broad complex plays a key role in regulating the immune response triggered by ecdysone in the Malpighian tubules of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Verma, Puja; Tapadia, Madhu G

    2015-08-01

    In insects, humoral response to injury is accomplished by the production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are secreted in the hemolymph to eliminate the pathogen. Drosophila Malpighian tubules (MTs), however, are unique immune organs that show constitutive expression of AMPs even in unchallenged conditions and the onset of immune response is developmental stage dependent. Earlier reports have shown ecdysone positively regulates immune response after pathogenic challenge however, a robust response requires prior potentiation by the hormone. Here we provide evidence to show that MTs do not require prior potentiation with ecdysone hormone for expression of AMPs and they respond to ecdysone very fast even without immune challenge, although the different AMPs Diptericin, Cecropin, Attacin, Drosocin show differential expression in response to ecdysone. We show that early gene Broad complex (BR-C) could be regulating the IMD pathway by activating Relish and physically interacting with it to activate AMPs expression. BR-C depletion from Malpighian tubules renders the flies susceptible to infection. We also show that in MTs ecdysone signaling is transduced by EcR-B1 and B2. In the absence of ecdysone signaling the IMD pathway associated genes are down regulated and activation and translocation of transcription factor Relish is also affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and measurement of tubulitis in renal allograft rejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, John B.; Chen, Qi; Jin, Jesse S.; Wang, Yung; Yong, James L. C.

    1997-04-01

    Tubulitis is one of the most reliable signs of acute renal allograft rejection. It occurs when mononuclear cells are localized between the lining tubular epithelial cells with or without disruption of the tubular basement membrane. It has been found that tubulitis takes place predominantly in the regions of the distal convoluted tubules and the cortical collecting system. The image processing tasks are to find the tubule boundaries and to find the relative location of the lymphocytes and epithelial cells and tubule boundaries. The requirement for accuracy applies to determining the relative locations of the lymphocytes and the tubule boundaries. This paper will show how the different sizes and grey values of the lymphocytes and epithelial cells simplify their identification and location. Difficulties in finding the tubule boundaries image processing will be illustrated. It will be shown how proximate location of epithelial cells and the tubule boundary leads to distortion in determination of the calculated boundary. However, in tubulitis the lymphocytes and the tubule boundaries are proximate.In these cases the tubule boundary is adequately resolved and the image processing is satisfactory to determining relativity in location. An adaptive non-linear anisotropic diffusion process is presented for image filtering and segmentation. Multi-layer analysis is used to extract lymphocytes and tubulitis from images. This paper will discuss grading of tissue using the Banff system. The ability to use computer to use computer processing will be argued as obviating problems of reproducability of values for this classification. This paper will also feature discussion of alternative approaches to image processing and provide an assessment of their capability for improving the identification of the tubule boundaries.

  20. Angiotensin II AT2 receptor decreases AT1 receptor expression and function via nitric oxide/cGMP/Sp1 in renal proximal tubule cells from Wistar–Kyoto rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Chen, Caiyu; Ren, Hongmei; Han, Yu; He, Duofen; Zhou, Lin; Hopfer, Ulrich; Jose, Pedro A.; Zeng, Chunyu

    2013-01-01

    Background The renin–angiotensin (Ang) system controls blood pressure, in part, by regulating renal tubular sodium transport. In the kidney, activation of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor increases renal sodium reabsorption, whereas the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor produces the opposite effect. We hypothesized that the AT2 receptor regulates AT1 receptor expression and function in the kidney. Methods and results In immortalized renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells from Wistar–Kyoto rats, CGP42112, an AT2 receptor agonist, decreased AT1 receptor mRNA and protein expression (P < 0.05), as assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. The inhibitory effect of the AT2 receptor on AT1 receptor expression was blocked by the AT2 receptor antagonist, PD123319 (10−6 mol/l), the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (10−4 mol/l), or the nitric oxide-dependent soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo-[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (10−5 mol/l), indicating that both nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were involved in the signaling pathway. Furthermore, CGP42112 decreased Sp1 serine phosphorylation and reduced the binding of Sp1 to AT1 receptor DNA. Stimulation with Ang II (10−11 mol/l per 30 min) enhanced Na+-K+-ATPase activity in RPT cells, which was prevented by pretreatment with CGP42112 (10−7 mol/l per 24 h) (P < 0.05). The above-mentioned results were confirmed in RPT cells from AT2 receptor knockout mice; AT1 receptor expression and Ang II-stimulated Na+-K+-ATPase activity were greater in these cells than in RPT cells from wild-type mice (P < 0.05). AT1/AT2 receptors co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated in RPT cells; short-term CGP42112 (10−7 mol/l per 30 min) treatment increased AT1/AT2 receptor co-immunoprecipitation (P < 0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that the renal AT2 receptor, via nitric oxide/cGMP/Sp1 pathway, regulates AT1 receptor

  1. KCNJ10 determines the expression of the apical Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) in the early distal convoluted tubule (DCT1).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengbiao; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Junhui; Su, Xiao-Tong; Lin, Dao-Hong; Scholl, Ute I; Giebisch, Gerhard; Lifton, Richard P; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2014-08-12

    The renal phenotype induced by loss-of-function mutations of inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir), Kcnj10 (Kir4.1), includes salt wasting, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia. However, the mechanism by which Kir.4.1 mutations cause the tubulopathy is not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that Kcnj10 is a main contributor to the basolateral K conductance in the early distal convoluted tubule (DCT1) and determines the expression of the apical Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC) in the DCT. Immunostaining demonstrated Kcnj10 and Kcnj16 were expressed in the basolateral membrane of DCT, and patch-clamp studies detected a 40-pS K channel in the basolateral membrane of the DCT1 of p8/p10 wild-type Kcnj10(+/+) mice (WT). This 40-pS K channel is absent in homozygous Kcnj10(-/-) (knockout) mice. The disruption of Kcnj10 almost completely eliminated the basolateral K conductance and decreased the negativity of the cell membrane potential in DCT1. Moreover, the lack of Kcnj10 decreased the basolateral Cl conductance, inhibited the expression of Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and diminished the apical NCC expression in DCT. We conclude that Kcnj10 plays a dominant role in determining the basolateral K conductance and membrane potential of DCT1 and that the basolateral K channel activity in the DCT determines the apical NCC expression possibly through a Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase-dependent mechanism.

  2. Structure of the kidney of Bufo arenarum: intermediate segment, distal tubule and collecting tubule.

    PubMed

    Farías, Alejandro; Hermida, Gladys Noemí; Fiorito, Luisa Eleonora

    2003-04-01

    The ultrastructure of the intermediate segment (IS), distal tubule and collecting tubule (CT) of the south american toad Bufo arenarum, was studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The IS is composed of cubical ciliated cells which propel the urine along the renal tubule. The distal tubule is divided into two portions: the early distal tubule (EDT) and the late distal tubule (LDT). The EDT is characterized by only one type of cells with well developed basolateral interdigitations and numerous elongated mitochondria, which are oriented normal to the basal surface. The "macula densa--like" is a specialized zone of the EDT in contact with the vascular pole, where cells are more tightly packed than in the rest of the tubule. The LDT shows two types of cells called dark and light cells according to the appearance of their cytoplasm. Dark cells have microplicae and few but long microvilli at their luminal surface, and abundant mitochondria in their cytoplasm. Light cells show basal and lateral infoldings and few mitochondria. The CT, which is composed of dark and light cells, exhibits an enlarged lumen with an undulated surface and dilated spaces between neighbouring cells. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the kidney of B. arenarum; frequently used as an experimental model for physiological and biochemical studies.

  3. Increased proximal acid reflux is associated with early readmission following lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2016-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease has been associated with poor outcomes following lung transplantation. However, the association between pretransplant reflux and post-transplant readmission, an indicator of early clinical outcome, has not been previously assessed. This was a retrospective cohort study of lung transplant recipients undergoing pretransplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) study off acid suppression at a tertiary care center since 2007. Subjects with pretransplant fundoplication were excluded. Time to readmission was defined as duration from post-transplant discharge to next hospital admission for any reason. Subgroup analysis was performed to exclude elective readmissions. Time-to-event analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards model, with appropriate censoring. Forty-three subjects (60% men, mean age: 57, median follow-up: 1.7 years) met inclusion criteria for the study. Patient demographics and pretransplant cardiopulmonary function were similar between readmission cohorts. Time to all-cause readmission was associated with increased distal acid episodes (HR: 3.15, p = 0.04) and proximal acid episodes (HR: 3.61, p = 0.008) on impedance, increased acid exposure on pH (HR: 2.22, p = 0.04), and elevated Demeester score (HR: 2.26, p = 0.03). When elective readmissions were excluded, early readmission remained significantly associated with increased proximal acid reflux episodes (HR: 2.49, p = 0.04). All findings were confirmed on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Elevated proximal acid reflux on pretransplant MII-pH testing was associated with early readmission following lung transplantation, even after excluding elective readmissions. Exposure to severe acid reflux has measurable effects on early postoperative outcomes such as readmission, and aggressive early antireflux therapy should be considered. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy as a Surgical Treatment for Upper Third Early Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Park, Do Joong; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2017-09-25

    Recently, the incidence of upper third gastric cancer has increased, and with it the number of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) procedures performed has been increasing. However, if ESD is not indicated or non-curable, surgical treatment may be necessary. In the case of lower third gastric cancer, it is possible to preserve the upper part of the stomach; however, in the case of upper third gastric cancer, total gastrectomy is still the standard treatment option, regardless of the stage. This is due to the complications associated with upper third gastric cancer, such as gastroesophageal reflux after proximal gastrectomy rather than oncologic problems. Recently, the introduction of the double tract reconstruction method after proximal gastrectomy has become one of the surgical treatment methods for upper third early gastric cancer. However, since there has not been a prospective comparative study evaluating its efficacy, the ongoing multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial (KLASS-05) comparing laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy with double tract reconstruction and laparoscopic total gastrectomy is expected to be important for determining the future of treatment of upper third early gastric cancer.

  5. Secretory NaCl and volume flow in renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Beyenbach, K W

    1986-05-01

    This review attempts to give a retrospective survey of the available evidence concerning the secretion of NaCl and fluid in renal tubules of the vertebrate kidney. In the absence of glomerular filtration, epithelial secretory mechanisms, which to this date have not been elucidated, are responsible for the renal excretion of NaCl and water in aglomerular fish. However, proximal tubules isolated from glomerular fish kidneys of the flounder, killifish, and the shark also have the capacity to secrete NaCl and fluid. In shark proximal tubules, fluid secretion appears to be driven via secondary active transport of Cl. In another marine vertebrate, the sea snake, secretion of Na (presumably NaCl) and fluid is observed in freshwater-adapted and water-loaded animals. Proximal tubules of mammals can be made to secrete NaCl in vitro together with secretion of aryl acids. An epithelial cell line derived from dog kidney exhibits secondary active secretion of Cl when stimulated with catecholamines. Tubular secretion of NaCl and fluid may serve a variety of renal functions, all of which are considered here. The occurrence of NaCl and fluid secretion in glomerular proximal tubules of teleosts, elasmobranchs, and reptiles and in mammalian renal tissue cultures suggests that the genetic potential for NaCl secretion is present in every vertebrate kidney.

  6. Early Functional Treatment of Proximal Phalanx Fractures in Children: A Case Series Study.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Stefan; Mammadli, Toghrul

    2018-05-23

    The objective of this study was to assess proper indications a nonsurgical treatment regime for pediatric fractures of the proximal phalanx based on principles of early functional treatment. A case series (evidence level 4) of 30 pediatric patients with fractures of the proximal phalanx were treated nonsurgically using protective dynamic splinting techniques and fiberglass casting material. Assessments were performed clinically and by x-ray within 4 to 8 weeks of commencement of treatment. Outcome measures included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score questionnaire as well as fingertip palm distance (cm) and dynamic pain interval assessments. All fractures healed without any clinically apparent bony deformities. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores were of 25.17 ± 5.29 (mean ± SD), which indicated good functional results usually within 2 weeks of removal of dynamic splints. Fingertip palm distance measurements at endpoints were of 0.17 ± 0.27 cm (mean ± SD), which indicated an almost free range of finger motion. Absence of pain perception under active finger motion (dynamic pain interval) was noted at 14.10 ± 6.79 days (mean ± SD). Well-established criteria for surgical treatment of phalangeal fractures exist. However, in our experience, a majority of pediatric fractures of the proximal phalanx can be safely treated nonsurgically with dynamic splinting along with shorter intervals of immobilization of the affected fingers and faster restoration of overall hand function compared to surgical treatment.

  7. Uptake of gentamicin by separated, viable renal tubules from rabbits.

    PubMed

    Barza, M; Murray, T; Hamburger, R J

    1980-04-01

    The proximal renal tubules have a marked affinity for gentamicin; they also are the major site of nephrotoxicity caused by this drug. The uptake of radiolabeled gentamicin in separated, viable renal tubules prepared by enzymatic digestion of rabbit kidneys was studied. The preparations showed rapid initial uptake of gentamicin followed by continued slower uptake. Accumulation was not affected by pH, but was significantly inhibited by ouabain, dinitrophenol, anoxia, and hypothermia in the absence of evident cellular damage. At gentamicin concentrations of greater than 50 microgram/ml in the medium, there was competition for drug uptake. Gentamicin efflux in tubules that were taken from a medium containing antibiotic and placed into antibiotic-free fluid was slow and incomplete. From these data it appears that gentamicin uptake by separated renal tubules occurs by a process that requires metabolic energy; thereafter, the drug resides in a poorly exchangeable cellular pool.

  8. Association between Proximity to a Health Center and Early Childhood Mortality in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Saori; Suzuki, Etsuji; Okayasu, Toshiharu; Jean Louis, Razafimahatratra; Eboshida, Akira; Subramanian, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between proximity to a health center and early childhood mortality in Madagascar, and to assess the influence of household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal health on the effects of distance. Methods From birth records of subjects in the Demographic and Health Survey, we identified 12565 singleton births from January 2004 to August 2009. After excluding 220 births that lacked global positioning system information for exposure assessment, odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for neonatal mortality and infant mortality were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with 12345 subjects (level 1), nested within 584 village locations (level 2), and in turn nested within 22 regions (level 3). We additionally stratified the subjects by the birth order. We estimated predicted probabilities of each outcome by a three-level model including cross-level interactions between proximity to a health center and household wealth, maternal educational attainment, and maternal anemia. Results Compared with those who lived >1.5–3.0 km from a health center, the risks for neonatal mortality and infant mortality tended to increase among those who lived further than 5.0 km from a health center; the adjusted ORs for neonatal mortality and infant mortality for those who lived >5.0–10.0 km away from a health center were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.92–2.01) and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.06–1.90), respectively. The positive associations were more pronounced among the second or later child. The distance effects were not modified by household wealth status, maternal educational attainment, or maternal health status. Conclusions Our study suggests that distance from a health center is a risk factor for early childhood mortality (primarily, infant mortality) in Madagascar by using a large-scale nationally representative dataset. The accessibility to health care in remote areas would be a key factor to achieve better

  9. [Study on the role of the tubule in renal vasoconstriction induced by cyclosporine].

    PubMed

    Camaño Páez, S; Lázaro Fernández, A; Callejas Martínez, R; Lázaro Manero, J A; Castilla Barba, M; Martín-Vasallo, P; Martínez Escandell, A; Tejedor Jorge, A

    2008-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) has proved to induce cell apoptosis on cultured proximal tubule cells. However, there is no much data about the in vivo functional consequences of this injury or the long time observed CyA-induced renal vasoconstriction. In a swine model of subacute CyA nephrotoxicity (10 mg/ Kg. dx 15 days), we performed a right nephrectomy, followed by left renal artery, vein and ureter catheterisati8n. After inducing water diuresis, three clearance periods of 15 minutes were performed before and after a furosemide 1 mg/kg infusion. Plasma and urine electrolytes, blood gas, acid excretion, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, GFR, RPF, RBF, intra-renal vascular resistances, glomerular filtration pressure, distal Cl- delivery, water clearance and TTKG were measured or estimated on 7 control and 7 treated animals. Right kidney was processed for NaKATPase activity and immunostaining. Treated animals presented detaching proximal cells, luminal blebbing and loss of tight junctions. Cortical but not medullar sodium pump was internalised and partially inactive. Treated animals showed much lower fractional excretions of Na+, with significantly higher distal fractional reabsorption of Cl. Distal shift in fluid load resulted in a significant rise in renal O2 consumption, and modifications in the global renal estequiometry of Na+ transport/O2 uptake. Several consequences followed this situation: preglomerular resistances increased 3 times with only minor changes in postglomerular resistances and renal blood and plasma flow were significantly reduced. Furosemide partially reversed these effects. A slight increase in fractional filtration prevented GFR differences to become statistically significant. subacute CyA treatment even al doses not modifying GFR, may cause proximal tubule Na+ transport impairment, resulting in increased rates of distal delivery and absorption of fluid load. Renal uptake of O2 may be increased and tubule glomerular feedback should be

  10. Tubular Obstruction Leads to Progressive Proximal Tubular Injury and Atubular Glomeruli in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Galarreta, Carolina I.; Grantham, Jared J.; Forbes, Michael S.; Maser, Robin L.; Wallace, Darren P.; Chevalier, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    In polycystic kidney disease (PKD), renal parenchyma is destroyed by cysts, hypothesized to obstruct nephrons. A signature of unilateral ureteral obstruction, proximal tubular atrophy leads to formation of atubular glomeruli. To determine whether this process occurs in PKD, kidneys from pcy mice (moderately progressive PKD), kidneys from cpk mice (rapidly progressive PKD), and human autosomal dominant PKD were examined in early and late stages. Integrity of the glomerulotubular junction and proximal tubular mass were determined in sections stained with Lotus tetragonolobus lectin. Development of proximal tubular atrophy and atubular glomeruli was determined in serial sections of individual glomeruli. In pcy mice, most glomerulotubular junctions were normal at 20 weeks, but by 30 weeks, 56% were atrophic and 25% of glomeruli were atubular; glomerulotubular junction integrity decreased with increasing cyst area (r = 0.83, P < 0.05). In cpk mice, all glomerulotubular junctions were normal at 10 days, but by 19 days, 26% had become abnormal. In early-stage autosomal dominant PKD kidneys, 50% of glomeruli were atubular or attached to atrophic tubules; in advanced disease, 100% were abnormal. Thus, proximal tubular injury in cystic kidneys closely parallels that observed with ureteral obstruction. These findings support the hypothesis that, in renal cystic disorders, cyst-dependent obstruction of medullary and cortical tubules initiates a process culminating in widespread destruction of proximal convoluted tubules at the glomerulotubular junction. PMID:24815352

  11. Feasibility and Nutritional Benefits of Laparoscopic Proximal Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer in the Upper Stomach.

    PubMed

    Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) has recently been applied for early gastric cancer (EGC) in the upper stomach as a minimally invasive and function-preserving surgery. This study aimed to clarify the feasibility and nutritional benefits of LPG over laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG). This was a retrospective study of 77 patients with clinical stage I gastric cancer in the upper stomach. Of these patients, 25 underwent LPG, while 52 underwent LTG. Surgical outcomes and postoperative nutritional status such as changes in body weight and blood chemistries were compared between LPG and LTG. Intraoperative blood loss and C-reactive protein levels at 3 and 7 days after surgery were significantly lower in LPG than in LTG (p = 0.018, 0.036, and 0.042, respectively). No significant differences were observed in postoperative early or late complication rates between LPG and LTG. The incidence of Los Angeles Grade B or more severe reflux esophagitis after LPG was 9.1 %, which was similar to that after LTG (9.3 %). Postoperative changes in body weight at 6 months and 1 and 2 years after surgery were consistently less in LPG than in LTG (p = 0.001, 0.022, and 0.001, respectively). Moreover, postoperative levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin and total lymphocyte count were also higher in LPG than in LTG. LPG may be a better choice for EGC in the upper stomach than LTG because it has distinct advantages in terms of surgical invasiveness and postoperative nutritional status.

  12. Risk factors of early proximal gastric carcinoma in Chinese diagnosed using WHO criteria.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Huang, Qin; Lu, Lin; Shi, Jiong; Sun, Qi; Xu, Gui Fang; Gold, Jason; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Zou, Xiao Ping

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of proximal gastric carcinoma (PGC) is rising worldwide for unknown reasons. Herein we compare the risk factors of early PGC with distal gastric carcinoma (DGC) in patients treated at a single tertiary hospital in China. Risk factors of 379 consecutive surgically resected early gastric carcinoma (EGC) diagnosed according to the 2010 World Health Organization criteria were studied by reviewing their medical records and esophagogastroduodenoscopy/biopsy findings and interviewing patients and family members for the patients' history of environmental toxin exposure (ETE), dietary habits, family (FCH) and personal cancer history (PCH) and survival. Differences between PGC (n = 115), DGC (n = 264) and age-matched and gender-matched controls (n = 225) were compared. Proportion of early PGC in all EGC patients was increased significantly (P < 0.05). The independent risk factors for both PGC and DGC identified by multivariate analysis were intake of preserved food and little fruit, and gastric mucosal intestinal metaplasia and atrophy (all P < 0.05). Advanced age (odds ratio [OR] 9.83, P < 0.01), PCH (OR 5.09, P < 0.05), a high body mass index (>24 kg/m(2) ) (OR 2.79, P < 0.01) and ETE (OR 2.31, P < 0.05) were independent risk factors for PGC, but not male gender, tobacco or alcohol abuse, hiatus hernia, gastroesophageal reflux disease or columnar-lined esophagus. In contrast, FCH (OR 2.34, P < 0.01) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR 2.81, P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for DGC. Independent risk factors for PGC in Chinese patients differ from those of DGC or esophageal adenocarcinoma, supporting the classification of PGC as a separate gastric carcinoma entity in the Chinese populations. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Fundoplication with 180-Degree Wrap During Esophagogastrostomy After Robotic Proximal Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Toshiyasu; Nakamori, Mikihito; Nakamura, Masaki; Hayata, Keiji; Maruoka, Shimpei; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2018-04-20

    Compared with total gastrectomy, proximal gastrectomy (PG) has potential advantages from a nutritional perspective, such as anemia and postoperative loss of body weight. However, PG is associated with some postoperative functional disorders, such as reflux esophagus (13-31%) and anastomotic stenosis (3-29%).1 We therefore developed a new procedure for fundoplication during esophago-gastrostomy after robotic PG (RPG). We performed RPG for early gastric cancer localized in the upper third of the stomach using the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive, Sunnyvale, CA). After RPG conclusion, intracorporeal esophago-gastrostomy was performed by side-to-side anastomosis using a linear 45 mm stapling device, Endo GIA purple cartridge.2 The post-excisional hole in the esophago-gastrostomy was closed with interrupted single-layered sutures by robotic suturing technique. Fundoplication was created by wrapping the remnant stomach around 180 degrees of the circumference of the esophagus; the remnant stomach was wrapped from the esophageal posterior wall towards the esophageal anterior wall. Four stitches were used for fixation. We did not add a bougie of esophago-gastrostomy when fashioning the wrap. In addition, we did not perform pyloroplasty. In our series with 15 patients, there were no postoperative complications. No patients had reflux symptoms. Our technique using the fundoplication with "clockwise" rotation attempts to prevent reflux by use of intragastric pressure to flatten the lower end of the esophagus into a valvate shape. Indeed, in fluoroscopic findings 4 days after surgery, there was no reflux to the esophagus of the contrast medium. In endoscopic findings 3 months after surgery, anastomotic stenosis was absent. We observed no endoscopic findings of reflux esophagitis. Formation of the pseudo-fornix was confirmed by wrapping the remnant stomach. RPG followed by fundoplication with 180-degree wrap may be a promising procedure for reflux esophagitis prevention.3

  14. Inversin relays Frizzled-8 signals to promote proximal pronephros development

    PubMed Central

    Lienkamp, Soeren; Ganner, Athina; Boehlke, Christopher; Schmidt, Thorsten; Arnold, Sebastian J.; Schäfer, Tobias; Romaker, Daniel; Schuler, Julia; Hoff, Sylvia; Powelske, Christian; Eifler, Annekathrin; Krönig, Corinna; Bullerkotte, Axel; Nitschke, Roland; Kuehn, E. Wolfgang; Kim, Emily; Burkhardt, Hans; Brox, Thomas; Ronneberger, Olaf; Gloy, Joachim; Walz, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Mutations of inversin cause type II nephronophthisis, an infantile autosomal recessive disease characterized by cystic kidney disease and developmental defects. Inversin regulates Wnt signaling and is required for convergent extension movements during early embryogenesis. We now show that Inversin is essential for Xenopus pronephros formation, involving two distinct and opposing forms of cell movements. Knockdown of Inversin abrogated both proximal pronephros extension and distal tubule differentiation, phenotypes similar to that of Xenopus deficient in Frizzled-8. Exogenous Inversin rescued the pronephric defects caused by lack of Frizzled-8, indicating that Inversin acts downstream of Frizzled-8 in pronephros morphogenesis. Depletion of Inversin prevents the recruitment of Dishevelled in response to Frizzled-8 and impeded the accumulation of Dishevelled at the apical membrane of tubular epithelial cells in vivo. Thus, defective tubule morphogenesis seems to contribute to the renal pathology observed in patients with nephronophthisis type II. PMID:21059920

  15. Paracellular transport and energy utilization in the renal tubule.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alan S L

    2017-09-01

    Paracellular transport across the tight junction is a general mechanism for transepithelial transport of solutes in epithelia, including the renal tubule. However, why paracellular transport evolved, given the existence of a highly versatile system for transcellular transport, is unknown. Recent studies have identified the paracellular channel, claudin-2, that is responsible for paracellular reabsorption of sodium in the proximal renal tubule. Knockout of claudin-2 in mice impairs proximal sodium and fluid reabsorption but is compensated by upregulation of sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle. This occurs at the expense of increased renal oxygen consumption, hypoxia of the outer medulla and increased susceptibility to ischemic kidney injury. Paracellular transport can be viewed as a mechanism to exploit the potential energy in existing electrochemical gradients to drive passive transepithelial transport without consuming additional energy. In this way, it enhances the efficiency of energy utilization by transporting epithelia.

  16. Physiological roles of claudins in kidney tubule paracellular transport.

    PubMed

    Muto, Shigeaki

    2017-01-01

    The paracellular pathways in renal tubular epithelia such as the proximal tubules, which reabsorb the largest fraction of filtered solutes and water and are leaky epithelia, are important routes for transepithelial transport of solutes and water. Movement occurs passively via an extracellular route through the tight junction between cells. The characteristics of paracellular transport vary among different nephron segments with leaky or tighter epithelia. Claudins expressed at tight junctions form pores and barriers for paracellular transport. Claudins are from a multigene family, comprising at least 27 members in mammals. Multiple claudins are expressed at tight junctions of individual nephron segments in a nephron segment-specific manner. Over the last decade, there have been advances in our understanding of the structure and functions of claudins. This paper is a review of our current knowledge of claudins, with special emphasis on their physiological roles in proximal tubule paracellular solute and water transport. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Liu, Richard T.; Y.Abramson, Lyn; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52% female, 51% Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress. PMID:25911194

  18. Proximity with under Two-Year-Olds in Early Childhood Education: A Silent Pedagogical Encounter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Elizabeth Jayne; Redder, Bridgette

    2015-01-01

    Using mixed methods to analyse the experience of a 4-month-old and a 10-month-old infant in a high-quality New Zealand education and care setting, this paper utilises dialogic methodology to foreground the importance of key teacher proximity to infant relationships with adults, peers and artefacts in a group context. Quantitative findings…

  19. Risk Factors for Proximal Junctional Kyphosis Associated With Dual-rod Growing-rod Surgery for Early-onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kota; Uno, Koki; Suzuki, Teppei; Kawakami, Noriaki; Tsuji, Taichi; Yanagida, Haruhisa; Ito, Manabu; Hirano, Toru; Yamazaki, Ken; Minami, Shohei; Taneichi, Hiroshi; Imagama, Shiro; Takeshita, Katsushi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Matsumoto, Morio

    2016-10-01

    A retrospective, multicenter study. To identify risk factors for proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) when treating early-onset scoliosis (EOS) with dual-rod growing-rod (GR) procedure. The risk factors for PJK associated with GR treatment for EOS have not been adequately studied. We evaluated clinical and radiographic results from 88 patients with EOS who underwent dual-rod GR surgery in 12 spine centers in Japan. The mean age at the time of the initial surgery was 6.5±2.2 years (range, 1.5-9.8 y), and the mean follow-up period was 3.9±2.6 years (range, 2.0-12.0 y). Risk factors for PJK were analyzed by binomial multiple logistic regression analysis. The potential factors analyzed were sex, etiology, age, the number of rod-lengthening procedures, coronal and sagittal parameters on radiographs, the type of foundation (pedicle screws or hooks), the uppermost level of the proximal foundation, and the lowermost level of the distal foundation. PJK developed in 23 patients (26%); in 19 of these, the proximal foundation became dislodged following PJK. Binomial multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following significant independent risk factors for PJK: a lower instrumented vertebra at or cranial to L3 [odds ratio (OR), 3.32], a proximal thoracic scoliosis of ≥40 degrees (OR, 2.95), and a main thoracic kyphosis of ≥60 degrees (OR, 5.08). The significant independent risk factors for PJK during dual-rod GR treatment for EOS were a lower instrumented vertebra at or cranial to L3, a proximal thoracic scoliosis of ≥40 degrees, and a main thoracic kyphosis of ≥60 degrees.

  20. Intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy for anorectal Crohn's disease results in early and severe proximal colonic recurrence.

    PubMed

    de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; Wolthuis, Albert M; Vermeire, Séverine; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Penninckx, Freddy; D'Hoore, André

    2013-07-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) represents a more aggressive phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease and often coincides with proctocolitis. This study aims to assess the outcome of patients undergoing proctectomy with end-colostomy. A retrospective outcome analysis of 10 consecutive patients who underwent intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy between February 2007 and May 2011 was performed. All patients suffered from refractory distal and perianal CD. The proximal colon was normal at endoscopy. All data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. The main outcome parameter was disease recurrence and need for completion colectomy. Severe and early endoscopic recurrence in the proximal colon occurred in 9/10 patients at a median time interval of 9.5 months (range: 1.9-23.6 months). Despite protracted medical treatment, completion colectomy was necessary in 5 patients. One patient, who underwent a second segmental colectomy with a new end-colostomy, showed again endoscopic recurrence and is currently treated with anti-TNF agents. Intersphincteric proctectomy with colostomy seems to be an ineffective surgery for perianal CD with coexisting proctitis and results in a high risk of recurrence of the disease in the remaining colon. Therefore, despite a normal appearance of the proximal colon, a proctocolectomy with end-ileostomy seems to be the surgical approach of choice in these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Masonry structures built with fictile tubules: Experimental and numerical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberti, Simone; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria; Olivito, Renato S.; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-11-01

    Masonry structures with fictile tubules were a distinctive building technique of the Mediterranean area. This technique dates back to Roman and early Christian times, used to build vaulted constructions and domes with various geometrical forms by virtue of their modular structure. In the present work, experimental tests were carried out to identify the mechanical properties of hollow clay fictile tubules and a possible reinforcing technique for existing buildings employing such elements. The experimental results were then validated by devising and analyzing numerical models with the FE software Abaqus, also aimed at investigating the structural behavior of an arch via linear and nonlinear static analyses.

  2. Early results for treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus using Contours PHP (proximal humeral plate).

    PubMed

    Biazzo, Alessio; Cardile, Carlo; Brunelli, Luca; Ragni, Paolo; Clementi, Daniele

    2017-04-28

    The management of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus is controversial, both in younger and in elderly patients. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the functional results of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate (OrthofixR, Bussolengo,Verona, Italy), for the treatment of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus. We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients with proximal humerus fractures, who underwent osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate from December 2011 to March 2015. We had 21 patients with 2-part fractures and with an average age of 67.1 years and 34 patients with 3-part fractures, with average age of 63.6 years. The average union time was 3 months. The mean Constant score was 67 for 2-part fracture group and 64.9 for 3-part fracture group. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). The overall complication rate was 14.5 %. Six patients underwent additional surgery (10.9%). The most frequent major complication was secondary loss of reduction following varus collapse of the fracture (2 cases). In these patients, there was loss of medial hinge integrity due to impaction and osteoporosis. The placement of the main locking screw in the calcar area to provide inferomedial support is the rational of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate. Osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate is a safe system for treating displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus, with good functional results and complication rates comparable to those reported in the literature.

  3. Proximal tibial fractures: early experience using polyaxial locking-plate technology.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Tan, Hiang Boon; Haidukewych, George; Kanakaris, Nikolaos; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2011-08-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, 60 patients with proximal tibial fractures were included in this prospective study. All fractures were treated with the polyaxial locked-plate fixation system (DePuy, Warsaw, IN, USA). Clinical and radiographic data, including fracture pattern, changes in alignment, local and systemic complications, hardware failure and fracture union were analysed. The mean follow-up was 14 (12-36) months. According to the Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) classification, there were five 41-A, 28 41-B and 27 41-C fractures. Fractures were treated percutaneously in 30% of cases. Double-plating was used in 11 cases. All but three fractures progressed to union at a mean of 3.2 (2.5-5) months. There was no evidence of varus collapse as a result of polyaxial screw failure. No plate fractured, and no screw cut out was noted. There was one case of lateral joint collapse (>10°) in a patient with open bicondylar plateau fracture. The mean Knee Society Score at the time of final follow-up was 91 points, and the mean functional score was 89 points. The polyaxial locking-plate system provided stable fixation of extra-articular and intra-articular proximal tibial fractures and good functional outcomes with a low complication rate.

  4. Elevated ventricular wall stress disrupts cardiomyocyte t-tubule structure and calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Michael; Ruud, Marianne; Espe, Emil K S; Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Røe, Åsmund T; Zhang, Lili; Norseng, Per Andreas; Sejersted, Ole M; Christensen, Geir A; Sjaastad, Ivar; Louch, William E

    2016-10-01

    Invaginations of the cellular membrane called t-tubules are essential for maintaining efficient excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Disruption of t-tubule structure during heart failure has been linked to dyssynchronous, slowed Ca(2+) release and reduced power of the heartbeat. The underlying mechanism is, however, unknown. We presently investigated whether elevated ventricular wall stress triggers remodelling of t-tubule structure and function. MRI and blood pressure measurements were employed to examine regional wall stress across the left ventricle of sham-operated and failing, post-infarction rat hearts. In failing hearts, elevated left ventricular diastolic pressure and ventricular dilation resulted in markedly increased wall stress, particularly in the thin-walled region proximal to the infarct. High wall stress in this proximal zone was associated with reduced expression of the dyadic anchor junctophilin-2 and disrupted cardiomyocyte t-tubular structure. Indeed, local wall stress measurements predicted t-tubule density across sham and failing hearts. Elevated wall stress and disrupted cardiomyocyte structure in the proximal zone were also associated with desynchronized Ca(2+) release in cardiomyocytes and markedly reduced local contractility in vivo. A causative role of wall stress in promoting t-tubule remodelling was established by applying stretch to papillary muscles ex vivo under culture conditions. Loads comparable to wall stress levels observed in vivo in the proximal zone reduced expression of junctophilin-2 and promoted t-tubule loss. Elevated wall stress reduces junctophilin-2 expression and disrupts t-tubule integrity, Ca(2+) release, and contractile function. These findings provide new insight into the role of wall stress in promoting heart failure progression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  5. Incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis with magnetic expansion control rods in early onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Inaparthy, P; Queruz, J C; Bhagawati, D; Thakar, C; Subramanian, T; Nnadi, C

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of magnetic expansion control growth rods for the surgical management of EOS has gained popularity. However, there are no published studies on the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) using this technique. The aim of this study is to report the incidence of PJK following treatment with magnetic growth rods in EOS. Retrospective review of data from 21 cases (12 males, 9 females) over 3 years. PJK was obtained from whole spine X-rays pre-op, immediate post-op and last follow-up. Cobb angle was measured between the superior end plate of vertebra two levels above the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and the inferior end plate of the UIV. A difference of >10° between the pre-operative x-rays and the last follow-up X-rays was recorded as PJK. 6/21 (28.6 %) had proximal junctional kyphosis of more than 10° at last follow-up. Average age was 5.3. Average follow-up was 32.5 months. All the patients with PJK were syndromic. Four out of these six patients were males (66 %). Average PJK angle was 25.55°. Average pre-operative kyphosis was 52.5°. Average number of distractions was 7.4. All six patients had syndromic association. 3/6 patients (50 %) were conversion cases treated with traditional growth rods previously (TGR). None of the patients required unplanned surgery for PJK. The incidence of PJK in EOS patients treated with magnetic rods is favourably comparable to that reported with traditional growth rods. Also, children who are male, syndromic, hyperkyphotic, and younger must be monitored closely.

  6. [Early results of proximal femoral fractures treated with FENIX modular hemiarthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Görski, Radosław; Górecki, Andrzej; Olszewski, Paweł; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Skowronek, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses preliminary clinical results in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty using a FENIX implant. The study group comprised 41 subjects aged 69 to 97 (median age 82.3 year). The follow-up study provided data on 26 subjects (63.4%), among which 15 attended the check-up, 5 subjects refused to visit at the Department and 6 subjects were reported as deceased. Median follow-up period amounted to 6.8 month (1 to 22 months). General hospitalization-related complications occurred in 8 patients (19.5%). During hospitalization no deaths occurred, in the deceased group 3 patients died within 12 months after surgery, while another 3 died after the twelve-month postoperative period (median of 13.3%). According to Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score favorable long-term results were observed in 9 patients (59.9%), 13 patients regained the level of motor function similar to the functional ability prior to fracture. The need to postpone the surgery due to general health status and impaired pre-operative motor function are significant negative prognostic factors. The results obtained were compared with previous efficacy studies on femoral fracture treatment using an Austin-Moore implant. Functional ability and self-reliance was higher in the FENIX group. FENIX arthroplasty effectively helps patients regain self-reliance and motor function thanks to its modular characteristics and anatmoical construction.

  7. Substance use changes and social role transitions: proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2010-11-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. This time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time-invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use, and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood.

  8. Substance Use Changes and Social Role Transitions: Proximal Developmental Effects on Ongoing Trajectories from Late Adolescence through Early Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. Not coincidentally, this time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time- invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use; and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. PMID:20883590

  9. Caudal migration and proliferation of renal progenitors regulates early nephron segment size in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Dodd, Rachel C; Davidson, Alan J

    2016-10-19

    The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney and is divided into distinct proximal and distal segments. The factors determining nephron segment size are not fully understood. In zebrafish, the embryonic kidney has long been thought to differentiate in situ into two proximal tubule segments and two distal tubule segments (distal early; DE, and distal late; DL) with little involvement of cell movement. Here, we overturn this notion by performing lineage-labelling experiments that reveal extensive caudal movement of the proximal and DE segments and a concomitant compaction of the DL segment as it fuses with the cloaca. Laser-mediated severing of the tubule, such that the DE and DL are disconnected or that the DL and cloaca do not fuse, results in a reduction in tubule cell proliferation and significantly shortens the DE segment while the caudal movement of the DL is unaffected. These results suggest that the DL mechanically pulls the more proximal segments, thereby driving both their caudal extension and their proliferation. Together, these data provide new insights into early nephron morphogenesis and demonstrate the importance of cell movement and proliferation in determining initial nephron segment size.

  10. Proximal Tubular Cannabinoid-1 Receptor Regulates Obesity-Induced CKD.

    PubMed

    Udi, Shiran; Hinden, Liad; Earley, Brian; Drori, Adi; Reuveni, Noa; Hadar, Rivka; Cinar, Resat; Nemirovski, Alina; Tam, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    Obesity-related structural and functional changes in the kidney develop early in the course of obesity and occur independently of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Activating the renal cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB 1 R) induces nephropathy, whereas CB 1 R blockade improves kidney function. Whether these effects are mediated via a specific cell type within the kidney remains unknown. Here, we show that specific deletion of CB 1 R in the renal proximal tubule cells did not protect the mice from obesity, but markedly attenuated the obesity-induced lipid accumulation in the kidney and renal dysfunction, injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These effects associated with increased activation of liver kinase B1 and the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase, as well as enhanced fatty acid β -oxidation. Collectively, these findings indicate that renal proximal tubule cell CB 1 R contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced renal lipotoxicity and nephropathy by regulating the liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Early proximal tibial valgus osteotomy as a very important prognostic factor in Thai children with infantile tibia vara.

    PubMed

    Kaewpornsawan, Kamolporn; Tangsataporn, Suksan; Jatunarapit, Ratiporn

    2005-10-01

    To find the effectiveness of the early surgery (2-3 years of age)as a very important prognostic factor affecting the outcomes in Thai children with infantile tibia vara and all the prognostic factors including the usefulness of arthrographic study in correcting the deformity. From 1994 to 2004, sixteen children aged average 3.61 years old (2.08-7.0) were treated in Siriraj Hospital and diagnosed as infantile tibia vara by Langenskiold radiographic staging were included in the present study and retrospectively reviewed with an average of 6.4 years follow up (range 6 month - 11.1 years). All cases were initially treated by surgery because of low compliance for brace or brace failure. They consisted of 3 boys and 13 girls. There were 24 legs including the bilateral involvement in 8 cases (2 boy and 6 girls). After arihrography, the midshaft fibular osteotomy was performed then the proximal tibial dome-shaped valgus osteotomy was done and fixed with 2 pins. The desired position was 12 degree knee valgus . The patients were divided in two groups, 1)group A,the successful group with the knee becoming normal without any deformity after single osteotomy, 2)group B,the recurrent group with recurrence of the varus deformity required further corrective osteotomies to make normal axis of the knee. All variables were analyzed and compared between group A and group B. The general characteristics and radiographic findings were recorded in 1)age, 2)sex, 3)side, 4)weight in kilogram and in percentage of normal or overweight(obesity) compared with the standard Thai weight chart, 5)tibiofemoral angle (TFA) pre and postoperative treatment, 6) metaphyseal diaphyseal angle (MDA), 7)the medial physeal slope angle (MPS, 8)The preoperative arthrographic articulo-diaphyseal angle (ADA), 9.arthrographic articulo-medial physeal angle (AMPA). There were 14 legs in group A and the remaining 10 legs were in group B (average 2.4 operations). All cases healed in good alignment of the legs without

  12. Geographic proximity to treatment for early stage breast cancer and likelihood of mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Henry, Kevin A; Goldberg, Daniel W; Shahabi, Kaveh; Elkin, Elena B; Ballas, Leslie K; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-08-01

    Women with early stage breast cancer who live far from a radiation therapy facility may be more likely to opt for mastectomy over breast conserving surgery (BCS). The geographic dimensions of this relationship deserve further scrutiny. For over 100,000 breast cancer patients in 10 states who received either mastectomy or BCS, a newly-developed software tool was used to calculate the shortest travel distance to the location of surgery and to the nearest radiation treatment center. The likelihood of receipt of mastectomy was modeled as a function of these distance measures and other demographic variables using multilevel logistic regression. Women traveling over 75 km for treatment are about 1.4 times more likely to receive a mastectomy than those traveling under 15 km. Geographic barriers to optimal breast cancer treatment remain a valid concern, though most women traveling long distances to receive mastectomies are doing so after bypassing local options. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of dietary fat with risk of early neoplasia in the proximal colon in a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Mo, Allen; Wu, Rong; Grady, James P; Hanley, Matthew P; Toro, Margaret; Swede, Helen; Devers, Thomas J; Hartman, Terryl J; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2018-07-01

    Excess dietary fat consumption is strongly associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, but less is known about its role in the earliest stages of carcinogenesis, particularly within the proximal colon. In the following case-control study, we evaluated the relationship between the intake of dietary fats and the frequency of early proximal neoplasia [aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or polyps], detectable by high-definition colonoscopy with contrast dye-spray. Average-risk screening individuals underwent a high-definition colonoscopy procedure as part of larger ongoing clinical study of precancerous lesions in the proximal colon. Dietary fat intake was assessed using the Block Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire, which estimates average dietary intake based on 70 food items. The diets of individuals with no endoscopically identifiable lesions (n = 36) were compared to those with either ACF or polyps detected in the proximal colon. In multivariate analysis, high dietary intake of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and intake of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids were positively associated with neoplastic lesions in the proximal colon. When comparing ACF and polyp groups separately, a positive association was observed for both proximal polyps (OR 2.28; CI 1.16-7.09) and ACF (OR 2.86; CI 1.16-7.09) for total PUFA intake. Furthermore, the prevalence of proximal ACF was increased with higher intake of omega-6 (OR 3.54; CI 1.32-9.47) and omega-3 fatty acids (OR 2.29; CI 1.02-5.13), although there was no discernible difference in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. These results suggest that dietary PUFAs may be positively associated with risk of early neoplasia in the proximal colon. This study provides further evidence that dietary PUFA composition may play an important role in altering the microenvironment within the human colon.

  14. Dysferlin mediates membrane tubulation and links T-tubule biogenesis to muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hofhuis, Julia; Bersch, Kristina; Büssenschütt, Ronja; Drzymalski, Marzena; Liebetanz, David; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O; Wagner, Stefan; Maier, Lars S; Gärtner, Jutta; Klinge, Lars; Thoms, Sven

    2017-03-01

    The multi-C2 domain protein dysferlin localizes to the plasma membrane and the T-tubule system in skeletal muscle; however, its physiological mode of action is unknown. Mutations in the DYSF gene lead to autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi myopathy. Here, we show that dysferlin has membrane tubulating capacity and that it shapes the T-tubule system. Dysferlin tubulates liposomes, generates a T-tubule-like membrane system in non-muscle cells, and links the recruitment of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to the biogenesis of the T-tubule system. Pathogenic mutant forms interfere with all of these functions, indicating that muscular wasting and dystrophy are caused by the dysferlin mutants' inability to form a functional T-tubule membrane system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Prospective assessment of the safety and early outcomes of sublaminar band placement for the prevention of proximal junctional kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Vibhu K; Kukreja, Sunil; Minnema, Amy J; Farhadi, H Francis

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) can progress to proximal junctional failure (PJF), a widely recognized early and serious complication of multisegment spinal instrumentation for the treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD). Sublaminar band placement has been suggested as a possible technique to prevent PJK and PJF but carries the theoretical possibility of a paradoxical increase in these complications as a result of the required muscle dissection and posterior ligamentous disruption. In this study, the authors prospectively assess the safety as well as the early clinical and radiological outcomes of sublaminar band insertion at the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) plus 1 level (UIV+1). METHODS Between August 2015 and February 2017, 40 consecutive patients underwent either upper (T2-4) or lower (T8-10) thoracic sublaminar band placement at the UIV+1 during long-segment thoracolumbar arthrodesis surgery. Outcome measures were prospectively collected and uploaded to a web-based REDCap database specifically designed to include demographic, clinical, and radiological data. All patients underwent clinical assessment, as well as radiological assessment with anteroposterior and lateral 36-inch whole-spine standing radiographs both pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS Forty patients (24 women and 16 men) were included in this study. Median age at surgery was 64.0 years with an IQR of 57.7-70.0 years. Median follow-up was 12 months (IQR 6-15 months). Three procedure-related complications were noted, including 2 intraoperative cerebrospinal spinal fluid leaks and 1 transient neurological deficit. Median visual analog scale (VAS) scores for back pain significantly improved after surgery (preoperatively: 8.0, IQR 6.0-10.0; 1-year follow-up: 2.0, IQR 0.0-6.0; p = 0.001). Median Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a) scores also significantly improved after surgery (preoperatively: 56.0, IQR 45.0-64.0; 1-year follow-up: 46.0, IQR 22.2-54.0; p < 0.001). Sagittal

  16. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device is safe and results in proximal arteriovenous fistula enlargement.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sanjay; Mitra, Amit; Arkans, Ed; Singh, Tej M

    2018-05-01

    Delays in arteriovenous fistula maturation can cause care delays and increased costs. Increased distention pressure and intermittent wall shear stress may dilate veins based on prior research. Early use of non-invasive devices may help assist clinical arteriovenous fistula dilation. This was an Institutional Review Board approved study. After arteriovenous fistula creation, a novel, intermittent pneumatic compression device (Fist Assist ® ) was applied 15 cm proximal to arteriovenous fistula enabling 60 mmHg of cyclic compression for 6 h daily for 30 days. Among the patients who completed 1 month follow-up, 30 (n = 30) arteriovenous fistula patients were in the study arm to test vein dilation with Fist Assist. Controls (n = 16) used a sham device. Vein size was measured and recorded at baseline and after 30 days by duplex measurement. Clinical results (percentage increase) were recorded and tested for significance. No patients experienced thrombosis or adverse effects. Patient compliance and satisfaction was high. After 1 month, the mean percentage increase in vein diameter in the Fist Assist treatment group was significantly larger (p = 0.026) than controls in the first 5 mm segment of the fistula after the anastomosis. All fistulas treated with Fist Assist are still functional with no reported thrombosis or extravasations. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device may assist in arteriovenous fistula dilation and are safe. Non-invasive devices like Fist Assist may have clinical utility to help fistulae development and decrease costs as they may eventually assist maturation.

  17. What is the Risk of Developing Proximal Junctional Kyphosis During Growth Friendly Treatments for Early-onset Scoliosis?

    PubMed

    El-Hawary, Ron; Sturm, Peter; Cahill, Patrick; Samdani, Amer; Vitale, Michael; Gabos, Peter; Bodin, Nathan; d'Amato, Charles; Harris, Colin; Al Khudairy, Ammar; Smith, John T

    2017-03-01

    Rib-based and spine-based systems are commonly used distraction-based growth friendly treatments for early-onset scoliosis (EOS). Our primary purpose was to determine the risk of developing postoperative proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) during distraction-based growth friendly surgery. A multicenter, retrospective, radiographic comparison was performed for a group of 40 children with EOS who were treated with posterior distraction-based implants. PJK was defined as proximal junction sagittal angle (PJA)≥10 degrees and PJA at least 10 degrees greater than preoperative. Eight subjects (20%) at immediate postoperative follow-up and 11 subjects (27.5%) at minimum 2-year follow-up had developed PJK. The risk of developing PJK between rib-based and spine-based growing systems was not significantly different at immediate postoperative (17% vs. 25%) or at final (25% vs. 31%) follow-ups.Further analysis combining both treatment groups demonstrated that PJK subjects were significantly older at time of initial surgery (7.1 y PJK vs. 5.0 y no PJK). Radiographic comparisons between PJK versus no PJK: Preoperative scoliosis (69.9 vs. 76.0 degrees), thoracic kyphosis (45.1 vs. 28.7 degrees), lumbar lordosis (53.1 vs. 44.0 degrees), PJA (2.2 vs. 2.8 degrees), sagittal vertical axis (1.5 vs. 2.6 cm), pelvic incidence (52.8 vs. 47.4 degrees), pelvic tilt (14.3 vs. 8.7 degrees), and sacral slope (37.7 vs. 35.9 degrees). At both initial postoperative and at final follow-up visits, a significant difference was found for cervical lordosis 32.2 versus 14.0 degrees and 42.0 versus 16.6 degrees, respectively. Risk ratio for developing PJK at final follow-up was 2.8 for subjects with preoperative thoracic hyperkyphosis and was 3.1 for subjects with high pelvic incidence (P<0.05). The risk of developing PJK during distraction-based growth friendly treatment for EOS was 20% immediately after implantation and 28% at minimum 2-year follow-up, with no difference observed between rib

  18. Osmosis in Cortical Collecting Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, James A.; Patlak, Clifford S.; Andreoli, Thomas E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports a theoretical analysis of osmotic transients and an experimental evaluation both of rapid time resolution of lumen to bath osmosis and of bidirectional steady-state osmosis in isolated rabbit cortical collecting tubules exposed to antidiuretic hormone (ADH). For the case of a membrane in series with unstirred layers, there may be considerable differences between initial and steady-state osmotic flows (i.e., the osmotic transient phenomenon), because the solute concentrations at the interfaces between membrane and unstirred layers may vary with time. A numerical solution of the equation of continuity provided a means for computing these time-dependent values, and, accordingly, the variation of osmotic flow with time for a given set of parameters including: Pf (cm s–1), the osmotic water permeability coefficient, the bulk phase solute concentrations, the unstirred layer thickness on either side of the membrane, and the fractional areas available for volume flow in the unstirred layers. The analyses provide a quantitative frame of reference for evaluating osmotic transients observed in epithelia in series with asymmetrical unstirred layers and indicate that, for such epithelia, Pf determinations from steady-state osmotic flows may result in gross underestimates of osmotic water permeability. In earlier studies, we suggested that the discrepancy between the ADH-dependent values of Pf and PDDw (cm s–1, diffusional water permeability coefficient) was the consequence of cellular constraints to diffusion. In the present experiments, no transients were detectable 20–30 s after initiating ADH-dependent lumen to bath osmosis; and steady-state ADH-dependent osmotic flows from bath to lumen and lumen to bath were linear and symmetrical. An evaluation of these data in terms of the analytical model indicates: First, cellular constraints to diffusion in cortical collecting tubules could be rationalized in terms of a 25-fold reduction in the area of the

  19. The early effect of dextran sodium sulfate administration on carbachol-induced short-circuit current in distal and proximal colon during colitis development.

    PubMed

    Hock, M; Soták, M; Kment, M; Pácha, J

    2011-01-01

    Increased colonic Cl(-) secretion was supposed to be a causative factor of diarrhea in inflammatory bowel diseases. Surprisingly, hyporesponsiveness to Cl(-) secretagogues was later described in inflamed colon. Our aim was to evaluate changes in secretory responses to cholinergic agonist carbachol in distal and proximal colon during colitis development, regarding secretory activity of enteric nervous system (ENS) and prostaglandins. Increased responsiveness to carbachol was observed in both distal and proximal colon after 3 days of 2 % dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) administration. It was measured in the presence of mucosal Ba(2+) to emphasize Cl(-) secretion. The described increase was abolished by combined inhibitory effect of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and indomethacin. Indomethacin also significantly reduced TTX-sensitive current. On the 7th day of colitis development responsiveness to carbachol decreased in distal colon (compared to untreated mice), but did not change in proximal colon. TTX-sensitive current did not change during colitis development, but indomethacin-sensitive current was significantly increased the 7th day. Decreased and deformed current responses to serosal Ba(2+) were observed during colitis induction, but only in proximal colon. We conclude that besides inhibitory effect of DSS on distal colon responsiveness, there is an early stimulatory effect that manifests in both distal and proximal colon.

  20. Intravascular ultrasound of the proximal left anterior descending artery is sufficient to detect early cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Floré, Vincent; Brown, Adam J; Pettit, Stephen J; West, Nick E J; Lewis, Clive; Parameshwar, Jayan; Hoole, Stephen P

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) can be detected early with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), but there is limited information on the most efficient imaging protocol. Coronary angiography and IVUS of the three coronary arteries were performed. Volumetric IVUS analysis was performed, and a Stanford grade determined for each vessel. Eighteen patients were included 18 (range 12-24) months after transplantation. Angiographic CAV severity ranged from none (CAV0) to mild (CAV1), whereas IVUS CAV severity ranged from none (Stanford grade I) to severe (grade IV). Maximal intimal thickness measured with IVUS was significantly greater in the LAD (0.84 ± 0.48 mm) than in the LCX (0.46 ± 0.32 mm) or the RCA (0.53 ± 0.41 mm, P = .005). Diagnostic accuracy of IVUS in the left anterior descending artery was 100% (18 of 18 Stanford grades matched the patient's highest overall Stanford grade), 66% in the right coronary artery (12 of 18), and 56% in the left circumflex artery (11 of 18). The minimal required length of left anterior descending artery pullbacks to attain 100% accuracy was 36 mm (range 3-36 mm) distal from the guide catheter ostium. These data suggest that focal IVUS imaging of the proximal LAD followed by volumetric analysis may suffice when screening for transplant vasculopathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Phosphatidic acid induces EHD3-containing membrane tubulation and is required for receptor recycling.

    PubMed

    Henmi, Yuji; Oe, Natsuko; Kono, Nozomu; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Takei, Kohji; Tanabe, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    EHD3 is localized on the tubular structures of early endosomes, and it regulates their trafficking pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism of EHD3-containing tubular structures remains poorly understood. An in vitro liposome co-sedimentation assay revealed that EHD3 interacted with phosphatidic acid through its helical domain and this interaction induced liposomal tubulations. Additionally, inhibiting phosphatidic acid synthesis with diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor or lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase inhibitor significantly reduced the number of EHD3-containing tubules and impaired their trafficking from early endosomes. These results suggest that EHD3 and phosphatidic acid cooperatively regulate membrane deformation and trafficking from early endosomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium Oxalate Accumulation in Malpighian Tubules of Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Aaron J.; Webb, Mary Alice

    2007-04-01

    Silkworm provides an ideal model system for study of calcium oxalate crystallization in kidney-like organs, called Malpighian tubules. During their growth and development, silkworm larvae accumulate massive amounts of calcium oxalate crystals in their Malpighian tubules with no apparent harm to the organism. This manuscript reports studies of crystal structure in the tubules along with analyses identifying molecular constituents of tubule exudate.

  3. Sex, Temperament, and Family Context: How the Interaction of Early Factors Differentially Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Are Mediated by Proximal Adolescent Factors

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Klein, Marjorie H.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and 2-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents. PMID:21443307

  4. Sex, temperament, and family context: how the interaction of early factors differentially predict adolescent alcohol use and are mediated by proximal adolescent factors.

    PubMed

    Burk, Linnea R; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Goldsmith, H Hill; Klein, Marjorie H; Strauman, Timothy J; Costanzo, Phillip; Essex, Marilyn J

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent alcohol use is common and has serious immediate and long-term ramifications. While concurrent individual and context factors are robustly associated with adolescent alcohol use, the influence of early childhood factors, particularly in interaction with child sex, are less clear. Using a prospective community sample of 362 (190 girls), this study investigated sex differences in the joint influence of distal childhood and proximal adolescent factors on Grade 10 alcohol use. All risk factors and two-way early individual-by-context interactions, and interactions of each of these with child sex, were entered into the initial regression. Significant sex interactions prompted the use of separate models for girls and boys. In addition to the identification of early (family socioeconomic status, authoritative parenting style) and proximal adolescent (mental health symptoms, deviant friends) risk factors for both girls and boys, results highlighted important sex differences. In particular, girls with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished by the interaction of early temperamental disinhibition and exposure to parental stress; boys with higher alcohol consumption at Grade 10 were distinguished primarily by early temperamental negative affect. Results have implications for the timing and type of interventions offered to adolescents.

  5. Osmosis in Cortical Collecting Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, James A.; Troutman, Susan L.; Andreoli, Thomas E.

    1974-01-01

    The present experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of varying the osmolality of luminal solutions on the antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-independent water and solute permeability properties of isolated rabbit cortical collecting tubules. In the absence of ADH, the osmotic water permeability coefficient (cm s–1) Pfl→b, computed from volume flows from hypotonic lumen to isotonic bath, was 20 ± 4 x 10–4 (SEM); the value of Pfb→l in the absence of ADH, computed from volume flows from isotonic bath to hypertonic lumen, was 88 ± 15 x 10–4 cm s–1. We also measured apparent urea permeability coefficients (cm s–1) from 14C-urea fluxes from lumen to bath (P DDurea l→b) and from bath to lumen (P DDurea b→l). For hypotonic luminal solutions and isotonic bathing solutions, P DDurea l→b was 0.045 ± 0.004 x 10–4 and was unaffected by ADH. The ADH-independent values of P DDurea l→b and P urea b→l were, respectively, 0.216 ± 0.022 x 10–4 cm s–1 and 0.033 ± 0.002 x 10–4 cm s–1 for isotonic bathing solutions and luminal solutions made hypertonic with urea, i.e., there was an absolute increase in urea permeability and asymmetry of urea fluxes. Significantly, P DDurea l→b did not rise when luminal hypertonicity was produced by sucrose; and, bathing fluid hypertonicity did not alter tubular permeability to water or to urea. We interpret these data to indicate that luminal hypertonicity increased the leakiness of tight junctions to water and urea but not sucrose. Since the value of Pfb→l in the absence of ADH, when tight junctions were open to urea, was approximately half of the value of Pfl→b in the presence of ADH, when tight junctions were closed to urea, we conclude that tight junctions are negligible paracellular shunts for lumen to bath osmosis with ADH. These findings, together with those in the preceding paper, are discussed in terms of a solubility-diffusion model for water permeation in which ADH increases water solubility in

  6. Distal and Proximal Parenting as Alternative Parenting Strategies during Infants' Early Months of Life: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi; Borke, Joern; Staufenbiel, Thomas; Yovsi, Relindis D.; Abels, Monika; Papaligoura, Zaira; Jensen, Henning; Lohaus, Arnold; Chaudhary, Nandita; Lo, Wingshan; Su, Yanjie

    2009-01-01

    Cultures differ with respect to parenting strategies already during infancy. Distal parenting, i.e., face-to-face context and object stimulation, is prevalent in urban educated middle-class families of Western cultures; proximal parenting, i.e., body contact and body stimulation, is prevalent in rural, low-educated farmer families. Parents from…

  7. "Bounce at the Bell": a novel program of short bouts of exercise improves proximal femur bone mass in early pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    McKay, H; MacLean, L; Petit, M; MacKelvie-O'Brien, K; Janssen, P; Beck, T; Khan, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of a simple and inexpensive physical activity intervention on change in bone mass and structure in school aged children. Methods: Fifty one children (n = 23 boys and 28 girls; mean age 10.1 years) participated in "Bounce at the Bell" which consisted of 10 counter-movement jumps 3x per day (total ∼3 min/day). Controls were 71 matched children who followed usual school practice. We assessed dietary calcium, physical activity, physical performance, and anthropometry in September and after 8 months of intervention (June). We measured bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area at the lumbar spine, total body, and proximal femur. Proximal femur scans were also analysed for bone geometry and structural strength using the hip structural analysis program. Lean and fat mass (g) were also calculated. Results: Groups were similar at baseline and did not differ in weight, height, total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, or femoral neck BMC. Control children had a greater increase in adjusted total body BMC (1.4%). Intervention children gained significantly more BMC at the total proximal femur (2%) and the intertrochanteric region (27%). Change in bone structural parameters did not differ between groups. Conclusions: This novel, easily implemented exercise program, took only a few minutes each day and enhanced bone mass at the weight bearing proximal femur in early pubertal children. A large, randomised study of boys and girls should be undertaken powered to test the effectiveness of Bounce at the Bell in children at different stages of maturity, and in boys and girls independently. PMID:16046335

  8. Proximal Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Kate H.; Shukla, Aseem R.; Canning, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Hypospadias results from abnormal development of the penis that leaves the urethral meatus proximal to its normal glanular position. Meatal position may be located anywhere along the penile shaft, but more severe forms of hypospadias may have a urethral meatus located at the scrotum or perineum. The spectrum of abnormalities may also include ventral curvature of the penis, a dorsally redundant prepuce, and atrophic corpus spongiosum. Due to the severity of these abnormalities, proximal hypospadias often requires more extensive reconstruction in order to achieve an anatomically and functionally successful result. We review the spectrum of proximal hypospadias etiology, presentation, correction, and possible associated complications. PMID:21516286

  9. Polar orientation of renal grafts within the proximal seal zone affects risk of early type IA endoleaks after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kenneth; Ullery, Brant W; Itoga, Nathan; Lee, Jason T

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the polar orientation of renal chimney grafts within the proximal seal zone and to determine whether graft orientation is associated with early type IA endoleak or renal graft compression after chimney endovascular aneurysm repair (ch-EVAR). Patients who underwent ch-EVAR with at least one renal chimney graft from 2009 to 2015 were included in this analysis. Centerline three-dimensional reconstructions were used to analyze postoperative computed tomography scans. The 12-o'clock polar position was set at the takeoff of the superior mesenteric artery. Relative polar positions of chimney grafts were recorded at the level of the renal artery ostium, at the mid-seal zone, and at the proximal edge of the graft fabric. Early type IA endoleaks were defined as evidence of a perigraft flow channel within the proximal seal zone. There were 62 consecutive patients who underwent ch-EVAR (35 double renal, 27 single renal) for juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with a mean follow-up of 31.2 months; 18 (29%) early type IA "gutter" endoleaks were identified. During follow-up, the majority of these (n = 13; 72%) resolved without intervention, whereas two patients required reintervention (3.3%). Estimated renal graft patency was 88.9% at 60 months. Left renal chimney grafts were most commonly at the 3-o'clock position (51.1%) at the ostium, traversing posteriorly to the 5- to 7-o'clock positions (55.5%) at the fabric edge. Right renal chimney grafts started most commonly at the 9-o'clock position (n = 17; 33.3%) and tended to traverse both anteriorly (11 to 1 o'clock; 39.2%) and posteriorly (5 to 7 o'clock; 29.4%) at the fabric edge. In the polar plane, the majority of renal chimney grafts (n = 83; 85.6%) traversed <90 degrees before reaching the proximal fabric edge. Grafts that traversed >90 degrees were independently associated with early type IA endoleaks (odds ratio, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-64.8) even after

  10. Dentine tubule infection and endodontic therapy implications.

    PubMed

    Oguntebi, B R

    1994-07-01

    A critical review of the literature suggests that the microenvironment of dentinal tubules appears to favour the selection of relatively few bacterial types irrespective of the aetiology of the infection process; coronal dental caries or pulpar necrosis. These bacteria may constitute an important reservoir from which root canal infection and reinfection may occur following pulp necrosis or during and after endodontic treatment. Previous studies of this microflora have utilized microbiological culture techniques which need to be supplemented by those that allow in situ demonstration as well as identification of the bacteria. Newer treatment strategies that are designed to eliminate this microflora must include agents that can penetrate the dentinal tubules and destroy these microorganisms, since they are located in an area beyond the host defence mechanisms where they cannot be reached by systemically administered antimicrobial agents.

  11. Outer Retinal Tubulation in Degenerative Retinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Naomi R.; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Laud, Ketan; Tsang, Stephen; Freund, K. Bailey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate outer retinal tubulation (ORT) in various degenerative retinal disorders. Methods This was a retrospective review of the multimodal imaging of 29 eyes of 15 patients with various retinal dystrophies and inflammatory maculopathies manifesting ORT. The morphologic features of ORT and its evolution over time were analyzed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) data. Results Outer retinal tubulation was identified as round or ovoid structures with hyper-reflective borders in pattern dystrophy (6 eyes), acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (5 eyes), retinitis pigmentosa (4 eyes), Stargardt disease (4 eyes), gyrate atrophy (2 eyes), choroideremia (2 eyes), and various other degenerative conditions. These structures appeared to develop from the invagination of photoreceptors at the junction of intact and atrophic outer retina. During follow-up, the number and distribution of ORT largely remained stable. As zones of atrophy enlarged, the frequency of ORT appeared to increase. The ORT structures were found in fewer than 10% of patients with retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt, or pattern dystrophy. Conclusion Outer retinal tubulation is found in various degenerative retinal disorders that share in common damage to the outer retina and/or retinal pigment epithelium. The presence of ORT may be in an indicator of underlying disease stage and severity. PMID:23676993

  12. Small Renal Masses in Close Proximity to the Collecting System and Renal Sinus Are Enriched for Malignancy and High Fuhrman Grade and Should Be Considered for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Correa, Andres F; Toussi, Amir; Amin, Milon; Hrebinko, Ronald L; Gayed, Bishoy A; Parwani, Anil V; Maranchie, Jodi K

    2018-02-05

    Recent reports show a correlation between renal tumor radiographic characteristics and pathologic features. We hypothesize that a more central location within the relatively hypoxic renal medulla might confer a more aggressive tumor phenotype. To test this, radiographic tumor characteristics were compared with tumor grade and histology. We retrospectively reviewed renal masses <4 cm in diameter that underwent resection between 2008 and 2013. Tumor location was recorded using standard R.E.N.A.L. Nephrometry Score. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to compare independent anatomic features with incidence of malignancy and high nuclear grade. A total of 334 renal tumors had information available for analysis. Univariate analysis showed that increasing endophycity and proximity to the collecting system (<4 mm) were predictors of malignancy and high-grade features. In multivariate analysis, proximity to the collecting system <4 mm remained the as the only anatomical variable predictive of malignancy (odds ratio [OR], 3.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-12.05; P = .04) and high nuclear grade (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.44-5.51; P = .003). Malignancy and high tumor grade occur with much greater frequency when tumors are located deep in the kidney, in close proximity to the collecting system and renal sinus. Ninety-six percent of small renal masses in this region were cancers and nearly half were Fuhrman Grade 3 or 4, suggesting that these small centrally located tumors should be targeted for early intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lengths of nephron tubule segments and collecting ducts in the CD-1 mouse kidney: an ontogeny study.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sarah L; Moritz, Karen M; Bertram, John F; Singh, Reetu R

    2016-11-01

    The kidney continues to mature postnatally, with significant elongation of nephron tubules and collecting ducts to maintain fluid/electrolyte homeostasis. The aim of this project was to develop methodology to estimate lengths of specific segments of nephron tubules and collecting ducts in the CD-1 mouse kidney using a combination of immunohistochemistry and design-based stereology (vertical uniform random sections with cycloid arc test system). Lengths of tubules were determined at postnatal day 21 (P21) and 2 and 12 mo of age and also in mice fed a high-salt diet throughout adulthood. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify individual tubule segments [aquaporin-1, proximal tubules (PT) and thin descending limbs of Henle (TDLH); uromodulin, distal tubules (DT); aquaporin-2, collecting ducts (CD)]. All tubular segments increased significantly in length between P21 and 2 mo of age (PT, 602% increase; DT, 200% increase; TDLH, 35% increase; CD, 53% increase). However, between 2 and 12 mo, a significant increase in length was only observed for PT (76% increase in length). At 12 mo of age, kidneys of mice on a high-salt diet demonstrated a 27% greater length of the TDLH, but no significant change in length was detected for PT, DT, and CD compared with the normal-salt group. Our study demonstrates an efficient method of estimating lengths of specific segments of the renal tubular system. This technique can be applied to examine structure of the renal tubules in combination with the number of glomeruli in the kidney in models of altered renal phenotype. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Proximal interphalangeal joint ankylosis in an early medieval horse from Wrocław Cathedral Island, Poland.

    PubMed

    Janeczek, Maciej; Chrószcz, Aleksander; Onar, Vedat; Henklewski, Radomir; Skalec, Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Animal remains that are unearthed during archaeological excavations often provide useful information about socio-cultural context, including human habits, beliefs, and ancestral relationships. In this report, we present pathologically altered equine first and second phalanges from an 11th century specimen that was excavated at Wrocław Cathedral Island, Poland. The results of gross examination, radiography, and computed tomography, indicate osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint, with partial ankylosis. Based on comparison with living modern horses undergoing lameness examination, as well as with recent literature, we conclude that the horse likely was lame for at least several months prior to death. The ability of this horse to work probably was reduced, but the degree of compromise during life cannot be stated precisely. Present day medical knowledge indicates that there was little likelihood of successful treatment for this condition during the middle ages. However, modern horses with similar pathology can function reasonably well with appropriate treatment and management, particularly following joint ankylosis. Thus, we approach the cultural question of why such an individual would have been maintained with limitations, for a probably-significant period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Social Relations of Rural African American Early Adolescents and Proximal Impact of the School Engagement Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwallader, Tom W.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Leung, Man-Chi; Clemmer, Jason T.; Gut, Dianne M.; Reese, Le'Roy E.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the social relations of rural African American early adolescents and the initial impact of a multilevel intervention program aimed at enhancing the productive school engagement of at-risk youth. Students' school social relations and risk status were used in assessment. Four subgroups were identified: Model, Aggressive, Troubled, and…

  16. Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R

    1993-01-01

    This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485

  17. Robot-Assisted Versus Laparoscopy-Assisted Proximal Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer in the Upper Location: Comparison of Oncological Outcomes, Surgical Stress, and Nutritional Status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kecheng; Huang, Xiaohui; Gao, Yunhe; Liang, Wenquan; Xi, Hongqing; Cui, Jianxin; Li, Jiyang; Zhu, Minghua; Liu, Guoxiao; Zhao, Huazhou; Hu, Chong; Liu, Yi; Qiao, Zhi; Wei, Bo; Chen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing amount of attention has been paid to minimally invasive function-preserving gastrectomy, with an increase in incidence of early gastric cancer in the upper stomach. This study aimed to compare oncological outcomes, surgical stress, and nutritional status between robot-assisted proximal gastrectomy (RAPG) and laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy (LAPG). Eighty-nine patients were enrolled in this retrospective study between November 2011 and December 2013. Among them, 27 patients underwent RAPG and 62 underwent LAPG. Perioperative parameters, surgical stress, nutritional status, disease-free survival, and overall survival were compared between the 2 groups. Sex, age, and comorbidity were similar in the RAPG and LAPG groups. There were also similar perioperative outcomes regarding operation time, complications, and length of hospital stay between the groups. The reflux esophagitis rates following RAPG and LAPG were 18.5% and 14.5%, respectively ( P = .842). However, patients in the RAPG group had less blood loss ( P = .024), more harvested lymph nodes ( P = .021), and higher costs than those in the LAPG group ( P < .001). With regard to surgical stress, no significant differences were observed in C-reactive protein concentrations and white blood cell count on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7 between the groups ( Ps > .05). There appeared to be higher hemoglobin levels at 6 months ( P = .053) and a higher body mass index at 12 months ( P = .056) postoperatively in patients in the RAPG group compared with those in the LAPG group, but this difference was not significant. Similar disease-free survival and overall survival rates were observed between the groups. RAPG could be an alternative to LAPG for patients with early gastric cancer in the upper stomach with comparable oncological safety and nutritional status. Further well-designed, prospective, large-scale studies are needed to validate these results.

  18. An alternative treatment option for scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and radioscaphoid osteoarthritis: early results of a prospective study on the pyrocarbon adaptive proximal scaphoid implant (APSI).

    PubMed

    Daruwalla, Zubin J; Davies, Kirstenlee; Shafighian, Ali; Gillham, Nicholas R

    2013-06-01

    Scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) and radioscaphoid osteoarthritis are difficult to treat. Options include proximal row carpectomy (PRC), four corner fusion (4CF) and wrist arthroplasty or arthrodesis. However, with inevitable disease progression, a significant proportion of patients undergo total wrist fusion. This reduces function by abolishing wrist movement. We review the preliminary results of a pyrocarbon interpositional radiocarpal implant in a small cohort of patients from our prospective study and challenge the assumption that there are no surgical alternatives. This study prospectively studied 12 consecutive pyrocarbon Interpositional arthroplasty day cases over 3 years. Patients were assessed using level of pain, ranges of motion, grip strength, key pinch, type of and time to return to work and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Radiographs were also taken and patient satisfaction recorded. All 12 patients could be contacted and were satisfied with their surgery. There were no immediate, early or late postoperative complications associated with the procedure. Promising results were noted in terms of pain, ranges of motion, grip strength, key pinch, type of and time to return to work, DASH scores, photographs and radiographs. The mean follow-up was 18 months, range between 11 months and 3 years. Our early results are encouraging, warrant further and longer studies and support the use of pyrocarbon implants as a primary procedure in what is a generally young and active subgroup of patients.

  19. Polymorphic organization of the endoplasmic reticulum of the Malpighian tubule. Evidence for a transcellular route.

    PubMed

    Berthelet, F; Beaudry-Lonergan, M; Linares, H; Whittembury, G; Bergeron, M

    1987-01-01

    Isosmotic fluid absorption carried out by many mammalian epithelia appears to be similar to the isosmotic secretion of insect epithelia such as the Malpighian tubules, which are responsible for urine formation and osmoregulation. We have studied by electron microscopy (80 kV) the three-dimensional characteristics of organelles in the Malpighian tubules of Rhodnius prolixus using thick sections (0.3-0.5 microns) and uranyl and lead impregnation. The ER presents a different organization in the upper (distal) and lower (proximal) segments of the Malpighian tubule. In distal secretory segment, the ER forms a network made of chains of vesicles having irregular shapes (ca. 0.06 micron in diameter) connected to each other by canaliculi while in the lower absorptive segment, the ER is made of parallel saccules arranged in stacks or whorls in the central region of the cytoplasm. In both segments, the ER network extends throughout the cytoplasm from the basolateral infoldings to the apex between the many mitochondria present in these two areas. A unique feature of these cells, revealed by thick sections, is the presence in each microvillus of either a mitochondrion or an ER canaliculus in continuity with the ER network. The ER does not seem to have any specific association with mitochondria or other organelles. As in the mammalian nephron, this ER organization is most likely related to specific segmental functions and adds support to its potential role as a transcellular epithelial route.

  20. How bone quality may influence intraoperative and early postoperative problems after angular stable open reduction-internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Spross, Christian; Zeledon, Rebeca; Zdravkovic, Vilijam; Jost, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of the deltoid tuberosity index (DTI), a simple radiographic tool has become available to measure bone mineral density of the proximal humerus. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of local bone mineral density on the early failure rate after angular stable open reduction-internal fixation of proximal humeral fractures (PHFs). We retrospectively followed up all patients treated with angular stable implants for PHFs from 2007 to 2014. The fractures were classified according to Neer, and the DTI, metaphyseal head extension (MHE), medial hinge displacement, and quality of reduction were assessed. Failures were defined as head screw cutouts. The study included 146 patients (mean age, 66 years; range, 20-94 years). The mean follow-up period was 11 months (range, 3-94 months). Of the fractures, 91% were classified as 2- or 3-part fractures and 9% as 4-part fractures. The mean DTI was 1.44 (range, 1.19-2.11), and the mean MHE was 12 mm (range, 0-48 mm). The reduction result was at least acceptable in 80% of fractures. Screw cutouts were found in 23%. The DTI and MHE were the most significant preoperative predictors for the reduction result. The DTI (P = .036) and age (P = .02) were independent preoperative factors, and a good reduction (P = .001) was the only intraoperative factor influencing cutout. This study proves that good bone quality and a long MHE are helpful for the reduction. Furthermore, good bone quality, a younger age, and a good reduction prevent later cutout. We conclude that local bone quality is a relevant factor in the treatment plan for PHFs. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Distal Renal Tubules Are Deficient in Aggresome Formation and Autophagy upon Aldosterone Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Nielsen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ebbe Toftgaard; Enghild, Jan J.; Fenton, Robert A.; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged elevations of plasma aldosterone levels are associated with renal pathogenesis. We hypothesized that renal distress could be imposed by an augmented aldosterone-induced protein turnover challenging cellular protein degradation systems of the renal tubular cells. Cellular accumulation of specific protein aggregates in rat kidneys was assessed after 7 days of aldosterone administration. Aldosterone induced intracellular accumulation of 60 s ribosomal protein L22 in protein aggregates, specifically in the distal convoluted tubules. The mineralocorticoid receptor inhibitor spironolactone abolished aldosterone-induced accumulation of these aggregates. The aldosterone-induced protein aggregates also contained proteasome 20 s subunits. The partial de-ubiquitinase ataxin-3 was not localized to the distal renal tubule protein aggregates, and the aggregates only modestly colocalized with aggresome transfer proteins dynactin p62 and histone deacetylase 6. Intracellular protein aggregation in distal renal tubules did not lead to development of classical juxta-nuclear aggresomes or to autophagosome formation. Finally, aldosterone treatment induced foci in renal cortex of epithelial vimentin expression and a loss of E-cadherin expression, as signs of cellular stress. The cellular changes occurred within high, but physiological aldosterone concentrations. We conclude that aldosterone induces protein accumulation in distal renal tubules; these aggregates are not cleared by autophagy that may lead to early renal tubular damage. PMID:25000288

  2. The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) Correlates With the Speed of Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) Proximal Anchor Failure.

    PubMed

    Park, Howard Y; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Feinberg, Nicholas; Roye, David P; Kanj, Wajdi W; Betz, Randal R; Cahill, Patrick J; Glotzbecker, Michael P; Luhmann, Scott J; Garg, Sumeet; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Smith, John T; Flynn, John M; Vitale, Michael G

    2017-09-01

    The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) was developed by a consortium of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) surgeons. This study aims to examine if the C-EOS classification correlates with the speed (failure/unit time) of proximal anchor failure in EOS surgery patients. A total of 106 EOS patients were retrospectively queried from an EOS database. All patients were treated with vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib and experienced proximal anchor failure. Patients were classified by the C-EOS, which includes a term for etiology [C: Congenital (54.2%), M: Neuromuscular (32.3%), S: Syndromic (8.3%), I: Idiopathic (5.2%)], major curve angle [1: ≤20 degrees (0%), 2: 21 to 50 degrees (15.6%), 3: 51 to 90 degrees (66.7%), 4: >90 degrees (17.7%)], and kyphosis ["-": ≤20 (13.5%), "N": 21 to 50 (42.7%), "+": >50 (43.8%)]. Outcome was measured by time and number of lengthenings to failure. Analyzing C-EOS classes with >3 subjects, survival analysis demonstrates that the C-EOS discriminates low, medium, and high speed of failure. The low speed of failure group consisted of congenital/51-90/hypokyphosis (C3-) class. The medium-speed group consisted of congenital/51-90/normal and hyperkyphosis (C3N, C3+), and neuromuscular/51-90/hyperkyphosis (M3+) classes. The high-speed group consisted of neuromuscular/51-90/normal kyphosis (M3N), and neuromuscular/>90/normal and hyperkyphosis (M4N, M4+) classes. Significant differences were found in time (P<0.05) and number of expansions (P<0.05) before failure between congenital and neuromuscular classes.As isolated variables, neuromuscular etiology experienced a significantly faster time to failure compared with patients with idiopathic (P<0.001) and congenital (P=0.026) etiology. Patients with a major curve angle >90 degrees demonstrated significantly faster speed of failure compared with patients with major curve angle 21 to 50 degrees (P=0.011). The ability of the C-EOS to discriminate the speeds of failure of the

  3. The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) Correlates With the Speed of Vertical Expandable Prosthetic Titanium Rib (VEPTR) Proximal Anchor Failure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Howard Y.; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Feinberg, Nicholas; Roye, David P.; Kanj, Wajdi W.; Betz, Randal R.; Cahill, Patrick J.; Glotzbecker, Michael P.; Luhmann, Scott J.; Garg, Sumeet; Sawyer, Jeffrey R.; Smith, John T.; Flynn, John M.; Vitale, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Classification for Early-onset Scoliosis (C-EOS) was developed by a consortium of early-onset scoliosis (EOS) surgeons. This study aims to examine if the C-EOS classification correlates with the speed (failure/unit time) of proximal anchor failure in EOS surgery patients. Methods A total of 106 EOS patients were retrospectively queried from an EOS database. All patients were treated with vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib and experienced proximal anchor failure. Patients were classified by the C-EOS, which includes a term for etiology [C: Congenital (54.2%), M: Neuromuscular (32.3%), S: Syndromic (8.3%), I: Idiopathic (5.2%)], major curve angle [1: ≤20 degrees (0%), 2: 21 to 50 degrees (15.6%), 3: 51 to 90 degrees (66.7%), 4: >90 degrees (17.7%)], and kyphosis [“−”: ≤20 (13.5%), “N”: 21 to 50 (42.7%), “+”: >50 (43.8%)]. Outcome was measured by time and number of lengthenings to failure. Results Analyzing C-EOS classes with >3 subjects, survival analysis demonstrates that the C-EOS discriminates low, medium, and high speed of failure. The low speed of failure group consisted of congenital/51-90/hypokyphosis (C3−) class. The medium-speed group consisted of congenital/51-90/normal and hyperkyphosis (C3N, C3+), and neuromuscular/51-90/hyperkyphosis (M3+) classes. The high-speed group consisted of neuromuscular/51-90/normal kyphosis (M3N), and neuromuscular/>90/normal and hyperkyphosis (M4N, M4+) classes. Significant differences were found in time (P < 0.05) and number of expansions (P < 0.05) before failure between congenital and neuromuscular classes. As isolated variables, neuromuscular etiology experienced a significantly faster time to failure compared with patients with idiopathic (P < 0.001) and congenital (P = 0.026) etiology. Patients with a major curve angle >90 degrees demonstrated significantly faster speed of failure compared with patients with major curve angle 21 to 50 degrees (P = 0.011). Conclusions The

  4. Cellular distribution of cell cycle-related molecules in the renal tubules of rats treated with renal carcinogens for 28 days: relationship between cell cycle aberration and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taniai, Eriko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Yafune, Atsunori; Watanabe, Maiko; Akane, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    Some renal carcinogens can induce karyomegaly, which reflects aberrant cell division in the renal tubules, from the early stages of exposure. To clarify the cell cycle-related changes during the early stages of renal carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of tubular cells in male F344 rats treated with carcinogenic doses of representative renal carcinogens for 28 days. For this purpose, the karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens ochratoxin A (OTA), ferric nitrilotriacetic acid, and monuron, and the non-karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and potassium bromate were examined. For comparison, a karyomegaly-inducing non-carcinogen, p-nitrobenzoic acid, and a non-carcinogenic non-karyomegaly-inducing renal toxicant, acetaminophen, were also examined. The outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) and the cortex + OSOM were subjected to morphometric analysis of immunoreactive proximal tubular cells. Renal carcinogens, irrespective of their karyomegaly-inducing potential, increased proximal tubular cell proliferation accompanied by an increase in topoisomerase IIα-immunoreactive cells, suggesting a reflection of cell proliferation. Karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens increased nuclear Cdc2-, γH2AX-, and phosphorylated Chk2-immunoreactive cells in both areas, the former two acting in response to DNA damage and the latter one suggestive of sustained G₂. OTA, an OSOM-targeting carcinogen, could easily be distinguished from untreated controls and non-carcinogens by evaluation of molecules responding to DNA damage and G₂/M transition in the OSOM. Thus, all renal carcinogens examined facilitated proximal tubular proliferation by repeated short-term treatment. Among these, karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens may cause DNA damage and G₂ arrest in the target tubular cells.

  5. Radial elasticity of self-assembled lipid tubules.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Tamhane, Karan; Zhang, Xuejun; An, Linan; Fang, Jiyu

    2008-07-01

    Self-assembled lipid tubules with crystalline bilayer walls represent useful supramolecular architectures which hold promise as vehicles for the controlled release of preloaded drugs and templates for the synthesis of one-dimensional inorganic materials. We study the local elasticity of lipid tubules of 1,2-bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine by radial atomic force microscope indentation, coupled with finite element analysis. A reduced stiffness is found to extend a distance of approximately 600 nm from the ends of lipid tubules. The middle section of lipid tubules is homogeneous in terms of their radial elasticity with a Young's modulus of approximately 703 MPa. The inhomogeneous radial elasticity likely arises from the variation of lipid packing density near the tubule ends.

  6. Magnetic properties of permalloy-coated organic tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs, J. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Lubitz, P.; Harford, M. Z.; Baral, S.; Shashidar, R.; Ho, Y. S.; Chow, G. M.; Qadri, S.

    1991-11-01

    An initial investigation is presented of the ferromagnetic properties of a novel type of magnetic composite, viz., permalloy-coated submicron diameter hollow cylinders or tubules. The tubules form spontaneously from an organic material, a diacetylenic phosopholipid, and were used as templates on which the ferromagnetic material was deposited by electroless deposition. The permalloy-coated tubules were dispersed in an epoxy matrix to measure the magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) properties of individual tubules. The nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the FMR spectra observed confirmed that the tubules are well aligned by a magnetic field during the epoxy curing. The FMR spectra are interpreted in terms of a powder pattern distribution of thin-film spectra consistent with the large diameter-to-thickness ratio.

  7. Segmental sodium reabsorption by the renal tubule in prenatally programmed hypertension in the rat.

    PubMed

    Alwasel, Saleh H; Ashton, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension and renal dysfunction can be programmed in the rat by prenatal exposure to a low-protein (LP) diet. Expression of the renal thick ascending limb (TAL) sodium transporter NKCC2 is up-regulated, which has been predicted to result in greater sodium reabsorption. However, we have shown that LP rats excrete more not less sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether the increased abundance of sodium:potassium:chloride (Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-)) co-transporter (NKCC2) leads to enhanced sodium uptake by the TAL. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (18%) or LP (9%) diet. Amiloride (AM), bendroflumethiazide (BF), and furosemide (FUR) were administered acutely to male offspring at 4 weeks of age. Fractional excretion of sodium (FE(Na)) was significantly greater in vehicle-infused LP rats (3.0 ± 0.3%) compared with controls (1.7 ± 0.5, P < 0.01). FE(Na) by the LP proximal tubule did not differ from controls, whereas FE(Na) by the distal tubule was significantly greater (P < 0.01). These differences were abolished by the administration of AM + BF (equivalent to the outflow from the TAL) and AM + BF + FUR (equivalent to the outflow from the proximal tubule), suggesting that the increase in NKCC2 expression was not functional. However, during acute salt loading, the LP rat pressure natriuresis curve was shifted rightward, implying that raised systemic blood pressure is required to match urinary sodium excretion with dietary intake. These data suggest that renal sodium handling is impaired in the LP rat but that this is not due to increased NKCC2 expression.

  8. Dentinal tubules revealed with X-ray tensor tomography.

    PubMed

    Jud, Christoph; Schaff, Florian; Zanette, Irene; Wolf, Johannes; Fehringer, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Dentin is a mineralized material making up most of the tooth bulk. A system of microtubules, so called dentinal tubules, transverses it radially from the pulp chamber to the outside. This highly oriented structure leads to anisotropic mechanical properties directly connected to the tubules orientation and density: the ultimate tensile strength as well as the fracture toughness and the shear strength are largest perpendicular to dentinal tubules. Consequently, the fatigue strength depends on the direction of dentinal tubules, too. However, none of the existing techniques used to investigate teeth provide access to orientation and density of dentinal tubules for an entire specimen in a non-destructive way. In this paper, we measure a third molar human tooth both with conventional micro-CT and X-ray tensor tomography (XTT). While the achievable resolution in micro-CT is too low to directly resolve the dentinal tubules, we provide strong evidence that the direction and density of dentinal tubules can be indirectly measured by XTT, which exploits small-angle X-ray scattering to retrieve a 3D map of scattering tensors. We show that the mean directions of scattering structures correlate to the orientation of dentinal tubules and that the mean effective scattering strength provides an estimation of the relative density of dentinal tubules. Thus, this method could be applied to investigate the connection between tubule orientation and fatigue or tensile properties of teeth for a full sample without cutting one, non-representative peace of tooth out of the full sample. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  9. Automated tubule nuclei quantification and correlation with oncotype DX risk categories in ER+ breast cancer whole slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo-Bucheli, David; Janowczyk, Andrew; Romero, Eduardo; Gilmore, Hannah; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-03-01

    Early stage estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BCa) treatment is based on the presumed aggressiveness and likelihood of cancer recurrence. The primary conundrum in treatment and management of early stage ER+ BCa is identifying which of these cancers are candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy and which patients will respond to hormonal therapy alone. This decision could spare some patients the inherent toxicity associated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncotype DX (ODX) and other gene expression tests have allowed for distinguishing the more aggressive ER+ BCa requiring adjuvant chemotherapy from the less aggressive cancers benefiting from hormonal therapy alone. However these gene expression tests tend to be expensive, tissue destructive and require physical shipping of tissue blocks for the test to be done. Interestingly breast cancer grade in these tumors has been shown to be highly correlated with the ODX risk score. Unfortunately studies have shown that Bloom-Richardson (BR) grade determined by pathologists can be highly variable. One of the constituent categories in BR grading is the quantification of tubules. The goal of this study was to develop a deep learning neural network classifier to automatically identify tubule nuclei from whole slide images (WSI) of ER+ BCa, the hypothesis being that the ratio of tubule nuclei to overall number of nuclei would correlate with the corresponding ODX risk categories. The performance of the tubule nuclei deep learning strategy was evaluated with a set of 61 high power fields. Under a 5-fold cross-validation, the average precision and recall measures were 0:72 and 0:56 respectively. In addition, the correlation with the ODX risk score was assessed in a set of 7513 high power fields extracted from 174 WSI, each from a different patient (At most 50 high power fields per patient study were used). The ratio between the number of tubule and non-tubule nuclei was computed for each WSI. The results suggests that for BCa

  10. Proximity fuze

    SciT

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the lightmore » pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.« less

  11. Proximity fuze

    SciT

    Harrison, T.R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system is described. It includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal dependingmore » upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.« less

  12. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, T.R.

    1987-07-10

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation circuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance from the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation. 3 figs.

  13. Proximity fuze

    DOEpatents

    Harrison, Thomas R.

    1989-08-22

    A proximity fuze system includes an optical ranging apparatus, a detonation circuit controlled by the optical ranging apparatus, and an explosive charge detonated by the detonation cirtcuit. The optical ranging apparatus includes a pulsed laser light source for generating target ranging light pulses and optical reference light pulses. A single lens directs ranging pulses to a target and collects reflected light from the target. An optical fiber bundle is used for delaying the optical reference pulses to correspond to a predetermined distance from the target. The optical ranging apparatus includes circuitry for providing a first signal depending upon the light pulses reflected from the target, a second signal depending upon the light pulses from the optical delay fiber bundle, and an output signal when the first and second signals coincide with each other. The output signal occurs when the distance from the target is equal to the predetermined distance form the target. Additional circuitry distinguishes pulses reflected from the target from background solar radiation.

  14. Facilitation of Endosomal Recycling by an IRG Protein Homolog Maintains Apical Tubule Structure in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Grussendorf, Kelly A.; Trezza, Christopher J.; Salem, Alexander T.; Al-Hashimi, Hikmat; Mattingly, Brendan C.; Kampmeyer, Drew E.; Khan, Liakot A.; Hall, David H.; Göbel, Verena; Ackley, Brian D.; Buechner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Determination of luminal diameter is critical to the function of small single-celled tubes. A series of EXC proteins, including EXC-1, prevent swelling of the tubular excretory canals in Caenorhabditis elegans. In this study, cloning of exc-1 reveals it to encode a homolog of mammalian IRG proteins, which play roles in immune response and autophagy and are associated with Crohn’s disease. Mutants in exc-1 accumulate early endosomes, lack recycling endosomes, and exhibit abnormal apical cytoskeletal structure in regions of enlarged tubules. EXC-1 interacts genetically with two other EXC proteins that also affect endosomal trafficking. In yeast two-hybrid assays, wild-type and putative constitutively active EXC-1 binds to the LIM-domain protein EXC-9, whose homolog, cysteine-rich intestinal protein, is enriched in mammalian intestine. These results suggest a model for IRG function in forming and maintaining apical tubule structure via regulation of endosomal recycling. PMID:27334269

  15. Effectiveness of various toothpastes on dentine tubule occlusion.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W H; Prange, M; Naumova, E A

    2015-04-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is an increasing problem in dentistry. Several products are available that claim to occlude open dentine tubules and to reduce dentine hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of several different products on dentine tubule occlusion using qualitative and quantitative methods. Dentine discs were prepared from extracted human premolars and molars. The dentine discs were brushed with 6 different experimental toothpastes, 1 positive control toothpaste and 1 negative control without toothpaste; the brushing simulated a total brushing time of 1 year. Half of the discs were etched with lemon juice after toothpaste application. Standardized scanning electron microphotographs were taken and converted into binary black and white images. The black pixels, which represented the open dentine tubules, were counted and statistically evaluated. Then, half of the dentine discs were broken, and the occlusion of the dentine tubules was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The number of open dentine tubules decreased significantly after brushing with 5 of the 6 tested toothpastes. A significant effect was observed after acid erosion for 3 of the 6 tested toothpastes. EDS revealed partly closed dentine tubules after brushing with 3 toothpastes; however, no partly closed dentine tubules were observed after acid erosion. Some toothpastes are capable of partial dentine tubule occlusion. This occlusion is unstable and can be removed with acid erosion. Desensitizing toothpastes are the most common products that are used against dentine hypersensitivity, and these toothpastes affect dentine tubule occlusion. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Gap junctions in Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xing-He; Piermarini, Peter M; Yamahiro, Atsuko; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Aneshansley, Daniel J; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2008-02-01

    We present electrical, physiological and molecular evidence for substantial electrical coupling of epithelial cells in Malpighian tubules via gap junctions. Current was injected into one principal cell of the isolated Malpighian tubule and membrane voltage deflections were measured in that cell and in two neighboring principal cells. By short-circuiting the transepithelial voltage with the diuretic peptide leucokinin-VIII we largely eliminated electrical coupling of principal cells through the tubule lumen, thereby allowing coupling through gap junctions to be analyzed. The analysis of an equivalent electrical circuit of the tubule yielded an average gap-junction resistance (R(gj)) of 431 kOmega between two cells. This resistance would stem from 6190 open gap-junctional channels, assuming the high single gap-junction conductance of 375 pS found in vertebrate tissues. The addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 (2 micromol l(-1)) to the peritubular Ringer bath containing 1.7 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+) did not affect the gap-junction resistance, but metabolic inhibition of the tubule with dinitrophenol (0.5 mmol l(-1)) increased the gap-junction resistance 66-fold, suggesting the regulation of gap junctions by ATP. Lucifer Yellow injected into a principal cell did not appear in neighboring principal cells. Thus, gap junctions allow the passage of current but not Lucifer Yellow. Using RT-PCR we found evidence for the expression of innexins 1, 2, 3 and 7 (named after their homologues in Drosophila) in Malpighian tubules. The physiological demonstration of gap junctions and the molecular evidence for innexin in Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti call for the double cable model of the tubule, which will improve the measurement and the interpretation of electrophysiological data collected from Malpighian tubules.

  17. Solo and keratin filaments regulate epithelial tubule morphology.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ryosuke; Kato, Kagayaki; Fujiwara, Sachiko; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-04-28

    Epithelial tubules, consisting of the epithelial cell sheet with a central lumen, are the basic structure of many organs. Mechanical forces play an important role in epithelial tubulogenesis; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling the mechanical forces during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. Solo (also known as ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine-nucleotide exchange factor that is involved in mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and stress fiber formation. Solo binds to keratin-8/keratin-18 (K8/K18) filaments, and this interaction plays a crucial role in mechanotransduction. In this study, we examined the roles of Solo and K8/K18 filaments in epithelial tubulogenesis using MDCK cells cultured in 3D collagen gels. Knockdown of either Solo or K18 resulted in rounder tubules with increased lumen size, indicating that Solo and K8/K18 filaments play critical roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules. Moreover, knockdown of Solo or K18 decreased the level of diphosphorylated myosin light chain (a marker of contractile force) at the luminal and outer surfaces of tubules, suggesting that Solo and K8/K18 filaments are involved in the generation of the myosin II-mediated contractile force during epithelial tubule morphogenesis. In addition, K18 filaments were normally oriented along the long axis of the tubule, but knockdown of Solo perturbed their orientation. These results suggest that Solo plays crucial roles in forming the elongated morphology of epithelial tubules and in regulating myosin II activity and K18 filament organization during epithelial tubule formation.

  18. Redistribution of DAT/α-Synuclein Complexes Visualized by “In Situ” Proximity Ligation Assay in Transgenic Mice Modelling Early Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bellucci, Arianna; Navarria, Laura; Falarti, Elisa; Zaltieri, Michela; Bono, Federica; Collo, Ginetta; Grazia, Maria; Missale, Cristina; Spano, PierFranco

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein, the major component of Lewy bodies, is thought to play a central role in the onset of synaptic dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, α-synuclein may affect dopaminergic neuron function as it interacts with a key protein modulating dopamine (DA) content at the synapse: the DA transporter (DAT). Indeed, recent evidence from our “in vitro” studies showed that α-synuclein aggregation decreases the expression and membrane trafficking of the DAT as the DAT is retained into α-synuclein-immunopositive inclusions. This notwithstanding, “in vivo” studies on PD animal models investigating whether DAT distribution is altered by the pathological overexpression and aggregation of α-synuclein are missing. By using the proximity ligation assay, a technique which allows the “in situ” visualization of protein-protein interactions, we studied the occurrence of alterations in the distribution of DAT/α-synuclein complexes in the SYN120 transgenic mouse model, showing insoluble α-synuclein aggregates into dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal system, reduced striatal DA levels and an altered distribution of synaptic proteins in the striatum. We found that DAT/α-synuclein complexes were markedly redistributed in the striatum and substantia nigra of SYN120 mice. These alterations were accompanied by a significant increase of DAT striatal levels in transgenic animals when compared to wild type littermates. Our data indicate that, in the early pathogenesis of PD, α-synuclein acts as a fine modulator of the dopaminergic synapse by regulating the subcellular distribution of key proteins such as the DAT. PMID:22163275

  19. T-tubule disease: Relationship between t-tubule organization and regional contractile performance in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Crossman, David J; Young, Alistair A; Ruygrok, Peter N; Nason, Guy P; Baddelely, David; Soeller, Christian; Cannell, Mark B

    2015-07-01

    Evidence from animal models suggest that t-tubule changes may play an important role in the contractile deficit associated with heart failure. However samples are usually taken at random with no regard as to regional variability present in failing hearts which leads to uncertainty in the relationship between contractile performance and possible t-tubule derangement. Regional contraction in human hearts was measured by tagged cine MRI and model fitting. At transplant, failing hearts were biopsy sampled in identified regions and immunocytochemistry was used to label t-tubules and sarcomeric z-lines. Computer image analysis was used to assess 5 different unbiased measures of t-tubule structure/organization. In regions of failing hearts that showed good contractile performance, t-tubule organization was similar to that seen in normal hearts, with worsening structure correlating with the loss of regional contractile performance. Statistical analysis showed that t-tubule direction was most highly correlated with local contractile performance, followed by the amplitude of the sarcomeric peak in the Fourier transform of the t-tubule image. Other area based measures were less well correlated. We conclude that regional contractile performance in failing human hearts is strongly correlated with the local t-tubule organization. Cluster tree analysis with a functional definition of failing contraction strength allowed a pathological definition of 't-tubule disease'. The regional variability in contractile performance and cellular structure is a confounding issue for analysis of samples taken from failing human hearts, although this may be overcome with regional analysis by using tagged cMRI and biopsy mapping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling Malpighian tubule crystals within the predatory soil mite Pergamasus longicornis (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Clive E

    2017-05-01

    The occurrence of refractive crystals (aka guanine) is characterised in the Malpighian tubules of the free-living predatory parasitiform soil mite Pergamasus longicornis (Berlese) from a temporal series of histological sections during and after feeding on larval dipteran prey. The tubular system behaves as a single uniform entity during digestion. Malpighian mechanisms are not the 'concentrative' mechanism sought for the early stasis in gut size during the second later phase of prey feeding. Nor are Malpighian changes associated with the time of 'anal dabbing' during feeding. Peak gut expansion precedes peak Malpighian tubule guanine crystal occurrence in a hysteretic manner. There is no evidence of Malpighian tubule expansion by fluid alone. Crystals are not found during the slow phase of liquidised prey digestion. Malpighian tubules do not appear to be osmoregulatory. Malpighian guanine is only observed 48 h to 10 days after the commencement of feeding. Post digestion guanine crystal levels in the expanded Malpighian tubules are high-peaking as a pulse 5 days after the start of feeding (i.e. after the gut is void of food at 52.5 h). The half-life of guanine elimination from the tubules is 53 h. Evidence for a physiological input cascade is found-the effective half-life of guanine appearance in the Malpighian tubules being 7.8-16.7 h. Crystals are found present at all times in the lumen of the rectal vesicle and not anywhere else lumenally in the gut at all. No guanine was observed inside gut cells. There is no evidence for the storage in the rectal vesicle of a 'pulse' of Malpighian excretory products from a discrete 'pulse' of prey ingestion. A latent egestive common catabolic phase in the gut is inferred commencing 12.5 h after the start of feeding which may cause the rectal vesicle to expand due to the catabolism of current or previous meals. Malpighian tubules swell as the gut contracts in size over time post-prandially. There is evidence that at a

  1. Effects of vasopressin on the isolated perfused human collecting tubule.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, N; Trizna, W; Bar-Khayim, Y; Fine, L G

    1981-05-01

    Cortical collecting tubules (CCT) were dissected from the surviving normal tissue of human kidneys removed at operation for either carcinoma or calculus. These CCT's were perfused in vitro shortly after the nephrectomy was performed. Transtubular potential differences in different tubules varied from +3.2 to -2.0 mV and were reduced towards zero by lowering the temperature or by adding ouabain to the bath. In the absence of vasopressin, tubules were essentially impermeable to water with extremely low net water fluxes even in the presence of a transtubular osmotic gradient. Addition of vasopressin to the bath caused the transtubular osmotic water permeability coefficient to increase to values of 125, 175, and 155 X 10(-4) cm/sec in three tubules thus studied. These results demonstrate close similarities between the human CCT and the more extensively studied rabbit CCT.

  2. Recrystallization of tubules from natural lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) wax on a Au(111) surface

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Summary We present here the first results on the self-assembly of tubules of natural wax from lotus leaves on a single crystal Au(111) surface. A comparison of the tubule growth on Au(111) to that on HOPG is discussed. Although the tubule formation on both Au(111) and HOPG takes place on an intermediate wax film which should mask the substrate properties, the tubule orientations differ. In contrast to a vertical tubule orientation on HOPG, the tubules lie flat on Au(111). Taking into account the physical properties of HOPG and Au(111), we put forward a hypothesis which can explain the different tubule orientations on both substrates. PMID:21977438

  3. Self-(Un)rolling Biopolymer Microstructures: Rings, Tubules, and Helical Tubules from the Same Material.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chunhong; Nikolov, Svetoslav V; Calabrese, Rossella; Dindar, Amir; Alexeev, Alexander; Kippelen, Bernard; Kaplan, David L; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2015-07-13

    We have demonstrated the facile formation of reversible and fast self-rolling biopolymer microstructures from sandwiched active-passive, silk-on-silk materials. Both experimental and modeling results confirmed that the shape of individual sheets effectively controls biaxial stresses within these sheets, which can self-roll into distinct 3D structures including microscopic rings, tubules, and helical tubules. This is a unique example of tailoring self-rolled 3D geometries through shape design without changing the inner morphology of active bimorph biomaterials. In contrast to traditional organic-soluble synthetic materials, we utilized a biocompatible and biodegradable biopolymer that underwent a facile aqueous layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process for the fabrication of 2D films. The resulting films can undergo reversible pH-triggered rolling/unrolling, with a variety of 3D structures forming from biopolymer structures that have identical morphology and composition. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Contraluminal bicarbonate transport in the proximal tubule of the rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, K J; Papavassiliou, F

    1987-11-01

    In order to measure the contraluminal bicarbonate flux in situ we applied the stopped flow capillary microperfusion technique and measured the influx of 14C-bicarbonate buffer into cortical tubular cells at pH 8. It was found that the influx in percent of the starting concentration is larger at 20 mmol/l bicarbonate than at 1 mmol/l, indicating a sigmoidal type influx curve. At 20 mmol/l bicarbonate the influx was inhibited by 44%, when Na+ was replaced by choline. Replacement of gluconate by chloride or sulfate did not change H14CO3- influx. At this bicarbonate concentration, influx is inhibited by 10 mmol/l 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonate (DIDS) (22%), 5 mmol/l of the carbonic anhydrase blocker ethoxyzolamide (40%) as well as by 5 mmol/l of the arginine reagent 4-nitrophenylglyoxal (31%). At 1 mmol/l bicarbonate starting concentration, bicarbonate influx was inhibited when chloride in the perfusate was present or when sulphate was added. Replacement of sodium by choline did not change bicarbonate influx. Addition of DIDS and 8-anilino-naphthalene-1-sulfonate (5 mmol/l each) inhibited 1 mmol/l bicarbonate influx 39 and 49%, respectively. The para-amino-hippurate transport blocker dipropylsulfamoyl-benzoate (probenecid), the chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2'-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB), the SH group blocker 2-(3-hydroxymercuri-2-methoxypropyl)-carbamoyl-phenoxyacetate++ + (mersalyl), and formate did not inhibit bicarbonate influx, at 20 and at 1 mmol/l H14CO3- starting concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. From single molecule to single tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chin-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Biological systems often make decisions upon conformational changes and assembly of single molecules. In vivo, epithelial cells (such as the mammary gland cells) can respond to extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, type I collagen (COL), and switch their morphology from a lobular lumen (100-200 micron) to a tubular lumen (1mm-1cm). However, how cells make such a morphogenetic decision through interactions with each other and with COL is unclear. Using a temporal control of cell-ECM interaction, we find that epithelial cells, in response to a fine-tuned percentage of type I collagen (COL) in ECM, develop various linear patterns. Remarkably, these patterns allow cells to self-assemble into a tubule of length ˜ 1cm and diameter ˜ 400 micron in the liquid phase (i.e., scaffold-free conditions). In contrast with conventional thought, the linear patterns arise through bi-directional transmission of traction force, but not through diffusible biochemical factors secreted by cells. In turn, the transmission of force evokes a long-range (˜ 600 micron) intercellular mechanical interaction. A feedback effect is encountered when the mechanical interaction modifies cell positioning and COL alignment. Micro-patterning experiments further reveal that such a feedback is a novel cell-number-dependent, rich-get-richer process, which allows cells to integrate mechanical interactions into long-range (> 1mm) linear coordination. Our results suggest a mechanism cells can use to form and coordinate long-range tubular patterns, independent of those controlled by diffusible biochemical factors, and provide a new strategy to engineer/regenerate epithelial organs using scaffold-free self-assembly methods.

  6. Identifying Functional Neighborhoods within the Cell Nucleus: Proximity Analysis of Early S-Phase Replicating Chromatin Domains to Sites of Transcription, RNA Polymerase II, HP1γ, Matrin 3 and SAF-A

    PubMed Central

    Malyavantham, Kishore S; Bhattacharya, Sambit; Barbeitos, Marcos; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Xu, Jinhui; Fackelmayer, Frank O; Berezney, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Higher order chromatin organization in concert with epigenetic regulation is a key process that determines gene expression at the global level. The organization of dynamic chromatin domains and their associated protein factors is intertwined with nuclear function to create higher levels of functional zones within the cell nucleus. As a step towards elucidating the organization and dynamics of these functional zones, we have investigated the spatial proximities among a constellation of functionally related sites that are found within euchromatic regions of the cell nucleus including: HP1γ, nascent transcript sites (TS), active DNA replicating sites in early S phase (PCNA) and RNA polymerase II sites. We report close associations among these different sites with proximity values specific for each combination. Analysis of matrin 3 and SAF-A sites demonstrates that these nuclear matrix proteins are highly proximal with the functionally related sites as well as to each other and display closely aligned and overlapping regions following application of the minimal spanning tree (MST) algorithm to visualize higher order network-like patterns. Our findings suggest that multiple factors within the nuclear microenvironment collectively form higher order combinatorial arrays of function. We propose a model for the organization of these functional neighborhoods which takes into account the proximity values of the individual sites and their spatial organization within the nuclear architecture. PMID:18618731

  7. Cystogenesis and elongated primary cilia in Tsc1-deficient distal convoluted tubules

    PubMed Central

    Armour, Eric A.; Carson, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multiorgan hamartomatous disease caused by loss of function mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Neurological symptoms of TSC predominate in younger patients, but renal pathologies are a serious aspect of the disease in older children and adults. To study TSC pathogenesis in the kidney, we inactivated the mouse Tsc1 gene in the distal convoluted tubules (DCT). At young ages, Tsc1 conditional knockout (CKO) mice have enlarged kidneys and mild cystogenesis with increased mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 but decreased mTORC2 signaling. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin reduces kidney size and cystogenesis. Rapamycin withdrawal led to massive cystogenesis involving both distal as well as proximal tubules. To assess the contribution of decreased mTORC2 signaling in kidney pathogenesis, we also generated Rictor CKO mice. These animals did not have any detectable kidney pathology. Finally, we examined primary cilia in the DCT. Cilia were longer in Tsc1 CKO mice, and rapamycin treatment returned cilia length to normal. Rictor CKO mice had normal cilia in the DCT. Overall, our findings suggest that loss of the Tsc1 gene in the DCT is sufficient for renal cystogenesis. This cytogenesis appears to be mTORC1 but not mTORC2 dependent. Intriguingly, the mechanism may be cell autonomous as well as non-cell autonomous and possibly involves the length and function of primary cilia. PMID:22674026

  8. Cystogenesis and elongated primary cilia in Tsc1-deficient distal convoluted tubules.

    PubMed

    Armour, Eric A; Carson, Robert P; Ess, Kevin C

    2012-08-15

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multiorgan hamartomatous disease caused by loss of function mutations of either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. Neurological symptoms of TSC predominate in younger patients, but renal pathologies are a serious aspect of the disease in older children and adults. To study TSC pathogenesis in the kidney, we inactivated the mouse Tsc1 gene in the distal convoluted tubules (DCT). At young ages, Tsc1 conditional knockout (CKO) mice have enlarged kidneys and mild cystogenesis with increased mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)1 but decreased mTORC2 signaling. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin reduces kidney size and cystogenesis. Rapamycin withdrawal led to massive cystogenesis involving both distal as well as proximal tubules. To assess the contribution of decreased mTORC2 signaling in kidney pathogenesis, we also generated Rictor CKO mice. These animals did not have any detectable kidney pathology. Finally, we examined primary cilia in the DCT. Cilia were longer in Tsc1 CKO mice, and rapamycin treatment returned cilia length to normal. Rictor CKO mice had normal cilia in the DCT. Overall, our findings suggest that loss of the Tsc1 gene in the DCT is sufficient for renal cystogenesis. This cytogenesis appears to be mTORC1 but not mTORC2 dependent. Intriguingly, the mechanism may be cell autonomous as well as non-cell autonomous and possibly involves the length and function of primary cilia.

  9. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  10. Morphology of the kidney of adult bowfin, Amia calva, with emphasis on "renal chloride cells" in the tubule.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Butler, D G

    1988-05-01

    The nephron of adult bowfin, Amia calva, was described using light and electron microscopic techniques. The kidney of the bowfin possesses an abundant supply of renal corpuscles with each consisting of a glomerulus and a Bowman's capsule of visceral (podocyte) and parietal layers. No juxtaglomerular apparatus is present. The epithelium of the tubule is continuous with the parietal epithelium and is divisible in descending order into neck, first proximal, second proximal, first distal, second distal, and collecting segments. The tubules drain into a complex system of collecting ducts that ultimately unite with the main excretory duct, the archinephric duct. Mucous cells are the dominant cell throughout the entire ductular system. Nephrostomes are dispersed along the kidney capsule. The neck segment has a ciliated epithelium, and while both proximal segments possess a prominent brush border, the fine structure of the first implies involvement in protein absorption and the second in the transport and reabsorption of solutes. The cells of the first distal segment are characterized by deep infolding of the plasma membrane and a rich supply of mitochondria suggesting the presence of a mechanism for ion transport. The second distal segment is composed of cells resembling the chloride cells of fishes and these cells are present in progressively decreasing numbers in the collecting segment and duct system so that only a few are present in the epithelium of the archinephric duct. The "renal chloride cells" possess an abundant network of smooth tubules and numerous mitochondria with a rich supply of cristae. Glycogen is also a conspicuous component of these cells. The presence of "renal chloride cells" in this freshwater holostean, in other relatively primitive freshwater teleosts, and in larval and adult lampreys is discussed with reference to both phylogeny and the need for a special mechanism for renal ion conservation through absorption.

  11. When there Seem to be No Predetermining Factors: Early Child and Proximal Family Risk Predicting Externalizing Behavior in Young Children Incurring No Distal Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskam, I.; Meunier, J.-C.; Stievenart, M.; Noel, M.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current study was to examine the impact of two child risk factors, i.e. personality and inhibition, and two proximal family risk factors, i.e. parenting and attachment, and the impact of their cumulative effect on later externalizing behavior among young children incurring no distal family risk. Data were collected in a…

  12. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Lipid Bilayers and Tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Linda S.; Yuan, Jing; Pramudya, Yohannes; Nguyen, Lam T.

    2007-03-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are found in a variety of biological membranes and have been implicated with lipid raft formation and possible function, typical molecules include DHA (Docosahexanoic Acid) and AA (Alphalinoleic Acid) which have been the focus of considerable attention in recent years. We are interested in the phase behavior of these molecules in the lipid bilayer. The addition of lipid molecules with polyunsaturated chains has a clear effect on the fluidity and curvature of the membrane and we investigate the effects the addition of polyunsaturated lipids on bilayer structure and tubule formation. Self-assembled cylindrical lipid tubules have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting structures and potential technological applications. Using x-ray diffraction techniques, Atomic Force Microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging, both symmetric and mixed chain lipids were incorporated into model membranes and the effects on bilayer structure and tubule formation investigated.

  13. Pathologic Remodeling of Endoneurial Tubules in Human Neuromas.

    PubMed

    Karsy, Michael; Palmer, Cheryl A; Mahan, Mark A

    2018-01-18

    Laminins are extracellular matrix proteins that participate in endoneurial tubule formation and are important in the regeneration of nerves after injury. They act as scaffolds to guide nerves to distal targets and play a key role in neurite outgrowth. Because there is evidence that laminin architecture affects nerve regeneration, we evaluated endoneurial tubules by examining the laminin structure in clinical samples from patients with nerve injuries. In a retrospective review of eight nerve injury cases, we evaluated nerve histology in relation to clinical history and injury type. The immunohistochemical delineation of the laminin structure in relationship with the neuroma type was performed. Five cases of upper-trunk stretch injuries-four from childbirth injury and one from a motorcycle accident-and three cases of nerve laceration leading to neuroma formation were examined. In the upper-trunk stretch injuries, avulsed nerves demonstrated no neuroma formation with a linear laminin architecture and a regular Schwann cell arrangement, but increased fibrous tissue deposition. For neuromas-in-continuity after a stretch injury, laminin immunohistochemistry demonstrated a double-lumen laminin tubule, with encapsulation of the Schwann cells and axonal processes. Nerve laceration leading to stump neuroma formation had a similar double-lumen laminin tubule, but less severe fibrosis. In nerve injuries with regenerative capacity, endoneurial tubules become pathologically disorganized. A double-lumen endoneurial tubule of unclear significance develops. The consistency of this pattern potentially suggests a reproducible pathophysiologic process. Further exploration of this pathophysiologic healing may provide insight into the failure of programmed peripheral nerve regeneration after injury.

  14. Pathologic Remodeling of Endoneurial Tubules in Human Neuromas

    PubMed Central

    Karsy, Michael; Palmer, Cheryl A

    2018-01-01

    Background: Laminins are extracellular matrix proteins that participate in endoneurial tubule formation and are important in the regeneration of nerves after injury. They act as scaffolds to guide nerves to distal targets and play a key role in neurite outgrowth. Because there is evidence that laminin architecture affects nerve regeneration, we evaluated endoneurial tubules by examining the laminin structure in clinical samples from patients with nerve injuries. Methods: In a retrospective review of eight nerve injury cases, we evaluated nerve histology in relation to clinical history and injury type. The immunohistochemical delineation of the laminin structure in relationship with the neuroma type was performed. Results: Five cases of upper-trunk stretch injuries—four from childbirth injury and one from a motorcycle accident—and three cases of nerve laceration leading to neuroma formation were examined. In the upper-trunk stretch injuries, avulsed nerves demonstrated no neuroma formation with a linear laminin architecture and a regular Schwann cell arrangement, but increased fibrous tissue deposition. For neuromas-in-continuity after a stretch injury, laminin immunohistochemistry demonstrated a double-lumen laminin tubule, with encapsulation of the Schwann cells and axonal processes. Nerve laceration leading to stump neuroma formation had a similar double-lumen laminin tubule, but less severe fibrosis. Conclusions: In nerve injuries with regenerative capacity, endoneurial tubules become pathologically disorganized. A double-lumen endoneurial tubule of unclear significance develops. The consistency of this pattern potentially suggests a reproducible pathophysiologic process. Further exploration of this pathophysiologic healing may provide insight into the failure of programmed peripheral nerve regeneration after injury. PMID:29560300

  15. Neurogenic regulation of proximal bicarbonate and chloride reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Cogan, M G

    1986-01-01

    Although a change in renal nerve activity is known to alter proximal reabsorption, it is unclear whether reabsorption of NaHCO3 or NaCl or both are affected. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) were studied using free-flow micropuncture techniques during euvolemia and following acute ipsilateral denervation. Glomerular filtration rate and single nephron glomerular filtration rate were stable. Absolute proximal bicarbonate reabsorption fell following denervation (933 +/- 40 to 817 +/- 30 pmol/min) with a parallel reduction in chloride reabsorption (1,643 +/- 116 to 1,341 +/- 129 peq/min). Urinary sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride excretion all increased significantly. To further assess the physiological significance of neurogenic modulation of proximal transport, other rats (n = 6) were subjected to acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN). There is evidence that AUN induces a contralateral natriuresis (renorenal reflex) at least partially by causing inhibition of efferent renal nerve traffic. AUN caused significant changes in proximal NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption as well as in whole kidney electrolyte excretion in the same pattern as had denervation. Prior denervation of the remaining kidney prevented the proximal and whole kidney response to AUN (n = 6). In conclusion, depression of renal nerve activity inhibits both NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption in the rat superficial proximal convoluted tubule. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in renal nerve activity modify whole kidney electrolyte excretion under physiological conditions at least partially by regulating proximal transport.

  16. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jason A; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2013-12-01

    Kidney ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5mg/kg) starting 24h after reperfusion until 72h-144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R+vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even further augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R+SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h-144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24h-144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid tubules Formed by Flow-Controlled Hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jing; Hirst, Linda S.

    2007-03-01

    Self-assembled cylindrical tubules from lipid molecules have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting supramolecular structures and technological applications. Schnur et al. [1] reported the formation of tubular microstructures from a series of diacetylenic phospholipids after liposomes were cooled through their chain melting transition. After that, several methods have been developed to fabricate such unique microstructures mainly by means of deforming preformed Giant unilamellar vesicles. Here we present a simple strategy to construct lipid microtubules through a flow-controlled lipid hydration. Fluorescent microscopy and Confocal Laser Microscopy were used to visualize the formation and the structure of the lipid tubules. Tubules were found to develop following the direction of the dynamic flow with highly parallel alignment. At high flow speeds, partial cross-linking of the lipid tubules was observed. To demonstrate the generality of this method, different types of phospholipids, such as Phosphatidic Acid (PA), Phosphatidylserine (PS), Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were investigated. [1] J.M. Schnur et al, Science, 264, 945 (1994).

  18. Dynamic tubulation of mitochondria drives mitochondrial network formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Du, Wanqing; Su, Qian Peter; Zhu, Mingli; Feng, Peiyuan; Li, Ying; Zhou, Yichen; Mi, Na; Zhu, Yueyao; Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Senyan; Zhang, Zerui; Sun, Yujie; Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria form networks. Formation of mitochondrial networks is important for maintaining mitochondrial DNA integrity and interchanging mitochondrial material, whereas disruption of the mitochondrial network affects mitochondrial functions. According to the current view, mitochondrial networks are formed by fusion of individual mitochondria. Here, we report a new mechanism for formation of mitochondrial networks through KIF5B-mediated dynamic tubulation of mitochondria. We found that KIF5B pulls thin, highly dynamic tubules out of mitochondria. Fusion of these dynamic tubules, which is mediated by mitofusins, gives rise to the mitochondrial network. We further demonstrated that dynamic tubulation and fusion is sufficient for mitochondrial network formation, by reconstituting mitochondrial networks in vitro using purified fusion-competent mitochondria, recombinant KIF5B, and polymerized microtubules. Interestingly, KIF5B only controls network formation in the peripheral zone of the cell, indicating that the mitochondrial network is divided into subzones, which may be constructed by different mechanisms. Our data not only uncover an essential mechanism for mitochondrial network formation, but also reveal that different parts of the mitochondrial network are formed by different mechanisms.

  19. Acquired Fanconi syndrome with proximal tubular cytoplasmic fibrillary inclusions of λ light chain restriction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ying; Wang, Su-Xia; Zhang, You-Kang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Li; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Light chain proximal tubulopathy is a rarely reported entity associated with plasma cell dyscrasia that classically manifests as acquired Fanconi syndrome and is characterized by the presence of κ-restricted crystals in the proximal tubular cytoplasm. We herein present a case of multiple myeloma with Fanconi syndrome and acute kidney injury due to light chain proximal tubulopathy with light chain cast nephropathy. Prominent phagolysosomes and numerous irregularly shaped inclusions with a fibrillary matrix in the cytoplasm of the proximal tubules were identified on electron microscopy. A monotypic light chain of the λ type was detected in the distal tubular casts, proximal tubular cytoplasmic lysosomes and fibrillary inclusions on immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy. This case underscores the importance of conducting careful ultrastructural investigations and immunocytologic examinations of light chains for detecting and diagnosing light chain proximal tubulopathy.

  20. Bicarbonate secretion by rabbit cortical collecting tubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    McKinney, T D; Burg, M B

    1978-06-01

    We previously reported that rabbit renal cortical collecting tubules can secrete bicarbonate in vitro (i.e., there can be net transport from bath to lumen, causing the concentration in the lumen to increase). Net bicarbonate secretion was observed most often when rabbits had been pretreated with NaHCO(3) and were excreting alkaline urine before being killed for experiments. The purpose of the present studies was to elucidate the mechanism involved by testing the effects of ion substitutions and drugs on collecting tubules that were secreting bicarbonate. Acetazolamide inhibited net bicarbonate secretion, suggesting that the process is dependent upon carbonic anhydrase. Net bicarbonate secretion also decreased when sodium in the perfusate and bath was replaced by choline, but not when chloride was replaced by nitrate or methylsulfate. Ouabain had no significant effect. Amiloride caused net bicarbonate secretion to increase. The rate of net secretion did not correlate with transepithelial voltage. The results are compared to those in turtle urinary bladders that also secrete bicarbonate. There are no direct contradictions between the results in the two tissues, i.e., in turtle bladders acetazolamide also inhibited bicarbonate secretion and ouabain had no effect. Nevertheless, it seems unlikely that net secretion of bicarbonate by collecting tubules involves specific exchange for chloride, as has been proposed for turtle bladders, because replacement of chloride by other anions did not inhibit bicarbonate secretion by collecting tubules. It was previously shown that the collecting tubules in vitro also may absorb bicarbonate, especially when the rabbits have been treated with NH(4)Cl and are excreting acid urine before being killed. The effects of drugs on net bicarbonate secretion found in the present studies are compared to their previously reported effects on net bicarbonate absorption and the possibility is discussed that bicarbonate absorption and secretion are

  1. Bicarbonate Secretion by Rabbit Cortical Collecting Tubules in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Thurman D.; Burg, Maurice B.

    1978-01-01

    We previously reported that rabbit renal cortical collecting tubules can secrete bicarbonate in vitro (i.e., there can be net transport from bath to lumen, causing the concentration in the lumen to increase). Net bicarbonate secretion was observed most often when rabbits had been pretreated with NaHCO3 and were excreting alkaline urine before being killed for experiments. The purpose of the present studies was to elucidate the mechanism involved by testing the effects of ion substitutions and drugs on collecting tubules that were secreting bicarbonate. Acetazolamide inhibited net bicarbonate secretion, suggesting that the process is dependent upon carbonic anhydrase. Net bicarbonate secretion also decreased when sodium in the perfusate and bath was replaced by choline, but not when chloride was replaced by nitrate or methylsulfate. Ouabain had no significant effect. Amiloride caused net bicarbonate secretion to increase. The rate of net secretion did not correlate with transepithelial voltage. The results are compared to those in turtle urinary bladders that also secrete bicarbonate. There are no direct contradictions between the results in the two tissues, i.e., in turtle bladders acetazolamide also inhibited bicarbonate secretion and ouabain had no effect. Nevertheless, it seems unlikely that net secretion of bicarbonate by collecting tubules involves specific exchange for chloride, as has been proposed for turtle bladders, because replacement of chloride by other anions did not inhibit bicarbonate secretion by collecting tubules. It was previously shown that the collecting tubules in vitro also may absorb bicarbonate, especially when the rabbits have been treated with NH4Cl and are excreting acid urine before being killed. The effects of drugs on net bicarbonate secretion found in the present studies are compared to their previously reported effects on net bicarbonate absorption and the possibility is discussed that bicarbonate absorption and secretion are

  2. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of in vitro dentinal tubules penetration by selected anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; De Uzeda, M; Fonseca, M E

    1996-06-01

    In vitro root canal dentinal tubule invasion by selected anaerobic bacteria commonly isolated from endodontic infections was evaluated. Dentinal cylinders obtained from bovine incisors were inoculated with bacteria, and microbial penetration into tubules was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that all bacterial strains tested were able to penetrate into dentinal tubules, but to different extents.

  3. Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection Induces VAP-Dependent Endosomal Tubulation.

    PubMed

    Siddiqa, Abida; Massimi, Paola; Pim, David; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Banks, Lawrence

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans -Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans -Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of

  4. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia–reperfusion injury

    SciT

    Funk, Jason A., E-mail: funkj@musc.edu; Schnellmann, Rick G., E-mail: schnell@musc.edu; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC 29401

    Kidney ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5 mg/kg) starting 24 h after reperfusion until 72 h–144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R + vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even furthermore » augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R + SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h–144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24 h–144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na{sup +},K{sup +}–ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. - Highlights: • We examined recovery of mitochondrial and renal function after ischemia–reperfusion. • SRT1720 treatment after I/R induced mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT1/PGC-1α. • Recovery of mitochondrial

  5. Fine structure of the transitional zone of the rat seminiferous tubule.

    PubMed

    Nykänen, M

    1979-05-25

    An electron microscopic study was made on the structure of the testicular transitional zone (TZ) in the adult rat. The TZ proper consists of modified Sertoli cellss, with only a few spermatogonia and macrophages, surrounding distally a very narrow lumen. The TZ Sertoli cells have nuclei with a somewhat coarser matrix and more peripheral heterochromatin than Sertoli cell nuclei of the nearby seminiferous tubules, and the electron density of the cytoplasm varies from cell to cell. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is abundant, but usually there are also scattered ribosomal rosettes and an occasional profile of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Microtubules are very numerous in the columnar portion of the cell, and laminar structures seemingly joining the cell surfaces are sometimes seen. Lipid droplets and lysosmal structures are frequent cellular components in proximal TZ Sertoli cells. Empty intracellular vacuoles are abundant, sometimes arranged around areas of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Occasionally, membrane-limited fine granules and vacuoles are seen within Sertoli cells and also in the TZ lumen, suggesting a possible secretory activity by these cells. The apical processes of the Sertoli cells form large vacuolar structures, and in the basal parts of the epithelium vacuoles with capillary-like appearance are frequently seen. Phagocytosis of germinal cells by the Sertoli cells occurs in the proximal region of the TZ. Round waste bodies in contact with the Sertoli cell apices protruding into the tubulus rectus, are also common. The tunica propria of the TZ is thickened and somewhat wrinkled, and in the proximal region the myoid cell layer loses its continuity and is replaced by fibroblasts. The epithelium of the tubulus rectus adjacent to the TZ consists of several overlapping epithelial cells. The typical junctional complexes between TZ Sertoli cells appear to be impermeable to the lanthanum tracer.

  6. Preservation of the smooth muscular internal (vesical) sphincter and of the proximal urethra for the early recovery of urinary continence after retropubic radical prostatectomy: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Brunocilla, Eugenio; Schiavina, Riccardo; Pultrone, Cristian Vincenzo; Borghesi, Marco; Rossi, Martina; Cevenini, Matteo; Martorana, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of preservation of the muscular internal sphincter and proximal urethra on continence recovery after radical prostatectomy. This was a prospective single-center, case-control study. A total of 40 consecutive patients with organ-confined prostate cancer were submitted to radical prostatectomy with the preservation of the muscular internal sphincter and the proximal urethra (group 1), and their outcomes were compared with those of 40 patients submitted to a standard procedure (group 2). Continence rates were assessed using a self-administrated questionnaire at 3, 7 and 30 days, and 3 and 12 months after removal of the catheter. Group 1 had a faster recovery of early continence than group 2 at day 3 (45% vs 22%; P = 0.029) and at day 7 (75% vs 50%; P = 0.018). Considering the number of pads, group 1 had a faster recovery of continence at 3, 7 and 30 days, and also had less incidence of severe incontinence. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of continence at 3 and 12 months among the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that surgical technique and young age were significantly associated with earlier time to continence at 3 and 7 days. The two groups had no significant differences in terms of surgical margins. Our modified technique of radical retropubic prostatectomy with preservation of the smooth muscular internal sphincter, as well as of the proximal urethra during bladder neck dissection, results in a significantly increased urinary continence at 3, 7 and 30 days after catheter removal, with a minor incidence of severe incontinence. The technique is also oncologically safe, and it does not increase the operative duration of the procedure. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Exposure of cultured human proximal tubular cells to cadmium, mercury, zinc and bismuth: toxicity and metallothionein induction.

    PubMed

    Rodilla, V; Miles, A T; Jenner, W; Hawksworth, G M

    1998-08-14

    The kidney, in particular the proximal convoluted tubule, is a major target site for the toxic effects of various metals. However, little is known about the early effects of these metals after acute exposure in man. In the present study we have evaluated the toxicity of several inorganic metal compounds (CdCl2, HgCl2, ZnCl2, and Bi(NO3)3) and the induction of metallothionein by these compounds in cultured human proximal tubular (HPT) cells for up to 4 days. The results showed that bismuth was not toxic even at the highest dose (100 microM) used, while zinc, cadmium and mercury exhibited varying degrees of toxicity, zinc being the least toxic and mercury the most potent. A significant degree of interindividual variation between the different isolates used in these experiments was also observed. All metals used in the present study induced MT, as revealed by immunocytochemistry. All metals showed maximal induction between 1 and 3 days after treatment. Although a certain amount of constitutive MT was present in the cultures, the intensity of the staining varied with time in culture and between the different isolates studied. No correlation could be made between the intensity of the staining in control cultures (indicating total amount of constitutive MT) and the susceptibility of a given isolate to metal toxicity. Furthermore, no correlation could be made between metal-induced MT and the susceptibility of a given isolate to that particular metal.

  8. Generation of Silicic Melts in the Early Izu-Bonin Arc Recorded by Detrital Zircons in Proximal Arc Volcaniclastic Rocks From the Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, A. P.; Tani, K.; Meffre, S.; Wooden, J. L.; Coble, M. A.; Arculus, R. J.; Ishizuka, O.; Shukle, J. T.

    2017-10-01

    A 1.2 km thick Paleogene volcaniclastic section at International Ocean Discovery Program Site 351-U1438 preserves the deep-marine, proximal record of Izu-Bonin oceanic arc initiation, and volcano evolution along the Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR). Pb/U ages and trace element compositions of zircons recovered from volcaniclastic sandstones preserve a remarkable temporal record of juvenile island arc evolution. Pb/U ages ranging from 43 to 27 Ma are compatible with provenance in one or more active arc edifices of the northern KPR. The abundances of selected trace elements with high concentrations provide insight into the genesis of U1438 detrital zircon host melts, and represent useful indicators of both short and long-term variations in melt compositions in arc settings. The Site U1438 zircons span the compositional range between zircons from mid-ocean ridge gabbros and zircons from relatively enriched continental arcs, as predicted for melts in a primitive oceanic arc setting derived from a highly depleted mantle source. Melt zircon saturation temperatures and Ti-in-zircon thermometry suggest a provenance in relatively cool and silicic melts that evolved toward more Th and U-rich compositions with time. Th, U, and light rare earth element enrichments beginning about 35 Ma are consistent with detrital zircons recording development of regional arc asymmetry and selective trace element-enriched rear arc silicic melts as the juvenile Izu-Bonin arc evolved.

  9. Compensatory Renal Hypertrophy and the Uptake of Cysteine S-Conjugates of Hg2+ in Isolated S2 Proximal Tubular Segments.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Christy C; Barfuss, Delon W; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K

    2016-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease is characterized by a progressive and permanent loss of functioning nephrons. In order to compensate for this loss, the remaining functional nephrons undergo significant structural and functional changes. We hypothesize that luminal uptake of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ), as a conjugate of cysteine (Cys; Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys), is enhanced in S2 segments of proximal tubules from the remnant kidney of uninephrectomized (NPX) rabbits. To test this hypothesis, we measured uptake and accumulation of Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys in isolated perfused S2 segments of proximal tubules from normal (control) and NPX rabbits. The remnant kidney in NPX rabbits undergoes significant hypertrophy during the initial 3 weeks following surgery. Tubules isolated from NPX rabbits were significantly larger in diameter and volume than those from control rabbits. Moreover, real-time PCR analyses of proximal tubules indicated that the expression of selected membrane transporters was greater in kidneys of NPX animals than in kidneys of control animals. When S2 segments from control and NPX rabbits were perfused with cystine or Cys-S-Hg-S-Cys, we found that the rates of luminal disappearance and tubular accumulation of Hg 2+  were greater in tubules from NPX animals. These increases were inhibited by the addition of various amino acids to the perfusate. Taken together, our data suggest that hypertrophic changes in proximal tubules lead to an enhanced ability of these tubules to take up and accumulate Hg 2 . © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption in NH4Cl acidotic rats.

    PubMed

    Vandorpe, D H; Levine, D Z

    1989-08-01

    NH4Cl acidosis--a common experimental model of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis--elicits complex intrarenal responses whereby the fall in plasma bicarbonate concentration can be restored to normal after the initial acid load. Using the technique of in vivo micropuncture of surface distal tubules of the rat kidney, we attempted to further define controlling mechanisms underlying the enhanced bicarbonate reabsorption in this setting. Specifically, we wished to determine the dependence of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCO2) on sodium transport, water reabsorption, and carbonic anhydrase activity. Surface distal tubules of Sprague-Dawley rats made acidotic by ammonium chloride gavage (arterial blood pH: 7.15 +/- 0.01, [HCO3]: 14.8 +/- 0.5 mM) were perfused in vivo at 8 and 24 nL/min with 4 different isoosmotic, 25 mM bicarbonate solutions: Group 1 was perfused with 60 mM Na, Group 2 with 60 mM choline, Group 3 with 60 mM choline + 3 x 10(-4) M amiloride, and Group 4 with 60 mM Na + 10(-3) M acetazolamide. At 8 nL/min, significant bicarbonate reabsorption occurred with all perfusates. JtCO2 was 65 +/- 4, 59 +/- 5, 58 +/- 6, and 40 +/- 4 pmol.min-1.mm-1, in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. However, JtCO2 in Group 4 was significantly less than that in Groups 1 and 2 (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). Amiloride added to the low sodium perfusate did not reduce bicarbonate reabsorption. We conclude that bicarbonate reabsorption in distal tubules of acidotic rats is acetazolamide-sensitive and is not significantly sustained by sodium or water movements.

  11. Early clinical and radiological outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty with an eccentric all-polyethylene glenosphere to treat failed hemiarthroplasty and the sequelae of proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; Tartarone, Antonio; Sperling, John W; Paladini, Paolo; Fabbri, Elisabetta; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) with an all-polyethylene glenosphere in patients with failed hemiarthroplasty (HH) or the sequelae of proximal humeral fractures. Thirty-six patients were assessed at a mean follow-up of 36 months using clinical scores and recording shoulder range of movement (ROM). Active anterior elevation (p < 0.001), lateral elevation (p < 0.001) and internal rotation (p < 0.0001) improved significantly, whereas improvement in external rotation was not significant. The mean Constant score rose significantly from 8.5 ± 7.6 to 40.7 ± 15.7 (p < 0.001) and the Simple Shoulder Test score from 0.42 ± 0.85 to 5.5 ± 2.6 (p < 0.001). Pain improved significantly from 8.7 ± 0.9 to 2.3 ± 1.2 (p < 0.001). Implant radiographic survivorship was 84.6 %. Scapular notching was detected in 7/36 patients (17.5 %). There were five complications: one (stiffness) among patients with fracture sequelae and four among those with failed HH (instability, n = 2; humeral component disassembly, n = 1; pain, n = 1). The two groups did not exhibit significant differences in pain, clinical scores or ROM. RTSA with an all-polyethylene glenosphere may have the potential to reduce the risk of biological notching due to polyethylene osteolysis. Further long-term studies are required to assess its efficacy. The good clinical performance and reasonable rate of notching of the polyethylene glenosphere support its use in primary and revision shoulder arthroplasty. Level 4, retrospective therapeutic case series.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitors protect against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury by activating autophagy in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Livingston, Man J; Dong, Guie; Tang, Chengyuan; Su, Yunchao; Wu, Guangyu; Yin, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Zheng

    2018-02-23

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have therapeutic effects in models of various renal diseases including acute kidney injury (AKI); however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that two widely tested HDACi (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and trichostatin A (TSA)) protect the kidneys in cisplatin-induced AKI by enhancing autophagy. In cultured renal proximal tubular cells, SAHA and TSA enhanced autophagy during cisplatin treatment. We further verified the protective effect of TSA against cisplatin-induced apoptosis in these cells. Notably, inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine or by autophagy gene 7 (Atg7) ablation diminished the protective effect of TSA. In mice, TSA increased autophagy in renal proximal tubules and protected against cisplatin-induced AKI. The in vivo effect of TSA was also abolished by chloroquine and by Atg7 knockout specifically from renal proximal tubules. Mechanistically, TSA stimulated AMPK and inactivated mTOR during cisplatin treatment of proximal tubule cells and kidneys in mice. Together, these results suggest that HDACi may protect kidneys by activating autophagy in proximal tubular cells.

  13. Proximal tubulopathies associated with monoclonal light chains: the spectrum of clinicopathologic manifestations and molecular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Guillermo A

    2014-10-01

    Lesions associated with monoclonal light and heavy chains display a variety of glomerular, tubular interstitial, and vascular manifestations. While some of the entities are well recognized, including light and heavy chain deposition diseases, AL (light chain) and AH (heavy chain) amyloidosis, and light chain ("myeloma") cast nephropathy, other lesions centered on proximal tubules are much less accurately identified, properly diagnosed, and adequately understood in terms of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms involved. These proximal tubule-centered lesions are typically associated with monoclonal light chains and have not been reported in patients with circulating monoclonal heavy chains. To determine the incidence of proximal tubulopathies in a series of patients with monoclonal light chain-related renal lesions and characterize them with an emphasis on clinical correlations and elucidation of molecular mechanisms involved in their pathogenesis. A study of 5410 renal biopsies with careful evaluation of light microscopic, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic findings was conducted to identify these monoclonal light/heavy chain-related lesions. In selected cases, ultrastructural immunolabeling was performed to better illustrate and understand molecular mechanisms involved or to resolve specific diagnostic difficulties. In all, 2.5% of the biopsies were diagnosed as demonstrating renal pathology associated with monoclonal light or heavy chains. Of these, approximately 46% were classified as proximal tubule-centered lesions, also referred to as monoclonal light chain-associated proximal tubulopathies. These proximal tubulopathies were divided into 4 groups defined by characteristic immunomorphologic manifestations associated with specific clinical settings. These are important lesions whose recognition in the different clinical settings is extremely important for patients' clinical management, therapeutic purposes, and prognosis. These entities have been

  14. Proximal Junctional Kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Jo; Iyer, Sravisht

    2016-05-01

    Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a common complication following adult spinal deformity surgery. It is defined by two criteria: a proximal junctional sagittal Cobb angle (1) ≥ 10° and (2) at least 10° greater than the preoperative measurement. PJK is multifactorial in origin and likely stems from surgical, radiographic, and patient-related risk factors. The diagnosis of PJK represents a broad spectrum of disease ranging from asymptomatic patients with recurrence of deformity to those presenting with increased pain, functional deficit, and, in the most severe cases, neurologic deficits. Recent studies have demonstrated increased pain levels in select patients with PJK. In keeping with the broad spectrum of the disease, classification schemes are needed to better describe and stratify the severity of PJK. The most severe form is proximal junctional failure. A consensus on a uniform definition of proximal junctional failure is needed to allow for more systematic study of this phenomenon.

  15. Regional distribution of T-tubule density in left and right atria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rishi; Aistrup, Gary L; Supple, Stephen; Frank, Caleb; Singh, Jasleen; Tai, Shannon; Zhao, Anne; Chicos, Laura; Marszalec, William; Guo, Ang; Song, Long-Sheng; Wasserstrom, J Andrew

    2017-02-01

    The peculiarities of transverse tubule (T-tubule) morphology and distribution in the atrium-and how they contribute to excitation-contraction coupling-are just beginning to be understood. The objectives of this study were to determine T-tubule density in the intact, live right and left atria in a large animal and to determine intraregional differences in T-tubule organization within each atrium. Using confocal microscopy, T-tubules were imaged in both atria in intact, Langendorf-perfused normal dog hearts loaded with di-4-ANEPPS. T-tubules were imaged in large populations of myocytes from the endocardial surface of each atrium. Computerized data analysis was performed using a new MatLab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) routine, AutoTT. There was a large percentage of myocytes that had no T-tubules in both atria with a higher percentage in the right atrium (25.1%) than in the left atrium (12.5%) (P < .02). The density of transverse and longitudinal T-tubule elements was low in cells that did contain T-tubules, but there were no significant differences in density between the left atrial appendage, the pulmonary vein-posterior left atrium, the right atrial appendage, and the right atrial free wall. In contrast, there were significant differences in sarcomere spacing and cell width between different regions of the atria. There is a sparse T-tubule network in atrial myocytes throughout both dog atria, with significant numbers of myocytes in both atria-the right atrium more so than the left atrium-having no T-tubules at all. These regional differences in T-tubule distribution, along with differences in cell width and sarcomere spacing, may have implications for the emergence of substrate for atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  17. [Anatomy, physiology and clinical relevance of the connecting tubule].

    PubMed

    Miranda, N; Simeoni, M A; Ciriana, E; Panico, C; Cappello, E; Capasso, G B

    2009-01-01

    The cortical distal nephron is the site of fine regulation of salt and water excretion by peptide and mineralocorticoid hormones and the site for specific actions of diuretics. Some data suggest that sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion in the distal convoluted tubule and the connecting tubule (CNT) are sufficient to maintain the sodium and potassium balance, with little or no contribution of the collecting duct. The homeostatic role of the sodium and potassium transport systems in the collecting duct can be questioned, especially in conditions where dietary sodium intake is high and potassium intake is low compared with the physiological needs of the organism. The functional expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in the CNT is sufficient for furosemide-stimulated urinary acidification and identifies the CNT as a major segment in electrogenic urinary acidification. In the outer renal cortex, the CNT returns to the glomerular hilus and contacts the renal afferent arterioles (Af-Art). This morphology is compatible with a cross-talk between the CNT and Af-Art. This novel regulatory mechanism of the renal microcirculation may participate in the vasodilatation observed during high salt intake, perhaps by antagonizing tubuloglomerular feedback. In conclusion, the cortical distal nephron appears to be a complex site for several physiological mechanisms; it is mainly involved in salt and fluid homeostasis and in acid-base balance maintenance. Furthermore, the CNT segment appears to promote a CNT-Af-Art feedback loop.

  18. Constitutively Active SPAK Causes Hyperkalemia by Activating NCC and Remodeling Distal Tubules.

    PubMed

    Grimm, P Richard; Coleman, Richard; Delpire, Eric; Welling, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant activation of with no lysine (WNK) kinases causes familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt). Thiazide diuretics treat the disease, fostering the view that hyperactivation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is solely responsible. However, aberrant signaling in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and inhibition of the potassium-excretory renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel have also been implicated. To test these ideas, we introduced kinase-activating mutations after Lox-P sites in the mouse Stk39 gene, which encodes the terminal kinase in the WNK signaling pathway, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Renal expression of the constitutively active (CA)-SPAK mutant was specifically targeted to the early DCT using a DCT-driven Cre recombinase. CA-SPAK mice displayed thiazide-treatable hypertension and hyperkalemia, concurrent with NCC hyperphosphorylation. However, thiazide-mediated inhibition of NCC and consequent restoration of sodium excretion did not immediately restore urinary potassium excretion in CA-SPAK mice. Notably, CA-SPAK mice exhibited ASDN remodeling, involving a reduction in connecting tubule mass and attenuation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and ROMK expression and apical localization. Blocking hyperactive NCC in the DCT gradually restored ASDN structure and ENaC and ROMK expression, concurrent with the restoration of urinary potassium excretion. These findings verify that NCC hyperactivity underlies FHHt but also reveal that NCC-dependent changes in the driving force for potassium secretion are not sufficient to explain hyperkalemia. Instead, a DCT-ASDN coupling process controls potassium balance in health and becomes aberrantly activated in FHHt. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Organization of tubules in the human caput epididymidis and the ultrastructure of their epithelia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C H; Cooper, T G; Bergmann, M; Schulze, H

    1991-07-01

    The structure of the human caput epididymidis was examined by gross morphological and light and electron microscopic techniques. There were at least seven types of tubules, each characterized by a different epithelium. These tubules were connected with one another by at least eight types of junctions to form a network. Most of the caput epididymidis was composed of efferent ducts. Within these, five types of tubules, each with a different ciliated epithelium, were found in different regions; and four types of junctions between the efferent ducts and the epididymal tubule were observed. The efferent ducts left the testis, initially as parallel straight tubules containing both ciliated and non-ciliated cells in an epithelium of irregular height. Each efferent duct then coiled tortuously into lobules that folded over one another. These efferent ducts then branched out as thin tubules to join a network of dark tubules which were lined by a regular epithelium containing prominently vacuolated, non-ciliated cells. These tubules anastomosed via common cavities characterized by a ciliated cuboidal epithelium and sometimes joined tubules exhibiting a non-vacuolated ciliated epithelium. The latter, as well as typical efferent ducts, made connection with the epididymis proper in both end-to-end and end-to-side junctions. In the more distal junctions with the epididymis, the efferent ducts joined to a transitional epididymal ductule before joining to the side of the epididymis proper. Post-junctional epithelia in the beginning of the epididymis occasionally contained patches of cells characteristic of efferent ducts. Tall cells with long stereocilia constituted a discontinuous "initial segment"-like region of the epididymis. This is the most detailed study so far of the epithelia and the tubule organization in the caput epididymidis of any species, and most of the results are reported for the first time for the human. Although the pattern of the tubule network resembles that

  20. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit is disclosed. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change. 14 figs.

  1. Capacitive proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A proximity sensor based on a closed field circuit. The circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plates that creates an oscillating displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of objects to the plate array. Preferably the plates are in the form of a group of three pair of symmetric plates having a common center, arranged in a hexagonal pattern with opposing plates linked as a pair. The sensor produces logic level pulses suitable for interfacing with a computer or process controller. The proximity sensor can be incorporated into a load cell, a differential pressure gauge, or a device for measuring the consistency of a characteristic of a material where a variation in the consistency causes the dielectric constant of the material to change.

  2. Wetting-mediated collective tubulation and pearling in confined vesicular drops of DDAB solutions.

    PubMed

    Haidara, Hamidou

    2014-12-21

    Whether driven by external mechanical stresses (shear flow) or induced by membrane-active peptides and/or proteins, the collective growth of tubules in membranous fluids has seldom been reported. The pearling destabilization of these membranous tubules which requires an activation of the shape distortion, often induced by optical tweezers, membrane-active biomolecules or an electrical field, has also rarely been observed under mild experimental conditions. Here we report such events of collective tubulation and pearling destabilization in sessile drops of a didodecyl-dimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) vesicular solution that are confined by a surrounding oil medium. Based on the wetting dynamics and the features of the tubulation process, we show that the growth of the tubules here relies on a mechanism of "pinning-induced pulling" from the retracting drop, rather than the classical hydrodynamic fingering instability. We show that the whole tubulation process is driven by a strong coupling between the bulk properties of the ternary (DAAB/water/oil) system and the dynamics of wetting. Finally, we discuss the pearling destabilization of these tubules under vanishing static interface tension and quite mild tensile force arising from their pulling. We show that under those mild conditions, shape disturbances readily grow, either as pearling waves moving toward the drop-reservoir or as Rayleigh-type peristaltic modulations. Besides revealing singular non-Rayleigh pearling modes, this work also brings new insights into the flow dynamics in membranous tubules anchored to an infinite reservoir.

  3. Mathematical study on robust tissue pattern formation in growing epididymal tubule.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Tsuyoshi

    2016-10-21

    Tissue pattern formation during development is a reproducible morphogenetic process organized by a series of kinetic cellular activities, leading to the building of functional and stable organs. Recent studies focusing on mechanical aspects have revealed physical mechanisms on how the cellular activities contribute to the formation of reproducible tissue patterns; however, the understanding for what factors achieve the reproducibility of such patterning and how it occurs is far from complete. Here, I focus on a tube pattern formation during murine epididymal development, and show that two factors influencing physical design for the patterning, the proliferative zone within the tubule and the viscosity of tissues surrounding to the tubule, control the reproducibility of epididymal tubule pattern, using a mathematical model based on experimental data. Extensive numerical simulation of the simple mathematical model revealed that a spatially localized proliferative zone within the tubule, observed in experiments, results in more reproducible tubule pattern. Moreover, I found that the viscosity of tissues surrounding to the tubule imposes a trade-off regarding pattern reproducibility and spatial accuracy relating to the region where the tubule pattern is formed. This indicates an existence of optimality in material properties of tissues for the robust patterning of epididymal tubule. The results obtained by numerical analysis based on experimental observations provide a general insight on how physical design realizes robust tissue pattern formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on the structure of the boundary tissue of the white rat seminiferous tubules.

    PubMed

    Cieciura, L

    1988-01-01

    The studies on boundary tissue of the white rat seminiferous tubules with light and electron microscopy were carried out. The wall of the tubules consists of four layers: two cellular and two amorphous ones. In cellular external sheath the characteristic intercellular fissures a network of hexagonal meshes were seen resembling the honey-combs.

  5. Acute and chronic effects of SGLT2 blockade on glomerular and tubular function in the early diabetic rat

    PubMed Central

    Rieg, Timo; Miracle, Cynthia; Mansoury, Hadi; Whaley, Jean; Vallon, Volker; Singh, Prabhleen

    2012-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) stabilizes nephron function from minute to minute and adapts to different steady-state inputs to maintain this capability. Such adaptation inherently renders TGF less efficient at buffering long-term disturbances, but the magnitude of loss is unknown. We undertook the present study to measure the compromise between TGF and TGF adaptation in transition from acute to chronic decline in proximal reabsorption (Jprox). As a tool, we blocked proximal tubule sodium-glucose cotransport with the SGLT2 blocker dapagliflozin in hyperglycemic rats with early streptozotocin diabetes, a condition in which a large fraction of proximal fluid reabsorption owes to SGLT2. Dapagliflozin acutely reduced proximal reabsorption leading to a 70% increase in early distal chloride, a saturated TGF response, and a major reduction in single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR). Acute and chronic effects on Jprox were indistinguishable. Adaptations to 10–12 days of dapagiflozin included increased reabsorption by Henle's loop, which caused a partial relaxation in the increased tone exerted by TGF that could be explained without desensitization of TGF. In summary, TGF contributes to long-term fluid and salt balance by mediating a persistent decline in SNGFR as the kidney adapts to a sustained decrease in Jprox. PMID:21940401

  6. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  7. The Adult Drosophila Malpighian Tubules Are Maintained by Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram; Liu, Wei; Hou, Steven X.

    2007-01-01

    Summary All animals must excrete the waste products of metabolism. Excretion is performed by the kidney in vertebrates and by the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila. The mammalian kidney has an inherent ability for recovery and regeneration following ischemic injury. Stem cells and progenitor cells have been proposed to be responsible for repair and regeneration of injured renal tissue. In Drosophila, the Malpighian tubules are thought to be very stable, and no stem cells have been identified. We have identified pluripotent stem cells in the region of lower tubules and ureters of the Malpighian tubules. Using lineage tracing and molecular marker labeling, we demonstrated that several differentiated cells in the Malpighian tubules arise from the stem cells and an autocrine JAK-STAT signaling regulates the stem cells' self-renewal. Identifying adult kidney stem cells in Drosophila may provide important clues for understanding mammalian kidney repair and regeneration during injury. PMID:18371350

  8. Static analysis of masonry kilns built with fictile tubules bricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivito, Renato S.; Scuro, Carmelo; Codispoti, Rosamaria

    2016-12-01

    Industrial archeology is a branch that studies all the testimony (tangible and intangible, direct and indirect) related to the process of industrialization since its origins. This technical field is based on an interdisciplinary approach, it has the task of deepening the story, understanding the technological development made by man over the centuries. The present work focused attention on the study and analysis of a masonry kiln, built with the technique of hollow clay fictile tubules. The study, in particular, has been carried out analyzing the stress state caused by the wind on the structure. The kiln is constituted by a particular geometric configuration that develops in height due to the presence of chimney over the dome.

  9. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved

  10. Passive driving forces of proximal tubular fluid and bicarbonate transport: gradient dependence of H+ secretion.

    PubMed

    Chan, Y L; Malnic, G; Giebisch, G

    1983-11-01

    The effect of oncotic pressure changes on fluid (Jv) and net bicarbonate transport (JHCO-3) and the transepithelial bicarbonate permeability (PHCO-3) were measured by an improved luminal and capillary microperfusion method that allows paired experiments on the same tubule. Rat proximal tubules were pump-perfused and Jv and [HCO-3] measured with [14C]inulin and a pH glass electrode. Raising peritubular protein (0-8-15 g/100 ml bovine serum albumin) stimulated Jv and HCO-3 reabsorption. The response to oncotic pressure changes was asymmetrical since changes of the luminal protein concentration had no significant effects. Whereas transepithelial solvent drag effects on HCO-3 must be minimal, peritubular protein most likely stimulates translocation of fluid and bicarbonate from intercellular spaces into peritubular capillaries. PHCO-3 was measured from HCO-3 net flux along a lumen-to-capillary-directed electrochemical potential gradient. In these experiments active H+ transport and Jv were minimized by 10(-4) M acetazolamide and luminal raffinose. PHCO-3 was 1.77 X 10(-5) cm X s-1 and was unaffected by increasing luminal flow rate from 10 to 45 nl X min-1. Since bicarbonate backflux is only a small fraction of physiological rates of JHCO-3, net transport alterations at varying [HCO-3] in the lumen must be due to changes in active HCO-3 (H+) transport. Thus, active H+ ion secretion across the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule is gradient dependent.

  11. A critical synopsis: Continuous growth of proximal tubular kidney epithelial cells in hormone-supplemented serum-free medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuman, L. M.; FINE; COHEN; Saier, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The kidney forms urine and reabsorbs electrolytes and water. Kidney cell lines and hormone supplemented serum free medium were used for growth. The hormones were insulin, transferrin, vasopressin, cholesterol, prostaglandins, hydrocortisone, and triidothyronine. Epithelial cell lines are polar and form hemicysts. The Madin-Darby canine kidney(MDCK) cell line used is distal tubulelike. LLC-PK sub 1 cells are derived from pig kidneys and have the properties of different kidney segments. The LLC-PK sub 1 cells with proximal tubule properties were maintained in hormone-supplemented serum free medium. Seven factors (the aforementioned homrones and selenium) were needed for growth. Hormone-defined medium supported LLC-PK sub 1 cell growth, allowed transport (as seen by hemicyst formation), and influenced cell morphology. Vasopressin (used for growth and morphology) could be partially replaced by isobutylmethylxanthine or dibutyryl cAMP. The defined medium was used to isolate rabbit proximal tubule kidney epithelial cells free of fibroblasts.

  12. 3D variations in human crown dentin tubule orientation: a phase-contrast microtomography study.

    PubMed

    Zaslansky, Paul; Zabler, Simon; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Tubules dominate the microstructure of dentin, and in crowns of human teeth they are surrounded by thick mineralized peritubular cuffs of high stiffness. Here we examine the three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of tubules in relation to enamel on the buccal and lingual aspects of intact premolars and molars. Specifically we investigate the angular orientation of tubules relative to the plane of the junction of dentin with enamel (DEJ) by means of wet, non-destructive and high-resolution phase-contrast (coherent) tomography. Enamel capped dentin samples (n=16), cut from the buccal and lingual surfaces of upper and lower premolar and molar teeth, were imaged in water by high-resolution synchrotron-based phase-contrast X-ray radiography. Reconstructed 3D virtual images were co-aligned with respect to the DEJ plane. The average tubule orientation was determined at increasing distances from the DEJ, based on integrated projections onto orthogonal virtual planes. The angle and curl of the tubules were determined every 100 microm to a depth of 1.4mm beneath the DEJ. Most tubules do not extend at right angles from the DEJ. Even when they do, tubules always change their orientations substantially within the first half-millimeter zone beneath the DEJ, both on the buccal and lingual aspects of premolar and molar teeth. Tubules also tend to curl and twist within this zone. Student t-tests indicate that lower teeth seem to have greater tilts in the tubule orientations relative to the DEJ normal with an average angle of 42 degrees (+/-2.0 degrees), whereas upper teeth exhibit a smaller change of orientation, with an average of 32 degrees (+/-2.1 degrees). Tubules are a central characteristic of dentin, with important implications on how it is arranged and what the properties are. Knowing about the path that tubules follow is important for various reasons, ranging form improving control over restorative procedures to understanding or simulating the mechanical properties of teeth

  13. Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    SciT

    Wang, Yi-Fen; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chang, Yi-Chuang

    2012-03-01

    Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not onlymore » inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.« less

  14. Functional Coupling of Human Microphysiology Systems: Intestine, Liver, Kidney Proximal Tubule, Blood-Brain Barrier and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vernetti, Lawrence; Gough, Albert; Baetz, Nicholas; Blutt, Sarah; Broughman, James R.; Brown, Jacquelyn A.; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Hasan, Nesrin; In, Julie; Kelly, Edward; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Repper, Jonathan; Senutovitch, Nina; Stabb, Janet; Yeung, Catherine; Zachos, Nick C.; Donowitz, Mark; Estes, Mary; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Truskey, George; Wikswo, John P.; Taylor, D. Lansing

    2017-01-01

    Organ interactions resulting from drug, metabolite or xenobiotic transport between organs are key components of human metabolism that impact therapeutic action and toxic side effects. Preclinical animal testing often fails to predict adverse outcomes arising from sequential, multi-organ metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. Human microphysiological systems (MPS) can model these interactions and are predicted to dramatically improve the efficiency of the drug development process. In this study, five human MPS models were evaluated for functional coupling, defined as the determination of organ interactions via an in vivo-like sequential, organ-to-organ transfer of media. MPS models representing the major absorption, metabolism and clearance organs (the jejunum, liver and kidney) were evaluated, along with skeletal muscle and neurovascular models. Three compounds were evaluated for organ-specific processing: terfenadine for pharmacokinetics (PK) and toxicity; trimethylamine (TMA) as a potentially toxic microbiome metabolite; and vitamin D3. We show that the organ-specific processing of these compounds was consistent with clinical data, and discovered that trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) crosses the blood-brain barrier. These studies demonstrate the potential of human MPS for multi-organ toxicity and absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME), provide guidance for physically coupling MPS, and offer an approach to coupling MPS with distinct media and perfusion requirements. PMID:28176881

  15. Characterization of the Interaction of Staphylococcal Entertoxin B with CD1d Expressed in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-04

    underscored by its influences on the performances of natural killer T- cells and thereby mediates the innate and adaptive immune systems. Results... cells to the non- lymphoid cell types derived from kidney [13], spleen [14], lungs [15], and gut [16]. Recent findings demonstrating the translocation...pathogenesis has been in- vestigated in the past, primarily focused on the lymphoid cells [37-41], while the knowledge gap exists in compre- hending

  16. Proximity Networks and Epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Hasan; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2007-03-01

    We presented the basis of a framework to account for the dynamics of contacts in epidemic processes, through the notion of dynamic proximity graphs. By varying the integration time-parameter T, which is the period of infectivity one can give a simple account for some of the differences in the observed contact networks for different diseases, such as smallpox, or AIDS. Our simplistic model also seems to shed some light on the shape of the degree distribution of the measured people-people contact network from the EPISIM data. We certainly do not claim that the simplistic graph integration model above is a good model for dynamic contact graphs. It only contains the essential ingredients for such processes to produce a qualitative agreement with some observations. We expect that further refinements and extensions to this picture, in particular deriving the link-probabilities in the dynamic proximity graph from more realistic contact dynamics should improve the agreement between models and data.

  17. Fluoride-associated ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in human renal tubule: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Quadri, J A; Sarwar, S; Sinha, A; Kalaivani, M; Dinda, A K; Bagga, A; Roy, T S; Das, T K; Shariff, A

    2018-01-01

    The susceptibility of the kidneys to fluoride toxicity can largely be attributed to its anatomy and function. As the filtrate moves along the complex tubular structure of each nephron, it is concentrated in the proximal and distal tubules and collecting duct. It has been frequently observed that the children suffering from renal impairments also have some symptoms of dental and skeletal fluorosis. The findings suggest that fluoride somehow interferes with renal anatomy and physiology, which may lead to renal pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride-associated nephrotoxicity. A total of 156 patients with childhood nephrotic syndrome were screened and it was observed that 32 of them had significantly high levels ( p ≤ 0.05) of fluoride in urine (4.01 ± 1.83 ppm) and serum (0.1 ± 0.013 ppm). On the basis of urinary fluoride concentration, patients were divided into two groups, namely group 1 (G-1) ( n = 32) containing normal urine fluoride (0.61 ± 0.17 ppm) and group 2 (G-2) ( n = 32) having high urine fluoride concentration (4.01 ± 1.83 ppm). Age-matched healthy subjects ( n = 33) having normal levels of urinary fluoride (0.56 ± 0.15 ppm) were included in the study as control (group 0 (G-0)). Kidney biopsies were taken from G-1 and G-2 only, who were subjected to ultrastructural (transmission electron microscopy) and apoptotic (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling) analysis. Various subcellular ultrastructural changes including nuclear disintegration, chromosome condensation, cytoplasmic ground substance lysis, and endoplasmic reticulum blebbing were observed. Increased levels of apoptosis were observed in high fluoride group (G-2) compared to normal fluoride group (G-1). Various degrees of fluoride-associated damages to the architecture of tubular epithelia, such as cell swelling and lysis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, nuclear condensation, apoptosis, and necrosis, were observed.

  18. Permeation of macromolecules into the renal glomerular basement membrane and capture by the tubules

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Marlon G.; Altenburg, Michael K.; Sanford, Ryan; Willett, Julian D.; Bleasdale, Benjamin; Ballou, Byron; Wilder, Jennifer; Li, Feng; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Berg, Ulla B.; Smithies, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    How the kidney prevents urinary excretion of plasma proteins continues to be debated. Here, using unfixed whole-mount mouse kidneys, we show that fluorescent-tagged proteins and neutral dextrans permeate into the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), in general agreement with Ogston's 1958 equation describing how permeation into gels is related to molecular size. Electron-microscopic analyses of kidneys fixed seconds to hours after injecting gold-tagged albumin, negatively charged gold nanoparticles, and stable oligoclusters of gold nanoparticles show that permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM is size-sensitive. Nanoparticles comparable in size with IgG dimers do not permeate into it. IgG monomer-sized particles permeate to some extent. Albumin-sized particles permeate extensively into the lamina densa. Particles traversing the lamina densa tend to accumulate upstream of the podocyte glycocalyx that spans the slit, but none are observed upstream of the slit diaphragm. At low concentrations, ovalbumin-sized nanoparticles reach the primary filtrate, are captured by proximal tubule cells, and are endocytosed. At higher concentrations, tubular capture is saturated, and they reach the urine. In mouse models of Pierson’s or Alport’s proteinuric syndromes resulting from defects in GBM structural proteins (laminin β2 or collagen α3 IV), the GBM is irregularly swollen, the lamina densa is absent, and permeation is increased. Our observations indicate that size-dependent permeation into the lamina densa of the GBM and the podocyte glycocalyx, together with saturable tubular capture, determines which macromolecules reach the urine without the need to invoke direct size selection by the slit diaphragm. PMID:28246329

  19. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sulaiman, Alaa; Al-Rasheed, Fellwa; Alnajjar, Fatimah; Al-Abdulwahab, Bander; Al-Badah, Abdulhakeem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Materials and Methods Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd). Results Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Conclusions Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules. PMID:25383343

  20. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study.

    PubMed

    Al-Nazhan, Saad; Al-Sulaiman, Alaa; Al-Rasheed, Fellwa; Alnajjar, Fatimah; Al-Abdulwahab, Bander; Al-Badah, Abdulhakeem

    2014-11-01

    This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd). Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules.

  1. Penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules using ultrasonic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Vyas, N; Sammons, R L; Pikramenou, Z; Palin, W M; Dehghani, H; Walmsley, A D

    2017-01-01

    Functionalised silica sub-micron particles are being investigated as a method of delivering antimicrobials and remineralisation agents into dentinal tubules. However, their methods of application are not optimised, resulting in shallow penetration and aggregation. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of cavitation occurring around ultrasonic scalers for enhancing particle penetration into dentinal tubules. Dentine slices were prepared from premolar teeth. Silica sub-micron particles were prepared in water or acetone. Cavitation from an ultrasonic scaler (Satelec P5 Newtron, Acteon, France) was applied to dentine slices immersed inside the sub-micron particle solutions. Samples were imaged with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess tubule occlusion and particle penetration. Qualitative observations of SEM images showed some tubule occlusion. The particles could penetrate inside the tubules up to 60μm when there was no cavitation and up to ∼180μm when there was cavitation. The cavitation bubbles produced from an ultrasonic scaler may be used to deliver sub-micron particles into dentine. This method has the potential to deliver such particles deeper into the dentinal tubules. Cavitation from a clinical ultrasonic scaler may enhance penetration of sub-micron particles into dentinal tubules. This can aid in the development of novel methods for delivering therapeutic clinical materials for hypersensitivity relief and treatment of dentinal caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Annexin IV (Xanx-4) has a functional role in the formation of pronephric tubules.

    PubMed

    Seville, Rachel A; Nijjar, Sarbjit; Barnett, Mark W; Massé, Karine; Jones, Elizabeth A

    2002-04-01

    Vertebrate kidney organogenesis is characterised by the successive formation of the pronephros, the mesonephros and the metanephros. The pronephros is the first to form and is the functional embryonic kidney of lower vertebrates; although it is vestigial in higher vertebrates, it is a necessary precursor for the other kidney types. The Xenopus pronephros is a simple paired organ; each nephron consists of a single large glomus, one set of tubules and a single duct. The simple organisation of the pronephros and the amenability of Xenopus laevis embryos to manipulation make the Xenopus pronephros an attractive system in which to study organogenesis. It has been shown that pronephric tubules can be induced to form in presumptive ectodermal tissue by treatment with RA and activin. We have used this system in a subtractive hybridisation screen that resulted in the cloning of Xenopus laevis annexin IV (Xanx-4). Xanx-4 transcripts are specifically located to the developing pronephric tubules, and the protein to the luminal surface of these tubules. Temporal expression shows zygotic transcription is upregulated at the time of pronephric tubule specification and persists throughout pronephric development. The temporal and spatial expression pattern of Xanx-4 suggests it may have a role in pronephric tubule development. Overexpression of Xanx-4 yields no apparent phenotype, but Xanx-4 depletion, using morpholinos, produces a shortened, enlarged tubule phenotype. The phenotype observed can be rescued by co-injection of Xanx-4 mRNA. Although the function of annexins is not yet clear, studies have suggested a role for annexins in a number of cellular processes. Annexin IV has been shown to have an inhibitory role in the regulation of epithelial calcium-activated chloride ion conductance. The enlarged pronephric tubule phenotype observed may be attributed to incorrect modulation of exocytosis, membrane plasticity or ion channels and/or water homeostasis. In this study, we

  3. Exploring the human mesenchymal stem cell tubule communication network through electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sabrina; Rossi, Roberta; Resta, Leonardo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2015-04-01

    Cells use several mechanisms to transfer information to other cells. In this study, we describe micro/nanotubular connections and exosome-like tubule fragments in multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human arteries. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed characterization of sinusoidal microtubular projections (700 nm average size, 200 µm average length, with bulging mitochondria and actin microfilaments); short, uniform, variously shaped nanotubular projections (100 nm, bidirectional communication); and tubule fragments (50 nm). This is the first study demonstrating that MSCs from human arteries constitutively interact through an articulate and dynamic tubule network allowing long-range cell to cell communication.

  4. Prenatal programming of rat cortical collecting tubule sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lozano, German; Baum, Michel

    2012-03-15

    Prenatal insults have been shown to lead to elevated blood pressure in offspring when they are studied as adults. Prenatal administration of dexamethasone and dietary protein deprivation have demonstrated that there is an increase in transporter abundance for a number of nephron segments but not the subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the cortical collecting duct. Recent studies have shown that aldosterone is elevated in offspring of protein-deprived mothers when studied as adults, but the physiological importance of the increase in serum aldosterone is unknown. As an indirect measure of ENaC activity, we compared the natriuretic response to benzamil in offspring of mothers who ate a low-protein diet (6%) with those who ate a normal diet (20%) for the last half of pregnancy. The natriuretic response to benzamil was greater in the 6% group (821.1 ± 161.0 μmol/24 h) compared with the 20% group (279.1 ± 137.0 μmol/24 h), consistent with greater ENaC activity in vivo (P < 0.05). In this study, we also directly studied cortical collecting tubule function from adult rats using in vitro microperfusion. There was no difference in basal or vasopressin-stimulated osmotic water permeability. However, while cortical collecting ducts of adult offspring whose mothers ate a 20% protein diet had no sodium transport (-1.9 ± 3.1 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1)), the offspring of rats that ate a 6% protein diet during the last half of pregnancy had a net sodium flux of 10.7 ± 2.6 pmol·mm(-1)·min(-1) (P = 0.01) in tubules perfused in vitro. Sodium transport was measured using ion-selective electrodes, a novel technique allowing measurement of sodium in nanoliter quantities of fluid. Thus we directly demonstrate that there is prenatal programming of cortical collecting duct sodium transport.

  5. Mechanisms of connecting tubule glomerular feedback enhancement by aldosterone

    PubMed Central

    Ren, YiLin; Janic, Branislava; Kutskill, Kristopher; Peterson, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Connecting tubule glomerular feedback (CTGF) is a mechanism where an increase in sodium (Na) concentration in the connecting tubule (CNT) causes the afferent arteriole (Af-Art) to dilate. We recently reported that aldosterone within the CNT lumen enhances CTGF via a nongenomic effect involving GPR30 receptors and sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE), but the signaling pathways of this mechanism are unknown. We hypothesize that aldosterone enhances CTGF via cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway that activates protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates superoxide (O2−) production. Rabbit Af-Arts and their adherent CNTs were microdissected and simultaneously perfused. Two consecutive CTGF curves were elicited by increasing the CNT luminal NaCl. We found that the main effect of aldosterone was to sensitize CTGF and we analyzed data by comparing NaCl concentration in the CNT perfusate needed to achieve half of the maximal response (EC50). During the control period, the NaCl concentration that elicited a half-maximal response (EC50) was 37.0 ± 2.0 mmol/l; addition of aldosterone (10−8 mol/l) to the CNT lumen decreased EC50 to 19.3 ± 1.3 mmol/l (P ≤ 0.001 vs. Control). The specific adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2′,3′-dideoxyadenosine (ddA; 2 × 10−4 mol/l) and the PKA inhibitor H-89 dihydrochloride hydrate (H-89; 2 × 10−6 mol/l) prevented the aldosterone effect. The selective PKC inhibitor GF109203X (10−8 mol/l) also prevented EC50 reduction caused by aldosterone. CNT intraluminal addition of O2− scavenger tempol (10−4 mol/l) blocked the aldosterone effect. We conclude that aldosterone inside the CNT lumen enhances CTGF via a cAMP/PKA/PKC pathway and stimulates O2− generation and this process may contribute to renal damage by increasing glomerular capillary pressure. PMID:27413197

  6. Proximal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  7. Proximate Composition Analysis.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes. Analyses used may be rapid methods for QC or more accurate but time-consuming official methods. Sample collection and preparation must be considered carefully to ensure analysis of a homogeneous and representative sample, and to obtain accurate results. Estimation methods of moisture content, ash value, crude lipid, total carbohydrates, starch, total free amino acids and total proteins are put together in a lucid manner.

  8. In vitro remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions and assessment of dentine tubule occlusion from NaF dentifrices with and without calcium.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, A R; Manojkumar, A Jaiswal; Basappa, N

    2013-01-01

    Currently, fluoride is the most effective preventive treatment for remineralization of incipient carious lesions and dentinal hypersensitivity due to wasting disorders. The products containing fluoride, calcium and phosphate are also claim to remineralize early, non-cavitated enamel demineralization. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of two such products, Tooth Mousse and Clinpro tooth crème on remineralization and tubule occluding ability with 5000ppm fluoride-containing toothpaste. Thirty third molar teeth were placed in demineralizing solution for 5 days such that only a window of 1mm x 5mm was exposed to the environment to produce artificial caries-like lesions and randomly assigned to three groups: Group I, 5000ppm sodium fluoride; Group II, GC MI paste plus and Group III, Clinpro tooth crème. Axial longitudinal sections of 140-160 μm of each tooth which included the artificial carious lesion taken and were photographed under polarized light microscope. The demineralized areas were then quantified with a computerized imaging system. The experimental materials were applied onto the tooth sections as a topical coating and subjected to pH-cycling for 28 days. To evaluate tubule occlusion ability, thirty dentin specimens of 2mm thickness were obtained from cervical third of sound third molars. Specimens were ultrasonicated and etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes to simulate the hypersensitive dentin. Specimens were randomly divided into above mentioned three groups (n=10). The test agents were brushed over the specimens with an electric toothbrush, prepared and observed under Scanning Electron Microscope for calculation of the percentage of occluded tubules. Group I showed a significantly greater percentage of remineralization than Group III and Group II. Comparison of the remineralization potential between group II and group III were not significant.In case of dentine hypersensitivity, Group I and group III showed greater

  9. A missense mutation in myosin VIIA prevents aminoglycoside accumulation in early postnatal cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G P; Forge, A; Kros, C J; Marcotti, W; Becker, D; Williams, D S; Thorpe, J; Fleming, J; Brown, S D; Steel, K P

    1999-11-28

    Myosin VIIA is expressed by sensory hair cells in the inner ear and proximal tubule cells in the kidney, the two primary targets of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Using cochlear cultures prepared from early postnatal Myo7a6J mice with a missense mutation in the head region of the myosin VIIA molecule we show that this myosin is required for aminoglycoside accumulation in cochlear hair cells. Hair cells in homozygous mutant Myo7a6J cochlear cultures have disorganized hair bundles, but are otherwise morphologically normal and transduce. However, and in contrast to hair cells from heterozygous Myo7a6J cultures, the homozygous Myo7a6J hair cells do not accumulate [3H]gentamicin and do not exhibit an ototoxic response on exposure to aminoglycoside. Possible roles for myosin VIIA in the process of aminoglycoside accumulation are discussed.

  10. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  11. Mechanisms of calcium sequestration by isolated Malpighian tubules of the house cricket Acheta domesticus.

    PubMed

    Browne, Austin; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Hemolymph calcium homeostasis in insects is achieved by the Malpighian tubules, primarily by sequestering excess Ca 2+ within internal calcium stores (Ca-rich granules) most often located within type I (principal) tubule cells. Using both the scanning ion-selective electrode technique and the Ramsay secretion assay this study provides the first measurements of basolateral and transepithelial Ca 2+ fluxes across the Malpighian tubules of an Orthopteran insect, the house cricket Acheta domesticus. Ca 2+ transport was specific to midtubule segments, where 97% of the Ca 2+ entering the tubule is sequestered within intracellular calcium stores and the remaining 3% is secreted into the lumen. Antagonists of voltage-gated (L-type) calcium channels decreased Ca 2+ influx ≥fivefold in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-stimulated tubules, suggesting basolateral Ca 2+ influx is facilitated by voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels. Increasing fluid secretion through manipulation of intracellular levels of cAMP or Ca 2+ had opposite effects on tubule Ca 2+ transport. The adenylyl cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway promotes Ca 2+ sequestration whereas both 5-hydroxytryptamine and thapsigargin inhibited sequestration. Our results suggest that the midtubules of Acheta domesticus are dynamic calcium stores, which maintain hemolymph calcium concentration by manipulating rates of Ca 2+ sequestration through stimulatory (cAMP) and inhibitory (Ca 2+ ) regulatory pathways. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of desensitizing agents on dentin permeability and dentinal tubule occlusion: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Carolina; Pochapski, Marcia Thais; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Granado, Carlos Jose Fernandes; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Santos, Fabio Andre

    2009-01-01

    One hundred twelve specimens from bovine incisors were divided into eight groups: Group 1 (treated with 10% strontium chloride gel), Group 2 (treated with 2% sodium fluoride gel), Group 3 (treated with 2% stannous fluoride gel), Group 4 (treated with 5% potassium nitrate gel), Group 5 (treated with 10% potassium nitrate gel), Group 6 (treated with 3% potassium oxalate gel), Group 7 (treated with hydroxyethylcellulose gel), and Group 8 (which received no treatment). Dentinal tubules were exposed after 0.5 mm of deep abrasion using a carbide bur and EDTA gel application. After each treatment, dentin permeability, tubule occlusion, and chemical elements on dentin were analyzed. There was a significant difference among groups in dentin permeability (p < 0.05 ANOVA). Groups 4, 5, and 6 showed the lowest values, while Groups 1, 7, and 8 exhibited the highest. Groups 1, 2, 3, 7, and 8 showed open dentinal tubules, Groups 4 and 5 had partial tubule occlusion, and most of the tubules in Group 6 were obliterated. Energy-dispersive x-rays revealed similar chemical characteristics among the experimental agents used, with traces of strontium, fluoride, sodium, and potassium. Within the limits of the study, 3% potassium oxalate gel showed the best results in terms of dentin permeability and dentinal tubule occlusion.

  13. Characterisation of human tubular cell monolayers as a model of proximal tubular xenobiotic handling

    SciT

    Brown, Colin D.A.; Sayer, Rachel; Windass, Amy S.

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether primary human tubular cell monolayers could provide a powerful tool with which to investigate the renal proximal tubular handling of xenobiotics. Human proximal and distal tubule/collecting duct cells were grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports. After 10 days in culture, proximal tubule cells remained differentiated and expressed a wide palette of transporters at the mRNA level including NaPi-IIa, SGLT1, SGLT2, OCT2, OCTN2, OAT1, OAT3, OAT4, MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP. At the protein level, the expression of a subset of transporters including NaPi-IIa, OAT1 and OAT3 was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry. Analysismore » of the expression of the ATP binding cassette efflux pumps MDR1, MRP2 and BCRP confirmed their apical membrane localisation. At the functional level, tubule cell monolayers retain the necessary machinery to mediate the net secretion of the prototypic substrates; PAH and creatinine. PAH secretion across the monolayer consisted of the uptake of PAH across the basolateral membrane by OAT1 and OAT3 and the apical exit of PAH by a probenecid and MK571-sensitive route consistent with actions of MRP2 or MRP4. Creatinine secretion was by OCT2-mediated uptake at the basolateral membrane and via MDR1 at the apical membrane. Functional expression of MDR1 and BCRP at the apical membrane was also demonstrated using a Hoechst 33342 dye. Similarly, measurement of calcein efflux demonstrated the functional expression of MRP2 at the apical membrane of cell monolayers. In conclusion, human tubular cell monolayers provide a powerful tool to investigate renal xenobiotic handling.« less

  14. Dentine Tubule Occlusion by Novel Bioactive Glass-Based Toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaojing

    2018-01-01

    There are numerous over-the-counter (OTC) and professionally applied (in-office) products and techniques currently available for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH), but more recently, the use of bioactive glasses in toothpaste formulations have been advocated as a possible solution to managing DH. Aim. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to compare several bioactive glass formulations to investigate their effectiveness in an established in vitro model. Materials and Methods. A 45S5 glass was synthesized in the laboratory together with several other glass formulations: (1) a mixed glass (fluoride and chloride), (2) BioMinF, (3) a chloride glass, and (4) an amorphous chloride glass. The glass powders were formulated into five different toothpaste formulations. Dentine discs were sectioned from extracted human teeth and prepared for the investigation by removing the cutting debris (smear layer) following sectioning using a 6% citric acid solution for 2 minutes. Each disc was halved to provide test and control halves for comparison following the brushing of the five toothpaste formulations onto the test halves for each toothpaste group. Following the toothpaste application, the test discs were immersed in either artificial saliva or exposed to an acid challenge. Results. The dentine samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and observation of the SEM images indicated that there was good surface coverage following artificial saliva immersion. Furthermore, although the acid challenge removed the hydroxyapatite layer on the dentine surface for most of the samples, except for the amorphous chloride glass, there was evidence of tubular occlusion in the dentine tubules. Conclusions. The conclusions from the study would suggest that the inclusion of bioactive glass into a toothpaste formulation may be an effective approach to treat DH. PMID:29849637

  15. Treatment of dentinal tubules by Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmelíčkova, Hana; Zapletalova, Zdeňka; Peřina, Jan, Jr.; Novotný, Radko; Kubínek, Roman; Stranyánek, Martin

    2005-08-01

    Symptom of cervical dentine hypersensitivity attacks from 10% to 15% of population and causes an uncomfortable pain during contact with any matter. Sealing of open dentinal tubules is one of the methods to reach insensibility. Laser as a source of coherent radiation is used to melt dentine surface layers. Melted dentine turns to hard mass with a smooth, non-porous surface. Simulation of this therapy was made in vitro by means of LASAG Nd:YAG pulsed laser system KLS 246-102. Eighty human extracted teeth were cut horizontally to obtain samples from 2 mm to 3 mm thick. First experiments were done on cross section surfaces to find an optimal range of laser parameters. A wide range of energies from 30 mJ to 210 mJ embedded in 0,3 ms long pulse was tested. Motion in X and Y axes was ensured by a CNC driven table and the pulse frequency 15 Hz was chosen to have a suitable overlap of laser spots. Some color agents were examined with the aim to improve surface absorption. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to evaluate all samples and provided optimal values of energies around 50 J.cm-2. Next experiments were done with the beam oriented perpendicularly to a root surface, close to the real situation. Optical fibers with the diameter of 0,6 mm and 0,2 mm were used to guide a laser beam to teeth surfaces. Laser processing heads with lens F = 100 mm and F = 50 mm were used. The best samples were investigated by means of the Atomic Force Microscopy.

  16. A new model of the distal convoluted tubule

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Benjamin; Mistry, Abinash C.; Hanson, Lauren; Mallick, Rickta; Cooke, Leslie L.; Hack, Bradley K.; Cunningham, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) of the kidney is a key determinant of Na+ balance. Disturbances in NCC function are characterized by disordered volume and blood pressure regulation. However, many details concerning the mechanisms of NCC regulation remain controversial or undefined. This is partially due to the lack of a mammalian cell model of the DCT that is amenable to functional assessment of NCC activity. Previously reported investigations of NCC regulation in mammalian cells have either not attempted measurements of NCC function or have required perturbation of the critical without a lysine kinase (WNK)/STE20/SPS-1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase regulatory pathway before functional assessment. Here, we present a new mammalian model of the DCT, the mouse DCT15 (mDCT15) cell line. These cells display native NCC function as measured by thiazide-sensitive, Cl−-dependent 22Na+ uptake and allow for the separate assessment of NCC surface expression and activity. Knockdown by short interfering RNA confirmed that this function was dependent on NCC protein. Similar to the mammalian DCT, these cells express many of the known regulators of NCC and display significant baseline activity and dimerization of NCC. As described in previous models, NCC activity is inhibited by appropriate concentrations of thiazides, and phorbol esters strongly suppress function. Importantly, they display release of WNK4 inhibition of NCC by small hairpin RNA knockdown. We feel that this new model represents a critical tool for the study of NCC physiology. The work that can be accomplished in such a system represents a significant step forward toward unraveling the complex regulation of NCC. PMID:22718890

  17. Prosthetic replacement for proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Kontakis, George; Tosounidis, Theodoros; Galanakis, Ioannis; Megas, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    The ideal management of complex proximal humeral fractures continues to be debatable. Evolution of proximal humeral fracture management, during the past decade, led to the implementation of many innovations in surgical treatment. Even though the pendulum of treatment seems to swing towards new trends such as locked plating, hemiarthroplasty remains a valid and reliable option that serves the patient's needs well. Hemiarthroplasty is indicated for complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients with poor bone stock and when internal fixation is difficult or unreliable. Hemiarthroplasty provides a better result when it is performed early post-injury. Stem height, retroversion and tuberosity positioning are technical aspects of utmost importance. Additionally reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is an alternative new modality that can be used as a primary solution in selected patients with proximal humeral fracture treatment. Failed hemiarthroplasty and fracture sequelae can be successfully managed with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Individual decision-making and tailored treatment that takes into consideration the personality of the fracture and the patient's characteristics should be used.

  18. Proximal bicarbonate absorption independent of Na+-H+ exchange: effect of bicarbonate load.

    PubMed

    Bank, N; Aynedjian, H S; Mutz, B F

    1989-04-01

    To study proximal tubule bicarbonate absorption that is not due to the neutral Na+-H+ antiporter, mid to late proximal convolutions of the rat kidney were microperfused in vivo with a sodium-free choline solution containing 10(-3) M amiloride. The average sodium concentration resulting from sodium influx was 12 mM. At such low intraluminal [Na+], 10(-3) M amiloride should have inhibited the Na+-H+ antiporter by greater than 95%. When 25 mM HCO3- was in the perfusion fluid, measured total CO2 absorption was 100 pmol.mm-1.min-1. When luminal [HCO3-] was raised to 50 mM, and blood [HCO3-] was also raised to approximately 50 mM to avoid a transepithelial HCO3- concentration gradient, total CO2 absorption increased to greater than 300 pmol.mm-1.min-1. Thus raising intraluminal HCO3- concentration caused a marked increase in total CO2 absorption even though intraluminal [Na+] was low and amiloride was present. Control perfusions containing 140 mM Na+ yielded total CO2 absorption that was approximately 100 pmol.mm-1.min-1 higher than with the respective sodium-free perfusion solutions. In additional experiments, either DCCD or NEM was added to sodium-free perfusion solutions to inhibit H+-ATPase. These inhibitors reduced Na+-H+ independent total CO2 absorption markedly. Our observations suggest that under physiological acid-base conditions, sodium-independent H+ secretion can account for approximately 50% of total HCO3- absorption in mid to late proximal convolutions. This mechanism is stimulated by an increase in ambient HCO(-3) concentration to a degree that might account for the load-dependency of proximal HCO(-3) absorption in these segments of the proximal tubule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Isolation and characterization of distinct domains of sarcolemma and T-tubules from rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, P; Rosemblatt, M; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1995-04-01

    1. Several cell-surface domains of sarcolemma and T-tubule from skeletal-muscle fibre were isolated and characterized. 2. A protocol of subcellular fractionation was set up that involved the sequential low- and high-speed homogenization of rat skeletal muscle followed by KCl washing, Ca2+ loading and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. This protocol led to the separation of cell-surface membranes from membranes enriched in sarcoplasmic reticulum and intracellular GLUT4-containing vesicles. 3. Agglutination of cell-surface membranes using wheat-germ agglutinin allowed the isolation of three distinct cell-surface membrane domains: sarcolemmal fraction 1 (SM1), sarcolemmal fraction 2 (SM2) and a T-tubule fraction enriched in protein tt28 and the alpha 2-component of dihydropyridine receptor. 4. Fractions SM1 and SM2 represented distinct sarcolemmal subcompartments based on different compositions of biochemical markers: SM2 was characterized by high levels of beta 1-integrin and dystrophin, and SM1 was enriched in beta 1-integrin but lacked dystrophin. 5. The caveolae-associated molecule caveolin was very abundant in SM1, SM2 and T-tubules, suggesting the presence of caveolae or caveolin-rich domains in these cell-surface membrane domains. In contrast, clathrin heavy chain was abundant in SM1 and T-tubules, but only trace levels were detected in SM2. 6. Immunoadsorption of T-tubule vesicles with antibodies against protein tt28 and against GLUT4 revealed the presence of GLUT4 in T-tubules under basal conditions and it also allowed the identification of two distinct pools of T-tubules showing different contents of tt28 and dihydropyridine receptors. 7. Our data on distribution of clathrin and dystrophin reveal the existence of subcompartments in sarcolemma from muscle fibre, featuring selective mutually exclusive components. T-tubules contain caveolin and clathrin suggesting that they contain caveolin- and clathrin-rich domains. Furthermore, evidence for the

  20. Numerical analysis of the effect of T-tubule location on calcium transient in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    George, Uduak Z; Wang, Jun; Yu, Zeyun

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signaling in cardiac myocytes is vital for proper functioning of the heart. Understanding the intracellular Ca2+ dynamics would give an insight into the functions of normal and diseased hearts. In the current study, spatiotemporal Ca2+ dynamics is investigated in ventricular myocytes by considering Ca2+ release and re-uptake via sarcolemma and transverse tubules (T-tubules), Ca2+ diffusion and buffering in the cytosol, and the blockade of Ca2+ activities associated with the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This study is carried out using a three dimensional (3D) geometric model of a branch of T-tubule extracted from the electron microscopy (EM) images of a partial ventricular myocyte. Mathematical modeling is done by using a system of partial differential equations involving Ca2+, buffers, and membrane channels. Numerical simulation results suggest that a lack of T-tubule structure at the vicinity of the cell surface could increase the peak time of Ca2+ concentration in myocytes. The results also show that T-tubules and mobile buffers play an important role in the regulation of Ca2+ transient in ventricular myocytes.

  1. Palladium nanotubes formed by lipid tubule templating and their application in ethanol electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Ma, Shenghua; Su, Yingchun; Han, Xiaojun

    2015-04-13

    Palladium nanotubes were fabricated by using lipid tubules as templates for the first time in a controlled manner. The positively charged lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) was doped into lipid tubules to adsorb PdCl4 (2-) on the tubule surfaces for further reduction. The lipid tubule formation was optimized by studying the growing dynamics and ethanol/water ratio. The DOTAP-doped tubules showed pH stability from 0 to 14, which makes them ideal templates for metal plating. The Pd nanotubes are open-ended with a tunable wall thickness. They exhibited good electrocatalytic performance in ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface areas were 6.5, 10.6, and 83.2 m(2)  g(-1) for Pd nanotubes with 77, 101, and 150 nm wall thickness, respectively. These Pd nanotubes have great potential in fuel cells. The method demonstrated also opens up a way to synthesize hollow metal nanotubes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Jellyfish stinging is driven by the moving front of the nematocyst's tubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavit, Uri; Park, Sinwook; Piriatinskiy, Gadi; Yossifon, Gilad; Lotan, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Nematocysts are ultra-fast stinging organelles that are utilized by the Cnidaria phylum for prey capture, defense and locomotion. They consist of a capsule and a tubule and exert high pressure and acceleration to penetrate the target organism. Previous studies report that the ejection and elongation of the tubule are driven by a buildup of osmotic potential in the capsule. We question this explanation using a microfluidic system that controls the osmotic potential by directing the tubule through oil, where no osmotic potential can develop, while keeping the capsule in water. It was found that the time needed for elongation through oil is orders of magnitude larger than through water. Our mathematical model shows that the p γGlu concentration in the tubule is higher than in the capsule and the internal pressure that develops there serves as the elongation driving force. These findings imply that modifications of the environment along the tubule route have the potential to slow down the process and reduce its impact. This may shed light on prey defense strategies, human protection against jellyfish stinging, the use of nematocysts for drug delivery and exploration of osmotic based methods for nanotubes production and elongation.

  3. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF VASOPRESSIN EFFECT ON ISOLATED PERFUSED RENAL COLLECTING TUBULES OF THE RABBIT

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, Charles E.; Grantham, Jared J.; Moses, Harold L.; Burg, Maurice B.; Orloff, Jack

    1968-01-01

    Isolated cortical collecting tubules from rabbit kidney were studied during perfusion with solutions made either isotonic or hypotonic to the external bathing medium. Examination of living tubules revealed a reversible increase in thickness of the cellular layer, prominence of lateral cell membranes, and formation of intracellular vacuoles during periods of vasopressin-induced osmotic water transport. Examination in the electron microscope revealed that vasopressin induced no changes in cell structure in collecting tubules in the absence of an osmotic difference and significant bulk water flow across the tubule wall. In contrast, tubules fixed during vasopressin-induced periods of high osmotic water transport showed prominent dilatation of lateral intercellular spaces, bulging of apical cell membranes into the tubular lumen, and formation of intracellular vacuoles. It is concluded that the ultrastructural changes are secondary to transepithelial bulk water flow and not to a direct effect of vasopressin on the cells, and that vasopressin induces osmotic flow by increasing water permeability of the luminal cell membrane. The lateral intercellular spaces may be part of the pathway for osmotically induced transepithelial bulk water flow. PMID:4867134

  4. The role of polyester interstitium and aldosterone during structural development of renal tubules in serum-free medium.

    PubMed

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia; Hu, Kanghong

    2007-10-01

    Little knowledge is available regarding the development of renal stem/progenitor cells into functional parenchyme. To investigate the environmental mechanisms during this maturation process, we elaborated an advanced culture technique to follow renal tubule development. Embryonic stem/progenitor cells derived from neonatal rabbit kidney were placed in a perfusion culture container at the interphase of an artificial polyester interstitium. Tissue culture was carried out in IMDM without serum or protein supplementation and without coating with extracellular matrix proteins. Development of tubules was registered histochemically on cryosections labeled with soybean agglutinin (SBA) and tissue-specific antibodies. The experiments revealed that the development of renal tubules depends exclusively on the administration of aldosterone. The use of 1x10(-7) M aldosterone for 13 days generated numerous SBA-labeled tubules, while no tubules developed in the absence of the steroid hormone. To obtain further information about the action of the hormone on the cognate receptor, molecular precursors of the aldosterone synthesis pathway were tested. Surprisingly, application of cholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) and corticosterone failed to form numerous tubules. Only 11-DOCA and progesterone induced a few tubules, which were barely SBA-labeled. Furthermore, application of aldosterone antagonists such as 1x10(-4) M spironolactone and 1x10(-4) M canrenoate completely inhibited the development of tubules. We conclude that specifically aldosterone promotes the development of tubules via the mineralocorticoid receptor whereas its precursors have no effect.

  5. Structural and functional alterations in Malpighian tubules as biomarkers of environmental pollution: synopsis and prospective.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    Although a number of biomarkers of pollutant exposure have been identified in invertebrate species, little is known about the effect on Malpighian tubules playing an essential role in excretion and osmoregulation. Analyses of structural and functional alterations on this organ can be useful to predict the effects at the organism and population level in monitoring studies of environmental pollution. The aim of the present review is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on cellular damages induced by xenobiotics in Malpighian tubules both under laboratory and field conditions. We compared studies of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals as mainly environmental contaminants from anthropogenic activities. This report provided evidence that the exposure to xenobiotics has an effect on this organ and reinforces the need for further research integrating molecular biomarkers with analysis on Malpighian tubules. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparing the effectiveness of four desensitizing toothpastes on dentinal tubule occlusion: A scanning electron microscope analysis.

    PubMed

    Jena, Amit; Kala, Soumik; Shashirekha, Govind

    2017-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a sudden short sharp pain best explained by hydrodynamic theory. Several agents are available throughout the market that can treat DH either by blocking the nerves that helps in conducting pain or by blocking the open dentinal tubules. The aim of the present study was to compare the tubule occluding efficacy of four different desensitizing dentifrices under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sixty-two dentin blocks measuring 5 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm were obtained from extracted human molar teeth and were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1 - no treatment (control, n = 2); Group 2 - Pepsodent Pro-sensitive relief and repair ( n = 15); Group 3 - Sensodyne repair and protect ( n = 15); Group 4 - Remin Pro ( n = 15); Group 5 - Test toothpaste containing 15% nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) crystals ( n = 15). The specimens were brushed for 2 min/day for 14 days and stored in artificial saliva. After final brushing, specimens were gold sputtered and viewed under SEM at ×2000 magnification. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and least significant difference post hoc test. All test groups showed significant increase in dentin tubule occlusion as compared to control group. The highest percentage of tubules occluded was shown by Group 4 and Group 5 which was significantly different from other groups ( P ≤ 0.05), and there was no significant difference in tubule occlusion among them. Newer desensitizing dentifrices containing 15% n-HA and Remin Pro can provide effective tubule occlusion and thereby reduce the pain and discomfort caused by DH.

  7. Effect of theobromine-containing toothpaste on dentin tubule occlusion in situ.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; Mathews, Sapna M; Mensinkai, Poornima K

    2015-01-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is treated by either occlusion of dentin tubules or nerve desensitization. This in situ study compared dentin tubules occlusion by theobromine-containing dentifrices with (Theodent-classic-F®, TCF) and without (Theodent-classic®, TC) fluoride with 1,500 ppm fluoride toothpaste, Colgate®-Regular (Fluoride) and Novamin®-containing toothpaste, Sensodyne®-5000-Nupro (Novamin®). Each subject wore four intraoral appliances bearing dentin blocks while using one of four test dentifrices (n = 20/dentifrice) twice daily for 7 days. The four appliances were removed successively after 1, 2, 3, and 7 days. Treated blocks and their control (untreated) blocks were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Effects were compared statistically (ANOVA/Tukey's) based on percentage of surface area covered by deposited precipitate layer (%DPL) and percentage of fully open (%FOT), partially occluded (%POT), and completely occluded (%COT) tubules in each block calculated relative to the number of tubules in their control blocks. SEM observation indicated an increased %COT and %DPL over time. After 1 and 2 days, %COT was comparable with TC and TCF, and significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared with Novamin® and Fluoride. Following 3 and 7 days, %COT was comparable among TC, TCF, and Novamin®, but remained significantly lower in Fluoride. At any time, %DPL was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in TC, TCF, and Novamin® compared with Fluoride. Theobromine-containing toothpastes with and without fluoride have equal potential in occluding dentin tubules within a shorter time period than Novamin®-containing toothpaste; however, the three demonstrated equal potential after 1 week, but not the fluoride toothpaste. Theobromine-containing toothpaste promoted dentin tubule occlusion thus shows potential to relief DH.

  8. Postnatal somatic cell proliferation and seminiferous tubule maturation in pigs: A non-random event

    PubMed Central

    Avelar, Gleide F.; Oliveira, Carolina F.A.; Soares, Jaqueline M.; Silva, Israel J.; Dobrinski, Ina; Hess, Rex A.; França, Luiz R.

    2015-01-01

    Although seminiferous tubule maturation in horses begins in the central area of the testis, this process is thought to occur randomly throughout the testis in most mammals. Studies in our laboratory revealed that the establishment of spermatogenesis may not be a synchronous event in the testicular parenchyma of pigs. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the pattern of seminiferous cord/tubule maturation and the morphological and functional characteristics of testicular somatic cells during postnatal development in three regions of the pig testis: a) near the tunica albuginea (TA); b) in the transitional area between the seminiferous tubules and mediastinum (TR); and c) in the intermediate area (ID) between the TA and TR. Based on the diameter of seminiferous cords/tubules, nucleus size of Sertoli cells and fluid secretion, mainly at 90 and 120 d of age, seminiferous tubule maturation was more advanced in the ID and TR. The mitotic activity of Sertoli cells was higher (P < 0.05) in the TR than the ID and TA at 7 and 120 d. Except for the mitotic index of the Leydig cells, which was lower (P < 0.05) in the ID at 7, 30, and 180 d than in the TA and TR, other Leydig cell ebd points, e.g., individual cell size, nuclear volume, and cytoplasmic volume, were consistently higher (P < 0.05) in the ID, suggesting that steroidogenesis was more active in this region during the period investigated. Overall, we inferred that Leydig cells in the ID may play a pivotal role in postnatal testis development in pigs and this type of cell is likely related to asynchronous testicular parenchyma development, with the transitional area providing the primary zone for growth of seminiferous tubules. PMID:20189235

  9. Transformation, migration and outcome of residual bodies in the seminiferous tubules of the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C-Y; Wang, Y-Q; Li, J-H; Tang, G-C; Xiao, S-S

    2017-12-01

    Experiments were performed to study the transformation, migration and outcome of residual bodies (RBs) in the seminiferous tubules of the rat testes. One part of the testes from adult Sprague-Dawley rats was used to generate paraffin sections to observe RBs and RB precursors through specific staining, and the other part of the testes was used to generate ultrathin sections to observe RBs under a transmission electron microscope. Deep blue particles of different sizes were observed in some seminiferous tubules through specific staining for RBs and RB precursors. These particles first appeared in the seminiferous tubules at stage I of the spermatogenic cycle, and after spermiation, the particles travelled rapidly towards the deeper region of the seminiferous epithelium and soon appeared close to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule. All of the particles in the tubules disappeared at stage IX. Using transmission electron microscopy, components of different electron densities were observed in the RBs on the surface of the seminiferous epithelium, all of which gradually formed in the cytoplasm of spermatozoon in later stages of spermiogenesis. After the spermatozoa were released, the RBs in the epithelium travelled quickly to the edge of the tube and were gradually transformed into lipid inclusions. These lipid inclusions ultimately became lipidlike particles. The lipidlike particles were discharged into the interstitial tissue. RBs initiate their own digestive process before their formation during spermiation in the rat testes. After spermiation, the RBs transform into lipid inclusions and finally into lipidlike particles. These lipidlike particles can be eliminated from the seminiferous tubules. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Increased Fatty Acid Oxidation in Differentiated Proximal Tubular Cells Surviving a Reversible Episode of Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Aurélien; Galichon, Pierre; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Oumoussa, Badreddine Mohand; Ziliotis, Marie-Julia; Sadia, Iman; Vandermeersch, Sophie; Simon-Tillaux, Noémie; Legouis, David; Cohen, Raphaël; Xu-Dubois, Yi-Chun; Commereuc, Morgane; Rondeau, Eric; Le Crom, Stéphane; Hertig, Alexandre

    2018-06-19

    Fatty acid oxidation (FAO), the main source of energy produced by tubular epithelial cells in the kidney, was found to be defective in tubulo-interstitial samples dissected out in kidney biopsies from patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Experimental data indicated that this decrease was a strong determinant of renal fibrogenesis, hence a focus for therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, whether persistently differentiated renal tubules, surviving in a pro-fibrotic environment, also suffer from a decrease in FAO, is currently unknown. To address this question, we isolated proximal tubules captured ex vivo on the basis of the expression of an intact brush border antigen (Prominin-1) in C57BL6/J mice subjected to a controlled, two-hit model of renal fibrosis (reversible ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) or sham surgery, followed by angiotensin 2 administration). A transcriptomic high throughput sequencing was performed on total mRNA from these cells, and on whole kidneys. In contrast to mice subjected to sham surgery, mice with a history of AKI displayed histologically more renal fibrosis when exposed to angiotensin 2. High throughput RNA sequencing, principal component analysis and clustering showed marked consistency within experimental groups. As expected, FAO transcripts were decreased in whole fibrotic kidneys. Surprisingly, however, up- rather than down-regulation of metabolic pathways (oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid metabolism, glycolysis, and PPAR signalling pathway) was a hallmark of the differentiated tubules captured from fibrotic kidneys. Immunofluorescence co-staining analysis confirmed that the expression of FAO enzymes was dependent of tubular trophicity. These data suggest that in differentiated proximal tubules energetic hyperactivity is promoted concurrently with organ fibrogenesis. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kukar, Moshim; Gabriel, Emmanuel; Ben-David, Kfir; Hochwald, Steven N

    2018-06-19

    For cancers of the distal gastroesophageal junction or the proximal stomach, proximal gastrectomy can be performed. It is associated with several perioperative benefits compared with total gastrectomy. The use of laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy (LPG) has become an increasingly popular approach for select tumors. We describe our method of LPG, including the preoperative work-up, illustrated depictions of the key steps of the surgery, and our postoperative pathway. A total of 6 patients underwent LPG between July, 2013 to June, 2017. Five patients had early-stage adenocarcinoma, and 1 patient had a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The median age of the cohort was 70, and each patient had significant comorbidities. Conversion to open was required for 1 patient. All patients had negative final margins and an adequate lymph node dissection (median number of nodes examined was 15, range 12-22). The median postoperative length of stay was 7 days (range 4-7). Two patients developed anastomotic strictures requiring intervention, and 1 patient experienced significant reflux. At a median follow-up of 11 months, there was 1 recurrence. Three patients were alive without evidence of disease, and 2 patients died from other causes. For carefully selected patients, LPG is a safe and reasonable alternative to total gastrectomy, which is associated with similar oncologic outcomes and low morbidity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Tools for proximal soil sensing

    Proximal soil sensing (i.e. near-surface geophysical methods) are used to study soil phenomena across spatial scales. Geophysical methods exploit contrasts in physical properties (dielectric permittivity, apparent electrical conductivity or resistivity, magnetic susceptibility) to indirectly measur...

  13. Tubulation of class II MHC compartments is microtubule dependent and involves multiple endolysosomal membrane proteins in primary dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Jatin M; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2007-06-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP.

  14. Tubulation of Class II MHC Compartments Is Microtubule Dependent and Involves Multiple Endolysosomal Membrane Proteins in Primary Dendritic Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Jatin M.; Kim, You-Me; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Katerina; Love, J. Christopher; Van der Veen, Annemarthe G.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2009-01-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) capture exogenous Ags in the periphery for eventual processing in endolysosomes. Upon maturation by TLR agonists, DCs deliver peptide-loaded class II MHC molecules from these compartments to the cell surface via long tubular structures (endolysosomal tubules). The nature and rules that govern the movement of these DC compartments are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the tubules contain multiple proteins including the class II MHC molecules and LAMP1, a lysosomal resident protein, as well as CD63 and CD82, members of the tetraspanin family. Endolysosomal tubules can be stained with acidotropic dyes, indicating that they are extensions of lysosomes. However, the proper trafficking of class II MHC molecules themselves is not necessary for endolysosomal tubule formation. DCs lacking MyD88 can also form endolysosomal tubules, demonstrating that MyD88-dependent TLR activation is not necessary for the formation of this compartment. Endolysosomal tubules in DCs exhibit dynamic and saltatory movement, including bidirectional travel. Measured velocities are consistent with motor-based movement along microtubules. Indeed, nocodazole causes the collapse of endolysosomal tubules. In addition to its association with microtubules, endolysosomal tubules follow the plus ends of microtubules as visualized in primary DCs expressing end binding protein 1 (EB1)-enhanced GFP. PMID:17513769

  15. Dentinal tubules occluded by bioactive glass-containing toothpaste exhibit high resistance toward acidic soft drink challenge.

    PubMed

    Bakri, M M; Hossain, M Z; Razak, F A; Saqina, Z H; Misroni, A A; Ab-Murat, N; Kitagawa, J; Saub, R B

    2017-06-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a common problem attributed by patent dentinal tubules. Ingredients incorporated in toothpastes aim to occlude patent dentinal tubules to minimize the dentine hypersensitivity. However, frequent consumption of acidic soft drinks may reverse the dentinal tubules' occlusion. In this in vitro study, the efficacy of dentinal tubules occluded by commercially available toothpastes to withstand different durations of an acidic soft drink challenge was investigated. One hundred and twenty dentine discs were divided into three groups. The discs from each group were brushed with toothpaste containing bioactive glass, arginine and control toothpaste. Each group was then divided into four subgroups and exposed to acidic soft drink over four different time durations. The scoring and the percentage of occluded dentinal tubules by Novamin-containing toothpaste was significantly better compared with arginine or the control toothpaste. Acidic soft drink challenge reduced the extent of dentinal tubules occlusion along with time. Dentinal tubules occluded by Novamin-containing toothpaste withstand the acidic challenge comparatively for a longer period. The findings demonstrated that occlusion of dentinal tubules is more efficient by the bioactive glass-containing toothpaste and thus may contribute to its better resistance to acidic soft drink challenge. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  16. The mechanisms of renal tubule electrolyte and water absorption, 100 years after Carl Ludwig.

    PubMed

    Greger, R

    1996-01-01

    Some 154 years after Carl Ludwig's Habilitationsschrift "Contributions to the theory of the mechanism of urine secretion" renal physiology has come a long way. The mechanisms of urine formation are now understood as the result of glomerular filtration and tubule absorption of most of the filtrate. The detailed understanding of tubule transport processes has become possible with the invention of several refined techniques such as the micropuncture techniques; the microchemical analysis of nanolitre tubule fluid samples; the in vitro perfusion of isolated tubule segments of defined origin; electrophysiological analysis of electrolyte transport including micropuncture and patch-clamp techniques; transport studies in membrane vesicle preparations; recordings of intracellular electrolyte concentrations and cloning techniques of the individual membrane transport proteins. With this wealth of information we are now starting to build an integrative understanding of the function of the individual nephron segments, the regulatory processes, the integrated function of the nephron and hence the formation of the final urine. Like anatomists of previous centuries we still state that the kidney is an "organum mirable" and we recognize that basic research in this area has fertilized the analysis of the function of a large number of other organs and cells.

  17. Disruption of Core Planar Cell Polarity Signaling Regulates Renal Tubule Morphogenesis but Is Not Cystogenic.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, Koshi; Bayly, Roy D; Vladar, Eszter K; Vonderfecht, Tyson; Gallagher, Anna-Rachel; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-23

    Oriented cell division (OCD) and convergent extension (CE) shape developing renal tubules, and their disruption has been associated with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) genes, the majority of which encode proteins that localize to primary cilia. Core planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling controls OCD and CE in other contexts, leading to the hypothesis that disruption of PCP signaling interferes with CE and/or OCD to produce PKD. Nonetheless, the contribution of PCP to tubulogenesis and cystogenesis is uncertain, and two major questions remain unanswered. Specifically, the inference that mutation of PKD genes interferes with PCP signaling is untested, and the importance of PCP signaling for cystogenic PKD phenotypes has not been examined. We show that, during proliferative stages, PCP signaling polarizes renal tubules to control OCD. However, we find that, contrary to the prevailing model, PKD mutations do not disrupt PCP signaling but instead act independently and in parallel with PCP signaling to affect OCD. Indeed, PCP signaling that is normally downregulated once development is completed is retained in cystic adult kidneys. Disrupting PCP signaling results in inaccurate control of tubule diameter, a tightly regulated parameter with important physiological ramifications. However, we show that disruption of PCP signaling is not cystogenic. Our results suggest that regulating tubule diameter is a key function of PCP signaling but that loss of this control does not induce cysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The adult Drosophila malphigian tubules are maintained by multipotent stem cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    All animals must excrete the waste products of metabolism. Excretion is performed by the kidney in vertebrates and by the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila. The mammalian kidney has an inherent ability for recovery and regeneration after ischemic injury. Stem cells and progenitor cells have been proposed to be responsible for repair and regeneration of injured renal tissue.

  19. In Vitro Evaluation of Dentin Tubule Occlusion for Novel Calcium Lactate Phosphate (CLP) Paste

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jen-Chang; Hu, Hsin-Tai; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Hsieh, Sung-Chih; Huang, Pei-Chi; Ma, Chen-Feng; Ji, Dian-Yu; Chang, Liang-Yu; Teng, Nai-Chia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. Methods: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for 30 s and individually treated with Colgate® Pro-Relief™ paste, CLP paste, and double distilled water (ddH2O) by a rubber-cupped handpiece. Dentin disks were analyzed under optical micrographs for pre-treatment, directly after treatment, and 14 days post-treatment. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test were used to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in dentinal tubule diameter. Results: A significant decrease occurred in the mean tubule diameter for dentin disks treated with CLP paste. A decrease was observed from 3.52 ± 0.83 µm to 2.62 ± 0.42 µm right after treatment, further decreasing to 1.71 ± 0.45 µm after immersion in artificial saliva for 14 days (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that the CLP based desensitizing paste has remineralization properties and provides instant and lasting effectiveness in dentinal tubule occlusion. PMID:28772594

  20. Myosin VI and branched actin filaments mediate membrane constriction and fission of melanosomal tubule carriers.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Léa; Heiligenstein, Xavier; Hurbain, Ilse; Domingues, Lia; Figon, Florent; Petersen, Karl J; Dennis, Megan K; Houdusse, Anne; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça; Delevoye, Cédric

    2018-06-06

    Vesicular and tubular transport intermediates regulate organellar cargo dynamics. Transport carrier release involves local and profound membrane remodeling before fission. Pinching the neck of a budding tubule or vesicle requires mechanical forces, likely exerted by the action of molecular motors on the cytoskeleton. Here, we show that myosin VI, together with branched actin filaments, constricts the membrane of tubular carriers that are then released from melanosomes, the pigment containing lysosome-related organelles of melanocytes. By combining superresolution fluorescence microscopy, correlative light and electron microscopy, and biochemical analyses, we find that myosin VI motor activity mediates severing by constricting the neck of the tubule at specific melanosomal subdomains. Pinching of the tubules involves the cooperation of the myosin adaptor optineurin and the activity of actin nucleation machineries, including the WASH and Arp2/3 complexes. The fission and release of these tubules allows for the export of components from melanosomes, such as the SNARE VAMP7, and promotes melanosome maturation and transfer to keratinocytes. Our data reveal a new myosin VI- and actin-dependent membrane fission mechanism required for organelle function. © 2018 Ripoll et al.

  1. Detection of abnormal extracellular matrix in the interstitium of regenerating renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Minuth, Will W; Denk, Lucia

    2014-12-15

    Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates for the regeneration of parenchyma in acute and chronic renal failure. However, recent data exhibit that survival of stem/progenitor cells after implantation in diseased renal parenchyma is restricted. To elaborate basic parameters improving survival, cell seeding was simulated under advanced in vitro conditions. After isolation, renal stem/progenitor cells were mounted in a polyester interstitium for perfusion culture. During generation of tubules, chemically defined CO2 Independent Medium or Leibovitz's L-15 Medium was applied. Specimens were then fixed for transmission electron microscopy to analyze morphological features in generated tubules. Fixation in conventional glutaraldehyde (GA) solution shows development of tubules each exhibiting a polarized epithelium, an intact basal lamina and an inconspicuous interstitium. In contrast, special fixation of specimens in GA solution containing cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red or tannic acid unveils previously not visible extracellular matrix. Control experiments elucidate that a comparable extracellular matrix is not present in the interstitium of the matured kidney. Thus, generation of renal tubules in combination with advanced fixation of specimens for electron microscopy demonstrates that development of abnormal features in the newly developed interstitium has to be considered, when repair of renal parenchyma is performed by implantation of stem/progenitor cells.

  2. Finite cell lines of turkey sperm storage tubule cells: ultrastructure and protein analysis

    Cell lines of turkey sperm storage tubule (SST) epithelial cells were established. Turkey SSTs were dissected from freshly obtained uterovaginal junction (UVJ) tissue and placed in explants culture on various substrates and media. Primary cultures of SST epithelium only survived and grew from SST ex...

  3. Changes of myoid and endothelial cells in the peritubular wall during contraction of the seminiferous tubule.

    PubMed

    Losinno, Antonella D; Sorrivas, Viviana; Ezquer, Marcelo; Ezquer, Fernando; López, Luis A; Morales, Alfonsina

    2016-08-01

    The wall of the seminiferous tubule in rodents consists of an inner layer of myoid cells covered by an outer layer of endothelial cells. Myoid cells are a type of smooth muscle cell containing α-actin filaments arranged in two independent layers that contract when stimulated by endothelin-1. The irregular surface relief of the tubular wall is often considered a hallmark of contraction induced by a variety of stimuli. We examine morphological changes of the rat seminiferous tubule wall during contraction by a combination of light, confocal, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. During ET-1-induced contraction, myoid cells changed from a flat to a conical shape, but their actin filaments remained in independent layers. As a consequence of myoid cell contraction, the basement membrane became wavy, orientation of collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix was altered and the endothelial cell layer became folded. To observe the basement of the myoid cell cone, the endothelial cell monolayer was removed by collagenase digestion prior to SEM study. In contracted tubules, it is possible to distinguish cell relief: myoid cells have large folds on the external surface oriented parallel to the tubular axis, whereas endothelial cells have numerous cytoplasmic projections facing the interstitium. The myoid cell cytoskeleton is unusual in that the actin filaments are arranged in two orthogonal layers, which adopt differing shapes during contraction with myoid cells becoming cone-shaped. This arrangement impacts on other components of the seminiferous tubule wall and affects the propulsion of the tubular contents to the rete testis.

  4. Immune changes during reproduction in sperm storage tubules of the domestic turkey Meleagris gallopavo

    The storage of sperm in the female reproductive tract is a biological feature of numerous species including birds. The domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, is unique among avian species in that sperm residing in the hen's sperm storage tubules (SST) retain fertilizing ability for up to 10 weeks af...

  5. Evaluation of dentin tubule occlusion after laser irradiation and desensitizing agent application.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Ryan Jin-Young; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Lee, In-Bog

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of lasers (Nd:YAG and Er:YAG) and of topical desensitizing agents on dentin tubule occlusion by measuring real-time dentin fluid flow (DFF). 32 molars were prepared with V-shape cavity at the cervical area, acid-etched, water rinsed, blotted dry, and treated with (1) Nd:YAG laser; (2) Er:YAG laser; (3) SuperSeal, a desensitizing agent; (4) ClinproXT, a resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) varnish (n = 8 each). A real-time fluid flow measuring instrument (nano-Flow) was used to measure the DFF throughout the procedures. The DFF rates before and after the treatment were compared. Moreover, the surface topography of dentin tubules after each desensitizing method was examined using SEM. DFF varied among the groups. The DFF rate was significantly reduced after laser irradiation/application of the desensitizing agents (P < 0.05). ClinproXT showed the greatest reduction of DFF rate (71.9%), followed by the SuperSeal (34.8%) and laser groups (P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the Nd:YAG (24.1%) and Er:YAG (20.6%) groups (P > 0.05). In SEM images, narrowed dentin tubules were observed in both lased groups and SuperSeal group. In the ClinproXT group, the occluded dentin tubules by the RMGI covering were observed.

  6. Number and distribution of sperm-storage tubules in four strains of broiler breeders

    Restricted to the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) in the hen's oviduct are tubular invaginations of the surface epithelium collectively referred to as the sperm-storage tubules (SSTs). One would expect that a larger number of SSTs would be positively correlated with longer, sustained fertility. However...

  7. Partial proximal tibia fractures

    PubMed Central

    Raschke, Michael J.; Kittl, Christoph; Domnick, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Partial tibial plateau fractures may occur as a consequence of either valgus or varus trauma combined with a rotational and axial compression component. High-energy trauma may result in a more complex and multi-fragmented fracture pattern, which occurs predominantly in young people. Conversely, a low-energy mechanism may lead to a pure depression fracture in the older population with weaker bone density. Pre-operative classification of these fractures, by Müller AO, Schatzker or novel CT-based methods, helps to understand the fracture pattern and choose the surgical approach and treatment strategy in accordance with estimated bone mineral density and the individual history of each patient. Non-operative treatment may be considered for non-displaced intra-articular fractures of the lateral tibial condyle. Intra-articular joint displacement ⩾ 2 mm, open fractures or fractures of the medial condyle should be reduced and fixed operatively. Autologous, allogenic and synthetic bone substitutes can be used to fill bone defects. A variety of minimally invasive approaches, temporary osteotomies and novel techniques (e.g. arthroscopically assisted reduction or ‘jail-type’ screw osteosynthesis) offer a range of choices for the individual and are potentially less invasive treatments. Rehabilitation protocols should be carefully planned according to the degree of stability achieved by internal fixation, bone mineral density and other patient-specific factors (age, compliance, mobility). To avoid stiffness, early functional mobilisation plays a major role in rehabilitation. In the elderly, low-energy trauma and impression fractures are indicators for the further screening and treatment of osteoporosis. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160067. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28630761

  8. Zone of Proximal Development and the World of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Seok-Hoon

    This paper examines Lev Vygotsky's theory concerning the zone of proximal development (ZPD) in children and its relevance to early childhood education. As per Vygotsky's "Mind in Society" (1978), ZPD is the difference between a child's "actual development level as determined by independent problem solving" and the…

  9. Sildenafil ameliorates left ventricular T-tubule remodeling in a pressure overload-induced murine heart failure model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun-kai; Chen, Bi-yi; Guo, Ang; Chen, Rong; Zhu, Yan-qi; Kutschke, William; Hong, Jiang; Song, Long-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, has been shown to exert beneficial effects in heart failure. The purpose of this study was to test whether sildenafil suppressed transverse-tubule (T-tubule) remodeling in left ventricular (LV) failure and thereby providing the therapeutic benefits. Methods: A pressure overload-induced murine heart failure model was established in mice by thoracic aortic banding (TAB). One day after TAB, the mice received sildenafil (100 mg·kg−1·d−1, sc) or saline for 5 weeks. At the end of treatment, echocardiography was used to examine LV function. Then the intact hearts were dissected out and placed in Langendorff-perfusion chamber for in situ confocal imaging of T-tubule ultrastructure from epicardial myocytes. Results: TAB surgery resulted in heart failure accompanied by remarkable T-tubule remodeling. Sildenafil treatment significantly attenuated TAB-induced cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure, improved LV contractile function, and preserved T-tubule integrity in LV cardiomyocytes. But sildenafil treatment did not significantly affect the chamber dilation. The integrity of LV T-tubule structure was correlated with cardiac hypertrophy (R2=0.74, P<0.01) and global LV function (R2=0.47, P<0.01). Conclusion: Sildenafil effectively ameliorates LV T-tubule remodeling in TAB mice, revealing a novel mechanism underlying the therapeutic benefits of sildenafil in heart failure. PMID:26972492

  10. Dentin hypersensitivity treatment by CO2 laser: the influence of the density of dentin tubules and laser-beam incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colojoara, Carmen; Gabay, Shimon; van der Meulen, Freerk W.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Miron, Mariana I.; Mavrantoni, Androniki

    1997-12-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is considered to be a consequence of the presence of open dentin tubules on the exposed dentin surface. Various methods and materials used in the treatment of this disease are directed to achieve a tubule's occlusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate under scanning electron microscopy and clinical method the sealing effects of CO2 laser on dentin tubules of human teeth without any damages of the surrounding tissues. Samples of freshly extracted noncarious 3rd molars were used. The teeth were randomly divided in to two groups A and B. The samples of group A were exposed to laser beam in cervical area, directed parallel to their dentin tubules. The teeth of group B were sectioned through a hypothetical carious lesion and lased perpendicularly or obliquely of the dentin tubules. The CO2 laser, at 10.6 micrometers wavelength, was operated only in pulse mode and provided 6.25 - 350 mJ in a burst of 25 pulses each of 250 microsecond(s) time duration with a 2 ms time interval between successive pulses (repetition rate up to 500 mH). Melting of dentin surface and partial closure of exposed dentin tubules were found for all specimens at 6.25 to 31.25 mJ energy. Our results indicated that using CO2 laser in a parallel orientation of laser beam with dentin tubules, the dentin sensitivity can be reduced without any damages of pulp vitality.

  11. Design and Clinical Application of Proximal Humerus Memory Connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuo-Gui; Zhang, Chun-Cai

    2011-02-01

    Treatment for comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions are a substantial challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Plate and screw fixation does not provide enough stability to allow patients to begin functional exercises early after surgery. Using shape memory material nickel titanium alloy, we designed a new device for treating severe comminuted proximal humerus fractures that accommodates for the anatomical features of the proximal humerus. Twenty-two cases of comminuted fracture, malunion, and nonunion of the proximal humerus were treated with the proximal humeral memory connector (PHMC). No external fixation was needed after the operation and patients began active shoulder exercises an average of 8 days after the operation. Follow-up evaluation (mean 18.5 months) revealed that bone healing with lamellar bone formation occurred an average of 3.6 months after surgery for the fracture cases and 4.5 months after surgery for the nonunion cases. Average shoulder function was 88.5 according to the criteria of Michael Reese. PHMC is an effective new device to treat comminuted proximal humerus fractures and nonunions. The use of this device may reduce the need for shoulder joint arthroplasty.

  12. In vitro dentin tubule occlusion and remineralization competence of various toothpastes.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Imran; Moheet, Imran Alam; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dentin tubule occlusion and remineralization competence of various toothpastes containing fluoride, bioactive glass (BG), and hydroxyapatite (HAP) as active ingredients. Sixty dentin discs that were etched with ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were randomly divided into nine groups. The first five groups containing eight dentin discs corresponded to subsequent brushing experiments: control, distilled water, fluoride toothpaste, BG toothpaste, and HAP toothpaste. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to demonstrate tubule occlusion after 7 days of simulated brushing (twice a day for 2min), which was followed by a citric acid challenge. The discs were stored in freshly prepared artificial saliva (AS) after every brushing cycle. The remaining four groups that contained five discs each received the following treatment: discs kept in distilled water (control), discs kept in a mixture of AS (pH 7.2) and 2g fluoride toothpaste, discs kept in a mixture of AS and 2g BG toothpaste, and discs kept in a mixture of AS and 2g HAP toothpaste. These discs were left in the mixture for one week at 37°C and were then examined under SEM. The pH of the leftover mixture was analyzed using a pH meter. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to identify any statistically significant differences (p<0.05). All toothpastes demonstrated tubule occlusion after simulated brushing experiments. However, after the citric acid challenge, particles of fluoride toothpaste were completely washed away from the tubules whereas HAP and BG toothpastes demonstrated tremendous resistance to the acid challenge. After immersion of the discs in the mixture of AS and toothpaste, HAP and BG toothpastes again showed superior tubule occlusion in comparison to the other groups, but the highest pH increase was observed for fluoride toothpaste after mixing the toothpastes in AS. The results of this study demonstrate that the highest tubule occlusion competence

  13. Fiber-optic proximity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Hermann, W. A.; Primus, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Proximity sensor for mechanical hand of remote manipulator incorporates fiber optics to conduct signals between light source and light detector. Fiber optics are not prone to noise from electromagnetic interference and radio-frequency interference as are sensors using long electrical cables.

  14. Somatic and germinal cells' interrelationship in the course of seminiferous tubule maturation in man.

    PubMed

    Kula, K; Romer, T E; Wlodarczyk, W P

    1980-02-01

    Certain successive phases of seminiferous tubule maturation were observed in a transsection of a Leydig cell adenoma-bearing testis of a boy with precocious puberty. Massively accumulated Leydig cells may stimulate the maturation of Sertoli cells, as indicated by progressive replacement of Sertoli cell precursors by mature Sertoli cells at a distance closer to the adenoma. On the other hand, tubules less advanced in maturation contained a higher number of somatic cells than those more advanced in maturation. Leydig-cell-dependent maturation of Sertoli cells may be in competition with Certoli cell multiplication, or numerous undifferentiated somatic cells may undergo a natural elimination in the course of tubular maturation. An inverse relation between the number of Sertoli cell precursors and the number of meiotic spermatocytes suggests that quantitative reduction of Sertoli cell precursors may be important for the intratubular milieu necessary for the onset of the first meiosis in man.

  15. Immortalization of canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and their seminiferous tubule transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia; Wei, Yudong; Teng, Xin; Zhao, Shanting; Hua, Jinlian

    2018-04-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are proven to provide good effects in numerous tissue engineering application and other cell-based therapies. However, the difficulty in the proliferation of ADSCs, known as the "Hayflick limit" in vitro, limits their clinical application. Here, we immortalized canine ADSCs (cADSCs) with SV40 gene and transplanted them into busulfan-induced seminiferous tubules of infertile mice. The proliferation of these immortalized cells was improved significantly. Then, cellular differentiation assays showed that the immortalized cADSCs could differentiate into three-germ-layer cells, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis phenotypes, and primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs). In addition, the immortalized cADSCs can proliferate in the busulfan-induced seminiferous tubules of infertile mice. These findings confirmed that the immortalized cADSCs maintain the criteria of cADSCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. New insights on stromules: stroma filled tubules extended by independent plastids.

    PubMed

    Schattat, Martin H; Klösgen, Ralf Bernd; Mathur, Jaideep

    2012-09-01

    The recognition of stromules as sporadically extended stroma filled tubules from all kinds of plastids constitutes one of the major insights that resulted from the direct application of green fluorescent protein aided imaging of living plant cells. Observations of dynamic green fluorescent stromules strongly suggested that plastids frequently interact with each other while photo-bleaching of interconnected plastids indicated that proteins can move within the stroma filled tubules. These observations readily fit into the prevailing concept of the endosymbiogenic origins of plastids and provided stromules the status of conduits for inter-plastid communication and macromolecule transfer. However, experimental evidence obtained recently through the use of photoconvertible protein labeled stromules strongly supports plastid independence rather than their interconnectivity. Additional information on stress conditions inducing stromules and observations on their alignment with other organelles suggests that the major role of stromules is to increase the interactive surface of a plastid with the rest of the cytoplasm.

  17. A two-hit mechanism for sepsis-induced impairment of renal tubule function

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Bruns A.; George, Thampi; Sherwood, Edward R.

    2013-01-01

    Renal insufficiency is a common and severe complication of sepsis, and the development of kidney dysfunction increases morbidity and mortality in septic patients. Sepsis is associated with a variety of defects in renal tubule function, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. We used a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to examine mechanisms by which sepsis influences the transport function of the medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL). MTALs from sham and CLP mice were studied in vitro 18 h after surgery. The results show that sepsis impairs the ability of the MTAL to absorb HCO3− through two distinct mechanisms. First, sepsis induces an adaptive decrease in the intrinsic capacity of the tubules to absorb HCO3−. This effect is associated with an increase in ERK phosphorylation in MTAL cells and is prevented by pretreatment of CLP mice with a MEK/ERK inhibitor. The CLP-induced reduction in intrinsic HCO3− absorption rate appears to involve loss of function of basolateral Na+/H+ exchange. Second, sepsis enhances the ability of LPS to inhibit HCO3− absorption, mediated through upregulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-ERK signaling in the basolateral membrane. The two inhibitory mechanisms are additive and thus can function in a two-hit capacity to impair renal tubule function in sepsis. Both effects depend on ERK and are eliminated by interventions that prevent ERK activation. Thus the TLR4 and ERK signaling pathways represent potential therapeutic targets to treat or prevent sepsis-induced renal tubule dysfunction. PMID:23324175

  18. Piecewise-Constant-Model-Based Interior Tomography Applied to Dentin Tubules

    DOE PAGES

    He, Peng; Wei, Biao; Wang, Steve; ...

    2013-01-01

    Dentin is a hierarchically structured biomineralized composite material, and dentin’s tubules are difficult to study in situ. Nano-CT provides the requisite resolution, but the field of view typically contains only a few tubules. Using a plate-like specimen allows reconstruction of a volume containing specific tubules from a number of truncated projections typically collected over an angular range of about 140°, which is practically accessible. Classical computed tomography (CT) theory cannot exactly reconstruct an object only from truncated projections, needless to say a limited angular range. Recently, interior tomography was developed to reconstruct a region-of-interest (ROI) from truncated data in amore » theoretically exact fashion via the total variation (TV) minimization under the condition that the ROI is piecewise constant. In this paper, we employ a TV minimization interior tomography algorithm to reconstruct interior microstructures in dentin from truncated projections over a limited angular range. Compared to the filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction, our reconstruction method reduces noise and suppresses artifacts. Volume rendering confirms the merits of our method in terms of preserving the interior microstructure of the dentin specimen.« less

  19. Tubule-Derived Wnts Are Required for Fibroblast Activation and Kidney Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dong; Fu, Haiyan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Ke; Min, Yali; Xiao, Liangxiang; Lin, Lin; Bastacky, Sheldon I; Liu, Youhua

    2017-08-01

    Cell-cell communication via Wnt ligands is necessary in regulating embryonic development and has been implicated in CKD. Because Wnt ligands are ubiquitously expressed, the exact cellular source of the Wnts involved in CKD remains undefined. To address this issue, we generated two conditional knockout mouse lines in which Wntless (Wls), a dedicated cargo receptor that is obligatory for Wnt secretion, was selectively ablated in tubular epithelial cells or interstitial fibroblasts. Blockade of Wnt secretion by genetic deletion of Wls in renal tubules markedly inhibited myofibroblast activation and reduced renal fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction. This effect associated with decreased activation of β -catenin and downstream gene expression and preserved tubular epithelial integrity. In contrast, fibroblast-specific deletion of Wls exhibited little effect on the severity of renal fibrosis after obstructive or ischemia-reperfusion injury. In vitro , incubation of normal rat kidney fibroblasts with tubule-derived Wnts promoted fibroblast proliferation and activation. Furthermore, compared with kidney specimens from patients without CKD, biopsy specimens from patients with CKD also displayed increased expression of multiple Wnt proteins, predominantly in renal tubular epithelium. These results illustrate that tubule-derived Wnts have an essential role in promoting fibroblast activation and kidney fibrosis via epithelial-mesenchymal communication. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Minicollagen-15, a novel minicollagen isolated from Hydra, forms tubule structures in nematocysts.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, Patrizia; Meier, Sebastian; Gross, Thomas; Hobmayer, Bert; Grzesiek, Stephan; Bächinger, Hans Peter; Holstein, Thomas W; Ozbek, Suat

    2008-02-29

    Minicollagens constitute a family of unusually short collagen molecules isolated from cnidarians. They are restricted to the nematocyst, a cylindrical explosive organelle serving in defense and capture of prey. The nematocyst capsule contains a long tubule inside of its matrix, which is expelled and everted during an ultrafast discharge process. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel minicollagen in Hydra, designated minicollagen-15 (NCol-15). NCol-15, like NCol-3 and NCol-4, shows deviations from the canonical cysteine pattern in its terminal cysteine-rich domains (CRDs). Minicollagens share common domain architectures with a central collagen sequence flanked by polyproline stretches and short N- and C-terminal CRDs. The CRDs are involved in the formation of a highly resistant cysteine network, which constitutes the basic structure of the nematocyst capsule. Unlike NCol-1, which is part of the capsule wall, NCol-15 is localized to tubules, arguing for a functional differentiation of minicollagens within the nematocyst architecture. NMR analysis of the altered C-terminal CRD of NCol-15 showed a novel disulfide-linked structure within the cysteine-containing region exhibiting similar folding kinetics and stability as the canonical CRDs. Our data provide evidence for evolutionary diversification among minicollagens, which probably facilitated alterations in the morphology of the nematocyst wall and tubule.

  1. Phospholipase Cβ1 induces membrane tubulation and is involved in caveolae formation

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Takehiko; Kishimoto, Takuma; Murate, Motohide; Tajima, Takuya; Sakai, Shota; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Makino, Asami; Tomishige, Nario; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ikeda, Yasuo; Takeoka, Shinji; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Lipid membrane curvature plays important roles in various physiological phenomena. Curvature-regulated dynamic membrane remodeling is achieved by the interaction between lipids and proteins. So far, several membrane sensing/sculpting proteins, such as Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) proteins, are reported, but there remains the possibility of the existence of unidentified membrane-deforming proteins that have not been uncovered by sequence homology. To identify new lipid membrane deformation proteins, we applied liposome-based microscopic screening, using unbiased-darkfield microscopy. Using this method, we identified phospholipase Cβ1 (PLCβ1) as a new candidate. PLCβ1 is well characterized as an enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). In addition to lipase activity, our results indicate that PLCβ1 possessed the ability of membrane tubulation. Lipase domains and inositol phospholipids binding the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of PLCβ1 were not involved, but the C-terminal sequence was responsible for this tubulation activity. Computational modeling revealed that the C terminus displays the structural homology to the BAR domains, which is well known as a membrane sensing/sculpting domain. Overexpression of PLCβ1 caused plasma membrane tubulation, whereas knockdown of the protein reduced the number of caveolae and induced the evagination of caveolin-rich membrane domains. Taken together, our results suggest a new function of PLCβ1: plasma membrane remodeling, and in particular, caveolae formation. PMID:27342861

  2. 50 Years of renal physiology from one man and the perfused tubule: Maurice B. Burg.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kirk L; Moore, Antoni B

    2016-08-01

    Technical advancements in research techniques in science are made in slow increments. Even so, large advances from insight and hard work of an individual with a single technique can have astonishing ramifications. Here, we examine the impact of Dr. Maurice B. Burg and the isolated perfused renal tubule technique and celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication by Dr. Burg and his colleagues of their landmark paper in the American Journal of Physiology in 1966. In this study, we have taken a scientific visualization approach to study the scientific contributions of Dr. Burg and the isolated perfused tubule preparation as determining research impact by the number of research students, postdoctoral fellows, visiting scientists, and national and international collaborators. Additionally, we have examined the research collaborations (first and second generation scientists), established the migrational visualization of the first generation scientists who worked directly with Dr. Burg, quantified the metrics indices, identified and quantified the network of coauthorship of the first generation scientists with their second generation links, and determined the citations analyses of outputs of Dr. Burg and/or his first generation collaborators as coauthors. We also review the major advances in kidney physiology that have been made with the isolated perfused tubule technique. Finally, we are all waiting for the discoveries that the isolated perfused preparation technique will bring during the next 50 years. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Visualizing the origins of selfish de novo mutations in individual seminiferous tubules of human testes

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Geoffrey J.; McGowan, Simon J.; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Verrill, Clare; Goriely, Anne; Wilkie, Andrew O. M.

    2016-01-01

    De novo point mutations arise predominantly in the male germline and increase in frequency with age, but it has not previously been possible to locate specific, identifiable mutations directly within the seminiferous tubules of human testes. Using microdissection of tubules exhibiting altered expression of the spermatogonial markers MAGEA4, FGFR3, and phospho-AKT, whole genome amplification, and DNA sequencing, we establish an in situ strategy for discovery and analysis of pathogenic de novo mutations. In 14 testes from men aged 39–90 y, we identified 11 distinct gain-of-function mutations in five genes (fibroblast growth factor receptors FGFR2 and FGFR3, tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11, and RAS oncogene homologs HRAS and KRAS) from 16 of 22 tubules analyzed; all mutations have known associations with severe diseases, ranging from congenital or perinatal lethal disorders to somatically acquired cancers. These results support proposed selfish selection of spermatogonial mutations affecting growth factor receptor-RAS signaling, highlight its prevalence in older men, and enable direct visualization of the microscopic anatomy of elongated mutant clones. PMID:26858415

  4. Visualizing the origins of selfish de novo mutations in individual seminiferous tubules of human testes.

    PubMed

    Maher, Geoffrey J; McGowan, Simon J; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Verrill, Clare; Goriely, Anne; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2016-03-01

    De novo point mutations arise predominantly in the male germline and increase in frequency with age, but it has not previously been possible to locate specific, identifiable mutations directly within the seminiferous tubules of human testes. Using microdissection of tubules exhibiting altered expression of the spermatogonial markers MAGEA4, FGFR3, and phospho-AKT, whole genome amplification, and DNA sequencing, we establish an in situ strategy for discovery and analysis of pathogenic de novo mutations. In 14 testes from men aged 39-90 y, we identified 11 distinct gain-of-function mutations in five genes (fibroblast growth factor receptors FGFR2 and FGFR3, tyrosine phosphatase PTPN11, and RAS oncogene homologs HRAS and KRAS) from 16 of 22 tubules analyzed; all mutations have known associations with severe diseases, ranging from congenital or perinatal lethal disorders to somatically acquired cancers. These results support proposed selfish selection of spermatogonial mutations affecting growth factor receptor-RAS signaling, highlight its prevalence in older men, and enable direct visualization of the microscopic anatomy of elongated mutant clones.

  5. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

    PubMed Central

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the “zone of dead bacteria” (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Results: Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. Conclusion: E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules. PMID:27656064

  6. Evaluation of KIM-1 as an early biomarker of snakebite-induced AKI in mice.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Rodrigo Tavares; Sampaio, Tiago Lima; Lima, Dânya Bandeira; Bezerra de Menezes, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa; Canuto, Jader Almeida; Toyama, Marcos Hikari; Evangelista, Janaína Serra Azul Monteiro; Martins, Alice Maria Costa

    2018-06-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most important complications of bothropic poisoning and its early identification remains challenging. The nephrotoxicity of Bothrops insularis venom (BinsV) was previously described by our research group. In this study, we continued to evaluate the effect of BinsV on kidney function in mice and LLC-MK2 proximal tubule cells, evaluating KIM-1 protein as an early AKI biomarker. Male Swiss mice were inoculated with BinsV intramuscularly and observed for 24 h in a metabolic cage model. Urine and blood were collected for biochemical analyses and the kidneys were examined for oxide-reducing balance and submitted to histological analysis. LLC-MK2 cells incubated with BinsV were assessed for cell viability and cell death mechanism by flow cytometry. Histological analysis of the kidneys indicated AKI and the oxide-reducing analyses demonstrated a decreasing in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increasing on Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. BinsV was cytotoxic to LLC-MK2 and the cytometry analyses suggested necrosis. Within 24 h after the envenomation, urinary creatinine did not increase, but the urinary levels of KIM-1 increased. In conclusion, we found AKI evidence in the kidney tissue and the increase in the KIM-1 levels suggest it can be used as an early AKI biomarker. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Rehabilitation and Prevention of Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Nicholas R; Félix, Ioonna; Hettler, Jessica; Moley, Peter J; Wyss, James F

    Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) comprises a small but significant portion of hamstring injuries in athletes, especially runners. PHT is a chronic condition that is clinically diagnosed but can be supported with imaging. The main presenting complaint is pain in the lower gluteal or ischial region that may or may not radiate along the hamstrings in the posterior thigh. There is little scientific evidence on which to base the rehabilitation management of PHT. Treatment is almost always conservative, with a focus on activity modification, addressing contributing biomechanical deficiencies, effective tendon loading including eccentric training, and ultrasound-guided interventional procedures which may facilitate rehabilitation. Surgery is limited to recalcitrant cases or those involving concomitant high-grade musculotendinous pathology. The keys to PHT management include early and accurate diagnosis, optimal rehabilitation to allow for a safe return to preinjury activity level, and preventative strategies to reduce risk of reinjury.

  8. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  9. Phospholipase D2 Is Involved in the Formation of Golgi Tubules and ArfGAP1 Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Narcisa; Martínez-Alonso, Emma; Ballesta, José; Martínez-Menárguez, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids and lipid-modifying enzymes play a key role in the biogenesis, maintenance and fission of transport carriers in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In the present study we demonstrate that phosphatidic acid generated by phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is involved in the formation of Golgi tubules. The main evidence to support this is: 1) inhibitors of phosphatidic acid formation and PLD2 depletion inhibit the formation of tubules containing resident enzymes and regulators of intra-Golgi transport in a low temperature (15°C) model of Golgi tubulation but do not affect brefeldin A-induced tubules, 2) inhibition of PLD2 enzymatic activity and PLD2 depletion in cells cultured under physiological conditions (37°C) induce the formation of tubules specifically containing Golgi matrix proteins, and, 3) over-expression of PLD2 induces the formation of a tubular network. In addition, it was found that the generation of this lipid by the isoenzyme is necessary for ArfGAP1 recruitment to Golgi membranes. These results suggest that both proteins are involved in the molecular mechanisms which drive the formation of different types of Golgi tubules. PMID:25354038

  10. Genetic screen in Drosophila muscle identifies autophagy-mediated T-tubule remodeling and a Rab2 role in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Naonobu; Huang, Wilson; Lin, Tzu-Han; Groulx, Jean-Francois; Jean, Steve; Nguyen, Jen; Kuchitsu, Yoshihiko; Koyama-Honda, Ikuko; Mizushima, Noboru; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Kiger, Amy A

    2017-01-07

    Transverse (T)-tubules make-up a specialized network of tubulated muscle cell membranes involved in excitation-contraction coupling for power of contraction. Little is known about how T-tubules maintain highly organized structures and contacts throughout the contractile system despite the ongoing muscle remodeling that occurs with muscle atrophy, damage and aging. We uncovered an essential role for autophagy in T-tubule remodeling with genetic screens of a developmentally regulated remodeling program in Drosophila abdominal muscles. Here, we show that autophagy is both upregulated with and required for progression through T-tubule disassembly stages. Along with known mediators of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, our screens uncovered an unexpected shared role for Rab2 with a broadly conserved function in autophagic clearance. Rab2 localizes to autophagosomes and binds to HOPS complex members, suggesting a direct role in autophagosome tethering/fusion. Together, the high membrane flux with muscle remodeling permits unprecedented analysis both of T-tubule dynamics and fundamental trafficking mechanisms.

  11. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is of the sensor. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt's configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna.

  12. Micropower RF material proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-11-10

    A level detector or proximity detector for materials capable of sensing through plastic container walls or encapsulating materials is disclosed. Thus, it can be used in corrosive environments, as well as in a wide variety of applications. An antenna has a characteristic impedance which depends on the materials in proximity to the antenna. An RF oscillator, which includes the antenna and is based on a single transistor in a Colpitt`s configuration, produces an oscillating signal. A detector is coupled to the oscillator which signals changes in the oscillating signal caused by changes in the materials in proximity to the antenna. The oscillator is turned on and off at a pulse repetition frequency with a low duty cycle to conserve power. The antenna consists of a straight monopole about one-quarter wavelength long at the nominal frequency of the oscillator. The antenna may be horizontally disposed on a container and very accurately detects the fill level within the container as the material inside the container reaches the level of the antenna. 5 figs.

  13. The Pearling Transition Provides Evidence of Force-Driven Endosomal Tubulation during Salmonella Infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yunfeng; Spahn, Christoph; Heilemann, Mike; Kenney, Linda J

    2018-06-19

    Bacterial pathogens exploit eukaryotic pathways for their own end. Upon ingestion, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium passes through the stomach and then catalyzes its uptake across the intestinal epithelium. It survives and replicates in an acidic vacuole through the action of virulence factors secreted by a type three secretion system located on Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). Two secreted effectors, SifA and SseJ, are sufficient for endosomal tubule formation, which modifies the vacuole and enables Salmonella to replicate within it. Two-color, superresolution imaging of the secreted virulence factor SseJ and tubulin revealed that SseJ formed clusters of conserved size at regular, periodic intervals in the host cytoplasm. Analysis of SseJ clustering indicated the presence of a pearling effect, which is a force-driven, osmotically sensitive process. The pearling transition is an instability driven by membranes under tension; it is induced by hypotonic or hypertonic buffer exchange and leads to the formation of beadlike structures of similar size and regular spacing. Reducing the osmolality of the fixation conditions using glutaraldehyde enabled visualization of continuous and intact tubules. Correlation analysis revealed that SseJ was colocalized with the motor protein kinesin. Tubulation of the endoplasmic reticulum is driven by microtubule motors, and in the present work, we describe how Salmonella has coopted the microtubule motor kinesin to drive the force-dependent process of endosomal tubulation. Thus, endosomal tubule formation is a force-driven process catalyzed by Salmonella virulence factors secreted into the host cytoplasm during infection. IMPORTANCE This study represents the first example of using two-color, superresolution imaging to analyze the secretion of Salmonella virulence factors as they are secreted from the SPI-2 type three secretion system. Previous studies imaged effectors that were overexpressed in the host cytoplasm. The

  14. Active Targets For Capacitive Proximity Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenstrom, Del T.; Mcconnell, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, low-power active targets devised for use with improved capacitive proximity sensors described in "Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range" (GSC-13377), and "Capacitive Proximity Sensors With Additional Driven Shields" (GSC-13475). Active targets are short-distance electrostatic beacons; they generate known alternating electro-static fields used for alignment and/or to measure distances.

  15. Two inwardly rectifying potassium channels, Irk1 and Irk2, play redundant roles in Drosophila renal tubule function

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yipin; Baum, Michel; Huang, Chou-Long

    2015-01-01

    Inwardly rectifying potassium channels play essential roles in renal physiology across phyla. Barium-sensitive K+ conductances are found on the basolateral membrane of a variety of insect Malpighian (renal) tubules, including Drosophila melanogaster. We found that barium decreases the lumen-positive transepithelial potential difference in isolated perfused Drosophila tubules and decreases fluid secretion and transepithelial K+ flux. In those insect species in which it has been studied, transcripts from multiple genes encoding inwardly rectifying K+ channels are expressed in the renal (Malpighian) tubule. In Drosophila melanogaster, this includes transcripts of the Irk1, Irk2, and Irk3 genes. The role of each of these gene products in renal tubule function is unknown. We found that simultaneous knockdown of Irk1 and Irk2 in the principal cell of the fly tubule decreases transepithelial K+ flux, with no additive effect of Irk3 knockdown, and decreases barium sensitivity of transepithelial K+ flux by ∼50%. Knockdown of any of the three inwardly rectifying K+ channels individually has no effect, nor does knocking down Irk3 simultaneously with Irk1 or Irk2. Irk1/Irk2 principal cell double-knockdown tubules remain sensitive to the kaliuretic effect of cAMP. Inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase with ouabain and Irk1/Irk2 double knockdown have additive effects on K+ flux, and 75% of transepithelial K+ transport is due to Irk1/Irk2 or ouabain-sensitive pathways. In conclusion, Irk1 and Irk2 play redundant roles in transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila melanogaster renal tubule and are additive to Na+/K+-ATPase-dependent pathways. PMID:26224687

  16. Antidiuretic hormone resistance in the neonatal cortical collecting tubule is mediated in part by elevated phosphodiesterase activity

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Raymond; Chakravarty, Sumana; Baum, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Neonates cannot concentrate their urine to the same degree as adults. One of the key factors in concentrating the urine is the renal collecting duct osmotic water permeability (Pf) response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Neonatal cortical collecting ducts have a blunted Pf response to ADH compared with adult tubules (Pf: 119.0 ± 12.5 vs. 260.1 ± 29.5 µm/s, P < 0.05). We found that the phosphodiesterase activity in the neonatal collecting ducts was higher than that in the adult collecting ducts (3,970 ± 510 vs. 2,440 ± 220 cpm·µg tubular protein−1·20 min−1, P < 0.05). After pretreatment of in vitro microperfused tubules with the nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX (10−6 M in the bath), the Pf response to ADH in neonatal collecting ducts was 271.4 ± 51.7 µm/s, which was identical to that of the adult collecting duct [315.3 ± 31.3 µm/s, P = not significant (NS)]. Rolipram, a specific type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, lowered the elevated phosphodiesterase activity in the neonatal tubules to that in the adult tubules (2,460 ± 210 vs. 2,160 ± 230 cpm·µg tubular protein−1·20 min−1, P = NS). Neonatal tubules pretreated with rolipram (10−5 M) in the bath also had a Pf response to ADH that was comparable to that of the adult tubules (258.2 ± 17.0 vs. 271.4 ± 32.6 µm/s, P = NS). Thus the elevated phosphodiesterase activity in the neonatal tubules appears to be due to an increase in type IV phosphodiesterase activity. Hence, one of the key factors in the decreased ability of neonates to concentrate their urine is overactivity of phosphodiesterase in the cortical collecting duct that blunts the neonatal collecting duct Pf response to ADH. PMID:14644747

  17. A critical assessment of proximal macrotexturing on cemented femoral components.

    PubMed

    Duffy, G P; Muratoglu, O K; Biggs, S A; Larson, S L; Lozynsky, A J; Harris, W H

    2001-12-01

    We analyzed the cement-metal interface of 3 different types of femoral components that had proximal macrotexturing after in vitro insertion and after fatigue testing designed to produce debonding and micromotion. These components were compared with clinical retrieval specimens. The cement did not flow into the macrotexturing; rather, hollow, brittle volcanoes or calderas were formed. These fragile protrusions of cement become worn down or abraded by debonded components. This abrasion of cement may contribute to the early and aggressive osteolysis seen in some of these early failures with proximal macrotextured components. The formation of these volcanos and calderas can be aborted by placing bone-cement onto the macrotexturing before stem insertion. This simple technique allows the macrotexturing to be filled with cement.

  18. Effect and Stability of Poly(Amido Amine)-Induced Biomineralization on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yuan; Liang, Kunneng; Li, Jianshu; Yuan, He; Liu, Hongling; Duan, Xiaolei; Li, Jiyao

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have developed various biomaterials to remineralize human teeth to treat dentine hypersensitivity. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have become a research focus in this field. It has been demonstrated that PAMAM is able to create precipitates both on the surface of and within the dentinal tubules, however, there is little information about its effect on reducing dentine permeability in vitro. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effectiveness and stability of the fourth generation amine-terminated PAMAM on dentinal tubule occlusion, especially on dentine permeability. Sodium fluoride (NaF), which has been widely used as a desensitizing agent, is regarded as positive control. Demineralized sensitive dentine samples were coated with PAMAM or sodium fluoride solutions and soaked in artificial saliva (AS) at 37 °C for different periods. Four weeks later, samples in each group were then equally split into two subgroups for testing using a brushing challenge and an acid challenge. Dentine permeability of each specimen was measured before and after each challenge using a fluid filtration system. Dentine morphology and surface deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and analyzed with Image-Pro Plus software. Data were evaluated through multifactorial ANOVA with repeated measures and pair-wise comparisons at a level of 5%. The results showed that PAMAM and NaF significantly reduced dentine permeability to 25.1% and 20.7%. Both of them created precipitates on dentine surfaces after AS immersion for 28 days. PAMAM-induced biomineralization not only on dentine surfaces, but also deeper in dentinal tubules, significantly reduced dentine permeability. Moreover, PAMAM-induced biomineralization elicited excellent stable occlusion effects after acid challenge. In conclusion, PAMAM demonstrated a strong ability to resist acid and showed great potential to be used in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity in future

  19. Reconstruction of Mouse Testicular Cellular Microenvironments in Long-Term Seminiferous Tubule Culture

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Juho-Antti; Toppari, Jorma; Rivero-Müller, Adolfo; Ventelä, Sami

    2014-01-01

    Research on spermatogonia is hampered by complex architecture of the seminiferous tubule, poor viability of testicular tissue ex vivo and lack of physiologically relevant long-term culture systems. Therefore there is a need for an in vitro model that would enable long term survival and propagation of spermatogonia. We aimed at the most simplified approach to enable all different cell types within the seminiferous tubules to contribute to the creation of a niche for spermatogonia. In the present study we describe the establishment of a co-culture of mouse testicular cells that is based on proliferative and migratory activity of seminiferous tubule cells and does not involve separation, purification or differential plating of individual cell populations. The co-culture is composed of the constituents of testicular stem cell niche: Sertoli cells [identified by expression of Wilm's tumour antigen 1 (WT1) and secretion of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, GDNF], peritubular myoid cells (expressing alpha smooth muscle actin, αSMA) and spermatogonia [expressing MAGE-B4, PLZF (promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger), LIN28, Gpr125 (G protein-coupled receptor 125), CD9, c-Kit and Nanog], and can be maintained for at least five weeks. GDNF was found in the medium at a sufficient concentration to support proliferating spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that were able to start spermatogenic differentiation after transplantation to an experimentally sterile recipient testis. Gdnf mRNA levels were elevated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) which shows that the Sertoli cells in the co-culture respond to physiological stimuli. After approximately 2–4 weeks of culture a spontaneous formation of cord-like structures was monitored. These structures can be more than 10 mm in length and branch. They are formed by peritubular myoid cells, Sertoli cells, fibroblasts and spermatogonia as assessed by gene expression profiling. In conclusion, we have managed to establish in

  20. Malpighian tubules are important determinants of Pseudomonas transstadial transmission and longtime persistence in Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Chavshin, Ali Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Yakhchali, Bagher; Zarenejad, Fahimeh; Terenius, Olle

    2015-01-21

    Pseudomonas is a genus of bacteria commonly found in investigations of gut microbes in malaria mosquitoes. Among those mosquitoes is the dominating malaria vector in Asia, Anopheles stephensi, where Pseudomonas is a prevailing bacterium and natural inhabitant of its breeding places. In order to explore the reason for finding Pseudomonas so frequently, an investigation of its localization and transstadial properties was undertaken. A Pseudomonas isolate from An. stephensi was transformed successfully with an endogenous plasmid modified to express green fluorescent protein (GFP). Subsequently, the Pseudomonas-GFP was added to the laboratory larval breeding place of An. stephensi and taken up by the larvae. After 24 hours, the larvae were cleaned and moved to a bath with double-distilled water. Also, female adults were fed sugar solution containing Pseudomonas-GFP. The Pseudomonas-GFP was traced in the alimentary canal of larvae, pupae and adults. Fluorescent microscopy and PCR assays showed that the Pseudomonas bacteria underwent transstadial transmission from larvae to pupae and then to adults. In blood-fed female mosquitoes, the bacteria increased in numbers and remained in the mosquito body for at least three weeks after eclosion. In addition to the midgut, the Malpighian tubules of both larvae and adult mosquitoes were colonized by the bacteria. Also Pseudomonas-GFP that was distributed through sugar solution was able to colonize the Malpighian tubules of adult females. Colonization of the Malpighian tubules by Pseudomonas bacteria seems to be important for the transstadial passage from larvae to adult and presumably for the longevity of the bacteria in the adult mosquito. The existence of an entry point in the larval stage, and the long duration in the female gut, opens up for a possible use of Pseudomonas in mosquito paratransgenesis.

  1. Changes in deciduous and permanent dentinal tubules diameter after several conditioning protocols: In vitro study.

    PubMed

    de Los Angeles Moyaho-Bernal, María; Contreras-Bulnes, Rosalía; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Rubio-Rosas, Efraín

    2018-05-08

    Innovators conditioning protocols are emerged in permanent dentin, however for deciduous dentin the information is limited; the aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro diameter of deciduous and permanent dentinal tubules after several conditioning protocols. Eighty dentin samples were distributed in sixteen groups (n = 5 p/g) and dentin surface was conditioned as follow: G1D/G1P acid etching; G2D/G2P, self-etch adhesive; G3D/G3P, G4D/G4P, Er: YAG laser irradiation at 200 mJ-25.5 J/cm 2 and 300 mJ-38.2 J/cm 2 , at 10 Hz under water spray respectively; G5D/G5P, G6D/G6P, G7D/G7P, and G8D/G8P were irradiated under the same energy densities followed phosphoric acid or self-etch adhesive conditioning. The sample dentin of deciduous and permanent teeth was analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and tubule diameter was evaluated by Image Tools Scandium program. Data were subjected to one-way analysis ANOVA to compare among groups with a level of significance at p ≤ .05. For deciduous dentin, diameters were from 1.52 ± 0.32 µm in G3D to 3.88 ± 0.37 µm in G1D; narrowest and widest diameter, respectively (p < .000). While permanent dentin tubules exhibited diameters from 1.16 ± 0.16/1.19 ± 0.12 µm in G7P/G8P to 2.76 ± 0.28 µm in G6P; narrowest and widest diameter, respectively (p < .000). All dentin conditioning protocols produced more open dentin tubules (diameter size) in deciduous dentin than permanent, specific conditioning protocols are required for each tissue (deciduous or permanent dentin), since same protocol produced stronger effects on primary dentin, which is important for dental clinical success in children and adolescents. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Arteriovenous Hybrid Graft with Outflow in the Proximal Axillary Vein.

    PubMed

    Murga, Allen G; Chiriano, Jason; Kiang, Sharon C; Patel, Sheela; Bianchi, Christian; Abou-Zamzam, Ahmed M; Teruya, Theodore H

    2017-07-01

    The patency of long-term hemodialysis access in end-stage renal disease patients remains a significant challenge. Often these patients are affected with limited venous outflow options, requiring limb abandonment, and creation of new access in the contralateral arm. Vascular surgeons are familiar with the exposure of the proximal axillary artery via an infraclavicular incision. The axillary vein is easily exposed through this technique. The use of the hybrid Gore graft can make the venous anastomosis easier. A hybrid graft with its venous outflow placed in the proximal axillary vein can extend the options of upper extremity access procedures. We reviewed our early experience with this technique. A review of dialysis procedures at the Loma Linda VA was performed. All patients undergoing placement of arteriovenous grafts utilizing the Gore hybrid placed into the proximal axillary vein for outflow were identified. Outcomes in terms of primary and secondary patency rates were determined. Eight patients had placement of an arteriovenous hybrid graft in the proximal axillary vein via an infraclavicular incision. All patients had exhausted other options for hemodialysis access in the ipsilateral upper extremity. All grafts were used successfully for dialysis. The mean primary and secondary patency rates at 6 months were 37.5% and 62.5%, respectively. One patient developed steal syndrome, requiring proximalization of the graft. Seven out of the 8 patients required secondary procedures including thrombectomy (n = 16) and angioplasty (n = 17). Placement of a hybrid graft in the proximal axillary vein is an effective and suitable option for patients who have exhausted arteriovenous access sites in the arm. This procedure can easily be performed in an outpatient setting with a low complication rate and allowing for preservation of the contralateral upper extremity for future use. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Baranowska, Malgorzata; Schloßmacher, Ute; McKenzie, J. Douglas; Müller, Werner E. G.; Schröder, Heinz C.

    2011-01-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules) are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract. PMID:22013488

  4. SIRT1 overexpression decreases cisplatin-induced acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit and cytotoxicity in renal proximal tubule cells

    SciT

    Jung, Yu Jin; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Ae Sin

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cisplatin increases acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit in HK2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 overexpression decreases cisplatin-induced p65 acetylation and -cytotoxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resveratrol decreased cisplatin-induced cell viability through deacetylation of p65. -- Abstract: As the increased acetylation of p65 is linked to nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activation, the regulation of p65 acetylation can be a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory injury. Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is an important issue in chemotherapy of cancer patients. SIRT1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +})-dependent protein deacetylase, has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as inflammatory injury and the control of multidrug resistancemore » in cancer. However, there is no report on the effect of SIRT1 overexpression on cisplatin-induced acetylation of p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B and cell injury. To investigate the effect of SIRT1 in on cisplatin-induced acetylation of p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B and cell injury, HK2 cells were exposed with SIRT1 overexpression, LacZ adenovirus or dominant negative adenovirus after treatment with cisplatin. While protein expression of SIRT1 was decreased by cisplatin treatment compared with control buffer treatment, acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit was significantly increased after treatment with cisplatin. Overexpression of SIRT1 ameliorated the increased acetylation of p65 of NF-{kappa}B during cisplatin treatment and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. Further, treatment of cisplatin-treated HK2 cells with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, also decreased acetylation of NF-{kappa}B p65 subunit and cisplatin-induced increase of the cell viability in HK2 cells. Our findings suggests that the regulation of acetylation of p65 of NF-{kappa}B through SIRT1 can be a possible target to attenuate cisplatin-induced renal cell damage.« less

  5. Complications in proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Calori, Giorgio Maria; Colombo, Massimiliano; Bucci, Miguel Simon; Fadigati, Piero; Colombo, Alessandra Ines Maria; Mazzola, Simone; Cefalo, Vittorio; Mazza, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Necrosis of the humeral head, infections and non-unions are among the most dangerous and difficult-to-treat complications of proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this work was to analyse in detail non-unions and post-traumatic bone defects and to suggest an algorithm of care. Treatment options are based not only on the radiological frame, but also according to a detailed analysis of the patient, who is classified using a risk factor analysis. This method enables the surgeon to choose the most suitable treatment for the patient, thereby facilitating return of function in the shortest possible time. The treatment of such serious complications requires the surgeon to be knowledgeable about the following possible solutions: increased mechanical stability; biological stimulation; and reconstructive techniques in two steps, with application of biotechnologies and prosthetic substitution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term aldosterone administration increases renal Na+-Cl- cotransporter abundance in late distal convoluted tubule.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Søren Brandt; Christensen, Birgitte Mønster

    2017-09-01

    Renal Na + -Cl - cotransporter (NCC) is expressed in early distal convoluted tubule (DCT) 1 and late DCT (DCT2). NCC activity can be stimulated by aldosterone administration, and the mechanism is assumed to depend on the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which inactivates glucocorticoids that would otherwise occupy aldosterone receptors. Because 11β-HSD2 in rat may only be abundantly expressed in DCT2 cells and not in DCT1 cells, it has been speculated that aldosterone specifically stimulates NCC activity in DCT2 cells. In mice, however, it is debated if 11β-HSD2 is expressed in DCT2 cells. The present study examined whether aldosterone administration in mice stimulates NCC abundance and phosphorylation in DCT2 cells but not in DCT1 cells. B6/C57 male mice were administered 100 µg aldosterone·kg body weight -1 ·24 h -1 for 6 days and euthanized during isoflurane inhalation. Western blotting of whole kidney homogenate showed that aldosterone administration stimulated NCC and pT58-NCC abundances ( P < 0.001). In DCT1 cells, confocal microscopy detected no effect of the aldosterone administration on NCC and pT58-NCC abundances. By contrast, NCC and pT58-NCC abundances were stimulated by aldosterone administration in the middle of DCT2 ( P < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively) and at the junction between DCT2 and CNT ( P < 0.001 and <0.05, respectively). In contrast to rat, immunohistochemistry in mouse showed no/very weak 11β-HSD2 expression in DCT2 cells. Collectively, long-term aldosterone administration stimulates mouse NCC and pT58-NCC abundances in DCT2 cells and presumably not in DCT1 cells. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Evidence for Leydig cell dysfunction in rats with seminiferous tubule damage.

    PubMed

    Rich, K A; Kerr, J B; de Kretser, D M

    1979-02-01

    To study the effects of seminiferous tubule damage on Leydig cell function and morphology, rats were treated by fetal irradiation (to induce Sertoli cell-only syndrome, SCO), 3 months administration of hydroxyurea (HU), or chronic feeding of a vitamin A-deficient diet (VAD). Leydig cell function was assessed by the measurement of serum LH and testosterone and the response of serum testosterone to hCG stimulation, while morphology was studied by electron microscopy after perfusion fixation. Serum LH was significantly elevated in each experimental group, while basal serum testosterone was significantly lower only in SCO rats. In all treatment groups, the serum testosterone response to hCG was significantly decreased when measureed as the area under the response curve. Despite a decreased response to hCG, the Leydig cells were larger than normal and showed striking increases in quantities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi complex. Leydig cell dysfunction has been demonstrated in animals with varying degrees of seminiferous tubule damage, but paradoxically the cytological features of the Leydig cells were indicative of hypertrophy.

  8. Effect of a novel bioactive glass-ceramic on dentinal tubule occlusion: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Y; Liu, J; Li, X; Yin, W; He, T; Hu, D; Liao, Y; Yao, X; Wang, Y

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to assess the ability and efficacy of HX-BGC, a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (SiO2-P2 O5-CaO-Na2 O-SrO), to reduce dentine tubule permeability. Dentine discs from human third molars were etched and randomly allocated into five groups: Group 1--distilled water; Group 2--Sensodyne Repair toothpaste (containing NovaMin®); Group 3--HX-BGC toothpaste (containing 7.5% HX-BGC); Group 4--control toothpaste (without HX-BGC); and Group 5--HX-BGC powder. Specimens were treated daily by brushing with an electric toothbrush for 20 seconds. Between daily treatments (7 days total), specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours. Dentine permeability was measured at baseline, after the first treatment, after the first 24-hour immersion in artificial saliva and at the end of day 7. Dentine morphology and surface deposits were observed by scanning electron microscopy after one day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Sensodyne Repair and bioactive glass-ceramic toothpaste significantly and immediately lowered dentine permeability. The HX-BGC powder group showed the highest reduction in dentine permeability after 7 days of treatment. The novel bioactive glass-ceramic material HX-BGC is effective in reducing dentine permeability by occluding open dentine tubules, indicating that HX-BGC may be a potential treatment for dentine hypersensitivity. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  9. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  10. High doses of nandrolone decanoate reduce volume of testis and length of seminiferous tubules in rats.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Ardekani, Fakhrodin Mesbah

    2005-02-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) compounds rank among the drugs most widely abused with the goal of improving athletic ability, appearance, or muscle mass. It has been shown that these compounds have adverse effects on human and animal physiology and sperm quality, but quantitative structural changes of the testis have received less attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of nandrolone decanoate, which is one of the AAS compounds, on testis weight and volume, diameter and length of seminiferous tubules in rats by unbiased stereological methods. Adult rats were divided into three groups. The first comprised control rats; the second and third groups received low and high doses of nandrolone decanoate for 14 weeks. The rats were then left untreated for 14 weeks. After removal of the testis, stereological study of these tissues showed that the mean volume of testis and length of the seminiferous tubules in the animals that received high doses of nandrolone decanoate were reduced approximately 32% (p<0.01) and approximately 31% (p<0.04), respectively, in comparison with the control group. It can be concluded that the high doses of nandrolone decanoate produce structural changes in the rat testis that remain 14 weeks after stopping injection of the drug.

  11. Effectiveness of different final irrigation techniques and placement of endodontic sealer into dentinal tubules.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Kauhanna Vianna de; Silva, Bruno Marques da; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; Crozeta, Bruno Monguilhott; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião de; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Gabardo, Marilisa Carneiro Leão

    2017-12-18

    The aim of this study was to compare two irrigation techniques and four devices for endodontic sealer placement into the dentinal tubules. Ninety-nine single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and allocated to either the control (CO) (n=11) or experimental groups according to the irrigation method: syringe and NaveTip needle (NT) (n=44), and EndoActivator (EA) (n=44). These groups were subdivided according to sealer placement into K-File (KF), lentulo spiral (LS), Easy Clean (EC), and EndoActivator (EA) subgroups. Moreover, the distances of 5 mm and 2 mm from the apex were analyzed. The teeth were obturated with AH Plus and GuttaCore X3. Analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy associated to cathodoluminescence. The percentage and maximum depth of sealer penetration were measured. Data were evaluated by three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Games-Howell test (p<0.05). EA was superior to NT in percentage of sealer penetration. EC was significantly superior to EA (subgroup) for sealer penetration, and both improved the percentage of sealer penetration when compared to LS. Better sealer penetration was observed at the distance of 5 mm from the apex. Sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules was significantly improved by sonic irrigant activation.

  12. The fine structure of the terminal segment of the bovine seminiferous tubule.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, K H; Sinowatz, F; Mademann, R

    1982-01-01

    The intratesticular excurrent duct system of the bull is composed of rete testis, tubuli recti, and the terminal segment of the seminiferous tubules. Each terminal segment is surrounded by a vascular plexus and may be subdivided into a transitional region, middle portion, and terminal plug. The modified supporting cells of the middle portion and the terminal plug no longer display the typical Sertoli-Sertoli junctions seen in the transitional region and the seminiferous tubule proper. In the region of the terminal plug a distinct central lumen is generally not observed: spermatozoa and tubular fluid must pass through an intricate system of communicating clefts between the apices of the closely attached modified supporting cells. Vacuoles in the supranuclear region of the cells in the middle portion indicate strong transepithelial fluid transport. In analogy to the epithelium of rete testis and tubuli recti, the supporting cells of the terminal segment are capable of phagocytosing spermatozoa. The vascular plexus investing the terminal segment serves a dual purpose: it is a regulatory device for fluid and sperm transport, as well as an area of increased diapedesis for white blood cells.

  13. A Molecular Mechanism to Regulate Lysosome Motility for Lysosome Positioning and Tubulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinran; Rydzewski, Nicholas; Hider, Ahmad; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yang, Junsheng; Wang, Wuyang; Gao, Qiong; Cheng, Xiping; Xu, Haoxing

    2016-01-01

    To mediate the degradation of bio-macromolecules, lysosomes must traffic towards cargo-carrying vesicles for subsequent membrane fusion or fission. Mutations of the lysosomal Ca2+ channel TRPML1 cause lysosome storage disease (LSD) characterized by disordered lysosomal membrane trafficking in cells. Here we show that TRPML1 activity is required to promote Ca2+-dependent centripetal movement of lysosomes towards the perinuclear region, where autophagosomes accumulate, upon autophagy induction. ALG-2, an EF-hand-containing protein, serves as a lysosomal Ca2+ sensor that associates physically with the minus-end directed dynactin-dynein motor, while PI(3,5)P2, a lysosome-localized phosphoinositide, acts upstream of TRPML1. Furthermore, the PI(3,5)P2-TRPML1-ALG-2-dynein signaling is necessary for lysosome tubulation and reformation. In contrast, the TRPML1 pathway is not required for the perinuclear accumulation of lysosomes observed in many LSDs, which is instead likely caused by secondary cholesterol accumulation that constitutively activates Rab7-RILP-dependent retrograde transport. Collectively, Ca2+ release from lysosomes provides an on-demand mechanism regulating lysosome motility, positioning, and tubulation. PMID:26950892

  14. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciT

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D.

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases inmore » inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.« less

  15. Effect of tetracalcium phosphate/monetite toothpaste on dentin remineralization and tubule occlusion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Medvecky, L; Stulajterova, R; Giretova, M; Mincik, J; Vojtko, M; Balko, J; Briancin, J

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the tubule occlusion and remineralization potential of a novel toothpaste with active tetracalcium phosphate/monetite mixtures under de/remineralization cycling. Dentin de/remineralization cycling protocol consisted of demineralization in 1% citric acid at pH 4.6 with following remineralization with toothpastes and soaking in artificial saliva. Effectiveness of toothpastes to promote remineralization was evaluated by measurement of microhardness recovery, analysis of surface roughness, thickness of coating and scanning electron microscopy. The novel tetracalcium phosphate/monetite dentifrice had comparable remineralization potential as commercial calcium silicate/phosphate (SENSODYNE ® ) and magnesium aluminum silicate (Colgate ® ) toothpastes and significantly higher than control saliva (p<0.02). Surface roughness was significantly lower after treatment with prepared and SENSODYNE ® dentifirice (p<0.05). The coatings on dentin surfaces was significantly thicker after applying toothpastes as compared to negative control (p<0.001). The new fluoride toothpaste formulation with bioactive tetracalcium phosphate/monetite calcium phosphate mixture effectively occluded dentin tubules and showed good dentin remineralization potential under de/remineralization cycling. It could replace professional powder preparation based on this mixture. It was demonstrated that prepared dentifrice had comparable properties with commercial fluoride calcium silicate/phosphate or magnesium aluminum silicate dentifrices. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Epiphany sealer penetration into dentinal tubules: Confocal laser scanning microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ravi, S V; Nageswar, Rao; Swapna, Honwad; Sreekant, Puthalath; Ranjith, Madhavan; Mahidhar, Surabhi

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the following study was to evaluate the percentage and average depth of epiphany sealer penetration into dentinal tubules among the coronal, middle and apical thirds of the root using the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A total of 10 maxillary central incisors were prepared and obturated with Resilon-Epiphany system. Sealer was mixed with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiyocyanate dye for visibility under confocal microscope. Teeth were cross-sectioned into coronal, middle and apical sections-2 mm thick. Sections were observed under CLSM. Images were analyzed for percentage and average depth of sealer penetration into dentinal tubules using the lasso tool in Adobe Photoshop CS3 (Adobe systems incorporated, San jose, CA) and laser scanning microscopy (LSM 5) image analyzer. One-way analysis of variance with Student Neuman Keuls post hoc tests, Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxon signed-rank post hoc tests. The results showed that a higher percentage of sealer penetration in coronal section-89.23%, followed by middle section-84.19% and the apical section-64.9%. Average depth of sealer penetration for coronal section was 526.02 μm, middle-385.26 μm and apical-193.49 μm. Study concluded that there was higher epiphany sealer penetration seen in coronal followed by middle and least at apical third of the roots.

  17. Hydromechanics in dentine: role of dentinal tubules and hydrostatic pressure on mechanical stress-strain distribution.

    PubMed

    Kishen, A; Vedantam, S

    2007-10-01

    This investigation is to understand the role of free water in the dentinal tubules on the mechanical integrity of bulk dentine. Three different experiments were conducted in this study. In experiment 1, three-dimensional models of dentine with gradient elastic modulus, homogenous elastic modulus, and with and without hydrostatic pressure were simulated using the finite element method. Static compressive loads of 15, 50 and 100 N were applied and the distribution of the principal stresses, von Mises stresses, and strains in loading direction were determined. In experiment 2, experimental compression testing of fully hydrated and partially dehydrated dentine (21 degrees C for 72 h) was conducted using a Universal testing machine. In experiment 3, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis of hydrated and partially dehydrated dentine was carried out. The finite element analysis revealed that the dentine model with simulated hydrostatic pressure displayed residual tensile stresses and strains in the inner region adjacent to the root canal. When external compressive loads were applied to the model, the residual stresses and strains counteracted the applied loads. Similarly the hydrated specimens subjected to experimental compression loads showed greater toughness when compared to the partially dehydrated specimens. The stress at fracture was significantly higher in partially dehydrated specimens (p=0.014), while the strain at fracture was significantly higher in hydrated dentine specimens (p=0.037). These experiments highlighted the distinct role of free water in the dentinal tubules and hydrostatic pressure on the stress-strain distribution within the bulk dentine.

  18. BLOC-2 targets recycling endosomal tubules to melanosomes for cargo delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Megan K.; Mantegazza, Adriana R.; Snir, Olivia L.; Tenza, Danièle; Acosta-Ruiz, Amanda; Delevoye, Cédric; Zorger, Richard; Sitaram, Anand; de Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Ravichandran, Keerthana; Rux, John; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2015-01-01

    Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a group of disorders characterized by the malformation of lysosome-related organelles, such as pigment cell melanosomes. Three of nine characterized HPS subtypes result from mutations in subunits of BLOC-2, a protein complex with no known molecular function. In this paper, we exploit melanocytes from mouse HPS models to place BLOC-2 within a cargo transport pathway from recycling endosomal domains to maturing melanosomes. In BLOC-2–deficient melanocytes, the melanosomal protein TYRP1 was largely depleted from pigment granules and underwent accelerated recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane and to the Golgi. By live-cell imaging, recycling endosomal tubules of wild-type melanocytes made frequent and prolonged contacts with maturing melanosomes; in contrast, tubules from BLOC-2–deficient cells were shorter in length and made fewer, more transient contacts with melanosomes. These results support a model in which BLOC-2 functions to direct recycling endosomal tubular transport intermediates to maturing melanosomes and thereby promote cargo delivery and optimal pigmentation. PMID:26008744

  19. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: Dispelling Confusing Pathology Terminology: Recognition and Interpretation of Selected Rodent Renal Tubule Lesions.

    PubMed

    Seely, John Curtis; Frazier, Kendall S

    2015-06-01

    Renal tubule lesions often prove troublesome for toxicologic pathologists because of the diverse nature and interrelated cell types within the kidney and the presence of spontaneous lesions with overlapping morphologies similar to those induced by renal toxicants. Although there are a number of guidance documents available citing straightforward diagnostic criteria of tubule lesions for the pathologist to refer to, most are presented without further advice on the when to or to the why and the why not of diagnosing one lesion over another. Documents presenting diagnostic perspectives and recommendations derived from an author's experience are limited since guidance documents are generally based on descriptive observations. In this Regulatory Forum opinion piece, the authors attempt to dispel confusing renal tubule lesion terminology in laboratory animal species by suggesting histological advice on the recognition and interpretation of these complex entities. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  20. The Role of “Leakage” of Tubular Fluid in Anuria Due to Mercury Poisoning*

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Norman; Mutz, Bertrand F.; Aynedjian, Hagop S.

    1967-01-01

    The role of “leakage” of tubular fluid in anuria produced by mercury poisoning was studied in rats by micropuncture techniques. After an initial brisk diuresis, almost all animals were completely anuric 24 hours after HgCl2 injection. Lissamine green injected intravenously in the early stage of anuria appeared in the beginning of the proximal tubule, but the color became progressively lighter as the dye traversed the proximal convolutions. The dye was barely visible in the terminal segments of the proximal tubule; it did not appear at all in the distal tubules. These observations suggest that the proximal epithelium had become abnormally permeable to Lissamine green. Tubular fluid to plasma inulin (TF/PIn) ratios and inulin clearance were measured in individual nephrons at three sites: early proximal tubule, late proximal tubule, and distal tubule. It was found that TF/PIn ratios were abnormally low in the late proximal and distal tubules. Inulin clearance was normal at the beginning of the proximal tubule but fell by more than 60% by the late proximal convolutions. Thus, the proximal tubule had also become permeable to inulin. We conclude from these observations that anuria in mercury poisoning can occur in the presence of a normal glomerular filtration rate. The absence of urine flow appears to be due to complete absorption of the filtrate through an excessively permeable tubular epithelium. The driving force affecting this fluid absorption is probably the colloid oncotic pressure of the peritubular capillary blood. Images PMID:6025476

  1. Effects of tooth-brushing force with a desensitising dentifrice on dentine tubule patency and surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Mullan, F; Paraskar, S; Bartlett, D W; Olley, R C

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of a 5% NovaMin containing dentifrice on dentine tubule patency and surface roughness at 100g and 400g tooth brush abrasion forces. 75 polished human dentine samples were prepared and randomly allocated into one of five groups; control (1), Na 2 PFO 3 100g abrasion force (2), NovaMin 100g (3), Na 2 PFO 3 400g (4) and NovaMin 400g (5). The control group underwent two 2-min cycles of artificial saliva (AS), one 2-min erosion cycle; the rest underwent two toothbrush abrasion cycles in an AS/dentifrice slurry and one 2-min erosion cycle. All samples were imaged at baseline and post intervention using Tandem Scanning Microscopy and Profilometry to analyse tubule patency and roughness. Mean tubule patency increased significantly between baseline and post intervention in groups 1,2 and 4 and decreased significantly post intervention in groups 3 and 5 (p<0.01). Post intervention, there were statistically significant differences in mean patent tubules between NovaMin and the Na 2 PFO 3 and control groups (p<0.001). Surface roughness increased for all groups between baseline and post interventions (P<0.001); mean (SD) roughness increases for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 0.14 (0.05) μm, 0.18 (0.04) μm, 0.16 (0.06) μm, 0.19 (0.07) μm and 0.21 (0.02) μm respectively. Differences between group 1 and 5 were significant (p<0.01). Brushing with NovaMin resulted in significant dentine tubule occlusion at 100g and 400g, but brushing with Na 2 PFO 3 resulted in increased tubule patency. Surface roughness increased significantly at 400g brushing with NovaMin. There was no correlation between tubule patency and surface roughness. A NovaMin desensitising dentifrice resulted in tubule occlusion even at high brushing forces. There was minimal increase in surface roughness at the lower (100g) brushing force. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Regulation of K transport in a mathematical model of the cortical collecting tubule.

    PubMed

    Strieter, J; Weinstein, A M; Giebisch, G; Stephenson, J L

    1992-12-01

    The effect of luminal flow rate and peritubular pH on Na and K transport is investigated in a mathematical model of the rabbit cortical collecting tubule. The model is used to simulate a 0.4-cm segment of tubule comprised of principal cell, alpha- and beta-intercalated cells, and lateral interspace. Calculations produce luminal profiles of Na, K, Cl, HCO3, and phosphate, as well as of electrical potential and pH. Parameter sets are developed that permit representation of both unstimulated and deoxycorticosterone acetate-stimulated tubules. A series of simulations is performed in which initial luminal flow rate is varied over the range of values between 0.1 and 30 nl/min. A marked flow-dependent enhancement of Na reabsorption and K secretion is seen, especially at lower flows, while Cl and HCO3 transport remain relatively constant. In experimental studies, it has been observed that metabolic alkalosis stimulates and metabolic acidosis inhibits K secretion, while leaving Na transport relatively unaffected [B. A. Stanton and G. Giebisch. Am. J. Physiol. 242 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 11): F544-F551, 1982; K. Tabei, S. Muto, Y. Ando, Y. Sakairi, and Y. Asano. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 1: 693, 1990; and K. Tabei, S. Muto, H. Furuya, and Y. Asano. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2: 752, 1991]. Model calculations indicate that, when ion permeabilities are fixed and not dependent on pH, the impact of peritubular HCO3 on K secretion cannot be simulated. When junctional Cl permeability decreases with increasing interspace pH (E. M. Wright and J. M. Diamond. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 163: 57-74, 1968) in the model, there is a marked stimulation of K secretion with alkalosis and inhibition with acidosis. Furthermore, inclusion of a pH-dependent apical Na permeability [L. G. Palmer and G. Frindt. Am. J. Physiol. 253 (Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol. 22): F333-F339, 1987] that increases with increasing principal cell pH significantly reduces the change in Na+ reabsorption seen with the p

  3. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  4. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance. 6 figs.

  5. Range gated strip proximity sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A range gated strip proximity sensor uses one set of sensor electronics and a distributed antenna or strip which extends along the perimeter to be sensed. A micro-power RF transmitter is coupled to the first end of the strip and transmits a sequence of RF pulses on the strip to produce a sensor field along the strip. A receiver is coupled to the second end of the strip, and generates a field reference signal in response to the sequence of pulse on the line combined with received electromagnetic energy from reflections in the field. The sensor signals comprise pulses of radio frequency signals having a duration of less than 10 nanoseconds, and a pulse repetition rate on the order of 1 to 10 MegaHertz or less. The duration of the radio frequency pulses is adjusted to control the range of the sensor. An RF detector feeds a filter capacitor in response to received pulses on the strip line to produce a field reference signal representing the average amplitude of the received pulses. When a received pulse is mixed with a received echo, the mixing causes a fluctuation in the amplitude of the field reference signal, providing a range-limited Doppler type signature of a field disturbance.

  6. Intramedullary Percutaneous Fixation of Extra-Articular Proximal and Middle Phalanx Fractures.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa; Aldlyami, Ehab; Saraj, Basem; Fm Seidam, Mohamed; Badawi, Hamed; Shaat, Ahmed; Alawadi, Khalid; Dodakundi, Chaitanya

    2018-06-01

    Multiple methods have been described for treating unstable proximal and middle phalangeal fractures. Irrespective of using an open or closed technique of fixation, stiffness and extensor lag at the proximal/distal interphalangeal joint almost always occur. This issue can be avoided by allowing the patients to mobilize the fingers out of plaster or splint as early as possible from the day of surgery. We describe a technique of intramedullary percutaneous fixation of extra-articular proximal and middle phalanx fractures allowing immediate mobilization of fingers, concurrent stabilization with progressive healing and thus preventing such complications.

  7. Proximal Participation: A Pathway into Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Selena

    2013-01-01

    In a longitudinal case study of apprentices, the term proximal participation was coined to describe the entry process of young people, with unclear career destinations, into the trade of baking. This article unravels the significance of proximal participation in the decision-making processes of young people who enter a trade through initial…

  8. Treatment of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures by dorsal plating.

    PubMed

    Kloen, Peter; Buijze, Geert A

    2009-12-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of proximal ulna and olecranon fractures allowing early mobilization and prevention of ulnohumeral arthritis. Comminuted olecranon or proximal ulna fractures (including Monteggia fractures), olecranon fractures extending distally from the coronoid process, nonunions of the proximal ulna, segmental fractures of the proximal ulna extending into the shaft, fractures of the proximal ulna associated with a coronoid fracture. Patients in poor general condition. Soft-tissue defects around the elbow preventing wound closure over the plate. Pediatric fractures with open growth plates where screws would cross the physis. Posterior approach to the elbow. Hinging the fracture site open by extension of the proximal fragment based on triceps insertion. Fracture involvement of the coronoid with a large displaced fracture fragment can generally be reduced through the fracture side. Reconstruction with temporary Kirschner wires. Fixation by placing a (precontoured) plate around the tip of the olecranon with a long intramedullary screw and orthogonal (uni)cortical screws in the shaft. Radial head pathology can be addressed - if needed - through the same incision. Internal fixation, resection or prosthetic replacement of the radial head is done based on injury pattern/stability. Functional rehabilitation using active assisted range of motion of the elbow may be started immediately out of splint. Posterior splint for 7-10 days to allow wound healing. Between 2003 and July 2008, 26 patients were treated with posterior plating of the proximal ulna and olecranon using this strategy. There were 23 acute fractures (of which one was referred for revision after suboptimal fixation a few days earlier), one nonunion that became traumatized, and two nascent malunions. A midline posterior approach allowed addressing both ulna and radial head pathology. The plate was contoured to wrap around the olecranon. All fractures healed. There were one postoperative infection, one

  9. Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A polymers bind, but do not tubulate, liposomes

    SciT

    Backues, Steven K.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y., E-mail: sybednar@wisc.edu

    2010-03-19

    The Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1A (AtDRP1A) is involved in endocytosis and cell plate maturation in Arabidopsis. Unlike dynamin, AtDRP1A does not have any recognized membrane binding or protein-protein interaction domains. We report that GTPase active AtDRP1A purified from Escherichia coli as a fusion to maltose binding protein forms homopolymers visible by negative staining electron microscopy. These polymers interact with protein-free liposomes whose lipid composition mimics that of the inner leaflet of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane, suggesting that lipid-binding may play a role in AtDRP1A function. However, AtDRP1A polymers do not appear to assemble and disassemble in a dynamic fashion andmore » do not have the ability to tubulate liposomes in vitro, suggesting that additional factors or modifications are necessary for AtDRP1A's in vivo function.« less

  10. Caulimoviridae Tubule-Guided Transport Is Dictated by Movement Protein Properties ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús; Fajardo, Thor; Zicca, Stefania; Pallás, Vicente; Stavolone, Livia

    2010-01-01

    Plant viruses move through plasmodesmata (PD) either as nucleoprotein complexes (NPCs) or as tubule-guided encapsidated particles with the help of movement proteins (MPs). To explore how and why MPs specialize in one mechanism or the other, we tested the exchangeability of MPs encoded by DNA and RNA virus genomes by means of an engineered alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) system. We show that Caulimoviridae (DNA genome virus) MPs are competent for RNA virus particle transport but are unable to mediate NPC movement, and we discuss this restriction in terms of the evolution of DNA virus MPs as a means of mediating DNA viral genome entry into the RNA-trafficking PD pathway. PMID:20130061

  11. Culturing immobilized plant cells for the TUBUL space experiments on the DELTA and 12S Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberer, Björn J.; Emons, Anne Mie C.; Vos, Jan W.

    2007-09-01

    For the TUBUL experiments during the DELTA mission in April 2004 and 12S mission in March/April 2006 on board the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station we developed a method to culture and chemically fix plant suspension culture cells. The aim of the ten day experiment was to investigate the effect of microgravity on single plant cells. Fully automated experiment cassettes (Plunger Box Units) were developed by Centre for Concepts in Mechatronics (Nuenen, the Netherlands). Tobacco BY- 2 cells were immobilized in a semi- solid agarose matrix that was reinforced by a nylon mesh. This assembly allowed liquid medium refreshment, oxygen supply and chemical fixation, including a post- fixative wash. The method was optimized for post- flight analysis of cell structure, shape and size, cell division, and the microtubule cytoskeleton. The viability of cells in the agarose matrix was similar to cells grown in liquid medium under laboratory conditions, only the stationary growth phase was reached six days later.

  12. Ultrastructural studies on the boundary tissue of the seminiferous tubules of different mammals.

    PubMed

    Cieciura, L; Jaszczuk-Jarosz, B; Pietrzkowska, K

    1988-01-01

    The aims of our studies were to compare the ultrastructure of the boundary tissue of seminiferous tubules of various mammals (rat, mouse, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, ram, bull and man). Visual analysis of electron micrographs revealed the similarity of structure of all layers at investigated animals. The boundary tissue consists of 4 layers: 1) amorphous inner lamina, 2) cellular inner lamina, 3) amorphous outer lamina, 4) cellular outer lamina. The outer lamina of boundary tissue of rat, mouse and hamster revealed in histochemical reactions meshes resembling honey-combs. The wall of seminiferous canalicules of bull and ram consists of more bigger and different structure than one at the other laboratory animals. The most different structure of boundary tissue in man was observed. The capillary vessels penetrate in the myofibroblastic layer, when comparted to that found in other mammals on the surface of the wall.

  13. Isolation and in vitro binding of mating type plus fertilization tubules from Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nedra F

    2008-01-01

    During fertilization in Chlamydomonas, adhesion and fusion of gametes occur at the tip of specialized regions of the plasma membrane, known as mating structures. The mating type minus (mt[-]) structure is a slightly raised dome-shaped region located at the apical end of the cell body. In contrast, the activated mating type plus (mt[+]) structure is an actin-filled, microvillouslike organelle. Interestingly, a similar type of "fusion organelle" is conserved across diverse groups. Chlamydomonas provides an ideal model system for studying the process of gametic cell fusion in that it is amenable to genetic manipulations as well as cell and molecular biological approaches. Moreover, the ease of culturing Chlamydomonas combined with the ability to isolate the mt(+) fertilization tubule and the development of in vitro assays for adhesion makes it an ideal system for biochemical studies focused on dissecting the molecular mechanisms that underlie the complex process of gametic cell fusion.

  14. Perinatal Case of Fatal Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome with Hyperplasia of Seminiferous Tubules.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Nives; Stanek, Jerzy

    2017-06-10

    BACKGROUND Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare X-linked recessive syndrome characterized by fetal overgrowth. CASE REPORT We present a case of a male infant with SGBS. Abnormal prenatal ultrasound (including congenital diaphragmatic hernia) prompted microarray testing of amniotic fluid cells, which showed deletion on chromosome Xq26.2 affecting the glypican-3 gene consistent with SGBS type I. The infant died six hours after birth and at autopsy showed feature