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Sample records for early receptor potential

  1. Retinal degeneration in cats fed casein. IV. The early receptor potential.

    PubMed

    Berson, E L; Watson, G; Grasse, K L; Szamier, R B

    1981-08-01

    Electroretinographic studies of casein-fed cats with retinal taurine deficiency revealed that the early receptor potential (ERP) was initially normal in amplitude at a time when the a-wave and b-wave of the electroretinogram were substantially reduced or even nondetectable. The preserved ERP's in these taurine-deficient cats could be correlated with the histologic finding that their outer segments were relatively intact over 90% of the retinal area subtended by the test flash. The sequence of electroretinographic changes in these taurine-deficient cats was also consistent with previous biochemical studies on the normal cat retina that have shown a relatively low concentration of taurine at the level of the outer segments and a higher concentration at the level of the inner segments. The responses in early stages from taurine-deficient cats differed from the responses obtained from vitamin A--deficient cats but resembled those from cats that received an intravitreal injection of ouabain. Similarities and a difference between the responses of taurine-deficient cats and those of patients with early retinitis pigmentosa are considered.

  2. Preclinical characterization of three transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 antagonists for early use in human intradermal microdose analgesic studies.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, E; Halldin, M M; Stålberg, O; Sundgren-Andersson, A K

    2018-05-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel involved in the mediation of peripheral pain to the central nervous system. As such, the TRPV1 is an accessible molecular target that lends itself well to the understanding of nociceptive signalling. This study encompasses preclinical investigations of three molecules with the prospect to establish them as suitable analgesic model compounds in human intradermal pain relief studies. The inhibitory effectiveness was evaluated by means of in vitro assays, TRPV1 expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and rat dorsal root ganglion cultures in fluorescent imaging plate reader and whole cell patch clamp systems, as well as in vivo by capsaicin-evoked pain-related behavioural response studies in rat. Secondary pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and preclinical safety were also assessed. In vitro, all three compounds were effective at inhibiting capsaicin-activated TRPV1. The concentration producing 50% inhibition (IC 50 ) determined was in the range of 3-32 nmol/L and 10-501 nmol/L using CHO-K1 and dorsal root ganglion cultures, respectively. In vivo, all compounds showed dose-dependent reduction in capsaicin-evoked pain-related behavioural responses in rat. None of the three compounds displayed any significant activity on any of the secondary targets tested. The compounds were also shown to be safe from a toxicological, drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic perspective, for usage in microgram doses in the human skin. The investigated model compounds displayed ideal compound characteristics as pharmacological and translational tools to address efficacy on the human native TRPV1 target in human skin in situ. This work details the pharmaceutical work-up of three TRPV1-active investigational compounds, to obtain regulatory approval, for subsequent use in humans. This fast and cost-effective preclinical development path may impact research beyond the pain management area, as

  3. A potential determinant role of adiponectin and receptors for the early embryo development in PCOS patients with obesity hinted by quantitative profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Hao, Cuifang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Shouxin; Zhang, Fengrong; Zhuang, Lili; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-02-01

    To identify the quantitative profiling of adiponectin and its receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2, and T-cadherin) in cumulus cells (CCs) and to evaluate their roles in the early embryo development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, in part, with obesity. Fifty-five subjects were divided into two groups according to the body mass index. Oocytes were further inseminated and only mature and normal fertilized oocytes (2PN) were included in this research. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to identify adiponectin and its receptors in CCs. Adiponectin and receptors were ubiquitously expressed in CCs of PCOS and non-PCOS patients. The level of AdipoR2 in CCs from the oocytes yielding blastocyst after 5/6 days in vitro culture was markedly higher than in those from oocytes could not develop to blastocyst stage after Day 6, for non-obese or obese PCOS patients (0.1647 ± 0.0161 versus 0.0783 ± 0.0385, 0.1948 ± 0.0307 versus 0.1057 ± 0.0236, respectively, p < 0.05). In addition, only in patients with PCOS and concurrent obesity the AdipoR1 in CCs was considerably increased in CC-B + compared with CC-B - subgroup (0.5162 ± 0.0371 versus 0.2448 ± 0.0333, p < 0.01). The development of early embryo was associated with the up-regulation of AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in PCOS patients. Our results suggested that adiponectin could positively modulate embryo development in humans. Further investigations should be carried out to unlock the crucial role that adiponectin plays in embryo development.

  4. Potential role of gender specific effect of leptin receptor deficiency in an extended consanguineous family with severe early-onset obesity.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Mehrjardi, Mohammad Yahya Vahidi; Dilaver, Nafi; Tajamolian, Masoud; Enayati, Samaneh; Ebrahimi, Pirooz; Amoli, Mahsa M; Farooqi, Sadaf; Maroofian, Reza

    2018-03-12

    Congenital Leptin receptor (LEPR) deficiency is a rare genetic cause of early-onset morbid obesity characterised by severe early onset obesity, major hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and immune and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction. We identified a homozygous loss-of-function mutation, NM_002303.5:c.464 T > G; p.(Tyr155*), in the LEPR in an extended consanguineous family with multiple individuals affected by early-onset severe obesity and hyperphagia. Interestingly, the LEPR-deficient adult females have extremely high body mass index (BMI) with hypogonadal infertility, the BMI of the affected males began to decline around the onset of puberty (13-15 years) with fertility being preserved. These findings lead to the speculation that LEPR deficiency may have a gender-specific effect on the regulation of body weight. In order to elucidate gender-specific effects of LEPR deficiency on reproduction further investigations are needed. The limitations of this study are that our conclusion is based on observations of two males and two females. Further LEPR deficient males and females are required for comparison in order to support this finding more confidently. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sigma receptors: biology and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Xavier; Codony, Xavier; Monroy, Xavier

    2004-07-01

    More than 20 years after the identification of the sigma receptors as a unique binding site in the brain and in the peripheral organs, several questions regarding this receptor are still open. Only one of the subtypes of the receptor has been cloned to date, but the endogenous ligand still remains unknown, and the possible association of the receptor with a conventional second messenger system is controversial. From the very beginning, the sigma receptors were associated with various central nervous system disorders such as schizophrenia or movement disorders. Today, after hundreds of papers dealing with the importance of sigma receptors in brain function, it is widely accepted that sigma receptors represent a new and different avenue in the possible pharmacological treatment of several brain-related disorders. In this review, what is known about the biology of the sigma receptor regarding its putative structure and its distribution in the central nervous system is summarized first. The role of sigma receptors regulating cellular functions and other neurotransmitter systems is also addressed, as well as a short overview of the possible endogenous ligands. Finally, although no specific sigma ligand has reached the market, different pharmacological approaches to the alleviation and treatment of several central nervous system disorders and deficits, including schizophrenia, pain, memory deficits, etc., are discussed, with an overview of different compounds and their potential therapeutic use.

  6. GluA2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis and the decay of early and late long-term potentiation: possible mechanisms for forgetting of short- and long-term memories.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Oliver; Nader, Karim; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2014-01-05

    The molecular processes involved in establishing long-term potentiation (LTP) have been characterized well, but the decay of early and late LTP (E-LTP and L-LTP) is poorly understood. We review recent advances in describing the mechanisms involved in maintaining LTP and homeostatic plasticity. We discuss how these phenomena could relate to processes that might underpin the loss of synaptic potentiation over time, and how they might contribute to the forgetting of short-term and long-term memories. We propose that homeostatic downscaling mediates the loss of E-LTP, and that metaplastic parameters determine the decay rate of L-LTP, while both processes require the activity-dependent removal of postsynaptic GluA2-containing AMPA receptors.

  7. Therapeutic potential of metabotropic glutamate receptor modulators.

    PubMed

    Hovelsø, N; Sotty, F; Montezinho, L P; Pinheiro, P S; Herrik, K F; Mørk, A

    2012-03-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major player in complex brain functions. Glutamatergic transmission is primarily mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, which include NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. However, glutamate exerts modulatory actions through a family of metabotropic G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Dysfunctions of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the etiology of several diseases. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been widely investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of several disorders associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. However, blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors might be accompanied by severe side effects due to their vital role in many important physiological functions. A different strategy aimed at pharmacologically interfering with mGluR function has recently gained interest. Many subtype selective agonists and antagonists have been identified and widely used in preclinical studies as an attempt to elucidate the role of specific mGluRs subtypes in glutamatergic transmission. These studies have allowed linkage between specific subtypes and various physiological functions and more importantly to pathological states. This article reviews the currently available knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of targeting mGluRs in the treatment of several CNS disorders, including schizophrenia, addiction, major depressive disorder and anxiety, Fragile X Syndrome, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and pain.

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hovelsø, N; Sotty, F; Montezinho, L.P; Pinheiro, P.S; Herrik, K.F; Mørk, A

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major player in complex brain functions. Glutamatergic transmission is primarily mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, which include NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors. However, glutamate exerts modulatory actions through a family of metabotropic G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Dysfunctions of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the etiology of several diseases. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of ionotropic glutamate receptors has been widely investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of several disorders associated with glutamatergic dysfunction. However, blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors might be accompanied by severe side effects due to their vital role in many important physiological functions. A different strategy aimed at pharmacologically interfering with mGluR function has recently gained interest. Many subtype selective agonists and antagonists have been identified and widely used in preclinical studies as an attempt to elucidate the role of specific mGluRs subtypes in glutamatergic transmission. These studies have allowed linkage between specific subtypes and various physiological functions and more importantly to pathological states. This article reviews the currently available knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of targeting mGluRs in the treatment of several CNS disorders, including schizophrenia, addiction, major depressive disorder and anxiety, Fragile X Syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and pain. PMID:22942876

  9. Early environments, glucocorticoid receptors, and behavioral epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2013-10-01

    In 1985, a brief report published in Behavioral Neuroscience established the link between neonatal handling and concentrations of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the adult rat, suggesting a neurobiological basis for the attenuated stress reactivity observed in handled versus nonhandled offspring. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of Behavioral Neuroscience, this article explores the research that preceded and followed from this brief but significant publication. Changes in hippocampal GR induced by handling were determined to be the outcome of a cascade of cellular and molecular events involving thyroid hormones, serotonin turnover, and transcription factor binding to the Nr3c1 gene, leading to increased GR mRNA and protein. Though many hypotheses were proposed for the "handling effect," the role of handling-induced changes in maternal care, particularly pup licking/grooming (LG), generated a productive scientific framework for understanding the handling phenomenon. Indeed, LG has since been demonstrated to alter GR levels through the signaling pathways described for handling. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms have been discovered to play a critical role in the effects of early life experience and particularly in the regulation of Nr3c1. Overall, the research avenues that have evolved from the initial finding of handling-induced changes in GR have broad applications to our understanding of plasticity, resilience, and the transmission of traits across generations. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Transient Receptor Potential Channels in the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Earley, Scott; Brayden, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes 28 distinct members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of cation channels, which exhibit varying degrees of selectivity for different ionic species. Multiple TRP channels are present in all cells and are involved in diverse aspects of cellular function, including sensory perception and signal transduction. Notably, TRP channels are involved in regulating vascular function and pathophysiology, the focus of this review. TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells participate in regulating contractility and proliferation, whereas endothelial TRP channel activity is an important contributor to endothelium-dependent vasodilation, vascular wall permeability, and angiogenesis. TRP channels are also present in perivascular sensory neurons and astrocytic endfeet proximal to cerebral arterioles, where they participate in the regulation of vascular tone. Almost all of these functions are mediated by changes in global intracellular Ca2+ levels or subcellular Ca2+ signaling events. In addition to directly mediating Ca2+ entry, TRP channels influence intracellular Ca2+ dynamics through membrane depolarization associated with the influx of cations or through receptor- or store-operated mechanisms. Dysregulation of TRP channels is associated with vascular-related pathologies, including hypertension, neointimal injury, ischemia-reperfusion injury, pulmonary edema, and neurogenic inflammation. In this review, we briefly consider general aspects of TRP channel biology and provide an in-depth discussion of the functions of TRP channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and perivascular cells under normal and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25834234

  11. Differential effects of subtype-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on early and late hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja S; Rast, Georg; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2011-12-05

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety. Currently, approaches selectively targeting the activation of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are in clinical development for treatment of memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease patients. These are α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which are believed to enhance cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In order to gain a better insight into the mechanistic role of these two nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in learning and memory, we investigated the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist TC-1827 and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular experimental model of memory formation. Generally, LTP is distinguished in an early and a late form, the former being protein-synthesis independent and the latter being protein-synthesis dependent. TC-1827 was found to increase early LTP in a bell-shaped dose dependent manner, but did not affect late LTP. In contrast, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 showed enhancing effects on both early and late LTP in a bell-shaped manner. Furthermore, SSR180711 not only increased early LTP, but also transformed it into late LTP, which was not observed with the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Therefore, based on these findings α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (partial) agonists appear to exhibit stronger efficacy on memory improvement than α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Oxotremorine-M potentiates NMDA receptors by muscarinic receptor dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Ruud; Reed, Hannah; Sher, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    Muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptors play an important role in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and cortex. Potentiation of NMDA receptors as a consequence of muscarinic acetylcholine M1 receptor activation is a crucial event mediating the cholinergic modulation of synaptic plasticity, which is a cellular mechanism for learning and memory. In Alzheimer's disease, the cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex is severely degenerated, and agonists or positive allosteric modulators of M1 receptors are therefore thought to be of potential use to treat the deficits in cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease. In this study we developed a simple system in which muscarinic modulation of NMDA receptors can be studied in vitro. Human M1 receptors and NR1/2B NMDA receptors were co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes and various muscarinic agonists were assessed for their modulatory effects on NMDA receptor-mediated responses. As expected, NMDA receptor-mediated responses were potentiated by oxotremorine-M, oxotremorine or xanomeline when the drugs were applied between subsequent NMDA responses, an effect which was fully blocked by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. However, in oocytes expressing NR1/2B NMDA receptors but not muscarinic M1 receptors, oxotremorine-M co-applied with NMDA also resulted in a potentiation of NMDA currents and this effect was not blocked by atropine, demonstrating that oxotremorine-M is able to directly potentiate NMDA receptors. Oxotremorine, which is a close analogue of oxotremorine-M, and xanomeline, a chemically distinct muscarinic agonist, did not potentiate NMDA receptors by this direct mechanism. Comparing the chemical structures of the three different muscarinic agonists used in this study suggests that the tri-methyl ammonium moiety present in oxotremorine-M is important for the compound's interaction with NMDA receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of the nuclear receptor superfamily: early diversification from an ancestral orphan receptor.

    PubMed

    Laudet, V

    1997-12-01

    From a database containing the published nuclear hormone receptor (NR) sequences I constructed an alignment of the C, D and E domains of these molecules. Using this alignment, I have performed tree reconstruction using both distance matrix and parsimony analysis. The robustness of each branch was estimated using bootstrap resampling methods. The trees constructed by these two methods gave congruent topologies. From these analyses I defined six NR subfamilies: (i) a large one clustering thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), retinoic acid receptors (RARs), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), vitamin D receptors (VDRs) and ecdysone receptors (EcRs) as well as numerous orphan receptors such as RORs or Rev-erbs; (ii) one containing retinoid X receptors (RXRs) together with COUP, HNF4, tailless, TR2 and TR4 orphan receptors; (iii) one containing steroid receptors; (iv) one containing the NGFIB orphan receptors; (v) one containing FTZ-F1 orphan receptors; and finally (vi) one containing to date only one gene, the GCNF1 orphan receptor. The relationships between the six subfamilies are not known except for subfamilies I and IV which appear to be related. Interestingly, most of the liganded receptors appear to be derived when compared with orphan receptors. This suggests that the ligand-binding ability of NRs has been gained by orphan receptors during the course of evolution to give rise to the presently known receptors. The distribution into six subfamilies correlates with the known abilities of the various NRs to bind to DNA as homo- or heterodimers. For example, receptors heterodimerizing efficiently with RXR belong to the first or the fourth subfamilies. I suggest that the ability to heterodimerize evolved once, just before the separation of subfamilies I and IV and that the first NR was able to bind to DNA as a homodimer. From the study of NR sequences existing in vertebrates, arthropods and nematodes, I define two major steps of NR diversification: one

  14. Estrogen receptor β and Liver X receptor β: biology and therapeutic potential in CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    Warner, M; Gustafsson, J-A

    2015-02-01

    In the last decade of the twentieth century, two nuclear receptors were discovered in our laboratory and, very surprisingly, were found to have key roles in the central nervous system. These receptors have provided some novel insights into the etiology and progression of neurodegenerative diseases and anxiety disorders. The two receptors are estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and liver X receptor beta (LXRβ). Both ERβ and LXRβ have potent anti-inflammatory activities and, in addition, LXRβ is involved in the genesis of dopaminergic neurons during development and protection of these neurons against neurodegeneration in adult life. ERβ is involved in migration of cortical neurons and calretinin-positive GABAergic interneurons during development and maintenance of serotonergic neurons in adults. Both receptors are present in magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic preoptic area including those expressing vasopressin and oxytocin. As both ERβ and LXRβ are ligand-activated transcription factors, their ligands hold great potential in the treatment of diseases of the CNS.

  15. Progesterone receptor in the prostate: A potential suppressor for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, RuiQi; Yu, Yue; Dong, Xuesen

    2017-02-01

    Advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen receptor pathway inhibition (ARPI) eventually progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), suggesting that (i) androgen receptor (AR) blockage is incomplete, and (ii) there are other critical molecular pathways contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Although most PCa occurs in the epithelium, prostate stroma is increasingly believed to play a crucial role in promoting tumorigenesis and facilitating tumor progression. In the stroma, sex steroid hormone receptors such as AR and estrogen receptor-α are implicated to have important functions, whereas the progesterone receptor (PR) remains largely under-investigated despite the high sequence and structural similarities between PR and AR. Stromal progesterone/PR signaling may play a critical role in PCa development and progression because not only progesterone is a critical precursor for de novo androgen steroidogenesis and an activator of mutant androgen receptors, but also PR functions in a ligand-independent manner in various important pathways. In fact, recent progress in our understanding of stromal PR function suggests that this receptor may exert an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), reactive stroma development, and PCa progression. These early findings of stromal PR warrant further investigations as this receptor could be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in PCa management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rethinking Nuclear Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Mayur; Malek, Goldis

    2016-12-01

    Collectively, retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy, result in severe vision impairment worldwide. The absence and/or limited availability of successful drug therapies for these blinding disorders necessitates further understanding their pathobiology and identifying new targetable signaling pathways. Nuclear receptors are transcription regulators of many key aspects of human physiology, as well as pathophysiology, with reported roles in development, aging, and disease. Some of the pathways regulated by nuclear receptors include, but are not limited to, angiogenesis, inflammation, and lipid metabolic dysregulation, mechanisms also important in the initiation and development of several retinal diseases. Herein, we present an overview of the biology of three diseases affecting the posterior eye, summarize a growing body of evidence that suggests direct or indirect involvement of nuclear receptors in disease progression, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting nuclear receptors for treatment.

  17. Rethinking Nuclear Receptors as Potential Therapeutic Targets for Retinal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Mayur; Malek, Goldis

    2017-01-01

    Collectively, retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and diabetic retinopathy, result in severe vision impairment worldwide. The absence and/or limited availability of successful drug therapies for these blinding disorders necessitates further understanding their pathobiology and identifying new targetable signaling pathways. Nuclear receptors are transcription regulators of many key aspects of human physiology, as well as pathophysiology, with reported roles in development, aging, and disease. Some of the pathways regulated by nuclear receptors include, but are not limited to, angiogenesis, inflammation, and lipid metabolic dysregulation, mechanisms also important in the initiation and development of several retinal diseases. Herein, we present an overview of the biology of three diseases affecting the posterior eye, summarize a growing body of evidence that suggests direct or indirect involvement of nuclear receptors in disease progression, and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting nuclear receptors for treatment. PMID:27455994

  18. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  19. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J B; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-09-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  20. Vestibular receptors contribute to cortical auditory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil P M; Paillard, Aurore C; Kluk, Karolina; Whittle, Elizabeth; Colebatch, James G

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus is well-established, but the contribution of vestibular receptors to the late auditory evoked potentials of cortical origin is unknown. Evoked potentials from 500 Hz tone pips were recorded using 70 channel EEG at several intensities below and above the vestibular acoustic threshold, as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). In healthy subjects both auditory mid- and long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), consisting of Na, Pa, N1 and P2 waves, were observed in the sub-threshold conditions. However, in passing through the vestibular threshold, systematic changes were observed in the morphology of the potentials and in the intensity dependence of their amplitude and latency. These changes were absent in a patient without functioning vestibular receptors. In particular, for the healthy subjects there was a fronto-central negativity, which appeared at about 42 ms, referred to as an N42, prior to the AEP N1. Source analysis of both the N42 and N1 indicated involvement of cingulate cortex, as well as bilateral superior temporal cortex. Our findings are best explained by vestibular receptors contributing to what were hitherto considered as purely auditory evoked potentials and in addition tentatively identify a new component that appears to be primarily of vestibular origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam.

    PubMed

    Ito, I; Tanabe, S; Kohda, A; Sugiyama, H

    1990-05-01

    1. Allosteric potentiation of the ionotropic quisqualate (iQA) receptor by a nootropic drug aniracetam (1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) was investigated using Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA and rat hippocampal slices. 2. Aniracetam potentiates the iQA responses induced in Xenopus oocytes by rat brain mRNA in a reversible manner. This effect was observed above the concentrations of 0.1 mM. Kainate. N-methyl-D-aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid responses induced in the same oocytes were not affected. 3. The specific potentiation of iQA responses was accompanied by an increase in the conductance change of iQA and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) responses, but the affinity of receptors for agonist and the ion-selectivity of the channels (reversal potentials) were not changed. 4. Aniracetam reversibly potentiated the iQA responses recorded intracellularly from the pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. The excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in Schaffer collateral-commissural-CA1 synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. 5. Population EPSPs recorded in the mossy fibre-CA3 synapses as well as Schaffer-commissural synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. The amplitudes of the potentiation were not changed by the formation of long-term potentiation.

  2. Allosteric potentiation of quisqualate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, I; Tanabe, S; Kohda, A; Sugiyama, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Allosteric potentiation of the ionotropic quisqualate (iQA) receptor by a nootropic drug aniracetam (1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone) was investigated using Xenopus oocytes injected with rat brain mRNA and rat hippocampal slices. 2. Aniracetam potentiates the iQA responses induced in Xenopus oocytes by rat brain mRNA in a reversible manner. This effect was observed above the concentrations of 0.1 mM. Kainate. N-methyl-D-aspartate and gamma-aminobutyric acid responses induced in the same oocytes were not affected. 3. The specific potentiation of iQA responses was accompanied by an increase in the conductance change of iQA and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) responses, but the affinity of receptors for agonist and the ion-selectivity of the channels (reversal potentials) were not changed. 4. Aniracetam reversibly potentiated the iQA responses recorded intracellularly from the pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. The excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in Schaffer collateral-commissural-CA1 synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. 5. Population EPSPs recorded in the mossy fibre-CA3 synapses as well as Schaffer-commissural synapses were also potentiated by aniracetam. The amplitudes of the potentiation were not changed by the formation of long-term potentiation. PMID:1975272

  3. [Electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal postnatal early development mediated by AMPA receptors in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Yi; Zhang, Ai-Feng; Zhao, Wen; Gao, Yu-Dan; Duan, Hong-Mei; Hao, Peng; Yang, Zhao-Yang; Li, Xiao-Guang

    2018-04-25

    The present study was aimed to investigate the electrophysiological characteristics of hippocampal postnatal early development mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into postnatal 0.5-, 1-, 2- and 3-month groups (n = 12). Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) mediated by AMPA receptors were recorded to evaluate the changes in the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by using patch-clamp and MED64 planar microelectrode array technique respectively. The results showed that, during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months, some of the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, such as the membrane capacitance (Cm) and the resting membrane potential (RMP), showed no significant changes, while the membrane input resistance (Rin) and the time constant (τ) of the cells were decreased significantly. The amplitude, frequency and kinetics (both rise and decay times) of sEPSCs were significantly increased during the period of postnatal 0.5-1 month, but they were all decreased during the period of postnatal 1-3 months. In addition, the range of evoked fEPSPs in hippocamal CA1 region was significantly expanded, but the fEPSP amplitudes were decreased significantly during the period of postnatal 0.5-3 months. Furthermore, the evoked fEPSPs could be significantly inhibited by extracellular application of the AMPA receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). These results suggest that AMPA receptor may act as a major type of excitatory receptor to regulate synaptic transmission and connections during the early stage of hippocampal postnatal development, which promotes the development and functional maturation of hippocampus in rats.

  4. Potential antipsychotic properties of central cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Vollenweider, Franz X; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2010-03-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, and other agonists at the central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptor may induce characteristic psychomotor effects, psychotic reactions and cognitive impairment resembling schizophrenia. These effects of Delta(9)-THC can be reduced in animal and human models of psychopathology by two exogenous cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and SR141716. CBD is the second most abundant constituent of Cannabis sativa that has weak partial antagonistic properties at the CB(1) receptor. CBD inhibits the reuptake and hydrolysis of anandamide, the most important endogenous CB(1) receptor agonist, and exhibits neuroprotective antioxidant activity. SR141716 is a potent and selective CB(1) receptor antagonist. Since both CBD and SR141716 can reverse many of the biochemical, physiological and behavioural effects of CB(1) receptor agonists, it has been proposed that both CBD and SR141716 have antipsychotic properties. Various experimental studies in animals, healthy human volunteers, and schizophrenic patients support this notion. Moreover, recent studies suggest that cannabinoids such as CBD and SR141716 have a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. In this review, both preclinical and clinical studies investigating the potential antipsychotic effects of both CBD and SR141716 are presented together with the possible underlying mechanisms of action.

  5. Novel drugs that target the estrogen-related receptor alpha: their therapeutic potential in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    May, Felicity EB

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer continues to rise: 1.7 million women were diagnosed with and 521,000 women died from breast cancer in 2012. This review considers first current treatment options: surgery; radiotherapy; and systemic endocrine, anti-biological, and cytotoxic therapies. Clinical management includes prevention, early detection by screening, treatment with curative intent, management of chronic disease, and palliative control of advanced breast cancer. Next, the potential of novel drugs that target DNA repair, growth factor dependence, intracellular and intercellular signal transduction, and cell cycle are considered. Estrogen-related receptor alpha has attracted attention as a therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancers with de novo resistance to, and in breast cancers with acquired resistance to, endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Estrogen-related receptor alpha is an orphan receptor and transcription factor. Its activity is regulated by coregulator proteins and posttranslational modification. It is an energy sensor that controls adaptation to energy demand and may facilitate glycolytic metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative respiration in breast cancer cells. Estrogen-related receptor alpha increases breast cancer cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development. It is expressed at high levels in estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and is proposed to activate estrogen-responsive genes in endocrine-resistant tumors. The structures and functions of the ligand-binding domains of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen-related receptor alpha, their ability to bind estrogens, phytoestrogens, and synthetic ligands, and the effects of ligand agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists on biological activity, are evaluated. Synthetic ligands of estrogen-related receptor alpha have activity in preclinical models of metabolic disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis, and oncology. The clinical settings in which these novel

  6. Functional expression of purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential channels by the human urothelium.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Saqib; Cross, William; Kirkwood, Lisa A; Pearson, Joanna F; Appleby, Peter A; Walker, Dawn; Eardley, Ian; Southgate, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    In addition to its role as a physical barrier, the urothelium is considered to play an active role in mechanosensation. A key mechanism is the release of transient mediators that activate purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to effect changes in intracellular Ca²⁺. Despite the implied importance of these receptors and channels in urothelial tissue homeostasis and dysfunctional bladder disease, little is known about their functional expression by the human urothelium. To evaluate the expression and function of P2X and P2Y receptors and TRP channels, the human ureter and bladder were used to separate urothelial and stromal tissues for RNA isolation and cell culture. RT-PCR using stringently designed primer sets was used to establish which P2 and TRP species were expressed at the transcript level, and selective agonists/antagonists were used to confirm functional expression by monitoring changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ and in a scratch repair assay. The results confirmed the functional expression of P2Y₄ receptors and excluded nonexpressed receptors/channels (P2X₁, P2X₃, P2X₆, P2Y₆, P2Y₁₁, TRPV5, and TRPM8), while a dearth of specific agonists confounded the functional validation of expressed P2X₂, P2X₄, P2Y₁, P2Y₂, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV6 and TRPM7 receptors/channels. Although a conventional response was elicited in control stromal-derived cells, the urothelial cell response to well-characterized TRPV1 and TRPV4 agonists/antagonists revealed unexpected anomalies. In addition, agonists that invoked an increase in intracellular Ca²⁺ promoted urothelial scratch repair, presumably through the release of ATP. The study raises important questions about the ligand selectivity of receptor/channel targets expressed by the urothelium. These pathways are important in urothelial tissue homeostasis, and this opens the possibility of selective drug targeting.

  7. Functional expression of purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential channels by the human urothelium

    PubMed Central

    Shabir, Saqib; Cross, William; Kirkwood, Lisa A.; Pearson, Joanna F.; Appleby, Peter A.; Walker, Dawn; Eardley, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In addition to its role as a physical barrier, the urothelium is considered to play an active role in mechanosensation. A key mechanism is the release of transient mediators that activate purinergic P2 receptors and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels to effect changes in intracellular Ca2+. Despite the implied importance of these receptors and channels in urothelial tissue homeostasis and dysfunctional bladder disease, little is known about their functional expression by the human urothelium. To evaluate the expression and function of P2X and P2Y receptors and TRP channels, the human ureter and bladder were used to separate urothelial and stromal tissues for RNA isolation and cell culture. RT-PCR using stringently designed primer sets was used to establish which P2 and TRP species were expressed at the transcript level, and selective agonists/antagonists were used to confirm functional expression by monitoring changes in intracellular Ca2+ and in a scratch repair assay. The results confirmed the functional expression of P2Y4 receptors and excluded nonexpressed receptors/channels (P2X1, P2X3, P2X6, P2Y6, P2Y11, TRPV5, and TRPM8), while a dearth of specific agonists confounded the functional validation of expressed P2X2, P2X4, P2Y1, P2Y2, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV6 and TRPM7 receptors/channels. Although a conventional response was elicited in control stromal-derived cells, the urothelial cell response to well-characterized TRPV1 and TRPV4 agonists/antagonists revealed unexpected anomalies. In addition, agonists that invoked an increase in intracellular Ca2+ promoted urothelial scratch repair, presumably through the release of ATP. The study raises important questions about the ligand selectivity of receptor/channel targets expressed by the urothelium. These pathways are important in urothelial tissue homeostasis, and this opens the possibility of selective drug targeting. PMID:23720349

  8. The bradykinin B2 receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Kaman, Wendy E; Wolterink, Arthur F W M; Bader, Michael; Boele, Linda C L; van der Kleij, Desiree

    2009-02-01

    The endogenous danger signal bradykinin was recently found implicated in the development of immunity against parasites via dendritic cells. We here report an essential role of the B(2) (B(2)R) bradykinin receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection. Mice deficient in B(2)R (B(2)R(-/-) mice) were shown to suffer from increased hepatic bacterial burden and concomitant dramatic weight loss during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Levels of cytokines known to play a pivotal role in the early phase immune response against L. monocytogenes, IL-12p70 and IFN-gamma, were reduced in B(2)R(-/-) mice. To extend these findings to the human system, we show that bradykinin potentiates the production of IL-12p70 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thus, we show that bradykinin and the B(2)R play a role in early innate immune functions during bacterial infection.

  9. Pharmacological activation of CB1 receptor modulates long term potentiation by interfering with protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Korte, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is one of the most important side effects associated with cannabis drug abuse, as well as the serious issue concerning the therapeutic use of cannabinoids. Cognitive impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms are caused by early synaptic dysfunctions, such as loss of synaptic connections in different brain structures including the hippocampus, a region that is believed to play an important role in certain forms of learning and memory. We report here that metaplastic priming of synapses with a cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 receptor) agonist, WIN55,212-2 (WIN55), significantly impaired long-term potentiation in the apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the CB1 receptor exerts its effect by altering the balance of protein synthesis machinery towards higher protein production. Therefore the activation of CB1 receptor, prior to strong tetanization, increased the propensity to produce new proteins. In addition, WIN55 priming resulted in the expression of late-LTP in a synaptic input that would have normally expressed early-LTP, thus confirming that WIN55 priming of LTP induces new synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. Furthermore, in addition to the effects on protein translation, WIN55 also induced synaptic deficits due to the ability of CB1 receptors to inhibit the release of acetylcholine, mediated by both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Taken together this supports the notion that the modulation of cholinergic activity by CB1 receptor activation is one mechanism that regulates the synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A potentially novel nicotinic receptor in Aplysia neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed

    White, Sean H; Carter, Christopher J; Magoski, Neil S

    2014-07-15

    Nicotinic receptors form a diverse group of ligand-gated ionotropic receptors with roles in both synaptic transmission and the control of excitability. In the bag cell neurons of Aplysia, acetylcholine activates an ionotropic receptor, which passes inward current to produce a long-lasting afterdischarge and hormone release, leading to reproduction. While testing the agonist profile of the cholinergic response, we observed a second current that appeared to be gated only by nicotine and not acetylcholine. The peak nicotine-evoked current was markedly smaller in magnitude than the acetylcholine-induced current, cooperative (Hill value of 2.7), had an EC50 near 500 μM, readily recovered from desensitization, showed Ca(2+) permeability, and was blocked by mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, or strychnine, but not by α-conotoxin ImI, methyllycaconitine, or hexamethonium. Aplysia transcriptome analysis followed by PCR yielded 20 full-length potential nicotinic receptor subunits. Sixteen of these were predicted to be cation selective, and real-time PCR suggested that 15 of the 16 subunits were expressed to varying degrees in the bag cell neurons. The acetylcholine-induced current, but not the nicotine current, was reduced by double-strand RNA treatment targeted to both subunits ApAChR-C and -E. Conversely, the nicotine-evoked current, but not the acetylcholine current, was lessened by targeting both subunits ApAChR-H and -P. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting that a nicotinic receptor is not gated by acetylcholine. Separate receptors may serve as a means to differentially trigger plasticity or safeguard propagation by assuring that only acetylcholine, the endogenous agonist, initiates large enough responses to trigger reproduction. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Protection against early intestinal compromise by lipid-rich enteral nutrition through cholecystokinin receptors.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Jacco J; Thuijls, Geertje; Lubbers, Tim; Hadfoune, M'hamed; Reisinger, Kostan; Heineman, Erik; Greve, Jan-Willem M; Buurman, Wim A

    2010-07-01

    Early gut wall integrity loss and local intestinal inflammation are associated with the development of inflammatory complications in surgical and trauma patients. Prevention of these intestinal events is a potential target for therapies aimed to control systemic inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated in a rodent shock model that lipid-rich enteral nutrition attenuated systemic inflammation and prevented organ damage through a cholecystokinin receptor-dependent vagal pathway. The influence of lipid-rich nutrition on very early intestinal compromise as seen after shock is investigated. Next, the involvement of cholecystokinin receptors on the nutritional modulation of immediate gut integrity loss and intestinal inflammation is studied. Randomized controlled in vivo study. University research unit. Male Sprague-Dawley rats. Liquid lipid-rich nutrition or control low-lipid feeding was administered per gavage before hemorrhagic shock. Cholecystokinin receptor antagonists were used to investigate involvement of the vagal antiinflammatory pathway. Gut permeability to horseradish peroxidase increased as soon as 30 mins postshock and was prevented by lipid-rich nutrition compared with low-lipid (p<.01) and fasted controls (p<.001). Furthermore, lipid-rich nutrition reduced plasma levels of enterocyte damage marker ileal lipid binding protein at 60 mins (p<.05). Early gut barrier dysfunction correlated with rat mast cell protease plasma concentrations at 30 mins (rs=0.67; p<.001) and intestinal myeloperoxidase levels at 60 mins (rs=0.58; p<.05). Lipid-rich nutrition significantly reduced plasma rat mast cell protease (p<.01) and myeloperoxidase (p<.05) before systemic inflammation was detectable. Protective effects of lipid-rich nutrition were abrogated by cholecystokinin receptor antagonists (horseradish peroxidase; p<.05 and rat mast cell protease; p<.05). Lipid-rich enteral nutrition prevents early gut barrier loss, enterocyte damage, and local intestinal inflammation

  12. Computationally Discovered Potentiating Role of Glycans on NMDA Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitskiy, Anton V.; Stanley, Nathaniel H.; Hackos, David H.; Hanson, Jesse E.; Sellers, Benjamin D.; Pande, Vijay S.

    2017-04-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glycoproteins in the brain central to learning and memory. The effects of glycosylation on the structure and dynamics of NMDARs are largely unknown. In this work, we use extensive molecular dynamics simulations of GluN1 and GluN2B ligand binding domains (LBDs) of NMDARs to investigate these effects. Our simulations predict that intra-domain interactions involving the glycan attached to residue GluN1-N440 stabilize closed-clamshell conformations of the GluN1 LBD. The glycan on GluN2B-N688 shows a similar, though weaker, effect. Based on these results, and assuming the transferability of the results of LBD simulations to the full receptor, we predict that glycans at GluN1-N440 might play a potentiator role in NMDARs. To validate this prediction, we perform electrophysiological analysis of full-length NMDARs with a glycosylation-preventing GluN1-N440Q mutation, and demonstrate an increase in the glycine EC50 value. Overall, our results suggest an intramolecular potentiating role of glycans on NMDA receptors.

  13. Receptor subtypes involved in callosally-induced postsynaptic potentials in rat frontal agranular cortex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1992-01-01

    A slice preparation of rat frontal agranular cortex preserving commissural inputs has been used for intracellular recording from layer V pyramidal cells, in order to characterize the synaptic potentials induced by stimulation of the corpus callosum and to reveal the subtypes of amino acid receptors involved. Stimulation of the corpus callosum induced EPSPs followed by early IPSPs with a peak latency of 30 +/- 2 ms and late IPSPs with a peak latency of 185 +/- 18 ms. Reversal potentials for early and late IPSPs were -75 +/- 5 mV (early) and -96 +/- 5 mV (late). Late IPSPs were more dependent on extracellular K+ concentration. The early IPSPs were blocked by GABAA antagonists, bicuculline and picrotoxin, whereas the late IPSPs were reduced by the GABAB antagonist, phaclofen. CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione), an antagonist of non-NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors, suppressed both EPSPs and late IPSPs at 5 microM. Early IPSPs remained at this concentration but were suppressed by 20 microM CNQX. In Mg(2+)-free solution, EPSPs were larger and more prolonged than in control solution. These enhanced EPSPs persisted after 5 to 20 microM CNQX, but were reduced in amplitude, and their onset was delayed by 3.6 +/- 0.8 ms. The remaining EPSPs were suppressed by 50 microM APV (DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid), an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In Mg(2+)-free solution containing 5 to 20 microM CNQX, the late IPSPs were not diminished. The remaining late IPSPs were suppressed by APV or by phaclofen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 by the prokineticin receptor agonist Bv8.

    PubMed

    Vellani, Vittorio; Colucci, Mariantonella; Lattanzi, Roberta; Giannini, Elisa; Negri, Lucia; Melchiorri, Pietro; McNaughton, Peter A

    2006-05-10

    Small mammalian proteins called the prokineticins [prokineticin 1 (PK1) and PK2] and two corresponding G-protein-coupled receptors [prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and PKR2] have been identified recently, but the physiological role of the PK/PKR system remains mostly unexplored. Bv8, a protein extracted from frog skin, is a convenient and potent agonist for both PKR1 and PKR2, and injection of Bv8 in vivo causes a potent and long-lasting hyperalgesia. Here, we investigate the cellular basis of hyperalgesia caused by activation of PKRs. Bv8 caused increases in [Ca]i in a population of isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which we identified as nociceptors, or sensors for painful stimuli, from their responses to capsaicin, bradykinin, mustard oil, or proteases. Bv8 enhanced the inward current carried by the heat and capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) via a pathway involving activation of protein kinase Cepsilon (PKCepsilon), because Bv8 caused translocation of PKCepsilon to the neuronal membrane and because PKC antagonists reduced both the enhancement of current carried by TRPV1 and behavioral hyperalgesia in rodents. The neuronal population expressing PKRs consisted partly of small peptidergic neurons and partly of neurons expressing the N52 marker for myelinated fibers. Using single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR, we found that mRNA for PKR1 was mainly expressed in small DRG neurons. Exposure to GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) induced de novo expression of functional receptors for Bv8 in a nonpeptidergic population of neurons. These results show that prokineticin receptors are expressed in nociceptors and cause heat hyperalgesia by sensitizing TRPV1 through activation of PKCepsilon. The results suggest a role for prokineticins in physiological inflammation and hyperalgesia.

  15. Stress induces pain transition by potentiation of AMPA receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Yang, Ya; Liu, Sufang; Fang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yong; Furmanski, Orion; Skinner, John; Xing, Ying; Johns, Roger A; Huganir, Richard L; Tao, Feng

    2014-10-08

    Chronic postsurgical pain is a serious issue in clinical practice. After surgery, patients experience ongoing pain or become sensitive to incident, normally nonpainful stimulation. The intensity and duration of postsurgical pain vary. However, it is unclear how the transition from acute to chronic pain occurs. Here we showed that social defeat stress enhanced plantar incision-induced AMPA receptor GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser831 site in the spinal cord and greatly prolonged plantar incision-induced pain. Interestingly, targeted mutation of the GluA1 phosphorylation site Ser831 significantly inhibited stress-induced prolongation of incisional pain. In addition, stress hormones enhanced GluA1 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor-mediated electrical activity in the spinal cord. Subthreshold stimulation induced spinal long-term potentiation in GluA1 phosphomimetic mutant mice, but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, spinal AMPA receptor phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying stress-induced pain transition. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413737-10$15.00/0.

  16. Transient receptor potential cation channels in visceral sensory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2014-01-01

    The extensive literature on this subject is in direct contrast to the limited range of clinical uses for ligands of the transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPs) in diseases of the viscera. TRPV1 is the most spectacular example of this imbalance, as it is in other systems, but it is nonetheless the only TRP target that is currently targeted clinically in bladder sensory dysfunction. It is not clear why this discrepancy exists, but a likely answer is in the promiscuity of TRPs as sensors and transducers for environmental mechanical and chemical stimuli. This review first describes the different sensory pathways from the viscera, and on which nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurones within these pathways TRPs are expressed. They not only fulfil roles as both mechano-and chemo-sensors on visceral afferents, but also form an effector mechanism for cell activation after activation of GPCR and cytokine receptors. Their role may be markedly changed in diseased states, including chronic pain and inflammation. Pain presents the most obvious potential for further development of therapeutic interventions targeted at TRPs, but forms of inflammation are emerging as likely to benefit also. However, despite much basic research, we are still at the beginning of exploring such potential in visceral sensory pathways. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24641218

  17. Combined therapeutic potential of nuclear receptors with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wairagu, Peninah M.; Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-701; Nuclear Receptor Research Consortium, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-701

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • The 48 NR genes and 48 biological anti-cancer targets are profiled in paired-cells. • Growth inhibition by NR ligands or TKIs is target receptor level-dependent. • T0901317 with gefitinib/PHA665752 shows additive growth inhibition in lung cells. - Abstract: Cancer heterogeneity is a big hurdle in achieving complete cancer treatment, which has led to the emergence of combinational therapy. In this study, we investigated the potential use of nuclear receptor (NR) ligands for combinational therapy with other anti-cancer drugs. We first profiled all 48 NRs and 48 biological anti-cancer targets in four pairs of lung cell lines, where eachmore » pair was obtained from the same patient. Two sets of cell lines were normal and the corresponding tumor cell lines while the other two sets consisted of primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines. Analysis of the expression profile revealed 11 NRs and 15 cancer targets from the two pairs of normal versus tumor cell lines, and 9 NRs and 9 cancer targets from the primary versus metastatic tumor cell lines had distinct expression patterns in each category. Finally, the evaluation of nuclear receptor ligand T0901317 for liver X receptor (LXR) demonstrated its combined therapeutic potential with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The combined treatment of cMET inhibitor PHA665752 or EGFR inhibitor gefitinib with T0901317 showed additive growth inhibition in both H2073 and H1993 cells. Mechanistically, the combined treatment suppressed cell cycle progression by inhibiting cyclinD1 and cyclinB expression. Taken together, this study provides insight into the potential use of NR ligands in combined therapeutics with other biological anti-cancer drugs.« less

  18. Glycine Potentiates AMPA Receptor Function through Metabotropic Activation of GluN2A-Containing NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jun; Hu, Rong; Lujan, Brendan; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Nakano, Yasuko; Cui, Tian-Yuan; Liao, Ming-Xia; Chen, Jin-Cao; Man, Heng-Ye; Feng, Hua; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors are Ca2+-permeable ion channels. The activation of NMDA receptors requires agonist glutamate and co-agonist glycine. Recent evidence indicates that NMDA receptor also has metabotropic function. Here we report that in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents independent of the channel activity of NMDA receptors and the activation of glycine receptors. The potentiation of AMPA receptor function by glycine is antagonized by the inhibition of ERK1/2. In the hippocampal neurons and in the HEK293 cells transfected with different combinations of NMDA receptors, glycine preferentially acts on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2ARs), but not GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2BRs), to enhance ERK1/2 phosphorylation independent of the channel activity of GluN2ARs. Without requiring the channel activity of GluN2ARs, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents through GluN2ARs. Thus, these results reveal a metabotropic function of GluN2ARs in mediating glycine-induced potentiation of AMPA receptor function via ERK1/2 activation. PMID:27807405

  19. Transient receptor potential channel superfamily: Role in lower urinary tract function.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Teruyuki; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Masaki; Hiragata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Domen, Takahisa; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurogenic bladder and overactive bladder syndrome are mediated in part by members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily. The best studied member of this superfamily is the vanilloid receptor. Other transient receptor potential channels, such as the melastatin receptor and the ankyrin receptor, are also active in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the transient receptor potential channels contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms are still not clear, and the therapeutic benefits of modulating transient receptor potential channel activity have not been proved in the clinical setting. In the present review, to better understand the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential for lower urinary tract symptoms, we summarize the presence and role of different members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily in the lower urinary tract. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  20. Early age rutting potential of warm mix asphalt (WMA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Various plant produced Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures were evaluated and compared to identical : plant produced Hot Mix Asphalt to assess their early life rutting potential. Along with laboratory permanent : deformation testing, fatigue and moisture...

  1. Early age rutting potential of warm mix asphalt (WMA).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-12-01

    Various plant produced Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixtures were evaluated and compared to identical plant produced Hot Mix Asphalt to assess their early life rutting potential. Along with laboratory permanent deformation testing, fatigue and moisture dam...

  2. Aldosterone Upregulates Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 (TRPM7)*

    PubMed Central

    Valinsky, William C.; Jolly, Anna; Miquel, Perrine

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a ubiquitously expressed Mg2+-permeable ion channel fused to a C-terminal α-kinase domain. Recently, aldosterone was shown to increase intracellular Mg2+ levels and alter inflammatory signaling in TRPM7-expressing HEK293 cells. This study was undertaken to assess whether these effects were related to an aldosterone-mediated increase of TRPM7 current and/or plasma membrane localization. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing WT-TRPM7, we found that 18-h application of aldosterone significantly increased TRPM7 current and TRPM7 plasma membrane protein expression by 48% and 34%, respectively. The aldosterone-mediated increase of TRPM7 current was inhibited by eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker, and GSK-650394, an inhibitor of the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). SGK1 blockade also prevented the aldosterone-induced increase of TRPM7 plasma membrane protein. It was further determined that K1648R-TRPM7, the phosphotransferase-inactive TRPM7 mutant, was unresponsive to aldosterone. Therefore, chronic aldosterone treatment increases the plasma membrane expression of TRPM7, which is associated with an increase of TRPM7 current. This process occurs via an MR-dependent, genomic signaling cascade involving SGK1 and a functioning TRPM7 α-kinase domain. We suggest that this mechanism may be of general relevance when interpreting the effects of aldosterone because the MR receptor is found in multiple tissues, and TRPM7 and SGK1 are ubiquitously expressed. PMID:27466368

  3. Aldosterone Upregulates Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 (TRPM7).

    PubMed

    Valinsky, William C; Jolly, Anna; Miquel, Perrine; Touyz, Rhian M; Shrier, Alvin

    2016-09-16

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a ubiquitously expressed Mg(2+)-permeable ion channel fused to a C-terminal α-kinase domain. Recently, aldosterone was shown to increase intracellular Mg(2+) levels and alter inflammatory signaling in TRPM7-expressing HEK293 cells. This study was undertaken to assess whether these effects were related to an aldosterone-mediated increase of TRPM7 current and/or plasma membrane localization. Using HEK293 cells stably expressing WT-TRPM7, we found that 18-h application of aldosterone significantly increased TRPM7 current and TRPM7 plasma membrane protein expression by 48% and 34%, respectively. The aldosterone-mediated increase of TRPM7 current was inhibited by eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker, and GSK-650394, an inhibitor of the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). SGK1 blockade also prevented the aldosterone-induced increase of TRPM7 plasma membrane protein. It was further determined that K1648R-TRPM7, the phosphotransferase-inactive TRPM7 mutant, was unresponsive to aldosterone. Therefore, chronic aldosterone treatment increases the plasma membrane expression of TRPM7, which is associated with an increase of TRPM7 current. This process occurs via an MR-dependent, genomic signaling cascade involving SGK1 and a functioning TRPM7 α-kinase domain. We suggest that this mechanism may be of general relevance when interpreting the effects of aldosterone because the MR receptor is found in multiple tissues, and TRPM7 and SGK1 are ubiquitously expressed. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Sensing of blood pressure increase by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors on baroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, De-Pei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Hittelman, Walter N; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2009-12-01

    The arterial baroreceptor is critically involved in the autonomic regulation of homoeostasis. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor is expressed on both somatic and visceral sensory neurons. Here, we examined the TRPV1 innervation of baroreceptive pathways and its functional significance in the baroreflex. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, was used to ablate TRPV1-expressing afferent neurons and fibers in adult rats. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that TRPV1 immunoreactivity was present on nerve fibers and terminals in the adventitia of the ascending aorta and aortic arch, the nodose ganglion neurons, and afferent fibers in the solitary tract of the brainstem. RTX treatment eliminated TRPV1 immunoreactivities in the aorta, nodose ganglion, and solitary tract. Renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded in anesthetized rats. The baroreflex was triggered by lowering and raising blood pressure through intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate by the phenylephrine-induced increase in blood pressure was largely impaired in RTX-treated rats. The maximum gain of the baroreflex function was significantly lower in RTX-treated than vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, blocking of TRPV1 receptors significantly blunted the baroreflex and decreased the maximum gain of baroreflex function in the high blood pressure range. Our findings provide important new information that TRPV1 is expressed along the entire baroreceptive afferent pathway. TRPV1 receptors expressed on baroreceptive nerve endings can function as mechanoreceptors to detect the increase in blood pressure and maintain the homoeostasis.

  5. Sensing of Blood Pressure Increase by Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Receptors on Baroreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Li, De-Pei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Hittelman, Walter N.

    2009-01-01

    The arterial baroreceptor is critically involved in the autonomic regulation of homoeostasis. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor is expressed on both somatic and visceral sensory neurons. Here, we examined the TRPV1 innervation of baroreceptive pathways and its functional significance in the baroreflex. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, was used to ablate TRPV1-expressing afferent neurons and fibers in adult rats. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that TRPV1 immunoreactivity was present on nerve fibers and terminals in the adventitia of the ascending aorta and aortic arch, the nodose ganglion neurons, and afferent fibers in the solitary tract of the brainstem. RTX treatment eliminated TRPV1 immunoreactivities in the aorta, nodose ganglion, and solitary tract. Renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded in anesthetized rats. The baroreflex was triggered by lowering and raising blood pressure through intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate by the phenylephrine-induced increase in blood pressure was largely impaired in RTX-treated rats. The maximum gain of the baroreflex function was significantly lower in RTX-treated than vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, blocking of TRPV1 receptors significantly blunted the baroreflex and decreased the maximum gain of baroreflex function in the high blood pressure range. Our findings provide important new information that TRPV1 is expressed along the entire baroreceptive afferent pathway. TRPV1 receptors expressed on baroreceptive nerve endings can function as mechanoreceptors to detect the increase in blood pressure and maintain the homoeostasis. PMID:19726694

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Channels as Targets for Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To date, 28 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been cloned and characterized. They are grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of their amino acid sequence homology: TRP Ankyrin (TRPA), TRP Canonical (TRPC), TRP Melastatin (TRPM), TRP Mucolipin (TRPML), TRP Polycystin (TRPP), and TRP Vanilloid (TRPV). Most of the TRP channels are nonselective cation channels expressed on the cell membrane and exhibit variable permeability ratios for Ca2+ versus Na+. They mediate sensory functions (such as vision, nociception, taste transduction, temperature sensation, and pheromone signaling) and homeostatic functions (such as divalent cation flux, hormone release, and osmoregulation). Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the specific roles of these TRP channels and their activation mechanisms. In this Review, the emphasis will be on the activation of TRP channels by phytochemicals that are claimed to exert health benefits. Recent findings complement the anecdotal evidence that some of these phytochemicals have specific receptors and the activation of which is responsible for the physiological effects. Now, the targets for these phytochemicals are being unveiled; a specific hypothesis can be proposed and tested experimentally to infer a scientific validity of the claims of the health benefits. The broader and pressing issues that have to be addressed are related to the quantities of the active ingredients in a given preparation, their bioavailability, metabolism, adverse effects, excretion, and systemic versus local effects. PMID:24926802

  7. A Multi-Receptor and Multi-Species Assay for Potential Endocrine Disruptor Targets (SLAS meeting)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Screening methods for detecting potential endocrine disrupting chemicals rely chiefly on transactivation assays targeting nuclear receptors such as the estrogen (ER) and androgen receptors (AR). These assays are predominately human-based; yet environmental exposure can affect div...

  8. Transient receptor potential ankyrin receptor 1 is a novel target for pro-tussive agents.

    PubMed

    Andrè, E; Gatti, R; Trevisani, M; Preti, D; Baraldi, P G; Patacchini, R; Geppetti, P

    2009-11-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1) is a cation channel, co-expressed with the pro-tussive transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel in primary sensory neurons. TRPA1 is activated by a series of irritant exogenous and endogenous alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes which seem to play a role in airway diseases. We investigated whether TRPA1 agonists provoke cough in guinea pigs and whether TRPA1 antagonists inhibit this response. Animals were placed in a Perspex box, and cough sounds were recorded and counted by observers unaware of the treatment used. Inhalation of two selective TRPA1 agonists, allyl isothiocyanate and cinnamaldehyde, dose-dependently caused cough in control guinea pigs, but not in those with airway sensory nerves desensitized by capsaicin. Coughs elicited by TRPA1 agonists were reduced by non-selective (camphor and gentamicin) and selective (HC-030031) TRPA1 antagonists, whereas they were unaffected by the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine. Acrolein and crotonaldehyde, two alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes recently identified as TRPA1 stimulants and contained in cigarette smoke, air pollution or produced endogenously by oxidative stress, caused a remarkable tussive effect, a response that was selectively inhibited by HC-030031. Part of the cough response induced by cigarette smoke inhalation was inhibited by HC-030031, suggesting the involvement of TRPA1. A novel pro-tussive pathway involves the TRPA1 channel, expressed by capsaicin-sensitive airway sensory nerves and is activated by a series of exogenous (cigarette smoke) and endogenous irritants. These results suggest TRPA1 may be a novel target for anti-tussive medicines.

  9. Short latency compound action potentials from mammalian gravity receptor organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity receptor function was characterized in four mammalian species using far-field vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). VsEPs are compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve and central relays that are elicited by linear acceleration ramps applied to the cranium. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and gerbils were studied. In all species, response onset occurred within 1.5 ms of the stimulus onset. Responses persisted during intense (116 dBSPL) wide-band (50 to 50 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 Hz) forward masking, whereas auditory responses to intense clicks (112 dBpeSPL) were eliminated under the same conditions. VsEPs remained after cochlear extirpation but were eliminated following bilateral labyrinthectomy. Responses included a series of positive and negative peaks that occurred within 8 ms of stimulus onset (range of means at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms: P1=908 to 1062 micros, N1=1342 to 1475 micros, P2=1632 to 1952 micros, N2=2038 to 2387 micros). Mean response amplitudes at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms ranged from 0.14 to 0.99 microV. VsEP input/output functions revealed latency slopes that varied across peaks and species ranging from -19 to -51 micros/dB. Amplitude-intensity slopes also varied ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 microV/dB for rats and mice. Latency values were comparable to those of birds although amplitudes were substantially smaller in mammals. VsEP threshold values were considerably higher in mammals compared to birds and ranged from -8.1 to -10.5 dBre 1.0 g/ms across species. These results support the hypothesis that mammalian gravity receptors are less sensitive to dynamic stimuli than are those of birds.

  10. Potentiation of neutrophil cyclooxygenase-2 by adenosine: an early anti-inflammatory signal

    PubMed Central

    Cadieux, Jean-Sébastien; Leclerc, Patrick; St-Onge, Mireille; Dussault, Andrée-Anne; Laflamme, Cynthia; Picard, Serge; Ledent, Catherine; Borgeat, Pierre; Pouliot, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neutrophils, which are often the first to migrate at inflamed sites, can generate leukotriene B4 from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and prostaglandin E2 through the inducible cyclooxygenase-2 pathway. Adenosine, an endogenous autacoid with several anti-inflammatory properties, blocks the synthesis of leukotriene B4 while it potentiates the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in fMLP-treated neutrophils, following activation of the A2A receptor. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we observed that inflammatory leukocytes from mice lacking the A2A receptor have less cyclooxygenase-2 induction than wild-type animals. In human leukocytes, A2A receptor activation specifically elicited potentiation of cyclooxygenase-2 in neutrophils, but not in monocytes. Signal transduction studies indicated that the cAMP, ERK1/2, PI-3K and p38K intracellular pathways are implicated both in the direct upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and in its potentiation. Together, these results indicate that neutrophils are particularly important mediators of adenosine’s effects. Given the uncontrolled inflammatory phenotype observed in knockout mice and in view of the potent inhibitory actions of prostaglandin E2 on inflammatory cells, an increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression resulting from A2A receptor activation, observed particularly in neutrophils, may take part in an early modulatory mechanism promoting anti-inflammatory activities of adenosine. PMID:15769843

  11. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The prostaglandin EP1 receptor potentiates kainate receptor activation via a protein kinase C pathway and exacerbates status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Asheebo; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Lelutiu, Nadia; Quan, Yi; Shaw, Renee; Dingledine, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) regulates membrane excitability, synaptic transmission, plasticity, and neuronal survival. The consequences of PGE2 release following seizures has been the subject of much study. Here we demonstrate that the prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1, or Ptger1) modulates native kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. Global ablation of the EP1 gene in mice (EP1-KO) had no effect on seizure threshold after kainate injection but reduced the likelihood to enter status epilepticus. EP1-KO mice that did experience typical status epilepticus had reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration and a blunted inflammatory response. Further studies with native prostanoid and kainate receptors in cultured cortical neurons, as well as with recombinant prostanoid and kainate receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, demonstrated that EP1 receptor activation potentiates heteromeric but not homomeric kainate receptors via a second messenger cascade involving phospholipase C, calcium and protein kinase C. Three critical GluK5 C-terminal serines underlie the potentiation of the GluK2/GluK5 receptor by EP1 activation. Taken together, these results indicate that EP1 receptor activation during seizures, through a protein kinase C pathway, increases the probability of kainic acid induced status epilepticus, and independently promotes hippocampal neurodegeneration and a broad inflammatory response. PMID:24952362

  13. Therapeutic Potential of 5-HT2C Receptor Agonists for Addictive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Fletcher, Paul J

    2015-07-15

    The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) has long been associated with the control of a variety of motivated behaviors, including feeding. Much of the evidence linking 5-HT and feeding behavior was obtained from studies of the effects of the 5-HT releaser (dex)fenfluramine in laboratory animals and humans. Recently, the selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin received FDA approval for the treatment of obesity. This review examines evidence to support the use of selective 5-HT2C receptor agonists as treatments for conditions beyond obesity, including substance abuse (particularly nicotine, psychostimulant, and alcohol dependence), obsessive compulsive, and excessive gambling disorder. Following a brief survey of the early literature supporting a role for 5-HT in modulating food and drug reinforcement, we propose that intrinsic differences between SSRI and serotonin releasers may have underestimated the value of serotonin-based pharmacotherapeutics to treat clinical forms of addictive behavior beyond obesity. We then highlight the critical involvement of the 5-HT2C receptor in mediating the effect of (dex)fenfluramine on feeding and body weight gain and the evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists reduce measures of drug reward and impulsivity. A recent report of lorcaserin efficacy in a smoking cessation trial further strengthens the idea that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have potential as a treatment for addiction. This review was prepared as a contribution to the proceedings of the 11th International Society for Serotonin Research Meeting held in Hermanus, South Africa, July 9-12, 2014.

  14. The role of transient receptor potential channels in joint diseases.

    PubMed

    Krupkova, O; Zvick, J; Wuertz-Kozak, K

    2017-10-10

    Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are cation selective transmembrane receptors with diverse structures, activation mechanisms and physiological functions. TRP channels act as cellular sensors for a plethora of stimuli, including temperature, membrane voltage, oxidative stress, mechanical stimuli, pH and endogenous, as well as, exogenous ligands, thereby illustrating their versatility. As such, TRP channels regulate various functions in both excitable and non-excitable cells, mainly by mediating Ca2+ homeostasis. Dysregulation of TRP channels is implicated in many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, muscular dystrophies and hyperalgesia. However, the importance of TRP channel expression, physiological function and regulation in chondrocytes and intervertebral disc (IVD) cells is largely unexplored. Osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative disc disease (DDD) are chronic age-related disorders that significantly affect the quality of life by causing pain, activity limitation and disability. Furthermore, currently available therapies cannot effectively slow-down or stop progression of these diseases. Both OA and DDD are characterised by reduced tissue cellularity, enhanced inflammatory responses and molecular, structural and mechanical alterations of the extracellular matrix, hence affecting load distribution and reducing joint flexibility. However, knowledge on how chondrocytes and IVD cells sense their microenvironment and respond to its changes is still limited. In this review, we introduced six families of mammalian TRP channels, their mechanisms of activation, as well as, activation-driven cellular consequences. We summarised the current knowledge on TRP channel expression and activity in chondrocytes and IVD cells, as well as, the significance of TRP channels as therapeutic targets for the treatment of OA and DDD.

  15. Investigational hormone receptor agonists as ongoing female contraception: a focus on selective progesterone receptor modulators in early clinical development.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita L

    2015-01-01

    As efforts are made to continue to increase the safety of contraceptive methods, those without estrogen have attracted new attention. Progestin-only options are available in many delivery systems, but most cause disturbed bleeding patterns. For gynecologic patients, selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have been approved for medical abortion, for ovulation suppression in emergency contraception, and for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding due to leiomyoma. This article discusses the role of SPRMs in controlling fertility on an ongoing basis with particular emphasis on mifepristone and ulipristal acetate (UPA), since none of the other compounds has progressed out of early Phase I - II testing. It also discusses important information about the mechanisms of action and safety of these two SPRMs. Of all the investigational hormone agonist/antagonists, SPRMs have demonstrated the greatest potential as ongoing female contraceptives. They have the ability to suppress ovulation after initiation of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge without affecting ovarian production of estrogen or inducing any significant metabolic changes. SPRMs may well be able to provide longer term contraception as oral agents, vaginal rings, and perhaps even intrauterine devices. UPA has the greatest promise. Current research needs to be expanded.

  16. Transient receptor potential ion channels control thermoregulatory behaviour in reptiles.

    PubMed

    Seebacher, Frank; Murray, Shauna A

    2007-03-14

    Biological functions are governed by thermodynamics, and animals regulate their body temperature to optimise cellular performance and to avoid harmful extremes. The capacity to sense environmental and internal temperatures is a prerequisite for the evolution of thermoregulation. However, the mechanisms that enable ectothermic vertebrates to sense heat remain unknown. The recently discovered thermal characteristics of transient receptor potential ion channels (TRP) render these proteins suitable to act as temperature sensors. Here we test the hypothesis that TRPs are present in reptiles and function to control thermoregulatory behaviour. We show that the hot-sensing TRPV1 is expressed in a crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), an agamid (Amphibolurus muricatus) and a scincid (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii) lizard, as well as in the quail and zebrafinch (Coturnix chinensis and Poephila guttata). The TRPV1 genes from all reptiles form a unique clade that is delineated from the mammalian and the ancestral Xenopus sequences by an insertion of two amino acids. TRPV1 and the cool-sensing TRPM8 are expressed in liver, muscle (transversospinalis complex), and heart tissues of the crocodile, and have the potential to act as internal thermometer and as external temperatures sensors. Inhibition of TRPV1 and TRPM8 in C. porosus abolishes the typically reptilian shuttling behaviour between cooling and heating environments, and leads to significantly altered body temperature patterns. Our results provide the proximate mechanism of thermal selection in terrestrial ectotherms, which heralds a fundamental change in interpretation, because TRPs provide the mechanism for a tissue-specific input into the animals' thermoregulatory response.

  17. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2): a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer disease?

    PubMed

    Deming, Yuetiva; Li, Zeran; Benitez, Bruno A; Cruchaga, Carlos

    2018-06-20

    There are currently no effective therapeutics for Alzheimer disease (AD). Clinical trials targeting amyloid beta thus far have shown very little benefit and only in the earliest stages of disease. These limitations have driven research to identify alternative therapeutic targets, one of the most promising is the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2). Areas covered: Here, we review the literature to-date and discuss the potentials and pitfalls for targeting TREM2 as a potential therapeutic for AD. We focus on research in animal and cell models for AD and central nervous system injury models which may help in understanding the role of TREM2 in disease. Expert opinion: Studies suggest TREM2 plays a key role in AD pathology; however, results have been conflicting about whether TREM2 is beneficial or harmful. More research is necessary before designing TREM2-targeting therapies. Successful therapeutics will most likely be administered early in disease.

  18. Distribution and expression of non-neuronal transient receptor potential (TRPV) ion channels in rosacea.

    PubMed

    Sulk, Mathias; Seeliger, Stephan; Aubert, Jerome; Schwab, Verena D; Cevikbas, Ferda; Rivier, Michel; Nowak, Pawel; Voegel, Johannes J; Buddenkotte, Jörg; Steinhoff, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Rosacea is a frequent chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Because early rosacea reveals all characteristics of neurogenic inflammation, a central role of sensory nerves in its pathophysiology has been discussed. Neuroinflammatory mediators and their receptors involved in rosacea are poorly defined. Good candidates may be transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels of vanilloid type (TRPV), which can be activated by many trigger factors of rosacea. Interestingly, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4 are expressed by both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we analyzed the expression and distribution of TRPV receptors in the various subtypes of rosacea on non-neuronal cells using immunohistochemistry, morphometry, double immunoflourescence, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) as compared with healthy skin and lupus erythematosus. Our results show that dermal immunolabeling of TRPV2 and TRPV3 and gene expression of TRPV1 is significantly increased in erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) displayed an enhanced immunoreactivity for TRPV2, TRPV4, and also of TRPV2 gene expression. In phymatous rosacea (PhR)-affected skin, dermal immunostaining of TRPV3 and TRPV4 and gene expression of TRPV1 and TRPV3 was enhanced, whereas epidermal TRPV2 staining was decreased. Thus, dysregulation of TRPV channels also expressed by non-neuronal cells may be critically involved in the initiation and/or development of rosacea. TRP ion channels may be targets for the treatment of rosacea.

  19. Distribution and Expression of Non-Neuronal Transient Receptor Potential (TRPV) Ion Channels in Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Sulk, Mathias; Seeliger, Stephan; Aubert, Jerome; Schwab, Verena D.; Cevikbas, Ferda; Rivier, Michel; Nowak, Pawel; Voegel, Johannes J.; Buddenkotte, Jörg; Steinhoff, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Rosacea is a frequent chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. Because early rosacea reveals all characteristics of neurogenic inflammation, a central role of sensory nerves in its pathophysiology has been discussed. Neuroinflammatory mediators and their receptors involved in rosacea are poorly defined. Good candidates may be transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels of vanilloid type (TRPV), which can be activated by many trigger factors of rosacea. Interestingly, TRPV2, TRPV3, and TRPV4 are expressed by both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we analyzed the expression and distribution of TRPV receptors in the various subtypes of rosacea on non-neuronal cells using immunohistochemistry, morphometry, double immunoflourescence, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) as compared with healthy skin and lupus erythematosus. Our results show that dermal immunolabeling of TRPV2 and TRPV3 and gene expression of TRPV1 is significantly increased in erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). Papulopustular rosacea (PPR) displayed an enhanced immunoreactivity for TRPV2, TRPV4, and also of TRPV2 gene expression. In phymatous rosacea (PhR)-affected skin, dermal immunostaining of TRPV3 and TRPV4 and gene expression of TRPV1 and TRPV3 was enhanced, whereas epidermal TRPV2 staining was decreased. Thus, dysregulation of TRPV channels also expressed by non-neuronal cells may be critically involved in the initiation and/or development of rosacea. TRP ion channels may be targets for the treatment of rosacea. PMID:22189789

  20. On the photosynthetic potential in the very Early Archean oceans.

    PubMed

    Avila, Daile; Cardenas, Rolando; Martin, Osmel

    2013-02-01

    In this work we apply a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the potential for photosynthetic life in the very Early Archean oceans. We assume the presence of oceanic blockers of ultraviolet radiation, specifically ferrous ions. For this scenario, our results suggest a potential for photosynthetic life greater than or similar to that in later eras/eons, such as the Late Archean and the current Phanerozoic eon.

  1. Artificial receptors in serologic tests for the early diagnosis of dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tai, Dar-Fu; Lin, Chung-Yin; Wu, Tzong-Zeng; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Shu, Pei-Yun

    2006-08-01

    Because of the range and nonspecificity of clinical presentations of dengue virus infections, we felt there was a need to create diagnostic tests. We used artificial receptors for the virus to develop serologic assays to detect dengue virus infection. We coated a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with molecularly imprinted polymers specific for nonstructural protein 1 of flavivirus. These artificial receptors were specifically created on a QCM chip by polymerization of monomers and were cross-linked in the presence of the epitope site of nonstructural protein 1. We tested serum samples from patients with confirmed cases of dengue reported to the Center for Disease Control in Taipei. Samples were diluted 100-fold; no other sample pretreatment was used. The QCM response was compared with results of monoclonal ELISA. QCM signals were >15 Hz in 18 of 21 (86%) of dengue samples and in 0 of 16 control samples. The correlation (r2) of the QCM response and the ELISA result was 0.73. Within-run and run-to-run imprecisions (CV) were 4%-28% and 10%-32%, respectively. The described assay offers a serologic technique for diagnosis of early viremia. The results illustrate the potential of well-organized polymers on the highly sensitive sensor system for diagnostic and biotechnological applications.

  2. Early mortality in acute promyelocytic leukemia: Potential predictors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Can; Huang, Xilian; Wang, Kaile; Chen, Kuang; Gao, Danquan; Qian, Shenxian

    2018-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare leukemia characterized by the balanced reciprocal translocation between the promyelocytic leukemia gene on chromosome 15 and the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) gene on chromosome 17, and accounts for 10–15% of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia each year. The combined use of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide (ATO) as primary therapy has markedly improved the survival rate of patients with APL. Mortality in the first 30 days following therapy remains a major contribution to treatment failure. In the present study, published data was reviewed with a focus on the factors associated with early mortality. When treated with ATO as a primary treatment, the fms-like tyrosine kinase-internal tandem deletion has no impact on early mortality. Low lymphoid enhancer binding factor-1 expression may be a reliable marker for early mortality and the target of therapy if it could be proven by further studies. Cluster of differentiation (CD)56+ and CD34+/CD2+ may be candidates to select high-risk patients. The risk of early mortality in APL still cannot be predicted via the cell surface makers, despite multiple studies on their prognostic significance. Typically, a complex translocation did not alter the survival rate in patients with APL; however, if an abnormal karyotype [e.g., Ide(17), ZBTB16/RARα and STAT5B/RARα] appeared singularly or as part of a complex mutation, there is a high possibility of early mortality if clinicians are unable to identify or monitor it. PMID:29541170

  3. Reaching Potentials: Transforming Early Childhood Curriculum and Assessment. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredekamp, Sue, Ed.; Rosegrant, Teresa, Ed.

    This book builds on Volume 1 of "Reaching Potentials," which attempted to operationalize the "Guidelines for Appropriate Curriculum Content and Assessment" set by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the National Association of Early Childhood Specialists in State Departments of Education…

  4. Lipid modulation of thermal transient receptor potential channels.

    PubMed

    Hernández-García, Enrique; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    There is a subgroup of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels that are responsive to temperature (thermo-TRP channels). These are important to a variety of sensory and physiological phenomena such as pain and taste perception. All thermo-TRP channels known to date are subject to modulation by lipidic molecules of many kinds, from the ubiquitous cholesterol to more specialized molecules such as prostaglandins. Although the mechanisms and sites of binding of lipids on thermo-TRPs are largely unknown, the explosion on research of lipids and ion channels has revealed previously unsuspected roles for them. Diacyl glycerol is a lipid produced by phospholipase C (PLC) and it was discovered to modulate TRP channels in the eye of the fly, and many mammal TRP channels have been found to interact with lipids. While most of the lipids acting on thermo-TRP channels have been found to activate them, there are a few capable of inhibition. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is even capable of both inhibition and activation on a couple of thermo-TRPs, depending on the cellular context. More data is required to assess the mechanism through which lipids affect thermo-TRP channel activity and the physiological importance of this interaction.

  5. Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channels Control Thermoregulatory Behaviour in Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Seebacher, Frank; Murray, Shauna A.

    2007-01-01

    Biological functions are governed by thermodynamics, and animals regulate their body temperature to optimise cellular performance and to avoid harmful extremes. The capacity to sense environmental and internal temperatures is a prerequisite for the evolution of thermoregulation. However, the mechanisms that enable ectothermic vertebrates to sense heat remain unknown. The recently discovered thermal characteristics of transient receptor potential ion channels (TRP) render these proteins suitable to act as temperature sensors. Here we test the hypothesis that TRPs are present in reptiles and function to control thermoregulatory behaviour. We show that the hot-sensing TRPV1 is expressed in a crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), an agamid (Amphibolurus muricatus) and a scincid (Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii) lizard, as well as in the quail and zebrafinch (Coturnix chinensis and Poephila guttata). The TRPV1 genes from all reptiles form a unique clade that is delineated from the mammalian and the ancestral Xenopus sequences by an insertion of two amino acids. TRPV1 and the cool-sensing TRPM8 are expressed in liver, muscle (transversospinalis complex), and heart tissues of the crocodile, and have the potential to act as internal thermometer and as external temperatures sensors. Inhibition of TRPV1 and TRPM8 in C. porosus abolishes the typically reptilian shuttling behaviour between cooling and heating environments, and leads to significantly altered body temperature patterns. Our results provide the proximate mechanism of thermal selection in terrestrial ectotherms, which heralds a fundamental change in interpretation, because TRPs provide the mechanism for a tissue-specific input into the animals' thermoregulatory response. PMID:17356692

  6. Orthosteric and allosteric potentiation of heteromeric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyi; Lindstrom, Jon

    2018-06-01

    Heteromeric nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) were thought to have two orthodox agonist-binding sites at two α/β subunit interfaces. Highly selective ligands are hard to develop by targeting orthodox agonist sites because of high sequence similarity of this binding pocket among different subunits. Recently, unorthodox ACh-binding sites have been discovered at some α/α and β/α subunit interfaces, such as α4/α4, α5/α4 and β3/α4. Targeting unorthodox sites may yield subtype-selective ligands, such as those for (α4β2) 2 α5, (α4β2) 2 β3 and (α6β2) 2 β3 nAChRs. The unorthodox sites have unique pharmacology. Agonist binding at one unorthodox site is not sufficient to activate nAChRs, but it increases activation from the orthodox sites. NS9283, a selective agonist for the unorthodox α4/α4 site, was initially thought to be a positive allosteric modulator (PAM). NS9283 activates nAChRs with three engineered α4/α4 sites. PAMs, on the other hand, act at allosteric sites where ACh cannot bind. Known PAM sites include the ACh-homologous non-canonical site (e.g. morantel at β/α), the C-terminus (e.g. Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol), a transmembrane domain (e.g. LY2087101) or extracellular and transmembrane domain interfaces (e.g. NS206). Some of these PAMs, such as Br-PBTC and 17β-estradiol, require only one subunit to potentiate activation of nAChRs. In this review, we will discuss differences between activation from orthosteric and allosteric sites, their selective ligands and clinical implications. These studies have advanced understanding of the structure, assembly and pharmacology of heteromeric neuronal nAChRs. This article is part of a themed section on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.11/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Protease-activated receptor 2-mediated protection of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of transient receptor potential vanilloid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Beihua

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) or the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in cardiac sensory afferents containing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and/or substance P (SP) has been proposed to play a protective role in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the interaction between PAR2 and TRPV1 is largely unknown. Using gene-targeted TRPV1-null mutant (TRPV1−/−) or wild-type (WT) mice, we test the hypothesis that TRPV1 contributes to PAR2-mediated cardiac protection via increasing the release of CGRP and SP. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that TRPV1 coexpressed with PAR2, PKC-ε, or PKAc in cardiomyocytes, cardiac blood vessels, and perivascular nerves in WT but not TRPV1−/− hearts. WT or TRPV1−/− hearts were Langendorff perfused with the selective PAR2 agonist, SLIGRL, in the presence or absence of various antagonists, followed by 35 min of global ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion (I/R). The recovery rate of coronary flow, the maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and left ventricular developed pressure were evaluated after I/R. SLIGRL improved the recovery of hemodynamic parameters, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, and reduced the infarct size in both WT and TRPV1−/− hearts (P < 0.05). The protection of SLIGRL was significantly surpassed for WT compared with TRPV1−/− hearts (P < 0.05). CGRP8–37, a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, RP67580, a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, PKC-ε V1–2, a selective PKC-ε inhibitor, or H-89, a selective PKA inhibitor, abolished SLIGRL protection by inhibiting the recovery of the rate of coronary flow, maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development, and left ventricular developed pressure, and increasing left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in WT but not TRPV1−/− hearts. Radioimmunoassay showed that SLIGRL increased the release

  8. Serum decoy receptor 3, a potential new biomarker for sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Qiang; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Mei; Han, Deping; Peng, Liang; Liang, Dong-Yu; Yang, Shanmin; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Hong, Jinsheng; Lou, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Lurong; Kim, Sunghee

    2012-04-11

    Sepsis, a common deadly systemic infection caused by a variety of pathogens, has some clinical symptoms similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), a whole-body non-infectious inflammatory reaction to severe insults, such as burn, trauma, hypotensive shock and so on. Treatment of sepsis depends mainly on anti-microbial, while remedy for SIRS might require steroids that could possibly enhance the spread of microbes. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to distinguish these two completely different serious conditions without blood culture, which takes days to grow and identify causative pathogens. We examined a biomarker, serum decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), was evaluated for its utility in the differential diagnosis between sepsis and SIRS. Serum DcR3 level in 118 healthy controls, 24 sepsis patients and 43 SIRS patients, was quantitatively measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The serum DcR3 was significantly increased in sepsis patients compared with SIRS patients and healthy controls (6.11±2.58 ng/ml vs 2.62±1.46 ng/ml, and 0.91±0.56 ng/ml, respectively, p<0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of DcR3 for the normal vs. SIRS, normal vs. sepsis and SIRS vs. sepsis were 0.910 (0.870-0.950), 0.992 (0.984-1.000) and 0.896 (0.820-0.973), respectively. In addition, the DcR3 exhibited a positive correlation coefficient with APACHE II score, a most commonly used index for the severity of sepsis (r=0.556, p=0.005). The serum DcR3 has a potential to serve as a new biomarker for sepsis with its high specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sigma receptors as potential therapeutic targets for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linda; Kaushal, Nidhi; Robson, Matthew J; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2014-11-15

    Sigma receptors comprise a unique family of proteins that have been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of many central nervous system disorders, consistent with their high level of expression in the brain and spinal cord. Mounting evidence indicate that targeting sigma receptors may be particularly beneficial in a number of neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer׳s disease, Parkinson׳s disease, stroke, methamphetamine neurotoxicity, Huntington׳s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and retinal degeneration. In this perspective, a brief overview is given on sigma receptors, followed by a focus on common mechanisms of neurodegeneration that appear amenable to modulation by sigma receptor ligands to convey neuroprotective effects and/or restorative functions. Within each of the major mechanisms discussed herein, the neuroprotective effects of sigma ligands are summarized, and when known, the specific sigma receptor subtype(s) involved are identified. Together, the literature suggests sigma receptors may provide a novel target for combatting neurodegenerative diseases through both neuronal and glial mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multifocal visual evoked potentials for early glaucoma detection.

    PubMed

    Weizer, Jennifer S; Musch, David C; Niziol, Leslie M; Khan, Naheed W

    2012-07-01

    To compare multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEP) with other detection methods in early open-angle glaucoma. Ten patients with suspected glaucoma and 5 with early open-angle glaucoma underwent mfVEP, standard automated perimetry (SAP), short-wave automated perimetry, frequency-doubling technology perimetry, and nerve fiber layer optical coherence tomography. Nineteen healthy control subjects underwent mfVEP and SAP for comparison. Comparisons between groups involving continuous variables were made using independent t tests; for categorical variables, Fisher's exact test was used. Monocular mfVEP cluster defects were associated with an increased SAP pattern standard deviation (P = .0195). Visual fields that showed interocular mfVEP cluster defects were more likely to also show superior quadrant nerve fiber layer thinning by OCT (P = .0152). Multifocal visual evoked potential cluster defects are associated with a functional and an anatomic measure that both relate to glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Severe, Potentially Reversible Autoimmune Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai-Yun; Zhu, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ma, Chi; Wang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care. The clinical course of the disorder is reversible and the relapse could occur in some patients. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis coexisting with demyelinating disorders makes the diagnosis more complex; thus, clinicians should be aware of the overlapping diseases.

  12. Anti-N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis: A Severe, Potentially Reversible Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cai-yun; Zheng, Xiang-Yu; Ma, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is potentially lethal, but it is also a treatable autoimmune disorder characterized by prominent psychiatric and neurologic symptoms. It is often accompanied with teratoma or other neoplasm, especially in female patients. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum are characteristic features of the disease, thereby suggesting a pathogenic role in the disease. Here, we summarize recent studies that have clearly documented that both clinical manifestations and the antibodies may contribute to early diagnosis and multidisciplinary care. The clinical course of the disorder is reversible and the relapse could occur in some patients. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis coexisting with demyelinating disorders makes the diagnosis more complex; thus, clinicians should be aware of the overlapping diseases. PMID:28698711

  13. Mechanisms of Kappa Opioid Receptor Potentiation of Dopamine D2 Receptor Function in Quinpirole-Induced Locomotor Sensitization in Rats.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Angélica P; González, Marcela P; Meza, Rodrigo C; Noches, Verónica; Henny, Pablo; Gysling, Katia; España, Rodrigo A; Fuentealba, José A; Andrés, María E

    2017-08-01

    Increased locomotor activity in response to the same stimulus is an index of behavioral sensitization observed in preclinical models of drug addiction and compulsive behaviors. Repeated administration of quinpirole, a D2/D3 dopamine agonist, induces locomotor sensitization. This effect is potentiated and accelerated by co-administration of U69593, a kappa opioid receptor agonist. The mechanism underlying kappa opioid receptor potentiation of quinpirole-induced locomotor sensitization remains to be elucidated. Immunofluorescence anatomical studies were undertaken in mice brain slices and rat presynaptic synaptosomes to reveal kappa opioid receptor and D2R pre- and postsynaptic colocalization in the nucleus accumbens. Tonic and phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of rats repeatedly treated with U69593 and quinpirole was assessed by microdialysis and fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Anatomical data show that kappa opioid receptor and D2R colocalize postsynaptically in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens and the highest presynaptic colocalization occurs on the same dopamine terminals. Significantly reduced dopamine levels were observed in quinpirole, and U69593-quinpirole treated rats, explaining sensitization of D2R. Presynaptic inhibition induced by kappa opioid receptor and D2R of electrically evoked dopamine release was faster in U69593-quinpirole compared with quinpirole-repeatedly treated rats. Pre- and postsynaptic colocalization of kappa opioid receptor and D2R supports a role for kappa opioid receptor potentiating both the D2R inhibitory autoreceptor function and the inhibitory action of D2R on efferent medium spiny neurons. Kappa opioid receptor co-activation accelerates D2R sensitization by contributing to decrease dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  14. The heterodimeric sweet taste receptor has multiple potential ligand binding sites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Jiang, Peihua; Maillet, Emeline; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F; Osman, Roman

    2006-01-01

    The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of two G protein coupled receptors, T1R2 and T1R3. This discovery has increased our understanding at the molecular level of the mechanisms underlying sweet taste. Previous experimental studies using sweet receptor chimeras and mutants show that there are at least three potential binding sites in this heterodimeric receptor. Receptor activity toward the artificial sweeteners aspartame and neotame depends on residues in the amino terminal domain of human T1R2. In contrast, receptor activity toward the sweetener cyclamate and the sweet taste inhibitor lactisole depends on residues within the transmembrane domain of human T1R3. Furthermore, receptor activity toward the sweet protein brazzein depends on the cysteine rich domain of human T1R3. Although crystal structures are not available for the sweet taste receptor, useful homology models can be developed based on appropriate templates. The amino terminal domain, cysteine rich domain and transmembrane helix domain of T1R2 and T1R3 have been modeled based on the crystal structures of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1, tumor necrosis factor receptor, and bovine rhodopsin, respectively. We have used homology models of the sweet taste receptors, molecular docking of sweet ligands to the receptors, and site-directed mutagenesis of the receptors to identify potential ligand binding sites of the sweet taste receptor. These studies have led to a better understanding of the structure and function of this heterodimeric receptor, and can act as a guide for rational structure-based design of novel non-caloric sweeteners, which can be used in the fighting against obesity and diabetes.

  15. Functional transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channels along different segments of the renal vasculature.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Kaßmann, M; Sendeski, M; Tsvetkov, D; Marko, L; Michalick, L; Riehle, M; Liedtke, W B; Kuebler, W M; Harteneck, C; Tepel, M; Patzak, A; Gollasch, M

    2015-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channels have been recently identified to promote endothelium-dependent relaxation of mouse mesenteric arteries. However, the role of TRPV1 and TRPV4 in the renal vasculature is largely unknown. We hypothesized that TRPV1/4 plays a role in endothelium-dependent vasodilation of renal blood vessels. We studied the distribution of functional TRPV1/4 along different segments of the renal vasculature. Mesenteric arteries were studied as control vessels. The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin relaxed mouse mesenteric arteries with an EC50 of 25 nm, but large mouse renal arteries or rat descending vasa recta only at >100-fold higher concentrations. The vasodilatory effect of capsaicin in the low-nanomolar concentration range was endothelium-dependent and absent in vessels of Trpv1 -/- mice. The TRPV4 agonist GSK1016790A relaxed large conducting renal arteries, mesenteric arteries and vasa recta with EC50 of 18, 63 nm and ~10 nm respectively. These effects were endothelium-dependent and inhibited by a TRPV4 antagonist, AB159908 (10 μm). Capsaicin and GSK1016790A produced vascular dilation in isolated mouse perfused kidneys with EC50 of 23 and 3 nm respectively. The capsaicin effects were largely reduced in Trpv1 -/- kidneys, and the effects of GSK1016790A were inhibited in Trpv4 -/- kidneys. Our results demonstrate that two TRPV channels have unique sites of vasoregulatory function in the kidney with functional TRPV1 having a narrow, discrete distribution in the resistance vasculature and TRPV4 having more universal, widespread distribution along different vascular segments. We suggest that TRPV1/4 channels are potent therapeutic targets for site-specific vasodilation in the kidney. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ethanol exposure in early adolescence inhibits intrinsic neuronal plasticity via sigma-1 receptor activation in hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sabeti, Jilla

    2011-01-01

    Background We demonstrated previously that rats exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapors in early adolescence show increased magnitudes of long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory transmission when recorded at dendritic synapses in hippocampus. Large amplitude LTP following CIE exposure is mediated by sigma-1 receptors; however, not yet addressed is the role of sigma-1 receptors in modulating the intrinsic properties of neurons to alter their action potential firing during LTP. Methods Activity-induced plasticity of spike firing was investigated using rat hippocampal slice recordings to measure changes in both field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and population spikes (pop. spikes) concomitantly at dendritic inputs and soma of CA1 pyramidal neurons, respectively. Results We observed unique modifications in plasticity of action potential firing in hippocampal slices from CIE exposed adolescent rats, where the induction of large amplitude LTP by 100 Hz stimulations was accompanied by reduced CA1 neuronal excitability—reflected as decreased pop. spike efficacy and impaired activity-induced fEPSP-to-spike (E-S) potentiation. By contrast, LTP induction in ethanol-naïve control slices resulted in increased spike efficacy and robust E-S potentiation. E-S potentiation impairments emerged at 24 hr after CIE treatment cessation, but not before the alcohol withdrawal period, and were restored with bath-application of the sigma-1 receptor selective antagonist BD1047, but not the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5. Further evidence revealed a significantly shortened somatic fEPSP time course in adolescent CIE-withdrawn hippocampal slices during LTP; however, paired-pulse data show no apparent correspondence between E-S dissociation and altered recurrent feedback inhibition. Conclusions Results here suggest that acute withdrawal from adolescent CIE exposure triggers sigma-1 receptors that act to depress the efficacy of excitatory inputs in triggering

  17. Transient receptor potential channel M5 and phospholipaseC-beta2 colocalizing in zebrafish taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuki; Saitoh, Kana; Aihara, Yoshiko; Okada, Shinji; Misaka, Takumi; Abe, Keiko

    2007-10-08

    In mammals, transient receptor potential (TRP) channel M5 (TRPM5) is coexpressed with phospholipaseC-beta2 (PLC-beta2) in the taste receptor cells, and both PLC-beta2 and TRPM5 are essential elements in the signal transduction of sweet, bitter and umami stimuli. In this study, we identified the zebrafish homologue of TRPM5 (zfTRPM5) and examined its expression in the gustatory system by in-situ hybridization. Using a transgenic zebrafish line that expressed green fluorescent protein under the control of the PLC-beta2 promoter, we showed that zfTRPM5 is expressed in green fluorescent protein-labeled cells of the taste buds. These results demonstrate that zfTRPM5 and PLC-beta2 colocalize in zebrafish taste receptor cells, suggesting their crucial roles in taste signaling via the fish taste receptors.

  18. Quantitative Tissue Proteomics Analysis Reveals Versican as Potential Biomarker for Early-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naboulsi, Wael; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Eisenacher, Martin; Voss, Don Marvin; Schlaak, Jörg F; Hoffmann, Andreas-Claudius; Weber, Frank; Baba, Hideo A; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara

    2016-01-04

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors, and the treatment outcome of this disease is improved when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. This requires biomarkers allowing an accurate and early tumor diagnosis. To identify potential markers for such applications, we analyzed a patient cohort consisting of 50 patients (50 HCC and 50 adjacent nontumorous tissue samples as controls) using two independent proteomics approaches. We performed label-free discovery analysis on 19 HCC and corresponding tissue samples. The data were analyzed considering events known to take place in early events of HCC development, such as abnormal regulation of Wnt/b-catenin and activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). 31 proteins were selected for verification experiments. For this analysis, the second set of the patient cohort (31 HCC and corresponding tissue samples) was analyzed using selected (multiple) reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM). We present the overexpression of ATP-dependent RNA helicase (DDX39), Fibulin-5 (FBLN5), myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS), and Serpin H1 (SERPINH1) in HCC for the first time. We demonstrate Versican core protein (VCAN) to be significantly associated with well differentiated and low-stage HCC. We revealed for the first time the evidence of VCAN as a potential biomarker for early-HCC diagnosis.

  19. Early Use of the NMDA Receptor Antagonist Ketamine in Refractory and Superrefractory Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and superrefractory status epilepticus (SRSE) pose a difficult clinical challenge. Multiple cerebral receptor and transporter changes occur with prolonged status epilepticus leading to pharmacoresistance patterns unfavorable for conventional antiepileptics. In particular, n-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor upregulation leads to glutamate mediated excitotoxicity. Targeting these NMDA receptors may provide a novel approach to otherwise refractory seizures. Ketamine has been utilized in RSE. Recent systematic review indicates 56.5% and 63.5% cessation in seizures in adults and pediatrics, respectively. No complications were described. We should consider earlier implementation of ketamine or other NMDA receptor antagonists, for RSE. Prospective study of early implementation of ketamine should shed light on the role of such medications in RSE. PMID:25649724

  20. Dopamine modulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor in dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Saikat; Rebecchi, Mario; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino

    2016-03-15

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor plays a key role in the modulation of nociceptor excitability. To address whether dopamine can modulate the activity of TRPV1 channels in nociceptive neurons, the effects of dopamine and dopamine receptor agonists were tested on the capsaicin-activated current recorded from acutely dissociated small diameter (<27 μm) dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Dopamine or SKF 81297 (an agonist at D1/D5 receptors), caused inhibition of both inward and outward currents by ∼60% and ∼48%, respectively. The effect of SKF 81297 was reversed by SCH 23390 (an antagonist at D1/D5 receptors), confirming that it was mediated by activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors. In contrast, quinpirole (an agonist at D2 receptors) had no significant effect on the capsaicin-activated current. Inhibition of the capsaicin-activated current by SKF 81297 was mediated by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and highly dependent on external calcium. The inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on the capsaicin-activated current was not affected when the protein kinase A (PKA) activity was blocked with H89, or when the protein kinase C (PKC) activity was blocked with bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM). In contrast, when the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was blocked with KN-93, the inhibitory effect of SKF 81297 on the capsaicin-activated current was greatly reduced, suggesting that activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors may be preferentially linked to CaMKII activity. We suggest that modulation of TRPV1 channels by dopamine in nociceptive neurons may represent a way for dopamine to modulate incoming noxious stimuli. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  1. The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Critically Regulates Endometrial Function during Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Large, Michael J.; Wetendorf, Margeaux; Lanz, Rainer B.; Hartig, Sean M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Mancini, Michael A.; Kovanci, Ertug; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Threadgill, David W.; Lydon, John P.; Jeong, Jae-Wook; DeMayo, Francesco J.

    2014-01-01

    Infertility and adverse gynecological outcomes such as preeclampsia and miscarriage represent significant female reproductive health concerns. The spatiotemporal expression of growth factors indicates that they play an important role in pregnancy. The goal of this study is to define the role of the ERBB family of growth factor receptors in endometrial function. Using conditional ablation in mice and siRNA in primary human endometrial stromal cells, we identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr) to be critical for endometrial function during early pregnancy. While ablation of Her2 or Erbb3 led to only a modest reduction in litter size, mice lacking Egfr expression are severely subfertile. Pregnancy demise occurred shortly after blastocyst implantation due to defects in decidualization including decreased proliferation, cell survival, differentiation and target gene expression. To place Egfr in a genetic regulatory hierarchy, transcriptome analyses was used to compare the gene signatures from mice with conditional ablation of Egfr, wingless-related MMTV integration site 4 (Wnt4) or boneless morphogenic protein 2 (Bmp2); revealing that not only are Bmp2 and Wnt4 key downstream effectors of Egfr, but they also regulate distinct physiological functions. In primary human endometrial stromal cells, marker gene expression, a novel high content image-based approach and phosphokinase array analysis were used to demonstrate that EGFR is a critical regulator of human decidualization. Furthermore, inhibition of EGFR signaling intermediaries WNK1 and AKT1S1, members identified in the kinase array and previously unreported to play a role in the endometrium, also attenuate decidualization. These results demonstrate that EGFR plays an integral role in establishing the cellular context necessary for successful pregnancy via the activation of intricate signaling and transcriptional networks, thereby providing valuable insight into potential therapeutic targets. PMID

  2. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  3. Potentiation of transient receptor potential V1 functions by the activation of metabotropic 5-HT receptors in rat primary sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Toshio; Ikemi, Yuki; Murakami, Matsuka; Imagawa, Toshiaki; Otsuguro, Ken-ichi; Ito, Shigeo

    2006-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is one of the major chemical mediators released in injured and inflamed tissue and is capable of inducing hyperalgesia in vivo. However, the cellular mechanisms of 5-HT-induced hyperalgesia remain unclear. Transient receptor potential V1 (TRPV1) plays a pivotal role in nociceptive receptors. In the present study, we determined whether 5-HT changes TRPV1 functions in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from neonatal rats, using Ca2+ imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. In more than 70% of DRG neurons, 5-HT potentiated the increases of [Ca2+]i induced by capsaicin, protons and noxious heat. Capsaicin-induced current and depolarizing responses, and proton-induced currents were also augmented by 5-HT. RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in rat DRG neurons. Agonists for 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors mimicked the potentiating effect of 5-HT, and their antagonists decreased it. In DRG ipsilateral to the complete Freund's adjuvant-injected inflammation side, expression levels of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 mRNAs increased, and the potentiating effect of 5-HT was more prominent than in the contralateral control side. These results suggest that the PKC- and PKA-mediated signalling pathways are involved in the potentiating effect of 5-HT on TRPV1 functions through the activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors, respectively. Under inflammatory conditions, the increases of the biosynthesis of these 5-HT receptors may lead to further potentiation of TRPV1 functions, resulting in the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia in vivo. PMID:16901936

  4. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and α 2 adrenergic receptors mediate heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Paula E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2013-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the early symptoms of opioid withdrawal and contributes to continued drug use and relapse. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a component of anxiety that has been shown to increase during opioid withdrawal in both humans and animals. We investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE), two key mediators of the brain stress system, on acute heroin withdrawal-potentiated ASR. Rats injected with heroin (2 mg/kg s.c.) displayed an increased ASR when tested 4 h after heroin treatment. A similar increase in ASR was found in rats 10-20 h into withdrawal from extended access (12 h) to i.v. heroin self-administration, a model that captures several aspects of heroin addiction in humans. Both the α 2 adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (10 μg/kg s.c.) and CRF1 receptor antagonist N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-amine (MPZP; 20 mg/kg s.c.) blocked heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle. To investigate the relationship between CRF1 and α 2 adrenergic receptors in the potentiation of the ASR, we tested the effect of MPZP on yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg s.c.)-potentiated startle and clonidine on CRF (2 μg i.c.v.)-potentiated startle. Clonidine blocked CRF-potentiated startle, whereas MPZP partially attenuated but did not reverse yohimbine-potentiated startle, suggesting that CRF may drive NE release to potentiate startle. These results suggest that CRF1 and α 2 receptors play an important role in the heightened anxiety-like behaviour observed during acute withdrawal from heroin, possibly via CRF inducing the release of NE in stress-related brain regions.

  5. Group III mGlu receptor agonists potentiate the anticonvulsant effect of AMPA and NMDA receptor block.

    PubMed

    De Sarro, Giovambattista; Chimirri, Alba; Meldrum, Brian S

    2002-09-06

    We report the anticonvulsant action in DBA/2 mice of two mGlu Group III receptor agonists: (R,S)-4-phosphonophenylglycine, (R,S)-PPG, a compound with moderate mGlu8 selectivity, and of (1S,3R,4S)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid, ACPT-1, a selective agonist for mGlu4alpha receptors. Both compounds, given intracerebroventricularly at doses which did not show marked anticonvulsant activity, produced a consistent shift to the left of the dose-response curves (i.e. enhanced the anticonvulsant properties) of 1-(4'-aminophenyl)-3,5-dihydro-7,8-dimethoxy-4H-2,3-benzodiazepin-4-one hydrochloride, CFM-2, a noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist, and 3-((+/-)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-1-phosphonic acid, CPPene, a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, in DBA/2 mice. In addition, (R,S)-PPG and ACPT-1 administered intracerebroventricularly prolonged the time course of the anticonvulsant properties of CFM-2 (33 micromol/kg, i.p.) and CPPene (3.3 micromol/kg, i.p.) administered intraperitoneally. We conclude that modest reduction of synaptic glutamate release by activation of Group III metabotropic receptors potentiates the anticonvulsant effect of AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. BDNF released during neuropathic pain potentiates NMDA receptors in primary afferent terminals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenling; Walwyn, Wendy; Ennes, Helena S.; Kim, Hyeyoung; McRoberts, James A.; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    NMDA receptors in primary afferent terminals can contribute to hyperalgesia by increasing neurotransmitter release. In rats and mice, we found that the ability of intrathecal NMDA to induce neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) internalization (a measure of substance P release) required a previous injection of BDNF. Selective knock-down of NMDA receptors in primary afferents decreased NMDA-induced NK1R internalization, confirming the presynaptic location of these receptors. The effect of BDNF was mediated by tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) receptors and not p75 neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR), because it was not produced by proBDNF and was inhibited by the trkB antagonist ANA-12 but not by the p75NTR inhibitor TAT-Pep5. These effects are probably mediated through the truncated form of the trkB receptor as there is little expression of full-length trkB in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Src family kinase inhibitors blocked the effect of BDNF, suggesting that trkB receptors promote the activation of these NMDA receptors by Src family kinase phosphorylation. Western blots of cultured DRG neurons revealed that BDNF increased Tyr1472 phosphorylation of the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, known to have a potentiating effect. Patch-clamp recordings showed that BDNF, but not proBDNF, increased NMDA receptor currents in cultured DRG neurons. NMDA-induced NK1R internalization was also enabled in a neuropathic pain model or by activating dorsal horn microglia with lipopolysaccharide. These effects were decreased by a BDNF scavenger, a trkB receptor antagonist and an Src family kinase inhibitor, indicating that BDNF released by microglia potentiates NMDA receptors in primary afferents during neuropathic pain. PMID:24611998

  7. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats

    " NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo.

    " The pattern evok...

  8. AMPA RECEPTOR POTENTIATORS: FROM DRUG DESIGN TO COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    PARTIN, KATHRYN M.

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of ionotropic glutamate receptors have emerged as a target for treating cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, but also mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder. The possibility of creating a new class of pharmaceutical agent to treat refractive mental health issues has compelled researchers to redouble their efforts to develop a safe, effective treatment for memory and cognition impairments. Coupled with the more robust research methodologies that have emerged, including more sophisticated high-throughput-screens, higher resolution structural biology techniques, and more focused assessment on pharmacokinetics, the development of positive modulators of AMPA receptors holds great promise. We describe recent approaches that improve our understanding of the basic physiology underlying memory and cognition, and their application towards promoting human health. PMID:25462292

  9. Premyelinated central axons express neurotoxic NMDA receptors: relevance to early developing white-matter injury

    PubMed Central

    Huria, Tahani; Beeraka, Narasimha Murthy; Al-Ghamdi, Badrah; Fern, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic-type injury to developing white matter is associated with the significant clinical condition cerebral palsy and with the cognitive deficits associated with premature birth. Premyelinated axons are the major cellular component of fetal white matter and loss of axon function underlies the disability, but the cellular mechanisms producing ischemic injury to premyelinated axons have not previously been described. Injury was found to require longer periods of modelled ischemia than at latter developmental points. Ischemia produced initial hyperexcitability in axons followed by loss of function after Na+ and Ca2+ influx. N-methyl-D-aspartate- (NMDA) type glutamate receptor (GluR) agonists potentiated axon injury while antagonists were protective. The NMDA GluR obligatory Nr1 subunit colocalized with markers of small premyelinated axons and expression was found at focal regions of axon injury. Ischemic injury of glial cells present in early developing white matter was NMDA GluR independent. Axons in human postconception week 18 to 23 white matter had a uniform prediameter expansion phenotype and postembedded immuno-gold labelling showed Nr1 subunit expression on the membrane of these axons, demonstrating a shared key neuropathologic feature with the rodent model. Premyelinated central axons therefore express high levels of functional NMDA GluRs that confer sensitivity to ischemic injury. PMID:25515212

  10. Activation of Protease Activated Receptor 2 by Exogenous Agonist Exacerbates Early Radiation Injury in Rat Intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junru; Boerma, Marjan; Kulkarni, Ashwini

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR{sub 2}) is highly expressed throughout the gut and regulates the inflammatory, mitogenic, fibroproliferative, and nociceptive responses to injury. PAR{sub 2} is strikingly upregulated and exhibits increased activation in response to intestinal irradiation. We examined the mechanistic significance of radiation enteropathy development by assessing the effect of exogenous PAR{sub 2} activation. Methods and Materials: Rat small bowel was exposed to localized single-dose radiation (16.5 Gy). The PAR{sub 2} agonist (2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH{sub 2}) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally daily for 3 days before irradiation (before), for 7 days after irradiation (after), or both 3 days before and 7 daysmore » after irradiation (before-after). Early and delayed radiation enteropathy was assessed at 2 and 26 weeks after irradiation using quantitative histologic examination, morphometry, and immunohistochemical analysis. Results: The PAR{sub 2} agonist did not elicit changes in the unirradiated (shielded) intestine. In contrast, in the irradiated intestine procured 2 weeks after irradiation, administration of the PAR{sub 2} agonist was associated with more severe mucosal injury and increased intestinal wall thickness in all three treatment groups (p <.05) compared with the vehicle-treated controls. The PAR{sub 2} agonist also exacerbated the radiation injury score, serosal thickening, and mucosal inflammation (p <.05) in the before and before-after groups. The short-term exogenous activation of PAR{sub 2} did not affect radiation-induced intestinal injury at 26 weeks. Conclusion: The results of the present study support a role for PAR{sub 2} activation in the pathogenesis of early radiation-induced intestinal injury. Pharmacologic PAR{sub 2} antagonists might have the potential to reduce the intestinal side effects of radiotherapy and/or as countermeasures in radiologic accidents or terrorism scenarios.« less

  11. Early life trauma, depression and the glucocorticoid receptor gene--an epigenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Smart, C; Strathdee, G; Watson, S; Murgatroyd, C; McAllister-Williams, R H

    2015-12-01

    Hopes to identify genetic susceptibility loci accounting for the heritability seen in unipolar depression have not been fully realized. Family history remains the 'gold standard' for both risk stratification and prognosis in complex phenotypes such as depression. Meanwhile, the physiological mechanisms underlying life-event triggers for depression remain opaque. Epigenetics, comprising heritable changes in gene expression other than alterations of the nucleotide sequence, may offer a way to deepen our understanding of the aetiology and pathophysiology of unipolar depression and optimize treatments. A heuristic target for exploring the relevance of epigenetic changes in unipolar depression is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (NR3C1) has been found to be susceptible to epigenetic modification, specifically DNA methylation, in the context of environmental stress such as early life trauma, which is an established risk for depression later in life. In this paper we discuss the progress that has been made by studies that have investigated the relationship between depression, early trauma, the HPA axis and the NR3C1 gene. Difficulties with the design of these studies are also explored. Future efforts will need to comprehensively address epigenetic natural histories at the population, tissue, cell and gene levels. The complex interactions between the epigenome, genome and environment, as well as ongoing nosological difficulties, also pose significant challenges. The work that has been done so far is nevertheless encouraging and suggests potential mechanistic and biomarker roles for differential DNA methylation patterns in NR3C1 as well as novel therapeutic targets.

  12. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), a potential novel biomarker in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xin; Yang, Yong-chang; Wang, Jing-feng; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Jie; Fu, Wen-liang; Zhu, Ze-yi; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Zou, Min-ji; Wang, Jia-xi; Xu, Dong-qun; Xu, Dong-gang

    2013-03-01

    The presence of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) in human peripheral blood cells may suggest a role under pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the expression profile of TRPV2 gene and childhood asthma in the north of China. The effects of allergens exposure on the expression of TRPV2 gene were also investigated. Sixty asthmatics children confirmed by physician diagnosis and 60 healthy children as a control group were recruited. Serum total IgE and specific IgE were measured. Using quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), TRPV2 was detected in total RNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Student's t-test and chi-square test were used to analyze the relationship between TRPV2 transcript and different parameter variables on susceptibility of childhood asthma. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between TRPV2 gene and allergens. The expression level of TRPV2 gene was increased 2.6 times in asthmatic children compared with controls (p < .01). The up-regulation of TRPV2 gene and sensitization to one of three the allergens-spring pollen, dust mite, and dog and cat hair-were correlated with childhood asthma. In addition, the hypersensitivity to spring pollen, cockroach, and dust mite and up-regulation of TRPV2 gene expression may be the risk factors for the childhood asthma in Beijing. The increased expression of TRPV2 gene in peripheral lymphocytes is closely correlated with childhood asthma in the north of China. This study provides a potential new biomarker of childhood asthma and lays the basis for further clarification of the pathogenesis underlying asthma.

  13. P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system and their potential as therapeutic targets in disease.

    PubMed

    Ralevic, Vera

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the expression and roles of P2X receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets. P2X receptors are ligand gated ion channels which are activated by the endogenous ligand ATP. They are formed from the assembly of three P2X subunit proteins from the complement of seven (P2X1-7), which can associate to form homomeric or heteromeric P2X receptors. The P2X1 receptor is widely expressed in the cardiovascular system, being located in the heart, in the smooth muscle of the majority of blood vessels and in platelets. P2X1 receptors expressed in blood vessels can be activated by ATP coreleased with noradrenaline as a sympathetic neurotransmitter, leading to smooth muscle depolarisation and contraction. There is evidence that the purinergic component of sympathetic neurotransmission is increased in hypertension, identifying P2X1 receptors as a possible therapeutic target in this disorder. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are expressed on cardiac sympathetic neurones and may, through positive feedback of neuronal ATP at this prejunctional site, amplify sympathetic neurotransmission. Activation of P2X receptors expressed in the heart increases cardiac myocyte contractility, and an important role of the P2X4 receptor in this has been identified. Deletion of P2X4 receptors in the heart depresses contractile performance in models of heart failure, while overexpression of P2X4 receptors has been shown to be cardioprotective, thus P2X4 receptors may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of heart disease. P2X receptors have been identified on endothelial cells. Although immunoreactivity for all P2X1-7 receptor proteins has been shown on the endothelium, relatively little is known about their function, with the exception of the endothelial P2X4 receptor, which has been shown to mediate endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to ATP released during shear stress. The potential of P2X receptors as therapeutic targets

  14. Characterization of early and late endocytic compartments of the transferrin cycle. Transferrin receptor antibody blocks erythroid differentiation by trapping the receptor in the early endosome.

    PubMed

    Killisch, I; Steinlein, P; Römisch, K; Hollinshead, R; Beug, H; Griffiths, G

    1992-09-01

    We describe a detailed morphological characterization of the endocytic pathway in differentiating chicken erythroblasts transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These cells express high levels of transferrin receptors (TfR) when induced to differentiate at 42 degrees C. Biochemical analysis showed that most (approximately 90%) of the internalized 125I-Tf recycled within approximately 30 min while a smaller fraction of 125I-Tf required up to 2 h for recycling. By immunocytochemistry, the bulk of Tf and TfR was localized at the plasma membrane and in tubuloreticular early endosomes. This structure contained coated buds that labelled with an antibody specific for the clathrin light chain. Decreasing amounts of both Tf and TfR were detected in two distal compartments, spherical endosome vesicles resembling multivesicular bodies and the prelysosomal compartment (PLC) enriched in cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. As shown by fluorescent (FITC-Tf) labelling of living cells, the movement of Tf/TfR complex into these late structures was accompanied by a significant drop in pH from about 6, the value displayed by early endosomes, to values below pH 5.0. Since no detectable 125I-Tf degradation was observed during a 4 h period we believe that the Tf/TfR detected in these late endocytic structures avoids degradation and recycles back to the cell surface. The addition of an anti-TfR monoclonal antibody to the culture medium of these cells blocks their differentiation. Under this condition the antibody-TfR complex was trapped in an early endosome compartment that enlarged to more than twice its normal size. However, this condition did not affect the transport kinetics of horseradish peroxidase from the medium to the PLC.

  15. [The potential of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists as a novel antidepressant].

    PubMed

    Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2012-08-01

    Recently, abnormalities of glutamatergic transmission have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Moreover, both ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, and riluzole, a modulator of glutamatergic, transmission have been reported to be effective for the treatment of patients with treatment-refractory depression. Based on these findings, extensive studies to develop agents acting on glutamatergic transmission have been conducted. Glutamate receptors are divided into two main subtypes, ionotropic glutamate receptors and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, both of which have subtypes. Of these, much attention has been paid to mGlu2/3 receptors. mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists such as MGS0039 and LY341495 have been reported to exert antidepressant effects in animal models of depression including the forced swim test, tail suspension test, learned helplessness paradigm, olfactory bulmectomy model and isolation rearing model, and to enhance serotonin release in the prefrontal cortex and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, activation of AMPA receptor and mTOR signaling have been suggested to be involved in the antidepressant effects of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists, as demonstrated in the actions of ketamine. Thus, mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists may share some neural networks with ketamine in exerting their antidepressant effects. In addition, the potential of other agents targeting glutamatergic transmission for novel antidepressants is being investigated.

  16. Early childhood BMI trajectories in monogenic obesity due to leptin, leptin receptor, and melanocortin 4 receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kohlsdorf, Katja; Nunziata, Adriana; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Brandt, Stephanie; von Schnurbein, Julia; Vollbach, Heike; Lennerz, Belinda; Fritsch, Maria; Greber-Platzer, Susanne; Fröhlich-Reiterer, Elke; Luedeke, Manuel; Borck, Guntram; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin

    2018-02-27

    To evaluate whether early childhood body mass index (BMI) is an appropriate indicator for monogenic obesity. A cohort of n = 21 children living in Germany or Austria with monogenic obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency (group LEP, n = 6), leptin receptor deficiency (group LEPR, n = 6) and primarily heterozygous MC4 receptor deficiency (group MC4R, n = 9) was analyzed. A control group (CTRL) was defined that consisted of n = 22 obese adolescents with no mutation in the above mentioned genes. Early childhood (0-5 years) BMI trajectories were compared between the groups at selected time points. The LEP and LEPR group showed a tremendous increase in BMI during the first 2 years of life with all patients displaying a BMI >27 kg/m 2 (27.2-38.4 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95 (percentage of the 95th percentile BMI for age and sex) >140% (144.8-198.6%) at the age of 2 years and a BMI > 33 kg/m 2 (33.3-45.9 kg/m 2 ) and %BMI P95  > 184% (184.1-212.6%) at the age of 5 years. The MC4R and CTRL groups had a later onset of obesity with significantly lower BMI values at both time points (p < 0.01). As result of the investigation of early childhood BMI trajectories in this pediatric cohort with monogenic obesity we suggest that BMI values >27.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 140% at the age of 2 years and BMI values >33.0 kg/m 2 or %BMI P95  > 184% at the age of 5 years may be useful cut points to identify children who should undergo genetic screening for monogenic obesity due to functionally relevant mutations in the leptin gene or leptin receptor gene.

  17. Endothelin-1 and its receptors on haemorrhoidal tissue: a potential site for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Scholefield, John H; Wilson, Vincent G; Dashwood, Michael R

    2017-04-01

    Haemorrhoids is a common anorectal condition affecting millions worldwide. We have studied the effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the role of endothelin ET A and ET B receptors in haemorrhoid tissue. Protein expression of ET-1, ET A and ET B receptors were compared between haemorrhoids and normal rectal submucosa using Western blot analysis, with the localization of proteins determined by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Effects of ET-1 and sarafotoxin 6a on human colonic and rectal arteries and veins was assessed by wire myography and the involvement of receptor subtypes established by selective antagonists. Dense binding of [ 125 I]-ET-1 to haemorrhoidal sections was reduced by selective receptor antagonists. A higher density of ET B than ET A receptors was found in haemorrhoidal, than in control rectal tissue and confirmed by Western blot analysis. ET A and ET B receptors were localized to smooth muscle of haemorrhoidal arteries and veins, with ET B receptors on the endothelium. Human colonic and rectal arteries and veins were similarly sensitive to ET-1 and affected by the ET A selective antagonist, but sarafotoxin S6a-induced contractions were more pronounced in veins and antagonized by a selective ET B receptor antagonist. ET A and ET B receptors are present in human haemorrhoids with ET B receptors predominating. ET A receptors are activated by ET-1 to mediate a contraction in arteries and veins, but the latter are selectively activated by sarafotoxin S6a - a response that involves ET B receptors at low concentrations. Selective ET B agonists may have therapeutic potential to reduce congestion of the haemorrhoidal venous sinusoids. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Endothelin‐1 and its receptors on haemorrhoidal tissue: a potential site for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Scholefield, John H; Wilson, Vincent G

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Haemorrhoids is a common anorectal condition affecting millions worldwide. We have studied the effect of endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) and the role of endothelin ETA and ETB receptors in haemorrhoid tissue. Experimental Approach Protein expression of ET‐1, ETA and ETB receptors were compared between haemorrhoids and normal rectal submucosa using Western blot analysis, with the localization of proteins determined by autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Effects of ET‐1 and sarafotoxin 6a on human colonic and rectal arteries and veins was assessed by wire myography and the involvement of receptor subtypes established by selective antagonists. Key Results Dense binding of [125I]‐ET‐1 to haemorrhoidal sections was reduced by selective receptor antagonists. A higher density of ETB than ETA receptors was found in haemorrhoidal, than in control rectal tissue and confirmed by Western blot analysis. ETA and ETB receptors were localized to smooth muscle of haemorrhoidal arteries and veins, with ETB receptors on the endothelium. Human colonic and rectal arteries and veins were similarly sensitive to ET‐1 and affected by the ETA selective antagonist, but sarafotoxin S6a‐induced contractions were more pronounced in veins and antagonized by a selective ETB receptor antagonist. Conclusions and Implications ETA and ETB receptors are present in human haemorrhoids with ETB receptors predominating. ETA receptors are activated by ET‐1 to mediate a contraction in arteries and veins, but the latter are selectively activated by sarafotoxin S6a – a response that involves ETB receptors at low concentrations. Selective ETB agonists may have therapeutic potential to reduce congestion of the haemorrhoidal venous sinusoids. PMID:28095606

  19. Antibodies and Their Receptors: Different Potential Roles in Mucosal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Rachel E.; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2013-01-01

    Over recent years it has become increasingly apparent that mucosal antibodies are not only restricted to the IgM and IgA isotypes, but that also other isotypes and particularly IgG can be found in significant quantities at some mucosal surfaces, such as in the genital tract. Their role is more complex than traditionally believed with, among other things, the discovery of novel function of mucosal immunoglobulin receptors. A thorough knowledge in the source and function and mucosal immunoglobulins is particularly important in development of vaccines providing mucosal immunity, and also in the current climate of microbicide development, to combat major world health issues such as HIV. We present here a comprehensive review of human antibody mediated mucosal immunity. PMID:23882268

  20. Ecosystems for Early Warning: Potential Use of Bioindicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zommers, Z. A.; Sitati, A. M.; Habilov, M.

    2014-12-01

    Bioindicators are biological processes, species or communities, which are used to assess changes in the environment or environmental quality. Theoretically, they could also be used to provide advanced warning of hazards. They are inexpensive, locally relevant, and can encourage stakeholder participation in early warning system development and maintenance. While bioindicators have been identified for environmental problems such as air pollution and water pollution, and have been used to assess health of ecosystems, little information is available on bioindicators for climate related hazards. This presentation reviews possible biodindicators for droughts, wildfires and tropical cyclones, based on the results of a literature review. It will also present results from a household survey of 36 communities in Kenya, Ghana and Burkina Faso. Indigenous knowledge offers a wealth of potential bioindicators; including animal and insect behavior, and plant phenology. Yet significant study is needed to verify these indicators and evaluate them against criteria such as specificity, variability, monotonicity, practicality and relevance. Bioindicators may not be specific to individual hazards and may provide limited advanced warning, as response often occurs after the actual onset of the hazard. Furthermore, indicators may become increasingly unreliable due to climate change itself. There is a need for a large-scale assessment of hazard bioindicators, which should also include forecasts of bioindicator change under global warming, and a cost-benefit analysis of the value of integrating bioindicators into early warning systems. Lessons can be drawn from ethnopharmacology. Coordinated research on this topic could contribute to the resilience of both ecosystems and human livelihoods.

  1. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Manfred J.; Schulz, Jan M.; Kelsch, Wolfgang; Oorschot, Dorothy E.; Reynolds, John N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Pauses in the tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) emerge during reward-related learning in response to conditioning of a neutral cue. We have previously reported that augmenting the postsynaptic response to cortical afferents in CINs is coupled to the emergence of a cell-intrinsic afterhyperpolarization (AHP) underlying pauses in tonic activity. Here we investigated in a bihemispheric rat-brain slice preparation the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity of excitatory afferents to CINs and the association with changes in the AHP. We found that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of commissural corticostriatal afferents from the contralateral hemisphere induced a robust long-term depression (LTD) of postsynaptic potentials (PSP) in CINs. Depression of the PSP of smaller magnitude and duration was observed in response to HFS of the ipsilateral white matter or cerebral cortex. In Mg2+-free solution HFS induced NMDA receptor-dependent potentiation of the PSP, evident in both the maximal slope and amplitude of the PSP. The increase in maximal slope corroborates previous findings, and was blocked by antagonism of either D1-like dopamine receptors with SCH23390 or D2-like dopamine receptors with sulpiride during HFS in Mg2+-free solution. Potentiation of the slower PSP amplitude component was due to augmentation of the NMDA receptor-mediated potential as this was completely reversed on subsequent application of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. HFS similarly potentiated NMDA receptor currents isolated by blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors with CNQX. The plasticity-induced increase in the slow PSP component was directly associated with an increase in the subsequent AHP. Thus plasticity of cortical afferent synapses is ideally suited to influence the cue-induced firing dynamics of CINs, particularly through potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:25914618

  2. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated transmission in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Manfred J; Schulz, Jan M; Kelsch, Wolfgang; Oorschot, Dorothy E; Reynolds, John N J

    2015-01-01

    Pauses in the tonic firing of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) emerge during reward-related learning in response to conditioning of a neutral cue. We have previously reported that augmenting the postsynaptic response to cortical afferents in CINs is coupled to the emergence of a cell-intrinsic afterhyperpolarization (AHP) underlying pauses in tonic activity. Here we investigated in a bihemispheric rat-brain slice preparation the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity of excitatory afferents to CINs and the association with changes in the AHP. We found that high frequency stimulation (HFS) of commissural corticostriatal afferents from the contralateral hemisphere induced a robust long-term depression (LTD) of postsynaptic potentials (PSP) in CINs. Depression of the PSP of smaller magnitude and duration was observed in response to HFS of the ipsilateral white matter or cerebral cortex. In Mg(2+)-free solution HFS induced NMDA receptor-dependent potentiation of the PSP, evident in both the maximal slope and amplitude of the PSP. The increase in maximal slope corroborates previous findings, and was blocked by antagonism of either D1-like dopamine receptors with SCH23390 or D2-like dopamine receptors with sulpiride during HFS in Mg(2+)-free solution. Potentiation of the slower PSP amplitude component was due to augmentation of the NMDA receptor-mediated potential as this was completely reversed on subsequent application of the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5. HFS similarly potentiated NMDA receptor currents isolated by blockade of AMPA/kainate receptors with CNQX. The plasticity-induced increase in the slow PSP component was directly associated with an increase in the subsequent AHP. Thus plasticity of cortical afferent synapses is ideally suited to influence the cue-induced firing dynamics of CINs, particularly through potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.

  3. Critical role of canonical transient receptor potential channel 7 in initiation of seizures.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Kevin D; Shwe, U Thaung; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Zheng, Fang

    2014-08-05

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening disease that has been recognized since antiquity but still causes over 50,000 deaths annually in the United States. The prevailing view on the pathophysiology of SE is that it is sustained by a loss of normal inhibitory mechanisms of neuronal activity. However, the early process leading to the initiation of SE is not well understood. Here, we show that, as seen in electroencephalograms, SE induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine in mice is preceded by a specific increase in the gamma wave, and genetic ablation of canonical transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) 7 significantly reduces this pilocarpine-induced increase of gamma wave activity, preventing the occurrence of SE. At the cellular level, TRPC7 plays a critical role in the generation of spontaneous epileptiform burst firing in cornu ammonis (CA) 3 pyramidal neurons in brain slices. At the synaptic level, TRPC7 plays a significant role in the long-term potentiation at the CA3 recurrent collateral synapses and Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, but not at the mossy fiber-CA3 synapses. Taken together, our data suggest that epileptiform burst firing generated in the CA3 region by activity-dependent enhancement of recurrent collateral synapses may be an early event in the initiation process of SE and that TRPC7 plays a critical role in this cellular event. Our findings reveal that TRPC7 is intimately involved in the initiation of seizures both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, this contribution to initiation of seizures is the first identified functional role for the TRPC7 ion channel.

  4. Neural and receptor cochlear potentials obtained by transtympanic electrocochleography in auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Rosamaria; Starr, Arnold; Michalewski, Henry J; Arslan, Edoardo

    2008-05-01

    Transtympanic electrocochleography (ECochG) was recorded bilaterally in children and adults with auditory neuropathy (AN) to evaluate receptor and neural generators. Test stimuli were clicks from 60 to 120dB p.e. SPL. Measures obtained from eight AN subjects were compared to 16 normally hearing children. Receptor cochlear microphonics (CMs) in AN were of normal or enhanced amplitude. Neural compound action potentials (CAPs) and receptor summating potentials (SPs) were identified in five AN ears. ECochG potentials in those ears without CAPs were of negative polarity and of normal or prolonged duration. We used adaptation to rapid stimulus rates to distinguish whether the generators of the negative potentials were of neural or receptor origin. Adaptation in controls resulted in amplitude reduction of CAP twice that of SP without affecting the duration of ECochG potentials. In seven AN ears without CAP and with prolonged negative potential, adaptation was accompanied by reduction of both amplitude and duration of the negative potential to control values consistent with neural generation. In four ears without CAP and with normal duration potentials, adaptation was without effect consistent with receptor generation. In five AN ears with CAP, there was reduction in amplitude of CAP and SP as controls but with a significant decrease in response duration. Three patterns of cochlear potentials were identified in AN: (1) presence of receptor SP without CAP consistent with pre-synaptic disorder of inner hair cells; (2) presence of both SP and CAP consistent with post-synaptic disorder of proximal auditory nerve; (3) presence of prolonged neural potentials without a CAP consistent with post-synaptic disorder of nerve terminals. Cochlear potential measures may identify pre- and post-synaptic disorders of inner hair cells and auditory nerves in AN.

  5. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joanna M.; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3S408A,S409Aγ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3S408A,S409Aδ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4S443Aβ3S408A,S409Aδ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3S408,S409 implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously tuned by

  6. The cargo receptor p24A facilitates calcium sensing receptor maturation and stabilization in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Stepanchick, Ann; Breitwieser, Gerda E.

    2010-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a Family 3/C G protein-coupled receptor with slow and partial targeting to the plasma membrane in both native and heterologous cells. We identified cargo receptor family member p24A in yeast two-hybrid screens with the CaSR carboxyl terminus. Interactions were confirmed by immunoprecipitation of either p24A or CaSR in transiently transfected HEK293 cells. Only the immaturely glycosylated form of CaSR interacts with p24A. Dissociation likely occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or cis-Golgi, since only the uncleaved form of a CaSR mutant sensitive to the trans-Golgi enzyme furin was coimmunoprecipitated with p24A. p24A and p24A(ΔGOLD) significantly increased total and plasma membrane CaSR protein but p24A(FF/AA) did not. The CaSR carboxyl terminus distal to T868 is required for differential sensitivity to p24A and its mutants. Interaction with p24A therefore increases CaSR stability in the ER and enhances plasma membrane targeting. Neither wt Sar1p or the T39N mutant increased CaSR maturation or abundance while the H79G mutant increased abundance but prevented maturation of CaSR. These results suggest that p24A is the limiting factor in CaSR trafficking in the early secretory pathway, and that cycling between the ER and ERGIC protects CaSR from degradation. PMID:20361938

  7. The transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 mediates mechanical hyperalgesia induced by the activation of B1 receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Meotti, Flavia Carla; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Manjavachi, Marianne; Calixto, João B

    2017-02-01

    The kinin receptor B 1 and the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) work as initiators and gatekeepers of nociception and inflammation. This study reports that the nociceptive transmission induced by activation of B 1 receptor is dependent on TRPA1 ion channel. The mechanical hyperalgesia was induced by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of B 1 agonist des-Arginine 9 -bradykinin (DABK) or TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde and was evaluated by the withdrawal response after von Frey Hair application in the hind paw. After behavioral experiments, lumbar spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were harvested to assess protein expression and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR, respectively. The pharmacological antagonism (HC030031) or the down-regulation of TRPA1 greatly inhibited the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by DABK. Intrathecal injection of DABK up regulated the ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (Iba-1) in lumbar spinal cord (L5-L6); TRPA1 protein and mRNA in lumbar spinal cord; and B 1 receptor mRNA in both lumbar spinal cord and DRG. The knockdown of TRPA1 prevented microglia activation induced by DABK. Furthermore, the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by either DABK or by cinnamaldehyde was significantly reduced by inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), protein kinase C (PKC) or phospholipase C (PLC). In summary, this study revealed that TRPA1 positively modulates the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by B 1 receptor activation in the spinal cord and that the classical GPCR downstream molecules PLC, diacylglycerol (DAG), 3,4,5-inositide phosphate (IP 3 ) and PKC are involved in the nociceptive transmission triggered by these two receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Synaptic potentials in respiratory neurones during evoked phase switching after NMDA receptor blockade in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Pierrefiche, O; Haji, A; Foutz, A S; Takeda, R; Champagnat, J; Denavit-Saubié, M

    1998-01-01

    Blockade of NMDA receptors by dizocilpine impairs the inspiratory off-switch (IOS) of central origin but not the IOS evoked by stimulation of sensory afferents. To investigate whether this difference was due to the effects of different patterns of synaptic interactions on respiratory neurones, we stimulated electrically the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) or vagus nerve in decerebrate cats before and after i.v. administration of dizocilpine, whilst recording intracellularly. Phrenic nerve responses to ipsilateral SLN or vagal stimulation were: at mid-inspiration, a transient inhibition often followed by a brief burst of activity; at late inspiration, an IOS; and at mid-expiration, a late burst of activity. In all neurones (n = 16), SLN stimulation at mid-inspiration evoked an early EPSP during phase 1 (latency to the arrest of phrenic nerve activity), followed by an IPSP in inspiratory (I) neurones (n = 8) and by a wave of EPSPs in post-inspiratory (PI) neurones (n = 8) during phase 2 (inhibition of phrenic activity). An EPSP in I neurones and an IPSP in PI neurones occurred during phase 3 (brief phrenic burst) following phase 2. Evoked IOS was associated with a fast (phase 1) activation of PI neurones, whereas during spontaneous IOS, a progressive (30-50 ms) depolarization of PI neurones preceded the arrest of phrenic activity. Phase 3 PSPs were similar to those occurring during the burst of activity seen at the start of spontaneous inspiration. Dizocilpine did not suppress the evoked phrenic inhibition and the late burst of activity. The shapes and timing of the evoked PSPs and the changes in membrane potential in I and PI neurones during the phase transition were not altered. We hypothesize that afferent sensory pathways not requiring NMDA receptors (1) terminate inspiration through a premature activation of PI neurones, and (2) evoke a late burst of phrenic activity which might be the first stage of the inspiratory on-switch. PMID:9508816

  9. Interactions of sex and early life social experiences at two developmental stages shape nonapeptide receptor profiles.

    PubMed

    Hiura, Lisa C; Ophir, Alexander G

    2018-05-31

    Early life social experiences are critical to behavioral and cognitive development, and can have a tremendous influence on developing social phenotypes. Most work has focused on outcomes of experiences at a single stage of development (e.g., perinatal, or post-weaning). Few studies have assessed the impact of social experience at multiple developmental stages and across sex. Oxytocin and vasopressin are profoundly important for modulating social behavior and these nonapeptide systems are highly sensitive to developmental social experience, particularly in brain areas important for social behavior. We investigated whether oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin receptor (V1aR) distributions of prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) change as a function of parental composition within the natal nest or social composition after weaning. We raised pups either in the presence or absence of their fathers. At weaning, offspring were housed either individually or with a same-sex sibling. We also examined whether changes in receptor distributions are sexually dimorphic because the impact of the developmental environment on the nonapeptide system could be sex-dependent. We found that differences in nonapeptide receptor expression were region-, sex-, and rearing condition-specific, indicating a high level of complexity in the ways that early life experiences shape the social brain. We found many more differences in V1aR density compared to OTR density, indicating that nonapeptide receptors demonstrate differential levels of neural plasticity and sensitivity to environmental and biological variables. Our data highlight that critical factors including biological sex and multiple experiences across the developmental continuum interact in complex ways to shape the social brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure-Based Virtual Screening for Dopamine D2 Receptor Ligands as Potential Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Silva, Andrea G; Loza, María I; Kolb, Peter; Castro, Marián; Poso, Antti

    2016-04-05

    Structure-based virtual screening using a D2 receptor homology model was performed to identify dopamine D2 receptor ligands as potential antipsychotics. From screening a library of 6.5 million compounds, 21 were selected and were subjected to experimental validation. From these 21 compounds tested, ten D2 ligands were identified (47.6% success rate, among them D2 receptor antagonists, as expected) that have additional affinity for other receptors tested, in particular 5-HT2A receptors. The affinity (Ki values) of the compounds ranged from 58 nm to about 24 μM. Similarity and fragment analysis indicated a significant degree of structural novelty among the identified compounds. We found one D2 receptor antagonist that did not have a protonatable nitrogen atom, which is a key structural element of the classical D2 pharmacophore model necessary for interaction with the conserved Asp(3.32) residue. This compound exhibited greater than 20-fold binding selectivity for the D2 receptor over the D3 receptor. We provide additional evidence that the amide hydrogen atom of this compound forms a hydrogen bond with Asp(3.32), as determined by tests of its derivatives that cannot maintain this interaction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors as potential targets for the treatment of alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwani, Sunil; Saternos, Hannah; Alasmari, Fawaz; Sari, Youssef

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that dysfunctional glutamate neurotransmission is critical in the initiation and development of alcohol and drug dependence. Alcohol consumption induced downregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) as reported in previous studies from our laboratory. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, which acts via interactions with several glutamate receptors. Alcohol consumption interferes with the glutamatergic signal transmission by altering the functions of these receptors. Among the glutamatergic receptors involved in alcohol-drinking behavior are the metabotropic receptors such as mGluR1/5, mGluR2/3, and mGluR7, as well as the ionotropic receptors, NMDA and AMPA. Preclinical studies using agonists and antagonists implicate these glutamatergic receptors in the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the neurocircuitry involving glutamate transmission in animals exposed to alcohol and further outline the role of metabotropic and ionotropic receptors in the regulation of alcohol-drinking behavior. This review provides ample information about the potential therapeutic role of glutamatergic receptors for the treatment of AUD. PMID:28242339

  12. Metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors as potential targets for the treatment of alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Goodwani, Sunil; Saternos, Hannah; Alasmari, Fawaz; Sari, Youssef

    2017-06-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that dysfunctional glutamate neurotransmission is critical in the initiation and development of alcohol and drug dependence. Alcohol consumption induced downregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) as reported in previous studies from our laboratory. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, which acts via interactions with several glutamate receptors. Alcohol consumption interferes with the glutamatergic signal transmission by altering the functions of these receptors. Among the glutamate receptors involved in alcohol-drinking behavior are the metabotropic receptors such as mGluR1/5, mGluR2/3, and mGluR7, as well as the ionotropic receptors, NMDA and AMPA. Preclinical studies using agonists and antagonists implicate these glutamatergic receptors in the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the neurocircuitry involving glutamate transmission in animals exposed to alcohol and further outline the role of metabotropic and ionotropic receptors in the regulation of alcohol-drinking behavior. This review provides ample information about the potential therapeutic role of glutamatergic receptors for the treatment of AUD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A lectin receptor kinase as a potential sensor for extracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenggang; Zhou, Mingqi; Zhang, Xudong; Yao, Jin; Zhang, Yanping; Mou, Zhonglin

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) participates in intracellular and extracellular signaling events unrelated to metabolism. In animals, purinergic receptors are required for extracellular NAD+ (eNAD+) to evoke biological responses, indicating that eNAD+ may be sensed by cell-surface receptors. However, the identity of eNAD+-binding receptors still remains elusive. Here, we identify a lectin receptor kinase (LecRK), LecRK-I.8, as a potential eNAD+ receptor in Arabidopsis. The extracellular lectin domain of LecRK-I.8 binds NAD+ with a dissociation constant of 436.5 ± 104.8 nM, although much higher concentrations are needed to trigger in vivo responses. Mutations in LecRK-I.8 inhibit NAD+-induced immune responses, whereas overexpression of LecRK-I.8 enhances the Arabidopsis response to NAD+. Furthermore, LecRK-I.8 is required for basal resistance against bacterial pathogens, substantiating a role for eNAD+ in plant immunity. Our results demonstrate that lectin receptors can potentially function as eNAD+-binding receptors and provide direct evidence for eNAD+ being an endogenous signaling molecule in plants. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25474.001 PMID:28722654

  14. Computational studies of new potential antimalarial compounds Stereoelectronic complementarity with the receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portela, César; Afonso, Carlos M. M.; Pinto, Madalena M. M.; João Ramos, Maria

    2003-09-01

    One of the most important pharmacological mechanisms of antimalarial action is the inhibition of the aggregation of hematin into hemozoin. We present a group of new potential antimalarial molecules for which we have performed a DFT study of their stereoelectronic properties. Additionally, the same calculations were carried out for the two putative drug receptors involved in the referred activity, i.e., hematin μ-oxo dimer and hemozoin. A complementarity between the structural and electronic profiles of the planned molecules and the receptors can be observed. A docking study of the new compounds in relation to the two putative receptors is also presented, providing a correlation with the defined electrostatic complementarity.

  15. Hippocampal dysfunction and cognitive impairments provoked by chronic early-life stress involve excessive activation of CRH receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Autumn S.; Rex, Christopher S.; Chen, Yuncai; Dubé, Céline; Maras, Pamela M.; Grigoriadis, Dimitri E.; Gall, Christine M.; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress impairs learning and memory in humans and rodents and disrupts long-term potentiation (LTP) in animal models. These effects are associated with structural changes in hippocampal neurons, including reduced dendritic arborization. Unlike the generally reversible effects of chronic stress on adult rat hippocampus, we have previously found that the effects of early-life stress endure and worsen during adulthood, yet the mechanisms for these clinically important sequelae are poorly understood. Stress promotes secretion of the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from hippocampal interneurons, activating receptors (CRF1) located on pyramidal cell dendrites. Additionally, chronic CRF1 occupancy negatively affects dendritic arborization in mouse organotypic slice cultures, similar to the pattern observed in middle-aged, early-stressed (CES) rats. Here we found that CRH-expression is augmented in hippocampus of middle-aged CES rats, and then tested if the morphological defects and poor memory performance in these animals involve excessive activation of CRF1 receptors. Central or peripheral administration of a CRF1 blocker following the stress period improved memory performance of CES rats in novel object recognition tests and in the Morris water maze. Consonant with these effects, the antagonist also prevented dendritic atrophy and LTP attenuation in CA1 Schaffer collateral synapses. Together, these data suggest that persistently elevated hippocampal CRH-CRF1 interaction contributes importantly to the structural and cognitive impairments associated with early-life stress. Reducing CRF1 occupancy post-hoc normalized hippocampal function during middle-age, thus offering potential mechanism-based therapeutic interventions for children affected by chronic stress. PMID:20881118

  16. "Doing" Social Justice in Early Childhood: The Potential of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Louise; Press, Frances; Gibson, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood education has long been connected with objectives related to social justice. Australian early childhood education and care (ECEC) has its roots in philanthropic and educational reform movements prevalent at the turn of the twentieth century. More recently, with the introduction of the National Early Childhood Reform Agenda, early…

  17. Evaluation of an In Vitro Multi-Receptor and Multi-Species Assay for Potential Endocrine Disruptor Targets (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Receptor sequence conservation across species may be a key factor determining susceptibility to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals. Computational approaches that compare receptor sequence similarities (e.g. SeqAPASS; https://seqapass.epa.gov/seqapass/) have been proposed to...

  18. Abnormality of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases at prodromal and early stages of Alzheimer's disease: an association with early beta-amyloid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Suo, Zhiming; Wu, Min; Citron, Bruce A; Wong, Gwendolyn T; Festoff, Barry W

    2004-03-31

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that the effects of beta-amyloid (Abeta) are dose dependent both in vitro and in vivo, which implies that Abeta is not directly detrimental to brain cells until it reaches a threshold concentration. In an effort to understand early Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, this study focused on the effects of subthreshold soluble Abeta and the underlying molecular mechanisms in murine microglial cells and an AD transgenic mouse model. We found that there were two phases of dose-dependent Abeta effects on microglial cells: at the threshold of 5 microm and above, Abeta directly induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release, and at subthreshold doses, Abeta indirectly potentiated TNF-alpha release induced by certain G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activators. Mechanistic studies revealed that subthreshold Abeta pretreatment in vitro reduced membrane GPCR kinase-2/5 (GRK2/5), which led to retarded GPCR desensitization, prolonged GPCR signaling, and cellular hyperactivity to GPCR agonists. Temporal analysis in an early-onset AD transgenic model, CRND8 mice, revealed that the membrane (functional) GRK2/5 in brain cortices were significantly reduced. More importantly, such a GRK abnormality took place before cognitive decline and changed in a manner corresponding with the mild to moderate soluble Abeta accumulation in these transgenic mice. Together, this study not only discovered a novel link between subthreshold Abeta and GRK dysfunction, it also demonstrated that the GRK abnormality in vivo occurs at prodromal and early stages of AD.

  19. Caffeinol at the receptor level; Anti-ischemic effect of NMDA receptor blockade is potentiated by caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiurong; Strong, Roger; Piriyawat, Paisith; Palusinski, Robert; Grotta, James C.; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although caffeinol (combination of low dose of caffeine and ethanol) was shown to robustly reduce stroke damage in experimental models and is now in clinical evaluation for treatment of ischemic stroke, little is known about the potential mechanism of its action. Methods We have used an in vivo excitotoxicity model based on intracortical infusion of NMDA and model of reversible focal ischemia to demonstrate NMDA receptor inhibition as one potential mechanism of Caffeinol anti-ischemic activity. Results Caffeinol reduced the size of excitotoxic lesion and substitution of ethanol in Caffeinol with CNS-1102 and MK-801, but not with MgSO4, produced treatment with strong synergistic effect that was at least as robust in reducing ischemic damage as Caffeinol. This NMDA receptor antagonist and caffeine combination showed long window of opportunity, activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and unlike Caffeinol was fully effective in animals chronically pre-treated with ethanol. Conclusions Our study suggests that anti-excitotoxic properties may underlie some of the anti-ischemic effect of Caffeinol. This study provides strong evidence that the anti-ischemic effect of NMDA receptor blockers in general can be dramatically augmented by caffeine, thus opening a possibility for new utilization of NMDA-based pharmacology in the treatment of stroke. PMID:20044532

  20. Potential early biomarkers of sarcopenia among independent older adults.

    PubMed

    Coto Montes, Ana; Boga, José Antonio; Bermejo Millo, Carlos; Rubio González, Adrián; Potes Ochoa, Yaiza; Vega Naredo, Ignacio; Martínez Reig, Marta; Romero Rizos, Luis; Sánchez Jurado, Pedro Manuel; Solano, Juan Jose; Abizanda, Pedro; Caballero, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    There are no tools or biomarkers for a quantitative analysis of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional study of the diagnosis of sarcopenia in 200 independent adults aged 70 years or over. Sarcopenia was defined as loss of muscle mass together with low strength and/or loss of physical performance. We considered different clinical parameters and assayed potential blood biomarkers (cell energetic metabolism, muscle performance, inflammation, infection and oxidative stress). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 35.3% in women and 13.1% in men, and it was significantly associated with advanced age, a low functional performance in the lower extremities, deficient weekly consumption of kilocalories, risk of malnutrition, and drug use for the digestive system. A close relationship was found between sarcopenia, pre-frailty and depressed mood. With these confounding variables, we observed that products of lipid peroxidation were closely associated with sarcopenia in independent older adults (frail participants and those with severe dependence had been excluded from the sample). The best multivariate model proposed was able to predict 67.6% of the variance in sarcopenia, with a power of discrimination of 93.5%. Additional analyses considering lipid levels, fat mass, dyslipidemia, use of lipid-lowering drugs and hypertension confirmed this close association between lipid peroxidation and sarcopenia. Given the difficulty in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in clinical practice, we suggest the use of blood circulating products of lipid peroxidation as potential biomarkers for an early diagnosis of sarcopenia in independent older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parametric study of potential early commercial MHD power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    Three different reference power plant configurations were considered with parametric variations of the various design parameters for each plant. Two of the reference plant designs were based on the use of high temperature regenerative air preheaters separately fired by a low Btu gas produced from a coal gasifier which was integrated with the power plant. The third reference plant design was based on the use of oxygen enriched combustion air preheated to a more moderate temperature in a tubular type metallic recuperative heat exchanger which is part of the bottoming plant heat recovery system. Comparative information was developed on plant performance and economics. The highest net plant efficiency of about 45 percent was attained by the reference plant design with the use of a high temperature air preheater separately fired with the advanced entrained bed gasifier. The use of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air yielded the lowest cost of generating electricity at a slightly lower plant efficiency. Both of these two reference plant designs are identified as potentially attractive for early MHD power plant applications.

  2. The effect of early trauma exposure on serotonin type 1B receptor expression revealed by reduced selective radioligand binding.

    PubMed

    Murrough, James W; Czermak, Christoph; Henry, Shannan; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Planeta-Wilson, Beata; Krystal, John H; Neumaier, John F; Huang, Yiyun; Ding, Yu-Shin; Carson, Richard E; Neumeister, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Serotonergic dysfunction is implicated in the pathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and recent animal models suggest that disturbances in serotonin type 1B receptor function, in particular, may contribute to chronic anxiety. However, the specific role of the serotonin type 1B receptor has not been studied in patients with PTSD. To investigate in vivo serotonin type 1B receptor expression in individuals with PTSD, trauma-exposed control participants without PTSD (TC), and healthy (non-trauma-exposed) control participants (HC) using positron emission tomography and the recently developed serotonin type 1B receptor selective radiotracer [(11)C]P943. Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study under resting conditions. Academic and Veterans Affairs medical centers. Ninety-six individuals in 3 study groups: PTSD (n = 49), TC (n = 20), and HC (n = 27). Main Outcome Measure  Regional [(11)C]P943 binding potential (BP(ND)) values in an a priori-defined limbic corticostriatal circuit investigated using multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis. A history of severe trauma exposure in the PTSD and TC groups was associated with marked reductions in [(11)C]P943 BP(ND) in the caudate, the amygdala, and the anterior cingulate cortex. Participant age at first trauma exposure was strongly associated with low [(11)C]P943 BP(ND). Developmentally earlier trauma exposure also was associated with greater PTSD symptom severity and major depression comorbidity. These data suggest an enduring effect of trauma history on brain function and the phenotype of PTSD. The association of early age at first trauma and more pronounced neurobiological and behavioral alterations in PTSD suggests a developmental component in the cause of PTSD.

  3. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  4. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Andrew M.; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.; Salamone, John D.; Morrell, Joan I.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. Objective This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A2A receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. Methods The adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Results Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25–2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Conclusions Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother–infant relationship. PMID:20848086

  5. Endocytosis and Trafficking of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-A: Potential Role of Short Sequence Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2015-01-01

    The targeted endocytosis and redistribution of transmembrane receptors among membrane-bound subcellular organelles are vital for their correct signaling and physiological functions. Membrane receptors committed for internalization and trafficking pathways are sorted into coated vesicles. Cardiac hormones, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) bind to guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) and elicit the generation of intracellular second messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which lowers blood pressure and incidence of heart failure. After ligand binding, the receptor is rapidly internalized, sequestrated, and redistributed into intracellular locations. Thus, NPRA is considered a dynamic cellular macromolecule that traverses different subcellular locations through its lifetime. The utilization of pharmacologic and molecular perturbants has helped in delineating the pathways of endocytosis, trafficking, down-regulation, and degradation of membrane receptors in intact cells. This review describes the investigation of the mechanisms of internalization, trafficking, and redistribution of NPRA compared with other cell surface receptors from the plasma membrane into the cell interior. The roles of different short-signal peptide sequence motifs in the internalization and trafficking of other membrane receptors have been briefly reviewed and their potential significance in the internalization and trafficking of NPRA is discussed. PMID:26151885

  6. Opioid, cannabinoid, and transient receptor potential (TRP) systems: effects on body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, Scott M.; Benamar, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid and opioid drugs produce marked changes in body temperature. Recent findings have extended our knowledge about the thermoregulatory effects of cannabinoids and opioids, particularly as related to delta opioid receptors, endogenous systems, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although delta opioid receptors were originally thought to play only a minor role in thermoregulation compared to mu and kappa opioid receptors, their activation has been shown to produce hypothermia in multiple species. Endogenous opioids and cannabinoids also regulate body temperature. Mu and kappa opioid receptors are thought to be in tonic balance, with mu and kappa receptor activation producing hyperthermia and hypothermia, respectively. Endocannabinoids participate in the febrile response, but more studies are needed to determine if a cannabinoid CB1 receptor tone exerts control over basal body temperature. A particularly intense research focus is TRP channels, where TRPV1 channel activation produces hypothermia whereas TRPA1 and TRPM8 channel activation causes hyperthermia. The marked hyperthermia produced by TRPV1 channel antagonists suggests these warm channels tonically control body temperature. A better understanding of the roles of cannabinoid, opioid, and TRP systems in thermoregulation may have broad clinical implications and provide insights into interactions among neurotransmitter systems involved in thermoregulation. PMID:21622235

  7. MicroRNA and receptor mediated signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Simonetta, Irene; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac remodelling is a complex pathogenetic pathway involving genome expression, molecular, cellular, and interstitial changes that cause changes in size, shape and function of the heart after cardiac injury. Areas covered: We will review recent advances in understanding the role of several receptor-mediated signaling pathways and micro-RNAs, in addition to their potential as candidate target pathways in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The myocyte is the main target cell involved in the remodelling process via ischemia, cell necrosis and apoptosis (by means of various receptor pathways), and other mechanisms mediated by micro-RNAs. We will analyze the role of some receptor mediated signaling pathways such as natriuretic peptides, mediators of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ERK1/2 pathways, beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes and relaxin receptor signaling mechanisms, TNF/TNF receptor family and TWEAK/Fn14 axis, and some micro-RNAs as candidate target pathways in pathogenesis of heart failure. These mediators of receptor-mediated pathways and micro-RNA are the most addressed targets of emerging therapies in modern heart failure treatment strategies. Expert opinion: Future treatment strategies should address mediators involved in multiple steps within heart failure pathogenetic pathways.

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptors are required for the induction of long-term potentiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, F.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations have led to the suggestion that the metabotropic glutamate receptor may play a role in the induction or maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). However, experimental evidence supporting a role for this receptor in the induction of LTP is still inconclusive and controversial. Here we report that, in rat dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN) neurons, which have the highest density of metabotropic receptors and show functional responses, the induction of LTP is not blocked by the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, but is blocked by two putative metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, L-2-amino-3-phosphonopropionic acid and L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate. Furthermore, superfusion of (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, a selective metabotropic glutamate agonist, resulted in a long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission similar to that induced by tetanic stimuli. Our results demonstrated that activation of postsynaptic metabotropic receptors is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of LTP in the DLSN, and we suggest that such a mechanism may be important at other CNS synapses.

  9. Potential role for ET-2 acting through ETA receptors in experimental colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Claudino, R F; Leite, D F; Bento, A F; Chichorro, J G; Calixto, J B; Rae, G A

    2017-02-01

    This study attempted to clarify the roles of endothelins and mechanisms associated with ET A /ET B receptors in mouse models of colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, 1.5 mg/animal) or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 3%). After colitis establishment, mice received Atrasentan (ET A receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg), A-192621 (ET B receptor antagonist, 20 mg/kg) or Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) and several inflammatory parameters were assessed, as well as mRNA levels for ET-1, ET-2 and ET receptors. Atrasentan treatment ameliorates TNBS- and DSS-induced colitis. In the TNBS model was observed reduction in macroscopic and microscopic score, colon weight, neutrophil influx, IL-1β, MIP-2 and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) levels, inhibition of adhesion molecules expression and restoration of IL-10 levels. However, A192621 treatment did not modify any parameter. ET-1 and ET-2 mRNA was decreased 24 h, but ET-2 mRNA was markedly increased at 48 h after TNBS. ET-2 was able to potentiate LPS-induced KC production in vitro. ET A and ET B receptors mRNA were increased at 24, 48 and 72 h after colitis induction. Atrasentan treatment was effective in reducing the severity of colitis in DSS- and TNBS-treated mice, suggesting that ET A receptors might be a potential target for inflammatory bowel diseases.

  10. Early ionic and membrane potential changes caused by the pesticide rotenone in striatal cholinergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Bonsi, P; Calabresi, P; De Persis, C; Papa, M; Centonze, D; Bernardi, G; Pisani, A

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism impairment has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. In the present work, we combined electrophysiological recordings and microfluorometric measurements from cholinergic interneurons obtained from a rat neostriatal slice preparation. Acute application of the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone produced an early membrane hyperpolarization coupled to a fall in input resistance, followed by a late depolarizing response. Current-voltage relationship showed a reversal potential of -80 +/- 3 mV, suggesting the involvement of a potassium (K+) current. Simultaneous measurement of intracellular sodium [Na+]i or calcium [Ca2+]i concentrations revealed a striking correlation between [Na+]i elevation and the early membrane hyperpolarization, whereas a significant [Ca2+]i rise matched the depolarizing phase. Interestingly, ion and membrane potential changes were mimicked by ouabain, inhibitor of the Na+-K+ATPase, and were insensitive to tetrodotoxin (TTX) or to a combination of glutamate receptor antagonists. The rotenone effects were partially reduced by blockers of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, glibenclamide and tolbutamide, and largely attenuated by a low Na+-containing solution. Morphological analysis of the rotenone effects on striatal slices showed a significant decrease in the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactive cells. These results suggest that rotenone rapidly disrupts the ATP content, leading to a decreased Na+-K+ATPase function and, therefore, to [Na+]i overload. In turn, the hyperpolarizing response might be generated both by the opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels and by Na+-activated K+ conductances. The increase in [Ca2+]i occurs lately and does not seem to influence the early events.

  11. Positive selection moments identify potential functional residues in human olfactory receptors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Weisinger-Lewin, Y.; Lancet, D.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    Correlated mutation analysis and molecular models of olfactory receptors have provided evidence that residues in the transmembrane domains form a binding pocket for odor ligands. As an independent test of these results, we have calculated positive selection moments for the alpha-helical sixth transmembrane domain (TM6) of human olfactory receptors. The moments can be used to identify residues that have been preferentially affected by positive selection and are thus likely to interact with odor ligands. The results suggest that residue 622, which is commonly a serine or threonine, could form critical H-bonds. In some receptors a dual-serine subsite, formed by residues 622 and 625, could bind hydroxyl determinants on odor ligands. The potential importance of these residues is further supported by site-directed mutagenesis in the beta-adrenergic receptor. The findings should be of practical value for future physiological studies, binding assays, and site-directed mutagenesis.

  12. Potential ligand-binding residues in rat olfactory receptors identified by correlated mutation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, M. S.; Oliveira, L.; Vriend, G.; Shepherd, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    A family of G-protein-coupled receptors is believed to mediate the recognition of odor molecules. In order to identify potential ligand-binding residues, we have applied correlated mutation analysis to receptor sequences from the rat. This method identifies pairs of sequence positions where residues remain conserved or mutate in tandem, thereby suggesting structural or functional importance. The analysis supported molecular modeling studies in suggesting several residues in positions that were consistent with ligand-binding function. Two of these positions, dominated by histidine residues, may play important roles in ligand binding and could confer broad specificity to mammalian odor receptors. The presence of positive (overdominant) selection at some of the identified positions provides additional evidence for roles in ligand binding. Higher-order groups of correlated residues were also observed. Each group may interact with an individual ligand determinant, and combinations of these groups may provide a multi-dimensional mechanism for receptor diversity.

  13. The expression of human natural killer cell receptors in early life.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Y; Nilsson, C; Lilja, G; Kärre, K; Troye-Blomberg, M; Berg, L

    2007-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in tumour immunosurveillance and the early defence against viral infections. Recognition of altered cells (i.e. infected- or tumour-cells) is achieved through a multiple receptor recognition strategy which gives the NK cells inhibitory or activating signals depending on the ligands present on the target cell. NK cells originate from the bone marrow where they develop and proliferate. However, further maturation processes and homeostasis of NK cells in peripheral blood are not well understood. To determine the proportions of cells and the expression of NK cell receptors, mononuclear cells from children at three time points during early childhood were compared, i.e. cord blood (CB), 2 and 5 years of age. The proportion of NK cells was high in CB, but the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production low compared to later in life. In contrast, the proportion of T cells was low in CB. This may indicate a deviation of the regulatory function of NK cells in CB compared to later in life, implying an importance of innate immunity in early life before the adaptive immune system matures. Additionally, we found that the proportion of LIR-1(+) NK cells increased with increasing age while CD94(+)NKG2C(-) (NKG2A(+)) NK cells and the level of expression of NKG2D, NKp30 and NKp46 decreased with age. These age related changes in NK cell populations defined by the expression of activating and inhibitory receptors may be the result of pathogen exposure and/or a continuation of the maturation process that begins in the bone marrow.

  14. Induction of the early-late Ddc gene during Drosophila metamorphosis by the ecdysone receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Reece, Christian; O'Keefe, Sandra L; Hawryluk, Gregory W L; Engstrom, Monica M; Hodgetts, Ross B

    2002-06-01

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the 'early-late' genes constitute a unique class regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Their induction is comprised of both a primary and a secondary response to ecdysone. Previous work has suggested that the epidermal expression of the dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) is likely that of a typical early-late gene. Accumulation of the Ddc transcript is rapidly initiated in the absence of protein synthesis, which implies that the ecdysone receptor plays a direct role in induction. However, full Ddc expression requires the participation of one of the transcription factors encoded by the Broad-Complex. In this paper, we characterize an ecdysone response element (EcRE) that contributes to the primary response. Using gel mobility shift assays and transgenic assays, we identified a single functional EcRE, located at position -97 to -83 bp relative to the transcription initiation site. This is the first report of an EcRE associated with an early-late gene in Drosophila. Competition experiments indicated that the affinity of the Ddc EcRE for the ecdysone receptor complex was at least four-fold less than that of the canonical EcRE of the hsp27 gene. Using in vitro mutagenesis, we determined that the reduced affinity of the EcRE resided at two positions where the nucleotides differed from those found in the canonical sequence. The ecdysone receptor, acting through this EcRE, releases Ddc from a silencing mechanism, whose cis-acting domain we have mapped to the 5'-upstream region between -2067 and -1427 bp. Deletion of this repressive element resulted in precocious expression of Ddc in both epidermis and imaginal discs. Thus, epidermal Ddc induction at pupariation is under the control of an extended genomic region that contains both positive and negative regulatory elements. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  15. Potentiated antibodies to mu-opiate receptors: effect on integrative activity of the brain.

    PubMed

    Geiko, V V; Vorob'eva, T M; Berchenko, O G; Epstein, O I

    2003-01-01

    The effect of homeopathically potentiated antibodies to mu-receptors (10(-100) wt %) on integrative activity of rat brain was studied using the models of self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus and convulsions produced by electric current. Electric current was delivered through electrodes implanted into the ventromedial hypothalamus. Single treatment with potentiated antibodies to mu-receptors increased the rate of self-stimulation and decreased the threshold of convulsive seizures. Administration of these antibodies for 7 days led to further activation of the positive reinforcement system and decrease in seizure thresholds. Distilled water did not change the rate of self-stimulation and seizure threshold.

  16. Therapeutic potential of the SARMs: revisiting the androgen receptor for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Segal, Scott; Narayanan, Ramesh; Dalton, James T

    2006-04-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMS) bind to the androgen receptor and demonstrate anabolic activity in a variety of tissues; however, unlike testosterone and other anabolic steroids, these nonsteroidal agents are able to induce bone and muscle growth, as well as shrinking the prostate. The potential of SARMS is to maximise the positive attributes of steroidal androgens as well as minimising negative effects, thus providing therapeutic opportunities in a variety of diseases, including muscle wasting associated with burns, cancer, end-stage renal disease, osteoporosis, frailty and hypogonadism. This review summarises androgen physiology, the current status of the R&D of SARMS and potential therapeutic indications for this emerging class of drugs.

  17. A desensitization-selective potentiator of AMPA-type glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nishikawa, Kaori; Aoki, Shunsuke; Wada, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of PEPA, an allosteric potentiator of AMPA receptors, on AMPA receptor kinetics. PEPA did not affect the deactivation of glutamate responses but potently attenuated the extent of receptor desensitization without slowing the onset of desensitization in most of the recombinant AMPA receptors (GluR1-flip, GluR1-flop, GluR3-flip, GluR3-flip + GluR2-flip, and GluR3-flop + GluR2-flop) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. For the GluR3-flop subunit, PEPA attenuated the extent of desensitization and only weakly prolonged deactivation (1.3 fold). PEPA did not significantly affect recovery from desensitization in oocytes expressing GluR3-flip, GluR1-flop, and GluR1-flop, but weakly accelerated (2.6 fold) recovery from desensitization in oocytes expressing GluR3-flop. PEPA's effect on desensitization of GluR3-flop-containing receptors is unique in that onset is very slow. Simulation studies using simplified kinetic models for AMPA receptors are utilized to explore the differential effects of PEPA on GluR3-flip and -flop. It is possible to simulate the action on GluR3-flip by modulating two rate constants in a 12-state kinetic model. For simulation of the action on GluR3-flop, the 12-state kinetic model is not enough, and it is necessary to invoke a 13th state, a PEPA-bound receptor to which glutamate cannot bind. These results suggest that attenuation of extent of desensitization represents the principal mechanism underlying the potentiation of AMPA receptors by PEPA, and that PEPA exhibits different mechanisms with respect to GluR3-flip and GluR3-flop. PMID:12145103

  18. Cortical delta-opioid receptors potentiate K+ homeostasis during anoxia and oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongman; Donnelly, David F; Feng, Yin; Bazzy-Asaad, Alia; Xia, Ying

    2007-02-01

    Central neurons are extremely vulnerable to hypoxic/ischemic insult, which is a major cause of neurologic morbidity and mortality as a consequence of neuronal dysfunction and death. Our recent work has shown that delta-opioid receptor (DOR) is neuroprotective against hypoxic and excitotoxic stress, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because hypoxia/ischemia disrupts ionic homeostasis with an increase in extracellular K(+), which plays a role in neuronal death, we asked whether DOR activation preserves K(+) homeostasis during hypoxic/ischemic stress. To test this hypothesis, extracellular recordings with K(+)-sensitive microelectrodes were performed in mouse cortical slices under anoxia or oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The main findings in this study are that (1) DOR activation with [D-Ala(2), D-Leu(5)]-enkephalinamide attenuated the anoxia- and OGD-induced increase in extracellular K(+) and decrease in DC potential in cortical slices; (2) DOR inhibition with naltrindole, a DOR antagonist, completely abolished the DOR-mediated prevention of increase in extracellular K(+) and decrease in DC potential; (3) inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) with N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino]-ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride had no effect on the DOR protection; and (4) inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) with chelerythrine chloride reduced the DOR protection, whereas the PKC activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) mimicked the effect of DOR activation on K(+) homeostasis. These data suggest that activation of DOR protects the cortex against anoxia- or ODG-induced derangement of potassium homeostasis, and this protection occurs via a PKC-dependent and PKA-independent pathway. We conclude that an important aspect of DOR-mediated neuroprotection is its early action against derangement of K(+) homeostasis during anoxia or ischemia.

  19. Chronic exposure to bisphenol a impairs progesterone receptor-mediated signaling in the uterus during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quanxi; Davila, Juanmahel; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major threat to female reproductive health. Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental toxicant that is commonly found in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has received much attention due to its estrogenic activity and high risk of chronic exposure in human. Whereas BPA has been linked to infertility and recurrent miscarriage in women, the impact of its exposure on uterine function during early pregnancy remains unclear. In a recent publication in Endocrinology, we demonstrated that prolonged exposure to an environmental relevant dose of BPA disrupts progesterone receptor-regulated uterine functions, thus affecting uterine receptivity for embryo implantation and decidua morphogenesis, two critical events for establishment and maintenance of early pregnancy. In particular we reported a marked impairment of progesterone receptor (PGR) expression and its downstream effector HAND2 in the uterine stromal cells in response to chronic BPA exposure. In an earlier study we have shown that HAND2 controls embryo implantation by repressing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) expression and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, thus inhibiting epithelial proliferation. Interestingly we observed that downregulation of PGR and HAND2 expression in uterine stroma upon BPA exposure was associated with an enhanced activation of FGFR and MAPK signaling, aberrant proliferation, and lack of uterine receptivity in the epithelium. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells, an event critical for the maintenance of early pregnancy, was severely compromised in response to BPA. This research highlight will provide an overview of our findings and discuss the potential mechanisms by which chronic BPA impairs PGR-HAND2 pathway and adversely affects implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. PMID:28239613

  20. PGC-1α, A Potential Therapeutic Target for Early Intervention in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bin; Liao, Zhixiang; Locascio, Joseph J.; Lesniak, Kristen A.; Roderick, Sarah S.; Watt, Marla L.; Eklund, Aron C.; Zhang-James, Yanli; Kim, Peter D.; Hauser, Michael A.; Grünblatt, Edna; Moran, Linda B.; Mandel, Silvia A.; Riederer, Peter; Miller, Renee M.; Federoff, Howard J.; Wüllner, Ullrich; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Youdim, Moussa B.; Cantuti-Castelvetri, Ippolita; Young, Anne B.; Vance, Jeffery M.; Davis, Richard L.; Hedreen, John C.; Adler, Charles H.; Beach, Thomas G.; Graeber, Manuel B.; Middleton, Frank A.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Scherzer, Clemens R.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease affects 5 million people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are still unclear. Here, we report a genome-wide meta-analysis of gene sets (groups of genes that encode the same biological pathway or process) in 410 samples from patients with symptomatic Parkinson’s and subclinical disease and healthy controls. We analyzed 6.8 million raw data points from nine genome-wide expression studies, and 185 laser-captured human dopaminergic neuron and substantia nigra transcriptomes, followed by two-stage replication on three platforms. We found 10 gene sets with previously unknown associations with Parkinson’s disease. These gene sets pinpoint defects in mitochondrial electron transport, glucose utilization, and glucose sensing and reveal that they occur early in disease pathogenesis. Genes controlling cellular bioenergetics that are expressed in response to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) are underexpressed in Parkinson’s disease patients. Activation of PGC-1α results in increased expression of nuclear-encoded subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and blocks the dopaminergic neuron loss induced by mutant α-synuclein or the pesticide rotenone in cellular disease models. Our systems biology analysis of Parkinson’s disease identifies PGC-1α as a potential therapeutic target for early intervention. PMID:20926834

  1. Molecular basis for zinc potentiation at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul S; Da Silva, Helena M A; Smart, Trevor G

    2005-11-11

    The divalent cation Zn(2+) is a potent potentiator at the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR). This occurs at nanomolar concentrations, which are the predicted endogenous levels of extracellular neuronal Zn(2+). Using structural modeling and functional mutagenesis, we have identified the molecular basis for the elusive Zn(2+) potentiation site on GlyRs and account for the differential sensitivity of GlyR alpha(1) and GlyR alpha(2) to Zn(2+) potentiation. In addition, juxtaposed to this Zn(2+) site, which is located externally on the N-terminal domain of the alpha subunit, another residue was identified in the nearby Cys loop, a region that is critical for receptor gating in all Cys loop ligand-gated ion channels. This residue acted as a key control element in the allosteric transduction pathway for Zn(2+) potentiation, enabling either potentiation or overt inhibition of receptor activation depending upon the moiety resident at this location. Overall, we propose that Zn(2+) binds to a site on the extracellular outer face of the GlyR alpha subunit and exerts its positive allosteric effect via an interaction with the Cys loop to increase the efficacy of glycine receptor gating.

  2. G-Protein-coupled receptors as potential drug candidates in preeclampsia: targeting the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 for treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kirk P

    2016-09-01

    expected to (i) enhance endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and bioactivity, as well as directly reduce vascular smooth muscle cytosolic calcium, thus promoting vasodilation; (ii) improve the local angiogenic balance by augmenting arterial vascular endothelial and placental growth factor (VEGF and PLGF) activities; (iii) ameliorate vascular inflammation; (iv) enhance placental peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PCG1α) expression, and hence, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) activity and (v) confer cytotrophoblast and endothelial cytoprotection. Insofar as impaired endometrial maturation (decidualization) predisposes to the development of preeclampsia, relaxin administration in the late secretory phase and during early pregnancy would be anticipated to improve decidualization, and hence trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling, thereby reducing the risk of preeclampsia. Relaxin has a favorable safety profile both in the non-pregnant condition and during pregnancy. There is a strong scientific rationale for RXFP1 activation in severe preeclampsia by administration of relaxin, relaxin analogs or small molecule mimetics, in order to mollify the disease pathogenesis for safe prolongation of pregnancy, thus allowing time for more complete fetal maturation, which is a primary therapeutic endpoint in treating the disease. In light of recent data implicating deficient or defective decidualization as a potential etiological factor in preeclampsia and the capacity of relaxin to promote endometrial maturation, the prophylactic application of relaxin to reduce the risk of preeclampsia is a plausible therapeutic approach to consider. Finally, given its pleiotropic and beneficial attributes particularly in the cardiovascular system, relaxin, although traditionally considered as a 'pregnancy' hormone, is likely to prove salutary for several disease indications in the non-pregnant population. © The Author 2016

  3. G-Protein-coupled receptors as potential drug candidates in preeclampsia: targeting the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 for treatment and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Kirk P.

    2016-01-01

    attributes in preeclampsia, relaxin supplementation is expected to (i) enhance endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and bioactivity, as well as directly reduce vascular smooth muscle cytosolic calcium, thus promoting vasodilation; (ii) improve the local angiogenic balance by augmenting arterial vascular endothelial and placental growth factor (VEGF and PLGF) activities; (iii) ameliorate vascular inflammation; (iv) enhance placental peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PCG1α) expression, and hence, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) activity and (v) confer cytotrophoblast and endothelial cytoprotection. Insofar as impaired endometrial maturation (decidualization) predisposes to the development of preeclampsia, relaxin administration in the late secretory phase and during early pregnancy would be anticipated to improve decidualization, and hence trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling, thereby reducing the risk of preeclampsia. Relaxin has a favorable safety profile both in the non-pregnant condition and during pregnancy. WIDER IMPLICATIONS There is a strong scientific rationale for RXFP1 activation in severe preeclampsia by administration of relaxin, relaxin analogs or small molecule mimetics, in order to mollify the disease pathogenesis for safe prolongation of pregnancy, thus allowing time for more complete fetal maturation, which is a primary therapeutic endpoint in treating the disease. In light of recent data implicating deficient or defective decidualization as a potential etiological factor in preeclampsia and the capacity of relaxin to promote endometrial maturation, the prophylactic application of relaxin to reduce the risk of preeclampsia is a plausible therapeutic approach to consider. Finally, given its pleiotropic and beneficial attributes particularly in the cardiovascular system, relaxin, although traditionally considered as a ‘pregnancy’ hormone, is likely to prove salutary for several

  4. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanatsou, Sofia; Ter Horst, Judith P.; Harris, Anjanette P.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Krugers, Harmen J.; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of ELS on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that ELS increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of ELS on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus, MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice. PMID:26858618

  5. Odontoblasts as sensory receptors: transient receptor potential channels, pannexin-1, and ionotropic ATP receptors mediate intercellular odontoblast-neuron signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Masaki; Kimura, Maki; Sobhan, Ubaidus; Shimada, Miyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Aya; Soya, Manabu; Kuroda, Hidetaka; Katakura, Akira; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Tazaki, Masakazu

    2015-04-01

    Various stimuli induce pain when applied to the surface of exposed dentin. However, the mechanisms underlying dentinal pain remain unclear. We investigated intercellular signal transduction between odontoblasts and trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons following direct mechanical stimulation of odontoblasts. Mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts increased the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by activating the mechanosensitive-transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, and TRPA1, but not TRPM8 channels. In cocultures of odontoblasts and TG neurons, increases in [Ca(2+)]i were observed not only in mechanically stimulated odontoblasts, but also in neighboring odontoblasts and TG neurons. These increases in [Ca(2+)]i were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) and in the presence of mechanosensitive TRP channel antagonists. A pannexin-1 (ATP-permeable channel) inhibitor and ATP-degrading enzyme abolished the increases in [Ca(2+)]i in neighboring odontoblasts and TG neurons, but not in the stimulated odontoblasts. G-protein-coupled P2Y nucleotide receptor antagonists also inhibited the increases in [Ca(2+)]i. An ionotropic ATP (P2X3) receptor antagonist inhibited the increase in [Ca(2+)]i in neighboring TG neurons, but not in stimulated or neighboring odontoblasts. During mechanical stimulation of single odontoblasts, a connexin-43 blocker did not have any effects on the [Ca(2+)]i responses observed in any of the cells. These results indicate that ATP, released from mechanically stimulated odontoblasts via pannexin-1 in response to TRP channel activation, transmits a signal to P2X3 receptors on TG neurons. We suggest that odontoblasts are sensory receptor cells and that ATP released from odontoblasts functions as a neurotransmitter in the sensory transduction sequence for dentinal pain.

  6. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke; Liu, Min; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi; Wei, Lei; Zheng, Zhongliang; Yang, Fang

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serotonergic 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonists: Heterocyclic Chemistry and Potential Therapeutic Significance.

    PubMed

    Bali, Alka; Singh, Shalu

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT(6) receptor (5- HT(6)R) is amongst the recently discovered serotonergic receptors with almost exclusive localization in the brain. Hence, this receptor is fast emerging as a promising target for cognition enhancement in central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (cognitive function), obesity, schizophrenia and anxiety. The last decade has seen a surge of literature reports on the functional role of this receptor in learning and memory processes and investigations related to the chemistry and pharmacology of 5-HT(6) receptor ligands, especially 5- HT(6) receptor antagonists. Studies show the involvement of multiple neurotransmitter systems in cognitive enhancement by 5-HT(6)R antagonists including cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems. Several of the 5-HT(6)R ligands are indole based agents bearing structural similarity to the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin. Based on the pharmacophoric models proposed for these agents, drug designing has been carried out incorporating various heterocyclic replacements for the indole nucleus. In this review, we have broadly summarized the medicinal chemistry and current status of this fairly recent class of drugs along with their potential therapeutic applications.

  8. Inhibition of amygdaloid dopamine D2 receptors impairs emotional learning measured with fear-potentiated startle.

    PubMed

    Greba, Q; Gifkins, A; Kokkinidis, L

    2001-04-27

    Considerable advances have been made in understanding the neurocircuitry underlying the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian conditioned fear responses. Within the complex cellular and molecular processes mediating fearfulness, amygdaloid dopamine (DA), originating from cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, is thought to contribute to fear-motivated responding. Considering that blockade of DA D(2) receptors is a common mechanism of action for antipsychotic agents, we hypothesized that inhibition of D(2) receptors in the amygdala may be involved in the antiparanoid effects of these drugs. To assess the role of amygdaloid DA D(2) receptors in aversive emotionality, the D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride was infused into the amygdala prior to Pavlovian fear conditioning. Potentiated startle was used as a behavioral indicator of fear and anxiety. Classical fear conditioning and acoustic startle testing were conducted in a single session allowing for the concomitant assessment of shock reactivity with startle enhancement. Depending on dose, the results found conditioned fear acquisition and retention to be impaired following administration of raclopride into the amygdala. Additionally, the learning deficit was dissociated from shock detection and from fear expression assessed with the shock sensitization of acoustic startle. These findings further refine the known neural mechanisms of amygdala-based emotional learning and memory and were interpreted to suggest that, along with D(1) receptors, D(2) receptors in the amygdala may mediate the formation and the retention of newly-acquired fear associations.

  9. Effects of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 in an autoshaping learning task.

    PubMed

    Perez-García, Georgina S; Meneses, A

    2005-08-30

    This work aimed to evaluate further the role of 5-HT7 receptors during memory formation in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Post-training administration of the potential 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 or antagonist SB-269970 enhanced memory formation or had no effect, respectively. The AS 19 facilitatory effect was reversed by SB-269970, but not by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635. Amnesia induced by scopolamine (cholinergic antagonist) or dizocilpine (NMDA antagonist) was also reversed by AS 19. Certainly, reservations regarding the selectivity of AS 19 for 5-HT7 and other 5-HT receptors in vivo are noteworthy and, therefore, its validity for use in animal models as a pharmacological tool. Having mentioned that, it should be noticed that together these data are providing further support to the notion of the 5-HT7 receptors role in memory formation. Importantly, this 5-HT7 receptor agonist AS 19 appears to represent a step forward respect to the notion that potent and selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists can be useful in the treatment of dysfunctional memory in aged-related decline and Alzheimer's disease.

  10. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  11. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Function Promotes Cerebellar Long-Term Depression Rather than Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar…

  12. GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR REGULATION IN THE RAT EMBRYO: A POTENTIAL SITE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glucocorticoid receptor regulation in the rat embryo: a potential site for developmental toxicity?

    Ghosh B, Wood CR, Held GA, Abbott BD, Lau C.

    National Research Council, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA.

  13. Comparing potential early caries assessment methods for teledentistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Optical caries detection has the potential to be incorporated in telehealth medicine for preventive dental screening. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare visible and near infrared detection methods for identifying early non-cavitated ex vivo occlusal demineralization. Methods Six blinded examiners were used to compare the accuracy of the following three examinations in detecting occlusal demineralization: Midwest Caries ID™ (MID), visual photographic examination (CAM) and Cross Polarization Optical Coherence Tomography (CP-OCT). For each diagnostic method, two examiners assessed the extracted tooth samples 1–2 weeks apart. Teeth were then sectioned and lesion depth was confirmed (n = 42) by a blinded histological examination using a glycol based caries indicator dye. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Sp), Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), and Area under the Receiver Operator Curve (AUC) were calculated. Results For detecting any demineralization versus sound pit and fissure enamel, the mean Sen/Sp found was 46.9/85.0 for MID, 80.5/52.5 for CAM, and 83.4/45.0 for CP-OCT. For detecting non-cavitated demineralization that progressed into the dentin, the mean Sen/Sp found was 17.3/88.0 for MID, 48.0/57.8 for CAM, and 44.2/72.7 for CP-OCT. AUC values were statistically significant (P < 0.05) in three out of four examiner assessments when MID and CP-OCT were used to detect any demineralization. AUC values were significant for a single CAM examination. When assessing deeper non-cavitated lesions, none of the assessment methods were able to yield AUC values that were significantly different than a random ‘coin flip’ test. When examining reliability, MID demonstrated the highest ICC score (0.83) and CP-OCT had the lowest (0.49). Conclusion Although MID and CP-OCT were useful in detecting the presence of demineralization, examiners were not able to utilize these devices to adequately assess the depth of the

  14. Potentiation of mouse vagal afferent mechanosensitivity by ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, James A; Page, Amanda J; Dorian, Camilla L; Brierley, Stuart M; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Glutamate acts at central synapses via ionotropic (iGluR – NMDA, AMPA and kainate) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Group I mGluRs are excitatory whilst group II and III are inhibitory. Inhibitory mGluRs also modulate peripherally the mechanosensitivity of gastro-oesophageal vagal afferents. Here we determined the potential of excitatory GluRs to play an opposing role in modulating vagal afferent mechanosensitivity, and investigated expression of receptor subunit mRNA within the nodose ganglion. The responses of mouse gastro-oesophageal vagal afferents to graded mechanical stimuli were investigated before and during application of selective GluR ligands to their peripheral endings. Two types of vagal afferents were tested: tension receptors, which respond to circumferential tension, and mucosal receptors, which respond only to mucosal stroking. The selective iGluR agonists NMDA and AMPA concentration-dependently potentiated afferent responses. Their corresponding antagonists AP-5 and NBQX alone attenuated mechanosensory responses as did the non-selective antagonist kynurenate. The kainate selective agonist SYM-2081 had minor effects on mechanosensitivity, and the antagonist UBP 302 was ineffective. The mGluR5 antagonist MTEP concentration-dependently inhibited mechanosensitivity. Efficacy of agonists and antagonists differed on mucosal and tension receptors. We conclude that excitatory modulation of afferent mechanosensitivity occurs mainly via NMDA, AMPA and mGlu5 receptors, and the role of each differs according to afferent subtypes. PCR data indicated that all NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptor subunits plus mGluR5 are expressed, and are therefore candidates for the neuromodulation we observed. PMID:16945965

  15. Potentiation of mouse vagal afferent mechanosensitivity by ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Slattery, James A; Page, Amanda J; Dorian, Camilla L; Brierley, Stuart M; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2006-11-15

    Glutamate acts at central synapses via ionotropic (iGluR--NMDA, AMPA and kainate) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Group I mGluRs are excitatory whilst group II and III are inhibitory. Inhibitory mGluRs also modulate peripherally the mechanosensitivity of gastro-oesophageal vagal afferents. Here we determined the potential of excitatory GluRs to play an opposing role in modulating vagal afferent mechanosensitivity, and investigated expression of receptor subunit mRNA within the nodose ganglion. The responses of mouse gastro-oesophageal vagal afferents to graded mechanical stimuli were investigated before and during application of selective GluR ligands to their peripheral endings. Two types of vagal afferents were tested: tension receptors, which respond to circumferential tension, and mucosal receptors, which respond only to mucosal stroking. The selective iGluR agonists NMDA and AMPA concentration-dependently potentiated afferent responses. Their corresponding antagonists AP-5 and NBQX alone attenuated mechanosensory responses as did the non-selective antagonist kynurenate. The kainate selective agonist SYM-2081 had minor effects on mechanosensitivity, and the antagonist UBP 302 was ineffective. The mGluR5 antagonist MTEP concentration-dependently inhibited mechanosensitivity. Efficacy of agonists and antagonists differed on mucosal and tension receptors. We conclude that excitatory modulation of afferent mechanosensitivity occurs mainly via NMDA, AMPA and mGlu5 receptors, and the role of each differs according to afferent subtypes. PCR data indicated that all NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptor subunits plus mGluR5 are expressed, and are therefore candidates for the neuromodulation we observed.

  16. Potential therapeutic targets for ATP-gated P2X receptor ion channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Liang, Dong; Chen, Ling

    2008-04-01

    P2X receptors make up a novel family of ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by binding of extracellular ATP. These receptors can form a number of homomeric and heteromeric ion channels, which are widely distributed throughout the human body. They are thought to play an important role in many cellular processes, including synaptic transmission and thrombocyte aggregation. These ion channels are also involved in the pathology of several disease states, including chronic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and thus are the potential targets for drug development. The recent discovery of potent and highly selective antagonists for P2X(7) receptors, through the use of high-throughput screening, has helped to further understand the P2X receptor pharmacology and provided new evidence that P2X(7) receptors play a specific role in chronic pain states. In this review, we discuss how the P2X family of ion channels has distinguished itself as a potential new drug target. We are optimistic that safe and effective candidate drugs will be suitable for progression into clinical development.

  17. Potential climatic impact of organic haze on early Earth.

    PubMed

    Hasenkopf, Christa A; Freedman, Miriam A; Beaver, Melinda R; Toon, Owen B; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2011-03-01

    We have explored the direct and indirect radiative effects on climate of organic particles likely to have been present on early Earth by measuring their hygroscopicity and cloud nucleating ability. The early Earth analog aerosol particles were generated via ultraviolet photolysis of an early Earth analog gas mixture, which was designed to mimic possible atmospheric conditions before the rise of oxygen. An analog aerosol for the present-day atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan was tested for comparison. We exposed the early Earth aerosol to a range of relative humidities (RHs). Water uptake onto the aerosol was observed to occur over the entire RH range tested (RH=80-87%). To translate our measurements of hygroscopicity over a specific range of RHs into their water uptake ability at any RH < 100% and into their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at RH > 100%, we relied on the hygroscopicity parameter κ, developed by Petters and Kreidenweis. We retrieved κ=0.22 ±0.12 for the early Earth aerosol, which indicates that the humidified aerosol (RH < 100 %) could have contributed to a larger antigreenhouse effect on the early Earth atmosphere than previously modeled with dry aerosol. Such effects would have been of significance in regions where the humidity was larger than 50%, because such high humidities are needed for significant amounts of water to be on the aerosol. Additionally, Earth organic aerosol particles could have activated into CCN at reasonable-and even low-water-vapor supersaturations (RH > 100%). In regions where the haze was dominant, it is expected that low particle concentrations, once activated into cloud droplets, would have created short-lived, optically thin clouds. Such clouds, if predominant on early Earth, would have had a lower albedo than clouds today, thereby warming the planet relative to current-day clouds. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  18. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 mediates chronic pancreatitis pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Cattaruzza, Fiore; Johnson, Cali; Leggit, Alan; Grady, Eileen; Schenk, A Katrin; Cevikbas, Ferda; Cedron, Wendy; Bondada, Sandhya; Kirkwood, Rebekah; Malone, Brian; Steinhoff, Martin; Bunnett, Nigel; Kirkwood, Kimberly S

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a devastating disease characterized by persistent and uncontrolled abdominal pain. Our lack of understanding is partially due to the lack of experimental models that mimic the human disease and also to the lack of validated behavioral measures of visceral pain. The ligand-gated cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) mediates inflammation and pain in early experimental pancreatitis. It is unknown if TRPA1 causes fibrosis and sustained pancreatic pain. We induced CP by injecting the chemical agent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), which causes severe acute pancreatitis, into the pancreatic duct of C57BL/6 trpa1(+/+) and trpa1(-/-) mice. Chronic inflammatory changes and pain behaviors were assessed after 2-3 wk. TNBS injection caused marked pancreatic fibrosis with increased collagen-staining intensity, atrophy, fatty replacement, monocyte infiltration, and pancreatic stellate cell activation, and these changes were reflected by increased histological damage scores. TNBS-injected animals showed mechanical hypersensitivity during von Frey filament probing of the abdomen, decreased daily voluntary wheel-running activity, and increased immobility scores during open-field testing. Pancreatic TNBS also reduced the threshold to hindpaw withdrawal to von Frey filament probing, suggesting central sensitization. Inflammatory changes and pain indexes were significantly reduced in trpa1(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we have characterized in mice a model of CP that resembles the human condition, with marked histological changes and behavioral measures of pain. We have demonstrated, using novel and objective pain measurements, that TRPA1 mediates inflammation and visceral hypersensitivity in CP and could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of sustained inflammatory abdominal pain.

  19. Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors modulates evoked action potentials in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Xia; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiao-Han; Li, Fang; Wang, Zhong-Feng

    2013-08-25

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) regulates a variety of physiological functions in the vertebrate retina through modulating various types of ion channels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of this receptor on cell excitability of rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in retinal slices using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that under current-clamped condition perfusing WIN55212-2 (WIN, 5 μmol/L), a CB1R agonist, did not significantly change the spontaneous firing frequency and resting membrane potential of RGCs. In the presence of cocktail synaptic blockers, including excitatory postsynaptic receptor blockers CNQX and D-APV, and inhibitory receptor blockers bicuculline and strychnine, perfusion of WIN (5 μmol/L) hardly changed the frequencies of evoked action potentials by a series of positive current injection (from +10 to +100 pA). Phase-plane plot analysis showed that both average threshold voltage for triggering action potential and delay time to reach threshold voltage were not affected by WIN. However, WIN significantly decreased +dV/dtmax and -dV/dtmax of action potentials, suggestive of reduced rising and descending velocities of action potentials. The effects of WIN were reversed by co-application of SR141716, a CB1R selective antagonist. Moreover, WIN did not influence resting membrane potential of RGCs with synaptic inputs being blocked. These results suggest that activation of CB1Rs may regulate intrinsic excitability of rat RGCs through modulating evoked action potentials.

  20. Local upregulation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channels in rectosigmoid deep infiltrating endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Bohonyi, Noémi; Pohóczky, Krisztina; Szalontai, Bálint; Perkecz, Anikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Kajtár, Béla; Orbán, Lajos; Varga, Tamás; Szegedi, Sarolta; Bódis, József; Koppán, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) expressed mainly by primary sensory neurons function as major nociceptive integrators. They are also present on the rat endometrium in an oestrogen-regulated manner. TRPV1 is upregulated in peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis patients, but there is no information about TRPA1 and their pathophysiological significances. In this study, patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were investigated: severe dysmenorrhoea due to rectosigmoid deep infiltrating endometriosis (n = 15), uterine fibroid-induced moderate dysmenorrhoea (n = 7) and tubal infertility with no pain (n = 6). TRPA1 and TRPV1 mRNA and protein expressions were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry from the endometrium samples taken by curettage. Results were correlated with the clinical characteristics including pain intensity. TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptors were expressed in the healthy human endometrium at mRNA and protein levels. Sparse, scattered cytoplasmic TRPA1 and TRPV1 immunopositivities were found in the stroma and epithelial layers. We detected upregulated mRNA levels in deep infiltrating endometriosis lesions, and TRPV1 gene expression was also elevated in autocontrol endometrium of deep infiltrating endometriosis patients. Histological scoring revealed significant TRPA1 and TRPV1 difference between deep infiltrating endometriosis stroma and epithelium, and in deep infiltrating endometriosis epithelium compared to control samples. Besides, we measured elevated stromal TRPV1 immunopositivity in deep infiltrating endometriosis. Stromal TRPA1 and TRPV1 immunoreactivities strongly correlated with dysmenorrhoea severity, as well TRPV1 expression on ectopic epithelial cells and macrophages with dyspareunia. Epithelial TRPA1 and stromal TRPV1 immunopositivity also positively correlated with dyschezia severity. We provide the first

  1. Local upregulation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channels in rectosigmoid deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bohonyi, Noémi; Pohóczky, Krisztina; Szalontai, Bálint; Perkecz, Anikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Kajtár, Béla; Orbán, Lajos; Varga, Tamás; Szegedi, Sarolta; Bódis, József; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Koppán, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) expressed mainly by primary sensory neurons function as major nociceptive integrators. They are also present on the rat endometrium in an oestrogen-regulated manner. TRPV1 is upregulated in peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis patients, but there is no information about TRPA1 and their pathophysiological significances. In this study, patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were investigated: severe dysmenorrhoea due to rectosigmoid deep infiltrating endometriosis ( n = 15), uterine fibroid-induced moderate dysmenorrhoea ( n = 7) and tubal infertility with no pain ( n = 6). TRPA1 and TRPV1 mRNA and protein expressions were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry from the endometrium samples taken by curettage. Results were correlated with the clinical characteristics including pain intensity. TRPA1 and TRPV1 receptors were expressed in the healthy human endometrium at mRNA and protein levels. Sparse, scattered cytoplasmic TRPA1 and TRPV1 immunopositivities were found in the stroma and epithelial layers. We detected upregulated mRNA levels in deep infiltrating endometriosis lesions, and TRPV1 gene expression was also elevated in autocontrol endometrium of deep infiltrating endometriosis patients. Histological scoring revealed significant TRPA1 and TRPV1 difference between deep infiltrating endometriosis stroma and epithelium, and in deep infiltrating endometriosis epithelium compared to control samples. Besides, we measured elevated stromal TRPV1 immunopositivity in deep infiltrating endometriosis. Stromal TRPA1 and TRPV1 immunoreactivities strongly correlated with dysmenorrhoea severity, as well TRPV1 expression on ectopic epithelial cells and macrophages with dyspareunia. Epithelial TRPA1 and stromal TRPV1 immunopositivity also positively correlated with dyschezia severity. We provide the first

  2. Activation of serotonin 2A receptors underlies the psilocybin-induced effects on α oscillations, N170 visual-evoked potentials, and visual hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Kometer, Michael; Schmidt, André; Jäncke, Lutz; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2013-06-19

    Visual illusions and hallucinations are hallmarks of serotonergic hallucinogen-induced altered states of consciousness. Although the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin activates multiple serotonin (5-HT) receptors, recent evidence suggests that activation of 5-HT2A receptors may lead to the formation of visual hallucinations by increasing cortical excitability and altering visual-evoked cortical responses. To address this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of psilocybin (215 μg/kg vs placebo) on both α oscillations that regulate cortical excitability and early visual-evoked P1 and N170 potentials in healthy human subjects. To further disentangle the specific contributions of 5-HT2A receptors, subjects were additionally pretreated with the preferential 5-HT2A receptor antagonist ketanserin (50 mg vs placebo). We found that psilocybin strongly decreased prestimulus parieto-occipital α power values, thus precluding a subsequent stimulus-induced α power decrease. Furthermore, psilocybin strongly decreased N170 potentials associated with the appearance of visual perceptual alterations, including visual hallucinations. All of these effects were blocked by pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin, indicating that activation of 5-HT2A receptors by psilocybin profoundly modulates the neurophysiological and phenomenological indices of visual processing. Specifically, activation of 5-HT2A receptors may induce a processing mode in which stimulus-driven cortical excitation is overwhelmed by spontaneous neuronal excitation through the modulation of α oscillations. Furthermore, the observed reduction of N170 visual-evoked potentials may be a key mechanism underlying 5-HT2A receptor-mediated visual hallucinations. This change in N170 potentials may be important not only for psilocybin-induced states but also for understanding acute hallucinatory states seen in psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

  3. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  4. Potentiation of the gastric antisecretory activity of histamine H2-receptor antagonists by clebopride.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A G; Massingham, R; Roberts, D J

    1988-05-01

    The substituted benzamide, clebopride, at doses (0.03-3 mg kg-1 i.p.) that were without effect per se on the secretion of gastric acid in pylorus ligated (Shay) rats, potentiated the antisecretory effects of the histamine H2 receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine in this model but not those of the muscarine receptor antagonist pirenzepine nor those of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. By contrast, clebopride was without influence on the inhibitory effects of cimetidine on pentagastrin-induced secretion in perfused stomach (Ghosh and Schild) preparations in anaesthetized rats. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the previously described potentiating effects of clebopride on the anti-ulcer activity of cimetidine in various experimental models, and the potential beneficial effects of such combined therapy in the clinic.

  5. IgG1-iS18 impedes the adhesive and invasive potential of early and late stage malignant melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Munien, Carmelle; Rebelo, Thalia M; Ferreira, Eloise; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2017-02-15

    The 37kDa/67kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) is a non-integrin laminin receptor which is overexpressed in tumorigenic cells and supports progression of cancer via promoting metastasis, angiogenesis and telomerase activity and impediment of apoptosis. The present study investigates the role of LRP/LR on the metastatic potential of early (A375) and late (A375SM) stage malignant melanoma cells. Flow cytometry revealed that both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells display high levels of LRP/LR on their cell surface. Flow cytometry and western blot analysis showed that late stage malignant melanoma cells display significantly higher total and cell surface LRP/LR levels in comparison to early stage malignant melanoma cells and the poorly invasive breast cancer (MCF-7) control cell line. Targeting LRP/LR using the LRP/LR specific antibody IgG1-iS18 resulted in a significant reduction of the adhesive potential to laminin-1 and the invasive potential through the 'ECM-simulating' Matrigel™ of both early and late stage malignant melanoma cells. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient confirmed that increased LRP levels correlate with the increased invasive and adhesive potential in early and late stage melanoma cells. Thus, blocking LRP/LR using the IgG1-iS18 antibody may therefore be a promising therapeutic strategy for early and late stage malignant melanoma treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic potential of targeting group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the treatment of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Duty, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Current drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), for example, L-DOPA and dopamine agonists, are very effective at reversing the motor symptoms of the disease. However, they do little to combat the underlying degeneration of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and their long-term use is associated with the appearance of adverse effects such as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Much emphasis has therefore been placed on finding alternative non-dopaminergic drugs that may circumvent some or all of these problems. Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors were first identified in the basal ganglia a decade ago. One or more of these receptors (mGlu4, mGlu7 or mGlu8) is found on pre-synaptic terminals of basal ganglia pathways whose overactivity is implicated not only in the generation of motor symptoms in PD, but also in driving the progressive SNc degeneration. The finding that drugs which activate group III mGlu receptors can inhibit transmission across these overactive synapses has lead to the proposal that group III mGlu receptors are promising targets for drug discovery in PD. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the role and target potential of group III mGlu receptors in the basal ganglia. Overwhelming evidence obtained from in vitro studies and animal models of PD supports group III mGlu receptors as potentially important drug targets for providing both symptom relief and neuroprotection in PD. PMID:20735415

  7. Neurotensin receptor 1 gene activation by the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway is an early event in human colonic adenomas.

    PubMed

    Souazé, Frédérique; Viardot-Foucault, Véronique; Roullet, Nicolas; Toy-Miou-Leong, Mireille; Gompel, Anne; Bruyneel, Erik; Comperat, Eva; Faux, Maree C; Mareel, Marc; Rostène, William; Fléjou, Jean-François; Gespach, Christian; Forgez, Patricia

    2006-04-01

    Alterations in the Wnt/APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) signalling pathway, resulting in beta-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)-dependent transcriptional gene activation, are frequently detected in familial and sporadic colon cancers. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract. Its proliferative and survival effects are mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor, the NT1 receptor. NT1 receptor is not expressed in normal colon epithelial cells, but is over expressed in a number of cancer cells and tissues suggesting a link to the outgrowth of human colon cancer. Our results demonstrate that the upregulation of NT1 receptor occurring in colon cancer is the result of Wnt/APC signalling pathway activation. We first established the functionality of the Tcf response element within the NT1 receptor promoter. Consequently, we observed the activation of NT1 receptor gene by agents causing beta-catenin cytosolic accumulation, as well as a strong decline of endogenous receptor when wt-APC was restored. At the cellular level, the re-establishment of wt-APC phenotype resulted in the impaired functionality of NT1 receptor, like the breakdown in NT-induced intracellular calcium mobilization and the loss of NT pro-invasive effect. We corroborated the Wnt/APC signalling pathway on the NT1 receptor promoter activation with human colon carcinogenesis, and showed that NT1 receptor gene activation was perfectly correlated with nuclear or cytoplasmic beta-catenin localization while NT1 receptor was absent when beta-catenin was localized at the cell-cell junction in early adenomas of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and loss of heterozygosity tumours. In this report we establish a novel link in vitro between the Tcf/beta-catenin pathway and NT1 receptor promoter activation.

  8. Beta receptor-mediated modulation of the late positive potential in humans.

    PubMed

    de Rover, Mischa; Brown, Stephen B R E; Boot, Nathalie; Hajcak, Greg; van Noorden, Martijn S; van der Wee, Nic J A; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-02-01

    Electrophysiological studies have identified a scalp potential, the late positive potential (LPP), which is modulated by the emotional intensity of observed stimuli. Previous work has shown that the LPP reflects the modulation of activity in extrastriate visual cortical structures, but little is known about the source of that modulation. The present study investigated whether beta-adrenergic receptors are involved in the generation of the LPP. We used a genetic individual differences approach (experiment 1) and a pharmacological manipulation (experiment 2) to test the hypothesis that the LPP is modulated by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors. In experiment 1, we found that LPP amplitude depends on allelic variation in the β1-receptor gene polymorphism. In experiment 2, we found that LPP amplitude was modulated by the β-blocker propranolol in a direction dependent on subjects' level of trait anxiety: In participants with lower trait anxiety, propranolol led to a (nonsignificant) decrease in the LPP modulation; in participants with higher trait anxiety, propranolol increased the emotion-related LPP modulation. These results provide initial support for the hypothesis that the LPP reflects the downstream effects, in visual cortical areas, of β-receptor-mediated activation of the amygdala.

  9. The D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR, potentiates hind leg grooming behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pitmon, E; Stephens, G; Parkhurst, S J; Wolf, F W; Kehne, G; Taylor, M; Lebestky, T

    2016-03-01

    Drosophila groom away debris and pathogens from the body using their legs in a stereotyped sequence of innate motor behaviors. Here, we investigated one aspect of the grooming repertoire by characterizing the D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR. Removal of DopR results in decreased hind leg grooming, as substantiated by quantitation of dye remaining on mutant and RNAi animals vs. controls and direct scoring of behavioral events. These data are also supported by pharmacological results that D1 receptor agonists fail to potentiate grooming behaviors in headless DopR flies. DopR protein is broadly expressed in the neuropil of the thoracic ganglion and overlaps with TH-positive dopaminergic neurons. Broad neuronal expression of dopamine receptor in mutant animals restored normal grooming behaviors. These data provide evidence for the role of DopR in potentiating hind leg grooming behaviors in the thoracic ganglion of adult Drosophila. This is a remarkable juxtaposition to the considerable role of D1 family dopamine receptors in rodent grooming, and future investigations of evolutionary relationships of circuitry may be warranted. © 2016 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR, potentiates hind leg grooming behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pitmon, E.; Stephens, G.; Parkhurst, S. J.; Wolf, F. W.; Kehne, G.; Taylor, M.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila groom away debris and pathogens from the body using their legs in a stereotyped sequence of innate motor behaviors. Here, we investigated one aspect of the grooming repertoire by characterizing the D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR. Removal of DopR results in decreased hind leg grooming, as substantiated by quantitation of dye remaining on mutant and RNAi animals vs. controls and direct scoring of behavioral events. These data are also supported by pharmacological results that D1 receptor agonists fail to potentiate grooming behaviors in headless DopR flies. DopR protein is broadly expressed in the neuropil of the thoracic ganglion and overlaps with TH‐positive dopaminergic neurons. Broad neuronal expression of dopamine receptor in mutant animals restored normal grooming behaviors. These data provide evidence for the role of DopR in potentiating hind leg grooming behaviors in the thoracic ganglion of adult Drosophila. This is a remarkable juxtaposition to the considerable role of D1 family dopamine receptors in rodent grooming, and future investigations of evolutionary relationships of circuitry may be warranted. PMID:26749475

  11. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist formore » E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.« less

  12. Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Parastoo; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possible role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1 regions), the medial prefrontal cortex or the basolateral amygdala in the effect of acute or sub-chronic stress on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Our results indicated that subcutaneous administration of nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) induced significant conditioned place preference. Exposure to acute or sub-chronic elevated platform stress potentiated the response of an ineffective dose of nicotine. Pre-conditioning intra-CA1 (0.5-4 µg/rat) or intra-medial prefrontal cortex (0.2-0.3 µg/rat) microinjection of mecamylamine (a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist) reversed acute stress-induced potentiation of nicotine reward as measured in the conditioned place preference paradigm. By contrast, pre-conditioning intra-basolateral amygdala microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) potentiated the effects of acute stress on nicotine reward. Our findings also showed that intra-CA1 or intra-medial prefrontal cortex, but not intra-basolateral amygdala, microinjection of mecamylamine (4 µg/rat) prevented the effect of sub-chronic stress on nicotine reward. These findings suggest that exposure to elevated platform stress potentiates the rewarding effect of nicotine which may be associated with the involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It seems that there is a different contribution of the basolateral amygdala, the medial prefrontal cortex or the CA1 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stress-induced potentiation of nicotine-induced conditioned place preference.

  13. Agonist- and subunit-dependent potentiation of glutamate receptors by a nootropic drug aniracetam.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, K; Takeuchi, T; Ozawa, S

    1992-11-01

    GluR1 and GluR2 cDNAs encoding non-NMDA subtypes of glutamate receptor were isolated from a rat brain cDNA library by Boulter et al. (Science, 249 (1990) 1033-1037). Functional receptors activated by kainate, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) and glutamate were expressed in Xenopus oocytes injected with GluR1, GluR2 or a mixture of GluR1 and GluR2 RNAs. In GluR1-expressed oocytes, 1 mM aniracetam potentiated AMPA-induced currents by 99 +/- 10% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 5) and glutamate-induced currents by 140 +/- 8% (n = 4), but little affected kainate-induced currents. Aniracetam was effective from a concentration of 0.1 mM, and it exhibited more conspicuous effects with the increase of the dose. In oocytes injected with GluR1 plus GluR2 RNAs, aniracetam more markedly potentiated current responses to AMPA and glutamate than those in oocytes injected with GluR1 RNA alone. For example, 1 mM aniracetam potentiated AMPA-induced currents by 396 +/- 76% (n = 4) and glutamate-induced currents by 970 +/- 65% (n = 5) in oocytes injected with 10% GluR1 and 90% GluR2 RNAs. In these oocytes, however, the potentiation of kainate-induced currents by 1 mM aniracetam was only 8 +/- 5% (n = 4). Thus, we conclude that the potentiation of the AMPA/kainate receptor by aniracetam depends on both species of agonists and subunit composition of the receptor.

  14. The therapeutic potential of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for tissue protection: a tale of two receptors.

    PubMed

    Brines, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a well-known therapeutic protein employed widely in the treatment of anemia. Over the past decade, abundant evidence has shown that in addition to its systemic role in the regulation of plasma pO(2) by modulating erythrocyte numbers, EPO is also a cytoprotective molecule made locally in response to injury or metabolic stress. Many studies have shown beneficial effects of EPO administration in reducing damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion, trauma, cytotoxicity, infection and inflammation in a variety of organs and tissues. Notably, the receptor mediating the nonerythropoietic effects of EPO differs from the one responsible for hematopoiesis. The tissue-protective receptor exhibits a lower affinity for EPO and is a heteromer consisting of EPO receptor monomers in association with the common receptor that is also employed by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin 3, and interleukin 5. This heteromeric receptor is expressed immediately following injury, whereas EPO production is delayed. Thus, early administration of EPO can dramatically reduce the deleterious components of the local inflammatory cascade. However, a high dose of EPO is required and this also stimulates the bone marrow to produce highly reactive platelets and activates the vascular endothelium into a prothrombotic state. To circumvent these undesirable effects, the EPO molecule has been successfully altered to selectively eliminate erythropoietic and prothrombotic potencies, while preserving tissue-protective activities. Very recently, small peptide mimetics have been developed that recapitulate the tissue-protective activities of EPO. Nonerythropoietic tissue-protective molecules hold high promise in a wide variety of acute and chronic diseases. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Role of Transient Receptor Potential Channels in Heart Transplantation: A Potential Novel Therapeutic Target for Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuo; Jiang, Yue; Huang, Weiting; Li, Xintao; Li, Shuzhuang

    2017-05-18

    Heart transplantation has evolved as the criterion standard therapy for end-stage heart failure, but its efficacy is limited by the development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), a unique and rapidly progressive form of atherosclerosis in heart transplant recipients. Here, we briefly review the key processes in the development of CAV during heart transplantation and highlight the roles of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these processes during heart transplantation. Understanding the roles of TRP channels in contributing to the key procedures for the development of CAV during heart transplantation could provide basic scientific knowledge for the development of new preventive and therapeutic approaches to manage patients with CAV after heart transplantation.

  16. Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies and early miscarriages in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Toulis, Konstantinos A; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Tsolakidou, Konstantina; Hilidis, Ilias; Fragkos, Marios; Polyzos, Stergios A; Gerofotis, Antonios; Kita, Marina; Bili, Helen; Vavilis, Dimitrios; Daniilidis, Michail; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Papadimas, Ioannis

    2013-08-01

    We have previously hypothesized that early miscarriage in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis might be the result of a cross-reactivity process, in which blocking autoantibodies against thyrotropin receptor (TSHr-Ab) antagonize hCG action on its receptor on the corpus luteum. To test this hypothesis from the clinical perspective, we investigated the presence of TSHr-Ab in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with apparently unexplained, first-trimester recurrent miscarriages compared to that in Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with documented normal fertility. A total of 86 subjects (43 cases and 43 age-matched controls) were finally included in a case-control study. No difference in the prevalence of TSHr-Ab positivity was detected between cases and controls (Fisher's exact test, p value = 1.00). In patients with recurrent miscarriages, TSHr-Ab concentrations did not predict the number of miscarriages (univariate linear regression, p value = 0.08). These results were robust in sensitivity analyses, including only cases with full investigation or those with three or more miscarriages. We conclude that no role could be advocated for TSHr-Ab in the aetiology of recurrent miscarriages in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  17. SNX1 defines an early endosomal recycling exit for sortilin and mannose 6-phosphate receptors.

    PubMed

    Mari, Muriel; Bujny, Miriam V; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Geerts, Willie J C; Griffith, Janice; Petersen, Claus M; Cullen, Pete J; Klumperman, Judith; Geuze, Hans J

    2008-03-01

    Mannose-6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) transport lysosomal hydrolases from the trans Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes. Recently, the multi-ligand receptor sortilin has also been implicated in this transport, but the transport carriers involved herein have not been identified. By quantitative immuno-electron microscopy, we localized endogenous sortilin of HepG2 cells predominantly to the TGN and endosomes. In the TGN, sortilin colocalized with MPRs in the same clathrin-coated vesicles. In endosomes, sortilin and MPRs concentrated in sorting nexin 1 (SNX1)-positive buds and vesicles. SNX1 depletion by small interfering RNA resulted in decreased pools of sortilin in the TGN and an increase in lysosomal degradation. These data indicate that sortilin and MPRs recycle to the TGN in SNX1-dependent carriers, which we named endosome-to-TGN transport carriers (ETCs). Notably, ETCs emerge from early endosomes (EE), lack recycling plasma membrane proteins and by three-dimensional electron tomography exhibit unique structural features. Hence, ETCs are distinct from hitherto described EE-derived membranes involved in recycling. Our data emphasize an important role of EEs in recycling to the TGN and indicate that different, specialized exit events occur on the same EE vacuole.

  18. Betaxolol, a selective β1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudoy, C.A.; Van Bockstaele, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    . Furthermore, treatment with betaxolol during early cocaine withdrawal significantly decreased β1-adrenergic receptor protein expression in the amygdala to levels comparable to those of control animals. Conclusions The present findings suggest that the anxiolytic-like effect of betaxolol on cocaine-induced anxiety may be related to its effect on amygdalar β1-adrenergic receptors that are up-regulated during early phases of drug withdrawal. These data support the efficacy of betaxolol as a potential effective pharmacotherapy in treating cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety during early phases of abstinence. PMID:17513029

  19. Betaxolol, a selective beta(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, diminishes anxiety-like behavior during early withdrawal from chronic cocaine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Rudoy, C A; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2007-06-30

    , treatment with betaxolol during early cocaine withdrawal significantly decreased beta(1)-adrenergic receptor protein expression in the amygdala to levels comparable to those of control animals. The present findings suggest that the anxiolytic-like effect of betaxolol on cocaine-induced anxiety may be related to its effect on amygdalar beta(1)-adrenergic receptors that are up-regulated during early phases of drug withdrawal. These data support the efficacy of betaxolol as a potential effective pharmacotherapy in treating cocaine withdrawal-induced anxiety during early phases of abstinence.

  20. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation: Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Potential Therapies in the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Steven J; Kawai, Tatsuo; O'Brien, Shannon; Thomas, Walter; Harris, Raymond C; Eguchi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation impacts the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, and inhibition of EGFR activity is emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy to treat diseases including hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, renal fibrosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. The capacity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, such as angiotensin II (AngII), to promote EGFR signaling is called transactivation and is well described, yet delineating the molecular processes and functional relevance of this crosstalk has been challenging. Moreover, these critical findings are dispersed among many different fields. The aim of our review is to highlight recent advancements in defining the signaling cascades and downstream consequences of EGFR transactivation in the cardiovascular renal system. We also focus on studies that link EGFR transactivation to animal models of the disease, and we discuss potential therapeutic applications.

  1. Regulation of Transient Receptor Potential channels by the phospholipase C pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rohacs, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels were discovered while analyzing visual mutants in drosophila. The protein encoded by the transient receptor potential (trp) gene is a Ca2+ permeable cation channel activated downstream of the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway. While searching for homologues in other organisms, a surprisingly large number of mammalian TRP channels were cloned. The regulation of TRP channels is quite diverse, but many of them are either activated downstream of the PLC pathway, or modulated by it. This review will summarize the current knowledge on regulation of TRP channels by the PLC pathway, with special focus on TRPC-s, which can be considered as effectors of the PLC pathway, and the heat and capsaicin sensitive TRPV1, which is modulated by the PLC pathway in a complex manner. PMID:23916247

  2. Early warning system for potential churners among mortgage customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irpan, Hamidah Muhd; Aidid, Sharifah Sakinah Syed Hassan; Mohmad, Sarahiza; Ibrahim, Noorazilah

    2014-07-01

    Retaining existing customer is a major task for many companies because cost to acquire new customers is higher than retaining existing customers. For mortgage business in Bank X, customer relationship management plays a big role to understand their customers' profile and churners so that suitable action can be done to retain their potential churners. Objectives of this study are (1) understanding their customers' profile and churners, (2) modeling potential churners using neural network model and (3) to deploy the model to identify potential churners. Data was divided into two parts: sampling (67,470 cases) and scoring (4,488 cases). Analysis was done using SAS Enterprise Miner. Dependent variable is churner/non churner while independent variables are balance and amount of loan, interest rate offered installment amount, loan performance, months in arrear, vintage, tenure, age, race and gender. Potential churners were identified as Malays, followed by Indian, other races and Chinese. Nonperforming loan and male customers tend to churn compared to performing loan and female customers. Younger customers with small loan amount, balance and monthly instalment, higher interest rate, have many months in arrears, longer vintage and tenure have higher tendency to churn from Bank X. Hence, Bank X should focus on the potential churners for their campaign to minimize the expenses of retaining existing customers by doing an effective campaign with high successful rate.

  3. Effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 gene silencing on the expression of calcium transport genes in chicken osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Deng, Yifeng; Ma, Huijie; Hou, Jiafa; Zhou, ZhenLei

    2015-03-01

    Ca2+ plays a major role in the regulation of signal transduction. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 is a Ca2+-selective channel that serves as an important rate-limiting step in the facilitation of Ca2+ entry into cells, but little is known about the regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 in chickens. In this study, we evaluated the effects of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 gene interference on the expression of calbindin-D28K, Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 1b to investigate the mechanism underlying the regulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6. Three hairpin siRNA expression vectors targeting transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 (pSIREN- transient receptor potential vanilloid 6) and a negative control (pSIREN-control) were constructed and transfected into chicken osteoblasts. The mRNA and protein expression levels were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 and calbindin-D28K were reduced by 45.7% (P<0.01) and 27.9% (P<0.01), respectively, 48 h after transfection with one of the three constructs (pSIREN- transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-3) compared with the level obtained in the untreated group. There was no significant difference in the mRNA expression levels of Na+/Ca2+ exchangers and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 1b. The protein expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 and calbindin-D28K were reduced by 40.2% (P<0.01) and 29.8% (P<0.01), respectively, 48 h after transfection with pSIREN-transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-3 compared with the level obtained in the untreated group. In conclusion, the vector-based transient receptor potential vanilloid 6-shRNA can efficiently suppress the mRNA and protein expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 in chicken osteoblasts, and transient receptor potential vanilloid

  4. Maitotoxin Is a Potential Selective Activator of the Endogenous Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Type 1 Channel in Xenopus laevis Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Pedro L; Rodríguez, Emma; Zapata, Estrella; Carbó, Roxana; Farías, José María; Martínez, Martín

    2017-06-25

    Maitotoxin (MTX) is the most potent marine toxin known to date. It is responsible for a particular human intoxication syndrome called ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Several reports indicate that MTX is an activator of non-selective cation channels (NSCC) in different cell types. The molecular identity of these channels is still an unresolved topic, and it has been proposed that the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are involved in this effect. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, MTX at picomolar (pM) concentrations induces the activation of NSCC with functional and pharmacological properties that resemble the activity of TRP channels. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular identity of the TRP channel involved in the MTX response, using the small interference RNA (siRNA) approach and the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique (TEVC). The injection of a specifically designed siRNA to silence the transient receptor potential canonical type 1 (TRPC1) protein expression abolished the MTX response. MTX had no effect on oocytes, even at doses 20-fold higher compared to cells without injection. Total mRNA and protein levels of TRPC1 were notably diminished. The TRPC4 siRNA did not change the MTX effect, even though it was important to note that the protein level was reduced by the silencing of TRPC4. Our results suggest that MTX could be a selective activator of TRPC1 channels in X. laevis oocytes and a useful pharmacological tool for further studies on these TRP channels.

  5. Calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is involved in porcine in vitro fertilisation and early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Liu, Y; Larsen, K; Hou, Y P; Callesen, H

    2018-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that extracellular calcium is necessary in fertilisation and embryo development but the mechanism is still not well understood. The present study mainly focussed on the extracellular calcium effector called the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) and examined its expression in porcine gametes and embryos and its function during fertilisation and early embryo development. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, CASR was found to be expressed in porcine oocytes, spermatozoa and embryos at different developmental stages. Functionally, medium supplementation with a CASR agonist or an antagonist during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and in vitro culture (IVC) was tested. During fertilisation, the presence of a CASR agonist increased sperm penetration rate and decreased polyspermy rate leading to an increased normal fertilisation rate. During embryo development, for the IVF embryos, agonist treatment during IVC significantly increased cleavage rate and blastocyst formation rate compared with the control group. Furthermore, parthenogenetically activated embryos showed similar results with lower cleavage and blastocyst formation rates in the antagonist group than in the other groups. It was concluded that CASR, as the effector of extracellular calcium, modulates porcine fertilisation and early embryo development.

  6. The interaction of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene and early life stress on emotional empathy.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Wirth, Katharina; Fan, Yan; Weigand, Anne; Gärtner, Matti; Feeser, Melanie; Dziobek, Isabel; Bajbouj, Malek; Aust, Sabine

    2017-06-30

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased vulnerability for depression, changes to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system and structural and functional changes in hippocampus. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene interact with ELS to predict depression, cognitive functions and hippocampal activity. Social cognition has been related to hippocampal function and might be crucial for maintaining mental health. However, the interaction of CRHR1 gene variation and ELS on social cognition has not been investigated yet. We assessed social cognition in 502 healthy subjects to test effects of ELS and the CRHR1 gene. Participants were genotyped for rs110402 and rs242924. ELS was assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, social cognition was measured via Multifaceted Empathy Test and Empathy Quotient. Severity of ELS was associated with decreased emotional, but not cognitive empathy. Subjects with the common homozygous GG GG genotype showed decreased implicit emotional empathy after ELS exposure regardless of its severity. The results reveal that specific CRHR1 polymorphisms moderate the effect of ELS on emotional empathy. Exposure to ELS in combination with a vulnerable genotype results in impaired emotional empathy in adulthood, which might represent an early marker of increased vulnerability after ELS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxytocin receptors (OXTR) and early parental care: An interaction that modulates psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Ilaria; Azhari, Atiqah; Lepri, Bruno; Esposito, Gianluca

    2017-10-21

    Oxytocin plays an important role in the modulation of social behavior in both typical and atypical contexts. Also, the quality of early parental care sets the foundation for long-term psychosocial development. Here, we review studies that investigated how oxytocin receptor (OXTR) interacts with early parental care experiences to influence the development of psychiatric disorders. Using Pubmed, Scopus and PsycInfo databases, we utilized the keyword "OXTR" before subsequently searching for specific OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), generating a list of 598 studies in total. The papers were catalogued in a database and filtered for gene-environment interaction, psychiatric disorders and involvement of parental care. In particular, rs53576 and rs2254298 were found to be significantly involved in gene-environment interactions that modulated risk for psychopathology and the following psychiatric disorders: disruptive behavior, depression, anxiety, eating disorder and borderline personality disorder. These results illustrate the importance of OXTR in mediating the impact of parental care on the emergence of psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. B cell expression of the inhibitory Fc gamma receptor is unchanged in early MS.

    PubMed

    Comabella, Manuel; Montalban, Xavier; Kakalacheva, Kristina; Osman, Deeqa; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Tintoré, Mar; Lünemann, Jan D

    2010-06-01

    Expression of the inhibitory Fcgamma receptor IIB (FcgammaRIIB) has emerged as a late checkpoint during peripheral B cell development which prevents autoreactive memory B lymphocytes from becoming long-lived plasma cells. Decreased expression of FcgammaRIIB or non-functional FcgammaRIIB variants are associated with the development of autoimmune tissue inflammation. We determined the expression profile of FcgammaRIIB in peripheral blood cells in treatment-naïve patients with early MS. Twenty-five patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) who converted to clinically definite MS (CDMS) and 25 demographically matched healthy donors were included in the study. Frequencies of peripheral blood monocytes and B cell subsets as well as FcgammaRIIB expression profile was determined by flow cytometry. FcgammaRIIB expression levels were higher in B cells compared to monocytes (p<0.0001) and higher in memory B cells compared to their naïve counterparts (p<0.0001). However, FcgammaRIIB expression in naïve and memory B cells as well as monocytes was unchanged in patients with early MS at onset of symptoms as well as after conversion to CDMS compared to controls. No significant correlations were found between FcgammaRIIB expression levels and brain MRI-derived metrics or EDSS progression during follow-up. These data indicate that FcgammaRIIB expression, a critical late B cell differentiation checkpoint preventing the occurrence of autoreactive long-lived plasma cells, is not impaired in treatment-naïve patients with MS, at least in the early phases of the disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. What do we know about the transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) ion channel?

    PubMed

    Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Doñate-Macian, Pau; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2013-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are emerging as a new set of membrane proteins involved in a vast array of cellular processes and regulated by a large number of physical and chemical stimuli, which involves them with sensory cell physiology. The vanilloid TRP subfamily (TRPV) named after the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) consists of six members, and at least four of them (TRPV1-TRPV4) have been related to thermal sensation. One of the least characterized members of the TRP subfamily is TRPV2. Although initially characterized as a noxious heat sensor, TRPV2 now seems to have little to do with temperature sensing but a much more complex physiological profile. Here we review the available information and research progress on the structure, physiology and pharmacology of TRPV2 in an attempt to shed some light on the physiological and pharmacological deorphanization of TRPV2. © 2013 FEBS.

  10. What do we know about the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) ion channel?

    PubMed Central

    Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Doñate-Macian, Pau; Gaudet, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are emerging as a new set of membrane proteins involved in a vast array of cellular processes and regulated by a large number of physical and chemical stimuli, which involves them with sensory cell physiology. The vanilloid TRP subfamily (TRPV) named after the vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) consists of six members, and at least four of them (TRPV1-TRPV4) have been related to thermal sensation. One of the least characterized members of the TRP subfamily is TRPV2. Although initially characterized as a noxious heat sensor, TRPV2 now seems to have little to do with temperature sensing, but a much more complex physiological profile. Here we review the available information and research progress on the structure, physiology and pharmacology of TRPV2 in an attempt to shed some light on the physiological and pharmacological deorphanization of TRPV2. PMID:23615321

  11. Potentiation of oxycodone antinociception in mice by agmatine and BMS182874 via an imidazoline I2 receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Ali, Izna; Lee, Hyaera; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-01-01

    The potentiation of oxycodone antinociception by BMS182874 (endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist) and agmatine (imidazoline receptor/α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist) is well-documented. It is also known that imidazoline receptors but not α(2)-adrenoceptors are involved in potentiation of oxycodone antinociception by agmatine and BMS182874 in mice. However, the involvement of specific imidazoline receptor subtypes (I(1), I(2), or both) in this interaction is not clearly understood. The present study was conducted to determine the involvement of imidazoline I(1) and I(2) receptors in agmatine- and BMS182874-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception in mice. Antinociceptive (tail flick and hot-plate) latencies were determined in male Swiss Webster mice treated with oxycodone, agmatine, BMS182874, and combined administration of oxycodone with agmatine or BMS182874. Efaroxan (imidazoline I(1) receptor antagonist) and BU224 (imidazoline I(2) receptor antagonist) were used to determine the involvement of I(1) and I(2) imidazoline receptors, respectively. Oxycodone produced significant antinociceptive response in mice which was not affected by efaroxan but was blocked by BU224. Agmatine-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception was blocked by BU224 but not by efaroxan. Similarly, BMS182874-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception was blocked by BU224 but not by efaroxan. This is the first report demonstrating that BMS182874- or agmatine-induced enhancement of oxycodone antinociception is blocked by BU224 but not by efaroxan. We conclude that imidazoline I(2) receptors but not imidazoline I(1) receptors are involved in BMS182874- and agmatine-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Small solar thermal electric power plants with early commercial potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. E.; Bisantz, D. J.; Clayton, R. N.; Heiges, H. H.; Ku, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Cost-effective small solar thermal electric power plants (1- to 10-MW nominal size) offer an attractive way of helping the world meet its future energy needs. The paper describes the characteristics of a conceptual near-term plant (about 1 MW) and a potential 1990 commercial version. The basic system concept is one in which steam is generated using two-axis tracking, parabolic dish, and point-focusing collectors. The steam is transported through low-loss piping to a central steam turbine generator unit where it is converted to electricity. The plants have no energy storage and their output power level varies with the solar insolation level. This system concept, which is firmly based on state-of-the-art technology, is projected to offer one of the fastest paths for U.S. commercialization of solar thermal electric power plants through moderate technology advances and mass production.

  13. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Siobhan H.; Pasqui, Francesca; Colvin, Ellen M.; Sanger, Helen; Mogg, Adrian J.; Felder, Christian C.; Broad, Lisa M.; Fitzjohn, Steve M.; Isaac, John T.R.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors (M1Rs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and their inhibition or ablation disrupts the encoding of spatial memory. It has been hypothesized that the principal mechanism by which M1Rs influence spatial memory is by the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Here, we use a combination of recently developed, well characterized, selective M1R agonists and M1R knock-out mice to define the roles of M1Rs in the regulation of hippocampal neuronal and synaptic function. We confirm that M1R activation increases input resistance and depolarizes hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and show that this profoundly increases excitatory postsynaptic potential-spike coupling. Consistent with a critical role for M1Rs in synaptic plasticity, we now show that M1R activation produces a robust potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto CA1 pyramidal neurons that has all the hallmarks of long-term potentiation (LTP): The potentiation requires NMDA receptor activity and bi-directionally occludes with synaptically induced LTP. Thus, we describe synergistic mechanisms by which acetylcholine acting through M1Rs excites CA1 pyramidal neurons and induces LTP, to profoundly increase activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. These features are predicted to make a major contribution to the pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic transmission in rodents and humans. PMID:26472558

  14. Potentiation of tonic GABAergic inhibition by activation of postsynaptic kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Kang, D; Kang, J

    2015-07-09

    Presynaptic kainate-type glutamate ionotropic receptors (KARs) that mediate either the depression or the facilitation of GABA release have been intensively studied. Little attention has been given to the modulation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) by postsynaptic KARs. Recent studies suggest that two GABAAR populations, synaptic (sGABAAR) and extrasynaptic (eGABAAR) GABAARs, mediate phasic and tonic forms of inhibition, respectively. Tonic inhibition plays an important role in the excitability of neuronal circuits and the occurrence of epileptic seizures. For this study, we are the first to report that the activation of postsynaptic KARs by the KAR agonist, Kainic acid (KA, 5 μM), enhanced tonic inhibition by potentiating eGABAARs. KA enhanced THIP-induced eGABAAR currents and prolonged the rise and decay time of muscimol-induced sGABAAR/eGABAAR currents, but also depressed the amplitude of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs), and muscimol-induced sGABAAR/eGABAAR currents. The PKC inhibitor, staurosporine (1 μM), in the patch pipette solution fully blocked the KA-induced potentiation of tonic inhibition, suggesting the involvement of an intracellular PKC pathway. Our study suggests that the activation of postsynaptic KARs potentiates eGABAARs but depresses sGABAARs. By activating postsynaptic KARs, synaptically released glutamate depresses phasic inhibition to facilitate neuronal plasticity, but potentiates tonic inhibition to protect neurons from over-excitation. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary assessment of potential CDM early start projects in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.; Lehman, B.

    2000-11-01

    The Brazil/US Aspen Global Forum on Climate Change Policies and Programs has facilitated a dialogue between key Brazil and US public and private sector leaders on the subject of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). With support from the US government, a cooperative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo conducted an assessment of a number of projects put forth by Brazilian sponsors. Initially, we gathered information and conducted a screening assessment for ten projects in the energy sector and six projects in the forestry sector. Some of the projects appeared to offer greater potential tomore » be attractive for CDM, or had better information available. We then conducted a more detailed assessment of 12 of these projects, and two other projects that were submitted after the initial screening. An important goal was to assess the potential impact of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) on the financial performance of projects. With the exception of the two forestry-based fuel displacement projects, the impact of CERs on the internal rate of return (IRR) is fairly small. This is true for both the projects that displace grid electricity and those that displace local (diesel-based) electricity production. The relative effect of CERs is greater for projects whose IRR without CERs is low. CERs have a substantial effect on the IRR of the two short-rotation forestry energy substitution projects. One reason is that the biofuel displaces coke and oil, both of which are carbon-intensive. Another factor is that the product of these projects (charcoal and woodfuel, respectively) is relatively low value, so the revenue from carbon credits has a strong relative impact. CERs also have a substantial effect on the NPV of the carbon sequestration projects. Financial and other barriers pose a challenge for implementation of most of the projects. In most cases, the sponsor lacks sufficient capital, and loans are available only at high

  16. Energy potential and early operational experience for large wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, W. H.; Thomas, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Projections for the total potential output of large wind turbines in the U.S. are reviewed. NASA has developed nine large windpowered generators, of 100 kW, 200 kW, 2 MW, and 2.5 MW capacities, with rotors 100-300 ft in diameter, and all with horizontal axes. Approximately 214,000 sq miles of the U.S. have been determined as having substantial wind regimes and terrain suitable for large wind turbine siting. This translates into 340,000 Mod 2 (2.5 MW) wind turbines producing 4.9 quads of electricity annually, equivalent to saving 2.5 billion barrels of oil/yr. The cost of electricity is seen as the critical factor in utility acceptance of large wind turbines, and the Mod 2 machines are noted to achieve the 2-4 cents/kWh (1977 dollars) COE which is necessary. Problems such as pollution, including visual, auditory, EM, and land use difficulties are considered, and solutions are indicated.

  17. Early diagnostic potential of APC hypermethylation in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bujiang; Song, Haojun; Jiang, Haizhong; Fu, Yangbo; Ding, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Chongchang

    2018-01-01

    The hypermethylation of APC gene is observed in various cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC). However, the association between APC methylation and the initiation and progression of EC is poorly understood. The current study systematically reviewed studies on abnormal methylation of APC in EC and quantitatively synthesized 18 studies by meta-analysis involving 1008 ECs, 570 Barrett's esophagus (BE), and 782 controls. Our results showed higher methylation of APC in EC (OR = 23.33, P < 0.001) and BE (OR = 9.34, P < 0.001) than in normal controls. Whereas APC methylation in EC was similar to that in BE ( P = 0.052), it was not associated with tumor stage ( P = 0.204). Additionally, APC methylation was not significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in patients with EC. The performance of APC methylation for the detection of EC and BE achieved areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.94 and 0.88, respectively. Our results imply that APC methylation detection is a potential diagnostic biomarker for EC and BE.

  18. Maitotoxin Is a Potential Selective Activator of the Endogenous Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Type 1 Channel in Xenopus laevis Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Pedro L.; Rodríguez, Emma; Zapata, Estrella; Carbó, Roxana; Farías, José María; Martínez, Martín

    2017-01-01

    Maitotoxin (MTX) is the most potent marine toxin known to date. It is responsible for a particular human intoxication syndrome called ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). Several reports indicate that MTX is an activator of non-selective cation channels (NSCC) in different cell types. The molecular identity of these channels is still an unresolved topic, and it has been proposed that the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are involved in this effect. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, MTX at picomolar (pM) concentrations induces the activation of NSCC with functional and pharmacological properties that resemble the activity of TRP channels. The purpose of this study was to characterize the molecular identity of the TRP channel involved in the MTX response, using the small interference RNA (siRNA) approach and the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique (TEVC). The injection of a specifically designed siRNA to silence the transient receptor potential canonical type 1 (TRPC1) protein expression abolished the MTX response. MTX had no effect on oocytes, even at doses 20-fold higher compared to cells without injection. Total mRNA and protein levels of TRPC1 were notably diminished. The TRPC4 siRNA did not change the MTX effect, even though it was important to note that the protein level was reduced by the silencing of TRPC4. Our results suggest that MTX could be a selective activator of TRPC1 channels in X. laevis oocytes and a useful pharmacological tool for further studies on these TRP channels. PMID:28672825

  19. Early-Life Social Isolation Stress Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Responsiveness and Downregulates the Dopamine System

    PubMed Central

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Rose, Jamie H; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic early-life stress increases vulnerability to alcoholism and anxiety disorders during adulthood. Similarly, rats reared in social isolation (SI) during adolescence exhibit augmented ethanol intake and anxiety-like behaviors compared with group housed (GH) rats. Prior studies suggest that disruption of dopamine (DA) signaling contributes to SI-associated behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not fully understood. Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have an important role in regulating mesolimbic DA signaling, and other kinds of stressors have been shown to augment KOR function. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SI-induced increases in KOR function contribute to the dysregulation of NAc DA and the escalation in ethanol intake associated with SI. Our ex vivo voltammetry experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of the kappa agonist U50,488 on DA release were significantly enhanced in the NAc core and shell of SI rats. Dynorphin levels in NAc tissue were observed to be lower in SI rats. Microdialysis in freely moving rats revealed that SI was also associated with reduced baseline DA levels, and pretreatment with the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) increased DA levels selectively in SI subjects. Acute ethanol elevated DA in SI and GH rats and nor-BNI pretreatment augmented this effect in SI subjects, while having no effect on ethanol-stimulated DA release in GH rats. Together, these data suggest that KORs may have increased responsiveness following SI, which could lead to hypodopaminergia and contribute to an increased drive to consume ethanol. Indeed, SI rats exhibited greater ethanol intake and preference and KOR blockade selectively attenuated ethanol intake in SI rats. Collectively, the findings that nor-BNI reversed SI-mediated hypodopaminergic state and escalated ethanol intake suggest that KOR antagonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders, particularly

  20. Strengths and Weaknesses of Sea Ice as a Potential Early Indicator of Climate Change,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Sea ice is examined for its potential as an early indicator of climate change by considering how well it satisfies four criteria listed as desired... climate change , sea ice is unlikely any time in the near future to be a definitive early indicator of climate change when considered by itself.

  1. Evaluating Potential Exposures to Ecological Receptors Due to Transport of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants in Subsurface Systems (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final report, Evaluating Potential Exposures to Ecological Receptors Due to Transport of Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants in Subsurface Systems. This technical paper recommends several ty...

  2. The therapeutic potential of G-protein coupled receptors in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Dowie, Megan J; Scotter, Emma L; Molinari, Emanuela; Glass, Michelle

    2010-11-01

    Huntington's disease is a late-onset autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disease characterised by increased symptom severity over time and ultimately premature death. An expanded CAG repeat sequence in the huntingtin gene leads to a polyglutamine expansion in the expressed protein, resulting in complex dysfunctions including cellular excitotoxicity and transcriptional dysregulation. Symptoms include cognitive deficits, psychiatric changes and a movement disorder often referred to as Huntington's chorea, which involves characteristic involuntary dance-like writhing movements. Neuropathologically Huntington's disease is characterised by neuronal dysfunction and death in the striatum and cortex with an overall decrease in cerebral volume (Ho et al., 2001). Neuronal dysfunction begins prior to symptom presentation, and cells of particular vulnerability include the striatal medium spiny neurons. Huntington's is a devastating disease for patients and their families and there is currently no cure, or even an effective therapy for disease symptoms. G-protein coupled receptors are the most abundant receptor type in the central nervous system and are linked to complex downstream pathways, manipulation of which may have therapeutic application in many neurological diseases. This review will highlight the potential of G-protein coupled receptor drug targets as emerging therapies for Huntington's disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Facile screening of potential xenoestrogens by an estrogen receptor-based reusable optical biosensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lanhua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lu, Yun; Shan, Didi; Xu, Bi; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E 2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E 2 monoclonal antibody. Unbound anti-E 2 antibody then binds to the immobilized E 2 -protein conjugate on the fiber surface, and is detected by fluorescence emission induced by evanescent field. As expected, the stronger estrogenic activity of xenoestrogen would result in the weaker fluorescent signal. Three estrogen-agonist compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-n-octylphenol (OP), were chosen as a paradigm for validation of this assay. The rank order of estrogenic potency determined by this biosensor was DES>OP>NP, which were consistent with the published results in numerous studies. Moreover, the E 2 -protein conjugate modified optical fiber was robust enough for over 300 sensing cycles with the signal recoveries ranging from 90% to 100%. In conclusion, the biosensor is reusable, reliable, portable and amenable to on-line operation, providing a facile, efficient and economical alternative to screen potential xenoestrogens in environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pixel-based absorption correction for dual-tracer fluorescence imaging of receptor binding potential

    PubMed Central

    Kanick, Stephen C.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Gunn, Jason; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Ratiometric approaches to quantifying molecular concentrations have been used for decades in microscopy, but have rarely been exploited in vivo until recently. One dual-tracer approach can utilize an untargeted reference tracer to account for non-specific uptake of a receptor-targeted tracer, and ultimately estimate receptor binding potential quantitatively. However, interpretation of the relative dynamic distribution kinetics is confounded by differences in local tissue absorption at the wavelengths used for each tracer. This study simulated the influence of absorption on fluorescence emission intensity and depth sensitivity at typical near-infrared fluorophore wavelength bands near 700 and 800 nm in mouse skin in order to correct for these tissue optical differences in signal detection. Changes in blood volume [1-3%] and hemoglobin oxygen saturation [0-100%] were demonstrated to introduce substantial distortions to receptor binding estimates (error > 30%), whereas sampled depth was relatively insensitive to wavelength (error < 6%). In response, a pixel-by-pixel normalization of tracer inputs immediately post-injection was found to account for spatial heterogeneities in local absorption properties. Application of the pixel-based normalization method to an in vivo imaging study demonstrated significant improvement, as compared with a reference tissue normalization approach. PMID:25360349

  5. Structure, Dynamics, and Allosteric Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor N-Terminal Domains.

    PubMed

    Krieger, James; Bahar, Ivet; Greger, Ingo H

    2015-09-15

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are tetrameric cation channels that mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity. They have a unique modular architecture with four domains: the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) that is involved in synaptic targeting, the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, the membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain (LBD) that binds agonists such as L-glutamate, and the distal N-terminal domain (NTD), whose function is the least clear. The extracellular portion, comprised of the LBD and NTD, is loosely arranged, mediating complex allosteric regulation and providing a rich target for drug development. Here, we briefly review recent work on iGluR NTD structure and dynamics, and further explore the allosteric potential for the NTD in AMPA-type iGluRs using coarse-grained simulations. We also investigate mechanisms underlying the established NTD allostery in NMDA-type iGluRs, as well as the fold-related metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors. We show that the clamshell motions intrinsically favored by the NTD bilobate fold are coupled to dimeric and higher-order rearrangements that impact the iGluR LBD and ultimately the TMD. Finally, we explore the dynamics of intact iGluRs and describe how it might affect receptor operation in a synaptic environment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure, Dynamics, and Allosteric Potential of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor N-Terminal Domains

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Bahar, Ivet; Greger, Ingo H.

    2015-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are tetrameric cation channels that mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity. They have a unique modular architecture with four domains: the intracellular C-terminal domain (CTD) that is involved in synaptic targeting, the transmembrane domain (TMD) that forms the ion channel, the membrane-proximal ligand-binding domain (LBD) that binds agonists such as L-glutamate, and the distal N-terminal domain (NTD), whose function is the least clear. The extracellular portion, comprised of the LBD and NTD, is loosely arranged, mediating complex allosteric regulation and providing a rich target for drug development. Here, we briefly review recent work on iGluR NTD structure and dynamics, and further explore the allosteric potential for the NTD in AMPA-type iGluRs using coarse-grained simulations. We also investigate mechanisms underlying the established NTD allostery in NMDA-type iGluRs, as well as the fold-related metabotropic glutamate and GABAB receptors. We show that the clamshell motions intrinsically favored by the NTD bilobate fold are coupled to dimeric and higher-order rearrangements that impact the iGluR LBD and ultimately the TMD. Finally, we explore the dynamics of intact iGluRs and describe how it might affect receptor operation in a synaptic environment. PMID:26255587

  7. Transient receptor potential channels in sensory neurons are targets of the antimycotic agent clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Meseguer, Victor; Karashima, Yuji; Talavera, Karel; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Donovan-Rodríguez, Tansy; Viana, Felix; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas

    2008-01-16

    Clotrimazole (CLT) is a widely used drug for the topical treatment of yeast infections of skin, vagina, and mouth. Common side effects of topical CLT application include irritation and burning pain of the skin and mucous membranes. Here, we provide evidence that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in primary sensory neurons underlie these unwanted effects of CLT. We found that clinically relevant CLT concentrations activate heterologously expressed TRPV1 and TRPA1, two TRP channels that act as receptors of irritant chemical and/or thermal stimuli in nociceptive neurons. In line herewith, CLT stimulated a subset of capsaicin-sensitive and mustard oil-sensitive trigeminal neurons, and evoked nocifensive behavior and thermal hypersensitivity with intraplantar injection in mice. Notably, CLT-induced pain behavior was suppressed by the TRPV1-antagonist BCTC [(N-(-4-tertiarybutylphenyl)-4-(3-cholorpyridin-2-yl)tetrahydropyrazine-1(2H)-carboxamide)] and absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. In addition, CLT inhibited the cold and menthol receptor TRPM8, and blocked menthol-induced responses in capsaicin- and mustard oil-insensitive trigeminal neurons. The concentration for 50% inhibition (IC50) of inward TRPM8 current was approximately 200 nM, making CLT the most potent known TRPM8 antagonist and a useful tool to discriminate between TRPM8- and TRPA1-mediated responses. Together, our results identify TRP channels in sensory neurons as molecular targets of CLT, and offer means to develop novel CLT preparations with fewer unwanted sensory side effects.

  8. Isothiocyanates from Wasabia japonica activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channel.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Miura, Yosuke; Nagai, Masashi; Tominaga, Makoto

    2012-11-01

    6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) and 6-(methylthio)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MTITC) have low pungency and are responsible for the fresh flavor of wasabi (Wasabia japonica [Miq] Matsumura). In this study, we found that these two isothiocyanates activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), and 6-MSITC activates transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), but not other transient receptor potential channels expressed in sensory neurons. Both 6-MSITC and 6-MTITCinduced intracellular Ca(2+) increases in human embryonic kidney-derived 293 cells expressing mouse TRPA1 (mTRPA1) as measured by Ca(2+) imaging. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC dose-dependently activated both mTRPA1 (EC(50) = 147±26 µM for 6-MSITC and 30±3 µM for 6-MTITC) and human TRPA1 (hTRPA1; EC(50) = 39±4 µM for 6-MSITC and 34±3 µM for 6-MTITC). In addition, TRPA1 N-terminal cysteines, which are reported to be important for channel activation by electrophilic ligands, were involved in 6-MSITC- and 6-MTITC-evoked TRPA1 activation. These isothiocyanates also activated endogenous TRPA1 expressed in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons and intraplantar injection of 10-30 mM 6-MSITC-evoked pain-related behaviors in mice. These results indicate the following: 1) 6-MSITC and 6-MTITC activate both mTRPA1 and hTRPA1; 2) 6-MSITC activates mTRPV1; and 3) the pharmacological functions of these isothiocyanates could be derived from TRPA1 activation.

  9. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER, GPR 30) in normal human endometrium and early pregnancy decidua.

    PubMed

    Kolkova, Z; Noskova, V; Ehinger, A; Hansson, S; Casslén, B

    2010-10-01

    The recently identified trans-membrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER, GPR30) has been implicated in rapid non-genomic effects of estrogens. This focuses on expression and localization of GPER mRNA and protein in normal cyclic endometrium and early pregnancy decidua. Real-time PCR, western blotting, in situ hybridization and immuno-histochemistry were used. Endometrial expression of GPER mRNA was lower in the secretory phase than in the proliferative phase, and even lower in the decidua. The expression pattern was similar to that of ERα mRNA, but different from that of ERβ mRNA. Western blot detected GPER protein as a 54 kDa band in all endometrial and decidual samples. In contrast to the mRNA, GPER protein did not show cyclic variations. Apparently, a lower amount of mRNA is sufficient to maintain protein levels in the secretory phase. GPER mRNA was predominantly localized in the epithelium of mid- and late-proliferative phase endometrium, whereas expression in early proliferative and secretory glands could not be distinguished from the diffuse stromal signal, which was present throughout the cycle. Immuno-staining for GPER was stronger in glandular and luminal epithelium than in the stroma throughout the cycle. The cyclic variations of GPER mRNA obviously relate to strong epithelial expression in the proliferative phase, and the expression pattern suggests regulation by ovarian steroids. GPER protein is present in endometrial tissue throughout the cycle, and the epithelial localization suggests potential functions during sperm migration at mid-cycle, as well as decidualization and blastocyst implantation in the mid-secretory phase.

  10. Immunization against exon 1 decapeptides from the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor or the follitropin receptor as potential male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Remy, J J; Couture, L; Rabesona, H; Haertle, T; Salesse, R

    1996-11-01

    Pituitary gonadotropin hormones lutropin (LH) and follitropin (FSH) control steroidogenesis and gametogenesis in male and female gonads through interaction with G protein-coupled receptors, LHR and FSHR. In the male, LH acts on leydig cells and is mostly responsible for the acquisition of puberty and the production of androgens while FSH, together with androgens, regulates spermatogenesis within Sertoli cells. We have engineered filamentous phages displaying mouse LHR and human FSHR decapeptides chosen in hormone binding regions. Peptides from both receptors displayed on phages belong either to the receptor specific exon 1 (amino acids 18-27) or to the homologous exon 4 (amino acids 98-107). Vaccination of prepubertal BALB/c male mice with hybrid phages using sub-cutaneous or intraperitoneal injections induced immunity against receptors. Anti-receptor immunization produced agonist or antagonist effects depending only on the circulating levels of the antibodies. Both anti-LHR and anti-FSHR vaccines induced efficient as well as reversible male contraception, through different mechanisms: targeting LH receptors inhibited or hyperstimulated Leydig cell testosterone production while targeting FSH receptors did not affect testosterone levels.

  11. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. PMID:27899502

  12. Characteristics of action potentials and their underlying outward currents in rat taste receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Sun, X D; Herness, S

    1996-02-01

    1. Taste receptor cells produce action potentials as a result of transduction mechanisms that occur when these cells are stimulated with tastants. These action potentials are thought to be key signaling events in relaying information to the central nervous system. We explored the ionic basis of action potentials from dissociated posterior rat taste cells using the patch-clamp recording technique in both voltage-clamp and current-clamp modes. 2. Action potentials were evoked by intracellular injection of depolarizing current pulses from a holding potential of -80 mV. The threshold potential for firing of action potentials was approximately -35 mV; the input resistance of these cells averaged 6.9 G omega. With long depolarizing pulses, two or three action potentials could be elicited with successive attenuation of the spike height. Afterhyperpolarizations were observed often. 3. Both sodium and calcium currents contribute to depolarizing phases of the action potential. Action potentials were blocked completely in the presence of the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin. Calcium contributions could be visualized as prolonged calcium plateaus when repolarizing potassium currents were blocked and barium was used as a charge carrier. 4. Outward currents were composed of sustained delayed rectifier current, transient potassium current, and calcium-activated potassium current. Transient and sustained potassium currents activated close to -30 mV and increased monotonically with further depolarization. Up to half the outward current inactivated with decay constants on the order of seconds. Sustained and transient currents displayed steep voltage dependence in conductance and inactivation curves. Half inactivation occurred at -20 +/- 3.1 mV (mean +/- SE) with a decrease of 11.2 +/- 0.5 mV per e-fold. Half maximal conductance occurred at 3.6 +/- 1.8 mV and increased 12.2 +/- 0.6 mV per e-fold. Calcium-activated potassium current was evidenced by application of apamin and the

  13. Hyperestrogenemia and presence of estrogen receptors associated with an epithelial ovarian tumor of low malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hur, H; Dgani, R; Insler, V; Lifschitz-Mercer, B; Blickstein, I; Mor, G; Kohen, F; Shani, A; Biran, H

    1996-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with breast congestion, tenderness and pain. Mammography was normal. Circulating estradiol was markedly elevated, while LH and FSH were low. Pelvic examination and imaging revealed an ovarian mass which was extirpated during total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Histopathology revealed an ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of low malignant potential, stage 1. The tumor was positively stained for estrogen receptors. Estradiol levels returned to normal post-operatively, with a corresponding adjustment of LH/FSH. Possible autocrine steroid production is discussed.

  14. Mapping General Anesthetic Sites in Heteromeric γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors Reveals a Potential For Targeting Receptor Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Forman, Stuart A; Miller, Keith W

    2016-11-01

    IV general anesthetics, including propofol, etomidate, alphaxalone, and barbiturates, produce important actions by enhancing γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor activation. In this article, we review scientific studies that have located and mapped IV anesthetic sites using photoaffinity labeling and substituted cysteine modification protection. These anesthetics bind in transmembrane pockets between subunits of typical synaptic GABAA receptors, and drugs that display stereoselectivity also show remarkably selective interactions with distinct interfacial sites. These results suggest strategies for developing new drugs that selectively modulate distinct GABAA receptor subtypes.

  15. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  16. A Critical Role for the Transient Receptor Potential Channel Type 6 in Human Platelet Activation

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, Christine; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2015-01-01

    While calcium signaling is known to play vital roles in platelet function, the mechanisms underlying its receptor-operated calcium entry component (ROCE) remain poorly understood. It has been proposed, but never proven in platelets, that the canonical transient receptor potential channel-6 (TRPC6) mediates ROCE. Nonetheless, we have previously shown that the mouse TRPC6 regulates hemostasis, thrombogenesis by regulating platelet aggregation. In the present studies, we used a pharmacological approach to characterize the role of TRPC6 in human platelet biology. Thus, interestingly, we observed that a TRPC6 inhibitor exerted significant inhibitory effects on human platelet aggregation in a thromboxane receptor (TPR)-selective manner; no additional inhibition was observed in the presence of the calcium chelator BAPTA. This inhibitor also significantly inhibited human platelet secretion (dense and alpha granules), integrin IIb-IIIa, Akt and ERK phosphorylation, again, in a TPR-selective manner; no effects were observed in response to ADP receptor stimulation. Furthermore, there was a causal relationship between these inhibitory effects, and the capacity of the TRPC6 inhibitor to abrogate elevation in intracellular calcium, that was again found to be TPR-specific. This effect was not found to be due to antagonism of TPR, as the TRPC6 inhibitor did not displace the radiolabeled antagonist [3H]SQ29,548 from its binding sites. Finally, our studies also revealed that TRPC6 regulates human clot retraction, as well as physiological hemostasis and thrombus formation, in mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TRPC6 directly regulates TPR-dependent ROCE and platelet function. Moreover, these data highlight TRPC6 as a novel promising therapeutic strategy for managing thrombotic disorders. PMID:25928636

  17. Absence of γ-aminobutyric acid-a receptor potentiation in central hypersomnolence disorders.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Evangelista, Elisa; Lopez, Regis; Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Cens, Thierry; Rousset, Matthieu; Charnet, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) remains unclear. Recently, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-induced enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor activity was found in patients with IH compared to controls. Fifteen unrelated patients (2 males and 13 females) affected with typical IH, 12 patients (9 males and 3 females) with narcolepsy type 1, and 15 controls (9 males and 6 females) with unspecified hypersomnolence (n = 7) and miscellaneous neurological conditions (n = 8) were included. A lumbar puncture was performed in all participants to measure CSF hypocretin-1 and GABA-A response. We used a voltage-clamp assay on Xenopus oocytes injected with the RNAs that encode the α1 β2 γ2 or the α2 β2 γ2 subunits of the human GABA-A receptor. A sequence of 6 different applications (GABA, GABA/CSF, and CSF alone) with 2 to 4 oocytes per CSF sample was performed in a whole-cell voltage-clamp assay. Representative current traces from oocytes expressing human α1 β2 γ2 or α2 β2 γ2 GABA-A receptors were recorded in response to 6 successive puffs of GABA diluted in the survival medium (SM), showing stable and reliable response. GABA puffs diluted in SM/CSF solution or SM/CSF solution alone showed no significant differences in the CSF of IH, narcolepsy, or control groups. No associations were found between GABA responses, demographic features, disease duration, or disease severity in the whole population or within groups. Using the Xenopus oocyte assay, we found an absence of GABA-A receptor potentiation with CSF from patients with central hypersomnolence disorders, with no significant differences between hypocretin-deficient and non-hypocretin-deficient patients compared to controls. Ann Neurol 2016;80:259-268. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  18. Subchronic Glucocorticoid Receptor Inhibition Rescues Early Episodic Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Deficits in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lanté, Fabien; Chafai, Magda; Raymond, Elisabeth Fabienne; Salgueiro Pereira, Ana Rita; Mouska, Xavier; Kootar, Scherazad; Barik, Jacques; Bethus, Ingrid; Marie, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    The early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by hippocampus-dependent memory deficits and impaired synaptic plasticity. Increasing evidence suggests that stress and dysregulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, marked by the elevated circulating glucocorticoids, are risk factors for AD onset. How these changes contribute to early hippocampal dysfunction remains unclear. Using an elaborated version of the object recognition task, we carefully monitored alterations in key components of episodic memory, the first type of memory altered in AD patients, in early symptomatic Tg2576 AD mice. We also combined biochemical and ex vivo electrophysiological analyses to reveal novel cellular and molecular dysregulations underpinning the onset of the pathology. We show that HPA axis, circadian rhythm, and feedback mechanisms, as well as episodic memory, are compromised in this early symptomatic phase, reminiscent of human AD pathology. The cognitive decline could be rescued by subchronic in vivo treatment with RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. These observed phenotypes were paralleled by a specific enhancement of N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD in CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas LTP and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent LTD remain unchanged. NMDAR transmission was also enhanced. Finally, we show that, as for the behavioral deficit, RU486 treatment rescues this abnormal synaptic phenotype. These preclinical results define glucocorticoid signaling as a contributing factor to both episodic memory loss and early synaptic failure in this AD mouse model, and suggest that glucocorticoid receptor targeting strategies could be beneficial to delay AD onset. PMID:25622751

  19. Docosahexaenoic acid, G protein-coupled receptors, and melanoma: is G protein-coupled receptor 40 a potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Nehra, Deepika; Pan, Amy H; Le, Hau D; Fallon, Erica M; Carlson, Sarah J; Kalish, Brian T; Puder, Mark

    2014-05-15

    To determine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the growth of human melanoma in vitro and in vivo and to better understand the potential role of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) in mediating this effect. For in vitro studies, human melanoma and control fibroblast cells were treated with DHA and TAK-875 (selective GPR40 agonist) and a cell viability assay was performed to determine cell counts. A murine subcutaneous xenograft model of human melanoma was used to test the effect of dietary treatment with an omega-3 fatty acid (FA) rich diet compared with an omega-6 FA rich diet on the growth of human melanoma in vivo. A similar animal model was used to test the effect of oral TAK-875 on the growth of established melanoma tumors in vivo. DHA has an inhibitory effect on the growth of human melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. Tumors from animals on the omega-3 FA rich diet were 69% smaller in weight (P = 0.005) and 76% smaller in volume compared with tumors from animals on the omega-6 FA rich diet. TAK-875 has an inhibitory effect on the growth of human melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. Tumors from animals treated with TAK-875 were 46% smaller in weight (P = 0.07), 62% smaller in volume (P = 0.03), and grew 77% slower (P = 0.04) compared with the placebo group. DHA and TAK-875 have a profound and selective inhibitory effect on the growth of human melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early-life seizures alter synaptic calcium-permeable AMPA receptor function and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lippman-Bell, Jocelyn J.; Zhou, Chengwen; Sun, Hongyu; Feske, Joel S.; Jensen, Frances E.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+)-mediated1 signaling pathways are critical to synaptic plasticity. In adults, the NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) represents a major route for activity-dependent synaptic Ca2+ entry. However, during neonatal development, when synaptic plasticity is high, many AMPA glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are also permeable to Ca2+ (CP-AMPAR) due to low GluA2 subunit expression, providing an additional route for activity- and glutamate-dependent Ca2+ influx and subsequent signaling. Therefore, altered hippocampal Ca2+ signaling may represent an age-specific pathogenic mechanism. We thus aimed to assess Ca2+ responses 48 hours after hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures (HS) in postnatal day (P)10 rats, a post-seizure time point at which we previously reported LTP attenuation. We found that Ca2+ responses were higher in brain slices from post-HS rats than in controls and this increase was CP-AMPAR-dependent. To determine whether synaptic CP-AMPAR expression was also altered post-HS, we assessed the expression of GluA2 at hippocampal synapses and the expression of long-term depression (LTD), which has been linked to the presence of synaptic GluA2. Here we report a decrease 48 hours after HS in synaptic GluA2 expression at synapses and LTD in hippocampal CA1. Given the potentially critical role of AMPAR trafficking in disease progression, we aimed to establish whether post-seizure in vivo AMPAR antagonist treatment prevented the enhanced Ca2+ responses, changes in GluA2 synaptic expression, and diminished LTD. We found that NBQX treatment prevents all three of these post-seizure consequences, further supporting a critical role for AMPARs as an age-specific therapeutic target. PMID:27521497

  1. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. PMID:21420431

  2. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels as drug targets for diseases of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 20 of the 30 mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channel subunits are expressed by specific neurons and cells within the alimentary canal. They subserve important roles in taste, chemesthesis, mechanosensation, pain and hyperalgesia and contribute to the regulation of gastrointestinal motility, absorptive and secretory processes, blood flow, and mucosal homeostasis. In a cellular perspective, TRP channels operate either as primary detectors of chemical and physical stimuli, as secondary transducers of ionotropic or metabotropic receptors, or as ion transport channels. The polymodal sensory function of TRPA1, TRPM5, TRPM8, TRPP2, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 enables the digestive system to survey its physical and chemical environment, which is relevant to all processes of digestion. TRPV5 and TRPV6 as well as TRPM6 and TRPM7 contribute to the absorption of Ca²⁺ and Mg²⁺, respectively. TRPM7 participates in intestinal pacemaker activity, and TRPC4 transduces muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation to smooth muscle contraction. Changes in TRP channel expression or function are associated with a variety of diseases/disorders of the digestive system, notably gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pain and hyperalgesia in heartburn, functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, cholera, hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, esophageal, gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancer, and polycystic liver disease. These implications identify TRP channels as promising drug targets for the management of a number of gastrointestinal pathologies. As a result, major efforts are put into the development of selective TRP channel agonists and antagonists and the assessment of their therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional insulin receptors are overexpressed in thyroid tumors: is this an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis?

    PubMed

    Frittitta, L; Sciacca, L; Catalfamo, R; Ippolito, A; Gangemi, P; Pezzino, V; Filetti, S; Vigneri, R

    1999-01-15

    Insulin receptor (IR), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, is expressed in normal thyroid cells and affects thyroid cell proliferation and differentiation. The authors measured IR content in benign and malignant thyroid tumors by three independent methods: a specific radioimmunoassay, 125I-insulin binding studies, and immunohistochemistry. The results obtained were compared with the IR content in paired, adjacent, normal thyroid tissue. To assess IR function in thyroid carcinoma cells, glucose uptake responsiveness to insulin was also studied in a human transformed thyroid cell line (B-CPAP) and in follicular carcinoma cells in primary culture. In 9 toxic adenomas, the average IR content was similar to that observed in the 9 paired normal thyroid tissue specimens from the same patients (2.2+/-0.3 vs. 2.1+/-0.3). In 13 benign nonfunctioning, or "cold," adenomas, the average IR content was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in paired normal tissue specimens (4.3+/-0.5 vs. 1.8+/-0.1). In 12 papillary and 10 follicular carcinomas, IR content was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in the adjacent normal thyroid tissue (4.0+/-0.4 vs. 1.6+/-0.2 and 5.6+/-1.0 vs. 1.8+/-0.2, respectively). The finding of a higher IR content in benign "cold" adenomas and in thyroid carcinomas was confirmed by both binding and immunostaining studies. The current studies indicate that 1) IR content is elevated in most follicular and papillary differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 2) IR content is also elevated in most benign follicular adenomas ("cold" nodules) but not in highly differentiated, hyperfunctioning follicular adenomas ("hot" nodules), which very rarely become malignant. This observation suggests that increased IR expression is not restricted to the thyroid malignant phenotype but is already present in the premalignant "cold" adenomas. It may contribute, therefore, to thyroid tumorigenesis and/or represent an early event that gives a selective growth advantage

  4. Targeting nociceptive transient receptor potential channels to treat chronic pain: current state of the field.

    PubMed

    Moran, Magdalene M; Szallasi, Arpad

    2018-06-01

    Control of chronic pain is frequently inadequate and/or associated with intolerable adverse effects, prompting a frantic search for new therapeutics and new therapeutic targets. Nearly two decades of preclinical and clinical research supports the involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in temperature perception, nociception and sensitization. Although there has been considerable excitement around the therapeutic potential of this channel family since the cloning and identification of TRPV1 cation channels as the capsaicin receptor more than 20 years ago, only modulators of a few channels have been tested clinically. TRPV1 channel antagonists have suffered from side effects related to the channel's role in temperature sensation; however, high dose formulations of capsaicin have reached the market and shown therapeutic utility. A number of potent, small molecule antagonists of TRPA1 channels have recently advanced into clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory and neuropathic pain, and TRPM8 antagonists are following closely behind for cold allodynia. TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM2 and TRPM3 channels have also been of significant interest. This review discusses the preclinical promise and status of novel analgesic agents that target TRP channels and the challenges that these compounds may face in development and clinical practice. This article is part of a themed section on Recent Advances in Targeting Ion Channels to Treat Chronic Pain. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.12/issuetoc. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. The therapeutic potential of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists for pain control.

    PubMed

    Decker, M W; Meyer, M D; Sullivan, J P

    2001-10-01

    Due to the limitations of currently available analgesics, a number of novel alternatives are currently under investigation, including neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists. During the 1990s, the discovery of the antinociceptive properties of the potent nAChR agonist epibatidine in rodents sparked interest in the analgesic potential of this class of compounds. Although epibatidine also has several mechanism-related toxicities, the identification of considerable nAChR diversity suggested that the toxicities and therapeutic actions of the compound might be mediated by distinct receptor subtypes. Consistent with this view, a number of novel nAChR agonists with antinociceptive activity and improved safety profiles in preclinical models have now been identified, including A-85380, ABT-594, DBO-83, SIB-1663 and RJR-2403. Of these, ABT-594 is the most advanced and is currently in Phase II clinical evaluation. Nicotinically-mediated antinociception has been demonstrated in a variety of rodent pain models and is likely mediated by the activation of descending inhibitory pathways originating in the brainstem with the predominant high-affinity nicotine site in brain, the alpha4beta2 subtype, playing a critical role. Thus, preclinical findings suggest that nAChR agonists have the potential to be highly efficacious treatments in a variety of pain states. However, clinical proof-of-principle studies will be required to determine if nAChR agonists are active in pathological pain.

  6. Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists potentiate a slow afterdepolarization in CNS neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, F.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have previously reported that, in the rat dorsolateral septal nucleus (DLSN), metabotropic glutamate receptor (met-GluR) agonists evoked a slow depolarization accompanied by an increase in membrane conductance and burst firing. We have speculated that the burst firing elicited by met-GluR agonists may be due to activation or enhancement of a non-specific cation current, which exists in some DLSN neurons. Now we report that a slow afterdepolarization (sADP) mediated by a non-specific cation current was potentiated by both 1S,3R-ACPD and quisqualate. In addition, met-GluR agonists unmask a sADP in DLSN neurons which did not show a sADP under control conditions. Our data suggest that a non-specific cation current can be potentiated by activation of the met-GluR.

  7. Optimization of potency and pharmacokinetic properties of tetrahydroisoquinoline transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Horne, Daniel B; Tamayo, Nuria A; Bartberger, Michael D; Bo, Yunxin; Clarine, Jeffrey; Davis, Carl D; Gore, Vijay K; Kaller, Matthew R; Lehto, Sonya G; Ma, Vu V; Nishimura, Nobuko; Nguyen, Thomas T; Tang, Phi; Wang, Weiya; Youngblood, Beth D; Zhang, Maosheng; Gavva, Narender R; Monenschein, Holger; Norman, Mark H

    2014-04-10

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a nonselective cation channel expressed in a subpopulation of sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. TRPM8 is the predominant mammalian cold temperature thermosensor and is activated by cold temperatures ranging from 8 to 25 °C and cooling compounds such as menthol or icilin. TRPM8 antagonists are being pursued as potential therapeutics for treatment of pain and bladder disorders. This manuscript outlines new developments in the SAR of a lead series of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives with emphasis on strategies to improve pharmacokinetic properties and potency. Selected compounds were profiled in two TRPM8 target-specific in vivo coverage models in rats (the icilin-induced wet dog shake model and the cold pressor test). Compound 45 demonstrated robust efficacy in both pharmacodynamic models with ED90 values <3 mg/kg.

  8. Laminar shear stress regulates endothelial kinin B1 receptor expression and function: potential implication in atherogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Duchene, Johan; Cayla, Cécile; Vessillier, Sandrine; Scotland, Ramona; Yamashiro, Kazuo; Lecomte, Florence; Syed, Irfan; Vo, Phuong; Marrelli, Alessandra; Pitzalis, Costantino; Cipollone, Francesco; Schanstra, Joost; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Hobbs, Adrian J; Perretti, Mauro; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The pro-inflammatory phenotype induced by low laminar shear stress (LSS) is implicated in atherogenesis. The kinin B1 receptor (B1R), known to be induced by inflammatory stimuli, exerts many pro-inflammatory effects including vasodilatation and leukocyte recruitment. We investigated whether low LSS is a stimulus for endothelial B1R expression and function. METHODS AND RESULTS Human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques expressed high level of B1R mRNA and protein. In addition, B1R expression was upregulated in the aortic arch (low LSS region) of ApoE-/- mice fed a high fat diet compared to vascular regions of high LSS and animals fed normal chow. Of interest, a greater expression of B1R was noticed in endothelial cells from regions of low LSS in aortic arch of ApoE-/- mice. B1R was also upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to low LSS (0-2dyn/cm2) compared to physiological LSS (6-10dyn/cm2): an effect similarly evident in murine vascular tissue perfused ex vivo. Functionally, B1R activation increased prostaglandin and CXCL5 expression in cells exposed to low, but not physiological, LSS. IL-1β and ox-LDL induced B1R expression and function in HUVECs, a response substantially enhanced under low LSS conditions and inhibited by blockade of NFκB activation. CONCLUSION Herein, we show that LSS is a major determinant of functional B1R expression in endothelium. Furthermore, whilst physiological high LSS is a powerful repressor of this inflammatory receptor, low LSS at sites of atheroma are associated with substantial upregulation, identifying this receptor as a potential therapeutic target. CONDENSED ABSTRACT Low laminar shear stress (LSS) underlies the pro-inflammatory processes in atherogenesis. Herein, we demonstrate that whilst physiological LSS represses inflammatory kinin B1 receptor (B1R) expression/function, low atherogenic LSS is associated with profound upregulation of both in atherosclerosis in both humans and animal

  9. The benefit of angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers for early treatment of hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Trimarco, Bruno; Santoro, Ciro; Pepe, Marco; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    ESC guidelines for management of arterial hypertension allow one to choose among five classes of antihypertensive drugs indiscriminately. They are based on the principle that in the management of hypertensive patients, it is fundamental to reduce blood pressure (BP), independently of the utilized drug. However, it has been demonstrated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a relevant role in the hypertensive-derived development and progression of organ damage. Thus, antihypertensive drugs interfering with the RAS should be preferred in preventing and reducing target organ damage. The availability of two classes of drugs, ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs), both interfering with the RAS, makes the choice between them difficult. Both pharmacological strategies offer an effective BP control, and a substantial improvement of prognosis in different associated pathologies. Regarding cardiovascular prevention, ACE-inhibitors have an extensive scientific literature regarding utility in high-risk patients. Nevertheless, there is evidence to support the concept that in the early phases of organ tissue damage, the RAS is activated, but the ACE pathway producing angiotensin II is not always employed. Accordingly, ACE-inhibitors appear to be less effective, whereas ARBs have a greater beneficial action in the initial stages of atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, patients undergoing ARBs therapy show a substantially lower risk of therapy discontinuation when compared to those treated with ACE-inhibitors, because of a better tolerability. In conclusion, ACE-inhibitors should be used in patients who have already developed organ damage, but tolerate this drug well, while ARBs should be the first choice in naïve hypertensive patients without organ damage or at the initial stages of disease.

  10. Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC)/Orai1-dependent Store-operated Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sabourin, Jessica; Bartoli, Fiona; Antigny, Fabrice; Gomez, Ana Maria; Benitah, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has emerged as an important mechanism in cardiac pathology. However, the signals that up-regulate SOCE in the heart remain unexplored. Clinical trials have emphasized the beneficial role of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) signaling blockade in heart failure and associated arrhythmias. Accumulated evidence suggests that the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone, through activation of its receptor, MR, might be a key regulator of Ca2+ influx in cardiomyocytes. We thus assessed whether and how SOCE involving transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) and Orai1 channels are regulated by aldosterone/MR in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Molecular screening using qRT-PCR and Western blotting demonstrated that aldosterone treatment for 24 h specifically increased the mRNA and/or protein levels of Orai1, TRPC1, -C4, -C5, and stromal interaction molecule 1 through MR activation. These effects were correlated with a specific enhancement of SOCE activities sensitive to store-operated channel inhibitors (SKF-96365 and BTP2) and to a potent Orai1 blocker (S66) and were prevented by TRPC1, -C4, and Orai1 dominant negative mutants or TRPC5 siRNA. A mechanistic approach showed that up-regulation of serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 mRNA expression by aldosterone is involved in enhanced SOCE. Functionally, 24-h aldosterone-enhanced SOCE is associated with increased diastolic [Ca2+]i, which is blunted by store-operated channel inhibitors. Our study provides the first evidence that aldosterone promotes TRPC1-, -C4-, -C5-, and Orai1-mediated SOCE in cardiomyocytes through an MR and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 pathway. PMID:27129253

  11. Human Milk Contains Novel Glycans That Are Potential Decoy Receptors for Neonatal Rotaviruses*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Hu, Liya; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mickum, Megan L.; Ashline, David J.; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Estes, Mary K.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Cummings, Richard D.; Smith, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Human milk contains a rich set of soluble, reducing glycans whose functions and bioactivities are not well understood. Because human milk glycans (HMGs) have been implicated as receptors for various pathogens, we explored the functional glycome of human milk using shotgun glycomics. The free glycans from pooled milk samples of donors with mixed Lewis and Secretor phenotypes were labeled with a fluorescent tag and separated via multidimensional HPLC to generate a tagged glycan library containing 247 HMG targets that were printed to generate the HMG shotgun glycan microarray (SGM). To investigate the potential role of HMGs as decoy receptors for rotavirus (RV), a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in children, we interrogated the HMG SGM with recombinant forms of VP8* domains of the RV outer capsid spike protein VP4 from human neonatal strains N155(G10P[11]) and RV3(G3P[6]) and a bovine strain, B223(G10P[11]). Glycans that were bound by RV attachment proteins were selected for detailed structural analyses using metadata-assisted glycan sequencing, which compiles data on each glycan based on its binding by antibodies and lectins before and after exo- and endo-glycosidase digestion of the SGM, coupled with independent MSn analyses. These complementary structural approaches resulted in the identification of 32 glycans based on RV VP8* binding, many of which are novel HMGs, whose detailed structural assignments by MSn are described in a companion report. Although sialic acid has been thought to be important as a surface receptor for RVs, our studies indicated that sialic acid is not required for binding of glycans to individual VP8* domains. Remarkably, each VP8* recognized specific glycan determinants within a unique subset of related glycan structures where specificity differences arise from subtle differences in glycan structures. PMID:25048705

  12. Functional interleukin-33 receptors are expressed in early progenitor stages of allergy-related granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Hirofumi; Arinobu, Yojiro; Miyawaki, Kohta; Takaki, Ayako; Ota, Shun-Ichiro; Ota, Yuri; Mitoma, Hiroki; Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Mori, Yasuo; Iwasaki, Hiromi; Niiro, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) induces T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine production and eosinophilia independently of acquired immunity, leading to innate immunity-mediated allergic inflammation. Allergy-related innate myeloid cells such as eosinophils, basophils and mast cells express the IL-33 receptor (IL-33R), but it is still unknown how IL-33 regulates allergic inflammation involving these cells and their progenitors. Here, we revealed that the functional IL-33R was expressed on eosinophil progenitors (EoPs), basophil progenitors (BaPs) and mast cell progenitors (MCPs). In the presence of IL-33, these progenitors did not expand, but produced a high amount of Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-9, IL-13, IL-1β and IL-6. The amount of cytokines produced by these progenitors was greater than that by mature cells. In vivo, IL-33 stimulated the expansion of EoPs, but it was dependent upon the elevated serum IL-5 that is presumably derived from type 2 innate lymphoid cells that express functional IL-33R. These data collectively suggest that EoPs, BaPs and MCPs are not only the sources of allergy-related granulocytes, but can also be sources of allergy-related cytokines in IL-33-induced inflammation. Because such progenitors can differentiate into mature granulocytes at the site of inflammation, they are potential therapeutic targets in IL-33-related allergic diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Serotonin 5-HT7 receptor agents: structure-activity relationships and potential therapeutic applications in central nervous system disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leopoldo, Marcello; Lacivita, Enza; Berardi, Francesco; Perrone, Roberto; Hedlund, Peter B.

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in the 1940s in serum, the mammalian intestinal mucosa, and in the central nervous system, serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in virtually all cognitive and behavioral human functions, and alterations in its neurochemistry have been implicated in the etiology of a plethora of neuropsychiatric disorders. The cloning of 5-HT receptor subtypes has been of importance in enabling them to be classified as specific protein molecules encoded by specific genes. The 5-HT7 receptor is the most recently classified member of the serotonin receptor family. Since its identification, it has been the subject of intense research efforts driven by its presence in functionally relevant regions of the brain. The availability of some selective antagonists and agonists, in combination with genetically modified mice lacking the 5-HT7 receptor, has allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiological role of this receptor. This paper reviews data on localization and pharmacological properties of the 5-HT7 receptor, and summarizes the results of structure-activity relationship studies aimed at the discovery of selective 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Additionally, an overview of the potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists in central nervous system disorders is presented. PMID:20923682

  14. Potential Landslide Early Detection Near Wenchuan by a Qualitatively Multi-Baseline Dinsar Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, K.; Chen, G.; Xu, Q.; Li, Z.; Qu, T.; Hu, L.; Lu, H.

    2018-04-01

    Early detection of landslides is important for disaster prevention, which was still very hard work with traditional surveying methods. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology provided us the ability to monitor displacements along the slope with wide coverage and high accuracy. In this paper, we proposed a qualitatively multi-baseline DInSAR method to early detect and map the potential landslides. Two sections of China National Highway 317 and 213 were selected as study area. With this method 10 potential landslide areas were early detected and mapped in a quick and effective way. One of them (i.e. Shidaguan landslide) collapsed on August 2017, which was coincident with our results, suggesting that this method could become an effective way to acquire the landslide early detection map to assist the future disaster prevention work.

  15. AMPA receptor desensitization mutation results in severe developmental phenotypes and early postnatal lethality

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Louisa A.; Russell, Theron A.; Xu, Jian; Wood, Lydia; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.; Contractor, Anis

    2010-01-01

    AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) recep-tors desensitize rapidly and completely in the continued presence of their endogenous ligand glutamate; however, it is not clear what role AMPA receptor desensitization plays in the brain. We generated a knock-in mouse in which a single amino acid residue, which controls desensitization, was mutated in the GluA2 (GluR2) receptor subunit (GluA2L483Y). This mutation was homozygous lethal. However, mice carrying a single mutated allele, GluA2L483Y/wt, survived past birth, but displayed severe and progressive neurological deficits including seizures and, ultimately, increased mortality. The expression of the AMPA receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 was decreased, whereas NMDA receptor protein expression was increased in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Despite this, basal synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus were largely unaffected, suggesting that neurons preferentially target receptors to synapses to normalize synaptic weight. We found no gross neuroanatomical alterations in GluA2L483Y/wt mice. Moreover, there was no accumulation of AMPA receptor subunits in intracellular compartments, suggesting that folding and assembly of AMPA receptors are not affected by this mutation. Interestingly, EPSC paired pulse ratios in the CA1 were enhanced without a change in synaptic release probability, demonstrating that postsynaptic receptor properties can contribute to facilitation. The dramatic phenotype observed in this study by the introduction of a single amino acid change demonstrates an essential role in vivo for AMPA receptor desensitization. PMID:20439731

  16. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Need for Better Diabetes Treatment: The Therapeutic Potential of NMDA Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Welters, A; Lammert, E; Mayatepek, E; Meissner, T

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder in children and adolescents. Optimal control of blood glucose concentration is essential to prevent acute and diabetic long-term complications. The options to treat diabetes have clearly improved over the last decades, however, to date neither type 1 diabetes nor type 2 diabetes mellitus can be cured. Therefore, diabetes research aims at developing β-cell protective agents that prevent or even reverse diabetes onset. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) where they hold central roles in CNS function. NMDAR dysfunction is associated with several neurological and psychiatric disorders and therefore NMDAR modulators have several potential therapeutic indications. Only little is known about the role of pancreatic NMDA receptors. Our data provide evidence that inhibition of pancreatic NMDARs, either genetically or pharmacologically with the over-the-counter drug dextromethorphan, increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from mouse and human pancreatic islets, improves glucose tolerance in mice and individuals with diabetes and promotes islet cell survival under diabetogenic conditions. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that NMDAR antagonists could serve as adjunct treatment for diabetes mellitus. The development of a safe, blood glucose lowering and particularly β-cell protective medication would significantly enhance current diabetes treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. A Low-Molecular-Weight Antagonist for the Human Thyrotropin Receptor with Therapeutic Potential for Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Susanne; Kleinau, Gunnar; Costanzi, Stefano; Moore, Susanna; Jiang, Jian-kang; Raaka, Bruce M.; Thomas, Craig J.; Krause, Gerd; Gershengorn, Marvin C.

    2008-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) antagonists for TSH receptor (TSHR) may have therapeutic potential as orally active drugs to block stimulating antibodies (TsAbs) in Graves’ hyperthyroidism. We describe an approach to identify LMW ligands for TSHR based on Org41841, a LMW partial agonist for the LH/choriogonadotropin receptor and TSHR. We used molecular modeling and functional experiments to guide the chemical modification of Org41841. We identified an antagonist (NIDDK/CEB-52) that selectively inhibits activation of TSHR by both TSH and TsAbs. Whereas initially characterized in cultured cells overexpressing TSHRs, the antagonist was also active under more physiologically relevant conditions in primary cultures of human thyrocytes expressing endogenous TSHRs in which it inhibited TSH- and TsAb-induced up-regulation of mRNA transcripts for thyroperoxidase. Our results establish this LMW compound as a lead for the development of higher potency antagonists and serve as proof of principle that LMW ligands that target TSHR could serve as drugs in patients with Graves’ disease. PMID:18669595

  19. Pre-clinical studies in cough research: Role of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Megan S.; Dubuis, Eric; Birrell, Mark A.; Belvisi, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Cough is a protective reflex and defence mechanism in healthy individuals, which helps clear excessive secretions and foreign material from the lungs. Cough often presents as the first and most persistent symptom of many respiratory diseases and some non-respiratory disorders, but can also be idiopathic, and is a common respiratory complaint for which medical attention is sought. Chronic cough of various aetiologies is a regular presentation to specialist respiratory clinics, and is reported as a troublesome symptom by a significant proportion of the population. Despite this, the treatment options for cough are limited. The lack of effective anti-tussives likely stems from our incomplete understanding of how the tussive reflex is mediated. However, research over the last decade has begun to shed some light on the mechanisms which provoke cough, and may ultimately provide us with better anti-tussive therapies. This review will focus on the in vitro and in vivo models that are currently used to further our understanding of the sensory innervation of the respiratory tract, and how these nerves are involved in controlling the cough response. Central to this are the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels, a family of polymodal receptors that can be activated by such diverse stimuli as chemicals, temperature, osmotic stress, and mechanical perturbation. These ion channels are thought to be molecular pain integrators and targets for novel analgesic agents for the treatment of various pain disorders but some are also being developed as anti-tussives. PMID:23474212

  20. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William; Muscoli, Carolina; Colasanti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom.

  1. The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Antagonist Capsazepine Improves the Impaired Lung Mechanics during Endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Layla D M; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2016-11-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) caused by systemic inflammatory response remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Management of patients with sepsis is largely limited to supportive therapies, reflecting an incomplete understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Furthermore, there have been limited advances in the treatments for ALI. In this study, lung function and a histological analysis were performed to evaluate the impact of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptor (TRPV1) antagonist (capsazepine; CPZ) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury in mice. For this, adult mice pre-treated with CPZ or vehicle received intraperitoneal injections of LPS or saline and 24 hr after, the mice were anaesthetized, and lung mechanics was evaluated. The LPS-challenged mice exhibited substantial mechanical impairment, characterized by increases in respiratory system resistance, respiratory system elastance, tissue damping and tissue elastance. The pre-treatment with CPZ prevented the increase in respiratory system resistance and decreased the increase in tissue damping during endotoxemia. In addition, mice pre-treated with CPZ had an attenuated lung injury evidenced by reduction on collapsed area of the lung parenchyma induced by LPS. This suggests that the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine has a protective effect on lung mechanics in ALI during endotoxemia and that it may be a target for enhanced therapeutic efficacy in ALI. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  2. Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors: clinical potential in heart failure and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagdeep SS; Lang, Chim C

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure remains a major concern across the globe as life expectancies and delivery of health care continue to improve. There has been a dearth of new developments in heart failure therapies in the last decade until last year, with the release of the results from the PARADIGM-HF Trial heralding the arrival of a promising new class of drug, ie, the angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor. In this review, we discuss the evolution of our incremental understanding of the neurohormonal mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of heart failure, which has led to our success in modulating its various pathways. We start by examining the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, followed by the challenges of modulating the natriuretic peptide system. We then delve deeper into the pharmacology and mechanisms by which angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors achieve their significant cardiovascular benefits. Finally, we also consider the potential application of this new class of drug in other areas, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, hypertension, patients with renal impairment, and following myocardial infarction. PMID:26082640

  3. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin-3 (TRPM3) Mediates Nociceptive-Like Responses in Hydra vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Malafoglia, Valentina; Traversetti, Lorenzo; Del Grosso, Floriano; Scalici, Massimiliano; Lauro, Filomena; Russo, Valeria; Persichini, Tiziana; Salvemini, Daniela; Mollace, Vincenzo; Fini, Massimo; Raffaeli, William

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mammals to feel noxious stimuli lies in a heterogeneous group of primary somatosensory neurons termed nociceptors, which express specific membrane receptors, such as the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family. Here, we show that one of the most important nociceptive-like pathways is conserved in the freshwater coelenterate Hydra vulgaris, the most primitive organism possessing a nervous system. In particular, we found that H. vulgaris expresses TRPM3, a nociceptor calcium channel involved in the detection of noxious heat in mammals. Furthermore, we detected that both heat shock and TRPM3 specific agonist (i.e., pregnenolone sulfate) induce the modulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS), two genes activated by TRP-mediated heat painful stimuli in mammals. As expected, these effects are inhibited by a TRPM3 antagonist (i.e., mefenamic acid). Interestingly, the TRPM3 agonist and heat shock also induce the expression of nuclear transcription erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), known markers of oxidative stress; noteworthy gene expression was also inhibited by the TRPM3 antagonist. As a whole, our results demonstrate the presence of conserved molecular oxidative/nociceptive-like pathways at the primordial level of the animal kingdom. PMID:26974325

  4. Involvement of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) 4 in mouse sperm thermotaxis.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Koh-Ichi; Kawanishi, Tae; Mizuno, Atsuko; Suzuki, Makoto; Takagi, Yuji

    2016-08-25

    Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) 4 is one of the temperature-sensitive ion channels involved in temperature receptors, and it is known to be activated from 35 to 40ºC. Here we analyzed sperm motility function of Trpv4 knockout (KO) mouse in temperature-gradient conditions to elucidate the thermotaxis of mouse sperm and the involvement of TRPV4 in thermotaxis. The sperm were introduced at the vertical column end of a T-shaped chamber filled with medium in a plastic dish, and we measured the number of sperm that arrived at both ends of the wide column where we had established a temperature gradient of approx. 2ºC, and we evaluated the sperm's thermotaxis. Large numbers of wild-type (WT) mouse sperm migrated into the high level of the temperature gradient that was set in the wide column, and thermotaxis was confirmed. The ratio of migrated sperm at the high temperature level of the T-shaped chamber was decreased in the KO sperm and Ruthenium red (a TRPV antagonist) treated sperm compared with the WT sperm. The thermotaxis of the mouse sperm was confirmed, and the involvement of TRPV4 in this thermotaxis was suggested.

  5. Gating of Long-Term Potentiation by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors at the Cerebellum Input Stage

    PubMed Central

    Prestori, Francesca; Bonardi, Claudia; Mapelli, Lisa; Lombardo, Paola; Goselink, Rianne; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Gandolfi, Daniela; Mapelli, Jonathan; Bertrand, Daniel; Schonewille, Martijn; De Zeeuw, Chris; D’Angelo, Egidio

    2013-01-01

    The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD) between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation. PMID:23741401

  6. Effects of early-life malnutrition on neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders and the potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xintian; Zhao, Xinzhi; Li, Juxue; He, Lin; Xu, Mingqing

    2018-04-20

    Lines of evidence have demonstrated that early-life malnutrition is highly correlated with neurodevelopment and adulthood neuropsychiatric disorders, while some findings are conflicting with each other. In addition, the biological mechanisms are less investigated. We systematically reviewed the evidence linking early-life nutrition status with neurodevelopment and clinical observations in human and animal models. We summarized the effects of special nutritious on neuropsychiatric disorders and explored the underlying potential mechanisms. The further understanding of the biological regulation of early-life nutritional status on neurodevelopment might shed light on precision nutrition at an integrative systems biology framework. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Restricted T cell receptor repertoire in CLL-like monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis and early stage CLL.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Gonzalo; Vardi, Anna; Puiggros, Anna; Gómez-Llonín, Andrea; Muro, Manuel; Rodríguez-Rivera, María; Stalika, Evangelia; Abella, Eugenia; Gimeno, Eva; López-Sánchez, Manuela; Senín, Alicia; Calvo, Xavier; Abrisqueta, Pau; Bosch, Francesc; Ferrer, Ana; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Espinet, Blanca

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of the T cell receptor (TR) repertoire of chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (CLL-like MBL) and early stage CLL is relevant for understanding the dynamic interaction of expanded B cell clones with bystander T cells. Here we profiled the T cell receptor β chain (TRB) repertoire of the CD4 + and CD8 + T cell fractions from 16 CLL-like MBL and 13 untreated, Binet stage A/Rai stage 0 CLL patients using subcloning analysis followed by Sanger sequencing. The T cell subpopulations of both MBL and early stage CLL harbored restricted TRB gene repertoire, with CD4 + T cell clonal expansions whose frequency followed the numerical increase of clonal B cells. Longitudinal analysis in MBL cases revealed clonal persistence, alluding to persistent antigen stimulation. In addition, the identification of shared clonotypes among different MBL/early stage CLL cases pointed towards selection of the T cell clones by common antigenic elements. T cell clonotypes previously described in viral infections and immune disorders were also detected. Altogether, our findings evidence that antigen-mediated TR restriction occurs early in clonal evolution leading to CLL and may further increase together with B cell clonal expansion, possibly suggesting that the T cell selecting antigens are tumor-related.

  8. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98. 734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 duringmore » early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. /sup 3/H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of /sup 3/H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy.« less

  9. Developmental profiles of progesterone receptor transcripts and molecular responses to gestagen exposure during Silurana tropicalis early development.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Paisley; Langlois, Valerie S

    2018-05-18

    Environmental gestagens are an emerging class of contaminants that have been recently measured in surface water and can interfere with reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. Gestagens include endogenous progestogens, such as progesterone (P4), which bind P4-receptors and have critically important roles in vertebrate physiology and reproduction. Gestagens also include synthetic progestins, which are components of human and veterinary drugs, such as melengestrol acetate (MGA). Endogenous progestogens are essential in the regulation of reproduction in mammalian species, but the role of P4 in amphibian larval development remains unclear. This project aims to understand the roles and the regulatory mechanisms of P4 in amphibians and to assess the consequences of exposures to environmental gestagens on the P4-receptor signaling pathways in frogs. Here, we established the developmental profiles of the P4 receptors: the intracellular progesterone receptor (ipgr), the membrane progesterone receptor β (mpgrβ), and the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (pgrmc1) in Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) embryos using real-time qPCR. P4-receptor mRNAs were detected throughout embryogenesis. Transcripts for ipgr and pgrmc1 were detected in embryos at Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 2 and 7, indicative of maternal transfer of mRNA. We also assessed the effects of P4 and MGA exposure in embryonic and early larval development. Endocrine responses were evaluated through transcript analysis of a suite of gene targets of interest, including: ipgr, mpgrβ, pgrmc1, androgen receptor (ar), estrogen receptor α (erα), follicle stimulating hormone β (fshβ), prolactin (prl), and the steroid 5-alpha reductase family (srd5α1, 2, and 3). Acute exposure (NF 12-46) to P4 caused a 2- to 5-fold change increase of ipgr, mpgrβ, pgrmc1, and ar mRNA levels at the environmentally relevant concentration of 195 ng/L P4. Acute exposure to MGA induced a 56% decrease of srd5α3 at 1140

  10. Alpha-Synuclein Produces Early Behavioral Alterations via Striatal Cholinergic Synaptic Dysfunction by Interacting With GluN2D N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Subunit.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alessandro; de Iure, Antonio; Bagetta, Vincenza; Tantucci, Michela; Durante, Valentina; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Costa, Cinzia; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Ghiglieri, Veronica; Latagliata, Emanuele Claudio; Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Decressac, Mickael; Giampà, Carmela; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Xia, Jing; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Mellone, Manuela; El-Agnaf, Omar Mukhtar; Ardah, Mustafa Taleb; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Björklund, Anders; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by massive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons, dramatic motor and cognitive alterations, and presence of nigral Lewy bodies, whose main constituent is α-synuclein (α-syn). However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying behavioral and motor effects induced by early selective overexpression of nigral α-syn are still a matter of debate. We performed behavioral, molecular, and immunohistochemical analyses in two transgenic models of PD, mice transgenic for truncated human α-synuclein 1-120 and rats injected with the adeno-associated viral vector carrying wild-type human α-synuclein. We also investigated striatal synaptic plasticity by electrophysiological recordings from spiny projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons. We found that overexpression of truncated or wild-type human α-syn causes partial reduction of striatal dopamine levels and selectively blocks the induction of long-term potentiation in striatal cholinergic interneurons, producing early memory and motor alterations. These effects were dependent on α-syn modulation of the GluN2D-expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in cholinergic interneurons. Acute in vitro application of human α-syn oligomers mimicked the synaptic effects observed ex vivo in PD models. We suggest that striatal cholinergic dysfunction, induced by a direct interaction between α-syn and GluN2D-expressing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, represents a precocious biological marker of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Targeting the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 (TRPV1) Assembly Domain Attenuates Inflammation-induced Hypersensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Iftinca, Mircea; Aboushousha, Reem; Varela, Diego; Altier, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed in sensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. TRPV1 is a polymodal channel activated by noxious heat, capsaicin, and protons. As a sensor for noxious stimuli, TRPV1 channel has been described as a key contributor to pain signaling. To form a functional channel, TRPV1 subunits must assemble into tetramers, and several studies have identified the TRPV1 C terminus as an essential element in subunit association. Here we combined biochemical assays with electrophysiology and imaging-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in live cells to identify a short motif in the C-terminal tail of the TRPV1 subunit that governs channel assembly. Removing this region through early truncation or targeted deletion results in loss of subunit association and channel function. Importantly, we found that interfering with TRPV1 subunit association using a plasma membrane-tethered peptide attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in two mouse models of inflammatory hyperalgesia. This represents a novel mechanism to disrupt TRPV1 subunit assembly and hence may offer a new analgesic tool for pain relief. PMID:24808184

  12. Targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) assembly domain attenuates inflammation-induced hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Iftinca, Mircea; Aboushousha, Reem; Varela, Diego; Altier, Christophe

    2014-06-13

    The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel expressed in sensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. TRPV1 is a polymodal channel activated by noxious heat, capsaicin, and protons. As a sensor for noxious stimuli, TRPV1 channel has been described as a key contributor to pain signaling. To form a functional channel, TRPV1 subunits must assemble into tetramers, and several studies have identified the TRPV1 C terminus as an essential element in subunit association. Here we combined biochemical assays with electrophysiology and imaging-based bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) in live cells to identify a short motif in the C-terminal tail of the TRPV1 subunit that governs channel assembly. Removing this region through early truncation or targeted deletion results in loss of subunit association and channel function. Importantly, we found that interfering with TRPV1 subunit association using a plasma membrane-tethered peptide attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in two mouse models of inflammatory hyperalgesia. This represents a novel mechanism to disrupt TRPV1 subunit assembly and hence may offer a new analgesic tool for pain relief. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A thermodynamic framework for understanding temperature sensing by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, David E.; Miller, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The exceptionally high temperature sensitivity of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channels is the molecular basis of hot and cold sensation in sensory neurons. The laws of thermodynamics dictate that opening of these specialized TRP channels must involve an unusually large conformational standard-state enthalpy, ΔHo: positive ΔHo for heat-activated and negative ΔHo for cold-activated TRPs. However, the molecular source of such high-enthalpy changes has eluded neurobiologists and biophysicists. Here we offer a general, unifying mechanism for both hot and cold activation that recalls long-appreciated principles of protein folding. We suggest that TRP channel gating is accompanied by large changes in molar heat capacity, ΔCP. This postulate, along with the laws of thermodynamics and independent of mechanistic detail, leads to the conclusion that hot- and cold-sensing TRPs operate by identical conformational changes. PMID:22109551

  14. A thermodynamic framework for understanding temperature sensing by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.

    PubMed

    Clapham, David E; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-06

    The exceptionally high temperature sensitivity of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channels is the molecular basis of hot and cold sensation in sensory neurons. The laws of thermodynamics dictate that opening of these specialized TRP channels must involve an unusually large conformational standard-state enthalpy, ΔH(o): positive ΔH(o) for heat-activated and negative ΔH(o) for cold-activated TRPs. However, the molecular source of such high-enthalpy changes has eluded neurobiologists and biophysicists. Here we offer a general, unifying mechanism for both hot and cold activation that recalls long-appreciated principles of protein folding. We suggest that TRP channel gating is accompanied by large changes in molar heat capacity, ΔC(P). This postulate, along with the laws of thermodynamics and independent of mechanistic detail, leads to the conclusion that hot- and cold-sensing TRPs operate by identical conformational changes.

  15. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Their Link with Cardio/Cerebro-Vascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiong; Liu, Hui-Xia; Shen, Kuo; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) constitute a series of nonselective cation channels with variable degrees of Ca2+ selectivity. TRPCs consist of seven mammalian members, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7, which are further divided into four subtypes, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC4/5, and TRPC3/6/7. These channels take charge of various essential cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, and dysfunction. This review, organized into seven main sections, will provide an overview of current knowledge about the underlying pathogenesis of TRPCs in cardio/cerebrovascular diseases, including hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular ischemia reperfusion injury. Collectively, TRPCs could become a group of drug targets with important physiological functions for the therapy of human cardio/cerebro-vascular diseases. PMID:28274093

  16. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential Channels and Their Link with Cardio/Cerebro-Vascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiong; Liu, Hui-Xia; Shen, Kuo; Cao, Wei; Li, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPCs) constitute a series of nonselective cation channels with variable degrees of Ca 2+ selectivity. TRPCs consist of seven mammalian members, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7, which are further divided into four subtypes, TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC4/5, and TRPC3/6/7. These channels take charge of various essential cell functions such as contraction, relaxation, proliferation, and dysfunction. This review, organized into seven main sections, will provide an overview of current knowledge about the underlying pathogenesis of TRPCs in cardio/cerebrovascular diseases, including hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, and cerebrovascular ischemia reperfusion injury. Collectively, TRPCs could become a group of drug targets with important physiological functions for the therapy of human cardio/cerebro-vascular diseases.

  17. Properties of the intracellular transient receptor potential (TRP) channel in yeast, Yvc1.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yiming; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Flockerzi, Veit; Beck, Andreas

    2010-05-17

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are found among mammals, flies, worms, ciliates, Chlamydomonas, and yeast but are absent in plants. These channels are believed to be tetramers of proteins containing six transmembrane domains (TMs). Their primary structures are diverse with sequence similarities only in some short amino acid sequence motifs mainly within sequences covering TM5, TM6, and adjacent domains. In the yeast genome, there is one gene encoding a TRP-like sequence. This protein forms an ion channel in the vacuolar membrane and is therefore called Yvc1 for yeast vacuolar conductance 1. In the following we summarize its prominent features. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials for sites of early versus late seizure spread in stereoelectroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Lega, Bradley; Dionisio, Sasha; Flanigan, Patrick; Bingaman, William; Najm, Imad; Nair, Dileep; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Cortico-cortical evoked potentials offer the possibility of understanding connectivity within seizure networks to improve diagnosis and more accurately identify candidates for seizure surgery. We sought to determine if cortico-cortical evoked potentials and post-stimulation oscillatory changes differ for sites of EARLY versus LATE ictal spread. 37 patients undergoing stereoelectroencephalography were tested using a cortico-cortical evoked potential paradigm. All electrodes were classified according to the speed of ictal spread. EARLY spread sites were matched to a LATE spread site equidistant from the onset zone. Root-mean-square was used to quantify evoked responses and post-stimulation gamma band power and coherence were extracted and compared. Sites of EARLY spread exhibited significantly greater evoked responses after stimulation across all patients (t(36)=2.973, p=0.004). Stimulation elicited enhanced gamma band activity at EARLY spread sites (t(36)=2.61, p=0.03, FDR corrected); this gamma band oscillation was highly coherent with the onset zone. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials and post-stimulation changes in gamma band activity differ between sites of EARLY versus LATE ictal spread. The oscillatory changes can help visualize connectivity within the seizure network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of a potential tumor differentiation factor receptor candidate in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Izabela; Woods, Alisa G; Gawinowicz, Mary Ann; Roy, Urmi; Darie, Costel C

    2012-07-01

    Tumor differentiation factor (TDF) is a pituitary protein that is secreted into the bloodstream and has an endocrine function. TDF and TDF-P1, a 20-residue peptide selected from the ORF of TDF, induce differentiation in human breast and prostate cancer cells, but not in other cells. TDF has no known mechanism of action. In our recent study, we identified heat shock 70 kDa proteins (HSP70s) as TDF receptors (TDF-Rs) in breast cancer cells. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether TDF-R candidates from prostate cancer cells are the same as those identified in breast cancer cells. Here, we used TDF-P1 to purify the potential TDF-R candidates by affinity purification chromatography from DU145 and PC3 steroid-resistant prostate cancer cells, LNCaP steroid-responsive prostate cancer cells, and nonprostate NG108 neuroblastoma and BLK CL.4 fibroblast-like cells. We identified the purified proteins by MS, and validated them by western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoaffinity purification chromatography, and structural biology. We identified seven candidate proteins, of which three were from the HSP70 family. These three proteins were validated as potential TDF-R candidates in LNCaP steroid-responsive and in DU145 and PC3 steroid-resistant prostate cancer cells, but not in NG108 neuroblastoma and BLK CL.4 fibroblast-like cells. Our previous study and the current study suggest that GRP78, and perhaps HSP70s, are strong TDF-R candidates, and further suggest that TDF interacts with its receptors exclusively in breast and prostate cells, inducing cell differentiation through a novel, steroid-independent pathway. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  20. Mechanisms of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation and sensitization by allyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Sanchez, Alicia; Everaerts, Wouter; Segal, Andrei; Xue, Fenqin; Janssens, Annelies; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; aka, mustard oil) is a powerful irritant produced by Brassica plants as a defensive trait against herbivores and confers pungency to mustard and wasabi. AITC is widely used experimentally as an inducer of acute pain and neurogenic inflammation, which are largely mediated by the activation of nociceptive cation channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Although it is generally accepted that electrophilic agents activate these channels through covalent modification of cytosolic cysteine residues, the mechanism underlying TRPV1 activation by AITC remains unknown. Here we show that, surprisingly, AITC-induced activation of TRPV1 does not require interaction with cysteine residues, but is largely dependent on S513, a residue that is involved in capsaicin binding. Furthermore, AITC acts in a membrane-delimited manner and induces a shift of the voltage dependence of activation toward negative voltages, which is reminiscent of capsaicin effects. These data indicate that AITC acts through reversible interactions with the capsaicin binding site. In addition, we show that TRPV1 is a locus for cross-sensitization between AITC and acidosis in nociceptive neurons. Furthermore, we show that residue F660, which is known to determine the stimulation by low pH in human TRPV1, is also essential for the cross-sensitization of the effects of AITC and low pH. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that not all reactive electrophiles stimulate TRPV1 via cysteine modification and help understanding the molecular bases underlying the surprisingly large role of this channel as mediator of the algesic properties of AITC.

  1. Spontaneous calcium transients in human neural progenitor cells mediated by transient receptor potential channels.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Peter J; Hübner, Rayk; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2013-09-15

    Calcium signals affect many developmental processes, including proliferation, migration, survival, and apoptosis, processes that are of particular importance in stem cells intended for cell replacement therapies. The mechanisms underlying Ca(2+) signals, therefore, have a role in determining how stem cells respond to their environment, and how these responses might be controlled in vitro. In this study, we examined the spontaneous Ca(2+) activity in human neural progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation. Pharmacological characterization indicates that in proliferating cells, most activity is the result of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are sensitive to Gd(3+) and La(3+), with the more subtype selective antagonist Ruthenium red also reducing activity, suggesting the involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels. In differentiating cells, Gd(3+) and La(3+)-sensitive TRP channels also appear to underlie the spontaneous activity; however, no sub-type-specific antagonists had any effect. Protein levels of TRPV2 and TRPV3 decreased in differentiated cells, which is demonstrated by western blot. Thus, it appears that TRP channels represent the main route of Ca(2+) entry in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), but the responsible channel types are subject to substitution under differentiating conditions. The level of spontaneous activity could be increased and decreased by lowering and raising the extracellular K(+) concentration. Proliferating cells in low K(+) slowed the cell cycle, with a disproportionate increased percentage of cells in G1 phase and a reduction in S phase. Taken together, these results suggest a link between external K(+) concentration, spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, and cell cycle distribution, which is able to influence the fate of stem and progenitor cells.

  2. Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Samia; Eldeeb, Khalil; Millns, Paul J; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Microglial cells are important mediators of the immune response in the CNS. The phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have central anti-inflammatory properties, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CBD and other phytocannabinoids on microglial phagocytosis. Experimental Approach Phagocytosis was assessed by measuring ingestion of fluorescently labelled latex beads by cultured microglial cells. Drug effects were probed using single-cell Ca2+ imaging and expression of mediator proteins by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Key Results CBD (10 μM) enhanced bead phagocytosis to 175 ± 7% control. Other phytocannabinoids, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids were without effect. The enhancement was dependent upon Ca2+ influx and was abolished in the presence of EGTA, the Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF96365, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red, and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and AMG9810. CBD produced a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in BV-2 microglia and this was abolished by ruthenium red. CBD rapidly increased the expression of TRPV2 and TRPV1 proteins and caused a translocation of TRPV2 to the cell membrane. Wortmannin blocked CBD enhancement of BV-2 cell phagocytosis, suggesting that it is mediated by PI3K signalling downstream of the Ca2+ influx. Conclusions and Implications The TRPV-dependent phagocytosis-enhancing effect of CBD suggests that pharmacological modification of TRPV channel activity could be a rational approach to treating neuroinflammatory disorders involving changes in microglial function and that CBD is a potential starting point for future development of novel therapeutics acting on the TRPV receptor family. PMID:24641282

  3. Low asialoglycoprotein receptor expression as markers for highly proliferative potential hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ise, H; Sugihara, N; Negishi, N; Nikaido, T; Akaike, T

    2001-07-13

    Development of a reliable method to isolate highly proliferative potential hepatocytes will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration, as well as proving crucial for the development of a biohybrid artificial liver. The aim of this study is to isolate highly proliferative, e.g., progenitor-like, hepatocytes. To this end, we fractionated hepatocytes expressing low and high levels of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) based on the difference in their adhesion to poly[N-p-vinylbenzyl-O-beta-d-galactopyranosyl-(1-->4)-d-gluconamide] (PVLA), and examined the proliferative activity and gene expression of these fractionated hepatocytes. The results showed that approximately 0.5 to 1% of the total number of hepatocytes, which showed low adhesion to PVLA, expressed low levels of the ASGP-R, while the rest of hepatocyte population with high adhesion to PVLA expressed high levels of the ASGP-R. Interestingly hepatocytes with low ASGP-R expression levels had much higher DNA synthesizing activity (i.e., are much more proliferative) than those with high ASGP-R expression levels. Moreover, hepatocytes with low ASGP-R expression levels expressed higher levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R), CD29 (beta1 integrin) and CD49f (alpha6 integrin) and lower levels of glutamine synthetase than those with high ASGP-R expression. These findings suggested that hepatocytes with low adhesion to PVLA due to their low ASGP-R expression could be potential candidates for progenitor-like hepatocytes due to their high proliferative capacity; hence, the low expression of the ASGP-R could be a unique marker for progenitor hepatocytes. The isolation of hepatocytes with different functional phenotypes using PVLA may provide a new research tool for a better understanding of the biology of hepatocytes and the mechanisms regulating their proliferation and differentiation in health and disease. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Functionalized Ergot-alkaloids as potential dopamine D3 receptor agonists for treatment of schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between the molecular structure and physical properties of functionalized naturally occurred Ergot-alkaloids as potential dopamine D3 receptor agonists is presented. The molecular modeling of the ergoline-skeleton is based on the comprehensive theoretical study of the binding affinity of the isolated chemicals towards the active sites of the D3 sub-type receptor (D3R) loops. The studied proton accepting ability under physiological conditions allows classifying four types of monocationics, characterizing with the different binding modes to D3R involving selected amino acid residues to the active sites. These results marked the pharmaceutical potential and clinical usage of the reported compounds as antipsychotic drugs for Schizophrenia treatment, since they allowed evaluating the highlights of the different hypothesizes of the biochemical causes the illness. The applied complex approach for theoretical and experimental elucidation, including quantum chemistry method, electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric (MS) methods, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational IR and Raman spectroscopy on the isolated fifteen novel derivatives (1)-(15) and their different protonated forms (1a)-(15a) evidenced a strong dependence of molecular conformation, physical properties and binding affinity. Thus, the semi-synthetic functionalization of the naturally occurred products (NPs), provided significant possibilities to further molecular drugs-design and development of novel derivatives with wanted biological function, using the established profile of selected classes/families of NPs. The work described chiefly the non-linear (NL) approach for the interpretation of the mass chromatograms on the performed hybrid high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem MS/MS and MS/MS/MS experiments, discussing the merits and great diversity of instrumentation flexibility, thus achieving fundamental

  5. Observing the Confinement Potential of Bacterial Pore-Forming Toxin Receptors Inside Rafts with Nonblinking Eu3+-Doped Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Türkcan, Silvan; Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Casanova, Didier; Mialon, Geneviève; Gacoin, Thierry; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Popoff, Michel R.; Alexandrou, Antigoni

    2012-01-01

    We track single toxin receptors on the apical cell membrane of MDCK cells with Eu-doped oxide nanoparticles coupled to two toxins of the pore-forming toxin family: α-toxin of Clostridium septicum and ε-toxin of Clostridium perfringens. These nonblinking and photostable labels do not perturb the motion of the toxin receptors and yield long uninterrupted trajectories with mean localization precision of 30 nm for acquisition times of 51.3 ms. We were thus able to study the toxin-cell interaction at the single-molecule level. Toxins bind to receptors that are confined within zones of mean area 0.40 ± 0.05 μm2. Assuming that the receptors move according to the Langevin equation of motion and using Bayesian inference, we determined mean diffusion coefficients of 0.16 ± 0.01 μm2/s for both toxin receptors. Moreover, application of this approach revealed a force field within the domain generated by a springlike confining potential. Both toxin receptors were found to experience forces characterized by a mean spring constant of 0.30 ± 0.03 pN/μm at 37°C. Furthermore, both toxin receptors showed similar distributions of diffusion coefficient, domain area, and spring constant. Control experiments before and after incubation with cholesterol oxidase and sphingomyelinase show that these two enzymes disrupt the confinement domains and lead to quasi-free motion of the toxin receptors. Our control data showing cholesterol and sphingomyelin dependence as well as independence of actin depolymerization and microtubule disruption lead us to attribute the confinement of both receptors to lipid rafts. These toxins require oligomerization to develop their toxic activity. The confined nature of the toxin receptors leads to a local enhancement of the toxin monomer concentration and may thus explain the virulence of this toxin family. PMID:22677383

  6. Potentiation of Brain Stimulation Reward by Morphine: Effects of Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J.E.; Fish, E.W.; Krouse, M.C.; Thorsell, A.; Heilig, M.; Malanga, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale The abuse potential of opioids may be due to their reinforcing and rewarding effects, which may be attenuated by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists. Objective To measure the effects of opioid and neurokinin-1 (NK1R) receptor blockade on the potentiation of brain stimulation reward (BSR) by morphine using the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) method. Methods Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 15) were implanted with unipolar stimulating electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus and trained to respond for varying frequencies of rewarding electrical stimulation. The BSR threshold (θ0) and maximum response rate (MAX) were determined before and after intraperitoneal administration of saline, morphine (1.0 - 17.0 mg/kg), or the NK1R antagonists L-733,060 (1.0 - 17.0 mg/kg) and L-703,606 (1.0 - 17.0 mg/kg). In morphine antagonism experiments, naltrexone (0.1 – 1.0 mg/kg) or 10.0 mg/kg L-733,060 or L-703,606 was administered 15 minutes before morphine (1.0 - 10.0 mg/kg) or saline. Results Morphine dose-dependently decreased θ0 (maximum effect = 62% of baseline) and altered MAX when compared to saline. L-703,606 and L-733,060 altered θ0 without affecting MAX. 10.0 mg/kg L-733,060 and L-703,606, which did not affect θ0 or MAX, attenuated the effects of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg morphine. 1.0 and 0.3 mg/kg naltrexone blocked the effects of 10.0 mg/kg morphine. Naltrexone given before saline did not affect θ0 or MAX. Conclusions The decrease in θ0 by morphine reflects its rewarding effects, which were attenuated by NK1R and opioid receptor blockade. These results demonstrate the importance of substance P signaling during limbic reward system activation by opioids. PMID:21909635

  7. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  8. Potential application of non-small cell lung cancer-associated autoantibodies to early cancer diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yibing; Fan, Yu; Wu, Jun; Wan, Haisu; Wang, Jing; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.; Girard, Luc; Gazdar, Adi F.; Wu, Zhihao; Zhou, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    To identify a panel of tumor associated autoantibodies which can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty-five unique and in-frame expressed phage proteins were isolated. Based on the gene expression profiling, four proteins were selected for further study. Both receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and leave-one-out method revealed that combined measurements of four antibodies produced have better predictive accuracies than any single marker alone. Leave-one-out validation also showed significant relevance with all stages of NSCLC patients. The panel of autoantibodies has a high potential for detecting early stage NSCLC. PMID:22713465

  9. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor and early growth response gene 1 during postnatal development of two inbred strains of mice exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

    2010-07-01

    Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent

  10. Interaction Between Helminths and Toll-Like Receptors: Possibilities and Potentials for Asthma Therapy.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Amin; Borji, Hassan; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-05-03

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components of the innate immune system. They play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, especially asthma. Since TLRs significantly orchestrate innate and adaptive immune response, their manipulation has widely been considered as a potential approach to control asthma symptoms. It is well established that helminths have immunoregulatory effects on host immune responses, especially innate immunity. They release bioactive molecules such as excretory-secretory (ES) products manipulating TLRs expression and signaling. Thus, given the promising results derived from preclinical studies, harnessing helminth-derived molecules affecting TLRs can be considered as a potential biological therapy for allergic diseases. Prospectively, the data that are available at present suggest that, in the near future, it is possible that helminth antigens will offer new therapeutic strategies and druggable targets for fighting allergic diseases. This review describes the interactions between helminths and TLRs and discusses the potential possibilities for asthma therapy. In this opinion paper, the authors aimed to review the updated literatures on the interplay between helminths, TLRs, and asthma with a view to proposing helminth-based asthma therapy.

  11. Bacillus subtilis Early Colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Involves Multiple Chemotaxis Receptors.

    PubMed

    Allard-Massicotte, Rosalie; Tessier, Laurence; Lécuyer, Frédéric; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Lucier, Jean-François; Garneau, Daniel; Caudwell, Larissa; Vlamakis, Hera; Bais, Harsh P; Beauregard, Pascale B

    2016-11-29

    Colonization of plant roots by Bacillus subtilis is mutually beneficial to plants and bacteria. Plants can secrete up to 30% of their fixed carbon via root exudates, thereby feeding the bacteria, and in return the associated B. subtilis bacteria provide the plant with many growth-promoting traits. Formation of a biofilm on the root by matrix-producing B. subtilis is a well-established requirement for long-term colonization. However, we observed that cells start forming a biofilm only several hours after motile cells first settle on the plant. We also found that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for early root colonization by B. subtilis and for plant protection. Arabidopsis thaliana root exudates attract B. subtilis in vitro, an activity mediated by the two characterized chemoreceptors, McpB and McpC, as well as by the orphan receptor TlpC. Nonetheless, bacteria lacking these chemoreceptors are still able to colonize the root, suggesting that other chemoreceptors might also play a role in this process. These observations suggest that A. thaliana actively recruits B. subtilis through root-secreted molecules, and our results stress the important roles of B. subtilis chemoreceptors for efficient colonization of plants in natural environments. These results demonstrate a remarkable strategy adapted by beneficial rhizobacteria to utilize carbon-rich root exudates, which may facilitate rhizobacterial colonization and a mutualistic association with the host. Bacillus subtilis is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that establishes robust interactions with roots. Many studies have now demonstrated that biofilm formation is required for long-term colonization. However, we observed that motile B. subtilis mediates the first contact with the roots. These cells differentiate into biofilm-producing cells only several hours after the bacteria first contact the root. Our study reveals that intact chemotaxis machinery is required for the bacteria to reach the

  12. Modeling the Interaction between Quinolinate and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE): Relevance for Early Neuropathological Processes

    PubMed Central

    Serratos, Iris N.; Castellanos, Pilar; Pastor, Nina; Millán-Pacheco, César; Rembao, Daniel; Pérez-Montfort, Ruy; Cabrera, Nallely; Reyes-Espinosa, Francisco; Díaz-Garrido, Paulina; López-Macay, Ambar; Martínez-Flores, Karina; López-Reyes, Alberto; Sánchez-García, Aurora; Cuevas, Elvis; Santamaria, Abel

    2015-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor involved in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders. RAGE induces cellular signaling upon binding to a variety of ligands. Evidence suggests that RAGE up-regulation is involved in quinolinate (QUIN)-induced toxicity. We investigated the QUIN-induced toxic events associated with early noxious responses, which might be linked to signaling cascades leading to cell death. The extent of early cellular damage caused by this receptor in the rat striatum was characterized by image processing methods. To document the direct interaction between QUIN and RAGE, we determined the binding constant (Kb) of RAGE (VC1 domain) with QUIN through a fluorescence assay. We modeled possible binding sites of QUIN to the VC1 domain for both rat and human RAGE. QUIN was found to bind at multiple sites to the VC1 dimer, each leading to particular mechanistic scenarios for the signaling evoked by QUIN binding, some of which directly alter RAGE oligomerization. This work contributes to the understanding of the phenomenon of RAGE-QUIN recognition, leading to the modulation of RAGE function. PMID:25757085

  13. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Potentiation Inhibits Learning in a Computational Network Model.

    PubMed

    Storer, Kingsley P; Reeke, George N

    2018-04-17

    Propofol produces memory impairment at concentrations well below those abolishing consciousness. Episodic memory, mediated by the hippocampus, is most sensitive. Two potentially overlapping scenarios may explain how γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) potentiation by propofol disrupts episodic memory-the first mediated by shifting the balance from excitation to inhibition while the second involves disruption of rhythmic oscillations. We use a hippocampal network model to explore these scenarios. The basis for these experiments is the proposal that the brain represents memories as groups of anatomically dispersed strongly connected neurons. A neuronal network with connections modified by synaptic plasticity was exposed to patterned stimuli, after which spiking output demonstrated evidence of stimulus-related neuronal group development analogous to memory formation. The effect of GABAA potentiation on this memory model was studied in 100 unique networks. GABAA potentiation consistent with moderate propofol effects reduced neuronal group size formed in response to a patterned stimulus by around 70%. Concurrently, accuracy of a Bayesian classifier in identifying learned patterns in the network output was reduced. Greater potentiation led to near total failure of group formation. Theta rhythm variations had no effect on group size or classifier accuracy. Memory formation is widely thought to depend on changes in neuronal connection strengths during learning that enable neuronal groups to respond with greater facility to familiar stimuli. This experiment suggests the ability to form such groups is sensitive to alteration in the balance between excitation and inhibition such as that resulting from administration of a γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated anesthetic agent.

  14. Specific subpopulations of hypothalamic leptin receptor-expressing neurons mediate the effects of early developmental leptin receptor deletion on energy balance.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Alan C; Allison, Margaret B; Jones, Justin C; Patterson, Christa M; Faber, Chelsea L; Bozadjieva, Nadejda; Heisler, Lora K; Seeley, Randy J; Olson, David P; Myers, Martin G

    2018-06-06

    To date, early developmental ablation of leptin receptor (LepRb) expression from circumscribed populations of hypothalamic neurons (e.g., arcuate nucleus (ARC) Pomc- or Agrp-expressing cells) has only minimally affected energy balance. In contrast, removal of LepRb from at least two large populations (expressing vGat or Nos1) spanning multiple hypothalamic regions produced profound obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Thus, we tested the notion that the total number of leptin-responsive hypothalamic neurons (rather than specific subsets of cells with a particular molecular or anatomical signature) subjected to early LepRb deletion might determine energy balance. We generated new mouse lines deleted for LepRb in ARC Ghrh Cre neurons or in Htr2c Cre neurons (representing roughly half of all hypothalamic LepRb neurons, distributed across many nuclei). We compared the phenotypes of these mice to previously-reported models lacking LepRb in Pomc, Agrp, vGat or Nos1 cells. The early developmental deletion of LepRb from vGat or Nos1 neurons produced dramatic obesity, but deletion of LepRb from Pomc, Agrp, Ghrh, or Htr2c neurons minimally altered energy balance. Although early developmental deletion of LepRb from known populations of ARC neurons fails to substantially alter body weight, the minimal phenotype of mice lacking LepRb in Htr2c cells suggests that the phenotype that results from early developmental LepRb deficiency depends not simply upon the total number of leptin-responsive hypothalamic LepRb cells. Rather, specific populations of LepRb neurons must play particularly important roles in body energy homeostasis; these as yet unidentified LepRb cells likely reside in the DMH. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Decreased endothelin receptor B expression in large primary uveal melanomas is associated with early clinical metastasis and short survival

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S L; Damato, B E; Scholes, A G M; Nunn, J; Field, J K; Heighway, J

    2002-01-01

    The most devastating aspect of cancer is the metastasis of tumour cells to organs distant from the original tumour site. The major problem facing oncologists treating uveal melanoma, the most common cancer of the eye, is metastatic disease. To lower mortality, it is necessary to increase our understanding of the molecular genetic alterations involved in this process. Using suppression subtractive hybridisation, we have analysed differential gene expression between four primary tumours from patients who have developed clinical metastasis and four primary tumours from patients with no evidence of metastasis to date. We have identified endothelin receptor type B as differentially expressed between these tumours and confirmed this observation using comparative multiplex RT–PCR. In a further 33 tumours, reduced endothelin receptor type B expression correlated with death from metastatic disease. Reduced expression also correlated with other known prognostic indicators, including the presence of epithelioid cells, chromosome 3 allelic imbalance and chromosome 8q allelic imbalance. Endothelin receptor type B expression was also reduced in four out of four primary small cell lung carcinomas compared to normal bronchial epithelium. We also show that the observed down-regulation of endothelin receptor type B in uveal melanoma was not due to gene deletion. Our findings suggest a role for endothelin receptor type B in the metastasis of uveal melanoma and, potentially, in the metastasis of other neural crest tumours. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1308–1313. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600620 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12439722

  16. Role of peripheral sigma-1 receptors in ischaemic pain: Potential interactions with ASIC and P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S G; Roh, D H; Yoon, S Y; Choi, S R; Choi, H S; Moon, J Y; Kang, S Y; Kim, H W; Han, H J; Beitz, A J; Oh, S B; Lee, J H

    2016-04-01

    The role of peripheral sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) in normal nociception and in pathologically induced pain conditions has not been thoroughly investigated. Since there is mounting evidence that Sig-1Rs modulate ischaemia-induced pathological conditions, we investigated the role of Sig-1Rs in ischaemia-induced mechanical allodynia (MA) and addressed their possible interaction with acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and P2X receptors at the ischaemic site. We used a rodent model of hindlimb thrombus-induced ischaemic pain (TIIP) to investigate their role. Western blot was performed to observe changes in Sig-1R expression in peripheral nervous tissues. MA was measured after intraplantar (i.pl.) injections of antagonists for the Sig-1, ASIC and P2X receptors in TIIP rats or agonists of each receptor in naïve rats. Sig-1R expression significantly increased in skin, sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia at 3 days post-TIIP surgery. I.pl. injections of the Sig-1R antagonist, BD-1047 on post-operative days 0-3 significantly attenuated the development of MA during the induction phase, but had no effect on MA when given during the maintenance phase (days 3-6 post-surgery). BD-1047 synergistically increased amiloride (an ASICs blocker)- and TNP-ATP (a P2X antagonist)-induced analgesic effects in TIIP rats. In naïve rats, i.pl. injection of Sig-1R agonist PRE-084 alone did not produce MA; but it did induce MA when co-administered with either an acidic pH solution or a sub-effective dose of αβmeATP. Peripheral Sig-1Rs contribute to the induction of ischaemia-induced MA via facilitation of ASICs and P2X receptors. Thus, peripheral Sig-1Rs represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of ischaemic pain. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  17. Synthesis and binding affinity of new 1,4-disubstituted triazoles as potential dopamine D(3) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Insua, Ignacio; Alvarado, Mario; Masaguer, Christian F; Iglesias, Alba; Brea, José; Loza, María I; Carro, Laura

    2013-10-15

    A series of new 1,4-disubstituted triazoles was prepared from appropriate arylacetylenes and aminoalkylazides using click chemistry methodology. These compounds were evaluated as potential ligands on several subtypes of dopamine receptors in in vitro competition assays, showing high affinity for dopamine D3 receptors, lower affinity for D2 and D4, and no affinity for the D1 receptors. Compound 18 displayed the highest affinity at the D3 receptor with a Ki value of 2.7 nM, selectivity over D2 (70-fold) and D4 (200-fold), and behaviour as a competitive antagonist in the low nanomolar range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Upregulation of endothelin receptors A and B in the nitrofen induced hypoplastic lung occurs early in gestation.

    PubMed

    Dingemann, Jens; Doi, Takashi; Ruttenstock, Elke; Puri, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH) aggravate clinical courses in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Endothelin 1 enhances PPH by vasoconstriction and proliferation of vessel walls. Up-regulation of pulmonary Endothelin Receptors A and B (EDNRA, EDNRB) has been reported in human CDH and animal models, but the onset of those alterations during lung development remains unclear. We hypothesized that pulmonary expression of EDNRA and EDNRB is up-regulated at early gestational stages in the nitrofen model. Pregnant rats were exposed to nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Embryos were sacrificed on D15, D18 and D21 and divided into nitrofen- and control group. Pulmonary RNA was extracted and mRNA levels of EDNRA and EDNRB were determined by real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry for protein expression of both receptors was performed. mRNA levels of EDNRA and EDNRB were significantly increased in the nitrofen group on D15, D18 and D21. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased pulmonary vascular expression of EDNRA and EDNRB compared to controls. Altered expression of EDNRA and EDNRB is an early event in lung morphogenesis in the nitrofen model. We speculate that pulmonary arteries in CDH become excessively muscularised in early fetal life, becoming unable to adapt normally at birth.

  19. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain, mood, and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs), and gonadal hormones. Finally, we

  20. Selective killing of proinflammatory synovial fibroblasts via activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin (TRPA1).

    PubMed

    Lowin, Torsten; Bleck, Janna; Schneider, Matthias; Pongratz, Georg

    2018-05-24

    Studies in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) demonstrated the expression of several transient receptor potential channels (TRP) such as TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPA1 and TRPM8. Upon ligation, these receptors increase intracellular calcium but they have also been linked to modulation of inflammation in several cell types. TNF was shown to increase the expression of TRPA1, the receptor for mustard oil and environmental poisons in SF, but the functional consequences have not been investigated yet. TRPA1 was detected by immunocytochemistry, western blot and cell-based ELISA. Calcium measurements were conducted in a multimode reader. Cell viability was assessed by quantification of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in culture supernatants and "RealTime-Glo" luminescent assays. IL-6 and IL-8 production by SF was quantified by ELISA. Proliferation was determined by cell titer blue incorporation. After 72 h, mimicking proinflammatory conditions by the innate cytokine TNF up-regulated TRPA1 protein levels in RASF which was accompanied by increased sensitivity to TRPA1 agonists AITC and polygodial. Under unstimulated conditions, polygodial elicited calcium flux only in the highest concentrations used (50 µM and 25 µM). TNF preincubation substantially lowered the activation threshold for polygodial (from 25 µM to 1 µM). In the absence of TNF pre-stimulation, only polygodial in high concentrations was able to reduce viability of synovial fibroblasts as determined by a real-time viability assay. However, following TNF preincubation, stimulation of TRPA1 led to a fast (<30 min) viability loss by necrosis of synovial fibroblasts. TRPA1 activation was also associated with decreased proliferation of RASFs, an effect that was also substantially enhanced by TNF preincubation. On the functional level, IL-6 and IL-8 production was attenuated by the TRPA1 antagonist A967079 but also polygodial, although the latter mediated this effect by reducing cell viability

  1. Therapeutic treatments potentially mediated by melatonin receptors: potential clinical uses in the prevention of osteoporosis, cancer and as an adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Witt-Enderby, Paula A; Radio, Nicholas M; Doctor, John S; Davis, Vicki L

    2006-11-01

    Melatonin's therapeutic potential is grossly underestimated because its functional roles are diverse and its mechanism(s) of action are complex and varied. Melatonin produces cellular effects via a variety of mechanisms in a receptor independent and dependent manner. In addition, melatonin is a chronobiotic agent secreted from the pineal gland during the hours of darkness. This diurnal release of melatonin impacts the sensitivity of melatonin receptors throughout a 24-hr period. This changing sensitivity probably contributes to the narrow therapeutic window for use of melatonin in treating sleep disorders, that is, at the light-to-dark (dusk) or dark-to-light (dawn) transition states. In addition to the cyclic changes in melatonin receptors, many genes cycle over the 24-hr period, independent or dependent upon the light/dark cycle. Interestingly, many of these genes support a role for melatonin in modulating metabolic and cardiovascular physiology as well as bone metabolism and immune function and detoxification of chemical agents and cancer reduction. Melatonin also enhances the actions of a variety of drugs or hormones; however, the role of melatonin receptors in modulating these processes is not known. The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence related to the utility of melatonin as a therapeutic agent by focusing on its other potential uses besides sleep disorders. In particular, its use in cancer prevention, osteoporosis and, as an adjuvant to other therapies are discussed. Also, the role that melatonin and, particularly, its receptors play in these processes are highlighted.

  2. Structural Determinants of the Transient Receptor Potential 1 (TRPV1) Channel Activation by Phospholipid Analogs*

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Llorente, Itzel; Hernández-García, Enrique; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Banerjee, Souvik; Miller, Duane; Gududuru, Veeresh; Fells, James; Norman, Derek; Tigyi, Gabor; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal protein that responds to various stimuli, including capsaicin (the pungent compound found in chili peppers), extracellular acid, and basic intracellular pH, temperatures close to 42 °C, and several lipids. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an endogenous lipid widely associated with neuropathic pain, is an agonist of the TRPV1 channel found in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by other noxious stimuli. Agonists or antagonists of lipid and other chemical natures are known to possess specific structural requirements for producing functional effects on their targets. To better understand how LPA and other lipid analogs might interact and affect the function of TRPV1, we set out to determine the structural features of these lipids that result in the activation of TRPV1. By changing the acyl chain length, saturation, and headgroup of these LPA analogs, we established strict requirements for activation of TRPV1. Among the natural LPA analogs, we found that only LPA 18:1, alkylglycerophosphate 18:1, and cyclic phosphatidic acid 18:1, all with a monounsaturated C18 hydrocarbon chain activate TRPV1, whereas polyunsaturated and saturated analogs do not. Thus, TRPV1 shows a more restricted ligand specificity compared with LPA G-protein-coupled receptors. We synthesized fatty alcohol phosphates and thiophosphates and found that many of them with a single double bond in position Δ9, 10, or 11 and Δ9 cyclopropyl group can activate TRPV1 with efficacy similar to capsaicin. Finally, we developed a pharmacophore and proposed a mechanistic model for how these lipids could induce a conformational change that activates TRPV1. PMID:25035428

  3. The role of endogenous molecules in modulating pain through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Simon, Sidney A; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a physiological response to a noxious stimulus that decreases the quality of life of those sufferring from it. Research aimed at finding new therapeutic targets for the treatment of several maladies, including pain, has led to the discovery of numerous molecular regulators of ion channels in primary afferent nociceptive neurons. Among these receptors is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a member of the TRP family of ion channels. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel, which is activated or modulated by diverse exogenous noxious stimuli such as high temperatures, changes in pH, and irritant and pungent compounds, and by selected molecules released during tissue damage and inflammatory processes. During the last decade the number of endogenous regulators of TRPV1's activity has increased to include lipids that can negatively regulate TRPV1, as is the case for cholesterol and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate) while, in contrast, other lipids produced in response to tissue injury and ischaemic processes are known to positively regulate TRPV1. Among the latter, lysophosphatidic acid activates TRPV1 while amines such as N-acyl-ethanolamines and N-acyl-dopamines can sensitize or directly activate TRPV1. It has also been found that nucleotides such as ATP act as mediators of chemically induced nociception and pain and gases, such as hydrogen sulphide and nitric oxide, lead to TRPV1 activation. Finally, the products of lipoxygenases and omega-3 fatty acids among other molecules, such as divalent cations, have also been shown to endogenously regulate TRPV1 activity. Here we provide a comprehensive review of endogenous small molecules that regulate the function of TRPV1. Acting through mechanisms that lead to sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, these molecules regulate pathways involved in pain and nociception. Understanding how these compounds modify TRPV1 activity will allow us to comprehend how some pathologies are associated with

  4. The Transferrin Receptor: A Potential Molecular Imaging Marker for Human Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Högemann-Savellano, Dagmar; Bos, Erik; Blondet, Cyrille; Sato, Fuminori; Abe, Tatsuya; Josephson, Lee; Weissleder, Ralph; Gaudet, Justin; Sgroi, Dennis; Peters, Peter J.; Basilion, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Noninvasive imaging of differences between the molecular properties of cancer and normal tissue has the potential to enhance the detection of tumors. Because overexpression of endogenous transferrin receptor (TfR) has been qualitatively described for various cancers and is presumably due to malignant transformation of cells, TfR may represent a suitable target for application of molecular imaging technologies to increase detection of smaller tumors. In the work reported here, investigation into the biology of this receptor using electron microscopy has demonstrated that iron oxide particles targeted to TfR are internalized and accumulate in lysosomal vesicles within cells. Biochemical analysis of the interaction of imaging probes with cells overexpressing the TfR demonstrated that the extent of accumulation, and therefore probe efficacy, is dependent on the nature of the chemical cross-link between transferrin and the iron oxide particle. These data were utilized to design and synthesize an improved imaging probe. Experiments demonstrate that the novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probe is sensitive enough to detect small differences in endogenous TfR expression in human cancer cell lines. Quantitative measurement of TfR overexpression in a panel of 27 human breast cancer patients demonstrated that 74% of patient cancer tissues overexpressed the TfR and that the sensitivity of the new imaging agent was suitable to detect TfR overexpression in greater than 40% of these cases. Based on a biochemical and cell biological approach, these studies have resulted in the synthesis and development of an improved MRI probe with the best in vitro and in vivo imaging properties reported to date. PMID:14965443

  5. Binding and Signaling Studies Disclose a Potential Allosteric Site for Cannabidiol in Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Varani, Katia; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Angelats, Edgar; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Oyarzabal, Julen; Canela, Enric I; Lanciego, José L; Nadal, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Borea, Pier Andrea; Franco, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB 2 receptors (CB 2 Rs) it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB 2 R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB 2 R. Using membrane preparations from CB 2 R-expressing HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cells, we confirmed that CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of the human CB 2 R where the synthetic cannabinoid, [ 3 H]-WIN 55,212-2, binds. CBD was, however, able to produce minor but consistent reduction in the homogeneous binding assays in living cells using the fluorophore-conjugated CB 2 R-selective compound, CM-157. The effect on binding to CB 2 R-expressing living cells was different to that exerted by the orthosteric antagonist, SR144528, which decreased the maximum binding without changing the K D . CBD at nanomolar concentrations was also able to significantly reduce the effect of the selective CB 2 R agonist, JWH133, on forskolin-induced intracellular cAMP levels and on activation of the MAP kinase pathway. These results may help to understand CBD mode of action and may serve to revisit its therapeutic possibilities.

  6. Binding and Signaling Studies Disclose a Potential Allosteric Site for Cannabidiol in Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Varani, Katia; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Angelats, Edgar; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Oyarzabal, Julen; Canela, Enric I.; Lanciego, José L.; Nadal, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Borea, Pier Andrea; Franco, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of action of cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa L., is not completely understood. First assumed that the compound was acting via cannabinoid CB2 receptors (CB2Rs) it is now suggested that it interacts with non-cannabinoid G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs); however, CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of any GPCR. To search for alternative explanations, we tested CBD as a potential allosteric ligand of CB2R. Radioligand and non-radioactive homogeneous binding, intracellular cAMP determination and ERK1/2 phosphorylation assays were undertaken in heterologous systems expressing the human version of CB2R. Using membrane preparations from CB2R-expressing HEK-293T (human embryonic kidney 293T) cells, we confirmed that CBD does not bind with high affinity to the orthosteric site of the human CB2R where the synthetic cannabinoid, [3H]-WIN 55,212-2, binds. CBD was, however, able to produce minor but consistent reduction in the homogeneous binding assays in living cells using the fluorophore-conjugated CB2R-selective compound, CM-157. The effect on binding to CB2R-expressing living cells was different to that exerted by the orthosteric antagonist, SR144528, which decreased the maximum binding without changing the KD. CBD at nanomolar concentrations was also able to significantly reduce the effect of the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133, on forskolin-induced intracellular cAMP levels and on activation of the MAP kinase pathway. These results may help to understand CBD mode of action and may serve to revisit its therapeutic possibilities. PMID:29109685

  7. Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) agonists show potential as interventive agents during aging.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roy G; Sun, Yuxiang; Jiang, Hong; Albarran-Zeckler, Rosie; Timchenko, Nikolai

    2007-11-01

    Administration of an orally active agonist (MK-0677) of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) to elderly subjects restored the amplitude of endogenous episodic growth hormone (GH) release to that of young adults. Functional benefits include increased lean mass and bone density and modest improvements in strength. In old mice, a similar agonist partially restored function to the thymus and reduced tumor cell growth and metastasis. Treatment of old mice with the endogenous GHS-R1a agonist ghrelin restored a young liver phenotype. The mechanism involves inhibition of cyclin D3:cdk4/cdk6 activity and increased protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity in liver nuclei, which stabilizes the dephosphorylated form of the transcription factor C/EBPalpha preventing the age-dependent formation of the C/EBPalpha-Rb-E2F4-Brm nuclear complex. By inhibiting formation of this complex, repression of E2F target genes is de-repressed and C/EBPalpha regulated expression of Pepck, a regulator of gluconeogenesis, is normalized, thereby restoring a young liver phenotype. In the brain, aging is associated with decline in dopamine function. We investigated the potential neuromodulatory role of GHS-R1a on dopamine action. Neurons were identified in the hippocampus, cortex, substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental areas that coexpressed GHS-R1a and dopamine receptor subtype-1 (D1R). Cell culture studies showed that, in the presence of ghrelin and dopamine, GHS-R and D1R form heterodimers, which modified G-protein signal transduction resulting in amplification of dopamine signaling. We speculate that aging is associated with deficient endogenous ghrelin signaling that can be rescued by intervention with GHS-R1a agonists to improve quality of life and maintain independence.

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 as a potential target for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Chiamulera, Cristiano; Marzo, Claudio Marcello; Balfour, David J K

    2017-05-01

    Most habitual smokers find it difficult to quit smoking because they are dependent upon the nicotine present in tobacco smoke. Tobacco dependence is commonly treated pharmacologically using nicotine replacement therapy or drugs, such as varenicline, that target the nicotinic receptor. Relapse rates, however, remain high, and there remains a need to develop novel non-nicotinic pharmacotherapies for the dependence that are more effective than existing treatments. The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that drugs that antagonise the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the brain are likely to be efficacious as treatments for tobacco dependence. Imaging studies reveal that chronic exposure to tobacco smoke reduces the density of mGluR5s in human brain. Preclinical results demonstrate that negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) at mGluR5 attenuate both nicotine self-administration and the reinstatement of responding evoked by exposure to conditioned cues paired with nicotine delivery. They also attenuate the effects of nicotine on brain dopamine pathways implicated in addiction. Although mGluR5 NAMs attenuate most of the key facets of nicotine dependence, they potentiate the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. This may limit their value as smoking cessation aids. The NAMs that have been employed most widely in preclinical studies of nicotine dependence have too many "off-target" effects to be used clinically. However, newer mGluR5 NAMs have been developed for clinical use in other indications. Future studies will determine if these agents can also be used effectively and safely to treat tobacco dependence.

  9. Structural determinants of the transient receptor potential 1 (TRPV1) channel activation by phospholipid analogs.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Llorente, Itzel; Hernández-García, Enrique; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Banerjee, Souvik; Miller, Duane; Gududuru, Veeresh; Fells, James; Norman, Derek; Tigyi, Gabor; Escalante-Alcalde, Diana; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2014-08-29

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is a polymodal protein that responds to various stimuli, including capsaicin (the pungent compound found in chili peppers), extracellular acid, and basic intracellular pH, temperatures close to 42 °C, and several lipids. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), an endogenous lipid widely associated with neuropathic pain, is an agonist of the TRPV1 channel found in primary afferent nociceptors and is activated by other noxious stimuli. Agonists or antagonists of lipid and other chemical natures are known to possess specific structural requirements for producing functional effects on their targets. To better understand how LPA and other lipid analogs might interact and affect the function of TRPV1, we set out to determine the structural features of these lipids that result in the activation of TRPV1. By changing the acyl chain length, saturation, and headgroup of these LPA analogs, we established strict requirements for activation of TRPV1. Among the natural LPA analogs, we found that only LPA 18:1, alkylglycerophosphate 18:1, and cyclic phosphatidic acid 18:1, all with a monounsaturated C18 hydrocarbon chain activate TRPV1, whereas polyunsaturated and saturated analogs do not. Thus, TRPV1 shows a more restricted ligand specificity compared with LPA G-protein-coupled receptors. We synthesized fatty alcohol phosphates and thiophosphates and found that many of them with a single double bond in position Δ9, 10, or 11 and Δ9 cyclopropyl group can activate TRPV1 with efficacy similar to capsaicin. Finally, we developed a pharmacophore and proposed a mechanistic model for how these lipids could induce a conformational change that activates TRPV1. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The role of endogenous molecules in modulating pain through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1).

    PubMed

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L; Simon, Sidney A; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2013-07-01

    Pain is a physiological response to a noxious stimulus that decreases the quality of life of those sufferring from it. Research aimed at finding new therapeutic targets for the treatment of several maladies, including pain, has led to the discovery of numerous molecular regulators of ion channels in primary afferent nociceptive neurons. Among these receptors is TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), a member of the TRP family of ion channels. TRPV1 is a calcium-permeable channel, which is activated or modulated by diverse exogenous noxious stimuli such as high temperatures, changes in pH, and irritant and pungent compounds, and by selected molecules released during tissue damage and inflammatory processes. During the last decade the number of endogenous regulators of TRPV1's activity has increased to include lipids that can negatively regulate TRPV1, as is the case for cholesterol and PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate) while, in contrast, other lipids produced in response to tissue injury and ischaemic processes are known to positively regulate TRPV1. Among the latter, lysophosphatidic acid activates TRPV1 while amines such as N-acyl-ethanolamines and N-acyl-dopamines can sensitize or directly activate TRPV1. It has also been found that nucleotides such as ATP act as mediators of chemically induced nociception and pain and gases, such as hydrogen sulphide and nitric oxide, lead to TRPV1 activation. Finally, the products of lipoxygenases and omega-3 fatty acids among other molecules, such as divalent cations, have also been shown to endogenously regulate TRPV1 activity. Here we provide a comprehensive review of endogenous small molecules that regulate the function of TRPV1. Acting through mechanisms that lead to sensitization and desensitization of TRPV1, these molecules regulate pathways involved in pain and nociception. Understanding how these compounds modify TRPV1 activity will allow us to comprehend how some pathologies are associated with

  11. Cannabinoid receptor signalling in neurodegenerative diseases: a potential role for membrane fluidity disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Maccarrone, M; Bernardi, G; Agrò, A Finazzi; Centonze, D

    2011-01-01

    Type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is the most abundant G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in the brain. CB1 and its endogenous agonists, the so-called ‘endocannabinoids (eCBs)’, belong to an ancient neurosignalling system that plays important functions in neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. For this reason, research on the therapeutic potential of drugs modulating the endogenous tone of eCBs is very intense. Several GPCRs reside within subdomains of the plasma membranes that contain high concentrations of cholesterol: the lipid rafts. Here, the hypothesis that changes in membrane fluidity alter function of the endocannabinoid system, as well as progression of particular neurodegenerative diseases, is described. To this end, the impact of membrane cholesterol on membrane properties and hence on neurodegenerative diseases, as well as on CB1 signalling in vitro and on CB1-dependent neurotransmission within the striatum, is discussed. Overall, present evidence points to the membrane environment as a critical regulator of signal transduction triggered by CB1, and calls for further studies aimed at better clarifying the contribution of membrane lipids to eCBs signalling. The results of these investigations might be exploited also for the development of novel therapeutics able to combat disorders associated with abnormal activity of CB1. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21323908

  12. Cortical Reorganization in Dyslexic Children after Phonological Training: Evidence from Early Evoked Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spironelli, Chiara; Penolazzi, Barbara; Vio, Claudio; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Brain plasticity was investigated in 14 Italian children affected by developmental dyslexia after 6 months of phonological training. The means used to measure language reorganization was the recognition potential, an early wave, also called N150, elicited by automatic word recognition. This component peaks over the left temporo-occipital cortex…

  13. Web site review. Carolinas HealthCare recognized Internet marketing potential early.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2005-01-01

    Since the early days of the Internet, administrators Carolinas HealthCare System in Charlotte, NC, have appreciated its potential as a marketing tool. This places a lot of expectations on the Web site, www.carolinashealthcare.org, which is managed by the marketing-public relations department. Find out how the well-established site fulfills its mission and more.

  14. The potential for early and rapid pathogen detection within poultry processing through hyperspectral microscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The acquisition of hyperspectral microscopic images containing both spatial and spectral data has shown potential for the early and rapid optical classification of foodborne pathogens. A hyperspectral microscope with a metal halide light source and acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) collects 89 ...

  15. The Potential Impact of Undiagnosed Vision Impairment on Reading Development in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…

  16. A Qualitative Approach to Portfolios: The Early Assessment for Exceptional Potential Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Beverly D.; Viechnicki, Karen J.

    1995-01-01

    The Early Assessment for Exceptional Potential portfolio assessment model assesses children as exceptional learners, users, generators, and pursuers of knowledge. It is based on use of authentic learning opportunities; interaction of assessment, curriculum, and instruction; multiple criteria derived from multiple sources; and systematic teacher…

  17. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Jiping; Cai, Rui; Sun, Xinde

    2010-02-15

    Auditory experience during the postnatal critical period is essential for the normal maturation of auditory function. Previous studies have shown that rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adult-like topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) beyond normal developmental benchmarks and indefinitely blocked the closure of a brief, critical-period window. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of these physiological changes after noise rearing, we studied expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta3 in the auditory cortex after noise rearing. Our results show that continuous moderate-level noise rearing during the early stages of development decreases the expression levels of GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3. Furthermore, noise rearing also induced a significant decrease in the level of GABA(A) receptors relative to AMPA receptors. However, in adult rats, noise rearing did not have significant effects on GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3 expression or the ratio between the two units. These changes could have a role in the cellular mechanisms involved in the delayed maturation of auditory receptive field structure and topographic organization of A1 after noise rearing. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-type 2 targeting on stemness in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zecheng; Cao, Xiaocheng; Fang, Yu; Liu, Guoxing; Xie, Chengzhi; Qian, Ke; Lei, Xiaohua; Cao, Zhenyu; Du, Huihui; Cheng, Xiangding; Xu, Xundi

    2018-06-12

    The malignant phenotype of the cells resulting from human liver cancer is driven by liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSLCs). Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-type 2 channel (TRPV2) contributes to the progression of different tumor types, including liver cancer. In the current study, the TRPV2 expression levels give rise to the effect on stemness in liver cancer cell lines. TRPV2 knockdown in HepG2 cells enhanced spheroid and colony formation, and expression levels of CD133, CD44 and ALDH1 whereas the opposite effects were observed in TRPV2 enforced expression in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, TRPV2 overexpression restored inhibition of spheroid and colony formation, and stem cell markers expression in HepG2 cells with TRPV2 silencing. The addition of the TRPV2 agonist probenecid and the TRPV2 antagonist tranilast suppressed and/or increased in vitro spheroid and colony formation, and stem cell marker expression of LCSLCs and/or liver cancer cell lines, respectively. Notably, probenecid and tranilast significantly inhibited or promoted tumor growth of HepG2 xenografts in the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model, respectively. TRPV2 expression at protein levels revealed converse correlation with those of CD133 and CD44 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissue. Collectively, the data demonstrate that TRPV2 exert effects on stemness of liver cancer and is a potential target in the treatment of human liver cancer patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Transient receptor potential canonical 4 and 5 proteins as targets in cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Hannah J; Vasudev, Naveen S; Beech, David J

    2016-10-01

    Novel approaches towards cancer therapy are urgently needed. One approach might be to target ion channels mediating Ca 2+ entry because of the critical roles played by Ca 2+ in many cell types, including cancer cells. There are several types of these ion channels, but here we address those formed by assembly of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) proteins, particularly those which involve two closely related members of the family: TRPC4 and TRPC5. We focus on these proteins because recent studies point to roles in important aspects of cancer: drug resistance, transmission of drug resistance through extracellular vesicles, tumour vascularisation, and evoked cancer cell death by the TRPC4/5 channel activator (-)-englerin A. We conclude that further research is both justified and necessary before these proteins can be considered as strong targets for anti-cancer cell drug discovery programmes. It is nevertheless already apparent that inhibitors of the channels would be unlikely to cause significant adverse effects, but, rather, have other effects which may be beneficial in the context of cancer and chemotherapy, potentially including suppression of innate fear, visceral pain and pathological cardiac remodelling.

  20. Potential Role of Estrogen Receptor Beta as a Tumor Suppressor of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Françoise; Machelon, Véronique; Brigitte, Madly; Jacquard, Carine; Pillon, Arnaud; Balaguer, Patrick; Balabanian, Karl; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the gynecological cancer exhibiting the highest morbidity and improvement of treatments is still required. Previous studies have shown that Estrogen-receptor beta (ERβ) levels decreased along with ovarian carcinogenesis. Here, we present evidence that reintroduction of ERβ in BG-1 epithelial ovarian cancer cells, which express ERα, leads in vitro to a decrease of basal and estradiol-promoted cell proliferation. ERβ reduced the frequency of cells in S phase and increased the one of cells in G2/M phase. At the molecular level, we found that ERβ downregulated total retinoblastoma (Rb), phosphorylated Rb and phospho-AKT cellular content as well as cyclins D1 and A2. In addition, ERβ had a direct effect on ERα, by strongly inhibiting its expression and activity, which could explain part of the anti-proliferative action of ERβ. By developing a novel preclinical model of ovarian cancer based on a luminescent orthotopic xenograft in athymic Nude mice, we further revealed that ERβ expression reduces tumor growth and the presence of tumor cells in sites of metastasis, hence resulting in improved survival of mice. Altogether, these findings unveil a potential tumor-suppressor role of ERβ in ovarian carcinogenesis, which could be of potential clinical relevance for the selection of the most appropriate treatment for patients. PMID:22970307

  1. Early expression of triggering receptors and regulatory role of 2B4 in human natural killer cell precursors undergoing in vitro differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Sivori, Simona; Falco, Michela; Marcenaro, Emanuela; Parolini, Silvia; Biassoni, Roberto; Bottino, Cristina; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2002-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the progression of cell surface receptor expression during the in vitro-induced human natural killer (NK) cell maturation from CD34+ Lin− cell precursors. NKp46 and NKp30, two major triggering receptors that play a central role in natural cytotoxicity, were expressed before the HLA class I-specific inhibitory receptors. Moreover, their appearance at the cell surface correlated with the acquisition of cytolytic activity by developing NK cells. Although the early expression of triggering receptors may provide activating signals required for inducing further cell differentiation, it may also affect the self-tolerance of developing NK cells. Our data show that a fail-safe mechanism preventing killing of normal autologous cells may be provided by the 2B4 surface molecule, which, at early stages of NK cell differentiation, functions as an inhibitory rather than as an activating receptor. PMID:11917118

  2. Sensitivity of bronchopulmonary receptors to cold and heat mediated by transient receptor potential cation channel subtypes in an ex vivo rat lung preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Sun, Biying; Li, Qian; Luo, Pin; Dong, Li; Rong, Weifang

    2011-08-15

    Changes in airway temperature can result in respiratory responses such as cough, bronchoconstriction and mucosal secretion after cold exposure and hyperventilation after heat exposure. In the present investigation, we examined the activity of bronchopulmonary receptors in response to activators of thermo-sensitive transient receptor potential (TS-TRP) cation channels using an ex vivo rat lung preparation. Receptive fields in small bronchioles were probed with von Frey hair monofilaments, warm (50°C) or cold (8°C) saline or saline containing TS-TRP agonists. Among 233 fibers tested, 159 (68.2%) responded to heat (50°C). A large proportion of heat-responsive receptors (107/145) were also activated by capsaicin. Heat and capsaicin-evoked responses were both blocked by TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine. Only 15.3% of airway receptors responded to cold, which was associated with sensitivity to TRPM8 agonist menthol but not to TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CA). Moreover, cold-evoked responses was unaffected by TRPA1 antagonist HC-03001. Our observations suggest that TRPV1 and TRPM8 are involved in transducing heat and cold in the lower respiratory tract, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of adult mouse uterus to early disruption of estrogen receptor-alpha signaling is influenced by Krüppel-like factor 9

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inappropriate early exposure of the hormone-responsive uterus to estrogenic compounds is associated with increased risk for adult reproductive diseases including endometrial cancers. While the dysregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1) signaling is a well-acknowledged early event in tumor initi...

  4. Del-1 Expression as a Potential Biomarker in Triple-Negative Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Park, Ji-Young; Chae, Yee Soo

    2018-01-01

    A differential diagnostic role for plasma Del-1 was proposed for early breast cancer (EBC) in our previous study. We examined tumoral Del-1 expression and analyzed its prognostic impact among patients with EBC. Del-1 mRNA expression was assessed in breast epithelial and cancer cells. Meanwhile, the tumoral expression of Del-1 was determined based on tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry results from 440 patients. While a high Del-1 mRNA expression was found in all the breast cancer cell lines, the expression was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231. Tumoral expression of Del-1 was also significantly associated with a negative expression of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor, and low expression of Ki-67, particularly in the case of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p < 0.036). Furthermore, a correlation was found between Del-1 expression and an aggressive histological grade, nuclear mitosis, and polymorphism, suggesting a possible role in tumor progression. In the survival analysis, a worse distant disease-free survival trend was noted for the group overexpressing Del-1. While all the investigated breast cancer cell lines exhibited Del-1 expression, the expression rate and intensity were specifically prominent in TNBC. In addition, based on its relationship to an unfavorable histology and worse survival trend, Del-1 could act as a molecular target in TNBC patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Large-scale Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Potential Biomarkers for Early Stage Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueqin; Ke, Chaofu; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Wei; Li, Kang; Yu, Bo; Sun, Meng

    2017-09-18

    Coronary atherosclerosis (CAS) is the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, which is a prevalent and chronic life-threatening disease. Initially, this disease is not always detected until a patient presents with seriously vascular occlusion. Therefore, new biomarkers for appropriate and timely diagnosis of early CAS is needed for screening to initiate therapy on time. In this study, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to identify potential biomarkers that could enable highly sensitive and specific CAS detection. Score plots from partial least-squares discriminant analysis clearly separated early-stage CAS patients from controls. Meanwhile, the levels of 24 metabolites increased greatly and those of 18 metabolites decreased markedly in early CAS patients compared with the controls, which suggested significant metabolic dysfunction in phospholipid, sphingolipid, and fatty acid metabolism in the patients. Furthermore, binary logistic regression showed that nine metabolites could be used as a combinatorial biomarker to distinguish early-stage CAS patients from controls. The panel of nine metabolites was then tested with an independent cohort of samples, which also yielded satisfactory diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.890). In conclusion, our findings provide insight into the pathological mechanism of early-stage CAS and also supply a combinatorial biomarker to aid clinical diagnosis of early-stage CAS.

  6. Valerian extract Ze 911 inhibits postsynaptic potentials by activation of adenosine A1 receptors in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Vissiennon, Z; Sichardt, K; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K

    2006-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze 911) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate cortex in a slice preparation. We first observed that N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 - 10 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, inhibited PSPs in a concentration-dependent manner. The CPA (10 microM)-induced inhibition was antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Ze 911 concentration dependently (0.1 - 15 mg/mL) inhibited PSPs in the presence of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC, 0.2 microM) and adenosine deaminase (1 U/mL). The maximal inhibition induced by 10 mg/mL was completely antagonised by DPCPX (0.1 microM), an A1 receptor blocker. The data suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is involved in the pharmacological effects of the valerian extract Ze 911.

  7. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic evaluation of the 70-gene prognosis-signature (MammaPrint®) in hormone receptor-positive, lymph node-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative early stage breast cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masahide; Hoshi, Shu-Ling; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Toi, Masakazu

    2012-06-01

    The 70-gene prognosis-signature is validated as a good predictor of recurrence for hormone receptor-positive (ER+), lymph node-negative (LN-), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative (HER2-) early stage breast cancer (ESBC) in Japanese patient population. Its high cost and potential in avoiding unnecessary adjuvant chemotherapy arouse interest in its economic impact. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of including the assay into Japan's social health insurance benefit package. An economic decision tree and Markov model under Japan's health system from the societal perspective is constructed with clinical evidence from the pool analysis of validation studies. One-way sensitivity analyses are also performed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated as ¥3,873,922/quality adjusted life year (QALY) (US$43,044/QALY), which is not more than the suggested social willingness-to-pay for one QALY gain from an innovative medical intervention in Japan, ¥5,000,000/QALY (US$55,556/QALY). However, sensitivity analyses show the instability of this estimation. The introduction of the assay into Japanese practice of ER+, LN-, HER2- ESBC treatment by including it to Japan's social health insurance benefit package has a reasonable chance to be judged as cost-effective and may be justified as an efficient deployment of finite health care resources.

  9. Three neuropeptide Y receptor genes in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, support en bloc duplications in early vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Salaneck, Erik; Ardell, David H; Larson, Earl T; Larhammar, Dan

    2003-08-01

    It has been debated whether the increase in gene number during early vertebrate evolution was due to multiple independent gene duplications or synchronous duplications of many genes. We describe here the cloning of three neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor genes belonging to the Y1 subfamily in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, a cartilaginous fish. The three genes are orthologs of the mammalian subtypes Y1, Y4, and Y6, which are located in paralogous gene regions on different chromosomes in mammals. Thus, these genes arose by duplications of a chromosome region before the radiation of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Estimates of duplication times from linearized trees together with evidence from other gene families supports two rounds of chromosome duplications or tetraploidizations early in vertebrate evolution. The anatomical distribution of mRNA was determined by reverse-transcriptase PCR and was found to differ from mammals, suggesting differential functional diversification of the new gene copies during the radiation of the vertebrate classes.

  10. β2-Adrenergic Receptor Activation Suppresses the Rat Phenethylamine Hallucinogen-Induced Head Twitch Response: Hallucinogen-Induced Excitatory Post-synaptic Potentials as a Potential Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Gerard J.; Ramos, Brian P.

    2018-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors are enriched in layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex and their activation increases the frequency of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSP/Cs) onto layer V pyramidal cells. A number of other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also enriched in cortical layers I and Va and either induce (α1-adrenergic and orexin2) or suppress (metabotropic glutamate2 [mGlu2], adenosine A1, μ-opioid) both 5-HT-induced EPSCs and head twitches or head shakes induced by the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Another neurotransmitter receptor also localized to apparent thalamocortical afferents to layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex is the β2-adrenergic receptor. Therefore, we conducted preliminary electrophysiological experiments with rat brain slices examining the effects of epinephrine on electrically-evoked EPSPs following bath application of DOI (3 μM). Epinephrine (0.3–10 μM) suppressed the late EPSPs produced by electrical stimulation and DOI. The selective β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist ICI-118,551 (300 nM) resulted in a rightward shift of the epinephrine concentration-response relationship. We also tested the selective β2-adrenergic receptor agonist clenbuterol and the antagonist ICI-118,551 on DOI-induced head twitches. Clenbuterol (0.3–3 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed DOI (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced head twitches. This clenbuterol effect appeared to be at least partially reversed by the selective β2-adrenergic receptor antagonist ICI-118,553 (0.01–1 mg/kg, i.p.), with significant reversal at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg. Thus, β2-adrenergic receptor activation reverses the effects of phenethylamine hallucinogens in the rat prefrontal cortex. While Gi/Go-coupled GPCRs have previously been shown to suppress both the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of 5-HT2A receptor activation in the mPFC, the present work appears

  11. GABA(B) receptors, schizophrenia and sleep dysfunction: a review of the relationship and its potential clinical and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz, Joshua; Citrome, Leslie; Javitt, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    Evidence for an intrinsic relationship between sleep, cognition and the symptomatic manifestations of schizophrenia is accumulating. This review presents evidence for the possible utility of GABA(B) receptor agonists for the treatment of subjective and objective sleep abnormalities related to schizophrenia. At the phenotypic level, sleep disturbance occurs in 16-30% of patients with schizophrenia and is related to reduced quality of life and poor coping skills. On the neurophysiological level, studies suggest that sleep deficits reflect a core component of schizophrenia. Specifically, slow-wave sleep deficits, which are inversely correlated with cognition scores, are seen. Moreover, sleep plays an increasingly well documented role in memory consolidation in schizophrenia. Correlations of slow-wave sleep deficits with impaired reaction time and declarative memory have also been reported. Thus, both behavioural insomnia and sleep architecture are critical therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia. However, long-term treatment with antipsychotics often results in residual sleep dysfunction and does not improve slow-wave sleep, and adjunctive GABA(A) receptor modulators, such as benzodiazepines and zolpidem, can impair sleep architecture and cognition in schizophrenia. GABA(B) receptor agonists have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. These agents have minimal effect on rapid eye movement sleep while increasing slow-wave sleep. Preclinical associations with increased expression of genes related to slow-wave sleep production and circadian rhythm function have also been reported. GABA(B) receptor deficits result in a sustained hyperdopaminergic state and can be reversed by a GABA(B) receptor agonist. Genetic, postmortem and electrophysiological studies also associate GABA(B) receptors with schizophrenia. While studies thus far have not shown significant effects, prior focus on the use of GABA(B) receptor agonists has been on the positive symptoms of

  12. Role of Major NMDA or AMPA Receptor Subunits in MK-801 Potentiation of Ethanol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Palachick, Benjamin; Chen, Yi-Chyan; Enoch, Abigail J.; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Background The glutamate system plays a major role in mediating EtOH’s effects on brain and behavior, and is implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol-related disorders. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists such as MK-801 (dizocilpine) interact with EtOH at the behavioral level, but the molecular basis of this interaction is unclear. Methods We first characterized the effects of MK-801 treatment on responses to the ataxic (accelerating rotarod), hypothermic and sedative/hypnotic effects of acute EtOH administration in C57BL/6J and 129/SvImJ inbred mice. Effects of another NMDAR antagonist, phencyclidine, on EtOH-induced sedation/hypnosis were also assessed. Gene knockout of the NMDAR subunit NR2A or L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate GluR1 or pharmacological antagonism of the NMDAR subunit NR2B (via Ro 25-6981) was employed to examine whether inactivating any one of these glutamate signaling molecules modified MK-801’s effect on EtOH-related behaviors. Results MK-801 markedly potentiated the ataxic effects of 1.75 g/kg EtOH and the sedative/hypnotic effects of 3.0 g/kg EtOH, but not the hypothermic effects of 3.0 g/kg EtOH, in C57BL/6J and 129/SvImJ mice. Phencyclidine potentiated EtOH-induced sedation/hypnosis in both inbred strains. Neither NR2A nor GluR1 KO significantly altered basal EtOH-induced ataxia, hypothermia, or sedation/hypnosis. Ro 25-6981 modestly increased EtOH-induced sedation/hypnosis. The ability of MK-801 to potentiate EtOH-induced ataxia and sedation/hypnosis was unaffected by GluR1 KO or NR2B antagonism. NR2A KO partially reduced MK-801 + EtOH-induced sedation/hypnosis, but not ataxia or hypothermia. Conclusions Data confirm a robust and response-specific potentiating effect of MK-801 on sensitivity to EtOH’s intoxicating effects. Inactivation of three major components of glutamate signaling had no or only partial impact on the ability of MK-801 to potentiate behavioral sensitivity to EtOH. Further

  13. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Induces Depotentiation in Amygdala Slices and Reduces Fear-Potentiated Startle in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ho; Lee, Chia-Ching; Huang, Ya-Chun; Wang, Su-Jane; Gean, Po-Wu

    2005-01-01

    There is a close correlation between long-term potentiation (LTP) in the synapses of lateral amygdala (LA) and fear conditioning in animals. We predict that reversal of LTP (depotentiation) in this area of the brain may ameliorate conditioned fear. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II) with DCG-IV induces…

  14. [18F]Fluorophenylazocarboxylates: Design and Synthesis of Potential Radioligands for Dopamine D3 and μ-Opioid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    18F-Labeled building blocks from the type of [18F]fluorophenylazocarboxylic-tert-butyl esters offer a rapid, mild, and reliable method for the 18F-fluoroarylation of biomolecules. Two series of azocarboxamides were synthesized as potential radioligands for dopamine D3 and the μ-opioid receptor, revealing compounds 3d and 3e with single-digit and sub-nanomolar affinity for the D3 receptor and compound 4c with only micromolar affinity for the μ-opioid receptor, but enhanced selectivity for the μ-subtype in comparison to the lead compound AH-7921. A “minimalist procedure” without the use of a cryptand and base for the preparation of 4-[18F]fluorophenylazocarboxylic-tert-butyl ester [18F]2a was established, together with the radiosynthesis of methyl-, methoxy-, and phenyl-substituted derivatives ([18F]2b–f). With the substituted [18F]fluorophenylazocarbylates in hand, two prototype azocarboxylates radioligands were synthesized by 18F-fluoroarylation, namely the methoxy azocarboxamide [18F]3d as the D3 receptor radioligand and [18F]4a as a prototype structure of the μ-opioid receptor radioligand. By introducing the new series of [18F]fluorophenylazocarboxylic-tert-butyl esters, the method of 18F-fluoroarylation was significantly expanded, thereby demonstrating the versatility of 18F-labeled phenylazocarboxylates for the design of potential radiotracers for positron emission tomography . PMID:29479577

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation by the Cannabinoid Receptor (CB1) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Induces Differential Responses in Corneal Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    induced Ca2þ signaling as well as phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated phosphatidic acid formation (Islam and Akhtar, 2000; Kang et al., 2000, 2001; Mazie et...Epithelial cell motility is triggered by activation of the EGF receptor through phosphatidic acid signaling. J. Cell Sci. 119, 1645e1654. McIntosh, B.T...buffer. Cell lysates were centrifuged and supernatants were collected for measuring proteins with a bichinchoninic acid assay (BCA) protein assay kit

  16. Suppression of transient receptor potential melastatin 4 expression promotes conversion of endothelial cells into fibroblasts via transforming growth factor/activin receptor-like kinase 5 pathway.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Cesar; Montorfano, Ignacio; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Armisén, Ricardo; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    To study whether transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) participates in endothelial fibrosis and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Primary human endothelial cells were used and pharmacological and short interfering RNA-based approaches were used to test the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) pathway participation and contribution of TRPM7 ion channel. Suppression of TRPM4 expression leads to decreased endothelial protein expression and increased expression of fibrotic and extracellular matrix markers. Furthermore, TRPM4 downregulation increases intracellular Ca levels as a potential condition for fibrosis. The underlying mechanism of endothelial fibrosis shows that inhibition of TRPM4 expression induces TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 expression, which act through their receptor, ALK5, and the nuclear translocation of the profibrotic transcription factor smad4. TRPM4 acts to maintain endothelial features and its loss promotes fibrotic conversion via TGF-β production. The regulation of TRPM4 levels could be a target for preserving endothelial function during inflammatory diseases.

  17. Activation of Mechanosensitive Transient Receptor Potential/Piezo Channels in Odontoblasts Generates Action Potentials in Cocultured Isolectin B4-negative Medium-sized Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaki; Ogura, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Maki; Nishi, Koichi; Ando, Masayuki; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin. Thus, we investigated evoked inward currents and evoked action potentials form trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons after odontoblast mechanical stimulation. We used patch clamp recordings to identify electrophysiological properties and record evoked responses in TG neurons. We classified TG cells into small-sized and medium-sized neurons. In both types of neurons, we observed voltage-dependent inward currents. The currents from medium-sized neurons showed fast inactivation kinetics. When mechanical stimuli were applied to odontoblasts, evoked inward currents were recorded from medium-sized neurons. Antagonists for the ionotropic adenosine triphosphate receptor (P2X 3 ), transient receptor potential channel subfamilies, and Piezo1 channel significantly inhibited these inward currents. Mechanical stimulation to odontoblasts also generated action potentials in the isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons. Action potentials in these isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons showed a short duration. Overall, electrophysiological properties of neurons indicate that the TG neurons with recorded evoked responses after odontoblast mechanical stimulation were myelinated Aδ neurons. Odontoblasts established neurotransmission with myelinated Aδ neurons via P2X 3 receptor activation. The results also indicated that mechanosensitive TRP/Piezo1 channels were functionally expressed in odontoblasts. The activation of P2X 3 receptors induced an action potential

  18. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channels are involved in spontaneous peptide hormone release from astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Mai; Harada, Kazuki; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2018-07-02

    Astrocytes, a large population of glial cells, detect neurotransmitters and respond by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and releasing chemical molecules called gliotransmitters. Recently discovered Ca 2+ influx through transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels is reported to cause spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i increase in astrocytes. While several physiological functions of TRPA1-mediated spontaneous Ca 2+ signal have been revealed, relation with gliotransmitter release, especially peptide hormone exocytosis is largely unknown. We therefore explored the [Ca 2+ ] i and exocytosis dynamics in rat astrocyte cell line C6 cells and primary astrocytes. TRPA1-mediated spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i transients were observed in both C6 cells and primary astrocytes. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy revealed that Venus-tagged brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide Y were released spontaneously from astrocytes. Activation of TRPA1 channels enhanced the frequency of peptide hormone exocytosis, and inhibition of TRPA1 channels decreased the number of peptide hormone exocytosis. These results suggest that TRPA1-mediated spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i increase modulates the spontaneous release of peptide hormones from astrocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Berberine via suppression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channel improves vascular stiffness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Tao; Peng, Qi-Sheng; Yue, Shou-Wei; Wang, Shuang-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, as an alkaloid found in many Chinese herbs, improves vascular functions in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We determined the effects of berberine in hypertension and vascular ageing, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In isolated aortas, berberine dose-dependently elicited aortic relaxation. In cultured cells, berberine induced the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Overexpression of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel by genetic approaches abolished the berberine-induced reduction in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in VSMCs and attenuated berberine-elicited vessel dilation in mice aortas. In deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive model, treatment of mice with berberine or RN-1734, a pharmacological inhibitor of TRPV4, significantly decreased systemic blood pressure (BP) in control mice or mice infected with an adenovirus vector. However, berberine-induced effects of lowering BP were reversed by overexpressing TRPV4 in mice by infecting with adenovirus. Furthermore, long-term administration of berberine decreased mean BP and pulse BP, increased artery response to vasodilator and reduced vascular collagen content in aged mice deficient in apolipoprotein E (Apoe-KO), but not in Apoe-KO old mice with lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRPV4 channel. In conclusion, berberine induces direct vasorelaxation to lower BP and reduces vascular stiffness in aged mice through suppression of TRPV4. PMID:26177349

  20. The Oncoprotein BCL11A Binds to Orphan Nuclear Receptor TLX and Potentiates its Transrepressive Function

    PubMed Central

    Estruch, Sara B.; Buzón, Víctor; Carbó, Laia R.; Schorova, Lenka; Lüders, Jens; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1) functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain, and functions as an essential regulator of NSCs maintenance and self-renewal. Little is known about the TLX social network of interactors and only few TLX coregulators are described. To identify and characterize novel TLX-binders and possible coregulators, we performed yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screens of a human adult brain cDNA library using different TLX constructs as baits. Our screens identified multiple clones of Atrophin-1 (ATN1), a previously described TLX interactor. In addition, we identified an interaction with the oncoprotein and zinc finger transcription factor BCL11A (CTIP1/Evi9), a key player in the hematopoietic system and in major blood-related malignancies. This interaction was validated by expression and coimmunoprecipitation in human cells. BCL11A potentiated the transrepressive function of TLX in an in vitro reporter gene assay. Our work suggests that BCL11A is a novel TLX coregulator that might be involved in TLX-dependent gene regulation in the brain. PMID:22675500

  1. The oncoprotein BCL11A binds to orphan nuclear receptor TLX and potentiates its transrepressive function.

    PubMed

    Estruch, Sara B; Buzón, Víctor; Carbó, Laia R; Schorova, Lenka; Lüders, Jens; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (NR2E1) functions primarily as a transcriptional repressor and its pivotal role in brain development, glioblastoma, mental retardation and retinopathologies make it an attractive drug target. TLX is expressed in the neural stem cells (NSCs) of the subventricular zone and the hippocampus subgranular zone, regions with persistent neurogenesis in the adult brain, and functions as an essential regulator of NSCs maintenance and self-renewal. Little is known about the TLX social network of interactors and only few TLX coregulators are described. To identify and characterize novel TLX-binders and possible coregulators, we performed yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) screens of a human adult brain cDNA library using different TLX constructs as baits. Our screens identified multiple clones of Atrophin-1 (ATN1), a previously described TLX interactor. In addition, we identified an interaction with the oncoprotein and zinc finger transcription factor BCL11A (CTIP1/Evi9), a key player in the hematopoietic system and in major blood-related malignancies. This interaction was validated by expression and coimmunoprecipitation in human cells. BCL11A potentiated the transrepressive function of TLX in an in vitro reporter gene assay. Our work suggests that BCL11A is a novel TLX coregulator that might be involved in TLX-dependent gene regulation in the brain.

  2. Pathway Analysis Revealed Potential Diverse Health Impacts of Flavonoids that Bind Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ge, Weigong; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are frequently used as dietary supplements in the absence of research evidence regarding health benefits or toxicity. Furthermore, ingested doses could far exceed those received from diet in the course of normal living. Some flavonoids exhibit binding to estrogen receptors (ERs) with consequential vigilance by regulatory authorities at the U.S. EPA and FDA. Regulatory authorities must consider both beneficial claims and potential adverse effects, warranting the increases in research that has spanned almost two decades. Here, we report pathway enrichment of 14 targets from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and the Herbal Ingredients’ Targets (HIT) database for 22 flavonoids that bind ERs. The selected flavonoids are confirmed ER binders from our earlier studies, and were here found in mainly involved in three types of biological processes, ER regulation, estrogen metabolism and synthesis, and apoptosis. Besides cancers, we conjecture that the flavonoids may affect several diseases via apoptosis pathways. Diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, viral myocarditis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease could be implicated. More generally, apoptosis processes may be importantly evolved biological functions of flavonoids that bind ERs and high dose ingestion of those flavonoids could adversely disrupt the cellular apoptosis process. PMID:27023590

  3. The Role of Transient Receptor Potential Channel 6 Channels in the Pulmonary Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Malczyk, Monika; Erb, Alexandra; Veith, Christine; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph T.; Gudermann, Thomas; Dietrich, Alexander; Weissmann, Norbert; Sydykov, Akylbek

    2017-01-01

    Canonical or classical transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) is a Ca2+-permeable non-selective cation channel that is widely expressed in the heart, lung, and vascular tissues. The use of TRPC6-deficient (“knockout”) mice has provided important insights into the role of TRPC6 in normal physiology and disease states of the pulmonary vasculature. Evidence indicates that TRPC6 is a key regulator of acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Moreover, several studies implicated TRPC6 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, a unique genetic variation in the TRPC6 gene promoter has been identified, which might link the inflammatory response to the upregulation of TRPC6 expression and ultimate development of pulmonary vascular abnormalities in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Additionally, TRPC6 is critically involved in the regulation of pulmonary vascular permeability and lung edema formation during endotoxin or ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute lung injury. In this review, we will summarize latest findings on the role of TRPC6 in the pulmonary vasculature. PMID:28670316

  4. Association between the cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) and the P300 event-related potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J P; Muhleman, D; MacMurray, J; Gade, R; Verde, R; Ask, M; Kelley, J; Comings, D E

    1997-03-01

    In our prior study we observed a significant association between homozygosity for the > or = alleles of a microsatellite polymorphism of cannabinoid receptor genes (CNR1) and drug dependence. Decreased amplitude of the P300 wave of evoked related potentials (ERP) has long been shown to be associated with alcohol and drug dependence. The P300 wave reflects attentional resource allocation and active working memory. Since marijuana intoxication has a potent blocking effect on short-term memory we examined the association between the CNR1 alleles and the P300 wave amplitude at three electrodes in 35 alcohol and drug addicts, by MANOVA. There was a significant decrease in amplitude of the P300 wave for all three electrodes (P = 0.028) that was most marked for the frontal lobes (P = 0.008) in subjects homozygous for the CNR1 > or = 5 repeat alleles. Multivariate regression analysis indicated the CNR1 gene contributed to 20% of the variance of the frontal lobe P300 wave amplitude.

  5. Expression and diagnosis of transient receptor potential vanilloid1 in urothelium of patients with overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H Y; Chu, J F; Li, P; Li, N; Lv, Z H

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to test expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid1 (TRPV1) in urothelium of female patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and explore clinical significance of TRPV1 in diagnosing female OAB. TRPV1 expression in urothelium of female OAB patients (n=21) and healthy females (n=9) was detected using Strept Avidin-Biotin Complex (SABC), an immunohistochemical method and image analysis system. Relative content of TRPV1 was expressed by average optical density (AOD) and was analyzed through data of urodynamics. Compared to TRPV1 expression in urothelium of healthy females (AOD 0.3658 ± 0.1009), TRPV1 expression in OAB patients was much higher (AOD 0.4834 ± 0.1252) and the difference was significant P less than 0.05. Observation and comparison in clinic of urodynamic parameters of female patients and healthy females revealed that the former had lower indexes with remarkable differences (P less than 0.05) such as Qmax, first desire volume (FDV), strong desire volume (SDV), maximum cyst capacity (MCC) and bladder compliance (BC). Thus high expression of TRPV1 in urothelium of female OAB patients is closely correlated to OAB occurrence, showing great importance of improved bladder sensitivity in female OAB occurrence mechanism.

  6. Genetic and pharmacological antagonism of NK1 receptor prevents opiate abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Sandweiss, A J; McIntosh, M I; Moutal, A; Davidson-Knapp, R; Hu, J; Giri, A K; Yamamoto, T; Hruby, V J; Khanna, R; Largent-Milnes, T M; Vanderah, T W

    2017-05-09

    Development of an efficacious, non-addicting analgesic has been challenging. Discovery of novel mechanisms underlying addiction may present a solution. Here we target the neurokinin system, which is involved in both pain and addiction. Morphine exerts its rewarding actions, at least in part, by inhibiting GABAergic input onto substance P (SP) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), subsequently increasing SP release onto dopaminergic neurons. Genome editing of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK 1 R) in the VTA renders morphine non-rewarding. Complementing our genetic approach, we demonstrate utility of a bivalent pharmacophore with dual activity as a μ/δ opioid agonist and NK 1 R antagonist in inhibiting nociception in an animal model of acute pain while lacking any positive reinforcement. These data indicate that dual targeting of the dopaminergic reward circuitry and pain pathways with a multifunctional opioid agonist-NK 1 R antagonist may be an efficacious strategy in developing future analgesics that lack abuse potential.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 9 May 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.102.

  7. Antagonism of NMDA receptors as a potential treatment for Down syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boada, R; Hutaff-Lee, C; Schrader, A; Weitzenkamp, D; Benke, T A; Goldson, E J; Costa, A C S

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor uncompetitive antagonist, memantine hydrochloride (memantine), has been shown to improve learning/memory and rescue one form of hippocampus synaptic plasticity dysfunction in the best-studied mouse model of DS available, the Ts65Dn mouse. Given the status of memantine as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) approved by the Food and Drug Administration, the preclinical evidence of potential efficacy in Ts65Dn mice, and the favorable safety profile of memantine, we designed a study to investigate whether the findings in the mouse model could be translated to individuals with DS. In this pilot, proof-of-principle study we hypothesized that memantine therapy would improve test scores of young adults with DS on measures of episodic and spatial memory, which are generally considered to be hippocampus dependent. Accordingly, in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we compared the effect of 16-week treatment with either memantine or placebo on cognitive and adaptive functions of 40 young adults with DS using a carefully selected set of neuropsychological outcome measures. Safety and tolerability were also monitored. Although no significant differences were observed between the memantine and placebo groups on the two primary outcome measures, we found a significant improvement in the memantine group in one of the secondary measures associated with the primary hypothesis. Only infrequent and mild adverse events were noted. PMID:22806212

  8. Novel role of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 in the regulation of cardiac performance

    PubMed Central

    Lasko, Valerie M.; Koch, Sheryl E.; Singh, Vivek P.; Carreira, Vinicius; Robbins, Nathan; Patel, Amit R.; Jiang, Min; Bidwell, Philip; Kranias, Evangelia G.; Jones, W. Keith; Lorenz, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channels have been implicated in the regulation of cardiovascular function, but only recently has our laboratory described the vanilloid-2 subtype (TRPV2) in the cardiomyocyte, though its exact mechanism of action has not yet been established. This study tests the hypothesis that TRPV2 plays an important role in regulating myocyte contractility under physiological conditions. Therefore, we measured cardiac and vascular function in wild-type and TRPV2−/− mice in vitro and in vivo and found that TRPV2 deletion resulted in a decrease in basal systolic and diastolic function without affecting loading conditions or vascular tone. TRPV2 stimulation with probenecid, a relatively selective TRPV2 agonist, caused an increase in both inotropy and lusitropy in wild-type mice that was blunted in TRPV2−/− mice. We examined the mechanism of TRPV2 inotropy/lusitropy in isolated myocytes and found that it modulates Ca2+ transients and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ loading. We show that the activity of this channel is necessary for normal cardiac function and that there is increased contractility in response to agonism of TRPV2 with probenecid. PMID:24322617

  9. Transient receptor potential ion channels in primary sensory neurons as targets for novel analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Sousa-Valente, J; Andreou, A P; Urban, L; Nagy, I

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion in novel findings relating to the molecules involved in mediating the sensation of pain in humans. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels emerged as the greatest group of molecules involved in the transduction of various physical stimuli into neuronal signals in primary sensory neurons, as well as, in the development of pain. Here, we review the role of TRP ion channels in primary sensory neurons in the development of pain associated with peripheral pathologies and possible strategies to translate preclinical data into the development of effective new analgesics. Based on available evidence, we argue that nociception-related TRP channels on primary sensory neurons provide highly valuable targets for the development of novel analgesics and that, in order to reduce possible undesirable side effects, novel analgesics should prevent the translocation from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane and the sensitization of the channels rather than blocking the channel pore or binding sites for exogenous or endogenous activators. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24283624

  10. Involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 in intra-oral incisional pain.

    PubMed

    Urata, K; Shinoda, M; Ikutame, D; Iinuma, T; Iwata, K

    2018-03-05

    To examine whether transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) contributes to the changes in intra-oral thermal and mechanical sensitivity following the incision of buccal mucosa. Buccal mucosal pain threshold was measured after the incision. Changes in the number of TRPV2-immunoreactive (IR) trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons which innervate the whisker pad skin and buccal mucosa, changes in the number of isolectin B4-negative/isolectin B4-positive TRPV2-IR TG neurons which innervate the whisker pad skin and the buccal mucosa, and the effect of peripheral TRPV2 antagonism on the pain threshold of incisional whisker pad skin and buccal mucosa were examined after these injuries. Buccal mucosal pain hypersensitivities were induced on day 3 following the incision. The total number of TRPV2-IR TG neurons and the number of isolectin B4-negative TRPV2-IR TG neurons which innervate the whisker pad skin and buccal mucosa were increased. Buccal mucosal TRPV2 antagonism completely suppressed the heat and mechanical hypersensitivities, but not cold hypersensitivity. TRPV2 antagonist administration to the incisional whisker pad skin only partially suppressed pain hypersensitivities. The increased expression of TRPV2 in peptidergic TG neurons innervating the incisional buccal mucosa is predominantly involved in buccal mucosal heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia following buccal mucosal incision. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of ginger and its pungent constituents on transient receptor potential channels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Soo; Hong, Chan Sik; Lee, Sang Weon; Nam, Joo Hyun; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-12-01

    Ginger extract is used as an analeptic in herbal medicine and has been reported to exert antioxidant effects. Transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical 5 (TRPC5), TRP cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7; melastatin 7), and TRP cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1; ankyrin 1) are non-selective cation channels that are modulated by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and subsequently control various cellular processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ginger and its pungent constituents modulate these channels and exert antioxidant effects. It was found that TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents were modulated by ginger extract and by its pungent constituents, [6]-gingerol, zingerone and [6]-shogaol. In particular, [6]-shogaol markedly and dose-dependently inhibited TRPC5 currents with an IC50 of value of ~18.3 µM. Furthermore, the strong dose-dependent activation of TRPA1 currents by [6]-shogaol was abolished by A‑967079 (a selective TRPA1 inhibitor). However, ginger extract and its pungent constituents had no effect on TRPM7 currents. These results suggest the antioxidant effects of ginger extract and its pungent constituents are mediated through TRPC5 and TRPA1, and that [6]-shogaol is predominantly responsible for the regulation of TRPC5 and TRPA1 currents by ginger extract.

  12. The potential role of dopamine D3 receptor neurotransmission in cognition

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Caravaggio, Fernando; Chow, Tiffany; Le Foll, Bernard; Mulsant, Benoit; Pollock, Bruce; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    Currently available treatments have limited pro-cognitive effects for neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. The primary objective of this work is to review the literature on the role of dopamine D3 receptors in cognition, and propose dopamine D3 receptor antagonists as possible cognitive enhancers for neuropsychiatric disorders. A literature search was performed to identify animal and human studies on D3 receptors and cognition using PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The search terms included “dopamine D3 receptor” and “cognition”. The literature search identified 164 articles. The results revealed: (1) D3 receptors are associated with cognitive functioning in both healthy individuals and those with neuropsychiatric disorders; (2) D3 receptor blockade appears to enhance while D3 receptor agonism seems to impair cognitive function, including memory, attention, learning, processing speed, social recognition and executive function independent of age; and (3) D3 receptor antagonists may exert their pro-cognitive effect by enhancing the release of acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex, disinhibiting the activity of dopamine neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex, or activating CREB signaling in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that D3 receptor blockade may enhance cognitive performance in healthy individuals and treat cognitive dysfunction in individuals with a neuropsychiatric disorder. Clinical trials are needed to confirm these effects. PMID:23791072

  13. Contributing to the early detection of Rett syndrome: the potential role of auditory Gestalt perception.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether there are qualitatively deviant characteristics in the early vocalizations of children with Rett syndrome, we had 400 native Austrian-German speakers listen to audio recordings of vocalizations from typically developing girls and girls with Rett syndrome. The audio recordings were rated as (a) inconspicuous, (b) conspicuous or (c) not able to decide between (a) and (b). The results showed that participants were accurate in differentiating the vocalizations of typically developing children compared to children with Rett syndrome. However, the accuracy for rating verbal behaviors was dependent on the type of vocalization with greater accuracy for canonical babbling compared to cooing vocalizations. The results suggest a potential role for the use of rating child vocalizations for early detection of Rett syndrome. This is important because clinical criteria related to speech and language development remain important for early identification of Rett syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sexual Abuse Exposure Alters Early Processing of Emotional Words: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Laurent; Caparos, Serge; Leblanc, Carole-Anne; Brisson, Benoit; Blanchette, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the time course of emotional information processing between trauma-exposed and control participants, using electrophysiological measures. We conceived an emotional Stroop task with two types of words: trauma-related emotional words and neutral words. We assessed the evoked cerebral responses of sexual abuse victims without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no abuse participants. We focused particularly on an early wave (C1/P1), the N2pc, and the P3b. Our main result indicated an early effect (55–165 ms) of emotionality, which varied between non-exposed participants and sexual abuse victims. This suggests that potentially traumatic experiences modulate early processing of emotional information. Our findings showing neurobiological alterations in sexual abuse victims (without PTSD) suggest that exposure to highly emotional events has an important impact on neurocognitive function even in the absence of psychopathology. PMID:29379428

  15. The flavonoid baicalein promotes NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Fang; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Long, Li-Hong; Fu, Hui; Xie, Na; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2011-03-01

    There is growing interest in the physiological functions of flavonoids, especially in their effects on cognitive function and on neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the role of the flavonoid baicalein in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region and cognitive behavioural performance. Effects of baicalein on LTP in rat hippocampal slices were investigated by electrophysiological methods. Phosphorylation of Akt (at Ser(473)), the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) (at Ser(133)) were analysed by Western blot. Fear conditioning was used to determine whether baicalein could improve learning and memory in rats. Baicalein enhanced the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor-dependent LTP in a bell-shaped concentration-dependent manner. Addition of the lipoxygenase metabolites 12(S)-HETE and 12(S)-HPETE did not reverse these effects of baicalein. Baicalein treatment enhanced phosphorylation of Akt during induction of LTP with the same bell-shaped dose-response curve. LTP potentiation induced by baicalein was blocked by inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. CREB phosphorylation was also increased in the CA1 region of baicalein-treated slices. Baicalein-treated rats performed significantly better than controls in a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Furthermore, baicalein treatment selectively increased the phosphorylation of Akt and CREB in the CA1 region of hippocampus, but not in the prefrontal cortex, after fear conditioning training. Our results demonstrate that the flavonoid baicalein can facilitate memory, and therefore it might be useful in the treatment of patients with memory disorders. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channels are involved in body temperature regulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold temperature in vitro and has been demonstrated to act as a ‘cold temperature sensor’ in vivo. Although it is known that agonists of this ‘cold temperature sensor’, such as menthol and icilin, cause a transient increase in body temperature (Tb), it is not known if TRPM8 plays a role in Tb regulation. Since TRPM8 has been considered as a potential target for chronic pain therapeutics, we have investigated the role of TRPM8 in Tb regulation. Results We characterized five chemically distinct compounds (AMG0635, AMG2850, AMG8788, AMG9678, and Compound 496) as potent and selective antagonists of TRPM8 and tested their effects on Tb in rats and mice implanted with radiotelemetry probes. All five antagonists used in the study caused a transient decrease in Tb (maximum decrease of 0.98°C). Since thermoregulation is a homeostatic process that maintains Tb about 37°C, we further evaluated whether repeated administration of an antagonist attenuated the decrease in Tb. Indeed, repeated daily administration of AMG9678 for four consecutive days showed a reduction in the magnitude of the Tb decrease Day 2 onwards. Conclusions The data reported here demonstrate that TRPM8 channels play a role in Tb regulation. Further, a reduction of magnitude in Tb decrease after repeated dosing of an antagonist suggests that TRPM8’s role in Tb maintenance may not pose an issue for developing TRPM8 antagonists as therapeutics. PMID:22571355

  17. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests.

  18. Activation of the chemosensing transient receptor potential channel A1 (TRPA1) by alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Stenger, Bernhard; Zehfuss, Franziska; Mückter, Harald; Schmidt, Annette; Balszuweit, Frank; Schäfer, Eva; Büch, Thomas; Gudermann, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Steinritz, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel is expressed in different tissues including skin, lung and neuronal tissue. Recent reports identified TRPA1 as a sensor for noxious substances, implicating a functional role in the molecular toxicology. TRPA1 is activated by various potentially harmful electrophilic substances. The chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) is a highly reactive alkylating agent that binds to numerous biological targets. Although SM is known for almost 200 years, detailed knowledge about the pathophysiology resulting from exposure is lacking. A specific therapy is not available. In this study, we investigated whether the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl-ethylsulfide (CEES, a model substance for SM-promoted effects) and SM are able to activate TRPA1 channels. CEES induced a marked increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPA1-expressing but not in TRPA1-negative cells. The TRP-channel blocker AP18 diminished the CEES-induced calcium influx. HEK293 cells permanently expressing TRPA1 were more sensitive toward cytotoxic effects of CEES compared with wild-type cells. At low CEES concentrations, CEES-induced cytotoxicity was prevented by AP18. Proof-of-concept experiments using SM resulted in a pronounced increase in [Ca(2+)]i in HEK293-A1-E cells. Human A549 lung epithelial cells, which express TRPA1 endogenously, reacted with a transient calcium influx in response to CEES exposure. The CEES-dependent calcium response was diminished by AP18. In summary, our results demonstrate that alkylating agents are able to activate TRPA1. Inhibition of TRPA1 counteracted cellular toxicity and could thus represent a feasible approach to mitigate SM-induced cell damage.

  19. Potential Involvement of P2 Receptors in the Pathological Processes of Hyperthyroidism: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wu; Li, Guodong; Nie, Yijun; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Shuangmei; Li, Guilin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Liang, Shangdong

    2016-05-01

    Symptoms of hyperthyroidism manifest mainly as changes in the nervous and metabolic systems. Whether P2X receptors (ionotropic ATP purinergic receptors, including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) are involved in the alterations of these disorders still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association of hyperthyroidism with the expression of P2X3 and P2X7 receptors and the concentrations of ATP in blood leukocytes and catecholamine. Twelve healthy subjects and twelve patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were recruited. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels had been detected by chemiluminescence method. Meanwhile, the catecholamine levels (including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) in plasma, ATP level and P2X receptors (including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) in peripheral blood had been detected by high performance liquid chromatography, bioluminescence method, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group compared with the control group. The concentration of ATP in the hyperthyroidism group was significantly higher than its in the control group. The expression of P2X3 mRNA and P2X7 mRNA in hyperthyroidism group were significantly increased compared with those in control group. In a conclusion, there is a relationship between the elevated expression of P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor in peripheral blood leukocytes and high serum epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in hyperthyroidism patients. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  20. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  1. Differential distribution of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) on foveal cones: FGFR-4 is an early marker of cone photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Elisa E; Natoli, Riccardo C; Hendrickson, Anita; Provis, Jan M

    2004-01-08

    Relatively little is known of the expression and distribution of FGF receptors (FGFR) in the primate retina. We investigated expression of FGFRs in developing and adult Macaca monkey retina, paying particular attention to the cone rich, macular region. One fetal human retina was used for diagnostic PCR using primers designed for FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, and FGFR like-protein 1 (FGFrl1) and for probe design to FGFR3, FGFR4, and FGFrl1. Rat cDNA was used to synthesize probes for FGFR1 and FGFR2 with 90% and 93% homology to human, respectively. Paraffin sections of retina from macaque fetuses sacrificed at fetal days (Fd) 64, 73, 85, 105, 115, 120, and 165, and postnatal ages 2.5 and 11 years were used to detect FGF receptors by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. PCR showed each of the FGF receptors are expressed in fetal human retina. In situ hybridization indicated that mRNA for each receptor is expressed in all retinal cell layers during development, but most intensely in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). FGFR2 mRNA is reduced in the adult inner (INL) and outer (ONL) nuclear layers, while FGFrl1 mRNA is virtually absent from the adult ONL. FGFR4 mRNA is particularly intense in fetal and adult cone photoreceptors. Immunoreactivity to FGFR1-FGFR4 was detected in the interphotoreceptor matrix in what appeared to be RPE microvilli associated with developing photoreceptor outer segments, and generally is high in the GCL and low in the INL. Different patterns of FGFR3 and FGFR4 immunoreactivities in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) suggest localization of FGFR3 to horizontal cell processes, with FGFR4 being expressed by both horizontal and bipolar cell processes. FGFR1, FGFR3, and FGFR4 immunoreactivities are present in the inner segments and somata of adult cones. The pedicles of developing and adult cones are FGFR1 and FGFR3 immunoreactive, and the basal, synaptic region is FGFR4 immunoreactive. FGFR4 labels cones almost in their entirety from early in

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone Potentiates Native Ionotropic ATP Receptors Containing the P2X2 Subunit in Rat Sensory Neurones

    PubMed Central

    De Roo, Mathias; Rodeau, Jean-Luc; Schlichter, Rémy

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the modulatory effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant neurosteroid produced by glial cells and neurones, on membrane currents induced by the activation of ionotropic ATP (P2X) receptors in neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurones. ATP (1 μm) induced three types of currents/responses termed F (fast and transient), S (slowly desensitizing) and M (mixed, sum of F- and S-type responses). DHEA (10 nm to 100 μm) concentration-dependently increased the amplitude of plateau-like currents of S- and M-type responses evoked by submaximal (1 μm) but not saturating (100 μm or 1 mM) concentrations of ATP. αβ-Methylene ATP (αβme-ATP, 5 μm) also evoked F-, S- and M-type responses, the plateau phases of which were potentiated by lowering external pH (6.3) and by ivermectin (IVM, 3 μm), indicating the presence heteromeric P2X2-containing receptors and possibly of functional native P2X4/6 receptors. There was a strict correlation between the potentiating effects of low pH and DHEA on αβme-ATP responses but not between that of IVM and DHEA, suggesting that DHEA selectively modulated P2X2-containing receptors. DHEA also potentiated putative homomeric P2X2 receptor responses recorded in the continuous presence of 1 μm 2′-(or 3′)-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5′-triphosphate (TNP-ATP). Our results constitute the first demonstration of a fast potentiation of P2X receptors by a neurosteroid and suggest that DHEA could be an endogenous modulator of P2X2-containing receptors thereby contributing to the facilitation of the detection and/or the transmission of nociceptive messages, particularly under conditions of inflammatory pain where the P2X receptor signalling pathway appears to be upregulated. PMID:12844512

  3. Purinergic receptors contribute to early mesangial cell transformation and renal vessel hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Graciano, Miguel L.; Nishiyama, Akira; Jackson, Keith; Seth, Dale M.; Ortiz, Rudy M.; Prieto-Carrasquero, Minolfa C.; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Navar, L. Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Chronic ANG II infusions lead to increases in intrarenal ANG II levels, hypertension, and tissue injury. Increased blood pressure also elicits increases in renal interstitial fluid (RIF) ATP concentrations that stimulate cell proliferation. We evaluated the contribution of purinergic receptor activation to ANG II-induced renal injury in rats by treating with clopidogrel, a P2Y12 receptor blocker, or with PPADS, a nonselective P2 receptor blocker. α-Actin expression in mesangial cells, afferent arteriolar wall thickness (AAWT), cortical cell proliferation, and macrophage infiltration were used as early markers of renal injury. Clopidogrel and PPADS did not alter blood pressure, renin or kidney ANG II content. α-Actin expression increased from control of 0.6 ± 0.4% of mesangial area to 6.3 ± 1.9% in ANG II-infused rats and this response was prevented by clopidogrel (0.4 ± 0.2%) and PPADS. The increase in AAWT from 4.7 ± 0.1 to 6.0 ± 0.1 mm in ANG II rats was also prevented by clopidogrel (4.8 ± 0.1 mm) and PPADS. ANG II infusion led to interstitial macrophage infiltration (105 ± 16 vs. 62 ± 4 cell/mm2) and tubular proliferation (71 ± 15 vs. 20 ± 4 cell/mm2) and these effects were prevented by clopidogrel (52 ± 4 and 36 ± 3 cell/mm2) and PPADS. RIF ATP levels were higher in ANG II-infused rats than in control rats (11.8 ± 1.9 vs. 5.6 ± 0.6 nmol/l, P < 0.05). The results suggest that activation of vascular and glomerular purinergic P2 receptors may contribute to the mesangial cell transformation, renal inflammation, and vascular hypertrophy observed in ANG II-dependent hypertension. PMID:17989111

  4. High-throughput sequencing of the T cell receptor β gene identifies aggressive early-stage mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    de Masson, Adele; O'Malley, John T; Elco, Christopher P; Garcia, Sarah S; Divito, Sherrie J; Lowry, Elizabeth L; Tawa, Marianne; Fisher, David C; Devlin, Phillip M; Teague, Jessica E; Leboeuf, Nicole R; Kirsch, Ilan R; Robins, Harlan; Clark, Rachael A; Kupper, Thomas S

    2018-05-09

    Mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a malignancy of skin-tropic memory T cells. Most MF cases present as early stage (stage I A/B, limited to the skin), and these patients typically have a chronic, indolent clinical course. However, a small subset of early-stage cases develop progressive and fatal disease. Because outcomes can be so different, early identification of this high-risk population is an urgent unmet clinical need. We evaluated the use of next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing of the T cell receptor β gene ( TCRB ) in lesional skin biopsies to predict progression and survival in a discovery cohort of 208 patients with CTCL (177 with MF) from a 15-year longitudinal observational clinical study. We compared these data to the results in an independent validation cohort of 101 CTCL patients (87 with MF). The tumor clone frequency (TCF) in lesional skin, measured by high-throughput sequencing of the TCRB gene, was an independent prognostic factor of both progression-free and overall survival in patients with CTCL and MF in particular. In early-stage patients, a TCF of >25% in the skin was a stronger predictor of progression than any other established prognostic factor (stage IB versus IA, presence of plaques, high blood lactate dehydrogenase concentration, large-cell transformation, or age). The TCF therefore may accurately predict disease progression in early-stage MF. Early identification of patients at high risk for progression could help identify candidates who may benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation before their disease becomes treatment-refractory. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether the experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Observational data were used in the present study. Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63 years). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Participants were 5309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB). SEC included socioeconomic and family factors. The AL index was based on nine cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress.

  6. New-generation 5-HT4 receptor agonists: potential for treatment of gastrointestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Noriaki; Wong, Banny S; Camilleri, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility is an important mechanism in functional GI disorders (FGIDs) including constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia, and gastroparesis. 5-hydroxytryptamine(4) (5-HT(4)) receptors are targets for the treatment of GI motility disorders. However, older 5-HT(4) receptor agonists had limited clinical success because they were associated with changes in the function of the cardiac HERG potassium channel. We conducted a PubMed search using the following key words alone or in combination: 5-HT(4), safety, toxicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical trial, cardiac, hERG, arrhythmia, potassium current, elderly, prucalopride, ATI-7505, and velusetrag (TD-5108), to review mechanisms of action, clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of three new-generation 5-HT(4) receptor agonists. Prucalopride, ATI-7505, and velusetrag (TD-5108) are highly selective, high-affinity 5-HT(4) receptor agonists that are devoid of action on other receptors within their therapeutic range. Their efficacy has been demonstrated in pharmacodynamic studies which demonstrate acceleration of colonic transit and, to a variable degree, in clinical trials that significantly relieve chronic constipation. Currently available evidence shows that the new 5-HT(4) receptor agonists have safe cardiac profiles. New-generation 5-HT(4) receptor agonists and future drugs targeting organ-specific splice variants are promising approaches to treat GI dysmotility, particularly colonic diseases.

  7. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine H4 receptor research.

    PubMed

    Grosicki, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved.

  8. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of aryl isoxazole derivatives as metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonists: a potential treatment for neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gyeong Hi; Kim, TaeHun; Son, Woo Seung; Seo, Seon Hee; Min, Sun-Joon; Cho, Yong Seo; Keum, Gyochang; Jeong, Kyu-Sung; Koh, Hun Yeong; Lee, Jiyoun; Pae, Ae Nim

    2015-03-15

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and known to activate the metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors in the brain. Among these glutamate receptors, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) has been implicated in various brain disorders including anxiety, schizophrenia and chronic pain. Several studies demonstrated that the blockade of mGluR1 signaling reduced pain responses in animal models, suggesting that mGluR1 is a promising target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have developed mGluR1 antagonists with an aryl isoxazole scaffold, and identify several compounds that are orally active in vivo. We believe that these compounds can serve as a useful tool for the investigation of the role of mGluR1 and a promising lead for the potential treatment of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Eph receptor A10 has a potential as a target for a prostate cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nagano, Kazuya; Yamashita, Takuya; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • EphA10 mRNA is overexpressed in breast, prostate and colon cancer cell lines. • EphA10 is overexpressed in clinical prostate tumors at mRNA and protein levels. • Anti-EphA10 antibodies were cytotoxic on EphA10-positive prostate cancer cells. - Abstract: We recently identified Eph receptor A10 (EphA10) as a novel breast cancer-specific protein. Moreover, we also showed that an in-house developed anti-EphA10 monoclonal antibody (mAb) significantly inhibited proliferation of breast cancer cells, suggesting EphA10 as a promising target for breast cancer therapy. However, the only other known report for EphA10 was its expression in the testis at the mRNA level. Therefore,more » the potency of EphA10 as a drug target against cancers other than the breast is not known. The expression of EphA10 in a wide variety of cancer cells was studied and the potential of EphA10 as a drug target was evaluated. Screening of EphA10 mRNA expression showed that EphA10 was overexpressed in breast cancer cell lines as well as in prostate and colon cancer cell lines. Thus, we focused on prostate cancers in which EphA10 expression was equivalent to that in breast cancers. As a result, EphA10 expression was clearly shown in clinical prostate tumor tissues as well as in cell lines at the mRNA and protein levels. In order to evaluate the potential of EphA10 as a drug target, we analyzed complement-dependent cytotoxicity effects of anti-EphA10 mAb and found that significant cytotoxicity was mediated by the expression of EphA10. Therefore, the idea was conceived that the overexpression of EphA10 in prostate cancers might have a potential as a target for prostate cancer therapy, and formed the basis for the studies reported here.« less

  11. δ opioid receptor antagonist, ICI 174,864, is suitable for the early treatment of uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangming; Tian, Kunlun; Zhu, Yu; Ding, Xiaoli; Li, Tao

    2013-08-01

    Fluid resuscitation is the essential step for early treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock. However, its implementation is greatly limited before hospital or during evacuation. The authors investigated whether δ opioid receptor antagonist ICI 174,864 was suitable for the early treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock. With uncontrolled hemorrhagic-shock rats, the antishock effects of six dosages of ICI 174,864 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 mg/kg) infused with or without a small volume of lactated Ringer's solution (LR) before bleeding controlled or bleeding cessation at different times were observed. ICI 174,864 (0.1-3 mg/kg) with or without 1/4 volume of LR infusion showed dose-dependent increase in the mean arterial blood pressure, and significantly prolonged the survival time and 8-h survival rate, as compared with ICI 174,864 plus 1/2 volume of LR infusion. The best effect was shown with 3 mg/kg of ICI 174,864. Bleeding cessation at 1, 2, or 3 h during infusion of ICI 174,864 (3 mg/kg) plus 1/4 volume of LR improved subsequent treatment (70% 24-h survival rate vs. 50 and 10% 24-h survival rate in hypotensive resuscitation and LR group, respectively). There was significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters, oxygen delivery, and tissue perfusion of hemorrhagic-shock rats with 3 mg/kg of ICI 174,864 plus 1/4 volume of LR infusion. δ Opioid receptor antagonist ICI 174,864 alone or with small volume of fluid infusion has good beneficial effect on uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. Its early application can "buy" time for subsequent treatment of traumatic shock.

  12. FAS Death Receptor: A Breast Cancer Subtype-Specific Radiation Response Biomarker and Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Janet K.; Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Lee, Chen-Ting; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Wei; Geradts, Joseph; Fels, Diane R.; Hoang, Peter; Ashcraft, Kathleen A.; Groth, Jeff; Kung, Hsiu-Ni; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Chi, Jen-Tsan A.

    2015-01-01

    Although a standardized approach to radiotherapy has been used to treat breast cancer, regardless of subtype (e.g., luminal, basal), recent clinical data suggest that radiation response may vary significantly among subtypes. We hypothesized that this clinical variability may be due, in part, to differences in cellular radiation response. In this study, we utilized RNA samples for microarray analysis from two sources: 1. Paired pre- and postirradiation breast tumor tissue from 32 early-stage breast cancer patients treated in our unique preoperative radiation Phase I trial; and 2. Sixteen biologically diverse breast tumor cell lines exposed to 0 and 5 Gy irradiation. The transcriptome response to radiation exposure was derived by comparing gene expression in samples before and after irradiation. Genes with the highest coefficient of variation were selected for further evaluation and validated at the RNA and protein level. Gene editing and agonistic antibody treatment were performed to assess the impact of gene modulation on radiation response. Gene expression in our cohort of luminal breast cancer patients was distinctly different before and after irradiation. Further, two distinct patterns of gene expression were observed in our biologically diverse group of breast cancer cell lines pre- versus postirradiation. Cell lines that showed significant change after irradiation were largely luminal subtype, while gene expression in the basal and HER2+ cell lines was minimally impacted. The 100 genes with the most significant response to radiation in patients were identified and analyzed for differential patterns of expression in the radiation-responsive versus nonresponsive cell lines. Fourteen genes were identified as significant, including FAS, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family known to play a critical role in programed cell death. Modulation of FAS in breast cancer cell lines altered radiation response phenotype and enhanced radiation sensitivity in

  13. Controlling ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors with light: principles and potential

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Andreas; Levitz, Joshua; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2014-01-01

    Light offers unique advantages for studying and manipulating biomolecules and the cellular processes that they control. Optical control of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors has garnered significant interest, since these receptors are central to signaling at neuronal synapses and only optical approaches provide the spatial and temporal resolution required to directly probe receptor function in cells and tissue. Following the classical method of glutamate photo-uncaging, recently developed methods have added other forms of remote control, including those with high molecular specificity and genetic targeting. These tools open the door to the direct optical control of synaptic transmission and plasticity, as well as the probing of native receptor function in intact neural circuits. PMID:25573450

  14. Controlling ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors with light: principles and potential.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Andreas; Levitz, Joshua; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2015-02-01

    Light offers unique advantages for studying and manipulating biomolecules and the cellular processes that they control. Optical control of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors has garnered significant interest, since these receptors are central to signaling at neuronal synapses and only optical approaches provide the spatial and temporal resolution required to directly probe receptor function in cells and tissue. Following the classical method of glutamate photo-uncaging, recently developed methods have added other forms of remote control, including those with high molecular specificity and genetic targeting. These tools open the door to the direct optical control of synaptic transmission and plasticity, as well as the probing of native receptor function in intact neural circuits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergistic interaction of the cannabinoid and death receptor systems - a potential target for future cancer therapies?

    PubMed

    Keresztes, Attila; Streicher, John M

    2017-10-01

    Cannabinoid receptors have been shown to interact with other receptors, including tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRS) members, to induce cancer cell death. When cannabinoids and death-inducing ligands (including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) are administered together, they have been shown to synergize and demonstrate enhanced antitumor activity in vitro. Certain cannabinoid ligands have been shown to sensitize cancer cells and synergistically interact with members of the TNFRS, thus suggesting that the combination of cannabinoids with death receptor (DR) ligands induces additive or synergistic tumor cell death. This review summarizes recent findings on the interaction of the cannabinoid and DR systems and suggests possible clinical co-application of cannabinoids and DR ligands in the treatment of various malignancies. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Drug addiction: targeting dynamic neuroimmune receptor interactions as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Hutchinson, Mark R; Mustafa, Sanam

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction and dependence have proven to be difficult psychiatric disorders to treat. The limited efficacy of neuronally acting medications, such as acamprosate and naltrexone, highlights the need to identify novel targets. Recent research has underscored the importance of the neuroimmune system in many behavioural manifestations of drug addiction. In this review, we propose that our appreciation for complex phenotypes such as drug addiction and dependence will come with a greater understanding that these disorders are the result of intricate, interconnected signalling pathways that are, if only partially, determined at the receptor level. The idea of receptor heteromerisation and receptor mosaics will be introduced to explain cross talk between the receptors and signalling molecules implicated in neuroimmune signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. LASSO-ing Potential Nuclear Receptor Agonists and Antagonists: A New Computational Method for Database Screening

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important biological macromolecular transcription factors that are implicated in multiple biological pathways and may interact with other xenobiotics that are endocrine disruptors present in the environment. Examples of important NRs include the androg...

  18. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a potential tumour suppressor in pituitary adenomas.

    PubMed

    Formosa, R; Borg, J; Vassallo, J

    2017-08-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PA) represent the largest group of intracranial neoplasms and yet the molecular mechanisms driving this disease remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to use a high-throughput screening method to identify molecular pathways that may be playing a significant and consistent role in PA. RNA profiling using microarrays on eight local PAs identified the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling pathway as a key canonical pathway downregulated in all PA types. This was confirmed by real-time PCR in 31 tumours. The AHR has been shown to regulate cell cycle progression in various cell types; however, its role in pituitary tissue has never been investigated. In order to validate the role of AHR in PA behaviour, further functional studies were undertaken. Over-expression of AHR in GH3 cells revealed a tumour suppressor potential independent of exogenous ligand activation by benzo α-pyrene (BαP). Cell cycle analysis and quantitative PCR of cell cycle regulator genes revealed that both unstimulated and BαP-stimulated AHR reduced E2F-driven transcription and altered expression of cell cycle regulator genes, thus increasing the percentage of cells in G 0 /G 1 phase and slowing the proliferation rate of GH3 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between AHR and retinoblastoma (Rb1) protein supporting this as a functional mechanism for the observed reduction. Endogenous Ahr reduction using silencing RNA confirmed the tumour suppressive function of the Ahr. These data support a mechanistic pathway for the putative tumour suppressive role of AHR specifically in PA, possibly through its role as a cell cycle co-regulator, even in the absence of exogenous ligands. © 2017 The authors.

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a potential tumour suppressor in pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Formosa, R; Borg, J

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PA) represent the largest group of intracranial neoplasms and yet the molecular mechanisms driving this disease remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to use a high-throughput screening method to identify molecular pathways that may be playing a significant and consistent role in PA. RNA profiling using microarrays on eight local PAs identified the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling pathway as a key canonical pathway downregulated in all PA types. This was confirmed by real-time PCR in 31 tumours. The AHR has been shown to regulate cell cycle progression in various cell types; however, its role in pituitary tissue has never been investigated. In order to validate the role of AHR in PA behaviour, further functional studies were undertaken. Over-expression of AHR in GH3 cells revealed a tumour suppressor potential independent of exogenous ligand activation by benzo α-pyrene (BαP). Cell cycle analysis and quantitative PCR of cell cycle regulator genes revealed that both unstimulated and BαP-stimulated AHR reduced E2F-driven transcription and altered expression of cell cycle regulator genes, thus increasing the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase and slowing the proliferation rate of GH3 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between AHR and retinoblastoma (Rb1) protein supporting this as a functional mechanism for the observed reduction. Endogenous Ahr reduction using silencing RNA confirmed the tumour suppressive function of the Ahr. These data support a mechanistic pathway for the putative tumour suppressive role of AHR specifically in PA, possibly through its role as a cell cycle co-regulator, even in the absence of exogenous ligands. PMID:28649092

  20. Citral Sensing by TRANSient Receptor Potential Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Stephanie C.; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1–3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin. PMID:18461159

  1. Citral sensing by Transient [corrected] receptor potential channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Stephanie C; Vriens, Joris; Martyn, Derek; Clardy, Jon; Clapham, David E

    2008-05-07

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels mediate key aspects of taste, smell, pain, temperature sensation, and pheromone detection. To deepen our understanding of TRP channel physiology, we require more diverse pharmacological tools. Citral, a bioactive component of lemongrass, is commonly used as a taste enhancer, as an odorant in perfumes, and as an insect repellent. Here we report that citral activates TRP channels found in sensory neurons (TRPV1 and TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1), and produces long-lasting inhibition of TRPV1-3 and TRPM8, while transiently blocking TRPV4 and TRPA1. Sustained citral inhibition is independent of internal calcium concentration, but is state-dependent, developing only after TRP channel opening. Citral's actions as a partial agonist are not due to cysteine modification of the channels nor are they a consequence of citral's stereoisoforms. The isolated aldehyde and alcohol cis and trans enantiomers (neral, nerol, geranial, and geraniol) each reproduce citral's actions. In juvenile rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, prolonged citral inhibition of native TRPV1 channels enabled the separation of TRPV2 and TRPV3 currents. We find that TRPV2 and TRPV3 channels are present in a high proportion of these neurons (94% respond to 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate), consistent with our immunolabeling experiments and previous in situ hybridization studies. The TRPV1 activation requires residues in transmembrane segments two through four of the voltage-sensor domain, a region previously implicated in capsaicin activation of TRPV1 and analogous menthol activation of TRPM8. Citral's broad spectrum and prolonged sensory inhibition may prove more useful than capsaicin for allodynia, itch, or other types of pain involving superficial sensory nerves and skin.

  2. Scavenger Receptor-A deficiency impairs immune response of microglia and astrocytes potentiating Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Francisca; Vruwink, Marianne; Metz, Claudia; Muñoz, Paola; Salgado, Nicole; Poblete, Joaquín; Andrés, María Estela; Eugenín, Jaime; von Bernhardi, Rommy

    2018-03-01

    Late onset Alzheimer disease's (LOAD) main risk factor is aging. Although it is not well known which age-related factors are involved in its development, evidence points out to the involvement of an impaired amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the aged brain among possible causes. Glial cells are the main scavengers of the brain, where Scavenger Receptor class A (SR-A) emerges as a relevant player in AD because of its participation in Aβ uptake and in the modulation of glial cell inflammatory response. Here, we show that SR-A expression is reduced in the hippocampus of aged animals and APP/PS1 mice. Given that Aβ deposition increases in the aging brain, we generated a triple transgenic mouse, which accumulates Aβ and is knockout for SR-A (APP/PS1/SR-A -/- ) to evaluate Aβ accumulation and the inflammatory outcome of SR-A depletion in the aged brain. The lifespan of APP/PS1/SR-A -/- mice was greatly reduced, accompanied by a 3-fold increase in plasmatic pro-inflammatory cytokines, and reduced performance in a working memory behavioral assessment. Microglia and astrocytes lacking SR-A displayed impaired oxidative response and nitric oxide production, produced up to 7-fold more pro-inflammatory cytokines and showed a 12-fold reduction in anti-inflammatory cytokines release, with conspicuous changes in lipopolysaccharide-induced glial activation. Isolated microglia from young and adult mice lacking SR-A showed a 50% reduction in phagocytic activity. Our results indicate that reduced expression of SR-A can deregulate glial inflammatory response and potentiate Aβ accumulation, two mechanisms that could contribute to AD progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pore helix domain is critical to camphor sensitivity of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channel.

    PubMed

    Marsakova, Lenka; Touska, Filip; Krusek, Jan; Vlachova, Viktorie

    2012-04-01

    The recent discovery that camphor activates and strongly desensitizes the capsaicin-sensitive and noxious heat-sensitive channel transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) has provided new insights and opened up new research paths toward understanding why this naturally occurring monoterpene is widely used in human medicine for its local counter-irritant, antipruritic, and anesthetic properties. However, the molecular basis for camphor sensitivity remains mostly unknown. The authors attempt to explore the nature of the activation pathways evoked by camphor and narrow down a putative interaction site at TRPV1. The authors transiently expressed wild-type or specifically mutated recombinant TRPV1 channels in human embryonic kidney cells HEK293T and recorded cation currents with the whole cell, patch clamp technique. To monitor changes in the spatial distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, they used fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements from cells transfected with the fluorescent protein-tagged pleckstrin homology domains of phospholipase C. The results revealed that camphor modulates TRPV1 channel through the outer pore helix domain by affecting its overall gating equilibrium. In addition, camphor, which generally is known to decrease the fluidity of cell plasma membranes, may also regulate the activity of TRPV1 by inducing changes in the spatial distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. The findings of this study provide novel insights into the structural basis for the modulation of TRPV1 channel by camphor and may provide an explanation for the mechanism by which camphor modulates thermal sensation in vivo.

  4. Expression and distribution of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in bladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weiqun; Hill, Warren G; Apodaca, Gerard; Zeidel, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    The urothelium is proposed to be a sensory tissue that responds to mechanical stress by undergoing dynamic membrane trafficking and neurotransmitter release; however, the molecular basis of this function is poorly understood. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are ideal candidates to fulfill such a role as they can sense changes in temperature, osmolarity, and mechanical stimuli, and several are reported to be expressed in the bladder epithelium. However, their complete expression profile is unknown and their cellular localization is largely undefined. We analyzed expression of all 33 TRP family members in mouse bladder and urothelium by RT-PCR and found 22 specifically expressed in the urothelium. Of the latter, 10 were chosen for closer investigation based on their known mechanosensory or membrane trafficking functions in other cell types. Western blots confirmed urothelial expression of TRPC1, TRPC4, TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPM4, TRPM7, TRPML1, and polycystins 1 and 2 (PKD1 and PKD2) proteins. We further defined the cellular and subcellular localization of all 10 TRP channels. TRPV2 and TRPM4 were prominently localized to the umbrella cell apical membrane, while TRPC4 and TRPV4 were identified on their abluminal surfaces. TRPC1, TRPM7, and TRPML1 were localized to the cytoplasm, while PKD1 and PKD2 were expressed on the apical and basolateral membranes of umbrella cells as well as in the cytoplasm. The cellular location of TRPV1 in the bladder has been debated, but colocalization with neuronal marker calcitonin gene-related peptide indicated clearly that it is present on afferent neurons that extend into the urothelium, but may not be expressed by the urothelium itself. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the urothelium acts as a sentinel and by expressing multiple TRP channels it is likely it can detect and presumably respond to a diversity of external stimuli and suggest that it plays an important role in urothelial signal

  5. Hyperforin activates gene transcription involving transient receptor potential C6 channels.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Gerald; Rössler, Oliver G

    2017-04-01

    Hypericum perforatum is one of the most prominent medical plants. Hyperforin, a main ingredient of H. perforatum, has been shown to activate transient receptor potential canonical C6 (TRPC6) channels. Alternatively, it has been proposed that hyperforin functions as a protonophore in a TRPC6-independent manner. Here, we show that hyperforin stimulation activates the transcription factor AP-1 in HEK293 cells expressing TRPC6 (T6.11 cells), but did not substantially change the AP-1 activity in HEK293 cells lacking TRPC6. We identified the AP-1 binding site as a hyperforin-responsive element. AP-1 is composed of the transcription factors c-Jun and c-Fos, or other members of the c-Jun and c-Fos families of proteins. Hyperforin stimulation increased c-Jun and c-Fos promoter activities in T6.11 cells and induced an upregulation of c-Jun and c-Fos biosynthesis. The analysis of the c-Fos promoter revealed that the cAMP-response element also functions as a hyperforin-responsive element. Hyperforin-induced upregulation of AP-1 in T6.11 cells was attenuated by preincubation of the cells with either pregnenolone or progesterone, indicating that gene regulation via TRPC6 is under control of hormones or hormonal precursors. The signal transduction of hyperforin-induced AP-1 gene transcription required an influx of Ca 2+ ions into the cells, the activation of MAP kinases, and the activation of the transcription factors c-Jun and ternary complex factor. We conclude that hyperforin regulates gene transcription via activation of TRPC6 channels, involving stimulus-regulated protein kinases and stimulus-responsive transcription factors. The fact that hyperforin regulates gene transcription may explain many of the intracellular alterations induced by this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression Mediates Capsaicin-Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Barrantes, Ricardo; Córdova, Claudio; Gatica, Sebastian; Rodriguez, Belén; Lozano, Carlo; Marchant, Ivanny; Echeverria, Cesar; Simon, Felipe; Olivero, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family consists of a broad variety of non-selective cation channels that integrate environmental physicochemical signals for dynamic homeostatic control. Involved in a variety of cellular physiological processes, TRP channels are fundamental to the control of the cell life cycle. TRP channels from the vanilloid (TRPV) family have been directly implicated in cell death. TRPV1 is activated by pain-inducing stimuli, including inflammatory endovanilloids and pungent exovanilloids, such as capsaicin (CAP). TRPV1 activation by high doses of CAP (>10 μM) leads to necrosis, but also exhibits apoptotic characteristics. However, CAP dose-response studies are lacking in order to determine whether CAP-induced cell death occurs preferentially via necrosis or apoptosis. In addition, it is not known whether cytosolic Ca 2+ and mitochondrial dysfunction participates in CAP-induced TRPV1-mediated cell death. By using TRPV1-transfected HeLa cells, we investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in CAP-induced TRPV1-mediated cell death, the dependence of CAP dose, and the participation of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic Ca 2+ increase. Together, our results contribute to elucidate the pathophysiological steps that follow after TRPV1 stimulation with CAP. Low concentrations of CAP (1 μM) induce cell death by a mechanism involving a TRPV1-mediated rapid and transient intracellular Ca 2+ increase that stimulates plasma membrane depolarization, thereby compromising plasma membrane integrity and ultimately leading to cell death. Meanwhile, higher doses of CAP induce cell death via a TRPV1-independent mechanism, involving a slow and persistent intracellular Ca 2+ increase that induces mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane depolarization, plasma membrane loss of integrity, and ultimately, cell death.

  7. Noninvasive diode laser activation of transient receptor potential proteins and nociceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Cooper, Brian Y.; Nemenov, Michael I.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated diode laser (980 nm) evoked activation of transient receptor potential proteins (TRPV1 and TRPV2). C and A-delta (Aδ) nociceptor families are primarily responsible for pain mediation in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 proteins have been associated with heat evoked pain in C fibers while Aδ fibers have been associated with TRPV2. Diode laser stimulation allows a margin of safety between non-invasive activation and damage 19, 22, 34. Laser pulses (20-50 ms, 0.1-10 W, 980 nm) were used to stimulate: A) in vitro: excised patches from HEK293 cells expressing TRPV1; B) in vitro: rat DRG nociceptors expressing either TRPV1 or TRPV2; and C) in vivo: C-fibers of the rat saphenous nerve (SN) trunk. Cell currents were recorded using standard patch clamp methods. The SN was also stimulated electrically with bipolar electrodes. Stimulation (20-50 ms) of HEK and DRG cells expressing TRPV1 was highly reproducible. Activation and peak currents were achieved at estimated peak temperatures of 55°C and 70°C. Threshold activation was also observed in DRG neurons expressing TRPV2. The conduction velocity for laser-activated saphenous nerve afferents was in the C fiber range (0.5-1 m/s). Electrically stimulated nerve contained stimulation artifacts and complex neural components with conduction velocities ranging from 0.3-30 m/s. Diode laser activation of TRPV1 protein is a reproducible and effective means to probe TRP activity in both in vivo and in vitro preparations

  8. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (thermo-TRPs) in human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mergler, Stefan; Garreis, Fabian; Sahlmüller, Monika; Reinach, Peter S.; Paulsen, Friedrich; Pleyer, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Thermosensitive transient receptor potential proteins (TRPs) such as TRPV1-TRPV4 are all heat-activated non-selective cation channels that are modestly permeable to Ca2+. TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPV4 functional expression were previously identified in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). However, the membrane currents were not described underlying their activation by either selective agonists or thermal variation. This study characterized the membrane currents and [Ca 2+]i transients induced by thermal and agonist TRPV1 and 4 stimulation. TRPV1 and 4 expressions were confirmed by RT-PCR and TRPV2 transcripts were also detected. In fura2-loaded HCEC, a TRPV1-3 selective agonist, 100 µM 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), induced intracellular Ca2+ transients and an increase in non-selective cation outward currents that were suppressed by ruthenium-red (RuR) (10–20 µM), a nonselective TRPV channel blocker. These changes were also elicited by rises in ambient temperature from 25 °C to over 40 °C. RuR (5 µM) and a selective TRPV1 channel blocker capsazepine (CPZ) (10 µM) or another related blocker, lanthanum chloride (La3+) (100 µM) suppressed these temperature-induced Ca2+ increases. Planar patch-clamp technique was used to characterize the currents underlying Ca2+ transients. Increasing the temperature to over 40 °C induced reversible rises in non-selective cation currents. Moreover, a hypotonic challenge (25 %) increased non-selective cation currents confirming TRPV4 activity. We conclude that HCEC possess in addition to thermo-sensitive TRPV3 activity TRPV1, TRPV2 and TRPV4 activity. Their activation confers temperature sensitivity at the ocular surface, which may protect the cornea against such stress. PMID:21506114

  9. Temperature and Voltage Coupling to Channel Opening in Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8)*♦

    PubMed Central

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca2+-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol−1. The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening. PMID:25352597

  10. Variants of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Member 4 in Childhood Atrioventricular Block.

    PubMed

    Syam, Ninda; Chatel, Stéphanie; Ozhathil, Lijo Cherian; Sottas, Valentin; Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Baruteau, Alban; Baron, Estelle; Amarouch, Mohamed-Yassine; Daumy, Xavier; Probst, Vincent; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Abriel, Hugues

    2016-05-20

    Transient receptor potential melastatin member 4 (TRPM4) is a nonselective cation channel. TRPM4 mutations have been linked to cardiac conduction disease and Brugada syndrome. The mechanisms underlying TRPM4-dependent conduction slowing are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to characterize TRPM4 genetic variants found in patients with congenital or childhood atrioventricular block. Ninety-one patients with congenital or childhood atrioventricular block were screened for candidate genes. Five rare TRPM4 genetic variants were identified and investigated. The variants were expressed heterologously in HEK293 cells. Two of the variants, A432T and A432T/G582S, showed decreased expression of the protein at the cell membrane; inversely, the G582S variant showed increased expression. Further functional characterization of these variants using whole-cell patch-clamp configuration showed a loss of function and a gain of function, respectively. We hypothesized that the observed decrease in expression was caused by a folding and trafficking defect. This was supported by the observation that incubation of these variants at lower temperature partially rescued their expression and function. Previous studies have suggested that altered SUMOylation of TRPM4 may cause a gain of function; however, we did not find any evidence that supports SUMOylation as being directly involved for the gain-of-function variant. This study underpins the role of TRPM4 in the cardiac conduction system. The loss-of-function variants A432T/G582S found in 2 unrelated patients with atrioventricular block are most likely caused by misfolding-dependent altered trafficking. The ability to rescue this variant with lower temperature may provide a novel use of pharmacological chaperones in treatment strategies. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs): potential targets against bone loss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Wong, Jiemin; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    Bone loss and the resulting skeletal fragility is induced by several pathological or natural conditions, the most prominent of which being aging as well as the decreased levels of circulating estrogens in post-menopause females. To date, most treatments against bone loss aim at preventing excess bone resorption. We here summarize data indicating that the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α and γ prevent bone formation. Inhibiting these receptors may thus constitute an anabolic approach by increasing bone formation.

  12. Early potential effects of resveratrol supplementation on skeletal muscle adaptation involved in exercise-induced weight loss in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingyu; Zhang, Chen; Kim, MinJeong; Su, Yajuan; Qin, Lili; Dong, Jingmei; Zhou, Yunhe; Ding, Shuzhe

    2018-04-01

    Exercise and resveratrol supplementation exhibit anti-obesity functions in the long term but have not been fully investigated yet in terms of their early potential effectiveness. Mice fed with high-fat diet were categorized into control (Cont), exercise (Ex), resveratrol supplementation (Res), and exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation (Ex + Res) groups. In the four-week period of weight loss, exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation exerted no additional effects on body weight loss but significantly improved whole-body glucose and lipid homeostasis. The combined treatment significantly decreased intrahepatic lipid content but did not affect intramyocellular lipid content. Moreover, the treatment significantly increased the contents of mtDNA and cytochrome c, the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha and its downstream transcription factors, and the activities of ATPase and citrate synthase. However, exercise, resveratrol, and their combination did not promote myofiber specification toward slow-twitch type. The effects of exercise combined with resveratrol supplementation on weight loss could be partly due to enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and not to fiber-type shift in skeletal muscle tissues. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(4): 200-205].

  13. Low interleukin-2 concentration favors generation of early memory T cells over effector phenotypes during chimeric antigen receptor T-cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Tanja; Luostarinen, Annu; Maliniemi, Pilvi; Keto, Joni; Arvas, Mikko; Belt, Heini; Koponen, Jonna; Loskog, Angelica; Mustjoki, Satu; Porkka, Kimmo; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Korhonen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy offers new options for cancer treatment. Clinical results suggest that T-cell persistence, depending on T-cell memory, improves efficacy. The use of interleukin (IL)-2 for in vitro T-cell expansion is not straightforward because it drives effector T-cell differentiation but does not promote the formation of T-cell memory. We have developed a cost-effective expansion protocol for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with an early memory phenotype. Lymphocytes were transduced with third-generation lentiviral vectors and expanded using CD3/CD28 microbeads. The effects of altering the IL-2 supplementation (0-300 IU/mL) and length of expansion (10-20 days) on the phenotype of the T-cell products were analyzed. High IL-2 levels led to a decrease in overall generation of early memory T cells by both decreasing central memory T cells and augmenting effectors. T memory stem cells (T SCM , CD95 + CD45RO - CD45RA + CD27 + ) were present variably during T-cell expansion. However, their presence was not IL-2 dependent but was linked to expansion kinetics. CD19-CAR T cells generated in these conditions displayed in vitro antileukemic activity. In summary, production of CAR T cells without any cytokine supplementation yielded the highest proportion of early memory T cells, provided a 10-fold cell expansion and the cells were functionally potent. The number of early memory T cells in a T-cell preparation can be increased by simply reducing the amount of IL-2 and limiting the length of T-cell expansion, providing cells with potentially higher in vivo performance. These findings are significant for robust and cost-effective T-cell manufacturing. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of serotonin1B receptor expression leads to age-related motor dysfunction, early onset of brain molecular aging and reduced longevity.

    PubMed

    Sibille, E; Su, J; Leman, S; Le Guisquet, A M; Ibarguen-Vargas, Y; Joeyen-Waldorf, J; Glorioso, C; Tseng, G C; Pezzone, M; Hen, R; Belzung, C

    2007-11-01

    Normal aging of the brain differs from pathological conditions and is associated with increased risk for psychiatric and neurological disorders. In addition to its role in the etiology and treatment of mood disorders, altered serotonin (5-HT) signaling is considered a contributing factor to aging; however, no causative role has been identified in aging. We hypothesized that a deregulation of the 5-HT system would reveal its contribution to age-related processes and investigated behavioral and molecular changes throughout adult life in mice lacking the regulatory presynaptic 5-HT(1B) receptor (5-HT(1B)R), a candidate gene for 5-HT-mediated age-related functions. We show that the lack of 5-HT(1B)R (Htr1b(KO) mice) induced an early age-related motor decline and resulted in decreased longevity. Analysis of life-long transcriptome changes revealed an early and global shift of the gene expression signature of aging in the brain of Htr1b(KO) mice. Moreover, molecular changes reached an apparent maximum effect at 18-months in Htr1b(KO) mice, corresponding to the onset of early death in that group. A comparative analysis with our previous characterization of aging in the human brain revealed a phylogenetic conservation of age-effect from mice to humans, and confirmed the early onset of molecular aging in Htr1b(KO) mice. Potential mechanisms appear independent of known central mechanisms (Bdnf, inflammation), but may include interactions with previously identified age-related systems (IGF-1, sirtuins). In summary, our findings suggest that the onset of age-related events can be influenced by altered 5-HT function, thus identifying 5-HT as a modulator of brain aging, and suggesting age-related consequences to chronic manipulation of 5-HT.

  15. Trypsin induces biphasic muscle contraction and relaxation via transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and neurokinin receptors 1/2 in porcine esophageal body.

    PubMed

    Xiaopeng, Bai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Ihara, Eikichi; Hirano, Katsuya; Nakano, Kayoko; Hirano, Mayumi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-15

    Duodenal reflux of fluids containing trypsin relates to refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Esophageal peristalsis and clearance are important factors in GERD pathogenesis. However, the function of trypsin in esophageal body contractility is not fully understood. In this study, effects of trypsin on circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) of the porcine esophageal body were examined. Trypsin elicited a concentration dependent biphasic response, a major contraction and a subsequent relaxation only in CSM. In CSM, contraction occurred at trypsin concentrations of 100nM and relaxation at 1μM. A proteinase-activated receptor (PAR)2 activating peptide, SLIGKV-NH 2 (1mM), induced a monophasic contraction. Those responses were unaffected by tetrodotoxin though abolished by the gap junction uncouplers carbenoxolone and octanol. They were also partially inhibited by a transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) antagonist and abolished by combination of neurokinin receptor 1 (NK 1 ) and NK 2 antagonists, but not by an NK 3 antagonist, suggesting a PAR2-TRPV1-substance P pathway in sensory neurons. Substance P (100nM), an agonist for various NK receptors (NK 1 , NK 2 and NK 3 ) with differing affinities, induced significant contraction in CSM, but not in LSM. The contraction was also blocked by the combination of NK 1 and NK 2 antagonists, but not by the NK 3 antagonist. Moreover, substance P-induced contractions were unaffected by the TRPV1 antagonist, but inhibited by a gap junction uncoupler. In conclusion, trypsin induced a biphasic response only in CSM and this was mediated by PAR2, TRPV1 and NK 1/2 . Gap junctions were indispensable in this tachykinin-induced response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential effects of early-life NMDA receptor antagonism on aspartame-impaired insulin tolerance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Collison, Kate S; Inglis, Angela; Shibin, Sherin; Andres, Bernard; Ubungen, Rosario; Thiam, Jennifer; Mata, Princess; Al-Mohanna, Futwan A

    2016-12-01

    We have previously showed that lifetime exposure to aspartame, commencing in utero via the mother's diet, may impair insulin tolerance and cause behavioral deficits in adulthood via mechanisms which are incompletely understood. The role of the CNS in regulating glucose homeostasis has been highlighted by recent delineation of the gut-brain axis, in which N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptors (NMDARs) are important in maintaining glucose homeostasis, in addition to regulating certain aspects of behavior. Since the gut-brain axis can be modulated by fetal programming, we hypothesized that early-life NMDAR antagonism may affect aspartame-induced glucose deregulation in adulthood, and may alter the aspartame behavioral phenotype. Accordingly, C57Bl/6J mice were chronically exposed to aspartame commencing in utero, in the presence and absence of maternal administration of the competitive NMDAR antagonist CGP 39551, from conception until weaning. Drug/diet interactions in adulthood glucocentric and behavioral parameters were assessed. Aspartame exposure elevated blood glucose and impaired insulin-induced glucose disposal during an insulin tolerance test, which could be normalized by NMDAR antagonism. The same effects were not observed in control diet mice, suggesting an early-life drug/diet interaction. Behavioral analysis of adult offspring indicated that NMDAR antagonism of control diet mice caused hyperlocomotion and impaired spatial navigation. Conversely hypolocomotion, reduced exploratory activity and increased anxiety-related behavior were apparent in aspartame diet mice with early-life NMDAR antagonism. significant drug/diet interactions in glucocentric and behavioral parameters were identified in aspartame-exposed mice with early-life NMDAR antagonism. This suggests a possible involvement of early NMDAR interactions in aspartame-impaired glucose homeostasis and behavioral deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ Receptor Agonists as Analgesics without Abuse Liability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although mu opioid (MOP) receptor agonists are the most commonly used analgesics for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in the clinic, the side effects of MOP agonists such as abuse liability limit their value as a medication. Research to identify novel analgesics without adverse effects is pivotal to advance the health care of humans. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor, the fourth opioid receptor subtype, mediates distinctive actions in nonhuman primates which suggests the possibility that activity at this receptor may result in strong analgesia in the absence of virtually all of the side effects associated with MOP agonists. The present review highlights the recent progress of pharmacological studies of NOP-related ligands in primates. Selective NOP agonists, either peptidic or nonpeptidic, produce full analgesia in various assays in primates, when delivered systemically or intrathecally. Yet small molecule NOP agonists do not serve as reinforcers, indicating a lack of abuse liability. Given that NOP agonists have low abuse liability and that coactivation of NOP and MOP receptors produces synergistic antinociception, it is worth developing bifunctional NOP/MOP ligands. The outcomes of these studies and recent developments provide new perspectives to establish a translational bridge for understanding the biobehavioral functions of NOP receptors in primates and for facilitating the development of NOP-related ligands as a new generation of analgesics without abuse liability in humans. PMID:23421672

  18. Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Charu; Sadek, Bassem; Goyal, Sameer N.; Sinha, Satyesh; Ojha, Shreesh

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action through CB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse. This encourages us to find out an alternative and safe drug with the least psychiatric adverse effects. In recent years, many phytocannabinoids have been isolated from plants other than Cannabis. Several studies have shown that these phytocannabinoids show affinity, potency, selectivity, and efficacy towards cannabinoid receptors and inhibit endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, thus reducing hyperactivity of endocannabinoid systems. Also, these naturally derived molecules possess the least adverse effects opposed to the synthetically derived cannabinoids. Therefore, the plant based cannabinoid molecules proved to be promising and emerging therapeutic alternative. The present review provides an overview of therapeutic potential of ligands and plants modulating cannabinoid receptors that may be of interest to pharmaceutical industry in search of new and safer drug discovery and development for future therapeutics. PMID:26664449

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors and Drugs Acting on Muscarinic Receptors- Potential Crosstalk of Cholinergic Mechanisms During Pharmacological Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Ondrej; Winder, Michael; Killi, Uday Kumar; Wsol, Vladimir; Jun, Daniel; Kuca, Kamil; Tobin, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Background Pharmaceuticals with targets in the cholinergic transmission have been used for decades and are still fundamental treatments in many diseases and conditions today. Both the transmission and the effects of the somatomotoric and the parasympathetic nervous systems may be targeted by such treatments. Irrespective of the knowledge that the effects of neuronal signalling in the nervous systems may include a number of different receptor subtypes of both the nicotinic and the muscarinic receptors, this complexity is generally overlooked when assessing the mechanisms of action of pharmaceuticals. Methods We have search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature focused on the cholinergic system. Also, we have taken advantage of our expertise in this field to deduce the conclusions of this study. Results Presently, the life cycle of acetylcholine, muscarinic receptors and their effects are reviewed in the major organ systems of the body. Neuronal and non-neuronal sources of acetylcholine are elucidated. Examples of pharmaceuticals, in particular cholinesterase inhibitors, affecting these systems are discussed. The review focuses on salivary glands, the respiratory tract and the lower urinary tract, since the complexity of the interplay of different muscarinic receptor subtypes is of significance for physiological, pharmacological and toxicological effects in these organs. Conclusion Most pharmaceuticals targeting muscarinic receptors are employed at such large doses that no selectivity can be expected. However, some differences in the adverse effect profile of muscarinic antagonists may still be explained by the variation of expression of muscarinic receptor subtypes in different organs. However, a complex pattern of interactions between muscarinic receptor subtypes occurs and needs to be considered when searching for selective pharmaceuticals. In the development of new entities for the treatment of for instance pesticide intoxication, the

  20. Receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor transduces a signal decreasing erythroid potential in the multipotent hematopoietic EML cell line.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, G; Grasset, M F; Arnaud, S; Blanchet, J P; Mouchiroud, G

    2000-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that hematopoietic growth factors may influence lineage choice in pluripotent progenitor cells, we investigated the effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on erythroid and myeloid potentials of multipotent EML cells ectopically expressing M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR). EML cells are stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent murine cells that give rise spontaneously to pre-B cells, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and colony-forming unit granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM). We determined BFU-E and CFU-GM frequencies among EML cells transduced with murine M-CSFR, human M-CSFR, or chimeric receptors, and cultivated in the presence of SCF, M-CSF, or both growth factors. Effects of specific inhibitors of signaling molecules were investigated. EML cells transduced with murine M-CSFR proliferated in response to M-CSF but also exhibited a sharp and rapid decrease in BFU-E frequency associated with an increase in CFU-GM frequency. In contrast, EML cells expressing human M-CSFR proliferated in response to M-CSF without any changes in erythroid or myeloid potential. Using chimeric receptors between human and murine M-CSFR, we showed that the effects of M-CSF on EML cell differentiation potential are mediated by a large region in the intracellular domain of murine M-CSFR. Furthermore, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 interfered with the negative effects of ligand-activated murine M-CSFR on EML cell erythroid potential. We propose that signaling pathways activated by tyrosine kinase receptors may regulate erythroid potential and commitment decisions in multipotent progenitor cells and that PLC may play a key role in this process.

  1. The effect of siblings on early development: a potential contributor to personality differences in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Robyn; Bautista, Amando; Reyes-Meza, Verónica; Montor, Jorge Morales; Rödel, Heiko G

    2011-09-01

    Although most mammals grow up in the company of same or different age sibs (or half sibs), surprisingly little attention has been given to how relations among them might influence the development of individual differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Here we review evidence from our work on domestic and wild European rabbits, and more recently on laboratory rats, mice, and domestic cats, supporting the proposition that in mammals early sibling relations contribute to the development of individual differences in these three domains and thereby to long-term behavioral differences of the kind we might consider part of an animal's behavioral style or personality. First we report a consistent and marked negative relation between litter size and individuals' body mass at birth and weaning, as well as marked within-litter differences in prenatal body mass and placental efficiency. We then report individual differences in preweaning behaviors associated with these morphological variables such as position occupied in the litter huddle and development of motor ability, as well as physiological differences in thermoregulation, immune parameters, and endocrine indicators of stress. Finally, we report first evidence from wild rabbits that early relations among littermates may have long-term consequences for individual differences in behavioral style. We conclude that in mammals, individual differences in early growth, physiology and behavior potentially important for the development of animal personality, are shaped to an appreciable extent by early sibling relations and that this little-researched field deserves closer attention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  3. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T

    2017-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered: This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion: Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted.

  5. Early clinical development of epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Naoko; Lim, Bora; Wang, Xiaoping; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeted treatment has been evaluated but has not shown a clear clinical benefit for breast cancer. This review article aims to consider the knowledge of the biological background of EGFR pathways in dissecting clinical studies of EGFR targeted treatment in breast cancer. Areas covered This review focuses on the role of the EGFR pathway and the investigational drugs that target EGFR for breast cancer. Expert opinion Recent studies have indicated that EGFR targeted therapy for breast cancer has some promising effects for patients with triple-negative breast cancer, basal-like breast cancer, and inflammatory breast cancer. However, predictive and prognostic biomarkers for EGFR targeted therapy have not been identified. The overexpression or amplification of EGFR itself may not be the true factor of induction of the canonical pathway as an oncogenic driver of breast cancer. Instead, downstream, non-canonical pathways related to EGFR may contribute to some aspects of the biological behavior of breast cancer; therefore, the blockade of the receptor could result in sufficient suppression of downstream pathways to inhibit the aggressive behavior of breast cancer. Mechanistic studies to investigate the dynamic interaction between the EGFR pathway and non-canonical pathways are warranted. PMID:28271910

  6. Adjuvant Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer by Age and Hormone Receptor Status: A Cost-Utility Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, William; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; Blakely, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background The anti–human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves outcomes in patients with node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer. Given trastuzumab’s high cost, we aimed to estimate its cost-effectiveness by heterogeneity in age and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, which has previously been unexplored, to assist prioritisation. Methods and Findings A cost-utility analysis was performed using a Markov macro-simulation model, with a lifetime horizon, comparing a 12-mo regimen of trastuzumab with chemotherapy alone using the latest (2014) effectiveness measures from landmark randomised trials. A New Zealand (NZ) health system perspective was adopted, employing high-quality national administrative data. Incremental quality-adjusted life-years for trastuzumab versus chemotherapy alone are two times higher (2.33 times for the age group 50–54 y; 95% CI 2.29–2.37) for the worst prognosis (ER−/PR−) subtype compared to the best prognosis (ER+/PR+) subtype, causing incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the former to be less than half those of the latter for the age groups from 25–29 to 90–94 y (0.44 times for the age group 50–54 y; 95% CI 0.43–0.45). If we were to strictly apply an arbitrary cost-effectiveness threshold equal to the NZ gross domestic product per capita (2011 purchasing power parity [PPP]–adjusted: US$30,300; €23,700; £21,200), our study suggests that trastuzumab (2011 PPP-adjusted US$45,400/€35,900/£21,900 for 1 y at formulary prices) may not be cost-effective for ER+ (which are 61% of all) node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer patients but cost-effective for ER−/PR− subtypes (37% of all cases) to age 69 y. Market entry of trastuzumab biosimilars will likely reduce the ICER to below this threshold for premenopausal ER+/PR− cancer but not for ER+/PR+ cancer. Sensitivity analysis using the best-case effectiveness measure for ER+ cancer had

  7. Adjuvant Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer by Age and Hormone Receptor Status: A Cost-Utility Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leung, William; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; Blakely, Tony

    2016-08-01

    The anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves outcomes in patients with node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer. Given trastuzumab's high cost, we aimed to estimate its cost-effectiveness by heterogeneity in age and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, which has previously been unexplored, to assist prioritisation. A cost-utility analysis was performed using a Markov macro-simulation model, with a lifetime horizon, comparing a 12-mo regimen of trastuzumab with chemotherapy alone using the latest (2014) effectiveness measures from landmark randomised trials. A New Zealand (NZ) health system perspective was adopted, employing high-quality national administrative data. Incremental quality-adjusted life-years for trastuzumab versus chemotherapy alone are two times higher (2.33 times for the age group 50-54 y; 95% CI 2.29-2.37) for the worst prognosis (ER-/PR-) subtype compared to the best prognosis (ER+/PR+) subtype, causing incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the former to be less than half those of the latter for the age groups from 25-29 to 90-94 y (0.44 times for the age group 50-54 y; 95% CI 0.43-0.45). If we were to strictly apply an arbitrary cost-effectiveness threshold equal to the NZ gross domestic product per capita (2011 purchasing power parity [PPP]-adjusted: US$30,300; €23,700; £21,200), our study suggests that trastuzumab (2011 PPP-adjusted US$45,400/€35,900/£21,900 for 1 y at formulary prices) may not be cost-effective for ER+ (which are 61% of all) node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer patients but cost-effective for ER-/PR- subtypes (37% of all cases) to age 69 y. Market entry of trastuzumab biosimilars will likely reduce the ICER to below this threshold for premenopausal ER+/PR- cancer but not for ER+/PR+ cancer. Sensitivity analysis using the best-case effectiveness measure for ER+ cancer had the same result. A key limitation was a lack of treatment

  8. Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 Receptor Activation In Vitro and In Vivo by Pro-tussive Agents: GRC 17536 as a Promising Anti-Tussive Therapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Indranil; Kulkarni, Abhay; Aranake, Sarika; Karnik, Pallavi; Shetty, Mahesh; Thorat, Sandeep; Ghosh, Indraneel; Wale, Dinesh; Bhosale, Vikram; Khairatkar-Joshi, Neelima

    2014-01-01

    Cough is a protective reflex action that helps clear the respiratory tract which is continuously exposed to airborne environmental irritants. However, chronic cough presents itself as a disease in its own right and despite its global occurrence; the molecular mechanisms responsible for cough are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential ankyrin1 (TRPA1) is robustly expressed in the neuronal as well as non-neuronal cells of the respiratory tract and is a sensor of a wide range of environmental irritants. It is fast getting acceptance as a key biological sensor of a variety of pro-tussive agents often implicated in miscellaneous chronic cough conditions. In the present study, we demonstrate in vitro direct functional activation of TRPA1 receptor by citric acid which is routinely used to evoke cough in preclinical and clinical studies. We also show for the first time that a potent and selective TRPA1 antagonist GRC 17536 inhibits citric acid induced cellular Ca+2 influx in TRPA1 expressing cells and the citric acid induced cough response in guinea pigs. Hence our data provides a mechanistic link between TRPA1 receptor activation in vitro and cough response induced in vivo by citric acid. Furthermore, we also show evidence for TRPA1 activation in vitro by the TLR4, TLR7 and TLR8 ligands which are implicated in bacterial/respiratory virus pathogenesis often resulting in chronic cough. In conclusion, this study highlights the potential utility of TRPA1 antagonist such as GRC 17536 in the treatment of miscellaneous chronic cough conditions arising due to diverse causes but commonly driven via TRPA1. PMID:24819048

  9. The early mature part of bacterial twin-arginine translocation (Tat) precursor proteins contributes to TatBC receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Ulfig, Agnes; Freudl, Roland

    2018-05-11

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports folded proteins across bacterial membranes. Tat precursor proteins possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal peptides that is involved in the binding of the proteins to the membrane-associated TatBC receptor complex. In addition, the hydrophobic region in the Tat signal peptides also contributes to TatBC binding, but whether regions beyond the signal-peptide cleavage site are involved in this process is unknown. Here, we analyzed the contribution of the early mature protein part of the Escherichia coli trimethylamine N -oxide reductase (TorA) to productive TatBC receptor binding. We identified substitutions in the 30 amino acids immediately following the TorA signal peptide (30aa-region) that restored export of a transport-defective TorA[KQ]-30aa-MalE precursor, in which the RR residues had been replaced by a lysine-glutamine pair. Some of these substitutions increased the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal part of the 30aa-region and thereby likely enhanced hydrophobic substrate-receptor interactions within the hydrophobic TatBC substrate-binding cavity. Another class of substitutions increased the positive net charge of the region's C-terminal part, presumably leading to strengthened electrostatic interactions between the mature substrate part and the cytoplasmic TatBC regions. Furthermore, we identified substitutions in the C-terminal domains of TatB following the transmembrane segment that restored transport of various transport-defective TorA-MalE derivatives. Some of these substitutions most likely affected the orientation or conformation of the flexible, carboxy-proximal helices of TatB. Therefore, we propose that a tight accommodation of the folded mature region by TatB contributes to productive binding of Tat substrates to TatBC. © 2018 Ulfig and Freudl.

  10. Approximate entropy analysis of event-related potentials in patients with early vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Sheng, Hengsong; Lou, Wutao; Zhao, Songzhen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated differences in event-related potential (ERP) parameters among early vascular dementia (VD) patients, healthy elder controls (ECs), and young controls (YCs). A visual "oddball" color identification task was performed while individuals' electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded. Approximate entropy (ApEn), a nonlinear measure, along with P300 latencies and amplitudes were used to analyze ERP data and compare these three groups. The patients with VD showed more complex ERP waveforms and higher ApEn values than did ECs while performing the visual task. It was further found that patients with VD showed reduced P300 amplitudes and increased latencies. The results indicate that patients with VD have fewer attention resources to devote to processing stimuli, lower speed of stimulus classification, and lower synchrony in their cortical activity during the response period. We suggest that ApEn, as a measure of ERP complexity, is a promising marker for early diagnosis of VD.

  11. Temporally selective attention modulates early perceptual processing: event-related potential evidence.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Lisa D; Astheimer, Lori B

    2008-05-01

    Some of the most important information we encounter changes so rapidly that our perceptual systems cannot process all of it in detail. Spatially selective attention is critical for perception when more information than can be processed in detail is presented simultaneously at distinct locations. When presented with complex, rapidly changing information, listeners may need to selectively attend to specific times rather than to locations. We present evidence that listeners can direct selective attention to time points that differ by as little as 500 msec, and that doing so improves target detection, affects baseline neural activity preceding stimulus presentation, and modulates auditory evoked potentials at a perceptually early stage. These data demonstrate that attentional modulation of early perceptual processing is temporally precise and that listeners can flexibly allocate temporally selective attention over short intervals, making it a viable mechanism for preferentially processing the most relevant segments in rapidly changing streams.

  12. Conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD powerplant. Report of task 2 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    The conceptual design of one of the potential early commercial MHD power plants was studied. The plant employs oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and preheating of this oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1200 F attainable with a tubular type recuperative heat exchanger. Conceptual designs of plant componets and equipment with performance, operational characteristics, and costs are reported. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. The projected performance and estimated cost of this early MHD plant are compared to conventional power plants, although it does not offer the same high efficiency and low costs as the mature MHD power plant. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen are reviewed.

  13. Conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD powerplant. Report of task 2 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual design of one of the potential early commercial MHD power plants was studied. The plant employs oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and preheating of this oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1200 F attainable with a tubular type recuperative heat exchanger. Conceptual designs of plant componets and equipment with performance, operational characteristics, and costs are reported. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. The projected performance and estimated cost of this early MHD plant are compared to conventional power plants, although it does not offer the same high efficiency and low costs as the mature MHD power plant. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen are reviewed.

  14. Coarse Architecture of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Ion Channel Determined by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer*

    PubMed Central

    De-la-Rosa, Víctor; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E.; Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ernesto; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D.

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel is responsible for the perception of high temperatures and low extracellular pH, and it is also involved in the response to some pungent compounds. Importantly, it is also associated with the perception of pain and noxious stimuli. Here, we attempt to discern the molecular organization and location of the N and C termini of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel by measuring FRET between genetically attached enhanced yellow and cyan fluorescent protein to the N or C terminus of the channel protein, expressed in transfected HEK 293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. The static measurements of the domain organization were mapped into an available cryo-electron microscopy density of the channel with good agreement. These measurements also provide novel insights into the organization of terminal domains and their proximity to the plasma membrane. PMID:23965996

  15. Coarse architecture of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    De-la-Rosa, Víctor; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E; Ladrón-de-Guevara, Ernesto; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D

    2013-10-11

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel is responsible for the perception of high temperatures and low extracellular pH, and it is also involved in the response to some pungent compounds. Importantly, it is also associated with the perception of pain and noxious stimuli. Here, we attempt to discern the molecular organization and location of the N and C termini of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ion channel by measuring FRET between genetically attached enhanced yellow and cyan fluorescent protein to the N or C terminus of the channel protein, expressed in transfected HEK 293 cells or Xenopus laevis oocytes. The static measurements of the domain organization were mapped into an available cryo-electron microscopy density of the channel with good agreement. These measurements also provide novel insights into the organization of terminal domains and their proximity to the plasma membrane.

  16. Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina: Potential Roles in Retinal Function and Disease.

    PubMed

    Kolko, Miriam; Vosborg, Fia; Henriksen, Ulrik L; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Diget, Elisabeth Holm; Vohra, Rupali; Gurubaran, Iswariya Raja Sridevi; Gjedde, Albert; Mariga, Shelton Tendai; Skytt, Dorte M; Utheim, Tor Paaske; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda H

    2016-06-01

    In retina, like in brain, lactate equilibrates across cell membranes via monocarboxylate transporters and in the extracellular space by diffusion, forming a basis for the action of lactate as a transmitter of metabolic signals. In the present paper, we argue that the lactate receptor GPR81, also known as HCAR1, may contribute importantly to the control of retinal cell functions in health and disease. GPR81, a G-protein coupled receptor, is known to downregulate cAMP both in adipose and nervous tissue. The receptor also acts through other down-stream mechanisms to control functions, such as excitability, metabolism and inflammation. Recent publications predict effects of the lactate receptor on neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative diseases in retina, where the retinal ganglion cells die, notably glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, may be linked to disturbed lactate homeostasis. Pilot studies reveal high GPR81 mRNA in retina and indicate GPR81 localization in Müller cells and retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, monocarboxylate transporters are expressed in retinal cells. We envision that lactate receptors and transporters could be useful future targets of novel therapeutic strategies to protect neurons and prevent or counteract glaucoma as well as other retinal diseases.

  17. Potentiation of adenosine A1 receptor agonist CPA-induced antinociception by paeoniflorin in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Da-Zhi; Zhao, Fei-Li; Liu, Jing; Ji, Xin-Quan; Ye, Yang; Zhu, Xing-Zu

    2006-08-01

    The effect of paeoniflorin (PF), a major constituent isolated from Paeony radix, on N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a selective adenosine A1 receptor (A1 receptor) agonist, induced antinociception was examined in mice. In the tail-pressure test, CPA (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. PF (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, s.c.) alone failed to exhibit any antinociceptive effect in mice; however, pretreatment of PF (20 mg/kg, s.c.) could significantly enhance CPA-induced antinociception. Additionally, pretreatment of 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.25 mg/kg, s.c.), a selective A1 receptor antagonist, could antagonize the antinociceptive effect of combining CPA with PF. Furthermore, in the competitive binding experiments, PF did not displace the binding of [3H]-8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine ([3H]-DPCPX) but displaced that of [3H]-2-Chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine ([3H]-CCPA, a selective A1 receptor agonist) to the membrane preparation of rat cerebral cortex. These results suggested that PF might selectively increase the binding and antinociceptive effect of CPA by binding with A1 receptor.

  18. Platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors interact for full development and maintenance of long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    PubMed

    Grassi, S; Francescangeli, E; Goracci, G; Pettorossi, V E

    1999-01-01

    In rat brainstem slices, we investigated the interaction between platelet-activating factor and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in mediating long-term potentiation within the medial vestibular nuclei. We analysed the N1 field potential wave evoked in the ventral portion of the medial vestibular nuclei by primary vestibular afferent stimulation. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, (R,S)-1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, prevented long-term potentiation induced by a platelet-activating factor analogue [1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-(methylcarbamyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine], as well as the full development of potentiation, induced by high-frequency stimulation under the blocking agent for synaptosomal platelet-activating factor receptors (ginkolide B), at drug washout. However, potentiation directly induced by the group I glutamate metabotropic receptor agonist, (R,S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, was reduced by ginkolide B. These findings suggest that platelet-activating factor, whether exogenous or released following potentiation induction, exerts its effect through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mediating the increase of glutamate release. In addition, we found that this mechanism, which led to full potentiation through presynaptic group I metabotropic glutamate receptor activation, was inactivated soon after application of potentiation-inducing stimulus. In fact, the long-lasting block of the platelet-activating factor and metabotropic glutamate receptors prevented the full potentiation development and the induced potentiation progressively declined to null. Moreover, ginkolide B, given when high-frequency-dependent potentiation was established, only reduced it within 5 min after potentiation induction. We conclude that to fully develop vestibular long-term potentiation requires presynaptic events. Platelet-activating factor, released after the activation of postsynaptic mechanisms which induce potentiation, is necessary

  19. The interleukin-20 receptor axis in early rheumatoid arthritis: novel links between disease-associated autoantibodies and radiographic progression.

    PubMed

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Nielsen, Morten Aagaard; Rhodes, Christopher; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Hetland, Merete Lund; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Junker, Peter; Østergaard, Mikkel; Hvid, Malene; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Robinson, William H; Sokolove, Jeremy; Deleuran, Bent

    2016-03-11

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and bone erosions. Current therapies can compromise immunity, leading to risk of infection. The interleukin-20 receptor (IL-20R) axis comprising IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24 and their shared receptors activates tissue homeostasis processes but not the immune system. Consequently, modulation of the IL-20R axis may not lead to immunosuppression, making it an interesting drug target. We evaluated the role of the IL-20R axis in RA and associations between plasma cytokine levels and clinical disease. Plasma IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24 levels were measured in early RA patients during a treat-to-target strategy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The IL-20R1 and IL-22R1 levels in paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells and synovial fluid mononuclear cells from a different cohort of RA patients were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Monocytes/macrophages were stimulated with heat-aggregated human immunoglobulin immune complexes and immune complexes containing citrullinated fibrinogen, and osteoclasts were incubated with IL-19, IL-20, and IL-24. The plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 (but not IL-19) were increased in early RA patients compared with healthy controls (both P < 0.002) and decreased after 6 months of treatment (both P < 0.0001). The expression of IL-22R1 (but not IL-20R1) was increased on monocytes from RA synovial fluid compared with monocytes from both RA and healthy control peripheral blood. The plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were increased in rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive compared with negative early RA patients (all P < 0.0001). Immune complexes stimulated the production of the IL-20R cytokines by monocytes/macrophages. Increased baseline plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were associated with Sharp-van der Heijde score progression after 24

  20. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors recovers early deficits of memory and plasticity in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, António C; Lemos, Cristina; Gonçalves, Francisco Q; Pliássova, Anna V; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Lopes, João Pedro; Agostinho, Paula

    2018-05-31

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with a deficit of synaptic function and adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) are mostly located in synapses controlling synaptic plasticity. The over-activation of adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2A R) causes memory deficits and the blockade of A 2A R prevents memory damage in AD models. We now enquired if this prophylactic role of A 2A R might be extended to a therapeutic potential. We used the triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) and defined that the onset of memory dysfunction occurred at 4 months of age in the absence of locomotor or emotional alterations. At the onset of memory deficits, 3xTg mice displayed a decreased density of markers of excitatory synapses (10.6 ± 3.8% decrease of vGluT1) without neuronal or glial overt damage and an increase of synaptic A 2A R in the hippocampus (130 ± 22%). After the onset of memory deficits in 3xTg-AD mice, a three weeks treatment with the selective A 2A R antagonist normalized the up-regulation of hippocampal A 2A R and restored hippocampal-dependent reference memory, as well as the decrease of hippocampal synaptic plasticity (60.0 ± 3.7% decrease of long-term potentiation amplitude) and the decrease of global (syntaxin-I) and glutamatergic synaptic markers (vGluT1). These findings show a therapeutic-like ability of A 2A R antagonists to recover synaptic and memory dysfunction in early AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in esophagus: Early alteration during carcinogenesis and prognostic value

    PubMed Central

    Chianello Nicolau, Marina; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Nicolau-Neto, Pedro; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Rossini, Ana; de Almeida Simão, Tatiana; Soares Lima, Sheila Coelho

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (CHRNs) in healthy and squamous cell carcinoma-affected esophagus and determine the prognostic value. METHODS We performed RT-qPCR to measure the expression of CHRNs in 44 esophageal samples from healthy individuals and in matched normal surrounding mucosa, and in tumors from 28 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Next, we performed correlation analysis for the detected expression of these receptors with the habits and clinico-pathological characteristics of all study participants. In order to investigate the possible correlations between the expression of the different CHRN subunits in both healthy esophagus and tissues from ESCC patients, correlation matrices were generated. Subsequently, we evaluated whether the detected alterations in expression of the various CHRNs could precede histopathological modifications during the esophageal carcinogenic processes by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Finally, we evaluated the impact of CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 expression on overall survival by using multivariate analysis. RESULTS CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CHRNA7 and CHRNB4, but not CHRNA1, CHRNA4, CHRNA9 or CHRNA10, were found to be expressed in normal (healthy) esophageal mucosa. In ESCC, CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 were overexpressed as compared with patient-matched surrounding non-tumor mucosa (ESCC-adjacent mucosa; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0091, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 expression in all samples analyzed. Additionally, CHRNB4 was found to be differentially expressed in the healthy esophagus and the normal-appearing ESCC-adjacent mucosa, allowing for distinguishment between these tissues with a sensitivity of 75.86% and a specificity of 78.95% (P = 0.0002). Finally, CHRNA5 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC; patients with high CHRNA5 expression showed an increased overall survival, in comparison with

  2. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in esophagus: Early alteration during carcinogenesis and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Chianello Nicolau, Marina; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Nicolau-Neto, Pedro; de Pinho, Paulo Roberto Alves; Rossini, Ana; de Almeida Simão, Tatiana; Soares Lima, Sheila Coelho

    2016-08-21

    To compare expression of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (CHRNs) in healthy and squamous cell carcinoma-affected esophagus and determine the prognostic value. We performed RT-qPCR to measure the expression of CHRNs in 44 esophageal samples from healthy individuals and in matched normal surrounding mucosa, and in tumors from 28 patients diagnosed with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Next, we performed correlation analysis for the detected expression of these receptors with the habits and clinico-pathological characteristics of all study participants. In order to investigate the possible correlations between the expression of the different CHRN subunits in both healthy esophagus and tissues from ESCC patients, correlation matrices were generated. Subsequently, we evaluated whether the detected alterations in expression of the various CHRNs could precede histopathological modifications during the esophageal carcinogenic processes by using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Finally, we evaluated the impact of CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 expression on overall survival by using multivariate analysis. CHRNA3, CHRNA5, CHRNA7 and CHRNB4, but not CHRNA1, CHRNA4, CHRNA9 or CHRNA10, were found to be expressed in normal (healthy) esophageal mucosa. In ESCC, CHRNA5 and CHRNA7 were overexpressed as compared with patient-matched surrounding non-tumor mucosa (ESCC-adjacent mucosa; P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0091, respectively). Positive correlations were observed between CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 expression in all samples analyzed. Additionally, CHRNB4 was found to be differentially expressed in the healthy esophagus and the normal-appearing ESCC-adjacent mucosa, allowing for distinguishment between these tissues with a sensitivity of 75.86% and a specificity of 78.95% (P = 0.0002). Finally, CHRNA5 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor in ESCC; patients with high CHRNA5 expression showed an increased overall survival, in comparison with those with low

  3. Src-JNK Potentiation of Estrogen Receptor AF-1; Mechanism, and Role in Estrogen Action in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    an increase in estrogen receptor activity. A second objective is to understand the potential role of Src in estrogen induced mammary ductal development ...bPcis i on to The Ser-ilS-dependent link wt GR- t KaroBio AB, a Swedish pharmaceutical development company with CBP is in addition to the Ser-1l8...the ECL detection kit (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech ). phoresis, stained with Coomassic Blue to monitor expression, and sub- Fluorescence Microscopy

  4. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  5. Long-term failure of alveologenesis after an early short-term exposure to a PDGF-receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lau, Mandy; Masood, Azhar; Yi, Man; Belcastro, Rosetta; Li, Jun; Tanswell, A Keith

    2011-04-01

    Survivors of moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia have impaired alveologenesis lasting at least into early adult life. The mechanisms underlying this long-term effect are unknown. We hypothesized that short-term inhibition of growth factor-mediated early alveolar formation would result in a long-term impairment of subsequent alveologenesis. Neonatal rats were injected daily with the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor antagonist, imatinib mesylate, from day 1-7 of life, to inhibit the early alveolar formation occurring by in-growth of secondary crests into precursor saccules. The pups were then allowed to recover for 7, 14, 21, or 58 days. In imatinib-treated pups, DNA synthesis in total lung cells, and specifically in cells of secondary crests, was reduced at day 8 of life, had rebounded on day 14 of life but was then again reduced by day 28 of life. At day 8 of life, imatinib-treated pups had impaired alveologenesis as reflected by a decrease in secondary crests, an increase in alveolar size, and an overall decrease in both estimated alveolar number and generations compared with age-matched controls. No meaningful recovery was observed, even after a 21- or 58-day recovery period. The lungs of imatinib-treated pups had increased fibulin-5 content and an abnormal deposition of elastin. We conclude that reduced signaling through the PDGF pathways, at an early stage of alveologenesis, can result in long-lasting changes in lung architecture. A likely mechanism is through impaired formation of the elastin scaffold required for alveolarization.

  6. Ionotropic GABA receptor antagonism-induced adverse outcome pathways for potential neurotoxicity biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ping; Hong, Huixiao; Perkins, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Antagonism of ionotropic GABA receptors (iGABARs) can occur at three distinct types of receptor binding sites causing chemically induced epileptic seizures. Here we review three adverse outcome pathways, each characterized by a specific molecular initiating event where an antagonist competitively binds to active sites, negatively modulates allosteric sites or noncompetitively blocks ion channel on the iGABAR. This leads to decreased chloride conductance, followed by depolarization of affected neurons, epilepsy-related death and ultimately decreased population. Supporting evidence for causal linkages from the molecular to population levels is presented and differential sensitivity to iGABAR antagonists in different GABA receptors and organisms discussed. Adverse outcome pathways are poised to become important tools for linking mechanism-based biomarkers to regulated outcomes in next-generation risk assessment.

  7. Sweet taste receptor in the hypothalamus: a potential new player in glucose sensing in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Daisuke

    2017-07-01

    The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. The feeding center senses the systemic energy status by detecting hormone and nutrient levels for homeostatic regulation, resulting in the control of food intake, heat production, and glucose production and uptake. The concentration of glucose is sensed by two types of glucose-sensing neurons in the feeding center: glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. Previous studies have mainly focused on glucose metabolism as the mechanism underlying glucose sensing. Recent studies have indicated that receptor-mediated pathways also play a role in glucose sensing. This review describes sweet taste receptors in the hypothalamus and explores the role of sweet taste receptors in energy homeostasis.

  8. Child abuse potential in mothers with early life maltreatment, borderline personality disorder and depression.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Katja; Boedeker, Katja; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Jaite, Charlotte; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Fuehrer, Daniel; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Heinz, Andreas; Roepke, Stefan; Heim, Christine; Bermpohl, Felix

    2018-05-24

    Early life maltreatment (ELM), borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been shown to increase the potential of abuse. Emotion regulation is an identified mediator for the association of ELM and BPD with abuse potential. Until now, there has been no study to account for the co-occurrence of these risk factors in one analysis, although BPD and MDD are known as common sequelae of ELM. This is paired with a lack of studies investigating the effects of abuse potential on child well-being.AimsOur study aims at (a) disentangling the effects of maternal ELM, MDD and BPD on abuse potential; (b) exploring the role of emotion regulation as a mediator; and (c) testing for intergenerational effects of abuse potential on child psychopathology. The research design included 114 mothers with/without ELM, BPD and MDD in remission and their children, all of which were between 5 and 12 years of age. A path analysis was conducted to investigate the multiple associations between our variables. ELM, MDD and BPD were all associated with abuse potential, with emotion regulation acting as a mediator for BPD and MDD. Furthermore, an elevated abuse potential was related to higher psychopathology in the child. History of ELM as well as the common sequelae, BPD and MDD, pose risks for child abuse. Our findings suggest improvement of emotion regulation as a potential target for intervention programs. These programs should also aim at non-substantiated cases because even an elevated abuse potential affected child mental health.Declaration of interestNone.

  9. Potentiation of the early visual response to learned danger signals in adults and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Howsley, Philippa; Jordan, Jeff; Johnston, Pat

    2015-01-01

    The reinforcing effects of aversive outcomes on avoidance behaviour are well established. However, their influence on perceptual processes is less well explored, especially during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. Using electroencephalography, we examined whether learning to actively or passively avoid harm can modulate early visual responses in adolescents and adults. The task included two avoidance conditions, active and passive, where two different warning stimuli predicted the imminent, but avoidable, presentation of an aversive tone. To avoid the aversive outcome, participants had to learn to emit an action (active avoidance) for one of the warning stimuli and omit an action for the other (passive avoidance). Both adults and adolescents performed the task with a high degree of accuracy. For both adolescents and adults, increased N170 event-related potential amplitudes were found for both the active and the passive warning stimuli compared with control conditions. Moreover, the potentiation of the N170 to the warning stimuli was stable and long lasting. Developmental differences were also observed; adolescents showed greater potentiation of the N170 component to danger signals. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that learned danger signals in an instrumental avoidance task can influence early visual sensory processes in both adults and adolescents. PMID:24652856

  10. Extraterrestrial flux of potentially prebiotic C, N, and P to the early Earth.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Matthew; Lauretta, Dante

    2008-02-01

    With growing evidence for a heavy bombardment period ending 4-3.8 billion years ago, meteorites and comets may have been an important source of prebiotic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus on the early Earth. Life may have originated shortly after the late-heavy bombardment, when concentrations of organic compounds and reactive phosphorus were enough to "kick life into gear". This work quantifies the sources of potentially prebiotic, extraterrestrial C, N, and P and correlates these fluxes with a comparison to total Ir fluxes, and estimates the effect of atmosphere on the survival of material. We find (1) that carbonaceous chondrites were not a good source of organic compounds, but interplanetary dust particles provided a constant, steady flux of organic compounds to the surface of the Earth, (2) extraterrestrial metallic material was much more abundant on the early Earth, and delivered reactive P in the form of phosphide minerals to the Earth's surface, and (3) large impacts provided substantial local enrichments of potentially prebiotic reagents. These results help elucidate the potential role of extraterrestrial matter in the origin of life.

  11. A Suppressive Antagonism Evidences Progesterone and Estrogen Receptor Pathway Interaction with Concomitant Regulation of Hand2, Bmp2 and ERK during Early Decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Mestre-Citrinovitz, Ana C.; Kleff, Veronika; Vallejo, Griselda

    2015-01-01

    Progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor participate in growth and differentiation of the different rat decidual regions. Steroid hormone receptor antagonists were used to study steroid regulation of decidualization. Here we describe a suppressive interaction between progesterone receptor (onapristone) and estrogen receptor (ICI182780) antagonists and their relation to a rescue phenomenon with concomitant regulation of Hand2, Bmp2 and p-ERK1/2 during the early decidualization steps. Phenotypes of decidua development produced by antagonist treatments were characterized by morphology, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis and expression of signaling molecules. We found that suppression of progesterone receptor activity by onapristone treatment resulted in resorption of the implantation sites with concomitant decrease in progesterone and estrogen receptors, PCNA, KI67 antigen, DESMIN, CCND3, CX43, Prl8a2, and signaling players such as transcription factor Hand2, Bmp2 mRNAs and p-ERK1/2. Moreover, FGF-2 and Vegfa increased as a consequence of onapristone treatment. Implantation sites from antagonist of estrogen receptor treated rats developed all decidual regions, but showed an anomalous blood vessel formation at the mesometrial part of the decidua. The deleterious effect of onapristone was partially counteracted by the impairment of estrogen receptor activity with rescue of expression levels of hormone steroid receptors, proliferation and differentiation markers, and the induction of a probably compensatory increase in signaling molecules Hand2, Bmp2 and ERK1/2 activation compared to oil treated controls. This novel drug interaction during decidualization could be applied to pathological endometrial cell proliferation processes to improve therapies using steroid hormone receptor targets. PMID:25897495

  12. Role of AMPA and NMDA receptors and back-propagating action potentials in spike timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Fuenzalida, Marco; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Couve, Alejandro; Buño, Washington

    2010-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms that mediate spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) are largely unknown. We studied in vitro in CA1 pyramidal neurons the contribution of AMPA and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) components of Schaffer collateral (SC) excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs; EPSP(AMPA) and EPSP(NMDA)) and of the back-propagating action potential (BAP) to the long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by a STDP protocol that consisted in pairing an EPSP and a BAP. Transient blockade of EPSP(AMPA) with 7-nitro-2,3-dioxo-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-6-carbonitrile (CNQX) during the STDP protocol prevented LTP. Contrastingly LTP was induced under transient inhibition of EPSP(AMPA) by combining SC stimulation, an imposed EPSP(AMPA)-like depolarization, and BAP or by coupling the EPSP(NMDA) evoked under sustained depolarization (approximately -40 mV) and BAP. In Mg(2+)-free solution EPSP(NMDA) and BAP also produced LTP. Suppression of EPSP(NMDA) or BAP always prevented LTP. Thus activation of NMDA receptors and BAPs are needed but not sufficient because AMPA receptor activation is also obligatory for STDP. However, a transient depolarization of another origin that unblocks NMDA receptors and a BAP may also trigger LTP.

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  14. A2A adenosine receptor agonists and their potential therapeutic applications. An update.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Angel

    2018-03-12

    In the last 20 years, an increasing interest of medicinal chemists on the development of potent and selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors has been noticed due to the large impact they have shown in a variety of important biological processes and diseases. Among these, it should be mentioned vasodilation, inflammation, cancer, wound healing, ischemia reperfusion injury, Parkinson disease, infectious diseases, and other CNS disorders. In this review, I will provide an update of the structures of the A2A agonists known, their selectivity versus other adenosine receptors, and their latest therapeutic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Oestrogen receptor negative early operable primary breast cancer in older women-Biological characteristics and long-term clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Syed, Binafsha Manzoor; Morgan, Dal; Setty, Tulassi; Green, Andrew R; Paish, Emma C; Ellis, Ian O; Cheung, K L

    2017-01-01

    Older women are at the greatest risk of breast cancer development and a considerable number present with comorbidities. Although the majority of breast cancers in this age group express oestrogen receptor (ER), which makes endocrine therapy (primary or adjuvant) feasible, given the huge size of the elderly population, there remains a significant number of patients, in absolute term, whose tumours do not express ER and their management is challenging. Of a consecutive series of 1,758 older (≥70 years) women with early operable primary breast cancer managed in a dedicated service from 1973-2010, 252(14.3%) had ER-negative (histochemical (H) score ≤50) tumours. Their clinical outcome was retrospectively reviewed and tumour samples collected from diagnostic core biopsies were analysed for progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2 and Ki67 using immunohistochemistry. The commonest primary treatment was surgery (N = 194, 77%) followed by primary endocrine therapy (14.3%), primary radiotherapy (5.6%) and supportive treatment only (3.1%). Among the patients undergoing surgery, most of them had grade 3 (78.1%) and node-negative disease (62.2%). Some of them (21.1%) received postoperative radiotherapy. At a median follow-up of 37.5 months, 117 patients had died, out of which 48.6% were due to breast cancer. For those who underwent surgery, the regional and local recurrence rates were 2% and 1.1% per annum respectively. For those who received primary endocrine therapy, 38% progressed at 6 months, however all patients who had primary radiotherapy achieved clinical benefit at 6 months. Regardless of treatment given, the 5-year breast cancer specific and overall survival rates were 70% and 50% respectively. Biological analysis based on good quality needle core biopsy specimensfrom181 patients showed that 26.8% (N = 49), 16.9% (N = 31) and 70.7% (N = 70)expressed positivity for PgR, HER2 and Ki67 respectively. No correlation between these biomarkers and breast cancer specific

  16. A multigene predictor of metastatic outcome in early stage hormone receptor-negative and triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Various multigene predictors of breast cancer clinical outcome have been commercialized, but proved to be prognostic only for hormone receptor (HR) subsets overexpressing estrogen or progesterone receptors. Hormone receptor negative (HRneg) breast cancers, particularly those lacking HER2/ErbB2 overexpression and known as triple-negative (Tneg) cases, are heterogeneous and generally aggressive breast cancer subsets in need of prognostic subclassification, since most early stage HRneg and Tneg breast cancer patients are cured with conservative treatment yet invariably receive aggressive adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods An unbiased search for genes predictive of distant metastatic relapse was undertaken using a training cohort of 199 node-negative, adjuvant treatment naïve HRneg (including 154 Tneg) breast cancer cases curated from three public microarray datasets. Prognostic gene candidates were subsequently validated using a different cohort of 75 node-negative, adjuvant naïve HRneg cases curated from three additional datasets. The HRneg/Tneg gene signature was prognostically compared with eight other previously reported gene signatures, and evaluated for cancer network associations by two commercial pathway analysis programs. Results A novel set of 14 prognostic gene candidates was identified as outcome predictors: CXCL13, CLIC5, RGS4, RPS28, RFX7, EXOC7, HAPLN1, ZNF3, SSX3, HRBL, PRRG3, ABO, PRTN3, MATN1. A composite HRneg/Tneg gene signature index proved more accurate than any individual candidate gene or other reported multigene predictors in identifying cases likely to remain free of metastatic relapse. Significant positive correlations between the HRneg/Tneg index and three independent immune-related signatures (STAT1, IFN, and IR) were observed, as were consistent negative associations between the three immune-related signatures and five other proliferation module-containing signatures (MS-14, ONCO-RS, GGI, CSR/wound and NKI-70). Network analysis

  17. Midazolam inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning through dual central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activation and neurosteroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O'Dell, Kazuko A; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F

    2010-12-15

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) enhance GABA(A) receptor inhibition by direct actions on central BDZ receptors (CBRs). Although some BDZs also bind mitochondrial receptors [translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO)] and promote the synthesis of GABA-enhancing neurosteroids, the role of neurosteroids in the clinical effects of BDZs is unknown. In rat hippocampal slices, we compared midazolam, an anesthetic BDZ, with clonazepam, an anticonvulsant/anxiolytic BDZ that activates CBRs selectively. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, increased neurosteroid levels in CA1 pyramidal neurons without changing TSPO immunostaining. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, also augmented a form of spike inhibition after stimulation adjacent to the pyramidal cell layer and inhibited induction of long-term potentiation. These effects were prevented by finasteride, an inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, or 17PA [17-phenyl-(3α,5α)-androst-16-en-3-ol], a blocker of neurosteroid effects on GABA(A) receptors. Moreover, the synaptic effects were mimicked by a combination of clonazepam with FGIN (2-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-N,N-dihexylacetamide), a selective TSPO agonist, or a combination of clonazepam with exogenous allopregnanolone. Consistent with these in vitro results, finasteride abolished the effects of midazolam on contextual fear learning when administrated 1 d before midazolam injection. Thus, dual activation of CBRs and TSPO appears to result in unique actions of clinically important BDZs. Furthermore, endogenous neurosteroids are shown to be important regulators of pyramidal neuron function and synaptic plasticity.

  18. Midazolam inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning through dual central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activation and neurosteroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O’Dell, Kazuko A.; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) enhance γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor inhibition by direct actions on central BDZ receptors (CBRs). Although some BDZs also bind mitochondrial receptors (translocator protein 18kDa, TSPO) and promote the synthesis of GABA-enhancing neurosteroids, the role of neurosteroids in the clinical effects of BDZs is unknown. In rat hippocampal slices, we compared midazolam, an anesthetic BDZ with clonazepam, an anticonvulsant/anxiolytic BDZ that activates CBRs selectively. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, increased neurosteroid levels in CA1 pyramidal neurons without changing TSPO immunostaining. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, also augmented a form of spike inhibition following stimulation adjacent to the pyramidal cell layer and inhibited induction of long-term potentiation. These effects were prevented by finasteride, an inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, or 17PA (17-phenyl-(3α, 5α)-androst-16-en-3-ol), a blocker of neurosteroid effects on GABAA receptors. Moreover, the synaptic effects were mimicked by a combination of clonazepam with FGIN, a selective TSPO agonist, or a combination of clonazepam with exogenous allopregnanolone. Consistent with these in vitro results, finasteride abolished the effects of midazolam on contextual fear learning when administrated one day prior to midazolam injection. Thus, dual activation of CBRs and TSPO appears to result in unique actions of clinically-important BDZs. Furthermore, endogenous neurosteroids are shown to be important regulators of pyramidal neuron function and synaptic plasticity. PMID:21159950

  19. β-Arrestins: Regulatory Role and Therapeutic Potential in Opioid and Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a complex disorder with neurochemical and psychological components contributing to the severity, the persistence, and the difficulty in adequately treating the condition. Opioid and cannabinoids are two classes of analgesics that have been used to treat pain for centuries and are arguably the oldest of “pharmacological” interventions used by man. Unfortunately, they also produce several adverse side effects that can complicate pain management. Opioids and cannabinoids act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and much of their effects are mediated by the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R), respectively. These receptors couple to intracellular second messengers and regulatory proteins to impart their biological effects. In this chapter, we review the role of the intracellular regulatory proteins, β-arrestins, in modulating MOR and CB1R and how they influence the analgesic and side-effect profiles of opioid and cannabinoid drugs in vivo. This review of the literature suggests that the development of opioid and cannabinoid agonists that bias MOR and CB1R toward G protein signaling cascades and away from β-arrestin interactions may provide a novel mechanism by which to produce analgesia with less severe adverse effects. PMID:24292843

  20. TAM Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Biologic Functions, Signaling, and Potential Therapeutic Targeting in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Rachel M. A.; Keating, Amy K.; Earp, H. Shelton; Graham, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) characterized by a conserved sequence within the kinase domain and adhesion molecule-like extracellular domains. This small family of RTKs regulates an intriguing mix of processes, including cell proliferation/survival, cell adhesion and migration, blood clot stabilization, and regulation of inflammatory cytokine release. Genetic or experimental alteration of TAM receptor function can contribute to a number of disease states, including coagulopathy, autoimmune disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and cancer. In this chapter, we first provide a comprehensive review of the structure, regulation, biologic functions, and down-stream signaling pathways of these receptors. In addition, we discuss recent evidence which suggests a role for TAM receptors in oncogenic mechanisms as family members are over-expressed in a spectrum of human cancers and have prognostic significance in some. Possible strategies for targeted inhibition of the TAM family in the treatment of human cancer are described. Further research will be necessary to evaluate the full clinical implications of TAM family expression and activation in cancer. PMID:18620092

  1. Cross species sensitivity to a novel androgen receptor agonist of potential environmental concern, spironolactone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spironolactone (SPL) is a pharmaceutical that is used in humans as an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist to treat conditions like hirsutism, various dermatologic afflictions, and female pattern hair loss, in addition to its common usage as a diuretic to treat hypertension. Althoug...

  2. Differential epileptogenic potentials of selective mu and delta opiate receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Haffmans, J; Dzoljic, M R

    1983-01-01

    By using electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic recordings in anaesthetized and free-moving rats, two opioid peptides, known as selective agonists for mu and delta opiate receptors, respectively, were examined for their epileptogenic properties. The delta receptor peptide (DSTLE, 4.6-18.6 nmol, intraventricularly, ivt), a putative delta opiate agonist, produced a dose-related increase of myoclonic contractions (MC) with epileptic discharges in anaesthetized rats and severe wet dog shakes, with occasionally falling down, in free-moving animals. Morphiceptin, a specific mu opiate agonist, used in equimolar doses and under the same experimental conditions, had a significantly less pronounced effect on the number of MC and epileptiform EEG phenomena. Similarly, DSTLE (18.6 nmol) injected in the CA2 area of the hippocampus, a region with a nearly equal distribution of mu and delta opiate receptors, induced epileptic discharges in anaesthetized and free-moving rats, while an equimolar dose of morphiceptin had no significant effect. It is suggested that the epileptiform activity of opioid peptides is mainly due to an activation of delta opiate receptors in the central nervous system.

  3. The importance of electrostatic potential in the interaction of sweet proteins with the sweet taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Veronica; Gallucci, Roberta; Picone, Delia; Saviano, Gabriella; Tancredi, Teodorico; Temussi, Piero A

    2006-07-07

    In addition to many small molecular mass sweeteners there are in nature a few sweet proteins. The molecular volume of sweet proteins is so different from that of common sweeteners that it was difficult to understand how molecules as large as proteins can activate a receptor designed to host small molecules. We have recently shown that sweet proteins can activate the sweet receptor by a mechanism of interaction, called ''wedge model", in which proteins fit a large cavity of the receptor with wedge-shaped surfaces of their structures. In order to substantiate this model we have designed, expressed and characterized seven mutants of MNEI, a single chain monellin. Three uncharged residues of the interaction surface, Met42, Tyr63 and Tyr65, were changed either into acidic or basic residues whereas Asp68, a key acidic residue, was changed into a basic one. As a general trend, we observe that an increase of the negative charge is much more detrimental for sweetness than an increase of positive charge. In addition we show that by a careful choice of a residue at the center of the interface between MNEI and receptor, it is possible even to increase the sweetness of MNEI. These results are fully consistent with the wedge model.

  4. ß-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling and Modulation of Long-Term Potentiation in the Mammalian Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Thomas J.; Connor, Steven A.; Guglietta, Ryan; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2015-01-01

    Encoding new information in the brain requires changes in synaptic strength. Neuromodulatory transmitters can facilitate synaptic plasticity by modifying the actions and expression of specific signaling cascades, transmitter receptors and their associated signaling complexes, genes, and effector proteins. One critical neuromodulator in the…

  5. Gene expression profiling reveals different molecular patterns in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways between early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mengmeng; Niu, Jianmin; Zhang, Liang; Deng, Hua; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Weiping; Duan, Dongmei; Zhou, Yuheng; Xu, Huikun; Chen, Longding

    2016-04-01

    Early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia have been regarded as two different phenotypes with heterogeneous manifestations; To gain insights into the pathogenesis of the two traits, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in preeclamptic placentas. A whole genome-wide microarray was used to determine the gene expression profiles in placental tissues from patients with early-onset (n = 7; <34 weeks), and late-onset (n = 8; >36 weeks) preeclampsia and their controls who delivered preterm (n = 5; <34 weeks) or at term (n = 5; >36 weeks). Genes were termed differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change ≥ 2 and q-value < 0.05. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to verify the results. Western blotting was performed to verify the expressions of secreted genes at the protein level. Six hundred twenty-seven genes were differentially expressed in early-compared with late-onset preeclampsia (177 genes were up-regulated and 450 were down-regulated). Gene ontology analysis identified significant alterations in several biological processes; the top two were immune response and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction. Among the cell surface receptor linked signal transduction-related, differentially expressed genes, those involved in the G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway were significantly enriched. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes, such as GPR124 and MRGPRF, were both found to be down-regulated in early-onset preeclampsia. The results were consistent with those of western blotting that the abundance of GPR124 was lower in early-onset compared with late-onset preeclampsia. The different gene expression profiles reflect the different levels of transcription regulation between the two conditions and supported the hypothesis that they are separate disease entities. Moreover, the G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes may contribute to the mechanism underlying early

  6. Potential of Breastmilk Analysis to Inform Early Events in Breast Carcinogenesis: Rationale and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Jeanne; Sherman, Mark E.; Browne, Eva P.; Caballero, Ana I.; Punska, Elizabeth C.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Yang, Hannah P.; Lee, Maxwell; Yang, Howard; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Arcaro, Kathleen F.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes methods related to the study of human breastmilk in etiologic and biomarkers research. Despite the importance of reproductive factors in breast carcinogenesis, factors that act early in life are difficult to study because young women rarely require breast imaging or biopsy, and analysis of critical circulating factors (e.g. hormones) is often complicated by the requirement to accurately account for menstrual cycle date. Accordingly, novel approaches are needed to understand how events such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, weaning, and post-weaning breast remodeling influence breast cancer risk. Analysis of breastmilk offers opportunities to understand mechanisms related to carcinogenesis in the breast, and to identify risk markers that may inform efforts to identify high-risk women early in the carcinogenic process. In addition, analysis of breastmilk could have value in early detection or diagnosis of breast cancer. In this article we describe the potential for using breastmilk to characterize the microenvironment of the lactating breast with the goal of advancing research on risk assessment, prevention, and detection of breast cancer. PMID:27107568

  7. Age-related differences in event-related potentials for early visual processing of emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-07-01

    With advancing age, processing resources are shifted away from negative emotional stimuli and toward positive ones. Here, we explored this 'positivity effect' using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants identified the presence or absence of a visual probe that appeared over photographs of emotional faces. The ERPs elicited by the onsets of angry, sad, happy and neutral faces were recorded. We examined the frontocentral emotional positivity (FcEP), which is defined as a positive deflection in the waveforms elicited by emotional expressions relative to neutral faces early on in the time course of the ERP. The FcEP is thought to reflect enhanced early processing of emotional expressions. The results show that within the first 130 ms young adults show an FcEP to negative emotional expressions, whereas older adults show an FcEP to positive emotional expressions. These findings provide additional evidence that the age-related positivity effect in emotion processing can be traced to automatic processes that are evident very early in the processing of emotional facial expressions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Functional expression of calcium-permeable canonical transient receptor potential 4-containing channels promotes migration of medulloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Chun; Huang, Wan-Chen; Lin, Yu-Ping; Becker, Esther B E; Ansorge, Olaf; Flockerzi, Veit; Conti, Daniele; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Glitsch, Maike D

    2017-08-15

    The proton sensing ovarian cancer G protein coupled receptor 1 (OGR1, aka GPR68) promotes expression of the canonical transient receptor potential channel subunit TRPC4 in normal and transformed cerebellar granule precursor (DAOY) cells. OGR1 and TRPC4 are prominently expressed in healthy cerebellar tissue throughout postnatal development and in primary cerebellar medulloblastoma tissues. Activation of TRPC4-containing channels in DAOY cells, but not non-transformed granule precursor cells, results in prominent increases in [Ca 2+ ] i and promotes cell motility in wound healing and transwell migration assays. Medulloblastoma cells not arising from granule precursor cells show neither prominent rises in [Ca 2+ ] i nor enhanced motility in response to TRPC4 activation unless they overexpressTRPC4. Our results suggest that OGR1 enhances expression of TRPC4-containing channels that contribute to enhanced invasion and metastasis of granule precursor-derived human medulloblastoma. Aberrant intracellular Ca 2+ signalling contributes to the formation and progression of a range of distinct pathologies including cancers. Rises in intracellular Ca 2+ concentration occur in response to Ca 2+ influx through plasma membrane channels and Ca 2+ release from intracellular Ca 2+ stores, which can be mobilized in response to activation of cell surface receptors. Ovarian cancer G protein coupled receptor 1 (OGR1, aka GPR68) is a proton-sensing G q -coupled receptor that is most highly expressed in cerebellum. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common paediatric brain tumour that arises from cerebellar precursor cells. We found that nine distinct human MB samples all expressed OGR1. In both normal granule cells and the transformed human cerebellar granule cell line DAOY, OGR1 promoted expression of the proton-potentiated member of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channel family, TRPC4. Consistent with a role for TRPC4 in MB, we found that all MB samples also expressed

  9. Vasopressin up-regulates the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes via two distinct EGF receptor transactivation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Lida Q.; Reyes, Carlos E.; Sarmiento, José M.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; Navarro, Javier; González, Carlos B.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of V1a receptor triggers the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes (IEGs), including c-Fos and Egr-1. Here we found that pre-treatment of rat vascular smooth muscle A-10 cell line with the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 or the over-expression of an EGFR dominant negative mutant (HEBCD533) blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of IEGs, suggesting that activation of these early genes mediated by V1a receptor is via transactivation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, the inhibition of the metalloproteinases, which catalyzed the shedding of the EGF receptor agonist HB-EGF, selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression c-Fos. On the other hand, the inhibition of c-Src selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of Egr-1. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression of c-Fos, the expression of Egr-1 was mediated via the Ras/MEK/MAPK-dependent signalling pathway. Vasopressin-triggered expression of both genes required the release of intracellular calcium, activation of PKC and β-arrestin 2. These findings demonstrated that vasopressin up-regulated the expression of c-Fos and Erg-1 via transactivation of two distinct EGF receptor-dependent signalling pathways. PMID:18571897

  10. Assessing Potential of VIIRS Data for Contribution to a Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the contributions by the Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) towards using Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data in assessing the damage to forests. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandates development of nationa