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Sample records for early relapsing-remitting multiple

  1. Sensitivity of visual evoked potentials and spectral domain optical coherence tomography in early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Behbehani, Raed; Ahmed, Samar; Al-Hashel, Jasem; Rousseff, Rossen T; Alroughani, Raed

    2017-02-01

    Visual evoked potentials and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography are common ancillary studies that assess the visual pathways from a functional and structural aspect, respectively. To compare prevalence of abnormalities of Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A cross-sectional study of 100 eyes with disease duration of less than 5 years since the diagnosis. Correlation between retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion-cell/inner plexiform layer with pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials amplitude and latency and contrast sensitivity was performed. The prevalence of abnormalities in pattern-reversal visual VEP was 56% while that of SOCT was 48% in all eyes. There was significant negative correlations between the average RNFL (r=-0.34, p=0.001) and GCIPL (r=-0.39, p<0.001) with VEP latency. In eyes with prior optic neuritis, a significant negative correlation was seen between average RNFL (r=-0.33, p=0.037) and GCIPL (r=-0.40, p=0.010) with VEP latency. We have found higher prevalence of VEP abnormalities than SCOCT in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. This suggests that VEP has a higher sensitivity for detecting lesions of the visual pathway in patients with early RRMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Endogenous Task Shift Processes in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablum, F.; Meligrana, L.; Sgaramella, T.; Bortolon, F.; Toso, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study that was aimed to evaluate executive functions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. The groups tested comprised 22 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, and 22 non-brain damaged controls. When one is engaged in two speeded tasks, not simultaneously but with some form of alternation, it is slower…

  3. Rituximab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    He, Dian; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Fubo; Zhang, Chao; Dong, Shuai; Zhou, Hongyu

    2013-12-06

    This is an update of the Cochrane review "Rituximab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12).More than 80% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience a relapsing-remitting disease course. Approximately 10 years after disease onset, an estimated 50% of individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) convert to secondary progressive MS. MS causes a major socioeconomic burden for the individual patient and for society. Effective treatment that reduces relapse frequency and prevents progression could impact both costs and quality of life and help to reduce the socioeconomic burden of MS. Alternative and more effective MS treatments with new modes of action and good safety are needed to expand the current treatment repertoire. It has been shown that B lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of MS and rituximab lyses B-cells via complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Current clinical trials are evaluating the role of rituximab as a B-cell depletion therapy in the treatment of RRMS. The safety and effectiveness of rituximab, as monotherapy or combination therapy, versus placebo or approved disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) (interferon-β (IFN-β), glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, alemtuzumab) to reduce disease activity for people with RRMS were assessed. The Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Group Specialised Register (9 August 2013). We checked the references in identified trials and manually searched the reports (2004 to August 2013) from neurological associations and MS societies in Europe and America. We also communicated with researchers who were participating in trials on rituximab and contacted Genentech, BiogenIdec and Roche. All randomised, double-blind, controlled parallel group clinical trials with a length

  4. An Ultra-High Field Study of Cerebellar Pathology in Early Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Using MP2RAGE.

    PubMed

    Fartaria, Mário João; OʼBrien, Kieran; Şorega, Alexandra; Bonnier, Guillaume; Roche, Alexis; Falkovskiy, Pavel; Krueger, Gunnar; Kober, Tobias; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to study focal cerebellar pathology in early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) using ultra-high-field magnetization-prepared 2 inversion-contrast rapid gradient-echo (7T MP2RAGE). Twenty early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent an MP2RAGE acquisition at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (images acquired at 2 different resolutions: 0.58 × 0.58 × 0.58 mm, 7T_0.58, and 0.75 × 0.75 × 0.90 mm, 7T_0.75) and 3 T MRI (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.2 mm, 3T_1.0). Total cerebellar lesion load and volume and mean cerebellar lesion volume were compared across images using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean T1 relaxation times in lesions and normal-appearing tissue as well as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) measurements were also compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A multivariate analysis was applied to assess the contribution of MRI metrics to clinical performance in MS patients. Both 7T_0.58 and 7T_0.75 MP2RAGE showed significantly higher lesion load compared with 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE (P < 0.001). Plaques that were judged as leukocortical in 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGEs were instead identified as WM lesions in 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE. Cortical lesion CNR was significantly higher in MP2RAGEs at 7 T than at 3 T. Total lesion load as well as total and mean lesion volume obtained at both 7 T and 3 T MP2RAGE significantly predicted attention (P < 0.05, adjusted R = 0.5), verbal fluency (P < 0.01, adjusted R = 0.6), and motor performance (P = 0.01, adjusted R = 0.7). This study demonstrates the value of 7 T MP2RAGE to study the cerebellum in early MS patients. 7T_0.58 MP2RAGE provides a more accurate anatomical description of white and gray matter pathology compared with 7T_0.75 and 3T_1.0 MP2RAGE, likely due to the improved spatial resolution, lower partial volume effects, and higher CNR.

  5. Effects of education level and employment status on HRQoL in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Patti, F; Pozzilli, C; Montanari, E; Pappalardo, A; Piazza, L; Levi, A; Onesti, E; Pesci, I

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of education level and employment status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a large cohort of patients affected by relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients This study included 648 patients with RRMS attending 40 Italian MS centers. Inclusion criteria were an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score between 1.0 and 5.5; stable disease on enrollment; and no previous treatment with interferons, glatiramer acetate, or immunosuppressive drugs. Quality of life (QoL) was evaluated by the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire (MSQoL-54). Employed patients scored significantly higher than other patient groups in the majority of MSQoL-54 domains. Similarly, patients with academic degrees and secondary education had higher scores than those with primary education (ie, eight years of education) in several domains of HRQoL. Patients who were employed with a high educational level achieved significantly better scores than unemployed patients with a lower educational level. In multivariate analysis, occupation and educational level were found to be significant and independent predictors of HRQoL. The results of our study suggest the importance of sustaining employment after a recent diagnosis of MS. In addition, education has a great influence on HRQoL; a higher education level may determine a stronger awareness of the disease, and a better ability to cope with the challenges of a chronic disease such as MS.

  6. Natalizumab for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pucci, Eugenio; Giuliani, Giorgio; Solari, Alessandra; Simi, Silvana; Minozzi, Silvia; Di Pietrantonj, Carlo; Galea, Ian

    2011-10-05

    Natalizumab (NTZ) (Tysabri(®)) is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier, thus reducing inflammation in central nervous system, and has been approved worldwide for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of NTZ in the treatment of patients with RRMS. We searched the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE, all up to 19 February 2010, and bibliographies of papers. Handsearching was carried out. Trialists and pharmaceutical companies were contacted. Furthermore, the websites of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMA) and the National Institute for health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) were also checked. All double-blind, randomised, controlled trials analysing more than a single infusion of NTZ (dosage > 3 mg/kg intravenous infusion every 4 weeks), also including its use as add-on treatment, versus placebo or other drugs in patients with RRMS. No restrictions on the basis of duration of treatment or length of follow up. Three reviewers independently selected articles which met the inclusion criteria. Disagreements were solved by discussion. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of each trial. Missing data was sought by contacting principal authors and Biogen Idec, through Biogen-Dompé Italia. Three studies met the inclusion criteria. These included one placebo-controlled trial (942 patients) and two add-on placebo-controlled trials, i.e. one plus glatiramer acetate (110 patients) and the second plus interferon beta-1a (1171 patients).This review assessed the efficacy, tolerability and safety of NTZ in patients with RRMS. Data was conclusive with respect to efficacy and tolerability, but not safety. As far as

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of normal appearing white matter in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; Piñero, Pilar; Sellers, Guillermo; Argente, Joaquín; Casado, Alfredo; Foronda, Jesus; Uclés, Antonio; Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Background What currently appears to be irreversible axonal loss in normal appearing white matter, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is of great interest in the study of Multiple Sclerosis. Our aim is to determine the axonal damage in normal appearing white matter measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to correlate this with the functional disability measured by Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scale, Neurological Rating Scale, Ambulation Index scale, and Expanded Disability Scale Score. Methods Thirty one patients (9 male and 22 female) with relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis and a Kurtzke Expanded Disability Scale Score of 0–5.5 were recruited from four hospitals in Andalusia, Spain and included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans and neurological disability assessments were performed the same day. Results A statistically significant correlation was found (r = -0.38 p < 0.05) between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score) and N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA/Cr ratio) levels in normal appearing white matter in these patients. No correlation was found between the NAA/Cr ratio and disability measured by any of the other disability assessment scales. Conclusions There is correlation between disability (measured by Expanded Disability Scale Score) and the NAA/Cr ratio in normal appearing white matter. The lack of correlation between the NAA/Cr ratio and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score indicates that the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite is not able to measure irreversible disability and would be more useful as a marker in stages where axonal damage is not a predominant factor. PMID:15191618

  8. Spectroscopic Axonal Damage of the Right Locus Coeruleus Relates to Selective Attention Impairment in Early Stage Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Martinez-Bisbal, M. Carmen; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Espert, Raul; Casanova, Bonaventura; Coret, Francisco; Celda, Bernardo

    2004-01-01

    Lower levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of axonal damage, have been found in the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients with low physical disability. However, its relation to the clinical status of these patients remains unclear. We explored the association between NAA levels…

  9. Early disturbances in multimodal evoked potentials as a prognostic factor for long-term disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    London, Frédéric; El Sankari, Souraya; van Pesch, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early alterations in evoked potentials (EPs) have a prognostic value in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We retrospectively selected 108 early MS patients with a neurological follow-up ranging from 5 to 15years, in whom multimodal EPs (visual, brainstem auditory, somatosensory and motor) were performed at diagnosis. A conventional ordinal score was used to quantify the observed abnormalities. The extent of change in the composite EP score was well correlated to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) at ten years (Y 10 ) and up to 15years (Y 11-15 ) after disease onset. Analysis of the predictive value of the EP score showed an increased risk of disability progression at Y 10 and Y 11-15 of 60% (p<0.0001) and 73% (p<0.0001) respectively in patients with an EP score >4. Conversely, the risk of disability progression at Y 10 and Y 11-15 associated with a lower EP score (⩽4) was reduced to 16% and 20% respectively. Our data support the good predictive value for long-term disability progression of multimodal EPs performed early after disease onset in RRMS patients. This study, performed in a homogeneous RRMS cohort with long term follow-up, demonstrates the value of an early comprehensive neurophysiological assessment as a marker for future disability. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cladribine tablets: in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Muir, Victoria J; Plosker, Greg L

    2011-03-01

    Cladribine, an immunosuppressant that selectively reduces peripheral lymphocyte levels, has potential as an oral therapy for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. An oral (tablet) formulation is being investigated in clinical trials. In the large, well designed, phase III CLARITY trial, short-course treatment with oral cladribine (cumulative dose of 3.5 or 5.25 mg/kg) resulted in a significantly greater reduction in annualized relapse rates at 96 weeks compared with placebo in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Improvements in the annualized relapse rate with oral cladribine were independent of key baseline patient characteristics which included age, sex, previous treatment with disease-modifying drugs and the number of relapses in the previous 12 months. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of patients were relapse-free at 96 weeks and there were significant reductions in the risk of 3-month sustained progression of disability in cladribine recipients compared with placebo recipients. The mean numbers of brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were also significantly reduced with cladribine compared with placebo in the CLARITY trial. Lymphocytopenia, herpes zoster infections and neoplasms (including malignancies) were more common in cladribine than placebo recipients.

  11. Deregulation of microRNA-181c in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with clinically isolated syndrome is associated with early conversion to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ahlbrecht, Jonas; Martino, Filippo; Pul, Refik; Skripuletz, Thomas; Sühs, Kurt-Wolfram; Schauerte, Celina; Yildiz, Özlem; Trebst, Corinna; Tasto, Lars; Thum, Sabrina; Pfanne, Angelika; Roesler, Romy; Lauda, Florian; Hecker, Michael; Zettl, Uwe K; Tumani, Hayrettin; Thum, Thomas; Stangel, Martin

    2016-08-01

    MiRNA-181c, miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 have been reported to be deregulated in multiple sclerosis. To investigate the association between miRNA-181c, miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 and conversion from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS); and to compare microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum with regard to dysfunction of the blood-CSF barrier. CSF and serum miRNA-181c, miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 were retrospectively determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in CIS patients with (CIS-RRMS) and without (CIS-CIS) conversion to RRMS within 1 year. Thirty of 58 CIS patients developed RRMS. Cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-922, serum miRNA-922 and cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c were significantly higher in CIS-RRMS compared to CIS-CIS (P=0.027, P=0.048, P=0.029, respectively). High levels of cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c were independently associated with conversion from CIS to RRMS in multivariate Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval 1.41-6.34, P=0.005). A combination of high cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c, younger age and more than nine lesions on magnetic resonance imaging showed the highest specificity (96%) and positive predictive value (94%) for conversion from CIS to RRMS. MiRNA-181c was higher in serum than in cerebrospinal fluid (P <0.001), while miRNA-633 and miRNA-922 were no different in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin quotients did not correlate with microRNAs in cerebrospinal fluid (all P>0.711). Cerebrospinal fluid miRNA-181c might serve as a biomarker for early conversion to RRMS. Moreover, our data suggest an intrathecal origin of microRNAs detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. © The Author(s), 2015.

  12. Daclizumab for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Herwerth, Marina; Hemmer, Bernhard

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Over the last two decades, the number of therapeutic options for the treatment of relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) has been constantly growing, providing new treatment options to patients. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the recently approved monoclonal antibody daclizumab for the treatment of RRMS. Based on original articles, they discuss its mode of action and evaluate its efficacy and safety profile compared to other available agents. Expert opinion: The IL-2 receptor modulator daclizumab is a new highly effective agent for the treatment of RRMS with novel immunomodulatory properties. Compared to interferon-beta i.m., daclizumab is more effective in reducing relapse rates and MRI activity. However, its use is limited by the risk of autoimmune disorders and hepatotoxicity. Similar to other monoclonal antibodies for RRMS, therapy with daclizumab needs a strict preselection and monitoring of patients based on individual risk benefit assessment. Given its substantial effectiveness, daclizumab can be an attractive option for patients with highly active MS.

  13. Resting State Brain Entropy Alterations in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fuqing; Zhuang, Ying; Gong, Honghan; Zhan, Jie; Grossman, Murray; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Brain entropy (BEN) mapping provides a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics, a key feature of human brain. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), reliable and spatially distributed BEN patterns have been identified in normal brain, suggesting a potential use in clinical populations since temporal brain dynamics and entropy may be altered in disease conditions. The purpose of this study was to characterize BEN in multiple sclerosis (MS), a neurodegenerative disease that affects millions of people. Since currently there is no cure for MS, developing treatment or medication that can slow down its progression represents a high research priority, for which validating a brain marker sensitive to disease and the related functional impairments is essential. Because MS can start long time before any measurable symptoms and structural deficits, assessing the dynamic brain activity and correspondingly BEN may provide a critical way to study MS and its progression. Because BEN is new to MS, we aimed to assess BEN alterations in the relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients using a patient versus control design, to examine the correlation of BEN to clinical measurements, and to check the correlation of BEN to structural brain measures which have been more often used in MS studies. As compared to controls, RRMS patients showed increased BEN in motor areas, executive control area, spatial coordinating area, and memory system. Increased BEN was related to greater disease severity as measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and greater tissue damage as indicated by the mean diffusivity. Patients also showed decreased BEN in other places, which was associated with less disability or fatigue, indicating a disease-related BEN re-distribution. Our results suggest BEN as a novel and useful tool for characterizing RRMS.

  14. Oxidative Stress is Increased in Serum from Mexican Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Macías-Islas, Miguel Ángel; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; Sustersik, Silvia; Barba, Elías Alejandro; Aguayo, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oxidative stress markers in serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: Blood samples from healthy controls and 22 patients 15 women (7 aged from 20 to 30 and 8 were > 40 years old) and 7 men (5 aged from 20 to 30 and 2 were > 40 years old) fulfilling the McDonald Criteria and classified as having Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis accordingly with Lublin were collected for oxidative stress markers quantification. Results: Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates/nitrites), lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde plus 4-hidroxialkenals), and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly increased in serum of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in comparison with that of healthy controls. These data support the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis is a component closely linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19242067

  15. Transverse Diffusivity of Cerebral Parenchyma Predicts Visual Tracking Performance in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warlop, Nele P.; Achten, Eric; Fieremans, Els; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between cerebral damage related to multiple sclerosis (MS) and cognitive decline as determined by two classical mental tracking tests. Cerebral damage in 15 relapsing-remitting MS patients was measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy, longitudinal and transverse diffusivity were defined…

  16. [Alemtuzumab for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Results of two randomized controlled phase III studies].

    PubMed

    Klotz, L; Meuth, S G; Kieseier, B; Wiendl, H

    2013-08-01

    In November 2012 the results of 2 clinical phase III trials were published which addressed the effects of alemtuzumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). In the CARE-MS-I study patients with early untreated MS (EDSS ≤ 3.0, disease duration < 5 years) were included, whereas CARE-MS-II investigated the effects of alemtuzumab in patients with persisting disease activity under standard disease-modifying treatment (EDSS ≤ 5.0, disease duration < 10 years). These groups were compared to patients under treatment with frequently applied interferon β 1a (3 times  44 µg subcutaneous). Both studies clearly demonstrated a superiority of alemtuzumab compared to interferon in terms of reduction of relapse rate as well as the number of new or enlarging T2 lesions and gadolinium-enhancing lesions. Moreover, the CARE-MS-II study showed a significant delay in disease progression by alemtuzumab. The portfolio and the frequency of relevant side effects, such as infusion-related reactions, development of secondary autoimmunity or infections were within the expected range. Taken together these studies confirm the high anti-inflammatory efficacy of alemtuzumab and hence provide the first evidence of superiority of a monotherapy in direct comparison to standard disease-modifying treatment in two phase III trials in relapsing-remitting MS. These data in the context of the mode of action of alemtuzumab provide evidence for the relevance of immune cells, especially T cells, in the pathophysiology of MS. Experience with long-term effects of alemtuzumab, e.g. from the phase II extension trial as well as the side effect profile argue in favor of a sustained reprogramming of the immune system as a consequence of immune cell depletion by alemtuzumab.

  17. Corpus Callosum Function in Verbal Dichotic Listening: Inferences from a Longitudinal Follow-Up of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadea, Marien; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Arana, Estanislao; Espert, Raul; Salvador, Alicia; Casanova, Bonaventura

    2009-01-01

    This study conducted a follow-up of 13 early-onset slightly disabled Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) patients within an year, evaluating both CC area measurements in a midsagittal Magnetic Resonance (MR) image, and Dichotic Listening (DL) testing with stop consonant vowel (C-V) syllables. Patients showed a significant progressive…

  18. Fingolimod hydrochloride for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Katja; Proschmann, Undine; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2017-10-01

    Fingolimod was the first oral and the first in class disease modifying treatment in multiple sclerosis that acts as sphingosine-1-phospathe receptor agonist. Since approval in 2010 there is a growing experience with fingolimod use in clinical practice, but also next-generation sphingosin-1-receptor agonists in ongoing clinical trials. Growing evidence demonstrates additional effects beyond impact on lymphocyte circulation, highlighting further promising targets in multiple sclerosis therapy. Areas covered: Here we present a systematic review using PubMed database searching and expert opinion on fingolimod use in clinical practice. Long-term data of initial clinical trials and post-marketing evaluations including long-term efficacy, safety, tolerability and management especially within growing disease modifying treatment options and pre-treatment constellation in multiple sclerosis patients are critically discussed. Furthermore novel findings in mechanism of actions and prospective on additional use in progressive forms in multiple sclerosis are presented. Expert opinion: There is an extensive long-term experience on fingolimod use in clinical practice demonstrating the favorable benefit-risk of this drug. Using a defined risk management approach experienced MS clinicians should apply fingolimod after critical choice of patients and review of clinical aspects. Further studies are essential to discuss additional benefit in progressive forms in multiple sclerosis.

  19. Varicella Zoster Virus and Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo, Julio; Corona, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder; however, little is known about the triggering factors of the abnormal immune response. Different viruses from the herpes family have been mentioned as potential participants. Here, we review the evidences that support the association of varicella zoster virus (VZV) with MS. Epidemiological studies from geographical areas, where incidence of MS has increased in recent decades, pointed out a high frequency of varicella and zoster in the clinical antecedents of MS patients, and also laboratory investigations have found large quantities of DNA from VZV in leucocytes and cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients restricted to the ephemeral period of MS relapse, followed by disappearance of the virus during remission. The above observations and the peculiar features of VZV, mainly characterized by its neurotropism and long periods of latency followed by viral reactivation, support the idea on the participation of VZV in the etiology of MS. However, as with reports from studies with other viruses, particularly Epstein Barr virus, conflicting results on confirmatory studies about the presence of viral gene products in brain tissue indicate the need for further research on the potential participation of VZV in the etiology of MS. PMID:22096629

  20. Subcutaneous ofatumumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Grove, Richard A.; Austin, Daren J.; Tolson, Jerry M.; VanMeter, Susan A.; Lewis, Eric W.; Derosier, Frederick J.; Lopez, Monica C.; Kavanagh, Sarah T.; Miller, Aaron E.; Sorensen, Per S.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess dose-response effects of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody ofatumumab on efficacy and safety outcomes in a phase 2b double-blind study of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). Methods Patients (n = 232) were randomized to ofatumumab 3, 30, or 60 mg every 12 weeks, ofatumumab 60 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo for a 24-week treatment period, with a primary endpoint of cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions (per brain MRI) at week 12. Relapses and safety/tolerability were assessed, and CD19+ peripheral blood B-lymphocyte counts measured. Safety monitoring continued weeks 24 to 48 with subsequent individualized follow-up evaluating B-cell repletion. Results The cumulative number of new lesions was reduced by 65% for all ofatumumab dose groups vs placebo (p < 0.001). Post hoc analysis (excluding weeks 1–4) estimated a ≥90% lesion reduction vs placebo (week 12) for all cumulative ofatumumab doses ≥30 mg/12 wk. Dose-dependent CD19 B-cell depletion was observed. Notably, complete depletion was not necessary for a robust treatment effect. The most common adverse event was injection-related reactions (52% ofatumumab, 15% placebo), mild to moderate severity in 97%, most commonly associated with the first dose and diminishing on subsequent dosing. Conclusion Imaging showed that all subcutaneous ofatumumab doses demonstrated efficacy (most robust: cumulative doses ≥30 mg/12 wk), with a safety profile consistent with existing ofatumumab data. This treatment effect also occurred with dosage regimens that only partially depleted circulating B cells. Classification of evidence This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with RMS, ofatumumab decreases the number of new MRI gadolinium-enhancing lesions 12 weeks after treatment initiation. PMID:29695594

  1. Use of fingolimod in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Alroughani, R; Ahmed, S F; Behbehani, R; Al-Hashel, J

    2014-04-01

    Post-marketing studies are important to confirm what was established in clinical trials, and to assess the intermediate and long-term efficacy and safety. To assess efficacy and safety of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS) in Kuwait. We retrospectively evaluated MS patients using the MS registries in 3 MS clinics. Relapsing remitting MS patients according to revised 2010 McDonald criteria who had been treated with fingolimod for at least 12 months were included. Primary endpoint was proportion of relapse-free patients at last follow-up. Secondary endpoints were mean change in EDSS and proportion of patients with MRI activity (gadolinium-enhancing or new/enlarging T2 lesions). 76 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age and mean disease duration were 34.43 and 7.82 years respectively. Mean duration of exposure to fingolimod was 18.50 months. Proportion of relapse-free patients was 77.6% at last follow-up. Mean EDSS score significantly improved (2.93 versus 1.95; p<0.0001) while 17.1% of patients continued to have MRI activity versus 77.6% at baseline (p<0.0001). Four patients stopped fingolimod due to disease breakthrough (n=3) and lymphadenitis (n=1). Fingolimod is safe and effective in reducing clinical and radiological disease activity in relapsing remitting MS patients. Our results are comparable to reported results of phase III studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Latin American algorithm for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using disease-modifying agents.

    PubMed

    Finkelsztejn, Alessandro; Gabbai, Alberto Alain; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Carrá, Adriana; Macías-Islas, Miguel Angel; Arcega-Revilla, Raul; García-Bonitto, Juan; Oehninger-Gatti, Carlos Luis; Orozco-Escobar, Geraldine; Tarulla, Adriana; Vergara, Fernando; Vizcarra, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    It is estimated that circa 50,000 individuals have relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Latin America. European and North-American algorithms for the treatment of multiple sclerosis do not foresee our regional difficulties and the access of patients to treatment. The Latin American Multiple Sclerosis Forum is an independent and supra-institutional group of experts that has assessed the latest scientific evidence regarding efficacy and safety of disease-modifying treatments. Accesses to treatment and pharmacovigilance programs for each of the eight countries represented at the Forum were also analyzed. A specific set of guidelines based upon evidence-based recommendations was designed for Latin America. Future perspectives of multiple sclerosis treatment were also discussed. The present paper translated an effort from representatives of eight countries discussing a matter that cannot be adapted to our region directly from purely European and North-American guidelines for treatment.

  3. The relationship between body image and depression in women diagnosed with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kindrat, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about perceptions of body image in women diagnosed with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This descriptive correlational study was conducted to describe how women perceive their body image while living with RRMS, and to examine a potential relationship between body image and depression in women who have RRMS. A convenience sample of 30 women from a western Canadian multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic completed a demographic questionnaire, the Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory Short Form (BDI-SF). Body image and depression scores were highly correlated (r = 0.814, p = 0.01) indicating that a more positive body image was associated with less depression. The findings of this study suggest that there are important psychological aspects to which clinicians might need to attend when working with women who have RRMS. However, further research needs to be done in this area.

  4. Longitudinal change in physical activity and its correlates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward; Sandroff, Brian M

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity is beneficial for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), but this population is largely inactive. There is minimal information on change in physical activity and its correlates for informing the development of behavioral interventions. This study examined change in physical activity and its symptomatic, social-cognitive, and ambulatory or disability correlates over a 2.5-year period of time in people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. On 6 occasions, each separated by 6 months, people (N=269) with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis completed assessments of symptoms, self-efficacy, walking impairment, disability, and physical activity. The participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days. The change in study variables over 6 time points was examined with unconditional latent growth curve modeling. The association among changes in study variables over time was examined using conditional latent growth curve modeling, and the associations were expressed as standardized path coefficients (β). There were significant linear changes in self-reported and objectively measured physical activity, self-efficacy, walking impairment, and disability over the 2.5-year period; there were no changes in fatigue, depression, and pain. The changes in self-reported and objective physical activity were associated with change in self-efficacy (β=.49 and β=.61, respectively), after controlling for other variables and confounders. The primary limitations of the study were the generalizability of results among those with progressive multiple sclerosis and inclusion of a single variable from social-cognitive theory. Researchers should consider designing interventions that target self-efficacy for the promotion and maintenance of physical activity in this population.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A French Societal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Julie; Chamoux, Catherine; Hammès, Florence; Chicoye, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The paper aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at the public published price for delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus relevant Multiple Sclerosis disease-modifying therapies available in France in June 2015. The economic model was adapted to the French setting in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé guidelines using a model previously developed for NICE. A cohort of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients was simulated over a 30-year time horizon. Twenty one health states were taken into account: Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-9 for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients, EDSS 0-9 for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, and death. Estimates of relative treatment efficacy were determined using a mixed-treatment comparison. Probabilities of events were derived from the dimethyl fumarate pivotal clinical trials and the London Ontario Dataset. Costs and utilities were extracted from the published literature from both the payer and societal perspectives. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model results. From both perspectives, dimethyl fumarate and interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a) 44 mcg were the two optimal treatments, as the other treatments (IFN beta-1a 30 mcg, IFN beta-1b 250 mcg, teriflunomide, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod) were dominated on the efficiency frontier. From the societal perspective, dimethyl fumarate versus IFN beta-1a 44 mcg incurred an incremental cost of €3,684 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.281, corresponding to an ICER of €13,110/QALY. Despite no reference threshold for France, dimethyl fumarate can be considered as a cost-effective option as it is on the efficiency frontier.

  6. [Neuropsychology of mildly disabled patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Santiago Rolanía, Olga; Guàrdia Olmos, Joan; Arbizu Urdiain, Txomin

    2006-02-01

    Previous papers have mainly demonstrated the presence of cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), these changes have been traditionally associated with the later stages of the disease. In the current study, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered to 216 relapsing-remitting MS patients with mild clinical disability (EDSS

  7. A review of the ethics of the use of placebo in clinical trials for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Andrew J; Bernat, James L

    2016-05-01

    Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials have been considered the most rigorous method of evaluating the efficacy of novel treatment interventions. The first effective disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were approved in the 1990s after a number of pivotal placebo-controlled trials. Since then, the ethics of the continued use of placebo in clinical trials of new DMTs for RRMS has been the subject of repeated policy statements and recommendations by international committees. As further data have accumulated demonstrating a reduction in long-term morbidity and mortality with early initiation of DMT, a growing consensus has emerged that further inclusion of placebo arms in clinical trials of novel RRMS therapies is no longer ethical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk-benefit considerations in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lugaresi, Alessandra; di Ioia, Maria; Travaglini, Daniela; Pietrolongo, Erika; Pucci, Eugenio; Onofrj, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and mainly affects young adults. Its natural history has changed in recent years with the advent of disease-modifying drugs, which have been available since the early 1990s. The increasing number of first-line and second-line treatment options, together with the variable course of the disease and patient lifestyles and expectations, makes the therapeutic decision a real challenge. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the main present and some future drugs for relapsing-remitting MS, including risk-benefit considerations, to enable readers to draw their own conclusions regarding the risk-benefit assessment of personalized treatment strategies, taking into account not only treatment-related but also disease-related risks. We performed a Medline literature search to identify studies on the treatment of MS with risk stratification and risk-benefit considerations. We focused our attention on studies of disease-modifying, immunomodulating, and immunosuppressive drugs, including monoclonal antibodies. Here we offer personal considerations, stemming from long-term experience in the treatment of MS and thorough discussions with other neurologists closely involved in the care of patients with the disease. MS specialists need to know not only the specific risks and benefits of single drugs, but also about drug interactions, either in simultaneous or serial combination therapy, and patient comorbidities, preferences, and fears. This has to be put into perspective, considering also the risks of untreated disease in patients with different clinical and radiological characteristics. There is no single best treatment strategy, but therapy has to be tailored to the patient. This is a time-consuming task, rich in complexity, and influenced by the attitude towards risk on the parts of both the patient and the clinical team. The broader the MS drug market becomes, the

  9. Probiotic helminth administration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J O; Isaak, A; Lee, J E; Luzzio, C C; Carrithers, M D; Cook, T D; Field, A S; Boland, J; Fabry, Z

    2011-06-01

    Probiotic treatment strategy based on the hygiene hypothesis, such as administration of ova from the non-pathogenic helminth, Trichuris suis, (TSO) has proven safe and effective in autoimmune inflammatory bowel disease. To study the safety and effects of TSO in a second autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), we conducted the phase 1 Helminth-induced Immunomodulatory Therapy (HINT 1) study. Five subjects with newly diagnosed, treatment-naive relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) were given 2500 TSO orally every 2 weeks for 3 months in a baseline versus treatment control exploratory trial. The mean number of new gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions (n-Gd+) fell from 6.6 at baseline to 2.0 at the end of TSO administration, and 2 months after TSO was discontinued, the mean number of n-Gd+ rose to 5.8. No significant adverse effects were observed. In preliminary immunological investigations, increases in the serum level of the cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were noted in four of the five subjects. TSO was well tolerated in the first human study of this novel probiotic in RRMS, and favorable trends were observed in exploratory MRI and immunological assessments. Further investigations will be required to fully explore the safety, effects, and mechanism of action of this immunomodulatory treatment.

  10. Cognitive and Language Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis: Comparison of Relapsing Remitting and Secondary Progressive Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Ntoskou, Katerina; Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Martzoukou, Maria; Makris, Giorgos; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the pattern and severity of cognitive and language impairment in Greek patients with Relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS), relative to control participants. Method: A prospective study was conducted in 27 patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), (N= 15) with RRMS, (N= 12) with SPMS, and (N= 12) healthy controls. All participants were assessed with a flexible comprehensive neuropsychological – language battery of tests that have been standardized in Greece and validated in Greek MS patients. They were also assessed on measures of disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS), fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory - fast screen; BDI-FS). Results: Our results revealed that groups were well matched on baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. The two clinical groups (RRMS; SPMS) did not differ on overall global cognitive impairment but differed in the initial encoding of verbal material, mental processing speed, response inhibition and set-shifting. RRMS patients differed from controls in the initial encoding of verbal material, learning curve, delayed recall of verbal information, processing speed, and response inhibition. SPMS patients differed in all utilized measures compared to controls. Moreover, we noted increased impairment frequency on individualized measures in the progressive SPMS group. Conclusion: We conclude that MS patients, irrespective of clinical subtype, have cognitive deficits compared to healthy participants, which become increasingly worse when they convert from RRMS to SPMS.On the contrary,the pattern of impairment remains relatively stable. PMID:29576812

  11. Progression in disability and regional grey matter atrophy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Louis; Naegelin, Yvonne; Filli, Lukas; Kuster, Pascal; Traud, Stefan; Smieskova, Renata; Mueller-Lenke, Nicole; Kappos, Ludwig; Gass, Achim; Sprenger, Till; Penner, Iris-Katharina; Nichols, Thomas E; Vrenken, Hugo; Barkhof, Frederik; Polman, Chris; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Bendfeldt, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) regional grey matter (GM) atrophy has been associated with disability progression. The aim of this study was to compare regional GM volume changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with progressive and stable disability, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We acquired baseline and 1-year follow-up 3-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of RRMS patients, using two 1.5-Tesla scanners. Patients were matched pair-wise with respect to age, gender, disease duration, medication, scanner and baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) into 13 pairs, with either progressive EDSS (≥ 1 point change y(-1)) or stable EDSS, as well as into 29 pairs with either progressive Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) at ≥ 0.25% decrease in y(-1) in any component, or stable MSFC. We analysed longitudinal regional differences in GM volumes in the progressive and stable EDSS and MSFC groups, respectively, using VBM. Significant GM volume reductions occurred in the right precuneus, in the progressive EDSS group. Differential between-group effects occurred in the right precuneus and in the postcentral gyrus. Further longitudinal GM volume reductions occurred in the right orbicular gyrus, in the progressive MSFC group, but no between-group differences were observed (non-stationary cluster-wise inference, all P(corrected) < 0.05). These results suggested a direct association of disability progression and regional GM atrophy in RRMS.

  12. CRYAB modulates the activation of CD4+ T cells from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Quach, Que Lan; Metz, Luanne M; Thomas, Jenna C; Rothbard, Jonathan B; Steinman, Lawrence; Ousman, Shalina S

    2013-12-01

    Suppression of activation of pathogenic CD4(+) T cells is a potential therapeutic intervention in multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously showed that a small heat shock protein, CRYAB, reduced T cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and clinical signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a model of MS. We assessed whether the ability of CRYAB to reduce the activation of T cells translated to the human disease. CD4(+) T cells from healthy controls and volunteers with MS were activated in vitro in the presence or absence of a CRYAB peptide (residues 73-92). Parameters of activation (proliferation rate, cytokine secretion) and tolerance (anergy, activation-induced cell death, microRNAs) were evaluated. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by CD4(+) T cells was decreased in the presence of CRYAB in a subset of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) participants with mild disease severity while no changes were observed in healthy controls. Further, there was a correlation for higher levels of miR181a microRNA, a marker upregulated in tolerant CD8(+) T cells, in CD4(+) T cells of MS patients that displayed suppressed cytokine production (responders). CRYAB may be capable of suppressing the activation of CD4(+) T cells from a subset of RRMS patients who appear to have less disability but similar age and disease duration.

  13. Phonological fluency strategy of switching differentiates relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Messinis, L; Kosmidis, M H; Vlahou, C; Malegiannaki, A C; Gatzounis, G; Dimisianos, N; Karra, A; Kiosseoglou, G; Gourzis, P; Papathanasopoulos, P

    2013-01-01

    The strategies used to perform a verbal fluency task appear to be reflective of cognitive abilities necessary for successful daily functioning. In the present study, we explored potential differences in verbal fluency strategies (switching and clustering) used to maximize word production by patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) versus patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). We further assessed impairment rates and potential differences in the sensitivity and specificity of phonological versus semantic verbal fluency tasks in discriminating between those with a diagnosis of MS and healthy adults. We found that the overall rate of impaired verbal fluency in our MS sample was consistent with that in other studies. However, we found no differences between types of MS (SPMS, RRMS), on semantic or phonological fluency word production, or the strategies used to maximize semantic fluency. In contrast, we found that the number of switches differed significantly in the phonological fluency task between the SPMS and RRMS subtypes. The clinical utility of semantic versus phonological fluency in discriminating MS patients from healthy controls did not indicate any significant differences. Further, the strategies used to maximize performance did not differentiate MS subgroups or MS patients from healthy controls.

  14. Natalizumab Modifies Catecholamines Levels Present in Patients with Relapsing- Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Begona M; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Bahamonde, Carmen; Conde, Cristina; Lillo, Rafael; Sanchez-Lopez, Fernando; Giraldo, Ana I; Cruz, Antonio H; Luque, Evelio; Gascon, Felix; Aguera, Eduardo; Tunez, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the effect of natalizumab on the levels of circulating catecholamines and indolamine and their possible relation with MS. For this purpose, 12 healthy individuals (control group) and 12 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients (RR-MS) were selected. The patients were treated with 300 mg of natalizumab during 56 weeks (1 dose/4 weeks) (MS-56). This selection was based on the McDonalds revision criterion and scheduled to star treatment with natalizumab. Blood samples were taken before treatment (basal level) and after 56 weeks of using natalizumab. Melatonin was measured in serum and in plasma, catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine), carbonylated proteins, 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8OH-dG) and the ratio reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG). The epinephrine and dopamine levels diminished in the basal group with respect to the control and did not recover normal levels with the treatment. The melatonin was decreased in RR-MS patients and went back to its normal levels with natalizumab. Norepinephrine was increased in RR-MS and decreased in MS-56 until it equalled the control group. Natalizumab normalizes altered melatonin and norepinephrine levels in MS.

  15. Comparison of interferon beta products and azathioprine in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Etemadifar, M; Janghorbani, M; Shaygannejad, V

    2007-12-01

    We compared the relative efficacy of interferon beta (IFNbeta) products and azathioprine (AZA) in the treatment of relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Ninety-four previously untreated patients of short duration with RRMS were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups. The first group received IFNbeta products (Betaferon,Avonex or Rebif); the second group received AZA for 12 months. Response to treatment was assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months after starting therapy. The mean number of relapse during one year of the study was lower in the AZA group than in the IFNbeta products group (0.28 vs. 0.64, P < 0.05). After 12 months, 57.4% of patients receiving IFNbeta products remained relapse free compared with 76.6% of those given AZA. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) decreased by 0.30 units in IFNbeta-treated patients (P < 0.05) and 0.46 in AZAtreated patients (P < 0.001). Treatment with IFNbeta products and AZA significantly reduces the relapse rate and EDSS score in patients with RRMS, while AZA is more effective than the IFNbeta formulations.

  16. Teriflunomide for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: patient preference and adherence.

    PubMed

    Bayas, Antonios; Mäurer, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is the most common neurological disorder leading to disability in young adulthood. In the last 2 decades, numerous treatments for relapsing-remitting MS have been approved with eleven treatment options available worldwide. One of the determinants in treatment selection is disease activity in the individual patient. However, patient preferences play an increasingly major role in treatment decision making. With teriflunomide, a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a new oral therapeutic option, given once daily, has been approved within the last 2 years by the regulatory agencies. The current review focuses on characteristics of the drug relevant for patients' preferences in the treatment decision process in the light of the available medications. Perceiving and considering patients' preferences will have an effect on treatment adherence, which is known to be often low in MS patients. Teriflunomide-related adherence issues will also be discussed regarding mode of application, dosing, and potential side effects.

  17. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Gontkovsky, Samuel T; Kreiner, David S; Tree, Heather A

    2012-01-01

    Forty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) completed the 10 core Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Means for age and education were 42.05 years (SD = 9.94) and 14.33 years (SD = 2.40). For all participants, the native language was English. The mean duration of MS diagnosis was 8.17 years (SD = 7.75), and the mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS; Kurtzke, 1983 ) score was 3.73 (SD = 1.41) with a range from 2.0 to 6.5. A control group of healthy individuals with similar demographic characteristics also completed the WAIS-IV and were provided by the test publisher. Compared to controls, patients with MS earned significantly lower subtest and composite scores. The patients' mean scores were consistently in the low-average to average range, and the patterns of performance across groups did not differ significantly, although there was a trend towards higher scores on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and lower scores on the Processing Speed Index (PSI). Approximately 78% of patients had actual Full Scale IQs that were significantly lower than preillness, demographically based IQ estimates.

  18. Disability-Specific Atlases of Gray Matter Loss in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Kurth, Florian; Itoh, Yuichiro; Wang, He-Jing; Montag, Michael J; Elashoff, Robert; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by progressive gray matter (GM) atrophy that strongly correlates with clinical disability. However, whether localized GM atrophy correlates with specific disabilities in patients with MS remains unknown. To understand the association between localized GM atrophy and clinical disability in a biology-driven analysis of MS. In this cross-sectional study, magnetic resonance images were acquired from 133 women with relapsing-remitting MS and analyzed using voxel-based morphometry and volumetry. A regression analysis was used to determine whether voxelwise GM atrophy was associated with specific clinical deficits. Data were collected from June 28, 2007, to January 9, 2014. Voxelwise correlation of GM change with clinical outcome measures (Expanded Disability Status Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scores). Among the 133 female patients (mean [SD] age, 37.4 [7.5] years), worse performance on the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite correlated with voxelwise GM volume loss in the middle cingulate cortex (P < .001) and a cluster in the precentral gyrus bilaterally (P = .004). In addition, worse performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test correlated with volume loss in the auditory and premotor cortices (P < .001), whereas worse performance on the 9-Hole Peg Test correlated with GM volume loss in Brodmann area 44 (Broca area; P = .02). Finally, voxelwise GM loss in the right paracentral lobulus correlated with bowel and bladder disability (P = .03). Thus, deficits in specific clinical test results were directly associated with localized GM loss in clinically eloquent locations. These biology-driven data indicate that specific disabilities in MS are associated with voxelwise GM loss in distinct locations. This approach may be used to develop disability-specific biomarkers for use in future clinical trials of neuroprotective treatments in MS.

  19. Progressive multiple sclerosis patients have a higher burden of autonomic dysfunction compared to relapsing remitting phenotype.

    PubMed

    Adamec, Ivan; Crnošija, Luka; Junaković, Anamari; Krbot Skorić, Magdalena; Habek, Mario

    2018-06-04

    To determine autonomic dysfunction (AD) differences in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (pwRRMS) and progressive MS (pwPMS). Composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS) and heart rate variability (HRV) were performed in 40 pwRRMS and 30 pwPMS. pwPMS had a significantly higher sudomotor index and total CASS score compared to pwRRMS (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Disease duration positively correlated with sudomotor index and total CASS (r s  = 0.409, p < 0.001 and r s  = 0.472, p < 0.001, respectively), while the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) positively correlated with sudomotor index and total CASS (r s  = 0.411, p < 0.001 and r s  = 0.402, p = 0.001, respectively) in all patients. Type of multiple sclerosis (pwRRMS or pwPMS) corrected for age, sex and disease duration, was a statistically significant predictor of CASS value (B = 1.215, p = 0.019). Compared to pwRRMS, pwPMS had a significantly lower standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF), during both the supine and tilt-up phases (all p-values <0.006). pwPMS had a significantly lower LF/HF (p = 0.008) during tilt-up. There is a significant difference in autonomic function in pwRRMS and pwPMS; with pwPMS having a higher burden of AD, which is particularly evident for sweating dysfunction. Further research is needed to establish whether parasympathetic and sudomotor dysfunction may serve as markers of progressive MS. Copyright © 2018 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of driving skills in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Akinwuntan, Abiodun Emmanuel; Devos, Hannes; Baker, Kelly; Phillips, Kendra; Kumar, Vibha; Smith, Suzanne; Williams, Mitzi Joi

    2014-03-01

    To determine the potential to improve driving-related skills using a simulator-based program in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Pre-post intervention. A university driving simulator laboratory. Participants (N=50) with RRMS and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores between 1 and 7 were enrolled. Pre- and posttraining data from 36 participants (mean age ± SD, 46±11y; 30 women) who received training and 6 participants (mean age ± SD, 48±13y; 5 women) who did not receive training (control group) were compared. Five hours of driving training in a simulator. Performance on a road test at pre- and posttraining. Secondary outcome measures were performance on visual, physical, and cognitive tests. Overall, no significant differences were observed between the training and control groups before and after training. However, 4 of the 7 participants in the training group who failed the road test at pretraining passed posttraining, while the only participant in the control group who failed at pretraining still failed at posttraining. The training group also improved on perception of red and colored numbers, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, and the dot cancellation test of the Stroke Driver Screening Assessment battery and reported less fatigue. These improvements were most pronounced among those with an EDSS score between 3 and 7. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of using a simulator to improve driving-related visual, cognitive, and on-road skills in individuals with RRMS, particularly those with an EDSS score >3. Future randomized controlled trials with adequate power are needed to expand this field of study. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intracortical excitability in patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Lenzi, D; Frasca, V; Gilio, F; Giacomelli, E; Gabriele, M; Bettolo, C Marini; Iacovelli, E; Pantano, P; Pozzilli, C; Inghilleri, M

    2009-06-01

    We designed this study to investigate possible correlations between variables measuring primary motor cortex excitability detected by single and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and the severity of clinical manifestations in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thirty patients with MS in remission, 16 with relapsing-remitting (RR), 14 with secondary progressive disease (SP) and 17 healthy subjects participated in the study. In each subject, the central motor conduction time (CMCT) was calculated, and single-pulse and paired-pulse TMS at 3 and 10 ms interstimulus intervals was delivered over the primary motor cortex of the dominant hemisphere to measure the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), motor threshold (MTh), intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF). Correlations were determined between the patients' TMS findings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (lesion load) and clinical features (expanded disability status scale, EDSS score). EDSS scores were significantly higher in SPMS than in RRMS patients. The MTh was significantly higher, and the MEP was significantly smaller in SPMS patients than in RRMS patients and control subjects. All patients had longer CMCTs than healthy subjects. In all patients, paired-pulse TMS elicited an inhibited test MEP at the 3-ms ISI and a facilitated test MEP at the 10 ms ISI. Post hoc analysis showed that ICI was significantly lower in SPMS patients than in those with RRMS and healthy subjects. EDSS scores correlated significantly with TMS measures (MEP, ICI, CMCT and MTh), but not with MRI lesion load. It was found that intracortical excitability as measured with TMS differs according to the clinical course of MS; it remains normal in patients with low EDSS scores and is altered in patients with high EDSS scores.

  2. Secondary Progressive and Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Leads to Motor-Related Decreased Anatomical Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lyksborg, Mark; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Sørensen, Per S.; Blinkenberg, Morten; Parker, Geoff J. M.; Dogonowski, Anne-Marie; Garde, Ellen; Larsen, Rasmus; Dyrby, Tim B.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) damages central white matter pathways which has considerable impact on disease-related disability. To identify disease-related alterations in anatomical connectivity, 34 patients (19 with relapsing remitting MS (RR-MS), 15 with secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) and 20 healthy subjects underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) of the brain. Based on the dMRI, anatomical connectivity mapping (ACM) yielded a voxel-based metric reflecting the connectivity shared between each individual voxel and all other brain voxels. To avoid biases caused by inter-individual brain-shape differences, they were estimated in a spatially normalized space. Voxel-based statistical analyses using ACM were compared with analyses based on the localized microstructural indices of fractional anisotropy (FA). In both RR-MS and SP-MS patients, considerable portions of the motor-related white matter revealed decreases in ACM and FA when compared with healthy subjects. Patients with SP-MS exhibited reduced ACM values relative to RR-MS in the motor-related tracts, whereas there were no consistent decreases in FA between SP-MS and RR-MS patients. Regional ACM statistics exhibited moderate correlation with clinical disability as reflected by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The correlation between these statistics and EDSS was either similar to or stronger than the correlation between FA statistics and the EDSS. Together, the results reveal an improved relationship between ACM, the clinical phenotype, and impairment. This highlights the potential of the ACM connectivity indices to be used as a marker which can identify disease related-alterations due to MS which may not be seen using localized microstructural indices. PMID:24748023

  3. Regional gray matter atrophy in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: baseline analysis of multi-center data.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sushmita; Staewen, Terrell D; Cofield, Stacy S; Cutter, Gary R; Lublin, Fred D; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-03-01

    Regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) at disease onset and its temporal variation can provide objective information regarding disease evolution. An automated pipeline for estimating atrophy of various GM structures was developed using tensor based morphometry (TBM) and implemented on a multi-center sub-cohort of 1008 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients enrolled in a Phase 3 clinical trial. Four hundred age and gender matched healthy controls were used for comparison. Using the analysis of covariance, atrophy differences between MS patients and healthy controls were assessed on a voxel-by-voxel analysis. Regional GM atrophy was observed in a number of deep GM structures that included thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and cortical GM regions. General linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the effects of age, gender, and scanner field strength, and imaging sequence on the regional atrophy. Correlations between regional GM volumes and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, disease duration (DD), T2 lesion load (T2 LL), T1 lesion load (T1 LL), and normalized cerebrospinal fluid (nCSF) were analyzed using Pearson׳s correlation coefficient. Thalamic atrophy observed in MS patients compared to healthy controls remained consistent within subgroups based on gender and scanner field strength. Weak correlations between thalamic volume and EDSS (r=-0.133; p<0.001) and DD (r=-0.098; p=0.003) were observed. Of all the structures, thalamic volume moderately correlated with T2 LL (r=-0.492; P-value<0.001), T1 LL (r=-0.473; P-value<0.001) and nCSF (r=-0.367; P-value<0.001). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Trotta, Vincenzo; Mennella, Ilario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ettorre, Michele; Graverini, Antonio; De Santis, Alessandro; Di Monte, Elisabetta; Coniglio, Maria Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the influence of nutritional intervention on inflammatory status and wellness in people with multiple sclerosis. To this end, in a seven-month pilot study we investigated the effects of a calorie-restricted, semi-vegetarian diet and administration of vitamin D and other dietary supplements (fish oil, lipoic acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, resveratrol and multivitamin complex) in 33 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. At 0/3/6 months, patients had neurological examination, filled questionnaires and underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. Serum fatty acids and vitamin D levels were measured as markers of dietary compliance and nutritional efficacy of treatment, whereas serum gelatinase levels were analyzed as markers of inflammatory status. All patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D at baseline, but their values did not ameliorate following a weekly administration of 5000  IU, and rather decreased over time. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased already after three months, even under dietary restriction only. Co-treatment with interferon-beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was irrelevant to vitamin D levels. After six months nutritional treatment, no significant changes in neurological signs were observed in any group. However, serum levels of the activated isoforms of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 decreased by 59% in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis and by 51% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients under nutritional intervention, including dietary supplements. This study indicates that a healthy nutritional intervention is well accepted by people with multiple sclerosis and may ameliorate their physical and inflammatory status. PMID:26785711

  5. Anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting and primary-progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Trotta, Vincenzo; Mennella, Ilario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ettorre, Michele; Graverini, Antonio; De Santis, Alessandro; Di Monte, Elisabetta; Coniglio, Maria Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the influence of nutritional intervention on inflammatory status and wellness in people with multiple sclerosis. To this end, in a seven-month pilot study we investigated the effects of a calorie-restricted, semi-vegetarian diet and administration of vitamin D and other dietary supplements (fish oil, lipoic acid, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, resveratrol and multivitamin complex) in 33 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 10 patients with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis. At 0/3/6 months, patients had neurological examination, filled questionnaires and underwent anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. Serum fatty acids and vitamin D levels were measured as markers of dietary compliance and nutritional efficacy of treatment, whereas serum gelatinase levels were analyzed as markers of inflammatory status. All patients had insufficient levels of vitamin D at baseline, but their values did not ameliorate following a weekly administration of 5000  IU, and rather decreased over time. Conversely, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increased already after three months, even under dietary restriction only. Co-treatment with interferon-beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was irrelevant to vitamin D levels. After six months nutritional treatment, no significant changes in neurological signs were observed in any group. However, serum levels of the activated isoforms of gelatinase matrix metalloproteinase-9 decreased by 59% in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis and by 51% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients under nutritional intervention, including dietary supplements. This study indicates that a healthy nutritional intervention is well accepted by people with multiple sclerosis and may ameliorate their physical and inflammatory status. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  6. "Always looking for a new balance": toward an understanding of what it takes to continue working while being diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meide, Hanneke van der; Gorp, Dennis van; van der Hiele, Karin; Visser, Leo

    2017-06-22

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the meaning of work in the everyday lives of people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and the barriers and facilitators to staying in work. Nineteen employed adults diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis participated in narrative interviews. All interviews were transcribed and coded for thematic analysis. For people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, continuing to work was a precarious balancing act. Five themes influenced this balance: becoming familiar with the disease, adjusting expectations, having an understanding and realistic line manager, seeing work as meaningful life activity and strategic considerations. People receiving a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis have to refamiliarize themselves with their own body in a meaningful way to be able to continue their work. Rehabilitation professionals can support them herein by taking into account not merely functional capabilities but also identity aspects of the body. Medication that stabilizes symptoms supports making the necessary adjustments. A trusting relationship with the line manager is vital for this adaptation process. Additionally, a match between being adequately challenged by work, while still having the capacity to meet those work demands, is needed, as is long-term financial stability. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation professionals can support employees with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis by taking into account not merely functional capabilities but also identity aspects of the body. A trusting relationship with the line manager, including a timely disclosure of the diagnosis, is vital for people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis to remain at work. For people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, there is a delicate balance between being adequately challenged by work while still having the capacity to meet work demands.

  7. Fingolimod: a review of its use in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley J

    2011-08-01

    Oral fingolimod (Gilenya™), a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist, is the first oral agent and the first in a novel class of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) to be approved for use in the US for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). In the EU, fingolimod is approved for use as a single-agent DMT in selected patients with highly-active, relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. This article reviews the pharmacological properties and clinical use of the drug in patients with RRMS. Fingolimod is rapidly converted in vivo to the active moiety S-fingolimod-phosphate, which binds with high affinity to S1P receptors, thereby sequestering lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and preventing their egress into the peripheral circulation. As a consequence, there is a reduction in the infiltration of autoaggressive lymphocytes into the CNS. Fingolimod-phosphate also acts as a functional antagonist, as its binding to S1P receptors results in their internalization and degradation, thereby downregulating S1P receptors on the lymphocyte cell surface. Since fingolimod crosses the blood : brain barrier, it also potentially acts at S1P receptors on neural cells in the CNS to mitigate neuropathological processes associated with MS. In large multinational trials in adult patients with RRMS, oral fingolimod 0.5 mg/day was more effective than oral placebo (FREEDOMS) and recommended dosages of intramuscular interferon-β (IFNβ)-1a (TRANSFORMS) in reducing the annualized relapse rate and was also generally more effective at slowing progression of neurological disability and at reducing the burden and activity of disease. Fingolimod was generally well tolerated in these trials of up to 2 years' duration, with most adverse events being manageable and of mild to moderate severity; there were two deaths from opportunistic infections, albeit these occurred with fingolimod 1.25 mg/day (higher than the recommended dosage). Limited long-term data indicated that no new

  8. Cardiac repolarization during fingolimod treatment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Laiho, Aapo; Laitinen, Tiina M; Hartikainen, Päivi; Hartikainen, Juha E K; Laitinen, Tomi P; Simula, Sakari

    2018-02-01

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Despite an established effect on heart rate, the effect of fingolimod on cardiac repolarization is not completely known. Twenty-seven patients with RRMS underwent 24-hr ambulatory ECG before fingolimod (baseline), at the day of fingolimod initiation (1D) and after three-month treatment (3M). The mean values of RR-interval as well as QT-interval corrected by Bazzet's (QTcBaz) and Fridericia's (QTcFri) formula were compared between baseline, 1D, and 3M over 24-hr period as well as at daytime and nighttime. QTcBaz over 24-hr was shorter at 1D (414 ± 20 ms, p  < .001) and at 3M (414 ± 20 ms, p  < .001) than at baseline (418 ± 20 ms). In contrast, QTcFri over 24-hr was longer at 1D (410 ± 19 ms, p  < .001) but similar at 3M (406 ± 19 ms, p  = .355) compared to baseline (407 ± 19 ms). Daytime QTcBaz was shorter at 1D ( p  < .001) and at 3M ( p  = .007), whereas daytime QTcFri was longer at 1D ( p  < .05) but similar at 3M ( p  = ns) compared to baseline. During the night, changes were observed neither in QTcBaz nor in QTcFri between baseline, 1D, and 3M. Changes in cardiac repolarization after fingolimod initiation were mild and occurred at daytime. Ambiguously, QTcBaz demonstrated shortening, whereas QTcFri showed prolongation in cardiac repolarization after fingolimod initiation. The formula applied for QT-interval correction needs to be taken carefully into account as evaluating pharmacovigilance issues related to fingolimod.

  9. Azathioprine versus Beta Interferons for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Multicentre Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Massacesi, Luca; Tramacere, Irene; Amoroso, Salvatore; Battaglia, Mario A.; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Filippini, Graziella; La Mantia, Loredana; Repice, Anna; Solari, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Milanese, Clara

    2014-01-01

    For almost three decades in many countries azathioprine has been used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However its efficacy was usually considered marginal and following approval of β interferons for this indication it was no longer recommended as first line treatment, even if presently no conclusive direct β interferon-azathioprine comparison exists. To compare azathioprine efficacy versus the currently available β interferons in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial was conducted in 30 Italian multiple sclerosis centers. Eligible patients (relapsing-remitting course; ≥2 relapses in the last 2 years) were randomly assigned to azathioprine or β interferons. The primary outcome was annualized relapse rate ratio (RR) over 2 years. Key secondary outcome was number of new brain MRI lesions. Patients (n = 150) were randomized in 2 groups (77 azathioprine, 73 β interferons). At 2 years, clinical evaluation was completed in 127 patients (62 azathioprine, 65 β interferons). Annualized relapse rate was 0.26 (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.19–0.37) in the azathioprine and 0.39 (95% CI 0.30–0.51) in the interferon group. Non-inferiority analysis showed that azathioprine was at least as effective as β interferons (relapse RRAZA/IFN 0.67, one-sided 95% CI 0.96; p<0.01). MRI outcomes were analyzed in 97 patients (50 azathioprine and 47 β interferons). Annualized new T2 lesion rate was 0.76 (95% CI 0.61–0.95) in the azathioprine and 0.69 (95% CI 0.54–0.88) in the interferon group. Treatment discontinuations due to adverse events were higher (20.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.03) in the azathioprine than in the interferon group, and concentrated within the first months of treatment, whereas in the interferon group discontinuations occurred mainly during the second year. The results of this study indicate that efficacy of azathioprine is not inferior to that of

  10. Multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and vitamin D status in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Aliehossadat; Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Nejati, Ahmad; Shahmahmoodi, Shohreh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Marashi, Sayed Mahdi

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between infections and autoimmune diseases is complex and there are several reports highlighting the role of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in these patients. The levels of multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV)-type DNA of Env gene was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 52 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 40 healthy controls using specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. Furthermore, we analyzed the status of HERV-W/MSRV in these patients with regards to both EBV (DNA load and anti-EBNA1 IgG antibody) and vitamin D concentration. MSRV DNA copy number were significantly higher in RRMS patients than healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Interestingly, an inverse correlation was found between MSRV DNA copy number and serum vitamin D concentration (P < 0.01), but not for EBV load or anti-EBNA-1 IgG antibody. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cost of care according to disease-modifying therapy in Mexicans with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Macías-Islas, Miguel A; Soria-Cedillo, Isaac F; Velazquez-Quintana, Merced; Rivera, Victor M; Baca-Muro, Verónica I; Lemus-Carmona, Edith A; Chiquete, Erwin

    2013-12-01

    Limited data exist on the costs of care of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in low- to middle-income nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the economic burden associated with care of Mexican patients with relapsing-remitting MS in a representative sample of the largest institution of the Mexican public healthcare system. We analysed individual data of 492 patients (67% women) with relapsing-remitting MS registered from January 2009 to February 2011 at the Mexican Social Security Institute. Direct costs were measured about the use of diagnostic tests, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), symptoms control, medical consultations, relapses, intensive care and rehabilitation. Four groups were defined according to DMT alternatives: (1) interferon beta (IFNβ)-1a, 6 million units (MU); (2) IFNβ-1a, 12MU; (3) IFNβ-1b, 8MU; and (4) glatiramer acetate. All patients received DMTs for at least 1 year. The most frequently used DMT was glatiramer acetate (45.5%), followed by IFNβ-1a 12MU (22.6%), IFNβ-1b 8MU (20.7%), and IFNβ-1a 6MU (11.2%). The mean cost of a specialised medical consultation was €74.90 (US $107.00). A single relapse had a mean total cost of €2,505.97 (US $3,579.96). No differences were found in annualised relapse rates and costs of relapses according to DMT. However, a significant difference was observed in total annual costs according to treatment groups (glatiramer acetate being the most expensive), mainly due to differences in unitary costs of alternatives. From the public institutional perspective, when equipotent DMTs are used in patients with comparable characteristics, the costs of DMTs largely determine the total expenses associated with care of patients with relapsing-remitting MS in a middle-income country.

  12. Treatment effectiveness of alemtuzumab compared with natalizumab, fingolimod, and interferon beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kalincik, Tomas; Brown, J William L; Robertson, Neil; Willis, Mark; Scolding, Neil; Rice, Claire M; Wilkins, Alastair; Pearson, Owen; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Hutchinson, Michael; McGuigan, Christopher; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Horakova, Dana; Havrdova, Eva; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Prat, Alexandre; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Grammond, Pierre; Alroughani, Raed; Pucci, Eugenio; Sola, Patrizia; Hupperts, Raymond; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Terzi, Murat; Van Pesch, Vincent; Rozsa, Csilla; Grand'Maison, François; Boz, Cavit; Granella, Franco; Slee, Mark; Spitaleri, Daniele; Olascoaga, Javier; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Verheul, Freek; Vucic, Steve; McCombe, Pamela; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Sanchez-Menoyo, Jose Luis; Ampapa, Radek; Simo, Magdolna; Csepany, Tunde; Ramo, Cristina; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael; Butzkueven, Helmut; Coles, Alasdair

    2017-04-01

    Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 antibody, is proven to be more efficacious than interferon beta-1a in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, but its efficacy relative to more potent immunotherapies is unknown. We compared the effectiveness of alemtuzumab with natalizumab, fingolimod, and interferon beta in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated for up to 5 years. In this international cohort study, we used data from propensity-matched patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis from the MSBase and six other cohorts. Longitudinal clinical data were obtained from 71 MSBase centres in 21 countries and from six non-MSBase centres in the UK and Germany between Nov 1, 2015, and June 30, 2016. Key inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of definite relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, exposure to one of the study therapies (alemtuzumab, interferon beta, fingolimod, or natalizumab), age 65 years or younger, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 6·5 or lower, and no more than 10 years since the first multiple sclerosis symptom. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate. The secondary endpoints were cumulative hazards of relapses, disability accumulation, and disability improvement events. We compared relapse rates with negative binomial models, and estimated cumulative hazards with conditional proportional hazards models. Patients were treated between Aug 1, 1994, and June 30, 2016. The cohorts consisted of 189 patients given alemtuzumab, 2155 patients given interferon beta, 828 patients given fingolimod, and 1160 patients given natalizumab. Alemtuzumab was associated with a lower annualised relapse rate than interferon beta (0·19 [95% CI 0·14-0·23] vs 0·53 [0·46-0·61], p<0·0001) and fingolimod (0·15 [0·10-0·20] vs 0·34 [0·26-0·41], p<0·0001), and was associated with a similar annualised relapse rate as natalizumab (0·20 [0·14-0·26] vs 0·19 [0·15-0·23], p=0·78). For the disability outcomes

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Peginterferon Beta-1a and Alemtuzumab in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dashputre, Ankur A; Kamal, Khalid M; Pawar, Gauri

    2017-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, affecting 2.5 million people globally and 400,000 people in the United States. While no cure exists for MS, the goal is to manage the disease using disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), which have been shown to slow disease progression and prevent relapses. Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) is the most common form of MS at the time of diagnosis. Peginterferon beta-1a (PEG) and alemtuzumab (ALT) were recently approved and have demonstrated good clinical outcomes, including reduced relapse rates in clinical trials. High costs associated with these DMTs necessitates cost-effectiveness analyses to understand their overall value in RRMS management. To assess the cost-effectiveness of (a) Model 1: PEG relative to intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IM IFN), subcutaneous interferon beta-1b (SC IFN), glatiramer acetate 20 mg per mL (GA), fingolimod (FIN), natalizumab (NAT), and dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and (b) Model 2: ALT relative to subcutaneous interferon beta-1a 44 μg (IFN beta-1a 44 μg). Both analyses were conducted from a U.S. third-party payer perspective. Two static decision models were used to compare the cost-effectiveness of PEG and ALT over a 1-year and a 2-year time horizon, respectively. Model inputs were drug acquisition costs (wholesale acquisition cost from RED BOOK); drug administration and monitoring costs (package inserts and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 2015 Physician Fee Schedule); relapse rates and relapse rate reduction (clinical trials); and cost of managing relapses (published literature). All costs were adjusted to 2015 U.S. dollars using the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index. Outcomes measured were total cost of therapy per patient, cost per relapse avoided, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) calculated as cost per relapse avoided. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to test model robustness given the uncertainty of

  14. Quality of life outcomes with BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: the DEFINE study.

    PubMed

    Kappos, Ludwig; Gold, Ralf; Arnold, Douglas L; Bar-Or, Amit; Giovannoni, Gavin; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Sarda, Sujata P; Agarwal, Sonalee; Zhang, Annie; Sheikh, Sarah I; Seidman, Emily; Dawson, Katherine T

    2014-02-01

    Oral BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate), approved for the treatment of the relapsing forms of MS, has demonstrated clinical efficacy with an acceptable safety profile in the Phase III "Determination of the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Fumarate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)" (DEFINE) and "Comparator and an Oral Fumarate in RRMS" (CONFIRM) studies. To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) impairment that is associated with RRMS and to assess the effects of BG-12 on HRQoL in the DEFINE study. Patients with RRMS were randomized to BG-12 240 mg twice (BID) or three times (TID) daily, or placebo, for 2 years. HRQoL was assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36), global assessment of well-being visual analog scale and the EuroQol-5D. In the 1237 patients from DEFINE, HRQoL impairment was greatest in patients who had higher disability scores and in those who had experienced relapse. Change in SF-36 physical component summary scores during 2 years' treatment significantly favored BG-12 over placebo (both doses: p < 0.001). We saw similar benefits in other measures of functioning and general well-being as early as Week 24. These benefits were maintained during the study. Our results add to evidence for a negative impact of RRMS on HRQoL and they demonstrate the benefits of BG-12 on HRQoL measures, which coupled with significant clinical efficacy, further support its use as a new treatment for RRMS.

  15. Pegylated interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (ADVANCE): a randomised, phase 3, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Peter A; Kieseier, Bernd C; Arnold, Douglas L; Balcer, Laura J; Boyko, Alexey; Pelletier, Jean; Liu, Shifang; Zhu, Ying; Seddighzadeh, Ali; Hung, Serena; Deykin, Aaron

    2014-07-01

    Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (peginterferon) beta-1a is being developed for treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis, with less frequent dosing than currently available first-line injectable treatments. We assessed the safety and efficacy of peginterferon beta-1a after 48 weeks of treatment in the placebo-controlled phase of the ADVANCE trial, a study of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We did this 2-year, double-blind, parallel group, phase 3 study, with a placebo-controlled design for the first 48 weeks, at 183 sites in 26 countries. Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (age 18-65 years, with Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤5) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive voice response or web system, and stratified by site, to placebo or subcutaneous peginterferon beta-1a 125 μg once every 2 weeks or every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate at 48 weeks. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00906399. We screened 1936 patients and enrolled 1516, of whom 1512 were randomly assigned (500 to placebo, 512 to peginterferon every 2 weeks, 500 to peginterferon every 4 weeks); 1332 (88%) patients completed 48 weeks of treatment. Adjusted annualised relapse rates were 0·397 (95% CI 0·328-0·481) in the placebo group versus 0·256 (0·206-0·318) in the every 2 weeks group and 0·288 (0·234-0·355) in the every 4 weeks group (rate ratio for every 2 weeks group 0·644, 95% CI 0·500-0·831, p=0·0007; rate ratio for the every 4 weeks group 0·725, 95% CI 0·565-0·930, p=0·0114). 417 (83%) patients taking placebo, 481 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 2 weeks, and 472 (94%) patients taking peginterferon every 4 weeks reported adverse events including relapses. The most common adverse events associated with peginterferon beta-1a were injection site reactions, influenza-like symptoms, pyrexia, and headache. 76 (15%) patients taking placebo, 55 (11%) patients

  16. Health perceptions and clinical characteristics of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: baseline data from an international clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Zhao, N; Gathany, T; Kim, L-L; Cella, D; Revicki, D

    2009-05-01

    Baseline clinical and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data from a phase 2, multi-site, international, randomized, controlled trial were analyzed to: (1) characterize the health status of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), (2) explore cross-sectional relationships between HRQoL and clinical measures, and (3) evaluate differences in HRQoL scores for subsequent validation as minimally important differences (MID). www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00207727. Baseline clinical and HRQoL data were selected and analyzed. HRQoL questionnaires included the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), a Patient Assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) Impact (PAMSI), and MS-specific symptom scales for Bladder and Bowel Control, Cognition, and Sexual Satisfaction. Standard summary statistics described the population while Pearson and Spearman correlations evaluated the baseline association between HRQoL and clinical measures. Cross-sectional estimates of MID in HRQoL scores were derived using several clinical anchors, the PAMSI, and two tests: Tukey multiple comparisons and adjacent mean difference. Patients (n = 249) had a mean age of 39.0 (Standard deviation, SD = 10.5), 70% were female, 63% resided in Europe, and 96% were Caucasian. Baseline median Expanded Disability Severity Scale (EDSS) was 2.5 (range = 0.0-6.5); median disease duration was 1.9 years (range = 0.1-33.6). The worst baseline mean (normalized) SF-36 scores were for General Health (39.9), Role Physical (40.4), Physical Functioning (41.0), and Vitality (42.7). The worst MS symptom mean scores were for Cognition (6.3) and FSS (4.4). Fatigue scores indicated substantial burden and were consistent with SF-36 Vitality results. Baseline HRQoL scores (SF-36, FSS, MS symptom scales) correlated most with EDSS, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), age and disease duration. Lesion count and pre-baseline relapse rate had no meaningful association with HRQoL or other clinical

  17. Association between use of interferon beta and progression of disability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Shirani, Afsaneh; Zhao, Yinshan; Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Evans, Charity; Kingwell, Elaine; van der Kop, Mia L; Oger, Joel; Gustafson, Paul; Petkau, John; Tremlett, Helen

    2012-07-18

    Interferon beta is widely prescribed to treat multiple sclerosis (MS); however, its relationship with disability progression has yet to be established. To investigate the association between interferon beta exposure and disability progression in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Retrospective cohort study based on prospectively collected data (1985-2008) from British Columbia, Canada. Patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with interferon beta (n = 868) were compared with untreated contemporary (n = 829) and historical (n = 959) cohorts. The main outcome measure was time from interferon beta treatment eligibility (baseline) to a confirmed and sustained score of 6 (requiring a cane to walk 100 m; confirmed at >150 days with no measurable improvement) on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (range, 0-10, with higher scores indicating higher disability). A multivariable Cox regression model with interferon beta treatment included as a time-varying covariate was used to assess the hazard of disease progression associated with interferon beta treatment. Analyses also included propensity score adjustment to address confounding by indication. The median active follow-up times (first to last EDSS measurement) were as follows: for the interferon beta-treated cohort, 5.1 years (interquartile range [IQR], 3.0-7.0 years); for the contemporary control cohort, 4.0 years (IQR, 2.1-6.4 years); and for the historical control cohort, 10.8 years (IQR, 6.3-14.7 years). The observed outcome rates for reaching a sustained EDSS score of 6 were 10.8%, 5.3%, and 23.1% in the 3 cohorts, respectively. After adjustment for potential baseline confounders (sex, age, disease duration, and EDSS score), exposure to interferon beta was not associated with a statistically significant difference in the hazard of reaching an EDSS score of 6 when either the contemporary control cohort (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.92-1.83; P = .14) or the historical control cohort (hazard ratio, 0

  18. Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in x-linked charcot-marie-tooth disease with central nervous system involvement.

    PubMed

    Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Floroskoufi, Paraskewi; Raftopoulou, Maria; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr) which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars). Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis.

  19. Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in X-Linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Karadima, Georgia; Floroskoufi, Paraskewi; Raftopoulou, Maria; Panas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX), carrying a GJB1 mutation affecting connexin-32 (c.191G>A, p. Cys64Tyr) which was recently reported by our group. This is the third case report of a patient with CMTX developing MS, but it is unique in the fact that other family members carrying the same mutation were found to have asymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) involvement (diffuse white matter hyperintensity on brain MRI and extensor plantars). Although this may be a chance association, the increasing number of cases with CMTX and MS, especially with mutations involving the CNS, may imply some causative effect and provide insights into MS pathogenesis. PMID:25883816

  20. No evidence for an effect on brain atrophy rate of atorvastatin add-on to interferon β1b therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (the ARIANNA study).

    PubMed

    Lanzillo, Roberta; Quarantelli, Mario; Pozzilli, Carlo; Trojano, Maria; Amato, Maria Pia; Marrosu, Maria G; Francia, Ada; Florio, Ciro; Orefice, Giuseppe; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Bellantonio, Paolo; Annunziata, Pasquale; Grimaldi, Luigi M; Comerci, Marco; Brunetti, Arturo; Bonavita, Vincenzo; Alfano, Bruno; Marini, Stefano; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    A previous phase 2 trial has suggested that statins might delay brain atrophy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin add-on therapy on cerebral atrophy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. This randomised, placebo-controlled study compared atorvastatin 40 mg or placebo add-on therapy to interferon β1b for 24 months. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis functional composite score, Rao neuropsychological battery and expanded disability status scale were evaluated over 24 months. A total of 154 patients were randomly assigned, 75 in the atorvastatin and 79 in the placebo arms, with a comparable drop-out rate (overall 23.4%). Brain atrophy over 2 years was not different in the two arms (-0.38% and -0.32% for the atorvastatin and placebo groups, respectively). Relapse rate, expanded disability status scale, multiple sclerosis functional composite score or cognitive changes were not different in the two arms. Patients withdrawing from the study had a higher number of relapses in the previous 2 years (P=0.04) and a greater probability of relapsing within 12 months. Our results suggest that the combination of atorvastatin and interferon β1b is not justified in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and adds to the body of evidence indicating an absence of significant radiological and clinical benefit of statins in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. © The Author(s), 2015.

  1. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: comparison with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Bonaventura; Jarque, Isidro; Gascón, Francisco; Hernández-Boluda, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Miralles, Francisco; de la Rubia, Javier; Alcalá, Carmen; Sanz, Jaime; Mallada, Javier; Cervelló, Angeles; Navarré, Arantxa; Carcelén-Gadea, María; Boscá, Isabel; Gil-Perotin, Sara; Solano, Carlos; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Coret, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    The main objective of our work is to describe the long-term results of myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) in multiple sclerosis patients. Patients that failed to conventional therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent an approved protocol for AHSCT, which consisted of peripheral blood stem cell mobilization with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), followed by a conditioning regimen of BCNU, Etoposide, Ara-C, Melphalan IV, plus Rabbit Thymoglobulin. Thirty-eight MS patients have been transplanted since 1999. Thirty-one patients have been followed for more than 2 years (mean 8.4 years). There were 22 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 9 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients. No death related to AHSCT. A total of 10 patients (32.3%) had at least one relapse during post-AHSCT evolution, 6 patients in the RRMS group (27.2%) and 4 in the SPMS group (44.4%). After AHSCT, 7 patients (22.6%) experienced progression of disability, all within SP form. By contrast, no patients with RRMS experienced worsening of disability after a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 60% of them showed a sustained reduction in disability (SRD), defined as the improvement of 1.0 point in the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) sustains for 6 months (0.5 in cases of EDSS ≥ 5.5). The only clinical variable that predicted a poor response to AHSCT was a high EDSS in the year before transplant. AHSCT using the BEAM-ATG scheme is safe and efficacious to control the aggressive forms of RRMS.

  2. The Combined Quantification and Interpretation of Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Metrics Enlightens Longitudinal Changes Compatible with Brain Repair in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Bonnier, Guillaume; Maréchal, Benedicte; Fartaria, Mário João; Falkowskiy, Pavel; Marques, José P; Simioni, Samanta; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Krueger, Gunnar; Granziera, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative and semi-quantitative MRI (qMRI) metrics provide complementary specificity and differential sensitivity to pathological brain changes compatible with brain inflammation, degeneration, and repair. Moreover, advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics with overlapping elements amplify the true tissue-related information and limit measurement noise. In this work, we combined multiple advanced MRI parameters to assess focal and diffuse brain changes over 2 years in a group of early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients. Thirty relapsing-remitting MS patients with less than 5 years disease duration and nine healthy subjects underwent 3T MRI at baseline and after 2 years including T1, T2, T2* relaxometry, and magnetization transfer imaging. To assess longitudinal changes in normal-appearing (NA) tissue and lesions, we used analyses of variance and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the correlation between clinical outcome and multiparametric MRI changes in lesions and NA tissue. In patients, we measured a significant longitudinal decrease of mean T2 relaxation times in NA white matter ( p  = 0.005) and a decrease of T1 relaxation times in the pallidum ( p  < 0.05), which are compatible with edema reabsorption and/or iron deposition. No longitudinal changes in qMRI metrics were observed in controls. In MS lesions, we measured a decrease in T1 relaxation time ( p -value < 2.2e-16) and a significant increase in MTR ( p -value < 1e-6), suggesting repair mechanisms, such as remyelination, increased axonal density, and/or a gliosis. Last, the evolution of advanced MRI metrics-and not changes in lesions or brain volume-were correlated to motor and cognitive tests scores evolution (Adj- R 2  > 0.4, p  < 0.05). In summary, the combination of multiple advanced MRI provided evidence of changes compatible with focal and diffuse brain repair at early MS stages as suggested

  3. Accurate prediction of cardiorespiratory fitness using cycle ergometry in minimally disabled persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Fernhall, Bo

    2012-03-01

    To examine the accuracy of predicting peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) primarily from peak work rate (WR(peak)) recorded during a maximal, incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer among persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) who had minimal disability. Cross-sectional study. Clinical research laboratory. Women with RRMS (n=32) and sex-, age-, height-, and weight-matched healthy controls (n=16) completed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer to volitional termination. Not applicable. Measured and predicted VO(2peak) and WR(peak). There were strong, statistically significant associations between measured and predicted VO(2peak) in the overall sample (R(2)=.89, standard error of the estimate=127.4 mL/min) and subsamples with (R(2)=.89, standard error of the estimate=131.3 mL/min) and without (R(2)=.85, standard error of the estimate=126.8 mL/min) multiple sclerosis (MS) based on the linear regression analyses. Based on the 95% confidence limits for worst-case errors, the equation predicted VO(2peak) within 10% of its true value in 95 of every 100 subjects with MS. Peak VO(2) can be accurately predicted in persons with RRMS who have minimal disability as it is in controls by using established equations and WR(peak) recorded from a maximal, incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequencing of disease-modifying therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a theoretical approach to optimizing treatment.

    PubMed

    Grand'Maison, Francois; Yeung, Michael; Morrow, Sarah A; Lee, Liesly; Emond, Francois; Ward, Brian J; Laneuville, Pierre; Schecter, Robyn

    2018-04-18

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease which usually begins in young adulthood and is a lifelong condition. Individuals with MS experience physical and cognitive disability resulting from inflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system. Over the past decade, several disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) have been approved for the management of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), which is the most prevalent phenotype. The chronic nature of the disease and the multiple treatment options make benefit-risk-based sequencing of therapy essential to ensure optimal care. The efficacy and short- and long-term risks of treatment differ for each DMT due to their different mechanism of action on the immune system. While transitioning between DMTs, in addition to immune system effects, factors such as age, disease duration and severity, disability status, monitoring requirements, preference for the route of administration, and family planning play an important role. Determining a treatment strategy is therefore challenging as it requires careful consideration of the differences in efficacy, safety and tolerability, while at the same time minimizing risks of immune modulation. In this review, we discuss a sequencing approach for treating RRMS, with importance given to the long-term risks and individual preference when devising a treatment plan. Evidence-based strategies to counter breakthrough disease are also addressed.

  5. [Cost-utility analysis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treatment with azathioprine or interferon beta in Spain].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Terrés, C; Domínguez-Gil Hurlé, A

    To carry out a cost-utility analysis of the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with azathioprine (Imurel) or beta interferon (all, Avonex, Rebif and Betaferon). Pharmacoeconomic Markov model comparing treatment options by simulating the life of a hypothetical cohort of women aged 30, from the societal perspective. The transition probabilities, utilities, resource utilisation and costs (direct and indirect) were obtained from Spanish sources and from bibliography. Univariant sensitivity analyses of the base case were performed. In the base case analysis, the average cost per patient (euros in 2003) of a life treatment, considering a life expectancy of 53 years, would be 620,205, 1,047,836, 1,006,014, 1,161,638 and 968,157 euros with Imurel, all interferons, Avonex, Rebif and Betaferon, respectively. Therefore, the saving with Imurel would range between 327,000 and 520,000 euros approximately. The quality-adjusted life years (QALY) obtained with Imurel or interferons would be 10.08 and 9.30, respectively, with an average gain of 0.78 QALY per patient treated with Imurel. The sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the base case. The cost of one additional QALY with interferons would range between 413,000 and 1,308,000 euros approximately in the hypothetical worst scenario for Imurel. For a typical patient with RRMS, treatment with Imurel would be more efficient than interferons and would dominate (would be more efficacious with lower costs) beta interferon.

  6. Symptoms and Association with Health Outcomes in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Results of a US Patient Survey

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Angela E.; Vietri, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. A variety of symptoms have been reported, but the prevalence of specific symptoms in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), how they are related to one another, and their impact on patient reported outcomes is not well understood. Objective. To describe how symptoms of RRMS cooccur and their impact on patient-reported outcomes. Methods. Individuals who reported a physician diagnosis of RRMS in a large general health survey in the United States indicated the symptoms they experience because of RRMS and completed validated scales, including the work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire and either the SF-12v2 or SF-36v2. Symptom clusters were identified through hierarchical cluster analysis, and the relationship between clusters and outcomes was assessed through regression. Results. Fatigue, difficulty walking, and numbness were the most commonly reported symptoms. Seven symptom clusters were identified, and several were significantly related to patient reported outcomes. Pain, muscle spasms, and stiffness formed a cluster strongly related to physical quality of life; depression was strongly related to mental quality of life and cognitive difficulty was associated with work impairment. Conclusions. Symptoms in RRMS show a strong relationship with quality of life and should be taken into consideration in treatment decisions and evaluation of treatment success. PMID:25328704

  7. Relationship between Structural and Functional Assessment of the Visual System in Mildly Disabled Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huseyinoglu, Nergiz; Ekinci, Metin; Ozben, Serkan; Buyukuysal, Cagatay

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Studies that explored the anterior visual pathway in the patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have demonstrated contradictory results about the correlation between structural and functional status of optic nerve and retina. We aimed to investigate the functional and structural findings in our cohort of mildly disabled relapsing-remitting MS patients. A total of 134 eyes (80 eyes of the patients with MS and 54 eyes of the control group) were investigated. Eyes of MS patients were divided into two groups—as eyes with history of optic neuritis (ON group) and without history of optic neuritis (NON group). Ophthalmological investigation including visual evoked potentials, standard automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography were performed for all participants. Retinal and macular thicknesses were significantly decreased in ON and NON groups compared with controls. Also, visual evoked potential latencies and visual field loss were worse in the both MS groups compared with control group. We did not find any correlation between visual evoked potentials and retinal or macular thickness values but visual field parameters were correlated between retinal and macular layer loss in the NON group. According to our results and some previous studies, although both functional and structural changes were detected in patients with MS, functional status markers do not always show parallelism (or synchrony) with structural changes, especially in eyes with history of optic neuritis. PMID:27928266

  8. Klotho gene expression decreases in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Karami, Masoumeh; Mehrabi, Farzad; Allameh, Abdolamir; Pahlevan Kakhki, Majid; Amiri, Mehdi; Emami Aleagha, Mohammad Sajad

    2017-10-15

    we recently showed that a hypothesized anti-aging and anti-inflammatory protein, namely Klotho, may contribute to the etiology and/or pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, Klotho function and its gene expression are dependent on inflammatory pathways. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the Klotho gene expression within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with MS. Altogether, 30 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) along with 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were obtained from all participants and then PBMCs were isolated. The quantitative Real-Time PCR was carried out for Klotho mRNA derived from PBMCs. The results showed that klotho gene expression in the PBMCs of patients with RRMS is nearly 2.5-fold less than healthy individuals (P=0.0006). This is the first study demonstrating a possible role of Klotho in the PBMCs of MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated body temperature is linked to fatigue in an Italian sample of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, V M; De Meo, E; Riccitelli, G; Rocca, M A; Comi, G; Filippi, M; Sumowski, J F

    2015-11-01

    Elevated body temperature was recently reported for the first time in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) relative to healthy controls. In addition, warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue. These findings are highly novel, may indicate a novel pathophysiology for MS fatigue, and therefore warrant replication in a geographically separate sample. Here, we investigated body temperature and its association to fatigue in an Italian sample of 44 RRMS patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Consistent with our original report, we found elevated body temperature in the RRMS sample compared to healthy controls. Warmer body temperature was associated with worse fatigue, thereby supporting the notion of endogenous temperature elevations in patients with RRMS as a novel pathophysiological factor underlying fatigue. Our findings highlight a paradigm shift in our understanding of the effect of heat in RRMS, from exogenous (i.e., Uhthoff's phenomenon) to endogenous. Although randomized controlled trials of cooling treatments (i.e., aspirin, cooling garments) to reduce fatigue in RRMS have been successful, consideration of endogenously elevated body temperature as the underlying target will enhance our development of novel treatments.

  10. Comparative analysis of natalizumab versus fingolimod as second-line treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Benkert, Pascal; Lienert, Carmen; Hänni, Peter; Derfuss, Tobias; Kuhle, Jens; Kappos, Ludwig; Yaldizli, Özgür

    2018-05-01

    No randomized controlled trials have compared the efficacy of fingolimod or natalizumab as second-line treatment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). To compare clinical outcomes after escalation to fingolimod versus natalizumab in patients with clinically active RRMS. Using the registry of the Swiss Federation for Common Tasks of Health Insurances, we identified patients with RRMS and ≥1 relapse in the year before switching from interferon beta or glatiramer acetate to fingolimod or natalizumab. Propensity score matching was used to select patients with comparable baseline characteristics. Relapse and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) outcomes were compared in paired, pairwise-censored analyses. Of the 547 included patients, 358 were matched (fingolimod, n = 179; natalizumab, n = 179). Median follow-up time was 1.8 years (interquartile range 0.9-2.9). Patients switching to natalizumab had a lower risk of relapses (incidence rate ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-0.8, p = 0.001) and were more likely to experience EDSS improvement (hazard ratio (HR) 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.7, p = 0.01) compared to fingolimod. We found no differences in the proportion of patients free from EDSS progression (HR 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.5, p = 0.62). Natalizumab seems to be more effective in reducing relapse rate and improving disability compared with fingolimod.

  11. Pregnancy outcomes following maternal and paternal exposure to teriflunomide during treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kieseier, Bernd C; Benamor, Myriam

    2014-12-01

    Teriflunomide, indicated for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is contraindicated in pregnancy based on signs of developmental toxicity in the offspring of rats and rabbits; developmental toxicity has also been observed in preclinical studies of other disease-modifying therapies. Despite the requirement to use reliable contraception in clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of teriflunomide, a number of pregnancies have been reported. This work reports pregnancy outcomes in teriflunomide clinical trials. Pregnancy outcomes were evaluated in a retrospective analysis of the global pharmacovigilance database. The following information was collected from the pharmacovigilance database or individual patient files: treatment allocation, pregnancy outcome, teriflunomide exposure, and use of the accelerated elimination procedure. At data cut-off, 83 pregnancies were reported in female patients and 22 pregnancies were documented in partners of male patients. All newborns were healthy and did not have any structural or functional abnormalities at birth. Available data do not indicate any teratogenic signals in patients treated with teriflunomide.

  12. Benefits from an autobiographical memory facilitation programme in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: a clinical and neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Alexandra; Sourty, Marion; Roquet, Daniel; Noblet, Vincent; Gounot, Daniel; Blanc, Frédéric; de Seze, Jérôme; Manning, Liliann

    2016-10-09

    While the efficacy of mental visual imagery (MVI) to alleviate autobiographical memory (AM) impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been documented, nothing is known about the brain changes sustaining that improvement. To explore this issue, 20 relapsing-remitting MS patients showing AM impairment were randomly assigned to two groups, experimental (n = 10), who underwent the MVI programme, and control (n = 10), who followed a sham verbal programme. Besides the stringent AM assessment, the patients underwent structural and functional MRI sessions, consisting in retrieving personal memories, within a pre-/post-facilitation study design. Only the experimental group showed a significant AM improvement in post-facilitation, accompanied by changes in brain activation (medial and lateral frontal regions), functional connectivity (posterior brain regions), and grey matter volume (parahippocampal gyrus). Minor activations and functional connectivity changes were observed in the control group. The MVI programme improved AM in MS patients leading to functional and structural changes reflecting (1) an increase reliance on brain regions sustaining a self-referential process; (2) a decrease of those reflecting an effortful research process; and (3) better use of neural resources in brain regions sustaining MVI. Functional changes reported in the control group likely reflected ineffective attempts to use the sham strategy in AM.

  13. Regional reduction in cortical blood flow among cognitively impaired adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Cantrell, Charles Grady; Vitorino, Rita; Feinstein, Anthony; Shirzadi, Zahra; MacIntosh, Bradley J.; Crane, David E.; Zhang, Lying; Morrow, Sarah A; Lee, Liesly; O’Connor, Paul; Carroll, Timothy J.; Aviv, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Detection of cortical abnormalities in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) remains elusive. Structural MRI measures of cortical integrity are limited, although functional techniques such as pseudocontinuous Arterial Spin Labeling (pCASL) show promise as a surrogate marker of disease severity. We sought to determine the utility of pCASL to assess cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) in RRMS patients with (RRMS-I) and without (RRMS-NI) cognitive impairment. Methods 19 age-matched healthy controls and 39 RRMS patients were prospectively recruited. Cognition was assessed using the MACFIMS battery. Cortical CBF was compared between groups using a mass univariate voxel-based morphometric analysis accounting for demographic and structural variable covariates. Results Cognitive impairment was present in 51.3% of patients. Significant CBF reduction was present in the RRMS-I compared to other groups in left frontal and right superior frontal cortex. Compared to healthy controls, RRMS-I displayed reduced CBF in the frontal, limbic, parietal and temporal cortex and putamen/thalamus. RRMS-I demonstrated reduced left superior frontal lobe cortical CBF compared to RRMS-NI. No significant cortical CBF differences were present between healthy controls and RRMS-NI. Conclusion Significant cortical CBF reduction occurs in RRMS-I compared to healthy controls and RRMS-NI in anatomically significant regions after controlling for structural and demographic differences. PMID:26754799

  14. Cost minimisation analysis of fingolimod vs natalizumab as a second line of treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Crespo, C; Izquierdo, G; García-Ruiz, A; Granell, M; Brosa, M

    2014-05-01

    At present, there is a lack of economic assessments of second-line treatments for relapsing-recurring multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency between fingolimod and natalizumab in Spain. A cost minimisation analysis model was developed for a 2-year horizon. The same relapse rate was applied to both treatment arms and the cost of resources was calculated using Spain's stipulated rates for 2012 in euros. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of Spain's national health system and an annual discount rate of 3% was applied to future costs. A sensitivity analysis was performed to validate the robustness of the model. Indirect comparison of fingolimod with natalizumab revealed no significant differences (hazard ratio between 0.82 and 1.07). The total direct cost, considering a 2-year analytical horizon, a 7.5% discount stipulated by Royal Decree, and a mean annual relapse rate of 0.22, was € 40914.72 for fingolimod and € 45890.53 for natalizumab. Of the total direct costs that were analysed, the maximum cost savings derived from prescribing fingolimod prescription was € 4363.63, corresponding to lower administration and treatment maintenance costs. Based on the sensitivity analysis performed, fingolimod use was associated with average savings of 11% (range 3.1%-18.7%). Fingolimod is more efficient than natalizumab as a second-line treatment option for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and it generates savings for the Spanish national health system. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Profile of Circulatory Metabolites in a Relapsing-remitting Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis using Global Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Mangalam, AK; Poisson, LM; Nemutlu, E; Datta, I; Denic, A; Dzeja, P; Rodriguez, M; Rattan, R; Giri, S

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the CNS. Although, MS is well characterized in terms of the role played by immune cells, cytokines and CNS pathology, nothing is known about the metabolic alterations that occur during the disease process in circulation. Recently, metabolic aberrations have been defined in various disease processes either as contributing to the disease, as potential biomarkers, or as therapeutic targets. Thus in an attempt to define the metabolic alterations that may be associated with MS disease progression, we profiled the plasma metabolites at the chronic phase of disease utilizing relapsing remitting-experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (RR-EAE) model in SJL mice. At the chronic phase of the disease (day 45), untargeted global metabolomic profiling of plasma collected from EAE diseased SJL and healthy mice was performed, using a combination of high-throughput liquid-and-gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. A total of 282 metabolites were identified, with significant changes observed in 44 metabolites (32 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated), that mapped to lipid, amino acid, nucleotide and xenobiotic metabolism and distinguished EAE from healthy group (p<0.05, false discovery rate (FDR)<0.23). Mapping the differential metabolite signature to their respective biochemical pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics (KEGG) database, we found six major pathways that were significantly altered (containing concerted alterations) or impacted (containing alteration in key junctions). These included bile acid biosynthesis, taurine metabolism, tryptophan and histidine metabolism, linoleic acid and D-arginine metabolism pathways. Overall, this study identified a 44 metabolite signature drawn from various metabolic pathways which correlated well with severity of the EAE disease, suggesting that these metabolic changes could be exploited as (1) biomarkers for EAE/MS progression and (2

  16. Body temperature is elevated and linked to fatigue in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, even without heat exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sumowski, James F.; Leavitt, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether resting body temperature is elevated and linked to fatigue in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Design Cross-sectional study investigating (a) differences in resting body temperature across RRMS, SPMS, and healthy groups, and (b) the relationship between body temperature and fatigue in RRMS patients. Setting Climate-controlled laboratory (~22°C) within a non-profit medical rehabilitation research center. Participants Fifty patients with RRMS, 40 matched healthy controls, and 22 patients with secondary-progressive MS (SPMS). Intervention None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Body temperature was measured with an aural infrared thermometer (normal body temperature for this thermometer is 36.75°C), and differences were compared across RRMS, SPMS, and healthy persons. RRMS patients completed measures of general fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS), as well as physical and cognitive fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; MFIS). Results There was a large effect of group (p<.001, ηp2=.132) whereby body temperature was higher in RRMS patients (37.04°C±0.27) relative to healthy controls (36.83 ± 0.33; p = .009) and SPMS patients (36.75°C±0.39; p=.001). Warmer body temperature in RRMS patients was associated with worse general fatigue (FSS; rp=.315, p=.028) and physical fatigue (pMFIS; rp=.318, p=.026), but not cognitive fatigue (cMIFS; rp=−.017, p=.909). Conclusions These are the first-ever demonstrations that body temperature is elevated endogenously in RRMS patients, and linked to worse fatigue. We discuss these findings in the context of failed treatments for fatigue in RRMS, including several failed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stimulants (modafinil). In contrast, our findings may help explain how RCTs of cooling garments and antipyretics (aspirin) have effectively reduced MS fatigue, and encourage further research on cooling/antipyretic treatments of fatigue in RRMS. PMID:24561056

  17. Cost-effectiveness of natalizumab vs fingolimod for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: analyses in Sweden.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Ken; Meyer, Kellie; Stafkey-Mailey, Dana; Watson, Crystal

    2015-04-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of natalizumab vs fingolimod over 2 years in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and patients with rapidly evolving severe disease in Sweden. A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the incremental cost per relapse avoided of natalizumab and fingolimod from the perspective of the Swedish healthcare system. Modeled 2-year costs in Swedish kronor of treating RRMS patients included drug acquisition costs, administration and monitoring costs, and costs of treating MS relapses. Effectiveness was measured in terms of MS relapses avoided using data from the AFFIRM and FREEDOMS trials for all patients with RRMS and from post-hoc sub-group analyses for patients with rapidly evolving severe disease. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess uncertainty. The analysis showed that, in all patients with MS, treatment with fingolimod costs less (440,463 Kr vs 444,324 Kr), but treatment with natalizumab results in more relapses avoided (0.74 vs 0.59), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 25,448 Kr per relapse avoided. In patients with rapidly evolving severe disease, natalizumab dominated fingolimod. Results of the sensitivity analysis demonstrate the robustness of the model results. At a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of 500,000 Kr per relapse avoided, natalizumab is cost-effective in >80% of simulations in both patient populations. Limitations include absence of data from direct head-to-head studies comparing natalizumab and fingolimod, use of relapse rate reduction rather than sustained disability progression as the primary model outcome, assumption of 100% adherence to MS treatment, and exclusion of adverse event costs in the model. Natalizumab remains a cost-effective treatment option for patients with MS in Sweden. In the RRMS patient population, the incremental cost per relapse avoided is well below a 500,000 Kr WTP threshold per relapse avoided. In the rapidly

  18. MRI-Based Measurement of Brain Stem Cross-Sectional Area in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Tomos R; Constantinescu, Cris S; Tench, Christopher R

    2015-01-01

    To determine if patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) have a reduced brain stem cross-sectional area (CSA) compared to age- and sex-matched controls. The brain stem is a common site of involvement in MS. However, relatively few imaging studies have investigated brain stem atrophy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on patients and controls using a 1.5T MRI scanner with a quadrature head coil. Three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE) images with 128 contiguous slices, covering the whole brain and brain stem and a T2-weighted image with 3 mm transverse contiguous images were acquired. We measured the brain stem CSA at three sites, the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata in 35 RRMS patients and 35 controls using a semiautomated algorithm. CSA readings were normalized using the total external cranial volume to reduce normal population variance and increase statistical power. A significant CSA reduction was found in the midbrain (P ≤ .001), pons (P ≤ .001), and the medulla oblongata (P = .047) postnormalization. A CSA reduction of 9.3% was found in the midbrain, 8.7% in the pons, and 6.5% in the medulla oblongata. A significantly reduced, normalized brain stem CSA was detected in all areas of the brain stem of the RRMS patients, when compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Lack of detectable upper cervical cord atrophy in the same patients suggests some independence of the MS pathology in these regions. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  19. Cost effectiveness of fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and intramuscular interferon-β1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinke; Hay, Joel W; Niu, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cost effectiveness of fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and intramuscular (IM) interferon (IFN)-β(1a) as first-line therapies in the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A Markov model was developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) from a US societal perspective. The time horizon in the base case was 5 years. The primary outcome was incremental net monetary benefit (INMB), and the secondary outcome was incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). The base case INMB willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold was assumed to be US$150,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), and the costs were in 2012 US dollars. One-way sensitivity analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted to test the robustness of the model results. Dimethyl fumarate dominated all other therapies over the range of WTPs, from US$0 to US$180,000. Compared with IM IFN-β(1a), at a WTP of US$150,000, INMBs were estimated at US$36,567, US$49,780, and US$80,611 for fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate, respectively. The ICER of fingolimod versus teriflunomide was US$3,201,672. One-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated the model results were sensitive to the acquisition costs of DMDs and the time horizon, but in most scenarios, cost-effectiveness rankings remained stable. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that for more than 90% of the simulations, dimethyl fumarate was the optimal therapy across all WTP values. The three oral therapies were favored in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Of the four DMDs, dimethyl fumarate was a dominant therapy to manage RRMS. Apart from dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide was the most cost-effective therapy compared with IM IFN-β(1a), with an ICER of US$7,115.

  20. Safety and tolerability profile of daclizumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: An integrated analysis of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Kappos, Ludwig; Gold, Ralf; Khatri, Bhupendra O; Selmaj, Krzysztof; Umans, Kimberly; Greenberg, Steven J; Sweetser, Marianne; Elkins, Jacob; McCroskery, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Daclizumab has been evaluated in multicentre, randomised, double-blind studies for the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Safety and tolerability are key considerations in MS treatment selection, as they influence adherence to medication. Evaluate the safety of daclizumab in patients with RRMS from an integrated analysis of six clinical studies. Patients treated with at least one dose of subcutaneous daclizumab 150mg or 300mg monthly in three completed and three ongoing clinical studies were included in this integrated analysis. Cumulative incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) was the primary endpoint. This analysis included 2236 patients with 5214 patient-years of exposure to daclizumab. The cumulative incidence of any AE was 84% and of any serious AE excluding MS relapse was 16%. The incidences of AEs when evaluated by 6-month intervals remained stable over the 6.5 years of maximum follow-up. Most AEs were mild or moderate in severity. An important safety concern associated with daclizumab therapy involved hepatic AEs (16%) and serum transaminase elevations at least three times the upper limit of normal (10%), most of which were asymptomatic, self-limiting, and non-recurring. Cumulative incidences of cutaneous, infectious, and gastrointestinal AEs were 33%, 59%, and 25%, respectively; most events either resolved spontaneously or were treated successfully with standard medical interventions and did not result in discontinuation of treatment. This integrated analysis demonstrates that treatment of RRMS with daclizumab for periods of up to 6.5 years is associated with an acceptable safety profile with no evidence of cumulative toxicity over time. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Circulating lymphocyte levels and relationship with infection status in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with daclizumab beta.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Wiendl, Heinz; Turner, Benjamin; Umans, Kimberly; Mokliatchouk, Oksana; Castro-Borrero, Wanda; Greenberg, Steven J; McCroskery, Peter; Giannattasio, Giorgio

    2017-09-01

    Reversible lymphocyte count reductions have occurred following daclizumab beta treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To analyse total and differential lymphocyte levels and relationship with infection status. In DECIDE, blood samples were collected at 12-week intervals from daclizumab beta- ( n = 919) or intramuscular interferon beta-1a-treated ( n = 922) patients. Infections/serious infections were assessed proximate to grade 2/3 lymphopenia or low CD4 + /CD8 + T-cell counts. Total safety population (TSP) data were additionally analysed from the entire clinical development programme ( n = 2236). Over 96 weeks in DECIDE, mean absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell counts decreased <10% (7.1% vs 1.6%, 9.7% vs 2.0%, 9.3% vs 5.9%: daclizumab beta vs interferon beta-1a, respectively); shifts to ALC below lower limit of normal occurred in 13% versus 15%, respectively. Grade 3 lymphopenia was uncommon (TSP: <1%) and transient. Lymphocyte changes generally occurred within 24 weeks after treatment initiation and were reversible within 12 weeks of discontinuation. In DECIDE, mean CD4 + /CD8 + T-cell counts were similar regardless of infection status. TSP data were consistent with DECIDE. When observed, ALC and CD4 + /CD8 + T-cell count decreases in daclizumab beta-treated patients were generally mild-to-modest, reversible upon treatment discontinuation and not associated with increased risk of infections, including opportunistic infections.

  2. Synchronization within, and interactions between, the default mode and dorsal attention networks in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Muhua; Zhou, Fuqing; Wu, Lin; Wang, Bo; Wan, Hui; Li, Fangjun; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2018-01-01

    The effects of the interactions between the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN), which present anticorrelated behaviors, in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are poorly understood. This study used resting-state functional connectivity (FC) and the Granger causality test (GCT) to examine changes in the undirected and effective functional network connectivity (FNC) between the two networks during the remitting phase in RRMS patients. Thirty-three patients experiencing a clinically diagnosed remitting phase of RRMS and 33 well-matched healthy control subjects participated in this study. First, an independent component (IC) analysis was performed to preprocess the functional magnetic resonance imaging data and select resting-state networks. Then, an FNC analysis and the GCT were combined to examine the temporal correlations between the ICs of the DMN and DAN and to identify correlations with clinical markers. Compared with the healthy subjects, the RRMS patients in the remitting phase showed the following: 1) significantly decreased FC within the DAN in the postcentral gyrus and decreased FC within the DMN in several regions except the parahippocampal gyrus, where increased FC was observed; 2) a relatively stable interaction between the two anticorrelated networks as well as a driving connectivity from the DAN to DMN (IC15); and 3) significantly positive correlations between the connectivity coefficient of the right superior temporal gyrus and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale score ( ρ = 0.379, p = 0.036). Adaptive mechanisms that maintain stable interactions might occur between the DMN and DAN during the remitting phase in RRMS patients.

  3. The cost-effectiveness of disease-modifying therapies for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, Duygu; Livingston, Terrie; Migliaccio-Walle, Kristen; Odom, Tanner

    2017-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) has been established; however, it is not clear which provides optimal value, given benefit-risk profiles and costs. To compare the cost-effectiveness of current DMTs for patients with RRMS in the US. A Markov model predicting RRMS course following initiation of a DMT was created comparing outcomes (e.g. relapses, disease progression) and costs of natalizumab (NTZ), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), and peginterferon beta-1a (PEG) with fingolimod (FIN), glatiramer acetate (GA, 20 mg daily), and subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (IFN, 44 mcg), respectively, over 10 years. RRMS and secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) EDSS state transitions were predicted in 3-month cycles in which patients were at risk of death, relapse, or discontinuation. Upon DMT discontinuation, natural history progression and relapse rates were applied. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated for the cost per relapse avoided, relapse-free years gained, progression avoided, and progression-free years gained. The impact of model parameters on outcomes was evaluated via one-way sensitivity analyses. Costs ranged from $561,177 (NTZ) to $616,251 (GA). NTZ, DMF, and PEG were dominant (less costly and more effective) compared to FIN, GA, and IFN, respectively, for all ICERs. Variability in drug costs and parameters that affected drug cost accrual (e.g. discontinuation rates and the decision to drop out after SPMS conversion) had a considerable impact on ICERs. Several simplifying assumptions were made that may represent potential limitations of this analysis (e.g. a constant treatment effect over time was assumed). The results from this analysis suggest that the NTZ, DMF, and PEG are cost-effective DMT choices compared to FIN, GA, and IFN, respectively. The actual impact on a particular plan will vary based on drug pricing and other factors affecting drug cost accrual.

  4. The budget impact of introducing delayed-release dimethyl fumarate for treatment of relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dorman, Emily; Kansal, Anuraag R; Sarda, Sujata

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes significant disability globally and is especially prevalent in Canada. Delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) is an orally administered disease-modifying treatment (DMT) for patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) that is currently on the market in the US, Australia, Canada, and Europe. A budget impact model (BIM) was developed to assess the financial consequences of introducing DMF for treatment of RRMS in Canada. A BIM calculated the financial consequences of introducing DMF in Canada over 3 years based on RRMS prevalence, treatment market share, and clinical effects. RRMS prevalence in Canada was derived from published literature and natural relapse rates, and disease state distribution from clinical trial data. It was conservatively assumed that 100% of RRMS patients were treated with a DMT. DMF was assumed to absorb market share proportionally from the following current treatments: interferon beta-1a-IM, interferon beta-1a-SC, interferon beta-1b, and glatiramer acetate. Treatment efficacy, in terms of relapse rate reductions and treatment discontinuation rates, was determined from mixed treatment comparison. Treatment costs (including costs of acquisition, monitoring, and administration) and cost of relapse were considered. Deterministic one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the most sensitive input parameters. Over 3 years, the introduction of DMF resulted in an average annual increase of CAD417 per treated patient per year, with reductions in costs associated with relapses (CAD192/patient/year) partially offsetting increased drug acquisition costs (CAD602/patient/year). On a population level, the average annual cost increase was CAD24,654,237, a CAD 0.68 increase per population covered by the Canadian healthcare system. The main drivers of budget impact were drop-out rates, proportion of RRMS patients treated, and market share assumptions. The acquisition costs of DMF for

  5. Update on the cardiovascular profile of fingolimod in the therapy of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS).

    PubMed

    Meissner, Axel; Limmroth, Volker

    2016-07-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720) has been approved as the first oral representative of the class of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Besides inducing vaso-relaxation, fingolimod can also influence electrical conduction in the myocardium and vascular endothelium by having a transient negative chronotropic effect on the sinus node. Cardiac safety and tolerability of fingolimod in the cardiac sense were reviewed by analysing the data collected from the FREEDOMS and TRANSFORMS studies -both relevant studies for marketing authorisation, from their extension studies, as well as the clinical data collected from a practice-related MS patient cohort with cardiovascular risk factors and corresponding co-medication (FIRST study). The safety analyses on file gave no indication of any increased cardiovascular risk. The 2-3mmHg increase in blood pressure observed after the first dose of fingolimod has no therapeutic consequences. The first dose of 0.5mg fingolimod resulted in an average decrease in heart rate of 7-8beats/min. The onset of effect occurred approximately 1-2h after the first dose and the nadir was reached after approximately 4-5h. This negative chronotropic effect returned to normal after internalisation of the S1P1 receptors on maintenance therapy. There were no indications that patients with cardiac risk factors required closer observation beyond the monitoring recommended by the EMA following the first dose of fingolimod. Case study observations from the routine clinical setting show that patients accept this method of monitoring, which they assess as being a positive aspect of attentive medical care and concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-Term Persistence with Injectable Therapy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: An 18-Year Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Greenfield, Jamie; Koch, Marcus W.; Patten, Scott B.; Harris, Colleen; Wall, Winona; Alikhani, Katayoun; Burton, Jodie; Busche, Kevin; Costello, Fiona; Davenport, Jeptha W.; Jarvis, Scott E.; Lavarato, Dina; Parpal, Helene; Patry, David G.; Yeung, Michael; Metz, Luanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduce the frequency of relapses and accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Long-term persistence with treatment is important to optimize treatment benefit. This long-term, cohort study was conducted at the Calgary MS Clinic. All consenting adults with relapsing-remitting MS who started either glatiramer acetate (GA) or interferon-β 1a/1b (IFN-β) between January 1st, 1996 and July 1st, 2011 were included. Follow-up continued to February 1st, 2014. Time-to-discontinuation of the initial and subsequently-prescribed DMTs (switches) was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Group differences were compared using log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression models. Analysis included 1471 participants; 906 were initially prescribed GA and 565 were initially prescribed IFN-β. Follow-up information was available for 87%; 29 (2%) were lost to follow-up and 160 (11%) moved from Southern Alberta while still using DMT. Median time-to-discontinuation of all injectable DMTs was 11.1 years. Participants with greater disability at treatment initiation, those who started treatment before age 30, and those who started between 2006 and 2011 were more likely to discontinue use of all injectable DMTs. Median time-to-discontinuation of the initial DMT was 8.6 years. Those initially prescribed GA remained on treatment longer. Of 610 participants who discontinued injectable DMT, 331 (54%) started an oral DMT, or a second-line DMT, or resumed injectable DMT after 90 days. Persistence with injectable DMTs was high in this long-term population-based study. Most participants who discontinued injectable DMT did not remain untreated. Further research is required to understand treatment outcomes and outcomes after stopping DMT. PMID:25867095

  7. Balancing the Demands of Two Tasks: An Investigation of Cognitive-Motor Dual-Tasking in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Butchard-MacDonald, Emma; Paul, Lorna; Evans, Jonathan J

    2018-03-01

    People with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (PwRRMS) suffer disproportionate decrements in gait under dual-task conditions, when walking and a cognitive task are combined. There has been much less investigation of the impact of cognitive demands on balance. This study investigated whether: (1) PwRRMS show disproportionate decrements in postural stability under dual-task conditions compared to healthy controls, and (2) dual-task decrements are associated with everyday dual-tasking difficulties. The impact of mood, fatigue, and disease severity on dual-tasking was also examined. A total of 34 PwRRMS and 34 matched controls completed cognitive (digit span) and balance (movement of center of pressure on Biosway on stable and unstable surfaces) tasks under single- and dual-task conditions. Everyday dual-tasking was measured using the Dual-Tasking Questionnaire. Mood was measured by the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale. Fatigue was measured via the Modified Fatigue Index Scale. No differences in age, gender, years of education, estimated pre-morbid IQ, or baseline digit span between groups. Compared with controls, PwRRMS showed significantly greater decrement in postural stability under dual-task conditions on an unstable surface (p=.007), but not a stable surface (p=.679). Balance decrement scores were not correlated with everyday dual-tasking difficulties or fatigue. Stable surface balance decrement scores were significantly associated with levels of anxiety (rho=0.527; p=.001) and depression (rho=0.451; p=.007). RRMS causes dual-tasking difficulties, impacting balance under challenging conditions, which may contribute to increased risk of gait difficulties and falls. The relationship between anxiety/depression and dual-task decrement suggests that emotional factors may be contributing to dual-task difficulties. (JINS, 2018, 24, 247-258).

  8. Neurofunctional Correlates of Personality Traits in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Maria C.; Cerasa, Antonio; Valentino, Paola; Fera, Francesco; Nistico, Rita; Liguori, Maria; Lanza, Pierluigi; Quattrone, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Extraversion and Neuroticism are two fundamental dimensions of human personality that influence cognitive functioning in healthy subjects. Little is known about personality changes that may occur in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) nor about, in particular, their neurofunctional basis. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of…

  9. Substantial disease exacerbation in a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis after withdrawal from siponimod.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Tomasz; Smoliński, Łukasz; Członkowka, Anna

    Among patients with multiple sclerosis, discontinuing highly effective disease-modifying treatments can potentially lead to severe disease recurrence, especially cessation of natalizumab and fingolimod. Similar to fingolimod, siponimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator that inhibits the egress of a lymphocyte subpopulation from lymph nodes. In the present case report, we describe a patient with MS who experienced substantial disease exacerbation after withdrawal from siponimod. Copyright © 2017 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring interferon β treatment response with magnetic resonance spectroscopy in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yetkin, Mehmet Fatih; Mirza, Meral; Dönmez, Halil

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with healthy controls and to monitor the response to the treatment with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).Fifteen healthy controls and 36 recently diagnosed MS patients never treated with interferon β were included in this study. In the patient group, MRS was performed before treatment, at 6th and 12th month after the initiation of treatment and once in control group. Patient group was divided into 3 interferon groups randomly. Physical examination findings were recorded as Expanded Disability Status Scale scores before treatment, at 6th and 12th month of interferon treatment.At the end of 1 year follow up, 26 of 36 patients completed the study. In patients' white matter lesions, N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios were lower than control group's white matters. NAA/Cr ratios were higher in control group's white matter than patient's normal appearing white matter but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no difference in choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios between 2 groups. In follow-up period, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios obtained from patients' white matter lesions and normal appearing white matter did not change statistically.This study showed that in MS patients' white matters, especially in white matter lesions, neuron viability is reduced compared with healthy controls' normal white matter; and in the patients treated with interferon β NAA/Cr ratios remained stable. These stable levels of metabolite ratios in the patients who received interferon β therapy can be explained with either the shortness of the follow-up period post-treatment or may reflect a positive effect of the beta interferon therapy on the progress of MS.

  11. Subcutaneous ofatumumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: The MIRROR study.

    PubMed

    Bar-Or, Amit; Grove, Richard A; Austin, Daren J; Tolson, Jerry M; VanMeter, Susan A; Lewis, Eric W; Derosier, Frederick J; Lopez, Monica C; Kavanagh, Sarah T; Miller, Aaron E; Sorensen, Per S

    2018-05-15

    To assess dose-response effects of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody ofatumumab on efficacy and safety outcomes in a phase 2b double-blind study of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (RMS). Patients (n = 232) were randomized to ofatumumab 3, 30, or 60 mg every 12 weeks, ofatumumab 60 mg every 4 weeks, or placebo for a 24-week treatment period, with a primary endpoint of cumulative number of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions (per brain MRI) at week 12. Relapses and safety/tolerability were assessed, and CD19+ peripheral blood B-lymphocyte counts measured. Safety monitoring continued weeks 24 to 48 with subsequent individualized follow-up evaluating B-cell repletion. The cumulative number of new lesions was reduced by 65% for all ofatumumab dose groups vs placebo ( p < 0.001). Post hoc analysis (excluding weeks 1-4) estimated a ≥90% lesion reduction vs placebo (week 12) for all cumulative ofatumumab doses ≥30 mg/12 wk. Dose-dependent CD19 B-cell depletion was observed. Notably, complete depletion was not necessary for a robust treatment effect. The most common adverse event was injection-related reactions (52% ofatumumab, 15% placebo), mild to moderate severity in 97%, most commonly associated with the first dose and diminishing on subsequent dosing. Imaging showed that all subcutaneous ofatumumab doses demonstrated efficacy (most robust: cumulative doses ≥30 mg/12 wk), with a safety profile consistent with existing ofatumumab data. This treatment effect also occurred with dosage regimens that only partially depleted circulating B cells. This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with RMS, ofatumumab decreases the number of new MRI gadolinium-enhancing lesions 12 weeks after treatment initiation. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Body temperature is elevated and linked to fatigue in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, even without heat exposure.

    PubMed

    Sumowski, James F; Leavitt, Victoria M

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether (1) resting body temperature is elevated in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) relative to healthy individuals and patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), and (2) warmer body temperature is linked to worse fatigue in patients with RRMS. Cross-sectional study. Climate-controlled laboratory (∼22°C) within a nonprofit medical rehabilitation research center. Patients with RRMS (n=50), matched healthy controls (n=40), and patients with SPMS (n=22). Not applicable. Body temperature was measured with an aural infrared thermometer (normative body temperature for this thermometer, 36.75°C), and differences were compared across patients with RRMS and SPMS and healthy persons. Patients with RRMS completed measures of general fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS]), as well as physical and cognitive fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale [MFIS]). There was a large effect of group (P<.001, ηp(2)=.132) whereby body temperature was higher in patients with RRMS (37.04°±.27°C) relative to healthy controls (36.83°±.33°C; P=.009) and patients with SPMS (36.75°±.39°C; P=.001). Warmer body temperature in patients with RRMS was associated with worse general fatigue (FSS; rp=.315, P=.028) and physical fatigue (physical fatigue subscale of the MFIS; rp=.318, P=.026), but not cognitive fatigue (cognitive fatigue subscale of the MIFS; rp=-.017, P=.909). These are the first-ever demonstrations that body temperature is elevated endogenously in patients with RRMS and linked to worse fatigue. We discuss these findings in the context of failed treatments for fatigue in RRMS, including several failed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stimulants (modafinil). In contrast, our findings may help explain how RCTs of cooling garments and antipyretics (aspirin) have effectively reduced MS fatigue, and encourage further research on cooling/antipyretic treatments of fatigue in RRMS. Copyright © 2014 American Congress

  13. Two-year serial whole-brain N-acetyl-L-aspartate in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rigotti, D J; Inglese, M; Kirov, I I; Gorynski, E; Perry, N N; Babb, J S; Herbert, J; Grossman, R I; Gonen, O

    2012-05-01

    To test the hypotheses that 1) patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) exhibit a quantifiable decline in their whole-brain concentration of the neural marker N-acetyl-L-aspartate (WBNAA), that is 2) more sensitive than clinical changes and 3) may provide a practical outcome measure for proof-of-concept and larger phase III clinical trials. Nineteen patients (5 men and 14 women) with clinically definite RR-MS, who were 33 ± 5 years old (mean ± SD), had a disease duration of 47 ± 28 months, and had a median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 1.0 (range 0-5.5), underwent MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) semiannually for 2 years (5 time points). Eight matched control subjects underwent the protocol annually (3 time points). Their global N-acetyl-L-aspartate (1)H-MRS signal was converted into absolute amounts by phantom replacement and into WBNAA by dividing with the brain parenchymal volume, V(B), from MRI segmentation. The baseline WBNAA of the patients (10.5 ± 1.7 mM) was significantly lower than that of the controls (12.3 ± 1.3 mM; p < 0.002) and declined significantly (5%/year, p < 0.002) vs that for the controls who did not show a decline (0.4%/year, p > 0.7). Likewise, V(B) values of the patients also declined significantly (0.5%/year, p < 0.0001), whereas those of the controls did not (0.2%/year, p = 0.08). The mean EDSS score of the patients increased insignificantly from 1.0 to 1.5 (range 0-6.0) and did not correlate with V(B) or WBNAA. WBNAA of patients with RR-MS declined significantly at both the group and individual levels over a 2-year time period common in clinical trials. Because of the small sample sizes required to establish power, WBNAA can be incorporated into future studies.

  14. An intensive social cognitive program (can do treatment) in people with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and low disability: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Heerings, Marco; Ruimschotel, Rob; Hussaarts, Astrid; Evers, Silvia; Duyverman, Lotte; Valkenburg-Vissers, Joyce; Cornelissen, Job; Bos, Michel; van Droffelaar, Maarten; Lemmens, Wim A; Donders, Rogier; van der Zande, Anneke; Visser, Leo H

    2016-05-28

    In people with multiple sclerosis (MS) disabilities and limitations may negatively affect self-efficacy. Lowered self-efficacy has been associated with decreases in health-related quality of life, physical activity and cognitive performance. In an explorative observational study we found that a 3-day intensive social cognitive program (Can Do Treatment [CDT]) with the participation of support partners was followed by substantial increases in self-efficacy control and health-related quality of life 6 months after treatment in those people with MS who had relapsing remitting disease and low disability. CDT is a sociologically oriented approach, its goal is to uncover and promote existing capabilities, and the notion "stressor" is the central concept. CDT's components are plenary group sessions, small group sessions, consultations, a theatre evening, and start of the day with a joint activity. The small group sessions form the actual training. Depending on their individual goals the participants join the training groups 'Body', 'Feeling' or 'Life', to work out their aims and to reduce their stressors. The multidisciplinary team includes a psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse, neurologist, specialized MS nurse, physiotherapist, dance therapist, and a person with MS. To evaluate the (cost)effectiveness of CDT in persons with relapsing remitting MS and low disability we perform a single-centre, randomized controlled trial in 140 patients, with or without support partners. The primary outcome is self-efficacy control. The secondary outcomes are self-efficacy function, health-related quality of life, autonomy and participation, anxiety, depression, cost effectiveness and cost utility. The tertiary outcome is care-related strain to support partners. Outcomes are assessed at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after CDT. This randomized controlled trial will adequately evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of a 3-day intensive social cognitive program in people with

  15. Neurofilament light chain in cerebrospinal fluid and prediction of disease activity in clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, I; Tisell, A; Cassel, P; Blennow, K; Zetterberg, H; Lundberg, P; Dahle, C; Vrethem, M; Ernerudh, J

    2017-05-01

    Improved biomarkers are needed to facilitate clinical decision-making and as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). We assessed whether neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at initial sampling could predict disease activity during 2 years of follow-up in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing-remitting MS. Using multiplex bead array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CXCL1, CXCL8, CXCL10, CXCL13, CCL20, CCL22, neurofilament light chain (NFL), neurofilament heavy chain, glial fibrillary acidic protein, chitinase-3-like-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and osteopontin were analysed in CSF from 41 patients with CIS or relapsing-remitting MS and 22 healthy controls. Disease activity (relapses, magnetic resonance imaging activity or disability worsening) in patients was recorded during 2 years of follow-up in this prospective longitudinal cohort study. In a logistic regression analysis model, NFL in CSF at baseline emerged as the best predictive marker, correctly classifying 93% of patients who showed evidence of disease activity during 2 years of follow-up and 67% of patients who did not, with an overall proportion of 85% (33 of 39 patients) correctly classified. Combining NFL with either neurofilament heavy chain or osteopontin resulted in 87% overall correctly classified patients, whereas combining NFL with a chemokine did not improve results. This study demonstrates the potential prognostic value of NFL in baseline CSF in CIS and relapsing-remitting MS and supports its use as a predictive biomarker of disease activity. © 2017 EAN.

  16. The MS@Work study: a 3-year prospective observational study on factors involved with work participation in patients with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    van der Hiele, Karin; van Gorp, Dennis A M; Heerings, Marco A P; van Lieshout, Irma; Jongen, Peter J; Reneman, Michiel F; van der Klink, Jac J L; Vosman, Frans; Middelkoop, Huub A M; Visser, Leo H

    2015-08-12

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults. At this stage in life most people are in the midst of their working career. The majority of MS patients are unable to retain employment within 10 years from disease onset. Leading up to unemployment, many may experience a reduction in hours or work responsibilities and increased time missed from work. The MS@Work study examines various factors that may influence work participation in relapsing-remitting MS patients, including disease-related factors, the working environment and personal factors. The MS@Work study is a multicenter, 3-year prospective observational study on work participation in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. We aim to include 350 patients through 15-18 MS outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. Eligible participants are 18 years and older, and either currently employed or within three years since their last employment. At baseline and after 1, 2 and 3 years, the participants are asked to complete online questionnaires (including questions on work participation, work problems and accommodations, cognitive and physical ability, anxiety, depression, psychosocial stress, quality of life, fatigue, empathy, personality traits and coping strategies) and undergo cognitive and neurological examinations. After six months, patients are requested to only complete online questionnaires. Patient perspectives on maintaining and improving work participation and reasons to stop working are gathered through semi-structured interviews in a sub-group of patients. Prospective studies with long-term follow-up on work participation in MS are rare, or take into account a limited number of factors. The MS@Work study provides a 3-year follow-up on various factors that may influence work participation in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. We aim to identify factors that relate to job loss and to provide information about preventative measures for physicians

  17. Characteristics, burden of illness, and physical functioning of patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional US survey.

    PubMed

    Gross, Hillary J; Watson, Crystal

    2017-01-01

    Although most patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) will develop secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), little is known about the burden of multiple sclerosis by disease subtype. This study describes the burden of disease in terms of demographics, disease severity, symptoms, health care resource and disease-modifying therapy (DMT) utilization, work and activity impairment, and physical functioning of SPMS and RRMS patients. SPMS and RRMS patient responses from the 2012 and 2013 waves of the US National Health and Wellness Survey were evaluated to detect differences in demographics, disease severity, symptoms, and health care resource and DMT utilization. In addition, data from the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment and Short Form-36 questionnaires were analyzed. SPMS patients were older than RRMS patients (mean age 55.7 vs 48.9 years; P <0.001); a lower proportion were female (56.2% with SPMS vs 71.6% with RRMS; P =0.002), and fewer SPMS than RRMS patients were employed (20.0% vs 39.7%; P <0.001). SPMS patients described their disease as more severe, reporting several neurological symptoms more frequently and higher hospitalization rates than RRMS patients. A lower percentage of SPMS than RRMS patients reported DMT use. SPMS patients had greater overall work and activity impairment than RRMS patients. After controlling for baseline characteristics, impairment in physical functioning was greater in SPMS patients. Overall, SPMS patients had a higher burden of illness than RRMS patients, underscoring the need to treat RRMS patients early to delay disability progressing using therapies that are effective in real-world settings.

  18. [The influence of age and illness duration on cognitive impairment in aging patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS)].

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Eugénie; Cabaret, Maryline; Guilbert, Alma; Jougleux, Caroline; Vermersch, Patrick; Moroni, Christine

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to dissociate age and duration of illness effects on cognitive impairment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Cognitive impairment among patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is well known. However, few studies were devoted to assess the respective role of disease duration and age on cognitive functions in MS patients. Therefore, two studies were carried out on relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) patients using some tests of the BCcogSEP--a French test battery evaluating cognitive functions in MS. The cognitive deficits of RR-MS patients aged 50 years and over and whose symptoms had been present for more than 20 years were more severe than those of MS patients with a shorter illness duration (less than 10 years) or matched-age control participants. The more impaired cognitive functions were information-processing speed, episodic memory, verbal fluency and attention. On the other hand, cognitive performances of young RR-MS patients were similar to those of older RR-MS patients when all patients had the same illness duration (8 years in this study). Older patients even achieved better performance than younger ones on verbal fluency. This can be partly explained by the theory of cognitive reserve, as reported in previous cognitive aging studies. In RR-MS patients, the influence of illness duration seems to be a predominant factor in the development of cognitive impairment.

  19. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  20. Convergence yet Continued Complexity: A Systematic Review and Critique of Health Economic Models of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Allen, Felicity; Montgomery, Stephen; Maruszczak, Maciej; Kusel, Jeanette; Adlard, Nicholas

    2015-09-01

    Several disease-modifying therapies have marketing authorizations for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Given their appraisal by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, the objective was to systematically identify and critically evaluate the structures and assumptions used in health economic models of disease-modifying therapies for RRMS in the United Kingdom. Embase, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Web site were searched systematically on March 3, 2014, to identify articles relating to health economic models in RRMS with a UK perspective. Data sources, techniques, and assumptions of the included models were extracted, compared, and critically evaluated. Of 386 results, 26 full texts were evaluated, leading to the inclusion of 18 articles (relating to 12 models). Early models varied considerably in method and structure, but convergence over time toward a Markov model with states based on disability score, a 1-year cycle length, and a lifetime time horizon was apparent. Recent models also allowed for disability improvement within the natural history of the condition. Considerable variety remains, with increasing numbers of comparators, the need for treatment sequencing, and different assumptions around efficacy waning and treatment withdrawal. Despite convergence over time to a similar Markov structure, there are still significant discrepancies between health economic models of RRMS in the United Kingdom. Differing methods, assumptions, and data sources render the comparison of model implementation and results problematic. The commonly used Markov structure leads to problems such as incapability to deal with heterogeneous populations and multiplying complexity with the addition of treatment sequences; these would best be solved by using alternative models such as discrete event simulations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes

  1. Cost-utility of First-line Disease-modifying Treatments for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Soini, Erkki; Joutseno, Jaana; Sumelahti, Marja-Liisa

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of first-line treatments of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) (dimethyl fumarate [DMF] 240 mg PO BID, teriflunomide 14 mg once daily, glatiramer acetate 20 mg SC once daily, interferon [IFN]-β1a 44 µg TIW, IFN-β1b 250 µg EOD, and IFN-β1a 30 µg IM QW) and best supportive care (BSC) in the health care payer setting in Finland. The primary outcome was the modeled incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; €/quality-adjusted life-year [QALY] gained, 3%/y discounting). Markov cohort modeling with a 15-year time horizon was employed. During each 1-year modeling cycle, patients either maintained the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score or experienced progression, developed secondary progressive MS (SPMS) or showed EDSS progression in SPMS, experienced relapse with/without hospitalization, experienced an adverse event (AE), or died. Patients׳ characteristics, RRMS progression probabilities, and standardized mortality ratios were derived from a registry of patients with MS in Finland. A mixed-treatment comparison (MTC) informed the treatment effects. Finnish EuroQol Five-Dimensional Questionnaire, Three-Level Version quality-of-life and direct-cost estimates associated with EDSS scores, relapses, and AEs were applied. Four approaches were used to assess the outcomes: cost-effectiveness plane and efficiency frontiers (relative value of efficient treatments); cost-effectiveness acceptability frontier, which demonstrated optimal treatment to maximize net benefit; Bayesian treatment ranking (BTR); and an impact investment assessment (IIA; a cost-benefit assessment), which increased the clinical interpretation and appeal of modeled outcomes in terms of absolute benefit gained with fixed drug-related budget. Robustness of results was tested extensively with sensitivity analyses. Based on the modeled results, teriflunomide was less costly, with greater QALYs, versus glatiramer acetate and the IFNs

  2. Trichuris suis ova in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome (TRIOMS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosche, Berit; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Ohlraun, Stephanie; Dörr, Jan-Markus; Paul, Friedemann

    2013-04-25

    Trichuris suis ova is a probiotic treatment based on the hygiene hypothesis. It has been demonstrated as safe and effective in autoimmune inflammatory bowel diseases and clinical trials indicate that helminth infections also have an immunomodulatory effect in multiple sclerosis.We hypothesize that administering 2,500 Trichuris suis ova eggs orally every two weeks for 12 months is--due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect--significantly more effective than oral placebo in preventing new T2 and Gd+ lesions, as quantified by cerebral MRI and clinical examination, in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and clinically isolated syndrome. Fifty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or clinically isolated syndrome with clinical activity, not undergoing any standard therapies, will be randomized 1:1 to Trichuris suis ova 2,500 eggs every two weeks or matching placebo. The safety, tolerability and effect on disease activity and in vivo mechanisms of action of Trichuris suis ova in MS will be assessed by neurological, laboratory and immunological exams and magnetic resonance imaging throughout the 12-month treatment period and over a follow-up period of 6 months. Various immunological analyses will be used to assess the overall patient immune response prior to and at varying time points following treatment with Trichuris suis ova. We anticipate that Trichuris suis ova will be well tolerated and more effective than the placebo in preventing new T2 and Gd+ lesions, as quantified by MRI. We also expect the Th1/Th17 proinflammatory response to shift towards the more anti-inflammatory Th2 response. This study has important clinical implications and will involve extensive research on the immunology of helminth therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01413243.

  3. Analysis of the psychometric properties of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using classical and modern test theory.

    PubMed

    Bacci, E D; Wyrwich, K W; Phillips, G A; Vollmer, T; Guo, S

    2016-01-01

    Investigations using classical test theory support the psychometric properties of the original version of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29v1), a disease-specific measure of multiple sclerosis (MS) impact (physical and psychological subscales). Later, assessments of the MSIS-29v1 in an MS community-based sample using Rasch analysis led to revisions of the instrument's response options (MSIS-29v2). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the MSIS-29v1 in a clinical trial cohort of relapsing-remitting MS patients (RRMS). Data from 600 patients with RRMS enrolled in the SELECT clinical trial were used. Assessments were performed at baseline and at Weeks 12, 24, and 52. In addition to traditional psychometric analyses, Item Response Theory (IRT) and Rasch analysis were used to evaluate the measurement properties of the MSIS-29v1. Both MSIS-29v1 subscales demonstrated strong reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. The IRT and Rasch analysis showed overall support for response category threshold ordering, person-item fit, and item fit for both subscales. Both MSIS-29v1 subscales demonstrated robust measurement properties using classical, IRT, and Rasch techniques. Unlike previous research using a community-based sample, the MSIS-29v1 was found to be psychometrically sound to assess physical and psychological impairments in a clinical trial sample of patients with RRMS.

  4. Relationship between working hours and power of attention, memory, fatigue, depression and self-efficacy one year after diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Sanders, Evert; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H; Gilhuis, H Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G; Brands, Augustina M

    2014-01-01

    The role of cognitive domain dysfunction with respect to vocational changes in persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (eRRMS) is insufficiently known. We investigated thirty-three patients--14 CIS, 19 eRRMS -, mean (standard deviation [SD]) time since diagnosis 13.5 (4.8) months and mean (SD) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1.3 (1.1). Patients were assessed on the CDR System, a set of automated tests of cognitive function, which yielded scores for Power of Attention (ms), Continuity of Attention (#), Working Memory (SI), Episodic Memory (#) and Speed of Memory (ms). Work-related items and the confounding variables fatigue, depression, disease impact and self-efficacy, were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Patients had poorer Power of Attention compared to normative data (1187 [161.5] vs. 1070 [98.6]; P<0.0001) and slower Speed of Memory (4043 [830.6]) vs. 2937 [586.1]; P<0.0001). Power of Attention (Pearson r =  -0.42; P<0.04), Working Memory (r = 0.42; P<0.04) and depression r =  -0.41; P<0.05) correlated with number of days worked per week. Fatigue (r =  -0.56; P<0.005), self-efficacy (r = 0.56; P<0.005) and disease impact (r =  -0.46; P<0.05) correlated with number of hours worked per week. Persons who wished to work less had poorer Power of Attention (1247 vs. 1116 ms; P<0.02), those who wished to change job had poorer Episodic Memory (1.35 vs. 1.57; p<0.03). People who reduced working hours within 12 months after diagnosis had higher fatigue and disease impact, and lower self-efficacy. The findings of this pilot study indicate that one year after the diagnosis of CIS and RRMS Power of Attention and Speed of Memory are reduced, that Power of Attention and Memory are associated with a capability of working less hours, and that fatigue, depression and disease impact may negatively, and self-efficacy positively affect working hours.

  5. Combined treatment with corticosteroids and moclobemide favors normalization of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double blind trial.

    PubMed

    Then Bergh, F; Kümpfel, T; Grasser, A; Rupprecht, R; Holsboer, F; Trenkwalder, C

    2001-04-01

    Hyperresponsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is presumably due to diminished corticosteroid receptor function. It probably influences the immune response, but its clinical significance is not clear. Similar HPA dysregulation occurs in depression and is reversible with successful antidepressant treatment. We conducted a double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the neuroendocrine effect of cotreatment with the antidepressant moclobemide as an adjunct to oral corticosteroids in MS. Twenty-one patients with definite relapsing-remitting MS (11 females, aged 33.9 +/- 2.0 yr; Expanded Disability Status Scale score of neurological impairment, 2.0--6.5) in acute relapse were treated with placebo (n = 13) or 300 mg moclobemide (reversible monoamine oxidase A inhibitor; n = 8) for 75 days. All received oral fluocortolone from day 7 on, and the dose was tapered until day 29. Effects were evaluated using the combined dexamethasone-CRH test and clinically on days 1, 30, and 75. At baseline, the HPA axis was mildly activated, comparably for treatment groups [area under the curve for cortisol (AUC-Cort), 213.8 +/- 76.8 arbitrary units in the moclobemide group vs. 225.8 +/- 65.1 in the steroid alone group; mean +/- SEM]. In a group of healthy controls with comparable demographic characteristics, the AUC-Cort was 107.4 +/- 14.1. Moclobemide cotreatment resulted in normalization of the HPA axis response, whereas the HPA system hyperresponse was maintained with steroids alone (AUC-Cort on day 30, 85.9 +/- 22.8 vs.177.1 +/- 68.5; on day 75, 111.0 +/- 46.0 vs. 199.2 +/- 64.6). The change in Expanded Disability Status Scale was comparable for both groups. Although corticosteroids alone had no effect on the HPA response using the dexamethasone-CRH test, treatment with moclobemide combined with corticosteroids favors normalization of the HPA response in relapsing-remitting

  6. Addressing the targeting range of the ABILHAND-56 in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A mixed methods psychometric study.

    PubMed

    Cleanthous, Sophie; Strzok, Sara; Pompilus, Farrah; Cano, Stefan; Marquis, Patrick; Cohan, Stanley; Goldman, Myla D; Kresa-Reahl, Kiren; Petrillo, Jennifer; Castrillo-Viguera, Carmen; Cadavid, Diego; Chen, Shih-Yin

    2018-01-01

    ABILHAND, a manual ability patient-reported outcome instrument originally developed for stroke patients, has been used in multiple sclerosis clinical trials; however, psychometric analyses indicated the measure's limited measurement range and precision in higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate items to expand the measurement range of the ABILHAND-56, thus improving its ability to detect differences in manual ability in higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients. A step-wise mixed methods design strategy was used, comprising two waves of patient interviews, a combination of qualitative (concept elicitation and cognitive debriefing) and quantitative (Rasch measurement theory) analytic techniques, and consultation interviews with three clinical neurologists specializing in multiple sclerosis. Original ABILHAND was well understood in this context of use. Eighty-two new manual ability concepts were identified. Draft supplementary items were generated and refined with patient and neurologist input. Rasch measurement theory psychometric analysis indicated supplementary items improved targeting to higher-functioning multiple sclerosis patients and measurement precision. The final pool of Early Multiple Sclerosis Manual Ability items comprises 20 items. The synthesis of qualitative and quantitative methods used in this study improves the ABILHAND content validity to more effectively identify manual ability changes in early multiple sclerosis and potentially help determine treatment effect in higher-functioning patients in clinical trials.

  7. The High Prevalence of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Patients With Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study in the North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Saeideh; Ghane, Masood; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Shahrokh; Amiri, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neurological autoimmune disease, characterized by multifocal areas of inflammatory demyelination within the central nervous system. It has been hypothesized that the stimulation of the immune system by viral infections is the leading cause of MS among susceptible individuals. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Patients and Methods Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from MS patients (n = 82) and controls (n = 89) were screened for the presence of anti-VZV antibodies and VZV DNA by the ELISA and PCR methods. DNA was extracted from all samples, and VZV infection was examined by the PCR technique. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the frequency of the virus in MS patients and a healthy control group. Results Of all the MS patients, 78 (95.1%) and 21 (25.6%) were positive for anti-VZV and VZV DNA, respectively. Statistical analysis of the PCR results showed a significant correlation between the abundance of VZV and MS disease (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between the abundance of anti-VZV antibodies and MS disease by the ELISA method. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that VZV may contribute to MS in establishing a systemic infection process and inducing an immune response. PMID:27226879

  8. 3T deep gray matter T2 hypointensity correlates with disability over time in stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 3-year pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Metz, L M; Yong, V W; Mitchell, J R

    2010-10-15

    Abnormally decreased deep gray matter (GM) signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI (T2 hypointensity) is associated with brain atrophy and disability progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is believed to represent excessive iron deposition. We investigated the time course of deep GM T2 hypointensity and its relationship with disability at 3T in 8 stable relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients treated with minocycline over 3years. MRI and disability measurements were compared at baseline, 6, 12, 24, and 36months. Grand mean deep GM T2 hypointensity was negatively correlated with EDSS over time (r=-0.94, P=0.02). This correlation was strongest in the head of caudate (r=-0.95, P=0.01) and putamen (r=-0.89, P=0.04). Additionally, baseline grand mean deep GM T2 hypointensity appears to predict third year EDSS (r=-0.72, P=0.04). These results suggest that iron associated deep GM injury correlates with patient disability in stable RRMS. Measurements of deep GM T2 hypointensity at high field MRI may prove to be useful in monitoring individuals with MS. Further studies are required to confirm these results in a large sample and to determine if T2 hypointensity changes in clinically active MS patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characteristics of lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: A magnetisation transfer and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yaldizli, Özgür; Pardini, Matteo; Sethi, Varun; Muhlert, Nils; Liu, Zheng; Tozer, Daniel J; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia Am; Yousry, Tarek A; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2016-02-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), diffusion tensor and magnetisation transfer imaging are both abnormal in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter, but differences between clinical subtypes and associations with clinical outcomes have only been partly assessed. To compare mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) in cortical grey matter lesions (detected using phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) imaging) and extra-lesional cortical grey matter, and assess associations with disability in relapse-onset MS. Seventy-two people with MS (46 relapsing-remitting (RR), 26 secondary progressive (SP)) and 36 healthy controls were included in this study. MTR, mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter. Mean fractional anisotropy was higher and MTR lower in lesional compared with extra-lesional cortical grey matter. In extra-lesional cortical grey matter mean fractional anisotropy and MTR were lower, and mean diffusivity was higher in the MS group compared with controls. Mean MTR was lower and mean diffusivity was higher in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter in SPMS when compared with RRMS. These differences were independent of disease duration. In multivariate analyses, MTR in extra-lesional more so than lesional cortical grey matter was associated with disability. Magnetic resonance abnormalities in lesional and extra-lesional cortical grey matter are greater in SPMS than RRMS. Changes in extra-lesional compared with lesional cortical grey matter are more consistently associated with disability. © The Author(s), 2015.

  10. Using mental visual imagery to improve autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: A randomised-controlled trial study.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Alexandra; Blanc, Frédéric; De Seze, Jérôme; Manning, Liliann

    2015-01-01

    The co-occurrence of autobiographical memory (AM) and episodic future thinking (EFT) impairment has been documented in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients. On these bases, we aimed at probing the efficacy of a mental visual imagery (MVI)-based facilitation programme on AM and EFT functioning in the context of a randomised-controlled trial study in RR-MS patients. Using the Autobiographical Interview (AI), 40 patients presenting with an AM/EFT impairment were randomly assigned in three groups: (i) the experimental (n = 17), who followed the MVI programme, (ii) the verbal control (n = 10), who followed a sham verbal programme, and (iii) the stability groups (n = 13), who underwent the AM/EFT test twice, with no intervention in between. AI's second assessment scores showed a significant improvement of AM and EFT performance only for the experimental group, with a long-term robustness of treatment benefits. The control and stability groups' results ruled out nursing and test learning effects as explanations of AM/EFT improvement. These benefits were corroborated by the patients' comments, which indicated an effective MVI strategy transfer to daily life. Our results suggest that the MVI programme tackles a common cognitive process of scene construction present in AM and EFT.

  11. Lesion-to-ventricle distance and other risk factors for the persistence of newly formed black holes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Athina; Menegola, Milena; Kuhle, Jens; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V; D'Souza, Marcus; Sprenger, Till; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Kappos, Ludwig; Yaldizli, Özgür

    2014-03-01

    Progenitor cells from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles are assumed to contribute to remyelination and resolution of black holes (BHs) in multiple sclerosis (MS). This process may depend on the distance between the lesion and the SVZ. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between lesion-to-ventricle (LV) distance and persistence of new BHs. We analysed the magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of 289 relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patients, obtained during a multi-centre, placebo-controlled phase II trial over one year. Overall, 112/289 patients showed 367 new BHs at the beginning of the trial. Of these, 225 were located in 94/112 patients at the level of the lateral ventricles on axial MRIs and included in this analysis. In total, 86/225 (38%) BHs persisted at month 12. LV distance in persistent BHs (PBHs) was not longer than in transient BHs. In fact PBHs tended to be closer to the SVZ than transient BHs. A generalised linear mixed multivariate model adjusted for BHs clustered within a patient and including patient- as well as lesion-specific factors revealed size, ring contrast enhancement, and shorter LV distance as independent predictors for BH persistence. Location of BHs close to the lateral ventricles does not appear to favourably influence the resolution of new BHs in RRMS.

  12. Daclizumab high-yield process reduced the evolution of new gadolinium-enhancing lesions to T1 black holes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Radue, E-W; Sprenger, T; Vollmer, T; Giovannoni, G; Gold, R; Havrdova, E; Selmaj, K; Stefoski, D; You, X; Elkins, J

    2016-02-01

    In the SELECT study, treatment with daclizumab high-yield process (DAC HYP) versus placebo reduced the frequency of gadolinium-enhancing (Gd(+) ) lesions in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of this post hoc analysis of SELECT was to evaluate the effect of DAC HYP on the evolution of new Gd(+) lesions to T1 hypointense lesions (T1 black holes). SELECT was a randomized double-blind study of subcutaneous DAC HYP 150 or 300 mg or placebo every 4 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed at baseline and weeks 24, 36 and 52 in all patients and monthly between weeks 4 and 20 in a subset of patients. MRI scans were evaluated for new Gd(+) lesions that evolved to T1 black holes at week 52. Data for the DAC HYP groups were pooled for analysis. Daclizumab high-yield process reduced the number of new Gd(+) lesions present at week 24 (P = 0.005) or between weeks 4 and 20 (P = 0.014) that evolved into T1 black holes at week 52 versus placebo. DAC HYP treatment also reduced the percentage of patients with Gd(+) lesions evolving to T1 black holes versus placebo. Treatment with DAC HYP reduced the evolution of Gd(+) lesions to T1 black holes versus placebo, suggesting that inflammatory lesions that evolved during DAC HYP treatment are less destructive than those evolving during placebo treatment. © 2016 EAN.

  13. Alemtuzumab improves quality-of-life outcomes compared with subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arroyo González, Rafael; Kita, Mariko; Crayton, Heidi; Havrdova, Eva; Margolin, David H; Lake, Stephen L; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2017-09-01

    Alemtuzumab was superior on clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in phase 3 trials in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To examine quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes in the alemtuzumab phase 3 trials. Patients who were treatment naive (Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif ® Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis I [CARE-MS I]) or had an inadequate response to prior therapy (CARE-MS II) received annual courses of alemtuzumab 12 mg/day at baseline (5 days) and Month 12 (3 days) or subcutaneous interferon beta-1a 44 µg three times/week. QoL was measured every 6 or 12 months using Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis (FAMS), European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and its visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), and 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36). Statistically significant improvements from baseline with alemtuzumab were observed on all three QoL instruments at the earliest post-baseline assessment and sustained through Year 2. Statistically significant greater QoL improvements over subcutaneous interferon beta-1a were seen at all time points in CARE-MS II with FAMS, EQ-VAS and SF-36 physical component summary, and in CARE-MS I with FAMS. Patients treated with alemtuzumab had improvements in physical, mental, and emotional QoL regardless of treatment history. Improvements were significantly greater with alemtuzumab versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a on both disease-specific and general measures of QoL.

  14. Measurement of the permeability, perfusion, and histogram characteristics in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with extended Tofts linear model.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ping; Xiong, Hua; Liu, Yi; Sah, Shambhu K; Zeng, Chun; Wang, Jingjie; Li, Yongmei; Hong, Nan

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the application value of using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with extended Tofts linear model for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and its correlation with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores and disease duration. Thirty patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DCE-MRI with a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner. An extended Tofts linear model was used to quantitatively measure MR imaging biomarkers. The histogram parameters and correlation among imaging biomarkers, EDSS scores, and disease duration were also analyzed. The MR imaging biomarkers volume transfer constant (K trans ), volume of the extravascular extracellular space per unit volume of tissue (Ve), fractional plasma volume (V p ), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of contrast-enhancing (CE) lesions were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of nonenhancing (NE) lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) regions. The skewness of Ve value in CE lesions was more close to normal distribution. There was no significant correlation among the biomarkers with the EDSS scores and disease duration (P > 0.05). Our study demonstrates that the DCE-MRI with the extended Tofts linear model can measure the permeability and perfusion characteristic in MS lesions and in NAWM regions. The K trans , Ve, Vp, CBF, and CBV of CE lesions were significantly higher than that of NE lesions. The skewness of Ve value in CE lesions was more close to normal distribution, indicating that the histogram can be helpful to distinguish the pathology of MS lesions.

  15. Safety and efficacy of cladribine tablets in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: Results from the randomized extension trial of the CLARITY study.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Gavin; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Cook, Stuart; Rammohan, Kottil; Rieckmann, Peter; Comi, Giancarlo; Dangond, Fernando; Adeniji, Abidemi K; Vermersch, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    In the 2-year CLARITY study, cladribine tablets significantly improved clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes (vs placebo) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). To assess the safety and efficacy of cladribine treatment in a 2-year Extension study. In this 2-year Extension study, placebo recipients from CLARITY received cladribine 3.5 mg/kg; cladribine recipients were re-randomized 2:1 to cladribine 3.5 mg/kg or placebo, with blind maintained. A total of 806 patients were assigned to treatment. Adverse event rates were generally similar between groups, but lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 rates were higher with cladribine than placebo (Grade 4 lymphopenia occurred infrequently). In patients receiving cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY and experiencing lymphopenia Grade ⩾ 3 in the Extension, >90% of those treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg and all treated with placebo in the Extension, recovered to Grade 0-1 by study end. Cladribine treatment in CLARITY produced efficacy improvements that were maintained in patients treated with placebo in the Extension; in patients treated with cladribine 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY, approximately 75% remained relapse-free when given placebo during the Extension. Cladribine tablets treatment for 2 years followed by 2 years' placebo treatment produced durable clinical benefits similar to 4 years of cladribine treatment with a low risk of severe lymphopenia or clinical worsening. No clinical improvement in efficacy was apparent following further treatment with cladribine tablets after the initial 2-year treatment period in this trial setting.

  16. Long-term effects of cladribine tablets on MRI activity outcomes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: the CLARITY Extension study.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giancarlo; Cook, Stuart; Rammohan, Kottil; Soelberg Sorensen, Per; Vermersch, Patrick; Adeniji, Abidemi K; Dangond, Fernando; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2018-01-01

    The CLARITY and CLARITY Extension studies demonstrated that treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) with cladribine tablets (CT) results in significant clinical improvements, compared with placebo. This paper presents the key magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings from the CLARITY Extension study. Patients who received a cumulative dose of either CT 3.5 or 5.25 mg/kg in CLARITY were rerandomized to either placebo or CT 3.5 mg/kg in CLARITY Extension. Patients from the arm that received placebo in CLARITY were assigned to CT 3.5 mg/kg. MRI assessments were carried out when patients entered CLARITY Extension and after Weeks 24, 48, 72 and 96, and in a supplemental follow-up period. At CLARITY Extension baseline, patients who received placebo during CLARITY had more T1 gadolinium-enhanced (Gd+) lesions than patients who received CT during CLARITY. These patients, who were then exposed to cladribine 3.5 mg/kg during the extension, experienced a 90.4% relative reduction (median difference -0.33, 97.5% confidence interval -0.33-0.00; p < 0.001) in T1 Gd+ lesions at the end of the extension compared with the end of CLARITY. Overall, the majority of patients in each treatment group remained free from T1 Gd+ lesions throughout CLARITY Extension. However, a small proportion of patients who were treated with cladribine in CLARITY and received placebo in CLARITY Extension showed evidence of increased MRI activity, and this was associated with a prolonged treatment gap between CLARITY and CLARITY Extension. A 2-year treatment with CT 3.5 mg/kg has a durable effect on MRI outcomes in the majority of patients, an effect that was sustained in patients who were not retreated in the subsequent 2 years after initial treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00641537 .

  17. Immunometabolic profiling of T cells from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis reveals an impairment in glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Claudia; Carbone, Fortunata; De Rosa, Veronica; Colamatteo, Alessandra; Galgani, Mario; Perna, Francesco; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Orefice, Giuseppe; Cerillo, Ilaria; Florio, Ciro; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Salvetti, Marco; Centonze, Diego; Uccelli, Antonio; Longobardi, Salvatore; Visconti, Andrea; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is shaped to support specific cell functions since cellular metabolism controls the final outcome of immune response. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease resulting from loss of immune tolerance against central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Metabolic alterations of T cells occurring during MS are not yet well understood and their studies could have relevance in the comprehension of the pathogenetic events leading to loss of immune tolerance to self and to develop novel therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting MS progression. In this report, we observed that extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rate (OCR), indicators of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively, were impaired during T cell activation in naïve-to-treatment relapsing remitting (RR)MS patients when compared with healthy controls. These results were also corroborated at biochemical level by a reduced expression of the glycolitic enzymes aldolase, enolase 1, hexokinase I, and by reduction of Krebs cycle enzymes dihydrolipoamide-S-acetyl transferase (DLAT) and dihydrolipoamide-S-succinyl transferase (DLST). Treatment of RRMS patients with interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a) was able to restore T cell glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration as well as the amount of the metabolic enzymes to a level comparable to that of healthy controls. These changes associated with an up-regulation of the glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), a key element in intracellular transport of glucose. Our data suggest that T cells from RRMS patients display a reduced engagement of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, reversible upon IFN beta-1a treatment, thus suggesting an involvement of an altered metabolism in the pathogenesis of MS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Andrographis paniculata decreases fatigue in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a 12-month double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bertoglio, J C; Baumgartner, M; Palma, R; Ciampi, E; Carcamo, C; Cáceres, D D; Acosta-Jamett, G; Hancke, J L; Burgos, R A

    2016-05-23

    Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata), a medicinal plant, has shown anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antifibrotic effects in animal models as well as clinical efficacy in different studies, including an anti-fatigue effect in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In multiple sclerosis (MS), fatigue is rated as one of the most common and disabling symptoms. In the present trial, we investigated the effect of A. paniculata on relapse rate and fatigue in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients receiving interferon beta. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial assessed the effects of 170 mg of A. paniculata dried extract tablet b.i.d. p.o. on relapse rate and fatigue using the Fatigue Severity Scores (FSS) over 12 months in RRMS patients receiving interferon. The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, inflammatory parameters and radiological findings were also investigated. Twenty-five patients were enrolled, and twenty-two patients were ultimately analysed and randomised to the active or placebo group. Patients treated with A. paniculata showed a significant reduction in their FSS score as compared to the placebo, equivalent to a 44 % reduction at 12 months. No statistically significant differences were observed for relapse rate, EDSS or inflammatory parameters, with a trend in reducing new lesions among the A. paniculata group. One patient in the A. paniculata group presented with a mild and transient skin rash, which was alleviated with anti-histamine treatment for three weeks. A. paniculata was well tolerated in patients and no changes in clinical parameters were observed. A. paniculata significantly reduces fatigue in patients with RRMS receiving interferon beta in comparison to placebo and only interferon beta treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02280876 ; Trial registration date: 20.10.2014.

  19. First-line disease-modifying drugs in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: an Italian real-life multicenter study on persistence.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Diana; Camera, Valentina; Baldi, Eleonora; Vacchiano, Veria; Curti, Erica; Guareschi, Angelica; Malagù, Susanna; Montepietra, Sara; Strumia, Silvia; Santangelo, Mario; Caniatti, Luisa; Foschi, Matteo; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Granella, Franco; Pesci, Ilaria; Motti, Luisa; Neri, Walter; Immovilli, Paolo; Montanari, Enrico; Vitetta, Francesca; Simone, Anna Maria; Sola, Patrizia

    2018-04-12

    The introduction of oral disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) in addition to the available, injectable, ones for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) could be expected to improve medication persistence due to a greater acceptability of the route of administration. The aim of the study was to compare the proportion of patients discontinuing injectable DMDs (interferon beta 1a/1b, pegylated interferon, glatiramer acetate) with those discontinuing oral DMDs (dimethylfumarate and teriflunomide) during an observation period of at least 12 months. Secondary aims were to compare the time to discontinuation and the reasons for discontinuation between the two groups and to explore the demographic and clinical factors associated with DMD discontinuation. In this prospective, multi-center, real-life observational study, patients commencing any first-line DMD between 1 January 2015 and 31 July 2016 were enrolled and followed up for at least 12 months or until the drug was discontinued. Of the 520 included patients, 262 (49.6%) started an injectable and 258 (50.4%) an oral DMD. There was no difference in the proportion of patients on oral (n = 62, 24%) or on injectable (n = 60, 23%) DMDs discontinuing treatment, the most frequent reason being adverse events/side-effects. Higher baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores and younger age increased the odds of treatment withdrawal. Time to treatment discontinuation was not different between the two groups and was not influenced by the initiated DMD (oral versus injectable), even after adjustment for baseline differences. The route of administration alone (i.e. oral versus injectable) was not a significant predictor of persistence with first-line DMDs in RRMS.

  20. Costs and effectiveness of fingolimod versus alemtuzumab in the treatment of highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in the UK: re-treatment, discount, and disutility.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stephen M; Kusel, Jeanette; Nicholas, Richard; Adlard, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with disease modifying therapies (DMTs) who continue to experience disease activity may be considered for escalation therapies such as fingolimod, or may be considered for alemtuzumab. Previous economic modeling used Markov models; applying one alternative technique, discrete event simulation (DES) modeling, allows re-treatment and long-term adverse events (AEs) to be included in the analysis. A DES was adapted to model relapse-triggered re-treatment with alemtuzumab and the effect of including ongoing quality-adjusted life year (QALY) decrements for AEs that extend beyond previous 1-year Markov cycles. As the price to the NHS of fingolimod in the UK is unknown, due to a confidential patient access scheme (PAS), a variety of possible discounts were tested. The interaction of re-treatment assumptions for alemtuzumab with the possible discounts for fingolimod was tested to determine which DMT resulted in lower lifetime costs. The lifetime QALY results were derived from modeled treatment effect and short- and long-term AEs. Most permutations of fingolimod PAS discount and alemtuzumab re-treatment rate resulted in fingolimod being less costly than alemtuzumab. As the percentage of patients who are re-treated with alemtuzumab due to experiencing a relapse approaches 100% of those who relapse whilst on treatment, the discount required for fingolimod to be less costly drops below 5%. Consideration of treatment effect alone found alemtuzumab generated 0.2 more QALYs/patient; the inclusion of AEs up to a duration of 1 year reduced this advantage to only 0.14 QALYs/patient. Modeling AEs with a lifetime QALY decrement found that both DMTs generated very similar QALYs with the difference only 0.04 QALYs/patient. When the model captured alemtuzumab re-treatment and long-term AE decrements, it was found that fingolimod is cost-effective compared to alemtuzumab, assuming application of only a modest level of

  1. Longitudinal study of visual function in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis with and without a history of optic neuritis.

    PubMed

    González Gómez, A; García-Ben, A; Soler García, A; García-Basterra, I; Padilla Parrado, F; García-Campos, J M

    2017-03-15

    The contrast sensitivity test determines the quality of visual function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study is to analyse changes in visual function in patients with relapsing-remitting MS with and without a history of optic neuritis (ON). We conducted a longitudinal study including 61 patients classified into 3 groups as follows: a) disease-free patients (control group); b) patients with MS and no history of ON; and c) patients with MS and a history of unilateral ON. All patients underwent baseline and 6-year follow-up ophthalmologic examinations, which included visual acuity and monocular and binocular Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity tests. Monocular contrast sensitivity was significantly lower in MS patients with and without a history of ON than in controls both at baseline (P=.00 and P=.01, respectively) and at 6 years (P=.01 and P=.02). Patients with MS and no history of ON remained stable throughout follow-up whereas those with a history of ON displayed a significant loss of contrast sensitivity (P=.01). Visual acuity and binocular contrast sensitivity at baseline and at 6 years was significantly lower in the group of patients with a history of ON than in the control group (P=.003 and P=.002 vs P=.006 and P=.005) and the group with no history of ON (P=.04 and P=.038 vs P=.008 and P=.01). However, no significant differences were found in follow-up results (P=.1 and P=.5). Monocular Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity test may be used to detect changes in visual function in patients with ON. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Progression of a series of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated for 7 years with natalizumab using the "no evidence of disease activity" parameter.

    PubMed

    Pato Pato, A; Costa Arpín, E; Rodríguez Regal, A; Rodríguez Constenla, I; Cimas Hernando, I; Muñoz Pousa, I; Naya Ríos, L; Lorenzo González, J R; Amigo Jorrín, M C; Prieto González, J M

    2018-05-10

    The safety and effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) has been demonstrated in clinical trials. However, due to the limitations of these trials, it is important to know how the condition behaves under long-term clinical practice conditions. To determine the long-term effectiveness of natalizumab in patients with RRMS by means of annual evaluation of the "no evidence of disease activity" (NEDA) parameter, which includes number of relapses, disability (measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale), and brain MRI parameters. We performed a retrospective study of patients with RRMS from 3 centres who were treated with one or more doses of natalizumab. Each year, we evaluated NEDA status and safety based on the percentage of patients who discontinued treatment with natalizumab and experienced adverse reactions. The study included 89 patients, most of whom received treatment for 2 to 4 years, with a follow-up period of up to 7 years. Natalizumab significantly reduces the radiological and clinical progression of the disease, as well as the annual rate of relapses. The NEDA parameter demonstrates the effectiveness of the drug, with values of 75.28% for year one and 66.67% for year 7. Twenty-five patients (28.1%) dropped out after a median of 4 years. Fourteen of these patients (56%) dropped out due to the appearance of anti-JC virus antibodies, either in isolation or associated with another cause. Four dropouts (16%) were due to treatment ineffectiveness, with one patient dying due to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Natalizumab is highly effective as measured by the NEDA long-term remission parameter. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A discrete event simulation to model the cost-utility of fingolimod and natalizumab in rapidly evolving severe relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in the UK.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Stephen M; Maruszczak, Maciej J; Slater, David; Kusel, Jeanette; Nicholas, Richard; Adlard, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Two disease-modifying therapies are licensed in the EU for use in rapidly-evolving severe (RES) relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), fingolimod and natalizumab. Here a discrete event simulation (DES) model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of natalizumab and fingolimod in the RES population, from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK, is reported. A DES model was developed to track individual RES patients, based on Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. Individual patient characteristics were taken from the RES sub-groups of the pivotal trials for fingolimod. Utility data were in line with previous models. Published costs were inflated to NHS cost year 2015. Owing to the confidential patient access scheme (PAS) discount applied to fingolimod in the UK, a range of discount levels were applied to the fingolimod list price, to capture the likelihood of natalizumab being cost-effective in a real-world setting. At the lower National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) threshold of £20,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY), fingolimod only required a discount greater than 0.8% of list price to be cost-effective. At the upper threshold of £30,000/QALY employed by the NICE, fingolimod was cost-effective if the confidential discount is greater than 2.5%. Sensitivity analyses conducted using fingolimod list-price showed the model to be most sensitive to changes in the cost of each drug, particularly fingolimod. The DES model shows that only a modest discount to the UK fingolimod list-price is required to make fingolimod a more cost-effective option than natalizumab in RES RRMS.

  4. Functional and structural cerebral changes in key brain regions after a facilitation programme for episodic future thought in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Alexandra; Sourty, Marion; Roquet, Daniel; Noblet, Vincent; Gounot, Daniel; Blanc, Frédéric; De Seze, Jérôme; Manning, Liliann

    2016-06-01

    Increasingly studied, episodic future thought (EFT) impairment negatively affects patients' daily life. Along these lines, working with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients, we documented the clinical effectiveness of a mental visual imagery (MVI)-based facilitation programme on EFT impairment related to executive function difficulties. We aimed at improving the characterisation of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of RR-MS patients' EFT amelioration, by exploring the structural and functional brain changes following the MVI programme. Seventeen non-depressed RR-MS patients were recruited and randomly assigned in the (i) experimental group (n=10), who followed the MVI programme or in the control group (n=7), who followed a verbal control programme. Using an adapted version of the Autobiographical Interview to assess EFT, after facilitation, significant improvement was observed in the experimental group only. This was accompanied by increased activation in the prefrontal region during the generation of future events and was positively correlated with grey matter volume increase in this same brain area. Increased activations in the parahippocampal and the middle temporal gyri were also observed in the experimental group in post-facilitation. Likewise, functional connectivity changes were observed in the posterior brain regions after facilitation. Only minor cerebral changes were observed in the control group, likely reflecting practice effects. Our study showed that EFT improvement following the MVI programme led to functional and structural changes in brain regions sustaining contextual processing, visual imagery, the integration and maintenance of multimodal information. Taken together, these findings suggest that a cognitive intervention focusing on scene construction can be efficient to alleviate EFT impairment related to executive dysfunction. As such, this study opens the way to the development of tailor-made rehabilitation programmes

  5. Computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation improves cognitive performances and induces brain functional connectivity changes in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bonavita, S; Sacco, R; Della Corte, M; Esposito, S; Sparaco, M; d'Ambrosio, A; Docimo, R; Bisecco, A; Lavorgna, L; Corbo, D; Cirillo, S; Gallo, A; Esposito, F; Tedeschi, G

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the effects of short-term computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (cCR) on cognitive performances and default mode network (DMN) intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in cognitively impaired relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Eighteen cognitively impaired RRMS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation by the Rao's brief repeatable battery and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate FC of the DMN before and after a short-term (8 weeks, twice a week) cCR. A control group of 14 cognitively impaired RRMS patients was assigned to an aspecific cognitive training (aCT), and underwent the same study protocol. Correlations between DMN and cognitive performances were also tested. After cCR, there was a significant improvement of the following tests: SDMT (p < 0.01), PASAT 3" (p < 0.00), PASAT 2" (p < 0.03), SRT-D (p < 0.02), and 10/36 SPART-D (p < 0.04); as well as a significant increase of the FC of the DMN in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC). After cCR, a significant negative correlation between Stroop Color-Word Interference Test and FC in the PCC emerged. After aCT, the control group did not show any significant effect either on FC or neuropsychological tests. No significant differences were found in brain volumes and lesion load in both groups when comparing data acquired at baseline and after cCR or aCT. In cognitively impaired RRMS patients, cCR improves cognitive performances (i.e., processing speed and visual and verbal sustained memory), and increases FC in the PCC and IPC of the DMN. This exploratory study suggests that cCR may induce adaptive cortical reorganization favoring better cognitive performances, thus strengthening the value of cognitive exercise in the general perspective of building either cognitive or brain reserve.

  6. The experience of transitioning from relapsing remitting to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: views of patients and health professionals.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Emer; Hourihan, Susan; Chataway, Jeremy; Playford, E Diane; Riazi, Afsane

    2017-09-01

    The majority of people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) initially present with discreet periods of relapses followed by partial remission of symptoms (RRMS). Over time, most pwMS transition to secondary progressive MS (SPMS), characterized by a gradual accumulation of disability. This study aimed to explore the experiences, coping and needs associated with transitioning from RRMS to SPMS. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with nine pwMS and seven specialist MS health professionals (HPs). Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Four major themes were identified: "Is this really happening?"; "Becoming a reality"; "A life of struggle"; and "Brushing oneself off and moving on." Findings suggested a process of moving from uncertainty towards confirmation of one's diagnostic label. Being reclassified with SPMS served as a turning point for many, and was accompanied by a range of cognitive, emotional and behavioral responses. The value of adequate information and support surrounding the transition, and the potential benefit of education and support for health professionals in relation to the transition were indicated. Understanding pwMS' experiences of the transition is essential if clinicians are to provide pwMS with appropriate support during the transition. Implications for Rehabilitation The timing and delivery of preparatory education for patients about the transition to SPMS should be carefully considered. Sufficient information and follow-up support following the reclassification of SPMS is crucial but sometimes lacking. The importance of sensitive communication of the reclassification of SPMS was highlighted. MS Specialist health professionals may potentially benefit from training and support around communication of the reclassification of SPMS. Given the potential negative psychological impact of the transition, the psychological wellbeing of the patients during the transition to SPMS should be monitored and responded to appropriately.

  7. Association of VDR gene polymorphisms with risk of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in an Iranian Kurdish population.

    PubMed

    Abdollahzadeh, Rasoul; Moradi Pordanjani, Parisa; Rahmani, Farideh; Mashayekhi, Fatemeh; Azarnezhad, Asaad; Mansoori, Yaser

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of VDR Apa-I, Bsm-I, Fok-I, Taq-I single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in an Iranian Kurdish population. A population including of 118 patients and 124 healthy matched controls were recruited to the study. Genotyping of the SNPs was accomplished using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The frequency of allele T of Fok-I (P = 0.003) and allele C of Taq-I (P = 0.0003) was significantly different between case and control subjects and showed significant association with risk of MS (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.23-2.76; OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.36-2.87, respectively). CT genotype (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.05-2.99) of Fok-I and CC genotype (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.05-4.52) of Taq-I showed a predisposing effect. Combined TT+TC vs. CC for Fok-I (OR = 2.15, 95% = CI 1.29-3.60) and combined CC+TC vs. TT for Taq-I (OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.51-4.40) were susceptibility genotypes for MS. Apa-I and Bsm-I were not significantly associated with risk of MS (OR < 1, P > 0.05) and any genotypes in any genetic models were not significantly different between cases and controls (P > 0.05). As a result, Fok-I and Taq-I showed significant association with risk of MS, while Apa-I and Bsm-I were not observed to be related to the risk of the disease in this population.

  8. Two Years Follow up of Domain Specific Cognitive Training in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Bellomi, Fabio; Stampatori, Chiara; Provinciali, Leandro; Compagnucci, Laura; Uccelli, Antonio; Pardini, Matteo; Santuccio, Giuseppe; Fregonese, Giuditta; Pattini, Marianna; Allegri, Beatrice; Clerici, Raffaella; Lattuada, Annalisa; Montomoli, Cristina; Corso, Barbara; Gallo, Paolo; Riccardi, Alice; Ghezzi, Angelo; Roscio, Marco; Tola, Maria Rosaria; Calanca, Chiara; Baldini, Daria; Trafficante, Debora; Capra, Ruggero

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported to induce neuropsychological improvements, but the persistence of these effects has been scarcely investigated over long follow ups. Here, the results of a multicenter randomized clinical trial are reported, in which the efficacy of 15 week domain specific cognitive training was evaluated at 2 years follow up in 41 patients. Included patients were randomly assigned either to domain specific cognitive rehabilitation, or to aspecific psychological intervention. Patients who still resulted to be cognitively impaired at 1 year follow up were resubmitted to the same treatment, whereas the recovered ones were not. Neuropsychological tests and functional scales were administered at 2 years follow up to all the patients. Results revealed that both at 1 and at 2 years follow up more patients in the aspecific group (18/19, 94% and 13/17, 76% respectively) than in the specific group (11/22, 50% and 5/15, 33% respectively) resulted to be cognitively impaired. Furthermore patients belonging to the specific group showed significantly less impaired tests compared with the aspecific group ones (p = 0.02) and a significant amelioration in the majority of the tests. On the contrary patients in the aspecific group did not change. The specific group subjects also perceived a subjective improvement in their cognitive performance, while the aspecific group patients did not. These results showed that short time domain specific cognitive rehabilitation is a useful treatment for patients with MS, shows very long lasting effects, compared to aspecific psychological interventions. Also subjective cognitive amelioration was found in patients submitted to domain specific treatment after 2 years. PMID:26941630

  9. Brain activity changes in cognitive networks in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis - insights from a longitudinal FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Loitfelder, Marisa; Fazekas, Franz; Koschutnig, Karl; Fuchs, Siegrid; Petrovic, Katja; Ropele, Stefan; Pichler, Alexander; Jehna, Margit; Langkammer, Christian; Schmidt, Reinhold; Neuper, Christa; Enzinger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolations from previous cross-sectional fMRI studies suggest cerebral functional changes with progression of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), but longitudinal studies are scarce. We assessed brain activation changes over time in MS patients using a cognitive fMRI paradigm and examined correlations with clinical and cognitive status and brain morphology. 13 MS patients and 15 healthy controls (HC) underwent MRI including fMRI (go/no-go task), neurological and neuropsychological exams at baseline (BL) and follow-up (FU; minimum 12, median 20 months). We assessed estimates of and changes in fMRI activation, total brain and subcortical grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, and T2-lesion load. Bland-Altman (BA) plots served to assess fMRI signal variability. Cognitive and disability levels remained largely stable in the patients. With the fMRI task, both at BL and FU, patients compared to HC showed increased activation in the insular cortex, precuneus, cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, and occipital cortex. At BL, patients vs. HC also had lower caudate nucleus, thalamus and putamen volumes. Over time, patients (but not HC) demonstrated fMRI activity increments in the left inferior parietal lobule. These correlated with worse single-digit-modality test (SDMT) performance. BA-plots attested to reproducibility of the fMRI task. In the patients, the right caudate nucleus decreased in volume which again correlated with worsening SDMT performance. Given preserved cognitive performance, the increased activation at BL in the patients may be viewed as largely adaptive. In contrast, the negative correlation with SDMT performance suggests increasing parietal activation over time to be maladaptive. Several areas with purported relevance for cognition showed decreased volumes at BL and right caudate nucleus volume decline correlated with decreasing SDMT performance. This highlights the dynamics of functional changes and the strategic importance of specific brain areas for

  10. The real-world effectiveness and safety of fingolimod in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Damas, Fátima; Páramo, Maria Dolores; Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; Navarro, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    Fingolimod approval was based mainly on two clinical trials, FREEDOMS and TRANSFORMS, which demonstrated the efficacy and safety of fingolimod in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We present an observational study that validates these trials findings in a real-world setting, whereby the effectiveness and safety of fingolimod was assessed in Seville’s’ (Spain) clinical practice. This retrospective study in MS patients assessed effectiveness (relapses, EDSS, gadolinium-enhancing T1 and new/enlarged T2-weighted lesions): total cohort (n = 249) and stratified according to prior treatment (glatiramer acetate/interferon beta-1 [immunomodulator], natalizumab, naïve), gender, basal EDSS score, basal Gd+ lesions, ARR prior to treatment, age at treatment initiation and number of prior treatments. A multivariante model was used to assess the ARR with baseline characteristics. The safety profile (adverse events [AEs]) was also described. Fingolimod reduced the annualized relapse rate (ARR) by 75%, 67% and 85% in the total cohort, patients previously treated with immunomodulatory and naïve patients (p<0.0001 all cases). However, patients previously treated with natalizumab kept a constant ARR. The ARR results and the consequent increase in the proportion of relapse-free patients were independent of the age at treatment initiation, number of prior treatments, gender and basal Gd+ lesions. Although fingolimod was effective regardless the basal EDSS score and ARR prior to fingolimod treatment, better outcomes were observed in patients with basal EDSS score <3 (0.2 vs. 0.4; p = 0.0244) and ARR ≥ 2 prior to fingolimod treatment (p = 0.0338). Only the basal EDSS score was association with ARR in the first 24 months of fingolimod treatment in the multivariante model (p = 0.0439). The cumulative probability of disability progression was 20% (month-24) in the total cohort, and was independent from prior treatment, age at treatment initiation, number of prior treatments

  11. Improved self-efficacy in persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis after an intensive social cognitive wellness program with participation of support partners: a 6-months observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) it is important to preserve their autonomy, in spite of increasing disability. A major factor mediating autonomy is self-efficacy. According to the social cognitive theory stressors are crucial determinants of self-efficacy, as well as the interaction with partners. Methods In an explorative observational study we assessed in 47 persons with MS (PwMS) the effect of an intense, multidisciplinary, 3-day, social cognitive wellness program with the participation of support partners, after 1, 3 and 6 months. Primary outcomes: self-efficacy-control and -function (Multiple Sclerosis Self-Efficacy Scale [MSSES]),limitations to and problems with participation and autonomy (Impact on Participation and Autonomy [IPA] scale). Secondary outcomes: health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (MS Quality of Life-54 Items [MSQoL-54] questionnaire), anxiety, depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]), and fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale-5 Items [MFIS-5]). Disability was measured with the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Percentage changes from baseline were tested with T-tests, level of significance 0.05. Results In the whole group the MSQoL-54 Mental score was increased at 1, 3 and 6 months (+16.0%, +13.2%, +12.2%), and the MSQoL-54 Physical (+10.2%) at 6 months, with no changes in other outcomes. The relapsing remitting (RR) subgroup (n = 20) had at 6 months an increase in the MSSES-Control score (+24.8%) and in the MSQoL54 Mental and Physical scores (+22.3%, +17.6%). Progressive patients (n = 22) only showed an increase in the MSQoL-54 Mental score (+11.5%) at 1 month. In the low-disability (EDSS < 4.0) subgroup the MSSES-Control score was increased (+23.8%) at 6 months, and the IPA-Limitations and -Problems scores decreased at 3 months (−6.1%, −8.8%); the MSQoL-54 Mental score had increased at 1, 3 and 6 months (+19.3%, +21.5%, +19.3%). In the high-disability (EDSS > =4

  12. Cognitive function did not improve after initiation of natalizumab treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. A prospective one-year dual control group study.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, M; Piehl, Fredrik; Wahlin, Åke; Brismar, Tom

    2016-11-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and has severe implications. Natalizumab (NZ) has documented effects on relapse rate and radiological disease activity in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) but studies regarding its specific effects on cognitive functioning are few. Previous studies have reported improvement, however, often lacking relevant control groups. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive effects of NZ treatment, compared to patients on stable first-line treatment and healthy control subjects. MS patients starting NZ (MS-NZ), MS controls with stable interferon beta therapy (MS-C) and healthy control subjects (HC) were evaluated twice with one year interval, using a cognitive test battery covering six cognitive domains. The effects of NZ on levels of self-reported depression, fatigue, daytime sleepiness and perceived health were also examined. MS patients (MS-NZ and MS-C) had significantly lower baseline cognitive performance compared to HC (global score, p=0.002), but there were no significant differences between MS-NZ and MS-C. At follow-up, both MS-NZ and MS-C had improved significantly in four and five cognitive domains, respectively, and in global score (p=0.013 and p<0.001, respectively). HC improved significantly in three cognitive domains but not in global score. A regression analysis including baseline cognitive z-score and z-score change showed that participants with lower baseline scores had a significantly greater improvement, compared to those with better initial performance (p=0.021). There were no significant changes in depression, fatigue, daytime sleepiness or perceived health in MS-NZ or MS-C. Initiation of NZ therapy did not result in true cognitive improvement over one year. Presumably, the increased test performance in both MS groups was artificial and due to retest effects that were stronger in patients with lower baseline performance. Adequate control groups are essential when evaluating

  13. Incidence and mitigation of gastrointestinal events in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis receiving delayed-release dimethyl fumarate: a German phase IV study (TOLERATE).

    PubMed

    Gold, Ralf; Schlegel, Eugen; Elias-Hamp, Birte; Albert, Christian; Schmidt, Stephan; Tackenberg, Björn; Xiao, James; Schaak, Tom; Salmen, Hans Christian

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) events are common adverse events (AEs) associated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an approved treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of the TOLERATE study was to evaluate GI tolerability and GI mitigation via symptomatic therapies in patients initiating DMF in a real-world clinical setting in Germany. TOLERATE was a multicentre, open-label, single-arm study performed at 25 German sites. Endpoints were frequency, severity, duration (all primary) and mitigation of GI-related events (secondary). Patients were instructed to take DMF according to the prescribing information for up to 12 weeks and to document GI events and intake of GI-symptomatic therapy on numerical rating scales, using eDiaries. A total of 211 patients were included in the safety population (71% female; mean age 40 ± 11 years). Of these, 185 patients (87.7%) reported GI-related events, out of which nearly half received GI-symptomatic therapy (84/185; 45.4%). The most frequently reported GI events were upper abdominal pain, flatulence and nausea. GI-related events peaked during the first 3 weeks of therapy and rapidly decreased thereafter. The severity of GI events over 12 weeks according to the Modified Overall Gastrointestinal Symptom Scale were mild to moderate in the majority of patients reporting GI-related events and taking symptomatic GI medication (53.6%). Only 10% of all patients discontinued study treatment due to AEs in general, while 6.6% discontinued due to GI-related events. The severity of GI-related events decreased over time in patients who received symptomatic treatment with one or more medications (e.g. acid secretion blockers, antidiarrhoeals or antiemetics). Gastrointestinal events associated with delayed-release DMF were mainly mild to moderate in severity. Prevalence of GI events peaked during the first 3 weeks of therapy and rapidly faded thereafter. Although 44.9% of patients experiencing GI events used

  14. Comparative efficacy of disease-modifying therapies for patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: Systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Emer; Schmitz, Susanne; Tubridy, Niall; Walsh, Cathal; Barry, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Randomised studies have demonstrated efficacy of disease-modifying therapies in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However it is unclear how the magnitude of treatment efficacy varies across all currently available therapies. To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the comparative efficacy of available therapies in reducing relapses and disability progression in RRMS. A systematic review identified 28 randomised, placebo-controlled and direct comparative trials. A network meta-analysis was conducted within a Bayesian framework to estimate comparative annualised relapse rates (ARR) and risks of disability progression (defined by both a 3-month, and 6-month confirmation interval). Potential sources of treatment-effect modification from study-level covariates and baseline risk were evaluated through meta-regression methods. The Surface Under the Cumulative RAnking curve (SUCRA) method was used to provide a ranking of treatments for each outcome. The magnitude of ARR reduction varied between 15-36% for all interferon-beta products, glatiramer acetate and teriflunomide, and from 50 to 69% for alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod and natalizumab. The risk of disability progression (3-month) was reduced by 19-28% with interferon-beta products, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod and teriflunomide, by 38-45% for pegylated interferon-beta, dimethyl fumarate and natalizumab and by 68% with alemtuzumab. Broadly similar estimates for the risk of disability progression (6-month), with the exception of interferon-beta-1b 250mcg which was much more efficacious based on this definition. Alemtuzumab and natalizumab had the highest SUCRA scores (97% and 95% respectively) for ARR, while ranking for disability progression varied depending on the definition of the outcome. Interferon-beta-1b 250mcg ranked among the most efficacious treatments for disability progression confirmed after six months (92%) and among the least efficacious when the

  15. Dedicated mobile application for drug adverse reaction reporting by patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (Vigip-SEP study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Defer, Gilles; Le Caignec, Florian; Fedrizzi, Sophie; Montastruc, François; Chevanne, Damien; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Peyro-Saint-Paul, Laure

    2018-03-09

    The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADR) by patients represents an interesting challenge in the field of pharmacovigilance, but the reporting system is not adequately implemented in France. In 2015, only 20 MS patients in France reported ADR due to first-line disease-modifying drugs (DMD), while more than 3000 patients were initiated on DMD. The aim of this study is to validate a proof-of-concept as to whether the use of a mobile application (App) increases ADR reporting among patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) receiving DMD. We designed a multi-centric, open cluster-randomized controlled trial, called the Vigip-SEP study (NCT03029897), using the App My eReport France® to report ADR to the appropriate authorities in E2B language, in accordance with European regulations. RR-MS patients who were initiated on, or switched, first-line DMD will be included. In the experimental arm, a neurologist will introduce the patient to the App to report ADR to the appropriate French authorities. In the control arm, the patient will be informed of the existence of the App but will not be introduced to its use and will then report ADR according to the usual reporting procedures. Primary assessment criteria are defined as the average number of ADR per patient and per center. We assume that the App will increase patient reporting by 10-fold. Therefore, we will require 24 centers (12 per arm: 6 MS academic expert centers, 3 general hospitals, 3 private practice neurologists), allowing for an expected enrollment of 180 patients (alpha risk 5%, power 90% and standard deviation 4%). Increasing patient reporting of ADR in a real-life setting is extremely important for therapeutic management of RR-MS, particularly for monitoring newly approved DMD to gain better knowledge of their safety profiles. To increase patient involvement, teaching patients to use tools, such as mobile applications, should be encouraged, and these tools should be tested rigorously

  16. Cost-effectiveness of oral agents in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis compared to interferon-based therapy in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alsaqa'aby, Mai F; Vaidya, Varun; Khreis, Noura; Khairallah, Thamer Al; Al-Jedai, Ahmed H

    2017-01-01

    Promising clinical and humanistic outcomes are associated with the use of new oral agents in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This is the first cost-effectiveness study comparing these medications in Saudi Arabia. We aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, and interferon (IFN)-b1a products (Avonex and Rebif) as first-line therapies in the treatment of patients with RRMS from a Saudi payer perspective. Cohort Simulation Model (Markov Model). Tertiary care hospital. A hypothetical cohort of 1000 RRMS Saudi patients was assumed to enter a Markov model model with a time horizon of 20 years and an annual cycle length. The model was developed based on an expanded disability status scale (EDSS) to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the five disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) from a healthcare system perspective. Data on EDSS progression and relapse rates were obtained from the literature; cost data were obtained from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results were expressed as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and net monetary benefits (NMB) in Saudi Riyals and converted to equivalent $US. The base-case willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold was assumed to be $100000 (SAR375000). One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted to test the robustness of the model. ICERs and NMB. The base-case analysis results showed Rebif as the optimal therapy at a WTP threshold of $100000. Avonex had the lowest ICER value of $337282/QALY when compared to Rebif. One-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the results were sensitive to utility weights of health state three and four and the cost of Rebif. None of the DMDs were found to be cost-effective in the treatment of RRMS at a WTP threshold of $100000 in this analysis. The DMDs would only be cost-effective at a WTP above $300000. The current analysis did not reflect the Saudi

  17. Evaluator-blinded trial evaluating nurse-led immunotherapy DEcision Coaching In persons with relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (DECIMS) and accompanying process evaluation: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Anne Christin; Köpke, Sascha; Kasper, Jürgen; Vettorazzi, Eik; Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Heesen, Christoph

    2015-03-21

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological condition usually starting in early adulthood and regularly leading to severe disability. Immunotherapy options are growing in number and complexity, while costs of treatments are high and adherence rates remain low. Therefore, treatment decision-making has become more complex for patients. Structured decision coaching, based on the principles of evidence-based patient information and shared decision-making, has the potential to facilitate participation of individuals in the decision-making process. This cluster randomised controlled trial follows the assumption that decision coaching by trained nurses, using evidence-based patient information and preference elicitation, will facilitate informed choices and induce higher decision quality, as well as better decisional adherence. The decision coaching programme will be evaluated through an evaluator-blinded superiority cluster randomised controlled trial, including 300 patients with suspected or definite relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, facing an immunotherapy decision. The clusters are 12 multiple sclerosis outpatient clinics in Germany. Further, the trial will be accompanied by a mixed-methods process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness study. Nurses in the intervention group will be trained in shared decision-making, coaching, and evidence-based patient information principles. Patients who meet the inclusion criteria will receive decision coaching (intervention group) with up to three face-to-face coaching sessions with a trained nurse (decision coach) or counselling as usual (control group). Patients in both groups will be given access to an evidence-based online information tool. The primary outcome is 'informed choice' after six months, assessed with the multi-dimensional measure of informed choice including the sub-dimensions risk knowledge (questionnaire), attitude concerning immunotherapy (questionnaire), and immunotherapy uptake (telephone survey

  18. Effect of delayed-release dimethyl fumarate on no evidence of disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: integrated analysis of the phase III DEFINE and CONFIRM studies.

    PubMed

    Havrdova, E; Giovannoni, G; Gold, R; Fox, R J; Kappos, L; Phillips, J Theodore; Okwuokenye, M; Marantz, J L

    2017-05-01

    Significant effects on clinical/neuroradiological disease activity have been reported in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in phase III DEFINE/CONFIRM trials. We conducted a post hoc analysis of integrated data from DEFINE/CONFIRM to evaluate the effect of DMF on achieving no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The analysis included patients randomized to DMF 240 mg twice daily, placebo or glatiramer acetate (CONFIRM only) for ≤2 years. A time-to-event method was used to estimate the percentage of patients achieving NEDA. Clinical NEDA (no relapses/no 12-week confirmed disability progression) was analysed in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Neuroradiological (no new/newly enlarging T2 hyperintense lesions/no gadolinium-enhancing lesions) and overall NEDA (clinical and neuroradiological NEDA) were analysed in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cohort. The ITT and MRI populations comprised 1540 and 692 patients, respectively. The percentage of patients with clinical NEDA (ITT population) and neuroradiological NEDA (MRI cohort) was higher with DMF versus placebo over 2 years [clinical NEDA: 38.9% relative reduction; hazard ratio (HR), 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52-0.72; P < 0.0001; neuroradiological NEDA: 40.0% relative reduction; HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.49-0.73; P < 0.0001]. The percentage of patients achieving overall NEDA (MRI cohort) was also higher with DMF (26%) versus placebo (12%) over 2 years, with a relative risk reduction of 42.7% (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.69; P < 0.0001). A significantly higher percentage of patients treated with DMF achieved NEDA status over 2 years compared with placebo. © 2017 Biogen. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Academy of Neurology.

  19. QualiCOP: real-world effectiveness, tolerability, and quality of life in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated with glatiramer acetate, treatment-naïve patients, and previously treated patients.

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, Tjalf; Calabrese, Pasquale; Penner, Iris-Katharina; Apfel, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of symptoms and signs beyond the expanded disability status scale remains a major target in multiple sclerosis. QualiCOP was an observational, non-interventional, open-label study conducted at 170 sites in Germany. Of the 754 enrolled patients, 96 % had relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and were either disease-modifying therapy naïve (de novo, n = 481) or previously treated (n = 237) with once-daily, subcutaneous 20-mg/mL glatiramer acetate (GA). Assessments of relapse rate, disease progression, overall functioning, quality of life (QoL), cognition, fatigue, and depression were performed over 24 months. GA treatment over 24 months was associated with reduced annual relapse rate for previously treated (from 0.98 to 0.54 relapses) and de novo (from 0.81 to 0.48 relapses) patients. Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scores showed slight improvement in both cohorts (all p < 0.01). Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Multiple Sclerosis Inventory Cognition scale scores showed robust improvement in cognition among previously treated and de novo cohorts (all p < 0.001). General Depression Scale scores showed significantly reduced depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). Disease severity, fatigue, and QoL were stable over the observational period. These real-world findings suggest that patients with MS show benefit from GA treatment in important QoL parameters beyond standard measures of relapse and disease severity.

  20. Changes in magnetic resonance imaging disease measures over 3 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis receiving interferon β-1a in the COGnitive Impairment in MUltiple Sclerosis (COGIMUS) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). In clinical trials, MRI has been found to detect treatment effects with greater sensitivity than clinical measures; however, clinical and MRI outcomes tend to correlate poorly. Methods In this observational study, patients (n = 550; 18-50 years; relapsing-remitting MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤4.0]) receiving interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy (44 or 22 µg subcutaneously [sc] three times weekly [tiw]) underwent standardized MRI, neuropsychological and quality-of-life (QoL) assessments over 3 years. In this post hoc analysis, MRI outcomes and correlations between MRI parameters and clinical and functional outcomes were analysed. Results MRI data over 3 years were available for 164 patients. T2 lesion and T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion volumes, but not black hole (BH) volumes, decreased significantly from baseline to Year 3 (P < 0.0001). Percentage decreases (baseline to Year 3) were greater with the 44 μg dose than with the 22 μg dose for T2 lesion volume (-10.2% vs -4.5%, P = 0.025) and T1 BH volumes (-7.8% vs +10.3%, P = 0.002). A decrease in T2 lesion volume over 3 years predicted stable QoL over the same time period. Treatment with IFN β-1a, 44 μg sc tiw, predicted an absence of cognitive impairment at Year 3. Conclusion Subcutaneous IFN β-1a significantly decreased MRI measures of disease, with a significant benefit shown for the 44 µg over the 22 µg dose; higher-dose treatment also predicted better cognitive outcomes over 3 years. PMID:21999142

  1. Subcutaneous Interferon β-1a Administration by Electronic Auto-injector is Associated with High Adherence in Patients with Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis in a Real-life Study.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Elina; Multanen, Juha; Atula, Sari

    2017-02-20

    The objective was to investigate adherence measured by an electronic auto-injector device, and self-reported adherence and treatment convenience in subjects with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), using an electronic auto-injector Rebismart ® to self-inject interferon β-1a. Thirty one patients with RRMS using the electronic auto-injector Rebismart ® for self-injecting interferon β-1a subcutaneously three times weekly were included in a real-life clinical multicenter study for 24 weeks in Finland. Mean adherence reported by the device and mean self-assessment of adherence were studied. Reasons for missing injections and treatment convenience were assessed. Association between adherence and gender and age were studied. The mean adherence calculated from the device data was 93.5%. The mean self-assessment of adherence was 96.6%. The most common reason for missing an injection was forget-fulness. Adherence (measured by the device) was not changed over time. In the high adherence group there were more females and young patients (<30 years of age). The auto-injector was found to substantially ease the treatment by 90% of the patients. The electronic auto-injector was associated with high adherence to treatment. The device was found to ease the patient's treatment and it was perceived as easy to use. It is a convenient tool to assess patient's adherence to treatment.

  2. Intensive social cognitive treatment (can do treatment) with participation of support partners in persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: observation of improved self-efficacy, quality of life, anxiety and depression 1 year later.

    PubMed

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Heerings, Marco; Ruimschotel, Rob; Hussaarts, Astrid; Duyverman, Lotte; van der Zande, Anneke; Valkenburg-Vissers, Joyce; van Droffelaar, Maarten; Lemmens, Wim; Donders, Rogier; Visser, Leo H

    2016-07-29

    In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) self-efficacy positively affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity. In a previous study we observed that 6 months after an intensive 3-day social cognitive treatment (Can Do treatment) with the participation of support partners, self-efficacy and HRQoL had improved in persons with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS). Given the chronic nature of the disease, it is important to know whether these beneficial changes may last. Can Do treatment was given to 60 persons with MS and their support partners. At baseline and 12 months after treatment self-efficacy control, self-efficacy function, physical and mental HRQoL, anxiety, depression and fatigue were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Differences were tested via a paired t test. Of the 57 persons with MS that completed the baseline assessment and the 3-day treatment, 38 filled in the 12th month questionnaires (response rate 66.7 %), 22 with RRMS and 14 with progressive MS. In the RR group self-efficacy control had increased by 20.2 % and physical HRQoL by 15.0 %, and depression and anxiety had decreased by 29.8 and 25.9 %, respectively (all P < 0.05); the changes in mental HRQoL (+17 %) and fatigue (-20 %) failed to be statistically significant (P = 0.087, P = 0.080, respectively). In the progressive group no changes suggestive of improvement were seen. The findings suggest that a 3-day intensive social cognitive treatment (Can Do treatment) with the participation of support partners may have long lasting beneficial effects on the self-efficacy and HRQoL in persons with RRMS; and that improvements in anxiety and depression, not seen in the 6-month study, may yet develop at 12 months.

  3. Validity and reliability of the multidimensional assessment of fatigue scale in Iranian patients with relapsing-remitting subtype of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Behrangrad, Shabnam; Kordi Yoosefinejad, Amin

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale (MAFS) in an Iranian population with multiple sclerosis. A self-reported survey on fatigue including the MAFS, Fatigue Impact Scale and demographic measures was completed by 130 patients with multiple sclerosis and 60 healthy persons sampled with a convenience method. Test-retest reliability and validity were evaluated 3 days apart. Construct validity of the MAFS was assessed with the Fatigue Impact Scale. The MAFS had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.9) and 3-d test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99). Correlation between the Fatigue Impact Scale and MAFS was high (r = 0.99). Correlation between MAFS scores and the Expanded Disability Status Scale was also strong (r = 0.85). Questionnaire items showed acceptable item-scale correlation (0.968-0.993). The Persian version of the MAFS appears to be a valid and reliable questionnaire. It is an appropriate short multidimensional instrument to assess fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis in clinical practice and research. Implications for Rehabilitation The Persian version of Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment and monitoring the fatigue in Persian-language patients with multiple sclerosis. It is very easy to administer and a time efficient scale in comparison to other instruments evaluating fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  4. Increased cerebrospinal fluid albumin and immunoglobulin A fractions forecast cortical atrophy and longitudinal functional deterioration in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kroth, Julia; Ciolac, Dumitru; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Koirala, Nabin; Krämer, Julia; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Luessi, Felix; Bittner, Stefan; Gonzalez-Escamilla, Gabriel; Zipp, Frauke; Meuth, Sven G; Groppa, Sergiu

    2017-12-01

    Currently, no unequivocal predictors of disease evolution exist in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cortical atrophy measurements are, however, closely associated with cumulative disability. Here, we aim to forecast longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-driven cortical atrophy and clinical disability from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. We analyzed CSF fractions of albumin and immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G, and M and their CSF to serum quotients. Widespread atrophy was highly associated with increased baseline CSF concentrations and quotients of albumin and IgA. Patients with increased CSF IgA and CSF IgM showed higher functional disability at follow-up. CSF markers of blood-brain barrier integrity and specific immune response forecast emerging gray matter pathology and disease progression in MS.

  5. Decreased serum levels of sCD40L and IL-31 correlate in treated patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    de J Guerrero-García, José; Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E; Valle, Yeminia; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge R; Castañeda-Moreno, Víctor A; Mireles-Ramírez, Mario A; Muñoz-Valle, José F; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The CD40/CD40L system is a binding key for co-stimulation of immune cells. Soluble form of CD40L has been widely studied as marker of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Here we analyze serum concentrations of sCD40L, as well as 14 cytokines, in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) treated with Glatiramer acetate or Interferon beta. In the healthy control group, we found in serum a highly positive correlation between sCD40L and Interleukin (IL)-31, an anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokine. Additionally, an important reduction in IL-31 and sCD40L serum levels, as well as a significant reduction in CD40 mRNA expression and complete depletion of CD40L mRNA, detected from peripheral blood cells, was found in treated patients with MS. Therefore, sCD40L and IL-31 must be taken into account as possible prognostic markers when analyzing the disease progress of MS in order to provide more personalized treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of a Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation Intervention in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kosmidis, Mary H.; Zampakis, Petros; Malefaki, Sonia; Ntoskou, Katerina; Nousia, Anastasia; Bakirtzis, Christos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis (MS) affecting between 40–65% of individuals, irrespective of disease duration and severity of physical disability. In the present multicenter randomized controlled trial, fifty-eight clinically stable RRMS patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and relatively low disability status were randomized to receive either computer-assisted (RehaCom) functional cognitive training with an emphasis on episodic memory, information processing speed/attention, and executive functions for 10 weeks (IG; n = 32) or standard clinical care (CG; n = 26). Outcome measures included a flexible comprehensive neuropsychological battery of tests sensitive to MS patient deficits and feedback regarding personal benefit gained from the intervention on four verbal questions. Only the IG group showed significant improvements in verbal and visuospatial episodic memory, processing speed/attention, and executive functioning from pre - to postassessment. Moreover, the improvement obtained on attention was retained over 6 months providing evidence on the long-term benefits of this intervention. Group by time interactions revealed significant improvements in composite cognitive domain scores in the IG relative to the demographically and clinically matched CG for verbal episodic memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and attention. Treated patients rated the intervention positively and were more confident about their cognitive abilities following treatment. PMID:29463950

  7. Inclusion of brain volume loss in a revised measure of 'no evidence of disease activity' (NEDA-4) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kappos, Ludwig; De Stefano, Nicola; Freedman, Mark S; Cree, Bruce Ac; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Sormani, Maria Pia; Smith, Terence; Häring, Dieter A; Piani Meier, Daniela; Tomic, Davorka

    2016-09-01

    'No evidence of disease activity' (NEDA), defined as absence of magnetic resonance imaging activity (T2 and/or gadolinium-enhanced T1 lesions), relapses and disability progression ('NEDA-3'), is used as a comprehensive measure of treatment response in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS), but is weighted towards inflammatory activity. Accelerated brain volume loss (BVL) occurs in RMS and is an objective measure of disease worsening and progression. To assess the contribution of individual components of NEDA-3 and the impact of adding BVL to NEDA-3 ('NEDA-4') METHODS: We analysed data pooled from two placebo-controlled phase 3 fingolimod trials in RMS and assessed NEDA-4 using different annual BVL mean rate thresholds (0.2%-1.2%). At 2 years, 31.0% (217/700) of patients receiving fingolimod 0.5 mg achieved NEDA-3 versus 9.9% (71/715) on placebo (odds ratio (OR) 4.07; p < 0.0001). Adding BVL (threshold of 0.4%), the respective proportions of patients achieving NEDA-4 were 19.7% (139/706) and 5.3% (38/721; OR 4.41; p < 0.0001). NEDA-4 status favoured fingolimod across all BVL thresholds tested (OR 4.01-4.41; p < 0.0001). NEDA-4 has the potential to capture the impact of therapies on both inflammation and neurodegeneration, and deserves further evaluation across different compounds and in long-term studies. © The Author(s), 2015.

  8. Dietary approaches to treat MS-related fatigue: comparing the modified Paleolithic (Wahls Elimination) and low saturated fat (Swank) diets on perceived fatigue in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wahls, Terry; Scott, Maria O; Alshare, Zaidoon; Rubenstein, Linda; Darling, Warren; Carr, Lucas; Smith, Karen; Chenard, Catherine A; LaRocca, Nicholas; Snetselaar, Linda

    2018-06-04

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and contributes to diminishing quality of life. Although currently available interventions have had limited success in relieving MS-related fatigue, clinically significant reductions in perceived fatigue severity have been reported in a multimodal intervention pilot study that included a Paleolithic diet in addition to stress reduction, exercise, and electrical muscle stimulation. An optimal dietary approach to reducing MS-related fatigue has not been identified. To establish the specific effects of diet on MS symptoms, this study focuses on diet only instead of the previously tested multimodal intervention by comparing the effectiveness of two dietary patterns for the treatment of MS-related fatigue. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a modified Paleolithic and low saturated fat diet on perceived fatigue (primary outcome), cognitive and motor symptoms, and quality of life in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This 36-week randomized clinical trial consists of three 12-week periods during which assessments of perceived fatigue, quality of life, motor and cognitive function, physical activity and sleep, diet quality, and social support for eating will be collected. The three 12-week periods will consist of the following: 1. Participants continue eating their usual diet. 2. Participants will be randomized to a modified Paleolithic or low saturated fat diet for the intervention period. Participants will receive support from a registered dietitian (RD) through in-person coaching, telephone calls, and emails. 3. Participants will continue the study diet for an additional 12 weeks with minimal RD support to assess the ability of the participants to sustain the study diet on their own. Because fatigue is one of the most common and disabling symptoms of MS, effective management and reduction of MS-related fatigue has the potential to increase quality of

  9. Relapse outcomes, safety, and treatment patterns in patients diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and initiated on subcutaneous interferon β-1a or dimethyl fumarate: a real-world study.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Frank R; Barr, Peri; Elmor, Riad; Wong, Schiffon L

    2017-12-01

    To estimate real-world treatment patterns, safety, and relapse outcomes of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) β-1a (Rebif) vs dimethyl fumarate (DMF; Tecfidera), to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A US retrospective chart review of 450 randomly selected adults newly diagnosed with RRMS who received sc IFN β-1a (n = 143) or DMF (n = 307) was conducted. Patients were either (a) treatment-naïve, initiating first-line treatment with sc IFN β-1a or DMF, or (b) previously treated, switching to sc IFN β-1a or DMF. Two years' follow-up data were captured. Patient characteristics, persistence, and adverse events between treatment groups were compared using t-tests or Chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare time to, and risk of non-persistence. Annualized Relapse Rates (ARR) were calculated using a robust variance Poisson model adjusting for covariates. Propensity scores were used to address possible selection bias. One hundred and twelve patients became non-persistent, most commonly due to an adverse event (n = 37). No difference was observed in time to overall non-persistence between sc IFN β-1a and DMF patients. Among treatment-naïve patients, those receiving DMF had 2.4-times the risk (HR = 2.439, 95% CI = 1.007-5.917, p = .0483) of experiencing a discontinuation than patients receiving sc IFN β-1a. Non-persistent patients receiving DMF had 2.3-times the risk (HR = 2.311, 95% CI = 1.350-3.958, p = .0023) of experiencing an adverse event at a given time point than patients prescribed sc IFN β-1a. No differences in relapse risk or ARR between sc IFN β-1a- and DMF-treated patients were observed. sc IFN β-1a-treated patients had comparable persistence and relapse outcomes, and better safety outcomes vs DMF-treated patients across 2 years.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of different interferon beta products for relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: Decision analysis based on long-term clinical data and switchable treatments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly debilitating immune mediated disorder and the second most common cause of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults. Iran is amongst high MS prevalence countries (50/100,000). Economic burden of MS is a topic of important deliberation in economic evaluations study. Therefore determining of cost-effectiveness interferon beta (INF β) and their copied biopharmaceuticals (CBPs) and biosimilars products is significant issue for assessment of affordability in Lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods A literature-based Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of three INF βs products compared with placebo for managing a hypothetical cohort of patients diagnosed with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) in Iran from a societal perspective. Health states were based on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Disease progression transition probabilities for symptom management and INF β therapies were obtained from natural history studies and multicenter randomized controlled trials and their long term follow up for RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). A cross sectional study has been developed to evaluate cost and utility. Transitions among health states occurred in 2-years cycles for fifteen cycles and switching to other therapies was allowed. Calculations of costs and utilities were established by attachment of decision trees to the overall model. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of cost/quality adjusted life year (QALY) for all available INF β products (brands, biosimilars and CBPs) were considered. Both costs and utilities were discounted. Sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of model. Results ICER for Avonex, Rebif and Betaferon was 18712, 11832, 15768 US Dollars ($) respectively when utility attained from literature review has been considered. ICER for available CBPs and biosimilars in Iran was $847, $6964 and $11913. Conclusions The Markov

  11. Peginterferon beta-1a versus other self-injectable disease-modifying therapies in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Scotland: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Luis; Guo, Shien; Toro-Diaz, Hector; Carroll, Stuart; Syed Farooq, Syed Feisal

    2017-03-01

    Peginterferon beta-1a 125 mcg administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks, a new disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), was approved in January 2015 by the Scottish Medicines Consortium. This study assesses long-term clinical and economic outcomes of peginterferon beta-1a compared with other self-injectable DMTs (interferon beta-1a [22 mcg, 30 mcg, and 44 mcg], interferon beta-1b, and glatiramer acetate 20 mg) in the treatment of RRMS, from the National Health Service and Personal Social Services perspective in Scotland. A previously published, validated Markov cohort model was adapted for this analysis. The model estimates changes in patient disability, occurrence of relapses, and other adverse events, and translates them into quality-adjusted life years and costs. Natural history data came from the ADVANCE trial of peginterferon beta-1a, the London Ontario (Canada) database, and a large population-based MS survey in the UK. The comparative efficacy of each DMT vs placebo was obtained from a network meta-analysis. Costs (2015 British Pounds) were obtained from public databases and literature. Clinical and economic outcomes were projected over 30 years and discounted at 3.5% per year. Over 30 years, peginterferon beta-1a was dominant compared with interferon beta-1a (22, 30, and 44 mcg), and interferon beta-1b, and cost-effective compared with glatiramer acetate 20 mg. Results were most sensitive to variations in each DMT's efficacy and acquisition costs. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. The impact of improved adherence with peginterferon beta-1a on clinical and economic outcomes and the impact of subsequent DMTs after treatment discontinuation were not considered. Oral and infused DMTs were not included as comparators. Conclusion Long-term treatment with peginterferon beta-1a improves clinical outcomes, while its cost profile makes it either

  12. Lateral switch to IFN beta-1a 44 mcg may be effective as escalation switch to fingolimod in selected persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a real-world setting experience.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, E; Patti, F; Zanghì, A; Lo Fermo, S; Chisari, C G; Zappia, M

    2018-05-01

    The efficacy of lateral and escalation switch is a challenge in MS. We compared in a real-world setting the efficacy of switching to IFN beta-1a 44 mcg or to fingolimod in persons with relapsing remitting MS (pwRRMS) who failed with others injectable IFNs or glatiramer acetate. retrospective analysis of 24 months prospectively-collected data at the MS center of the University of Catania, Italy was performed. Patients who were switched to IFN-beta 1a 44 mcg or fingolimod were analyzed using propensity-score covariate adjustment model within demographic (e.g. age and gender) and disease (e.g. timing of pre-switch relapse) characteristics. Switching-time was considered the starting-time of the observation. 43 pwRRMS on IFN beta-1a 44 mcg and 49 pwRRMS on fingolimod were included. Baseline characteristics differed for EDSS score and number of T2 lesions (higher in group on fingolimod). At 24 months of follow up, both groups showed no differences in the survival curves of reaching a first new relapse, new T2 and Gd+ MRI brain lesions, even corrected for the propensity score covariate adjustment. lateral switch to IFN beta-1a 44 mcg and escalation switch to fingolimod showed same ability in influencing RRMS disease activity at 24 months.

  13. Recurrent Isolated Sixth Nerve Palsy in Relapsing-Remitting Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Bustani, Najwa; Weiss, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy that typically presents as a relapsing-remitting or progressive disorder. Cranial neuropathies infrequently occur in association with other more typical symptoms of CIDP. We report a case of CIDP with recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsy. Her physical examination showed a right sixth nerve palsy and absent deep tendon reflexes as the only indicator of her disease. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed thickening without enhancement of the trigeminal and sixth cranial nerves. Nerve conduction study (NCS) revealed a sensory and motor demyelinating polyneuropathy with conduction block and temporal dispersion in multiple nerves consistent with CIDP. Cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated albuminic-cytologic dissociation. She had a remarkable response to intravenous immunoglobulin and remains asymptomatic without any additional immunomodulating therapy. Isolated cranial neuropathies can rarely occur as the sole manifestation of relapsing-remitting CIDP. The profound demyelination found on NCS in this case demonstrates that there can be a dramatic discordance between the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings in some patients with this disorder.

  14. Serial proton MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in relapsing-remitting MS

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ivan I.; Tal, Assaf; Babb, James S.; Herbert, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To characterize and follow the diffuse gray and white matter (GM/WM) metabolic abnormalities in early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI). Methods: Eighteen recently diagnosed, mildly disabled patients (mean baseline time from diagnosis 32 months, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score 1.3), all on immunomodulatory medication, were scanned semiannually for 3 years with T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI and 3D 1H-MRSI at 3 T. Ten sex- and age-matched controls were followed annually. Global absolute concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myo-inositol (mI) were obtained for all GM and WM in the 360 cm3 1H-MRSI volume of interest. Results: Patients' average WM Cr, Cho, and mI concentrations (over all time points), 5.3 ± 0.4, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 5.1 ± 0.7 mM, were 8%, 12%, and 11% higher than controls' (p ≤ 0.01), while their WM NAA, 7.4 ± 0.7 mM, was 6% lower (p = 0.07). There were increases with time of patients' WM Cr: 0.1 mM/year, Cho: 0.02 mM/year, and NAA: 0.1 mM/year (all p < 0.05). None of the patients' metabolic concentrations correlated with their EDSS score, relapse rate, GM/WM/CSF fractions, or lesion volume. Conclusions: Diffuse WM glial abnormalities were larger in magnitude than the axonal abnormalities and increased over time independently of conventional clinical or imaging metrics and despite immunomodulatory treatment. In contrast, the axonal abnormalities showed partial recovery, suggesting that patients' lower WM NAA levels represented a dysfunction, which may abate with treatment. Absence of detectable diffuse changes in GM suggests that injury there is minimal, focal, or heterogeneous between cortex and deep GM nuclei. PMID:23175732

  15. CD56bright natural killer cells and response to daclizumab HYP in relapsing-remitting MS

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, J.; Amaravadi, L.; Riester, K.; Selmaj, K.; Bielekova, B.; Parr, E.; Giovannoni, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between CD56bright natural killer (NK) cells and multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with daclizumab high-yield process (DAC HYP). Methods: Data were from patients enrolled in a 52-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of DAC HYP and its extension study. Assessments included relationships of CD56bright NK cell numbers (identified using fluorescence-activated cell sorting) at weeks 4 and 8 with the numbers of new or newly enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions between weeks 24 and 52 and the annualized relapse rate. Results: In DAC HYP–treated patients but not placebo-treated patients, the numbers of CD56bright NK cells increased over 52 weeks of treatment, and their numbers at weeks 4 and 8 predicted the number of new or newly enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions between weeks 24 and 52 of treatment (p ≤ 0.005 for each comparison). Similar but nonsignificant trends were observed between CD56bright NK cell counts and the annualized relapse rate in DAC HYP–treated patients. DAC HYP–treated patients who showed lower levels of expansion of CD56bright NK cells still developed fewer new or newly enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions than placebo-treated patients during the first year of treatment. Conclusions: CD56bright NK cells appear to mediate some of the treatment-related effects of DAC HYP, but their numbers do not account for the full effect of DAC HYP on MS-related outcomes. PMID:25635261

  16. Upper Extremity Function in Multiple Sclerosis Patients With Advanced Disability Treated With Ocrevus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-18

    Multiple Sclerosis; Pathologic Processes; Demyelinating Diseases; Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Autoimmune Diseases; Immune System Diseases; Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis; Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

  17. Cytokine production profiles in chronic relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: IFN-γ and TNF-α are important participants in the first attack but not in the relapse.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Yoshihiko; Inaba, Yuji; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Itoh, Makoto; Kaneyama, Tomoki; Nakazawa, Yozo; Koh, Chang-Sung; Ichikawa, Motoki

    2014-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease often displaying a relapsing-remitting course of neurological manifestations that is mimicked by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in animal models of MS. In particular, NOD mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 develop chronic relapsing-remitting EAE (CREAE). To elucidate the mechanisms that cause MS relapse, we investigated the histopathology and cytokine production of spleen cells and mRNA expression levels in the central nervous system (CNS) of CREAE mice. During the first attack, inflammatory cell infiltration around small vessels and in the subarachnoid space was observed in the spinal cord. Spleen cell production and mRNA expression in the CNS of several cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), were higher in CREAE mice than in controls. Afterwards, parenchymal infiltration and demyelination were observed histologically in the spinal cord and corresponded with the more severe clinical symptoms of the first and second relapses. IL-17 and CCL2, but not IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-6, were also produced by spleen cells during recurrences. Our results suggested that the immune mechanisms in relapses were different from those in the first attack for CREAE. Further investigation of CREAE mechanisms may provide important insights into successful therapies for human relapsing-remitting MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective Effects on Central Nervous System by Acidic Polysaccharide of Panax ginseng in Relapse-Remitting Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis-Induced SJL/J Mice.

    PubMed

    Bing, So Jin; Ha, Danbee; Hwang, Insun; Park, Eunjin; Ahn, Ginnae; Song, Jie-Young; Jee, Youngheun

    2016-01-01

    Bearing pathologic and clinical similarities to human multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is used as a murine model to test potential therapeutic agents for MS. Recently, we reported the protective effects of an acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng (APG) in C57BL/6 strain-dependent EAE, a model of primary progressive MS. In this study, we extend our previous findings on the therapeutic capacity of APG in relapsing-remitting EAE (rr-EAE), the animal model to closely mimic recurrent inflammatory demyelination lesions of relapsing-remitting MS. Treatments with APG led to a significant reduction of clinical symptoms and the relapse rate of EAE than vehicle treatments. Consistent with this, histological examination revealed that APG markedly modulated the infiltration of CD4[Formula: see text] T cells and CD11b[Formula: see text] macrophages into the spinal cord and the APG-treated CNS was devoid of demyelination and axonal damages. In addition, APG decreased the proliferation of peripheral PLP-reactive T cells and the production of pro-inflammatory factors such as IFN-[Formula: see text], IL-17 and TNF-[Formula: see text]. The fact that APG can induce clinically beneficial effects to distinct types of EAE furthers our understanding on the basis of its immunosuppression in EAE and, possibly, in MS. Our results suggest that APG may serve as a new therapeutic agent for MS as well as other human autoimmune diseases, and warrants continued evaluation for its translation into therapeutic application.

  19. T helper 17.1 cells associate with multiple sclerosis disease activity: perspectives for early intervention.

    PubMed

    van Langelaar, Jamie; van der Vuurst de Vries, Roos M; Janssen, Malou; Wierenga-Wolf, Annet F; Spilt, Isis M; Siepman, Theodora A; Dankers, Wendy; Verjans, Georges M G M; de Vries, Helga E; Lubberts, Erik; Hintzen, Rogier Q; van Luijn, Marvin M

    2018-05-01

    Interleukin-17-expressing CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells are considered as critical regulators of multiple sclerosis disease activity. However, depending on the species and pro-inflammatory milieu, Th17 cells are functionally heterogeneous, consisting of subpopulations that differentially produce interleukin-17, interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In the current study, we studied distinct effector phenotypes of human Th17 cells and their correlation with disease activity in multiple sclerosis patients. T helper memory populations single- and double-positive for C-C chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) were functionally assessed in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid from a total of 59 patients with clinically isolated syndrome, 35 untreated patients and 24 natalizumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and nine patients with end-stage multiple sclerosis. Within the clinically isolated syndrome group, 23 patients had a second attack within 1 year and 26 patients did not experience subsequent attacks during a follow-up of >5 years. Low frequencies of T helper 1 (Th1)-like Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3+), and not Th17 (CCR6+CXCR3-) effector memory populations in blood strongly associated with a rapid diagnosis of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. In cerebrospinal fluid of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, Th1-like Th17 effector memory cells were abundant and showed increased production of interferon-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to paired CCR6+ and CCR6-CD8+ T cell populations and their blood equivalents after short-term culturing. Their local enrichment was confirmed ex vivo using cerebrospinal fluid and brain single-cell suspensions. Across all pro-inflammatory T helper cells analysed in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis blood, Th1-like Th17 subpopulation T helper 17.1 (Th17.1; CCR6+CXCR3+CCR4

  20. Mortality from Listeria monocytogenes meningoencephalitis following escalation to alemtuzumab therapy for relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Canham, L J W; Manara, A; Fawcett, J; Rolinski, M; Mortimer, A; Inglis, K E A; Cottrell, D A

    2018-05-18

    We report the case of a patient who died from the rare complication of Listeriosis in the immediate phase following alemtuzumab administration one month after discontinuing dimethyl fumarate (DMF). There is considerable overlap with typical post-infusion symptoms therefore high surveillance and low threshold for empirical or possible prophylactic antibiotic therapy is advocated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Prognostic factors for early severity in a childhood multiple sclerosis cohort.

    PubMed

    Mikaeloff, Yann; Caridade, Guillaume; Assi, Saada; Suissa, Samy; Tardieu, Marc

    2006-09-01

    The goal was to identify prognostic factors for an early severe course in a cohort of patients with childhood-onset multiple sclerosis, for the construction of a predictive tool. The cohort consisted of 197 children from the French Kid Sclérose en Plaques neuropediatric cohort with relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis beginning before the age of 16 years. Patients were included from 1990 to 2003. We used multivariate survival analysis (Cox model) to evaluate the prognostic value of clinical, MRI, and biological covariates at onset for the occurrence of a third attack or severe disability ("severity" outcome). The cohort was monitored for a mean of 5.5 +/- 3.6 years. The "severity" outcome was recorded for 144 patients (73%). The risk of severity was higher for girls, for a time between the first and second attacks of < 1 year, for childhood-onset multiple sclerosis MRI criteria at onset, for an absence of severe mental state changes at onset, and for a progressive course. A derived childhood-onset multiple sclerosis potential index for early severity was found to have a positive predictive value for severity of > 35% for the upper 2 quartiles. The clinical and MRI prognostic factors for early severity that were identified were used as the basis of a predictive tool, which will be validated in another cohort. This tool should make it possible to identify subgroups at risk of early severe disease and should facilitate therapeutic studies.

  2. [Total brain T2-hyperintense lesion-volume and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem in early lapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Lozano, A M; Martínez-Bisbal, M C; Boscá-Blasco, I; Valero-Merino, C; Coret-Ferrer, F; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Martínez-Granados, B; Celda, B; Casanova-Estruch, B

    To evaluate the relationship between the total brain T2-hyperintense lesion volume (TBT2LV) and the axonal damage in the normal-appearing white matter of brainstem measured by 1H-MRS in a group of early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. 40 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched healthy subjects were prospectively studied for two years. T2-weighted MR and 1H-MRS imaging were acquired at time of recruitment and at year two. The TBT2LV was calculated with a semiautomatic program; N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho) resonances areas were integrated with jMRUI program and the ratios were calculated for four volume elements that represented the brainstem. At basal study we obtained an axonal loss (as a decrement of NAA/ Cho ratio) in the group of patients compared with controls (p = 0.017); this axonal loss increased at the second year of the follow-up for patients (NAA/Cho decrease, p = 0.004, and NAA/Cr decrease, p = 0.002) meanwhile control subjects had no significant metabolic changes. Higher lesion load was correlated with a poor clinical outcome, being the correlation between the basal TBT2LV and the Expanded Disability Status Scale at second year (r = 0.299; p = 0.05). Besides, axonal loss was not homogeneous for all multiple sclerosis patients, being stronger in the subgroup of patients with high basal TBT2LV (p = 0.043; ANOVA). Our data suggest that axonal damage is early in multiple sclerosis and higher in patients high basal TBT2LV, suggesting a possible relationship between these two phenomena.

  3. Sequence analysis of human rhinovirus aspirated from the nasopharynx of patients with relapsing-remitting MS.

    PubMed

    Kneider, M; Bergström, T; Gustafsson, C; Nenonen, N; Ahlgren, C; Nilsson, S; Andersen, O

    2009-04-01

    Upper respiratory infections were reported to trigger multiple sclerosis relapses. A relationship between picornavirus infections and MS relapses was recently reported. To evaluate whether human rhinovirus is associated with multiple sclerosis relapses and whether any particular strain is predominant. Nasopharyngeal fluid was aspirated from 36 multiple sclerosis patients at pre-defined critical time points. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR was performed to detect human rhinovirus-RNA. Positive amplicons were sequenced. We found that rhinovirus RNA was present in 17/40 (43%) of specimens obtained at the onset of a URTI in 19 patients, in 1/21 specimens during convalescence after URTI in 14 patients, in 0/6 specimens obtained in 5 patients on average a week after the onset of an "at risk" relapse, occurring within a window in time from one week before to three weeks after an infection, and in 0/17 specimens obtained after the onset of a "not at risk" relapse not associated with any infection in 12 patients. Fifteen specimens from healthy control persons not associated with URTI were negative. The frequency of HRV presence in URTI was similar to that reported for community infections. Eight amplicons from patients represented 5 different HRV strains. We were unable to reproduce previous findings of association between HRV infections and multiple sclerosis relapses. HRV was not present in nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained during "at risk" or "not at risk" relapses. Sequencing of HRV obtained from patients during URTI did not reveal any strain with predominance in multiple sclerosis.

  4. Translational validity of PASAT and the effect of fatigue and mood in patients with relapsing remitting MS: A functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Iancheva, Dessislava; Trenova, Anastasiya G; Terziyski, Kiril; Kandilarova, Sevdalina; Mantarova, Stefka

    2018-04-03

    Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is used for assessment of information processing speed, attention, and working memory, which are the most frequently affected cognitive domains in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and may be significantly affected by fatigue. However, the effect of fatigue and mood on the PASAT performance in MS patients translationally validated by fMRI has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the translational validity of the PASAT, using fMRI during a paced visual serial addition test (PVSAT) paradigm in patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and to assess the impact of fatigue and mood on test performance. Fourteen patients with RRMS in remission and 14 healthy controls, matched by sex, age, and educational status, were enrolled in the study. The subjects underwent a standard neurological examination, neuropsychological evaluation with the PASAT 3', fMRI scanning with a PVSAT paradigm, and Beck Depression Inventory. All patients were assessed by the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test score was lower in patients (41.4 ± 15.5 vs 51.6 ± 7.5, P = .035). A moderate negative correlation (P = -0.563, P = 0.036) was found between PASAT and MIFS scores. The fMRI scanning showed significant activations in several clusters that differed between patients and controls. The patient group presented wider cluster activation; Brodmann area (BA) 6-bilaterally; left BA7, 8, and 9; and right BA40, while controls presented with activations in left BA6 and BA44. Significant negative correlations between PASAT score and cortical activations in left BA23, right BA32, and left BA7 were observed in patients only. Our results show that poorer performance on the PASAT is associated with higher activation in areas connected with working memory, attention, and emotional processes during the fMRI assessment with PVSAT paradigm, which provides evidence for the translational validity of the

  5. Early-Onset Multiple Sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran: Report of the Demographic and Clinical Features of 221 Patients.

    PubMed

    Etemadifar, Masoud; Nourian, Sayed-Mohammadamin; Nourian, Niloofaralsadat; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Sayahi, Farnaz; Saraf, Zahra; Fereidan-Esfahani, Mahboobeh

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that early-onset multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis (early-onset multiple sclerosis) approximately incorporates 3-5% of the multiple sclerosis population. In this report on early-onset multiple sclerosis, the authors aimed to define demographic, clinical and imaging features in a case-series of true-childhood multiple sclerosis and to compare its characteristics with juvenile multiple sclerosis. The authors inspected the records of multiple sclerosis patients who were registered by Isfahan MS Society. Clinical and demographic data of children with less than 16 years of age were reviewed retrospectively. Out of 4536 multiple sclerosis patients referred to the authors' center, 221 patients (4.8%) had multiple sclerosis starting at the age of 16 or less (11 true-childhood multiple sclerosis vs 210 juvenile-onset multiple sclerosis); the female to male ratio was 4.81:1. In the mean follow-up period of 6.2 years, 22 patients (10.5%) had positive family history of multiple sclerosis, 196 (88.6%) patients were classified as relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the mean (± SD Expanded Disability Status Scale) was 1.5 ± 1.1 at the last evaluation. The most common initial presentation was optic nerve involvement (36.1%) and cerebellar sign and symptoms (14.6%). In all, 13 patients (5.8%) had experienced seizure in the course of multiple sclerosis. This study indicated that early-onset multiple sclerosis is not rare condition and overwhelmingly affects girls even at prepubertal onset. Physicians should consider multiple sclerosis in suspicious pediatric cases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Socio-economic status influences access to second-line disease modifying treatment in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Dejardin, Olivier; Droulon, Karine; Launoy, Guy; Defer, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    Objective In MS, Socio-Economic status (SES) may influence healthcare and access to disease-modifying treatments (DMTs). Optimising delays to switch patients to a second-line DMT may hamper disease progression most effectively and achieve long term disease control. The objective of this study is to identify the influence of SES on the delay between first and second line DMT in RRMS patients, in Western-Normandy, France. Methods The association between SES and the delay to access a second-line DMT were studied using data from the MS registry of Western-Normandy including 733 patients with a diagnosis of RRMS during the period in question [1982–2011]. We used the European Deprivation Index (EDI), a score with a rank level inversely related to SES. We performed multivariate adjusted Cox models for studying EDI effect on the delay between first and second line DMT. Results No significant influence of SES was observed on delay to access a second-line DMT if first-line DMT exposure time was less than 5 years. After 5 years from initiation of first-line treatment the risk of accessing a second-line DMT is 3 times higher for patients with lower deprivation indices (1st quintile of EDI) ([HR] 3.14 95%CI [1.72–5.72], p-value<0.001) compared to patients with higher values (EDI quintiles 2 to 5). Interpretation In RRMS, a high SES may facilitate access to a second-line DMT a few years after first-line DMT exposure. Greater consideration should also be given to the SES of MS patients as a risk factor in therapeutic healthcare issues throughout medical follow-up. PMID:29390025

  7. Prognostic value of free light chains lambda and kappa in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Margarete M; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Pirpamer, Lukas; Jehna, Margit; Langkammer, Christian; Scharnagl, Hubert; Reindl, Markus; Ropele, Stefan; Seifert-Held, Thomas; Archelos, Juan-Jose; Fuchs, Siegrid; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Khalil, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC) have been suggested as quantitative alternative to oligoclonal bands (OCB) in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, little is known on their role in predicting clinical and paraclinical disease progression, particularly in early stages. To assess the prognostic value of FLC in OCB-positive patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS and early MS. We determined FLC kappa (KFLC) and lambda (LFLC) in CSF and serum by nephelometry in 61 patients (CIS ( n = 48), relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis ( n = 13)) and 60 non-inflammatory neurological controls. Median clinical follow-up time in CIS was 4.8 years (interquartile range (IQR), 1.5-6.5 years). Patients underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and follow-up (median time interval, 2.2 years; IQR, 1.0-3.7 years) to determine T2 lesion load (T2LL) and percent brain volume change (PBVC). CSF FLC were significantly increased in CIS/MS compared to controls (all p < 0.001). A lower KFLC/LFLC CSF ratio was associated with CIS-clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) conversion (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-7.14; p < 0.05). No correlations were found for FLC variables with T2LL or PBVC. Our study confirms increased intrathecal synthesis of FLC in CIS/MS which supports their diagnostic contribution. The KFLC/LFLC CSF ratio appears to have a prognostic value in CIS beyond OCB.

  8. The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scalfari, Antonio; Romualdi, Chiara; Nicholas, Richard S; Mattoscio, Miriam; Magliozzi, Roberta; Morra, Aldo; Monaco, Salvatore; Muraro, Paolo A; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS. Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP. Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Symptomatic Therapy and Rehabilitation in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and a major cause of chronic neurological disability in young adults. Primary progressive MS (PPMS) constitutes about 10% of cases, and is characterized by a steady decline in function with no acute attacks. The rate of deterioration from disease onset is more rapid than relapsing remitting and secondary progressive MS types. Multiple system involvement at onset and rapid early progression have a worse prognosis. PPMS can cause significant disability and impact on quality of life. Recent studies are biased in favour of relapsing remitting patients as treatment is now available for them and they are more likely to be seen at MS clinics. Since prognosis for PPMS is worse than other types of MS, the focus of rehabilitation is on managing disability and enhancing participation, and application of a “neuropalliative” approach as the disease progresses. This chapter presents the symptomatic treatment and rehabilitation for persons with MS, including PPMS. A multidisciplinary approach optimizes the intermediate and long-term medical, psychological and social outcomes in this population. Restoration and maintenance of functional independence and societal reintegration, and issues relating to quality of life are addressed in rehabilitation processes. PMID:22013521

  10. Gut microbiota in early pediatric multiple sclerosis: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tremlett, Helen; Fadrosh, Douglas W; Faruqi, Ali A; Zhu, Feng; Hart, Janace; Roalstad, Shelly; Graves, Jennifer; Lynch, Susan; Waubant, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Alterations in the gut microbial community composition may be influential in neurological disease. Microbial community profiles were compared between early onset pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and control children similar for age and sex. Children ≤18 years old within 2 years of MS onset or controls without autoimmune disorders attending a University of California, San Francisco, USA, pediatric clinic were examined for fecal bacterial community composition and predicted function by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis. Associations between subject characteristics and the microbiota, including beta diversity and taxa abundance, were identified using non-parametric tests, permutational multivariate analysis of variance and negative binomial regression. Eighteen relapsing-remitting MS cases and 17 controls (mean age 13 years; range 4-18) were studied. Cases had a short disease duration (mean 11 months; range 2-24) and half were immunomodulatory drug (IMD) naïve. Whilst overall gut bacterial beta diversity was not significantly related to MS status, IMD exposure was (Canberra, P < 0.02). However, relative to controls, MS cases had a significant enrichment in relative abundance for members of the Desulfovibrionaceae (Bilophila, Desulfovibrio and Christensenellaceae) and depletion in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae (all P and q < 0.000005). Microbial genes predicted as enriched in MS versus controls included those involved in glutathione metabolism (Mann-Whitney, P = 0.017), findings that were consistent regardless of IMD exposure. In recent onset pediatric MS, perturbations in the gut microbiome composition were observed, in parallel with predicted enrichment of metabolic pathways associated with neurodegeneration. Findings were suggestive of a pro-inflammatory milieu. © 2016 EAN.

  11. Time matters - acute stress response and glucocorticoid sensitivity in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kern, Simone; Rohleder, Nicolas; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lange, Jan; Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2014-10-01

    Psychosocial stress has frequently been associated with disease activity and acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite this well established finding, strikingly little is known about the acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) stress response in MS. Twenty-six early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients and seventeen age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (CS) took part in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a well validated psycho-social laboratory stress protocol. Repeated blood samples were analyzed for stress-related cortisol and catecholamine levels as well as for glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS) of target immune cells. Chronic and acute stress appraisals were assessed by self-report measures. RRMS patients and CS did not differ in stress-related cortisol/catecholamine levels, GCS or stress appraisal in response to the TSST. However, cortisol release as well as GCS was strongly correlated with time since diagnosis but not with neurological disability. Patients with shorter disease duration (2-12 months) expressed a significantly higher cortisol stress response while MS patients with longer disease duration (14-36 months) showed a significantly diminished HPA response as well as lower post-stress GCS. There is evidence for a time-dependent variability in the HPA stress system with an increased cortisol stress response in the first year after diagnosis along with a more blunted HPA stress response and a diminished GCS in subsequent disease stages. Data underscore the highly dynamic nature of HPA axis regulation in the MS disease process, which could possibly relate to compensatory mechanisms within a cytokine-HPA axis feedback circuit model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    SciT

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We foundmore » that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.« less

  13. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

    ... Library & Education Programs Email newsletter Mood Changes Webinar Series Momentum Magazine Educational Videos Knowledge Is Power Live ... the periods of remission. At different points in time, RRMS can be further characterized as either active ( ...

  14. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of multiple sclerosis in paediatric population in Slovenia: A descriptive nation-wide study.

    PubMed

    Bizjak, Neli; Osredkar, Damjan; Perković Benedik, Mirjana; Šega Jazbec, Saša

    2017-11-01

    Although multiple sclerosis usually affects young adults, paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (pMS) is increasingly recognized in the past ten years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of pMS in Slovenia and to characterize the clinical, laboratory and neuroradiological characteristics of pMS at the disease onset. We performed a national retrospective descriptive study including all patients diagnosed with pMS between January 1992 and June 2017. We reviewed data of all patients younger than 18 years at the first demyelinating event. The estimated incidence of pMS was 0.66/100,000 children per year. We included 61 patients (77% were female) with a median age at diagnosis of 16.3 years. In 4 patients, onset of pMS was before the age of 12 years old (childhood-onset pMS). Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was most prevalent, with only 2 patients presenting a primary progressive pMS. Polysymptomatic pMS was found at onset in 59% of patients and monosymptomatic in 41%. In the cerebrospinal fluid study, 88% of patients had positive oligoclonal bands. Brain magnetic resonance imaging studies showed a predominant supratentorial involvement (100% of patients). The clinical pattern of pMS in our cohort of patients was characterized by polysymptomatic presentation and predominantly sensory symptoms at onset, developing a relapsing-remitting pMS pattern. It is important to gather more information about the incidence of pMS and its initial presentation and clinical course to improve early recognition and appropriate initiation of immunomodulatory treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated nuclear and cytoplasmic FTY720-phosphate in mouse embryonic fibroblasts suggests the potential for multiple mechanisms in FTY720-induced neural tube defects

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is an FDA-approved drug to treat relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. FTY720 treatment in pregnant inbred LM/Bc mice results in approximately 60% of embryos having a neural tube defect (NTD). Sphingosine kinases (Sphk1, Sphk2) phosphorylate FTY720 in vivo to form the bioactive...

  16. Searching for neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis at clinical onset: Diagnostic value of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Lenka; Axelsson, Markus; Malmeström, Clas; Imberg, Henrik; Elias, Olle; Zetterberg, Henrik; Nerman, Olle; Lycke, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegeneration occurs during the early stages of multiple sclerosis. It is an essential, devastating part of the pathophysiology. Tools for measuring the degree of neurodegeneration could improve diagnostics and patient characterization. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic value of biomarkers of degeneration in patients with recent clinical onset of suspected multiple sclerosis, and to evaluate these biomarkers for characterizing disease course. This cross-sectional study included 271 patients with clinical features of suspected multiple sclerosis onset and was the baseline of a prospective study. After diagnostic investigations, the patients were classified into the following disease groups: patients with clinically isolated syndrome (n = 4) or early relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (early RRMS; n = 93); patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with disease durations ≥2 years (established RRMS; n = 39); patients without multiple sclerosis, but showing symptoms (symptomatic controls; n = 89); and patients diagnosed with other diseases (n = 46). In addition, we included healthy controls (n = 51) and patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 23). We analyzed six biomarkers of neurodegeneration: cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels; cerebral spinal fluid glial fibrillary acidic protein; cerebral spinal fluid tau; retinal nerve fiber layer thickness; macula volume; and the brain parenchymal fraction. Except for increased cerebral spinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels, median 670 ng/L (IQR 400-2110), we could not find signs of early degeneration in the early disease group with recent clinical onset. However, the intrathecal immunoglobin G production and cerebral spinal fluid neurofilament light chain levels showed diagnostic value. Moreover, elevated levels of cerebral spinal fluid glial fibrillary acidic protein, thin retinal nerve fiber layers, and low brain parenchymal fractions were associated with

  17. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  18. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  19. Progressive multiple sclerosis: prospects for disease therapy, repair, and restoration of function.

    PubMed

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Thompson, Alan J; Fox, Robert J; Cohen, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a major cause of neurological disability, which accrues predominantly during progressive forms of the disease. Although development of multifocal inflammatory lesions is the underlying pathological process in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the gradual accumulation of disability that characterises progressive multiple sclerosis seems to result more from diffuse immune mechanisms and neurodegeneration. As a result, the 14 anti-inflammatory drugs that have regulatory approval for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis have little or no efficacy in progressive multiple sclerosis without inflammatory lesion activity. Effective therapies for progressive multiple sclerosis that prevent worsening, reverse damage, and restore function are a major unmet need. In this Series paper we summarise the current status of therapy for progressive multiple sclerosis and outline prospects for the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  1. The CombiRx trial of combined therapy with interferon and glatiramer cetate in relapsing remitting MS: Design and baseline characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, JW; Scott, TF; Lynch, SG; Cofield, SS; Nelson, F; Conwit, R; Gustafson, T; Cutter, GR; Wolinsky, JS; Lublin, FD

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon-β1a (IFNB) and glatiramer acetate (GA) are distinct therapies which are both partially effective for relapsing MS. It is not known if combining the two treatments would be more effective. Objective To review the rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the CombiRx study of combined treatment with IFNB and GA. Methods The key inclusion criteria included a diagnosis of relapsing MS, at least 2 episodes of MS activity in the previous 3 years, expanded disability status scale of 0 to 5.5, and no prior treatment with either IFNB or GA. Subjects were randomized to IFNB+GA, IFNB monotherapy, or GA monotherapy in a 2:1:1 ratio. Results From 2005 to 2009, we enrolled 1008 subjects. The participants were 72.4% female and 87.6% Caucasian with a mean age of 37.7 years. The median duration of symptoms was 2 years at entry into the study, and the mean EDSS was 2.1. On the baseline MRI, the mean total lesion load was 12.2 ml, and 40% of the participants had enhancing lesions. Conclusion We have recruited a population of patients with clinical and MRI characteristics typical for early MS. The study results will aid in deciding on the optimum early treatment. This trial should serve as a model for future studies of combination therapy. PMID:22754793

  2. A Pilot Study on Factors Involved with Work Participation in the Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A. M.; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G. A.; Visser, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. Objective To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Methods Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Results Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p = 0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r = −0.46, p = 0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Conclusion Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS. PMID:25153710

  3. A pilot study on factors involved with work participation in the early stages of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Van der Hiele, Karin; Middelkoop, Huub A M; Ruimschotel, Rob; Kamminga, Noëlle G A; Visser, Leo H

    2014-01-01

    Up to 30% of recently diagnosed MS patients lose their jobs in the first four years after diagnosis. Taking into account the personal and socio-economic importance of sustaining employment, it is of the utmost importance to examine factors involved with work participation. To investigate differences in self-reported functioning in recently diagnosed MS patients with and without a paid job. Self-reports of physical and cognitive functioning, depression, anxiety and fatigue were gathered from 44 relapsing-remitting MS patients diagnosed within 3 years. Patients with a paid job (57%) reported better physical functioning (p<0.001), better memory functioning (p = 0.01) and a lower physical impact of fatigue (p = 0.018) than patients without a paid job. Physical functioning was the main predictor of employment status in a logistic regression model. In those with a paid job better memory functioning (r = 0.54, p = 0.005) and a lower social impact of fatigue (r =  -0.46, p = 0.029) correlated with an increased number of working hours. Better physical functioning is the primary factor involved with increased work participation in early MS. Better self-reported memory functioning and less social fatigue were associated with increased working hours. These findings highlight the importance of battling these symptoms in the early stages of MS.

  4. Mobilization of Neural Precursors in the Circulating Blood of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    circulating blood of patients with multiple sclerosis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ernesto R. Bongarzone, Ph.D... multiple sclerosis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0427 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Ernesto R. Bongarzone...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is demyelinating disease that affects both men and women and is characterized by

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid B Cells Correlate with Early Brain Inflammation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kuenz, Bettina; Lutterotti, Andreas; Ehling, Rainer; Gneiss, Claudia; Haemmerle, Monika; Rainer, Carolyn; Deisenhammer, Florian; Schocke, Michael; Berger, Thomas; Reindl, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Background There is accumulating evidence from immunological, pathological and therapeutic studies that B cells are key components in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methodology/Principal Findings In this prospective study we have for the first time investigated the differences in the inflammatory response between relapsing and progressive MS by comparing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell profiles from patients at the onset of the disease (clinically isolated syndrome, CIS), relapsing-remitting (RR) and chronic progressive (CP) MS by flow cytometry. As controls we have used patients with other neurological diseases. We have found a statistically significant accumulation of CSF mature B cells (CD19+CD138−) and plasma blasts (CD19+CD138+) in CIS and RRMS. Both B cell populations were, however, not significantly increased in CPMS. Further, this accumulation of B cells correlated with acute brain inflammation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and with inflammatory CSF parameters such as the number of CSF leukocytes, intrathecal immunoglobulin M and G synthesis and intrathecal production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and the B cell chemokine CxCL-13. Conclusions Our data support an important role of CSF B cells in acute brain inflammation in CIS and RRMS. PMID:18596942

  6. Molecular Profiling of Glatiramer Acetate Early Treatment Effects in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Achiron, Anat; Feldman, Anna; Gurevich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Glatiramer acetate (GA, Copaxone®) has beneficial effects on the clinical course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the exact molecular mechanisms of GA effects are only partially understood. Objective: To characterized GA molecular effects in RRMS patients within 3 months of treatment by microarray profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods: Gene-expression profiles were determined in RRMS patients before and at 3 months after initiation of GA treatment using Affimetrix (U133A-2) microarrays containing 14,500 well-characterized human genes. Most informative genes (MIGs) of GA-induced biological convergent pathways operating in RRMS were constructed using gene functional annotation, enrichment analysis and pathway reconstruction bioinformatic softwares. Verification at the mRNA and protein level was performed by qRT-PCR and FACS. Results: GA induced a specific gene expression molecular signature that included altered expression of 480 genes within 3 months of treatment; 262 genes were up-regulated, and 218 genes were down-regulated. The main convergent mechanisms of GA effects were related to antigen-activated apoptosis, inflammation, adhesion, and MHC class-I antigen presentation. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GA treatment induces alternations of immunomodulatory gene expression patterns that are important for suppression of disease activity already at three months of treatment and can be used as molecular markers of GA activity. PMID:19893201

  7. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: Clinical features and outcome.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Amy; Ness, Jayne; Pohl, Daniela; Simone, Isabella Laura; Anlar, Banu; Amato, Maria Pia; Ghezzi, Angelo

    2016-08-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) in children manifests with a relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) disease course. Acute relapses consist of new neurologic deficits persisting greater than 24 hours, in the absence of intercurrent illness, and occur with a higher frequency early in the disease as compared to adult-onset RRMS. Most pediatric patients with MS recover well from these early relapses, and cumulative physical disability is rare in the first 10 years of disease. Brainstem attacks, poor recovery from a single attack, and a higher frequency of attacks portend a greater likelihood of future disability. Although prospective pediatric-onset MS cohorts have been established in recent years, there remains very limited prospective data detailing the longer-term clinical outcome of pediatric-onset MS into adulthood. Whether the advent of MS therapies, and the largely off-label access to such therapies in pediatric MS, has improved prognosis is unknown. MS onset during the key formative academic years, concurrent with active cognitive maturation, is an important determinant of long-term outcome, and is discussed in detail in another article in this supplement. Finally, increasing recognition of pediatric MS worldwide, recent launch of phase III trials for new agents in the pediatric MS population, and the clear imperative to more fully appreciate health-related quality of life in pediatric MS through adulthood highlight the need for standardized, validated, and robust outcome measures. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Heart rate variability is differentially altered in multiple sclerosis: implications for acute, worsening and progressive disability.

    PubMed

    Studer, Valeria; Rocchi, Camilla; Motta, Caterina; Lauretti, Benedetta; Perugini, Jacopo; Brambilla, Laura; Pareja-Gutierrez, Lorena; Camera, Giorgia; Barbieri, Francesca Romana; Marfia, Girolama A; Centonze, Diego; Rossi, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Sympathovagal imbalance has been associated with poor prognosis in chronic diseases, but there is conflicting evidence in multiple sclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the autonomic nervous system dysfunction correlation with inflammation and progression in multiple sclerosis. Heart rate variability was analysed in 120 multiple sclerosis patients and 60 healthy controls during supine rest and head-up tilt test; the normalised units of low frequency and high frequency power were considered to assess sympathetic and vagal components, respectively. Correlation analyses with clinical and radiological markers of disease activity and progression were performed. Sympathetic dysfunction was closely related to the progression of disability in multiple sclerosis: progressive patients showed altered heart rate variability with respect to healthy controls and relapsing-remitting patients, with higher rest low frequency power and lacking the expected low frequency power increase during the head-up tilt test. In relapsing-remitting patients, disease activity, even subclinical, was associated with lower rest low frequency power, whereas stable relapsing-remitting patients did not differ from healthy controls. Less sympathetic reactivity and higher low frequency power at rest were associated with incomplete recovery from relapse. Autonomic balance appears to be intimately linked with both the inflammatory activity of multiple sclerosis, which is featured by an overall hypoactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and its compensatory plastic processes, which appear inefficient in case of worsening and progressive multiple sclerosis.

  9. Delayed P100-Like Latencies in Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Investigation Using Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kiiski, Hanni S. M.; Ní Riada, Sinéad; Lalor, Edmund C.; Gonçalves, Nuno R.; Nolan, Hugh; Whelan, Robert; Lonergan, Róisín; Kelly, Siobhán; O'Brien, Marie Claire; Kinsella, Katie; Bramham, Jessica; Burke, Teresa; Ó Donnchadha, Seán; Hutchinson, Michael; Tubridy, Niall; Reilly, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Conduction along the optic nerve is often slowed in multiple sclerosis (MS). This is typically assessed by measuring the latency of the P100 component of the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) using electroencephalography. The Visual Evoked Spread Spectrum Analysis (VESPA) method, which involves modulating the contrast of a continuous visual stimulus over time, can produce a visually evoked response analogous to the P100 but with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and potentially higher sensitivity to individual differences in comparison to the VEP. The main objective of the study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the utility of the VESPA method for probing and monitoring visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. The latencies and amplitudes of the P100-like VESPA component were compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients, and multiple sclerosis subgroups. The P100-like VESPA component activations were examined at baseline and over a 3-year period. The study included 43 multiple sclerosis patients (23 relapsing-remitting MS, 20 secondary-progressive MS) and 42 healthy controls who completed the VESPA at baseline. The follow-up sessions were conducted 12 months after baseline with 24 MS patients (15 relapsing-remitting MS, 9 secondary-progressive MS) and 23 controls, and again at 24 months post-baseline with 19 MS patients (13 relapsing-remitting MS, 6 secondary-progressive MS) and 14 controls. The results showed P100-like VESPA latencies to be delayed in multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls over the 24-month period. Secondary-progressive MS patients had most pronounced delay in P100-like VESPA latency relative to relapsing-remitting MS and controls. There were no longitudinal P100-like VESPA response differences. These findings suggest that the VESPA method is a reproducible electrophysiological method that may have potential utility in the assessment of visual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis. PMID:26726800

  10. Lower Aerobic Endurance Linked to History of Depression in Multiple Sclerosis: Preliminary Observations.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Kimberly R; Anderson, Jason R; Calvo, Dayana; Pollock, Brandon S; Petersen, Jennifer; Gerhart, Hayden; Ridgel, Angela; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2018-06-01

    Despite the demonstrated benefits of exercise in multiple sclerosis (MS), this population shows low rates of physical activity. Understanding barriers to exercise in persons with MS is important. The current study examined the relationship between lifetime history of depression, current depressive symptoms, and aerobic endurance in persons with relapsing-remitting MS to determine whether depression might be one such barrier. Thirty-one participants with relapsing-remitting MS self-reported current depressive symptoms and history of depression. Aerobic endurance was assessed via 2-Minute Step Test. Linear regression demonstrated that lifetime history of depression predicted lower aerobic fitness whereas current depressive symptoms did not. Findings suggest a possible role of lifetime depression as a barrier to exercise in MS and highlight the importance of effective treatment of depression in this population to reduce its potential impact on exercise adherence.

  11. A preliminary study into the sensitivity of disease activity detection by serial weekly magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lai, M; Hodgson, T; Gawne-Cain, M; Webb, S; MacManus, D; McDonald, W I; Thompson, A J; Miller, D H

    1996-01-01

    Long TR and gadolinium enhanced spin echo brain MRI was performed weekly for three months in three patients with relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. During the study, 38 new enhancing lesions were seen; 11 showed enhancement for less than four weeks, and two enhanced on only one scan. All 16 new lesions seen on long TR scans showed initial enhancement. When only every fourth (monthly) scan was analysed, a total of 33 new enhancing lesions were seen. Subject to confirmation in a larger cohort, the results suggest: (a) that blood brain barrier leakage is an invariable event in new lesion development in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis; (b) the small increase in sensitivity of weekly scanning does not justify its use in preference to monthly scanning when monitoring treatments. Images PMID:8609517

  12. Novel Insights and Therapeutics in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Catriona A; Goverman, Joan M

    2015-01-01

    The last twelve years have witnessed the development of new therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that demonstrate increased efficacy relative to previous therapies. Many of these new drugs target the inflammatory phase of disease by manipulating different aspects of the immune system. While these new treatments are promising, the development of therapies for patients with progressive multiple sclerosis remains a significant challenge. We discuss the distinct mechanisms that may contribute to these two types of multiple sclerosis and the implications of these differences in the development of new therapeutic targets for this debilitating disease.

  13. Cognitive impairment at diagnosis predicts 10-year multiple sclerosis progression.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Lanzillo, Roberta; Palladino, Raffaele; Chang, Kiara Chu-Mei; Costabile, Teresa; Russo, Cinzia; De Rosa, Anna; Carotenuto, Antonio; Saccà, Francesco; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairment occurs from the early phases of multiple sclerosis (MS), and more frequently affects secondary progressive (SP) subjects than relapsing-remitting (RR). To investigate relationships between cognitive dysfunctions in newly diagnosed RRMS, and long-term MS-related outcomes. The present 10-year retrospective longitudinal study included 155 RRMS subjects, tested with the Rao Brief Repeatable Battery at MS diagnosis. The reaching of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 4.0, and the SP conversion were recorded. 67 subjects (43.2%) reached EDSS 4.0, and 34 subjects (21.9%) converted to SP during a follow-up period of 10.0±1.8 years. Subjects with cognitive impairment at diagnosis had a rate of reaching EDSS 4.0 more than three times greater (p<0.001; HR=3.183), and a rate of SP conversion more than two times greater, as compared to cognitively preserved subjects (p=0.008; HR=2.535). In particular, better scores in the Selective Reminding Test-Delayed Recall and in the Symbol Digit Modalities Test at baseline were associated with lower SP conversion rates during the follow-up period (p=0.018; HR=0.835; and p=0.001; HR=0.941, respectively). Cognitive impairment, with particular involvement of processing speed and memory, predicts disability progression and SP conversion in newly diagnosed RRMS, highlighting the importance of cognitive assessment from the beginning of MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  14. Calcium-phosphate metabolism in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kubicka-Baczyk, K; Labuz-Roszak, B; Pierzchala, K; Adamczyk-Sowa, M; Machowska-Majchrzak, A

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism at different periods of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Forty-five patients, residents of Poland (49°-50°, N), were enrolled in the study, i.e. 15 immediately after the diagnosis of RRMS, 15 at the early stage and 15 at the advanced stage of RRMS. The results were compared to values obtained in 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Lower serum concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and ionised calcium were found in patients compared to the control group. In patients with the disease duration of 5-6 years, concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and ionised calcium were lower than in patients in the earlier period of RRMS. The inverse and clearer direction of changes was found in parathormone serum concentration in patients compared to the controls. In patients with a longer disease duration, a significantly lower 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentration was found in female patients compared to male patients. In patients, more frequent 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and unsaturated fatty acids' supplementation was observed compared to the controls. In RRMS patients, calcium-phosphate metabolism is disturbed which increases during disease progression.

  15. Information processing efficiency in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Archibald, C J; Fisk, J D

    2000-10-01

    Reduced information processing efficiency, consequent to impaired neural transmission, has been proposed as underlying various cognitive problems in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This study employed two measures developed from experimental psychology that control for the potential confound of perceptual-motor abnormalities (Salthouse, Babcock, & Shaw, 1991; Sternberg, 1966, 1969) to assess the speed of information processing and working memory capacity in patients with mild to moderate MS. Although patients had significantly more cognitive complaints than neurologically intact matched controls, their performance on standard tests of immediate memory span did not differ from control participants and their word list learning was within normal limits. On the experimental measures, both relapsing-remitting and secondary-progressive patients exhibited significantly slowed information processing speed relative to controls. However, only the secondary-progressive patients had an additional decrement in working memory capacity. Depression, fatigue, or neurologic disability did not account for performance differences on these measures. While speed of information processing may be slowed early in the disease process, deficits in working memory capacity may appear only as there is progression of MS. It is these latter deficits, however, that may underlie the impairment of new learning that patients with MS demonstrate.

  16. Similar autobiographical memory impairment in long-term secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, S; Saur, R; Greve, B; Melms, A; Hautzinger, M; Fallgatter, A J; Leyhe, T

    2013-02-01

    Memory disturbance is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about autobiographical memory deficits in the long-term course of different MS subtypes. Inflammatory activity and demyelination is pronounced in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) whereas, similar to Alzheimer's disease, neurodegeneration affecting autobiographical memory-associated areas is seen in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). In light of distinct disease mechanisms, we evaluated autobiographical memory in different MS subtypes and hypothesized similarities between elderly patients with SPMS and Alzheimer's disease. We used the Autobiographical Memory Interview to assess episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in 112 education- and gender-matched participants, including healthy controls and patients with RRMS, SPMS, amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and early Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Patients with SPMS, AD, and aMCI, but not with RRMS, exhibited a pattern of episodic autobiographical memory impairment that followed Ribot's Law; older memories were better preserved than more recent memories. In contrast to aMCI and AD, neither SPMS nor RRMS was associated with semantic autobiographical memory impairment. Our neuropsychological findings suggest that episodic autobiographical memory is affected in long-term patients with SPMS, possibly due to neurodegenerative processes in functional relevant brain regions.

  17. Multiple Sclerosis: Epidemiologic, Clinical, and Therapeutic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Montalban, Xavier

    2017-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune and degenerative disease of the central nervous system that affects young people. MS develops in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to different unknown triggering factors. Different phenotypes are described. About 15% of patients present with a primary progressive course and 85% with a relapsing-remitting course. An increasing number of disease-modifying treatments has emerged. Although encouraging, the number of drugs challenges the neurologist because each treatment has its own risk-benefit profile. Patients should be involved in the decision-making process to ensure good treatment and safety monitoring adherence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kobelt, Gisela; Thompson, Alan; Berg, Jenny; Gannedahl, Mia; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    The current focus in multiple sclerosis (MS) is on early diagnosis and drug intervention, with a view to modifying disease progression. Consequently, healthcare costs have shifted from inpatient care and rehabilitation to outpatient care. This European burden of illness study provides data that can be combined with other evidence to assess whether management approaches provide value to society. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 countries. Patients reported on their disease, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and resource consumption. Descriptive analyses were performed by disease severity. Costs are reported from a societal perspective in 2015€ PPP (adjusted for purchasing power parity). The 16,808 participants had a mean age of 51.5 years, and 52% had relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Work capacity declined from 82% to 8%, and utility declined from normal population values to less than zero with advancing disease. Mean costs were 22,800€ PPP in mild, 37,100€ PPP in moderate and 57,500€ PPP in severe disease; healthcare accounted for 68%, 47% and 26%, respectively. Fatigue and cognitive difficulties were reported by 95% and 71% of participants, respectively; both had a significant independent effect on utility. Costs and utility were highly correlated with disease severity, but resource consumption was heavily influenced by healthcare systems organisation and availability of services.

  19. Inter-hemispheric Functional Connectivity Changes with Corpus Callosum Morphology in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Giancarlo; Luders, Eileen; Tomasevic, Leo; Lupoi, Domenico; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Rossini, Paolo M.; Filippi, Maria M.; Tecchio, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects myelin sheaths within the central nervous system, concurring to cause brain atrophy and neurodegeneration as well as gradual functional disconnections. To explore early signs of altered connectivity in MS from a structural and functional perspective, the morphology of corpus callosum (CC) was correlated with a dynamic inter-hemispheric connectivity index. Twenty mildly disabled patients affected by a relapsing-remitting (RR) form of MS (EDSS ≤ 3.5) and 15 healthy subjects underwent structural MRI to measure CC thickness over 100 sections and electroencephalography to assess a spectral coherence index between primary regions devoted to hand control, at rest and during an isometric handgrip. In patients, an overall CC atrophy was associated with increased lesion load. A less efficacious inter-hemispheric coherence during movement was associated with CC atrophy in sections interconnecting homologous primary motor areas (anterior mid-body). In healthy controls, less efficacious inter-hemispheric coherence at rest was associated with a thinner CC splenium. Our data suggest that in mildly disabled RR-MS patients a covert impairment may be detected in the correlation between the structural (CC thickness) and functional (inter-hemispheric coherence) measures of homologous networks, whereas these two counterparts do not yet differ individually from controls. PMID:24486438

  20. Intersections of pathways involving biotin and iron relative to therapeutic mechanisms for progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Heidker, Rebecca M; Emerson, Mitchell R; LeVine, Steven M

    2016-12-01

    While there are a variety of therapies for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a lack of treatments for progressive MS. An early study indicated that high dose biotin therapy has beneficial effects in approximately 12-15% of patients with progressive MS. The mechanisms behind the putative improvements seen with biotin therapy are not well understood, but have been postulated to include: 1) improving mitochondrial function which is impaired in MS, 2) increasing synthesis of lipids and cholesterol to facilitate remyelination, and 3) affecting gene expression. We suggest one reason that a greater percentage of patients with MS didn't respond to biotin therapy is the inaccessibility or lack of other nutrients, such as iron. In addition to biotin, iron (or heme) is necessary for energy production, biosynthesis of cholesterol and lipids, and for some protective mechanisms. Both biotin and iron are required for myelination during development, and by inference, remyelination. However, iron can also play a role in the pathology of MS. Increased deposition of iron can occur in some CNS structures possibly promoting oxidative damage while low iron levels can occur in other areas. Thus, the potential, detrimental effects of iron need to be considered together with the need for iron to support metabolic demands associated with repair and/or protective processes. We propose the optimal utilization of iron may be necessary to maximize the beneficial effects of biotin. This review will examine the interactions between biotin and iron in pathways that may have therapeutic or pathogenic implications for MS.

  1. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulators for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Burhan Z; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Conway, Devon S

    2017-10-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR) modulators possess a unique mechanism of action in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Subtype 1 of the S1PR is expressed on the surface of lymphocytes and is important in regulating egression from lymph nodes. The S1PR modulators indirectly antagonize the receptor's function leading to sequestration of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. Fingolimod was the first S1PR modulator to receive regulatory approval for relapsing-remitting MS after 2 phase III trials demonstrated potent efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Fingolimod can cause undesirable effects as a result of its interaction with other S1PR subtypes, which are expressed in diverse tissues, including cardiac myocytes. As such, agents that more selectively target subtype 1 of the S1PR are of interest and are at various stages of development. These include ponesimod (ACT128800), siponimod (BAF312), ozanimod (RPC1063), ceralifimod (ONO-4641), GSK2018682, and MT-1303. Data from phase II trials and early results from phase III studies have been promising and will be presented in this review. Of special interest are results from the EXPAND study of siponimod, which suggest a potential role for S1PR modulators in secondary progressive MS.

  2. Effect of oral cladribine on time to conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis in patients with a first demyelinating event (ORACLE MS): a phase 3 randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Leist, Thomas P; Comi, Giancarlo; Cree, Bruce A C; Coyle, Patricia K; Freedman, Mark S; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Vermersch, Patrick; Casset-Semanaz, Florence; Scaramozza, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Patients who develop relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) present with a first clinical demyelinating event. In this double-blind, multicentre, randomised, phase 3 study we investigated the effect of oral cladribine on conversion to clinically definite MS in patients with a first clinical demyelinating event, when given at the same doses shown to be effective in relapsing-remitting MS. Between Oct 21, 2008, and Oct 11, 2010, we recruited patients aged 18-55 years, inclusive, from 160 hospitals, private clinics, or treatment centres in 34 countries. Eligible patients had a first clinical demyelinating event within 75 days before screening, at least two clinically silent lesions of at least 3 mm on a T2-weighted brain MRI scan, and an Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 5.0 or lower. Patients with a first clinical demyelinating event ≤75 days before screening were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive cladribine tablets at cumulative doses of 5.25 mg/kg or 3.5 mg/kg or placebo. Randomisation was done with a central web-based randomisation system and was stratified by geographic region. Masking was maintained using a two-physician model. The primary endpoint of this 96-week study was time to conversion to clinically definite MS according to the Poser criteria. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00725985. Of 903 participants assessed for eligibility, 616 patients received cladribine 5.25 mg/kg (n=204), cladribine 3.5 mg/kg (n=206), or placebo (n=206). At trial termination on Oct 25, 2011, cladribine was associated with a risk reduction versus placebo for time to conversion to clinically definite MS (hazard ratio [HR] for 5.25 mg/kg=0.38, 95% CI 0.25-0.58, p<0.0001; HR for 3.5 mg/kg=0.33, 0.21-0.51, p<0.0001). Adverse events were reported in 165 (81%) patients in the cladribine 5.25 mg/kg group, 168 (82%) patients in the cladribine 3.5 mg/kg group, and 162 (79%) patients in the placebo group. We noted no increase in risk of adverse

  3. Early pregnancy assessment in multiple pregnancies.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, Francesco; Bhide, Amar

    2014-02-01

    Early ultrasound assessment and accurate determination of chorionicity is crucial so that appropriate care of multiple pregnancy can be provided. It is best achieved in the first trimester of pregnancy using the Lambda 'λ' and 'T' signs. Accurate labelling of the twins is needed to ensure that the same individual fetus is measured through the pregnancy so that the longitudinal growth pattern can be correctly assessed. Discrepancy in crown-rump length indicates a possibility for future development of selective intrauterine growth restriction. Careful early ultrasound assessment is needed to identify structural and chromosomal anomalies, as twin pregnancies are at increased risk. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, selective intrauterine growth restriction and congenital abnormalities represent the major determinants of perinatal loss in monochorionic pregnancies, and diagnosis and prognosis are discussed in detail. Treatment of twin reverse arterial perfusion sequence is more effective in early pregnancy, so early identification is needed. Outcome of conjoined twins is guarded, and is dependent on the extent of fusion, degree of sharing of organs, associated anomalies, and presence of cardiac failure in utero. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Complementopathy after Multiple Injuries in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Burk, Anne-Maud; Martin, Myriam; Flierl, Michael A.; Rittirsch, Daniel; Helm, Matthias; Lampl, Lorenz; Bruckner, Uwe; Stahl, Gregory L.; Blom, Anna M.; Perl, Mario; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    After severe tissue injury, innate immunity mounts a robust systemic inflammatory response. However, little is known about the immediate impact of multiple trauma on early complement function in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that multiple trauma results in immediate activation, consumption and dysfunction of the complement cascade and that the resulting severe “complementopathy” may be associated with morbidity and mortality. Therefore a prospective multicenter study with 25 healthy volunteers and 40 polytrauma patients (mean injury severity score [ISS] = 30.3 ± 2.9) was performed. After polytrauma serum was collected as early as possible at the scene, upon admission to the emergency room and 4, 12, 24, 120 and 240 hours post trauma and analysed for the complement profile. Complement hemolytic activity (CH-50) was massively reduced within the first 24 h after injury, recovered only 5 days after trauma and discriminated between lethal and non-lethal 28-day outcome. Serum levels of the complement activation products C3a and C5a were significantly elevated throughout the entire observation period and correlated with the severity of traumatic brain injury and survival. The soluble terminal complement complex SC5b-9 and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) showed a biphasic response after trauma. Key fluid phase inhibitors of complement, such as C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and factor I, were significantly diminished early after trauma. The present data indicate an almost synchronically rapid activation and dysfunction of complement suggesting a trauma-induced “complementopathy” early after injury. These events may participate to the impairment of the innate immune response observed after severe trauma. PMID:22258234

  5. Neural Correlates of Alerting and Orienting Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; González-Rosa, Javier J.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio R.; Borges, Mónica; Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Background A considerable percentage of multiple sclerosis patients have attentional impairment, but understanding its neurophysiological basis remains a challenge. The Attention Network Test allows 3 attentional networks to be studied. Previous behavioural studies using this test have shown that the alerting network is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify neurophysiological indexes of the attention impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using this test. Results After general slowing had been removed in patients group to isolate the effects of each condition, some behavioral differences between them were obtained. About Contingent Negative Variation, a statistically significant decrement were found in the amplitude for Central and Spatial Cue Conditions for patient group (p<0.05). ANOVAs showed for the patient group a significant latency delay for P1 and N1 components (p<0.05) and a decrease of P3 amplitude for congruent and incongruent stimuli (p<0.01). With regard to correlation analysis, PASAT-3s and SDMT showed significant correlations with behavioral measures of the Attention Network Test (p<0.01) and an ERP parameter (CNV amplitude). Conclusions Behavioral data are highly correlated with the neuropsychological scores and show that the alerting and orienting mechanisms in the patient group were impaired. Reduced amplitude for the Contingent Negative Variation in the patient group suggests that this component could be a physiological marker related to the alerting and orienting impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. P1 and N1 delayed latencies are evidence of the demyelination process that causes impairment in the first steps of the visual sensory processing. Lastly, P3 amplitude shows a general decrease for the pathological group probably indexing a more central impairment. These results suggest that the Attention Network Test give evidence of multiple levels of attention impairment, which

  6. Neural correlates of alerting and orienting impairment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; González-Rosa, Javier J; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio R; Borges, Mónica; Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    A considerable percentage of multiple sclerosis patients have attentional impairment, but understanding its neurophysiological basis remains a challenge. The Attention Network Test allows 3 attentional networks to be studied. Previous behavioural studies using this test have shown that the alerting network is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify neurophysiological indexes of the attention impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using this test. After general slowing had been removed in patients group to isolate the effects of each condition, some behavioral differences between them were obtained. About Contingent Negative Variation, a statistically significant decrement were found in the amplitude for Central and Spatial Cue Conditions for patient group (p<0.05). ANOVAs showed for the patient group a significant latency delay for P1 and N1 components (p<0.05) and a decrease of P3 amplitude for congruent and incongruent stimuli (p<0.01). With regard to correlation analysis, PASAT-3s and SDMT showed significant correlations with behavioral measures of the Attention Network Test (p<0.01) and an ERP parameter (CNV amplitude). Behavioral data are highly correlated with the neuropsychological scores and show that the alerting and orienting mechanisms in the patient group were impaired. Reduced amplitude for the Contingent Negative Variation in the patient group suggests that this component could be a physiological marker related to the alerting and orienting impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. P1 and N1 delayed latencies are evidence of the demyelination process that causes impairment in the first steps of the visual sensory processing. Lastly, P3 amplitude shows a general decrease for the pathological group probably indexing a more central impairment. These results suggest that the Attention Network Test give evidence of multiple levels of attention impairment, which could help in the assessment

  7. Effects of Acupuncture on Gait of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria Begoña; Santos, Maria João; Machado, Jorge; Gonçalves, Arminda Manuela; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2017-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis is considered a complex and heterogeneous disease. Approximately 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis indicate impaired gait as one of the major limitations in their daily life. Acupuncture studies found a reduction of spasticity and improvement of fatigue and imbalance in patients with multiple sclerosis, but there is a lack of studies regarding gait. We designed a study of acupuncture treatment, according to the Heidelberg model of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), to investigate if acupuncture can be a useful therapeutic strategy in patients with gait impairment in multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting type. The sample consisted of 20 individuals with diagnosis of multiple sclerosis of relapsing-remitting type. Gait impairment was evaluated by the 25-foot walk test. The results showed differences in time to walk 25 feet following true acupuncture. In contrast, there was no difference in time to walk 25 feet following sham acupuncture. When using true acupuncture, 95% of cases showed an improvement in 25-foot walk test, compared with 45% when sham acupuncture was done. Our study protocol provides evidence that acupuncture treatment can be an attractive option for patients with multiple sclerosis, with gait impairment.

  8. Metabolic pathways as possible therapeutic targets for progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Heidker, Rebecca M; Emerson, Mitchell R; LeVine, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    Unlike relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, there are very few therapeutic options for patients with progressive forms of multiple sclerosis. While immune mechanisms are key participants in the pathogenesis of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, the mechanisms underlying the development of progressive multiple sclerosis are less well understood. Putative mechanisms behind progressive multiple sclerosis have been put forth: insufficient energy production via mitochondrial dysfunction, activated microglia, iron accumulation, oxidative stress, activated astrocytes, Wallerian degeneration, apoptosis, etc . Furthermore, repair processes such as remyelination are incomplete. Experimental therapies that strive to improve metabolism within neurons and glia, e.g. , oligodendrocytes, could act to counter inadequate energy supplies and/or support remyelination. Most experimental approaches have been examined as standalone interventions; however, it is apparent that the biochemical steps being targeted are part of larger pathways, which are further intertwined with other metabolic pathways. Thus, the potential benefits of a tested intervention, or of an established therapy, e.g. , ocrelizumab, could be undermined by constraints on upstream and/or downstream steps. If correct, then this argues for a more comprehensive, multifaceted approach to therapy. Here we review experimental approaches to support neuronal and glial metabolism, and/or promote remyelination, which may have potential to lessen or delay progressive multiple sclerosis.

  9. A qualitative study assessing patient perspectives in the process of decision-making on disease modifying therapies (DMT's) in multiple sclerosis (MS).

    PubMed

    Ceuninck van Capelle, Archibald de; Meide, Hanneke van der; Vosman, Frans J H; Visser, Leo H

    2017-01-01

    Physicians commonly advise patients to begin disease modifying therapies (DMT's) shortly after the establishment of a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) to prevent further relapses and disease progression. However, little is known about the meaning for patients going through the process of the diagnosis of MS and of making decisions on DMT's in early MS. To explore the patient perspective on using DMT's for MS. Methods: Ten participants with a recent (< 2 years) relapsing-remitting MS diagnosis were interviewed. Seven of them were using DMT's at the time of the interview. All interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a hermeneutical-phenomenological approach. The analysis revealed the following themes: (1) Constant confrontation with the disease, (2) Managing inevitable decline, (3) Hope of delaying the progression of the disease, and, (4) The importance of social support. The themes show that patients associate the recommendation to begin DMT's (especially injectable DMT's) with views about their bodies as well as their hopes about the future. Both considering and adhering to treatment are experienced by patients as not only matters of individual and rational deliberation, but also as activities that are lived within a web of relationships with relatives and friends. From the patient perspective, the use of DMT's is not a purely rational and individual experience. More attention to the use of DMT's as relational and lived phenomena will improve the understanding of the process of decision-making for DMT's in MS.

  10. The Italian validation of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) and the application of the Cognitive Impairment Index scoring procedure in MS patients.

    PubMed

    Argento, Ornella; Incerti, Chiara C; Quartuccio, Maria E; Magistrale, Giuseppe; Francia, Ada; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pisani, Valerio; Nocentini, Ugo

    2018-04-27

    Cognitive dysfunction occurs in almost 50-60% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early stages of the disease and affects different aspects of patient's life. Aims of the present study were (1) to introduce and validate an Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive functions in MS (MACFIMS) battery and (2) to propose the use of the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) as a scoring procedure to define the degree of impairment in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients. A total of 240 HC and 123 MS patients performed the Italian version of the MACFIMS composed by the same tests as the original except for the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. The CII was derived for each score of the 11 scales for participants of both groups. The results of the study show that cognitive impairment affects around 50% of our sample of MS patients. In RRMS group, only the 15.7% of patients reported a severe impairment, while in the group of SPMS, the 51.4% of patients felt in the "severely impaired" group. Results are in line with previously reported percentages of impairment in MS patients, showing that the calculation of the CII applied to the Italian version of the MACFIMS is sensitive and reliable in detecting different degrees of impairment in MS patients.

  11. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of male multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Melis, Marta; Fenu, Giuseppe; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Grimoldi, Maria; Crippa, Donatella; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2014-08-01

    Neuroactive steroid family includes molecules synthesized in peripheral glands (i.e., hormonal steroids) and directly in the nervous system (i.e., neurosteroids) which are key regulators of the nervous function. As already reported in clinical and experimental studies, neurodegenerative diseases affect the levels of neuroactive steroids. However, a careful analysis comparing the levels of these molecules in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in plasma of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is still missing. To this aim, the levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in CSF and plasma of male adults affected by Relapsing-Remitting MS and compared with those collected in control patients. An increase in pregnenolone and isopregnanolone levels associated with a decrease in progesterone metabolites, dihydroprogesterone, and tetrahydroprogesterone was observed in CSF of MS patients. Moreover, an increase of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and of 17β-estradiol levels associated with a decrease of dihydrotestosterone also occurred. In plasma, an increase in pregnenolone, progesterone, and dihydrotestosterone and a decrease in dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone levels were reported. This study shows for the first time that the levels of several neuroactive steroids, and particularly those of progesterone and testosterone metabolites, are deeply affected in CSF of relapsing-remitting MS male patients. We here demonstrated that, the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma levels of several neuroactive steroids are modified in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis male patients. Interestingly, we reported for the first time that, the levels of progesterone and testosterone metabolites are deeply affected in cerebrospinal fluid. These findings may have an important relevance in therapeutic and/or diagnostic field of multiple sclerosis. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  12. Life-threatening autoimmune warm hemolytic anemia following treatment for multiple sclerosis with alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Benoit; Rico, Audrey; Seguier, Julie; Boutiere, Clemence; Ebbo, Mikael; Harle, Jean Robert; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Pelletier, Jean

    2018-05-01

    Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed at CD52 approved as a disease-modifying therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). To describe a case of a life-threatening autoimmune anemia occurring after a first course of alemtuzumab for relapsing-remitting MS in a 28-year-old male. Case report. A 28-year-old male developed a life-threatening autoimmune anemia occurring 11 months after first alemtuzumab course. We report the third case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia following treatment with alemtuzumab in a young MS patient. Due to the severity of this adverse event, neurologists using this treatment should be alert.

  13. Multiple sclerosis pathways: an innovative nursing role in disease management.

    PubMed

    Madonna, M G; Keating, M M

    1999-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic disease of the central nervous system, is characterized by a variable and unpredictable course. The most common pattern of the disease is the relapsing-remitting form in which clearly defined relapses (also called exacerbations) are followed by complete or incomplete recovery. Interferon beta-1b (Betaseron), a drug that affects the natural course of the disease, was developed for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS. Multiple Sclerosis Pathways (MSP), a disease management program, was developed to provide comprehensive and personal support to MS patients taking interferon beta-1b and to serve as an information resource for all people with MS, their families, and healthcare professionals. The MSP program includes personal patient assistance, reimbursement services, a 24-hour nurse hotline, training program, educational resources, and injection supplies. The nurse hotline counselor (NHC) utilizes the nursing process in a unique telephone nursing practice in this program. The positive impact of education and support on adherence to therapy has been validated by training and nurse hotline data.

  14. Trichuris suis ova therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis is safe but without signals of beneficial effect.

    PubMed

    Voldsgaard, A; Bager, P; Garde, E; Åkeson, P; Leffers, A M; Madsen, C G; Kapel, C; Roepstorff, A; Thamsborg, S M; Melbye, M; Siebner, H; Søndergaard, H B; Sellebjerg, F; Sørensen, P Soelberg

    2015-11-01

    An observational study has suggested that relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients with helminth infections have lower disease activity and progression than uninfected multiple sclerosis patients. To evaluate the safety and efficacy on MRI activity of treatment with TSO in relapsing MS. The study was an open-label, magnetic resonance imaging assessor-blinded, baseline-to-treatment study including ten patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Median (range) age was 41 (24-55) years, disease duration 9 (4-34) years, Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.5 (1-5.0), and number of relapses within the last two years 3 (2-5). Four patients received no disease modifying therapy, while six patients received IFN-β. After an observational period of 8 weeks, patients received 2500 ova from the helminth Trichuris suis orally every second week for 12 weeks. Patients were followed with serial magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examinations, laboratory safety tests and expression of immunological biomarker genes. Treatment with Trichuris suis orally was well-tolerated apart from some gastrointestinal symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 6 new or enlarged T2 lesions in the run-in period, 7 lesions in the early period and 21 lesions in the late treatment period. Two patients suffered a relapse before treatment and two during treatment. Eight patients developed eosinophilia. The expression of cytokines and transcription factors did not change. In a small group of relapsing multiple sclerosis patients, Trichuris suis oral therapy was well tolerated but without beneficial effect. © The Author(s), 2015.

  15. Brain reserve and cognitive reserve in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Maria A.; Leavitt, Victoria M.; Riccitelli, Gianna; Comi, Giancarlo; DeLuca, John; Filippi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We first tested the brain reserve (BR) hypothesis in multiple sclerosis (MS) by examining whether larger maximal lifetime brain volume (MLBV; determined by genetics) protects against disease-related cognitive impairment, and then investigated whether cognitive reserve (CR) gained through life experience (intellectually enriching leisure activities) protects against cognitive decline independently of MLBV (BR). Methods: Sixty-two patients with MS (41 relapsing-remitting MS, 21 secondary progressive MS) received MRIs to estimate BR (MLBV, estimated with intracranial volume [ICV]) and disease burden (T2 lesion load; atrophy of gray matter, white matter, thalamus, and hippocampus). Early-life cognitive leisure was measured as a source of CR. We assessed cognitive status with tasks of cognitive efficiency and memory. Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR (ICV) protects against cognitive impairment, and whether higher CR (leisure) independently protects against cognitive impairment over and above BR. Results: Cognitive status was positively associated with ICV (R2 = 0.066, p = 0.017). An ICV × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.050, p = 0.030) revealed that larger ICV attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Controlling for BR, higher education (R2 = 0.047, p = 0.030) and leisure (R2 = 0.090, p = 0.001) predicted better cognition. A leisure × disease burden interaction (R2 = 0.037, p = 0.030) showed that leisure independently attenuated the impact of disease burden on cognition. Follow-up analyses revealed that BR protected against cognitive inefficiency, not memory deficits, whereas CR was more protective against memory deficits than cognitive inefficiency. Conclusion: We provide evidence of BR in MS, and show that CR independently protects against disease-related cognitive decline over and above BR. Lifestyle choices protect against cognitive impairment independently of genetic factors outside of one's control

  16. Longitudinal relationships among posturography and gait measures in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Nora E; Newsome, Scott D; Eloyan, Ani; Marasigan, Rhul Evans R; Calabresi, Peter A; Zackowski, Kathleen M

    2015-05-19

    Gait and balance dysfunction frequently occurs early in the multiple sclerosis (MS) disease course. Hence, we sought to determine the longitudinal relationships among quantitative measures of gait and balance in individuals with MS. Fifty-seven ambulatory individuals with MS (28 relapsing-remitting, 29 progressive) were evaluated using posturography, quantitative sensorimotor and gait measures, and overall MS disability with the Expanded Disability Status Scale at each session. Our cohort's age was 45.8 ± 10.4 years (mean ± SD), follow-up time 32.8 ± 15.4 months, median Expanded Disability Status Scale score 3.5, and 56% were women. Poorer performance on balance measures was related to slower walking velocity. Two posturography measures, the anterior-posterior sway and sway during static eyes open, feet apart conditions, were significant contributors to walk velocity over time (approximate R(2) = 0.95), such that poorer performance on the posturography measures was related to slower walking velocity. Similarly, the anterior-posterior sway and sway during static eyes closed, feet together conditions were also significant contributors to the Timed 25-Foot Walk performance over time (approximate R(2) = 0.83). This longitudinal cohort study establishes a strong relationship between clinical gait measures and posturography. The data show that increases in static posturography and reductions in dynamic posturography are associated with a decline in walk velocity and Timed 25-Foot Walk performance over time. Furthermore, longitudinal balance measures predict future walking performance. Quantitative walking and balance measures are important additions to clinical testing to explore longitudinal change and understand fall risk in this progressive disease population. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Transient impairment of olfactory threshold in acute multiple sclerosis relapse.

    PubMed

    Bsteh, Gabriel; Hegen, Harald; Ladstätter, Felix; Berek, Klaus; Amprosi, Matthias; Wurth, Sebastian; Auer, Michael; Di Pauli, Franziska; Deisenhammer, Florian; Lutterotti, Andreas; Berger, Thomas

    2018-05-18

    Impairment of olfactory threshold is a feature of early and active relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). It predicts inflammatory disease activity and was reported to be transient. However, the timing of onset and resolve of olfactory threshold impairment remains unclear. To prospectively assess the development of olfactory threshold in acute MS relapse over time in comparison to stable MS patients. In a prospective observational design, we measured olfactory threshold by performing the Sniffin' Sticks test (minimum score 0, maximum score 16 reflecting optimal olfactory function) at baseline and after 4, 12 and 24 weeks. We included 30 RRMS patients with acute MS relapse and 30 clinically stable RRMS patients (defined as no relapse within the last 12 months) as a control group. Olfactory threshold was impaired in patients with acute MS relapse at baseline (median difference = -3.5; inter-quartile range [IQR] -4.5- - 2.5; p < 0.001), week 4 (-2.5; IQR -3.0 - -2.0; p < 0.001), week 12 (-1.5; IQR -2.0 - -0.5; p = 0.002) and week 24 (-0.5; IQR -1.0 - 0.0; p = 0.159) compared to stable MS patients. Of note, in relapsing patients in whom disease-modifying treatment was initiated or escalated after relapse, threshold did not differ anymore from stable patients at week 12 (-0.5; IQR -1.0 - 0.5; p = 0.247) and week 24 (0.0; IQR -1.0 - 1.0; p = 0.753). Olfactory threshold impairment seems to be a transient bystander feature of MS relapse. It may be correlated to the level of inflammation within the CNS and might be a useful biomarker in this regard. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Paradoxically aggressive multiple sclerosis in the face of natalizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Berger, J R

    2008-06-01

    In the pivotal trials of natalizumab in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (AFFIRM and SENTINEL), a dramatic reduction in relapse rate, new or enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions, and mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions was observed. While both relapses and new MRI lesions were observed in these trials, there has been no comment on the presence of aggressive disease in the face of natalizumab treatment. I report a 31-year-old woman with relapsing remitting MS of 12 years duration who developed aggressive demyelinating disease four months after the initiation of natalizumab. The clinical worsening was accompanied by a significant increase in new large T2-hyperintense signal abnormalities and in both solid and C-shaped contrast-enhancing lesions. Neither the clinical severity nor the striking MRI abnormalities had been noted earlier in her disease course. Neutralizing antibodies to natalizumab were not detected. She subsequently responded to combination therapy of pulsed methylprednisolone and daily glatiramer acetate.

  19. Information processing characteristics in subtypes of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    De Sonneville, L M J; Boringa, J B; Reuling, I E W; Lazeron, R H C; Adèr, H J; Polman, C H

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate information processing characteristics in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We selected 53 patients with MS and 58 matched healthy controls. Using computerized tests, we investigated focused, divided, sustained attention, and executive function, and attempted to pinpoint deficits in attentional control to peripheral or central processing stages. The results substantiate the hypothesis that the slowing of attention-demanding (controlled) information processing underlying more complex cognitive skills is general, i.e. irrespective of type of controlled processing, with MS patients being 40% slower than controls. MS patients may suffer from focused, and divided and sustained attention deficits, as well as from compromised central processing stages, with secondary progressive (SP) patients showing the most extensive range of deficits, closely followed by primary progressive (PP) patients, while relapsing-remitting (RR) patients appear to be much less affected. General slowing appears to be highest in PP and SP type MS patients (50% slower) versus relapsing-remitting MS (24% slower). In contrast to most previous results, (complex) processing speed appeared to be robustly correlated with severity of MS as measured by the expanded disability status scale and with disease duration. Patients did much less differ in accuracy of processing from controls, suggesting the importance of using time strategies in planning everyday life and job activities to compensate for or alleviate MS-related speed handicaps. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Platelet-derived growth factor predicts prolonged relapse-free period in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Iezzi, Ennio; Marfia, Girolama A; Simonelli, Ilaria; Musella, Alessandra; Mandolesi, Georgia; Fresegna, Diego; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Furlan, Roberto; Finardi, Annamaria; Mataluni, Giorgia; Landi, Doriana; Gilio, Luana; Centonze, Diego; Buttari, Fabio

    2018-04-14

    In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological paradox. Different factors may contribute to such discrepancy. In particular, synaptic plasticity may reduce the clinical expression of brain damage producing enduring enhancement of synaptic strength largely dependent on neurotrophin-induced protein synthesis. Cytokines released by the immune cells during acute inflammation can alter synaptic transmission and plasticity possibly influencing the clinical course of MS. In addition, immune cells may promote brain repair during the post-acute phases, by secreting different growth factors involved in neuronal and oligodendroglial cell survival. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a neurotrophic factor that could be particularly involved in clinical recovery. Indeed, PDGF promotes long-term potentiation of synaptic activity in vitro and in MS and could therefore represent a key factor improving the clinical compensation of new brain lesions. The aim of the present study is to explore whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) PDGF concentrations at the time of diagnosis may influence the clinical course of RR-MS. At the time of diagnosis, we measured in 100 consecutive early MS patients the CSF concentrations of PDGF, of the main pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and of reliable markers of neuronal damage. Clinical and radiological parameters of disease activity were prospectively collected during follow-up. CSF PDGF levels were positively correlated with prolonged relapse-free survival. Radiological markers of disease activity, biochemical markers of neuronal damage, and clinical parameters of disease progression were instead not influenced by PDGF concentrations. Higher CSF PDGF levels were associated with an anti-inflammatory milieu within the central nervous system. Our results suggest that PDGF could promote a

  1. Staging of cortical and deep grey matter functional connectivity changes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kim A; Eijlers, Anand J C; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Schoonheim, Menno M

    2018-02-01

    Functional connectivity is known to increase as well as decrease throughout the brain in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could represent different stages of the disease. In addition, functional connectivity changes could follow the atrophy pattern observed with disease progression, that is, moving from the deep grey matter towards the cortex. This study investigated when and where connectivity changes develop and explored their clinical and cognitive relevance across different MS stages. A cohort of 121 patients with early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 122 with late RRMS and 53 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) as well as 96 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity changes were investigated for (1) within deep grey matter connectivity, (2) connectivity between the deep grey matter and cortex and (3) within-cortex connectivity. A post hoc regional analysis was performed to identify which regions were driving the connectivity changes. Patients with late RRMS and SPMS showed increased connectivity of the deep grey matter, especially of the putamen and palladium, with other deep grey matter structures and with the cortex. Within-cortex connectivity was decreased, especially for temporal, occipital and frontal regions, but only in SPMS relative to early RRMS. Deep grey matter connectivity alterations were related to cognition and disability, whereas within-cortex connectivity was only related to disability. Increased connectivity of the deep grey matter became apparent in late RRMS and further increased in SPMS. The additive effect of cortical network degeneration, which was only seen in SPMS, may explain the sudden clinical deterioration characteristic to this phase of the disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Correlation between blink reflex abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Degirmenci, Eylem; Erdogan, Cagdas; Bir, Levent Sinan

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the correlation between brain magnetic resonance imaging findings and blink reflex abnormalities in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Twenty-six patients and 17 healthy subjects were included in this study. Blink reflex test (BRT) results were obtained using right and left stimulations; thus, 52 BRT results were recorded for the patient group, and 34 BRT results were recorded for the control group. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were classified based on the existence of brainstem lesions (hyperintense lesion on T2 weighted (W) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI or contrast-enhancing lesion on T1W MRI). Correlation analysis was performed for the BRT and MRI findings. The percentage of individuals with abnormal BRT results (including R1 latency, ipsilateral R2 latency, and contralateral R2 latency) was significantly higher in the patient group as compared to the control group (p values: 0.015, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between contralateral R2 latency abnormalities and brainstem lesions (p value: 0.011). Our results showed significant correlation correlations between contralateral R2 latency abnormalities and brainstem lesions and these results may be explained the effects of multiple demyelinating lesions of the brain stem of patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

  3. Machine Learning Approach for Classifying Multiple Sclerosis Courses by Combining Clinical Data with Lesion Loads and Magnetic Resonance Metabolic Features.

    PubMed

    Ion-Mărgineanu, Adrian; Kocevar, Gabriel; Stamile, Claudio; Sima, Diana M; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Van Huffel, Sabine; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is classifying multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in the four clinical forms as defined by the McDonald criteria using machine learning algorithms trained on clinical data combined with lesion loads and magnetic resonance metabolic features. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven MS patients [12 Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), 30 Relapse Remitting (RR), 17 Primary Progressive (PP), and 28 Secondary Progressive (SP)] and 18 healthy controls were included in this study. Longitudinal data available for each MS patient included clinical (e.g., age, disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale), conventional magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopic imaging. We extract N -acetyl-aspartate (NAA), Choline (Cho), and Creatine (Cre) concentrations, and we compute three features for each spectroscopic grid by averaging metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho, NAA/Cre, Cho/Cre) over good quality voxels. We built linear mixed-effects models to test for statistically significant differences between MS forms. We test nine binary classification tasks on clinical data, lesion loads, and metabolic features, using a leave-one-patient-out cross-validation method based on 100 random patient-based bootstrap selections. We compute F1-scores and BAR values after tuning Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Support Vector Machines with gaussian kernel (SVM-rbf), and Random Forests. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the disease starting points of each MS form using four different response variables: Lesion Load, NAA/Cre, NAA/Cho, and Cho/Cre ratios. Training SVM-rbf on clinical and lesion loads yields F1-scores of 71-72% for CIS vs. RR and CIS vs. RR+SP, respectively. For RR vs. PP we obtained good classification results (maximum F1-score of 85%) after training LDA on clinical and metabolic features, while for RR vs. SP we obtained slightly higher classification results (maximum F1-score of 87%) after training LDA and SVM-rbf on

  4. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographically based study. 5. The clinical features and natural history of primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, D A; Kremenchutzky, M; Rice, G P; Koopman, W J; Hader, W; Baskerville, J; Ebers, G C

    1999-04-01

    We report a natural history study of 216 patients with primary progressive (PP)- multiple sclerosis defined by at least 1 year of exacerbation-free progression at onset. This represents 19.8% of a largely population-based patient cohort having a mean longitudinal follow-up of 23 years. This subgroup of PP-multiple sclerosis patients had a mean age of onset of 38.5 years, with females predominating by a ratio of 1.3:1.0. The rate of deterioration from disease onset was substantially more rapid than for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, with a median time to disability status score (DSS) 6 and DSS 8 of 8 and 18 years, respectively. Forty-nine percent of patients were followed through to death. Examination of the early disease course revealed two groups with adverse prognostic profiles. Firstly, a shorter time to reach DSS 3 from onset of PP-multiple sclerosis significantly adversely influenced time to DSS 8. Second, involvement of three or more neurological systems at onset resulted in a median time to DSS 10 of 13.5 years in contrast to PP-multiple sclerosis patients with one system involved at onset where median time to death from multiple sclerosis was 33.2 years. However, age, gender and type of neurological system involved at onset appeared to have little influence on prognosis. Life expectancy, cause of mortality and familial history profile were similar in PP-multiple sclerosis and non-PP-multiple sclerosis (all other multiple sclerosis patients from the total population). From clinical onset, rate of progression was faster in the PP-multiple sclerosis group than in the secondary progressive (SP)-multiple sclerosis group. When the rates of progression from onset of the progressive phase to DSS 6, 8 and 10 were compared, SP-multiple sclerosis had a more rapid progressive phase. A substantial minority (28%) of the PP-multiple sclerosis cohort had a distinct relapse even decades after onset of progressive deterioration. These studies establish natural

  5. Long-term treatment with low dose naltrexone maintains stable health in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Michael D; Turel, Anthony P; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on patients at Penn State Hershey Medical Center diagnosed with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis between 2006 and 2015. Laboratory and clinical data collected over this 10-year period were reviewed. Two cohorts of patients were established based on their relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis therapy at the time of their first visit to Penn State. One group of patients ( n  = 23) was initially prescribed low dose naltrexone at the time first seen at Hershey. This group was offered low dose naltrexone because of symptoms of fatigue or refusal to take an available disease-modifying therapy. The second group of patients ( n  = 31) was treated with the glatiramer acetate (Copaxone) and offered low dose naltrexone as an adjunct therapy to their disease-modifying therapy. Patient data from visits after 1-50 months post-diagnosis were evaluated in a retrospective manner. Data obtained from patient charts included clinical laboratory values from standard blood tests, timed 25-foot walking trials, and changes in magnetic resonance imaging reports. Statistical analyses between the groups and for each patient over time indicated no significant differences in clinical laboratory values, timed walking, or changes in magnetic resonance imaging. These data suggest that the apparently non-toxic, inexpensive, biotherapeutic is safe and if taken alone did not result in an exacerbation of disease symptoms.

  6. A gradient in cortical pathology in multiple sclerosis by in vivo quantitative 7 T imaging

    PubMed Central

    Louapre, Céline; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T.; Giannì, Costanza; Nielsen, A. Scott; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Sloane, Jacob; Kinkel, Revere P.

    2015-01-01

    We used a surface-based analysis of T2* relaxation rates at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging, which allows sampling quantitative T2* throughout the cortical width, to map in vivo the spatial distribution of intracortical pathology in multiple sclerosis. Ultra-high resolution quantitative T2* maps were obtained in 10 subjects with clinically isolated syndrome/early multiple sclerosis (≤3 years disease duration), 18 subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (≥4 years disease duration), 13 subjects with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, and in 17 age-matched healthy controls. Quantitative T2* maps were registered to anatomical cortical surfaces for sampling T2* at 25%, 50% and 75% depth from the pial surface. Differences in laminar quantitative T2* between each patient group and controls were assessed using general linear model (P < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). In all 41 multiple sclerosis cases, we tested for associations between laminar quantitative T2*, neurological disability, Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score, cortical thickness, and white matter lesions. In patients, we measured, T2* in intracortical lesions and in the intracortical portion of leukocortical lesions visually detected on 7 T scans. Cortical lesional T2* was compared with patients’ normal-appearing cortical grey matter T2* (paired t-test) and with mean cortical T2* in controls (linear regression using age as nuisance factor). Subjects with multiple sclerosis exhibited relative to controls, independent from cortical thickness, significantly increased T2*, consistent with cortical myelin and iron loss. In early disease, T2* changes were focal and mainly confined at 25% depth, and in cortical sulci. In later disease stages T2* changes involved deeper cortical laminae, multiple cortical areas and gyri. In patients, T2* in intracortical and leukocortical lesions was increased compared with normal-appearing cortical grey matter (P < 10−10 and P < 10−7), and mean

  7. Effects of cognitive impairment on prosodic parameters of speech production planning in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    De Looze, Céline; Moreau, Noémie; Renié, Laurent; Kelly, Finnian; Ghio, Alain; Rico, Audrey; Audoin, Bertrand; Viallet, François; Pelletier, Jean; Petrone, Caterina

    2017-05-24

    Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CI can have a negative impact on a patient's everyday activities, such as engaging in conversations. Speech production planning ability is crucial for successful verbal interactions and thus for preserving social and occupational skills. This study investigates the effect of cognitive-linguistic demand and CI on speech production planning in MS, as reflected in speech prosody. A secondary aim is to explore the clinical potential of prosodic features for the prediction of an individual's cognitive status in MS. A total of 45 subjects, that is 22 healthy controls (HC) and 23 patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS, underwent neuropsychological tests probing specific cognitive processes involved in speech production planning. All subjects also performed a read speech task, in which they had to read isolated sentences manipulated as for phonological length. Results show that the speech of MS patients with CI is mainly affected at the temporal level (articulation and speech rate, pause duration). Regression analyses further indicate that rate measures are correlated with working memory scores. In addition, linear discriminant analysis shows the ROC AUC of identifying MS patients with CI is 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.73). Our findings indicate that prosodic planning is deficient in patients with MS-CI and that the scope of planning depends on patients' cognitive abilities. We discuss how speech-based approaches could be used as an ecological method for the assessment and monitoring of CI in MS. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Mapping face encoding using functional MRI in multiple sclerosis across disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Maria A; Vacchi, Laura; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Meani, Alessandro; Martinelli, Vittorio; Possa, Francesca; Comi, Giancarlo; Falini, Andrea; Filippi, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    Using fMRI during a face encoding (FE) task, we investigated the behavioral and fMRI correlates of FE in patients with relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) at different stages of the disease and their relation with attentive-executive performance and structural MRI measures of disease-related damage. A fMRI FE task was administered to 75 MS patients (11 clinically isolated syndromes - CIS, 40 relapsing-remitting - RRMS - and 24 secondary progressive - SPMS) and 22 healthy controls (HC). fMRI activity during the face encoding condition was correlated with behavioral, clinical, neuropsychological and structural MRI variables. All study subjects activated brain regions belonging to face perception and encoding network, and deactivated areas of the default-mode network. Compared to HC, MS patients had the concomitant presence of areas of increased and decreased activations as well as increased and decreased deactivations. Compared to HC or RRMS, CIS patients experienced an increased recruitment of posterior-visual areas. Thalami, para-hippocampal gyri and right anterior cingulum were more activated in RRMS vs CIS or SPMS patients, while an increased recruitment of frontal areas was observed in SPMS vs RRMS. Areas of abnormal activations were significantly correlated with clinical, cognitive-behavioral and structural MRI measures. Abnormalities of FE network occur in MS and vary across disease clinical phenotypes. Early in the disease, an increased recruitment of areas typically devoted to face perception and encoding occurs. In SPMS patients, abnormal functional recruitment of frontal lobe areas might contribute to the severity of clinical manifestations.

  9. Onset of multiple sclerosis before adulthood leads to failure of age-expected brain growth

    PubMed Central

    Aubert-Broche, Bérengère; Fonov, Vladimir; Narayanan, Sridar; Arnold, Douglas L.; Araujo, David; Fetco, Dumitru; Till, Christine; Sled, John G.; Collins, D. Louis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) on age-expected brain growth. Methods: Whole brain and regional volumes of 36 patients with relapsing-remitting MS onset prior to 18 years of age were segmented in 185 longitudinal MRI scans (2–11 scans per participant, 3-month to 2-year scan intervals). MRI scans of 25 age- and sex-matched healthy normal controls (NC) were also acquired at baseline and 2 years later on the same scanner as the MS group. A total of 874 scans from 339 participants from the NIH-funded MRI study of normal brain development acquired at 2-year intervals were used as an age-expected healthy growth reference. All data were analyzed with an automatic image processing pipeline to estimate the volume of brain and brain substructures. Mixed-effect models were built using age, sex, and group as fixed effects. Results: Significant group and age interactions were found with the adjusted models fitting brain volumes and normalized thalamus volumes (p < 10−4). These findings indicate a failure of age-normative brain growth for the MS group, and an even greater failure of thalamic growth. In patients with MS, T2 lesion volume correlated with a greater reduction in age-expected thalamic volume. To exclude any scanner-related influence on our data, we confirmed no significant interaction of group in the adjusted models between the NC and NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development groups. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that the onset of MS during childhood and adolescence limits age-expected primary brain growth and leads to subsequent brain atrophy, implicating an early onset of the neurodegenerative aspect of MS. PMID:25378667

  10. Intervening to reduce the risk of future disability from multiple sclerosis: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Dahdaleh, Maurice; Alroughani, Raed; Aljumah, Mohammed; AlTahan, Abdulrahman; Alsharoqi, Issa; Bohlega, Saeed A; Daif, Abdulkader; Deleu, Dirk; Inshasi, Jihad; Karabudak, Rana; Sahraian, Mohammed A; Taha, Karim; Yammout, Bassem I; Zakaria, Magd

    2017-10-01

    Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) delay or may prevent the progression of patients with high-risk clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS), and from relapsing-remitting MS to secondary progressive MS. Current evidence on the effects of DMT on disability in MS is supported by the use of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), which is dominated by ambulation, and usually used as a secondary outcome measure. Less is known about the long-term effects of DMTs on other aspects of functional status, particularly cognition, which is a key determinant of ability to work. The time scale for measurements of disability is at most a few years, with scant data from more than 10 years of observation. Longer prospective follow-up of large numbers of patients with CIS is needed to determine whether early intervention with a DMT influences long-term disease progression. Finally, the emergence of the radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) as a clinical entity has shifted the debate about when to intervene to an even earlier time frame. Balancing the significant side-effects associated with DMT in general and the expected outcome of pharmacologic intervention is increasingly problematic for managing patients with uncertain prognosis, as many patients may have low-risk CIS, benign MS or patients with RIS only. Preventing long-term disability in MS should be recognised more clearly as an important outcome in its own right, with disability measured more consistently with more sensitive instruments beyond the use of the EDSS.

  11. Structural correlates of subjective and objective memory performance in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Matteo; Bergamino, Maurizio; Bommarito, Giulia; Bonzano, Laura; Luigi Mancardi, Gian; Roccatagliata, Luca

    2014-04-01

    Subjective and objective memory deficits represent a frequent and ill-understood aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS), and a significant cause of disability and quality of life reduction. The aim of the study is to verify the role of hippocampal and temporal associative fibers' damage in MS-related memory complaints. To reach this aim, 25 patients with low disability relapsing-remitting MS and 19 healthy controls were included in the study. All subjects underwent 3D T1 structural imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Additionally, MS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation of objective (Selective Reminding Test and Spatial Recall Test) and of subjective (Perceived Deficit Questionnaire, Retrospective and Prospective Memory Subscales) memory deficits. Normalized hippocampal volume (NHV) and mean Fractional Anisotropy (FA) for the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and for the ventral division of the cingulum bundle (VCB) were calculated for all subjects. We showed that, compared to controls, MS subjects presented with reduced right NHV and with reduced mean FA bilaterally in the UF and the VCB. In the MS group, verbal memory scores correlated with left NHV, spatial memory scores correlated with right NHV, while perceived retrospective and prospective memory deficits correlated with left VCB and left UF mean FA respectively. Our data confirm an early involvement of memory-related brain structures in MS patients. Our data suggest that verbal and nonverbal memory as well as perceived retrospective and prospective memory deficits are related to alterations of discrete anatomical structures in the low-disability phase of MS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Correlation of Diffusion and Metabolic Alterations in Different Clinical Forms of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hannoun, Salem; Bagory, Matthieu; Durand-Dubief, Francoise; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Confavreux, Christian; Cotton, Francois; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) provide greater sensitivity than conventional MRI to detect diffuse alterations in normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients with different clinical forms. Therefore, the goal of this study is to combine DTI and MRSI measurements to analyze the relation between diffusion and metabolic markers, T2-weighted lesion load (T2-LL) and the patients clinical status. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods were then compared in terms of MS clinical forms differentiation. MR examination was performed on 71 MS patients (27 relapsing remitting (RR), 26 secondary progressive (SP) and 18 primary progressive (PP)) and 24 control subjects. DTI and MRSI measurements were obtained from two identical regions of interest selected in left and right centrum semioval (CSO) WM. DTI metrics and metabolic contents were significantly altered in MS patients with the exception of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and NAA/Choline (Cho) ratio in RR patients. Significant correlations were observed between diffusion and metabolic measures to various degrees in every MS patients group. Most DTI metrics were significantly correlated with the T2-LL while only NAA/Cr ratio was correlated in RR patients. A comparison analysis of MR methods efficiency demonstrated a better sensitivity/specificity of DTI over MRSI. Nevertheless, NAA/Cr ratio could distinguish all MS and SP patients groups from controls, while NAA/Cho ratio differentiated PP patients from controls. This study demonstrated that diffusivity changes related to microstructural alterations were correlated with metabolic changes and provided a better sensitivity to detect early changes, particularly in RR patients who are more subject to inflammatory processes. In contrast, the better specificity of metabolic ratios to detect axonal damage and demyelination may provide a better index for identification of PP patients. PMID:22479330

  13. Multiple Sclerosis: Immunopathology and Treatment Update

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, Narges; Katsara, Maria; Tselios, Theodore; Androutsou, Maria-Eleni; Matsoukas, John

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has changed over the last 20 years. All immunotherapeutic drugs target relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) and it still remains a medical challenge in MS to develop a treatment for progressive forms. The most common injectable disease-modifying therapies in RRMS include β-interferons 1a or 1b and glatiramer acetate. However, one of the major challenges of injectable disease-modifying therapies has been poor treatment adherence with approximately 50% of patients discontinuing the therapy within the first year. Herein, we go back to the basics to understand the immunopathophysiology of MS to gain insights in the development of new improved drug treatments. We present current disease-modifying therapies (interferons, glatiramer acetate, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, fingolimod, mitoxantrone), humanized monoclonal antibodies (natalizumab, ofatumumab, ocrelizumab, alemtuzumab, daclizumab) and emerging immune modulating approaches (stem cells, DNA vaccines, nanoparticles, altered peptide ligands) for the treatment of MS. PMID:28686222

  14. The use of satellite data to measure ultraviolet-B penetrance and its potential association with age of multiple sclerosis onset.

    PubMed

    Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen; Zhu, Feng; Saeedi, Jameelah; Rieckmann, Peter; Yee, Irene; Tremlett, Helen

    2018-04-01

    Studies have indicated an association between low Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure and an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Few studies, however, have explored whether UVB exposure is associated with the age at MS symptom onset. We investigated the potential association between cumulative early life ambient UVB exposure and age at MS onset, using satellite data to measure ambient UVB exposure. Adult onset MS patients were selected from the University of British Columbia's MS genetic database (1980-2005). Patients' places of residence from birth to age 18 years were geocoded (latitude and longitude) and assigned UVB values using NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) dataset. Linear regression was used to explore the relationship between cumulative UVB exposure (measured for age periods 0-6, 7-12, 13-18, 0-12, and 0-18) and age at MS onset. 3226 patients were included in the analysis. Of these, 74% were female, with an overall mean symptom onset age of 33.3 years. At onset, a total of 2944 (91%) had a relapsing-remitting disease course, 254 (8%) had primary progressive and the disease course for 28 (1%) was unknown. No significant associations between cumulative early life ambient UVB exposure and age at MS onset were observed. Patient sex, MS phenotype, and immigration to Canada after age 18 were significantly associated with age of onset (p < 0.01). Early life ambient UVB, as measured by satellite imagery, was not significantly associated with the age at MS onset. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lymphocytosis as a response biomarker of natalizumab therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Signoriello, E; Lanzillo, R; Brescia Morra, V; Di Iorio, G; Fratta, M; Carotenuto, A; Lus, G

    2016-06-01

    Natalizumab is an effective therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), as it reduces lymphocyte transmigration through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and induces lymphocytosis. To analyse natalizumab-induced lymphocytosis (NIL) as a biomarker of drug efficacy. We enrolled 50 relapsing-remitting (RR) and progressive-relapsing (PR) natalizumab-treated patients who had received at least 16 infusions and had been tested for lymphocyte count 24 hours before each administration. Clinical, MRI and hematological data were collected. Patients were divided into responders and sub-optimal responders according to the experience of at least one clinical and/or instrumental relapse during the treatment. In 15 (30%) patients, an instrumental/clinical (14) or only instrumental (one) relapse occurred. We found a statistically significant difference in the mean percentage of the lymphocytes between the two groups over the first ten administrations (p=0.04). The comparison between the time-to-relapse in the groups with high and low levels of lymphocytes showed that the group with a low NIL had a greater risk of relapse (p=0.03). We suggest that NIL could be a biomarker of therapeutic efficacy in patients with RRMS treated with natalizumab, and that the risk of relapse may be higher in patients with a lower-than-expected NIL. © The Author(s), 2015.

  16. Medical chart validation of an algorithm for identifying multiple sclerosis relapse in healthcare claims.

    PubMed

    Chastek, Benjamin J; Oleen-Burkey, Merrikay; Lopez-Bresnahan, Maria V

    2010-01-01

    Relapse is a common measure of disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to test the content validity of an operational algorithm for detecting relapse in claims data. A claims-based relapse detection algorithm was tested by comparing its detection rate over a 1-year period with relapses identified based on medical chart review. According to the algorithm, MS patients in a US healthcare claims database who had either (1) a primary claim for MS during hospitalization or (2) a corticosteroid claim following a MS-related outpatient visit were designated as having a relapse. Patient charts were examined for explicit indication of relapse or care suggestive of relapse. Positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Medical charts were reviewed for 300 MS patients, half of whom had a relapse according to the algorithm. The claims-based criteria correctly classified 67.3% of patients with relapses (positive predictive value) and 70.0% of patients without relapses (negative predictive value; kappa 0.373: p < 0.001). Alternative algorithms did not improve on the predictive value of the operational algorithm. Limitations of the algorithm include lack of differentiation between relapsing-remitting MS and other types, and that it does not incorporate measures of function and disability. The claims-based algorithm appeared to successfully detect moderate-to-severe MS relapse. This validated definition can be applied to future claims-based MS studies.

  17. Physical activity, social support, and depression: possible independent and indirect associations in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yoojin; Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Sandroff, Brian; Motl, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the pattern of associations among physical activity, social support, mobility disability, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Persons (N = 218) with RRMS completed a battery of questionnaires that was sent and returned through the United States Postal Service (USPS). Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that physical activity and social support were both inversely associated with depressive symptoms (r's = -0.288 and -0.386, p ≤ 0.05, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that physical activity (β = -0.21, p = 0.002) and social support (β = -0.37, p = 0.0001) were independently associated with depressive symptoms. Path analysis confirmed that the associations between physical activity and social support with depressive symptoms were indirect via mobility disability and perceived stress. Collectively, the evidence indicates that physical activity and social support are independently and indirectly associated with depression via mobility disability and perceived stress in relapsing-remitting MS. This supports the design of interventions and programs that target physical activity and social support for reducing depressive symptoms among persons with MS.

  18. Changes in LORETA and conventional patterns of P600 after steroid treatment in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Charalabos C; Sfagos, Costas; Kosma, Katerina K; Kontoangelos, Kostantinos A; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios; Rabavilas, Andreas D; Soldatos, Constantin R

    2007-01-30

    The P600 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) reflecting the 'rule-governed sequence of information processing', has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS)-related cognition. The present study aimed at examining the effects of methylprednisolone treatment in MS patients on cognition as reflected by the low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) of the P600 as well as its conventional constituents (amplitudes and latencies) recorded during a working memory (WM) test. A paired LORETA comparison was performed in the P600 component of ERPs elicited during a (WM) test in 18 MS patients suffering from the relapsing-remitting form, before and after 1 week treatment with methylprednisolone. The P600 component was also evaluated in 16 healthy controls matched to the patients on age and educational level. When pre- and post-treatment recordings of LORETA were compared all patients as a group showed significantly different patterns of current density activation located at right frontal lobe. The treatment was accompanied by an increase of the amplitude of P600 at the right frontoparietal area. In the post-treatment phase the patients exhibited significant improvement of the memory performance as compared to themselves before treatment. As a result both the P600 amplitudes and memory performance at post-treatment were closer to those exhibited by normal controls. These findings support the notion that steroid treatment in relapsing-remitting MS patients, may exert a beneficial effect in 'rule-governed sequence of information processing'.

  19. Human placenta-derived cells (PDA-001) for the treatment of adults with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose study.

    PubMed

    Lublin, Fred D; Bowen, James D; Huddlestone, John; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo; Carpenter, Adam; Corboy, John R; Freedman, Mark S; Krupp, Lauren; Paulo, Corri; Hariri, Robert J; Fischkoff, Steven A

    2014-11-01

    Infusion of PDA-001, a preparation of mesenchymal-like cells derived from full-term human placenta, is a new approach in the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. This safety study aimed to rule out the possibility of paradoxical exacerbation of disease activity by PDA-001 in patients with multiple sclerosis. This was a phase 1b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-dose ranging study including patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. The study was conducted at 6 sites in the United States and 2 sites in Canada. Patients were randomized 3:1 to receive 2 low-dose infusions of PDA-001 (150×10(6) cells) or placebo, given 1 week apart. After completing this cohort, subsequent patients received high-dose PDA-001 (600×10(6) cells) or placebo. Monthly brain magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed. The primary end point was ruling out the possibility of paradoxical worsening of MS disease activity. This was monitored using Cutter׳s rule (≥5 new gadolinium lesions on 2 consecutive scans) by brain magnetic resonance imaging on a monthly basis for six months and also the frequency of multiple sclerosis relapse. Ten patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 6 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to treatment: 6 to low-dose PDA-001, 6 to high-dose PDA-001, and 4 to placebo. No patient met Cutter׳s rule. One patient receiving high-dose PDA-001 had an increase in T2 and gadolinium lesions and in Expanded Disability Status Scale score during a multiple sclerosis flare 5 months after receiving PDA-001. No other patient had an increase in Expanded Disability Status Scale score>0.5, and most had stable or decreasing Expanded Disability Status Scale scores. With high-dose PDA-001, 1 patient experienced a grade 1 anaphylactoid reaction and 1 had grade 2 superficial thrombophlebitis. Other adverse events were mild to moderate and included

  20. Placebo-controlled trial of oral laquinimod for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giancarlo; Jeffery, Douglas; Kappos, Ludwig; Montalban, Xavier; Boyko, Alexey; Rocca, Maria A; Filippi, Massimo

    2012-03-15

    Two proof-of-concept clinical trials have provided evidence that laquinimod reduces disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study at 139 sites in 24 countries. A total of 1106 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive oral laquinimod at a dose of 0.6 mg once daily or placebo for 24 months. The primary end point was the annualized relapse rate during the 24-month period. Secondary end points included confirmed disability progression (defined as an increase in the score on the Expanded Disability Status Scale that was sustained for at least 3 months) and the cumulative number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions and new or enlarging lesions on T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment with laquinimod as compared with placebo was associated with a modest reduction in the mean (±SE) annualized relapse rate (0.30±0.02 vs. 0.39±0.03, P=0.002) and with a reduction in the risk of confirmed disability progression (11.1% vs. 15.7%; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.45 to 0.91; P=0.01). The mean cumulative numbers of gadolinium-enhancing lesions and new or enlarging lesions on T(2)-weighted images were lower for patients receiving laquinimod than for those receiving placebo (1.33±0.14 vs. 2.12±0.22 and 5.03±0.08 vs. 7.14±0.07, respectively; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Transient elevations in alanine aminotransferase levels to greater than three times the upper limit of the normal range were observed in 24 patients receiving laquinimod (5%) and 8 receiving placebo (2%). In this phase 3 study, oral laquinimod administered once daily slowed the progression of disability and reduced the rate of relapse in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. (Funded by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00509145.).

  1. Country, Sex, EDSS Change and Therapy Choice Independently Predict Treatment Discontinuation in Multiple Sclerosis and Clinically Isolated Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jokubaitis, Vilija G.; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Grand’Maison, François; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Boz, Cavit; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Girard, Marc; Grammond, Pierre; Iuliano, Gerardo; Fiol, Marcela; Cabrera-Gomez, Jose Antonio; Fernandez-Bolanos, Ricardo; Giuliani, Giorgio; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Cristiano, Edgardo; Herbert, Joseph; Petkovska-Boskova, Tatjana; Bergamaschi, Roberto; van Pesch, Vincent; Moore, Fraser; Vella, Norbert; Slee, Mark; Santiago, Vetere; Barnett, Michael; Havrdova, Eva; Young, Carolyn; Sirbu, Carmen-Adella; Tanner, Mary; Rutherford, Michelle; Butzkueven, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a prospective study, MSBASIS, to assess factors leading to first treatment discontinuation in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods The MSBASIS Study, conducted by MSBase Study Group members, enrols patients seen from CIS onset, reporting baseline demographics, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Follow-up visits report relapses, EDSS scores, and the start and end dates of MS-specific therapies. We performed a multivariable survival analysis to determine factors within this dataset that predict first treatment discontinuation. Results A total of 2314 CIS patients from 44 centres were followed for a median of 2.7 years, during which time 1247 commenced immunomodulatory drug (IMD) treatment. Ninety percent initiated IMD after a diagnosis of MS was confirmed, and 10% while still in CIS status. Over 40% of these patients stopped their first IMD during the observation period. Females were more likely to cease medication than males (HR 1.36, p = 0.003). Patients treated in Australia were twice as likely to cease their first IMD than patients treated in Spain (HR 1.98, p = 0.001). Increasing EDSS was associated with higher rate of IMD cessation (HR 1.21 per EDSS unit, p<0.001), and intramuscular interferon-β-1a (HR 1.38, p = 0.028) and subcutaneous interferon-β-1a (HR 1.45, p = 0.012) had higher rates of discontinuation than glatiramer acetate, although this varied widely in different countries. Onset cerebral MRI features, age, time to treatment initiation or relapse on treatment were not associated with IMD cessation. Conclusion In this multivariable survival analysis, female sex, country of residence, EDSS change and IMD choice independently predicted time to first IMD cessation. PMID:22768046

  2. Free kappa light chains in cerebrospinal fluid as a biomarker to assess risk conversion to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Valladares, P; García-Sánchez, M I; Cuadri Benítez, P; Lucas, M; Adorna Martínez, M; Carranco Galán, V; García De Veas Silva, J L; Bermudo Guitarte, C; Izquierdo Ayuso, G

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) initiates with a first attack or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). The importance of an early treatment in MS leads to the search, as soon as possible, for novel biomarkers which can predict conversion from CIS to MS. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of the kappa index ([Formula: see text] index), using kappa free light light chains ([Formula: see text]FLCs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), for the conversion of CIS patients to MS, and compare its accuracy with other parameters used in clinical practice. FLC levels were analysed in CSF from 176 patients: 70 as control group, 77 CIS, and 29 relapsing-remitting MS. FLC levels were quantified by nephelometry. [Formula: see text] Index sensitivity and specificity (93.1%; 95.7%) was higher than those from the immunoglobulin G (IgG) index (75.9%; 94.3%), and lower than those from oligoclonal IgG bands (OCGBs) (96.5%; 98.6%). The optimal cut-off for [Formula: see text] index was 10.62. Most of the CIS patients with [Formula: see text] index >10.62 presented OCGBs, IgG index >0.56 and fulfilled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria. CIS patients above [Formula: see text] index cut-off of 10.62 present 7.34-fold risk of conversion to MS than CIS below this value. The [Formula: see text] index correlated with positive OCGBs, IgG index above 0.56 and MRI criteria.

  3. A bidirectional association between the gut microbiota and CNS disease in a biphasic murine model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Colpitts, Sara L; Kasper, Eli J; Keever, Abigail; Liljenberg, Caleb; Kirby, Trevor; Magori, Krisztian; Kasper, Lloyd H; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier

    2017-11-02

    The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS). This non-obese diabetic (NOD) model of EAE develops a biphasic pattern of disease that more closely resembles the human condition when transitioning from relapsing-remitting (RR)-MS to SP-MS. We compared the gut microbiome of NOD mice with either mild or severe disease to that of non-immunized control mice. We found that the mice which developed a severe secondary form of EAE harbored a dysbiotic gut microbiome when compared with the healthy control mice. Furthermore, we evaluated whether treatment with a cocktail of broad-spectrum antibiotics would modify the outcome of the progressive stage of EAE in the NOD model. Our results indicated reduced mortality and clinical disease severity in mice treated with antibiotics compared with untreated mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that there are reciprocal effects between experimental CNS inflammatory demyelination and modification of the microbiome providing a foundation for the establishment of early therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiome that could potentially limit disease progression.

  4. Isolated cognitive relapses in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Matteo; Uccelli, Antonio; Grafman, Jordan; Yaldizli, Özgür; Mancardi, Gianluigi; Roccatagliata, Luca

    2014-09-01

    While cognition can be affected during sensorimotor multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses, the relevance of isolated cognitive relapses (ICRs ie, those occurring in absence of new sensorimotor symptoms) remain poorly characterised. Here, we decided to explore the relationship between ICR, subjective evaluation of cognitive performance and long-term cognitive decline in a group of subjects with relapsing-remitting MS. We analysed the cognitive performance of 99 clinically stable relapsing-remitting MS for whom data from four consequent clinical and cognitive evaluations were available, that is, a baseline evaluation (t₀), followed in the subsequent 6 months by a second evaluation performed not later than 2 weeks after a routine brain scan positive for at least one area of gadolinium enhancement (t₁) and two gadolinium enhancement-negative follow-up evaluations after 6 months (t₂) and 1 year (t₃) from t₁. Based on published literature, we defined as a meaningful change in cognition a transient reduction of Symbol Digit Modalities Test score of at least four points at t₁ compared with t₀ and t₂. ICRs were found in 17 patients and were not associated with subjective cognitive deficits or depression. Subjects who presented with an ICR at t₁ presented with a significantly reduced cognitive performance at the follow-up evaluations compared with patients without ICR. We showed that ICRs were not associated with changes in mood, fatigue levels or cognitive performance self-evaluations. Our study introduces an operational definition of ICRs and suggests to their role as a factor for cognitive decline in MS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. The ALMA OT in early science: supporting multiple customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, Alan; Williams, Stewart; McLay, Stewart; Yatagai, Hiroshi; Schilling, Marcus; Biggs, Andrew; Tobar, Rodrigo; Warmels, Rein H.

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA Observatory is currently operating 'Early Science' observing. The Cycle0 and Cycle1 Calls for Proposals are part of this Early Science, and in both the ALMA Observing Tool plays a crucial role. This paper describes how the ALMA OT tackles the problem of making millimeter/sub-millimeter interferometry accessible to the wider community, while allowing "experts" the power and flexibility they need. We will also describe our approach to the challenges of supporting multiple customers, and explore the lessons learnt from the Early Science experiences. Finally we look ahead to the challenges presented by future observing cycles.

  6. Multiple Sclerosis in Malaysia: Demographics, Clinical Features, and Neuroimaging Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, S.; Rose, N.; Masita, A.; Dhaliwal, J. S.; Puvanarajah, S. D.; Rafia, M. H.; Muda, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an uncommon disease in multiracial Malaysia. Diagnosing patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating diseases has been greatly aided by the evolution in diagnostic criterion, the identification of new biomarkers, and improved accessibility to neuroimaging in the country. Objectives. To investigate the spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia. Methods. Retrospective analysis with longitudinal follow-up of patients referred to a single tertiary medical center with neurology services in Malaysia. Results. Out of 245 patients with idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease, 104 patients had multiple sclerosis. Female to male ratio was 5 : 1. Mean age at onset was 28.6 ± 9.9 years. The Malays were the predominant racial group affected followed by the Chinese, Indians, and other indigenous groups. Subgroup analysis revealed more Chinese having neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders rather than multiple sclerosis. Positive family history was reported in 5%. Optic neuritis and myelitis were the commonest presentations at onset of disease, and relapsing remitting course was the commonest disease pattern observed. Oligoclonal band positivity was 57.6%. At disease onset, 61.5% and 66.4% fulfilled the 2005 and 2010 McDonald's criteria for dissemination in space. Mean cord lesion length was 1.86 ± 1.65 vertebral segments in the relapsing remitting group as opposed to 6.25 ± 5.18 vertebral segments in patients with neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders. Conclusion. The spectrum of multiple sclerosis in Malaysia has changed over the years. Further advancement in diagnostic criteria will no doubt continue to contribute to the evolution of this disease here. PMID:24455266

  7. Interferon-β1a reduces plasma CD31+ endothelial microparticles (CD31+EMP) in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheremata, William A; Jy, Wenche; Delgado, Sylvia; Minagar, Alireza; McLarty, Jerry; Ahn, Yeon

    2006-01-01

    Background A correlation between plasma CD31+ endothelial microparticles (CD31+EMP) levels and clinical, as well as brain MRI activity, in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been previously reported. However, the effect(s) of treatment with interferon-β1a (IFN-β1a) on plasma levels of CD31+EMP has not been assessed. In a prospective study, we measured plasma CD31+EMP levels in 30 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Methods Using flow cytometry, in a blinded study, we measured plasma CD31+EMP in 30 consecutive patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) prior to and 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after initiation of intramuscular therapy with interferon-β1a (IFN-β1a), 30 micrograms weekly. At each visit, clinical examination was performed and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores were assessed. Results Plasma levels of CD31+EMP were significantly reduced from 24 through 52 weeks following initiation of treatment with IFN-β1a. Conclusion Our data suggest that serial measurement of plasma CD31+EMP levels may be used as a surrogate marker of response to therapy with INF-β1a. In addition, the decline in plasma levels of CD31+EMP further supports the concept that IFN-β1a exerts stabilizing effect on the cerebral endothelial cells in pathogenesis of MS. PMID:16952316

  8. Interferon-beta1a reduces plasma CD31+ endothelial microparticles (CD31+EMP) in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sheremata, William A; Jy, Wenche; Delgado, Sylvia; Minagar, Alireza; McLarty, Jerry; Ahn, Yeon

    2006-09-04

    A correlation between plasma CD31+ endothelial microparticles (CD31+EMP) levels and clinical, as well as brain MRI activity, in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been previously reported. However, the effect(s) of treatment with interferon-beta1a (IFN-beta1a) on plasma levels of CD31+EMP has not been assessed. In a prospective study, we measured plasma CD31+EMP levels in 30 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Using flow cytometry, in a blinded study, we measured plasma CD31+EMP in 30 consecutive patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) prior to and 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks after initiation of intramuscular therapy with interferon-beta1a (IFN-beta1a), 30 micrograms weekly. At each visit, clinical examination was performed and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores were assessed. Plasma levels of CD31+EMP were significantly reduced from 24 through 52 weeks following initiation of treatment with IFN-beta1a. Our data suggest that serial measurement of plasma CD31+EMP levels may be used as a surrogate marker of response to therapy with INF-beta1a. In addition, the decline in plasma levels of CD31+EMP further supports the concept that IFN-beta1a exerts stabilizing effect on the cerebral endothelial cells in pathogenesis of MS.

  9. Preparing Early Childhood Practitioners for Work in Multiple Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Jessie A.

    A number of professional qualities might be developed in a program designed to prepare early childhood teachers to function in multiple settings. Solving problems, assessing situations, communicating with a range of people, and being flexible and innovative are such qualities. But one can also view prepararing educators to function in multiple…

  10. Efficacy of Fish Oil on Serum of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 Oxidative Stress Markers in Multiple Sclerosis Treated with Interferon Beta-1b

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Ramirez, V.; Macias-Islas, M. A.; Ortiz, G. G.; Pacheco-Moises, F.; Torres-Sanchez, E. D.; Sorto-Gomez, T. E.; Cruz-Ramos, J. A.; Orozco-Aviña, G.; Celis de la Rosa, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to focal plaques of demyelination and tissue injury in the central nervous system. Oxidative stress is also thought to promote tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Current research findings suggest that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapenta-enoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contained in fish oil may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of fish oil supplementation on serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative stress markers, and disease progression in MS. 50 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled. The experimental group received orally 4 g/day of fish oil for 12 months. The primary outcome was serum TNFα levels; secondary outcomes were IL-1β 1b, IL-6, nitric oxide catabolites, lipoperoxides, progression on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and annualized relapses rate (ARR). Fish oil treatment decreased the serum levels of TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide metabolites compared with placebo group (P ≤ 0.001). There was no significant difference in serum lipoperoxide levels during the study. No differences in EDSS and ARR were found. Conclusion. Fish oil supplementation is highly effective in reducing the levels of cytokines and nitric oxide catabolites in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. PMID:23861993

  11. Rhabdomyolysis following interferon-beta treatment in a patient with multiple sclerosis - A case report.

    PubMed

    Dalbjerg, Sara Maria; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system for which there is currently no cure. Interferon-beta-1-alpha is worldwide one of the most widely used treatments in multiple sclerosis. To our knowledge there is one previous reported case of rhabdomyolysis associated with Interferon-beta treatment. We describe a 30 year old man with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis who developed rhabdomyolysis and increased creatine kinase following Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy. After the medication was discontinued, the patient rapidly improved. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of rhabdomyolysis occurring during Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy. In cases where patients complain of severe myalgia, and in particular if weakness is reported, creatine kinase activity should be measured to prevent irreversible rhabdomyolysis during Interferon-beta-1-alpha therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Disease activity return after natalizumab cessation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rasenack, Maria; Derfuss, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Natalizumab (NAT) was the first monoclonal antibody to be approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Its considerable and sustained efficacy has been demonstrated in two phase III studies. However, there are several reasons why its use is limited in clinical practice. The main argument for stopping use of the drug is the risk of the rare but serious progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy. Other reasons are neutralizing antibodies and pregnancy. There is compelling evidence from some clinical trials and many case series that disease activity returns upon suspension or cessation of NAT. Several therapeutic strategies that have been tested to prevent or reduce the recurrence of disease activity will be reviewed in this article. Considering these data, it is evident that the decision to stop NAT treatment has different implications and consequences. A subsequent therapy after cessation of NAT is needed to reduce the risk of disease recurrence.

  13. Marginal Structural Cox Models for Estimating the Association Between β-Interferon Exposure and Disease Progression in a Multiple Sclerosis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Gustafson, Paul; Petkau, John; Zhao, Yinshan; Shirani, Afsaneh; Kingwell, Elaine; Evans, Charity; van der Kop, Mia; Oger, Joel; Tremlett, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal observational data are required to assess the association between exposure to β-interferon medications and disease progression among relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in the “real-world” clinical practice setting. Marginal structural Cox models (MSCMs) can provide distinct advantages over traditional approaches by allowing adjustment for time-varying confounders such as MS relapses, as well as baseline characteristics, through the use of inverse probability weighting. We assessed the suitability of MSCMs to analyze data from a large cohort of 1,697 relapsing-remitting MS patients in British Columbia, Canada (1995–2008). In the context of this observational study, which spanned more than a decade and involved patients with a chronic yet fluctuating disease, the recently proposed “normalized stabilized” weights were found to be the most appropriate choice of weights. Using this model, no association between β-interferon exposure and the hazard of disability progression was found (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.94). For sensitivity analyses, truncated normalized unstabilized weights were used in additional MSCMs and to construct inverse probability weight-adjusted survival curves; the findings did not change. Additionally, qualitatively similar conclusions from approximation approaches to the weighted Cox model (i.e., MSCM) extend confidence in the findings. PMID:24939980

  14. Placebo-controlled phase 3 study of oral BG-12 or glatiramer in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fox, Robert J; Miller, David H; Phillips, J Theodore; Hutchinson, Michael; Havrdova, Eva; Kita, Mariko; Yang, Minhua; Raghupathi, Kartik; Novas, Mark; Sweetser, Marianne T; Viglietta, Vissia; Dawson, Katherine T

    2012-09-20

    BG-12 (dimethyl fumarate) is in development as an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, which is commonly treated with parenteral agents (interferon or glatiramer acetate). In this phase 3, randomized study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of oral BG-12, at a dose of 240 mg two or three times daily, as compared with placebo in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. An active agent, glatiramer acetate, was also included as a reference comparator. The primary end point was the annualized relapse rate over a period of 2 years. The study was not designed to test the superiority or noninferiority of BG-12 versus glatiramer acetate. At 2 years, the annualized relapse rate was significantly lower with twice-daily BG-12 (0.22), thrice-daily BG-12 (0.20), and glatiramer acetate (0.29) than with placebo (0.40) (relative reductions: twice-daily BG-12, 44%, P<0.001; thrice-daily BG-12, 51%, P<0.001; glatiramer acetate, 29%, P=0.01). Reductions in disability progression with twice-daily BG-12, thrice-daily BG-12, and glatiramer acetate versus placebo (21%, 24%, and 7%, respectively) were not significant. As compared with placebo, twice-daily BG-12, thrice-daily BG-12, and glatiramer acetate significantly reduced the numbers of new or enlarging T(2)-weighted hyperintense lesions (all P<0.001) and new T(1)-weighted hypointense lesions (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.002, respectively). In post hoc comparisons of BG-12 versus glatiramer acetate, differences were not significant except for the annualized relapse rate (thrice-daily BG-12), new or enlarging T(2)-weighted hyperintense lesions (both BG-12 doses), and new T(1)-weighted hypointense lesions (thrice-daily BG-12) (nominal P<0.05 for each comparison). Adverse events occurring at a higher incidence with an active treatment than with placebo included flushing and gastrointestinal events (with BG-12) and injection-related events (with glatiramer acetate). There were no malignant neoplasms

  15. Neuroinflammation and its relationship to changes in brain volume and white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Datta, Gourab; Colasanti, Alessandro; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Gunn, Roger N; Malik, Omar; Ciccarelli, Olga; Nicholas, Richard; Van Vlierberghe, Eline; Van Hecke, Wim; Searle, Graham; Santos-Ribeiro, Andre; Matthews, Paul M

    2017-11-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging is an important tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. However, magnetic resonance imaging alone provides limited information for predicting an individual patient's disability progression. In part, this is because magnetic resonance imaging lacks sensitivity and specificity for detecting chronic diffuse and multi-focal inflammation mediated by activated microglia/macrophages. The aim of this study was to test for an association between 18 kDa translocator protein brain positron emission tomography signal, which arises largely from microglial activation, and measures of subsequent disease progression in multiple sclerosis patients. Twenty-one patients with multiple sclerosis (seven with secondary progressive disease and 14 with a relapsing remitting disease course) underwent T1- and T2-weighted and magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after 1 year. Positron emission tomography scanning with the translocator protein radioligand 11C-PBR28 was performed at baseline. Brain tissue and lesion volumes were segmented from the T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and relative 11C-PBR28 uptake in the normal-appearing white matter was estimated as a distribution volume ratio with respect to a caudate pseudo-reference region. Normal-appearing white matter distribution volume ratio at baseline was correlated with enlarging T2-hyperintense lesion volumes over the subsequent year (ρ = 0.59, P = 0.01). A post hoc analysis showed that this association reflected behaviour in the subgroup of relapsing remitting patients (ρ = 0.74, P = 0.008). By contrast, in the subgroup of secondary progressive patients, microglial activation at baseline was correlated with later progression of brain atrophy (ρ = 0.86, P = 0.04). A regression model including the baseline normal-appearing white matter distribution volume ratio, T2 lesion volume and normal-appearing white matter magnetization

  16. Iron accumulation in multiple sclerosis: an early pathogenic event.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M; Bilgen, Mehmet; Lynch, Sharon G

    2013-03-01

    Iron has been shown to accumulate in deep gray matter structures in many forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), but detecting its presence early in the disease course (e.g., clinically isolated syndrome [CIS]) has been less clear. Here, we review a recent study where MRI scanning at 7 T together with susceptibility mapping was performed to assess iron deposition in CIS and control subjects. Susceptibility indicative of iron deposition was found to be increased in the globus pallidus, caudate, putamen and pulvinar of CIS patients compared with controls. The findings suggest that iron deposition is a pathological change that occurs early in the development of MS. Identifying the mechanisms of iron accumulation and determining whether iron promotes pathogenesis in MS are important areas of future research.

  17. Early multisensory interactions affect the competition among multiple visual objects.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Erik; Talsma, Durk; Olivers, Christian N L; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan

    2011-04-01

    In dynamic cluttered environments, audition and vision may benefit from each other in determining what deserves further attention and what does not. We investigated the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for attentional guidance by audiovisual stimuli in such an environment. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were measured during visual search through dynamic displays consisting of line elements that randomly changed orientation. Search accuracy improved when a target orientation change was synchronized with an auditory signal as compared to when the auditory signal was absent or synchronized with a distractor orientation change. The ERP data show that behavioral benefits were related to an early multisensory interaction over left parieto-occipital cortex (50-60 ms post-stimulus onset), which was followed by an early positive modulation (80-100 ms) over occipital and temporal areas contralateral to the audiovisual event, an enhanced N2pc (210-250 ms), and a contralateral negative slow wave (CNSW). The early multisensory interaction was correlated with behavioral search benefits, indicating that participants with a strong multisensory interaction benefited the most from the synchronized auditory signal. We suggest that an auditory signal enhances the neural response to a synchronized visual event, which increases the chances of selection in a multiple object environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of fingolimod therapy on magnetic resonance imaging outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; O'Connor, Paul; Polman, Chris H; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Calabresi, Peter; Selmaj, Krystof; Mueller-Lenke, Nicole; Agoropoulou, Catherine; Holdbrook, Frederick; de Vera, Ana; Zhang-Auberson, Lixin; Francis, Gordon; Burtin, Pascale; Kappos, Ludwig

    2012-10-01

    To assess the impact of fingolimod (FTY720) therapy on magnetic resonance imaging measures of inflammatory activity and tissue damage in patients participating in a 2-year, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study. Patients with active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomized to receive fingolimod, 0.5 mg; fingolimod, 1.25 mg; or placebo for 2 years. Standardized magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained at months 0, 6, 12, and 24 and centrally evaluated for number and volume of T1 gadolinium-enhancing, T2 hyperintense, and T1 hypointense lesions and for percentage of brain volume change. Findings were compared across subgroups by treatment and baseline characteristics. Worldwide, multicenter clinical trial. Patients were part of the fingolimod FTY720 Research Evaluating Effects of Daily Oral Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis (FREEDOMS) clinical trial for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (N=1272). We measured the effect of therapy on acute inflammatory activity, burden of disease, and irreversible loss of brain volume. Fingolimod therapy resulted in rapid and sustained reductions in inflammatory lesion activity as assessed by gadolinium-enhancing and new/newly enlarged T2 lesions after 6, 12, and 24 months of therapy (P.001, all comparisons vs placebo). Changes in T2 hyperintense and T1 hypointense lesion volume also significantly favored fingolimod (P.05, all comparisons). Fingolimod, 0.5 mg (licensed dose), significantly reduced brain volume loss during months 0 to 6, 0 to 12, 12 to 24, and 0 to 24 (P.05, all comparisons) vs placebo, and subgroup analyses confirmed these effects over 2 years irrespective of the presence/absence of gadolinium-enhancing lesions, T2 lesion load, previous treatment status, or level of disability. These results, coupled with the significant reductions in relapse rates and disability progression reported previously, support the positive impact on long-term disease evolution. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00289978

  19. New FDA-Approved Disease-Modifying Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    English, Clayton; Aloi, Joseph J

    2015-04-01

    Interferon injectables and glatiramer acetate have served as the primary disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) since their introduction in the 1990s and are first-line treatments for relapsing-remitting forms of MS (RRMS). Many new drug therapies were launched since early 2010, expanding the drug treatment options considerably in a disease state that once had a limited treatment portfolio. The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the safety profile and efficacy data of disease-modifying agents for MS approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 2010 to the present and provide cost and available pharmacoeconomic data about each new treatment. Peer-reviewed clinical trials, pharmacoeconomic studies, and relevant pharmacokinetic/pharmacologic studies were identified from MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2014) by using the search terms multiple sclerosis, fingolimod, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, pegylated interferon, peginterferon beta-1a, glatiramer 3 times weekly, and pharmacoeconomics. Citations from available articles were also reviewed for additional references. The databases publically available at www.clinicaltrials.gov and www.fda.gov were searched for unpublished studies or studies currently in progress. A total of 5 new agents and 1 new dosage formulation were approved by the FDA for the treatment of RRMS since 2010. Peginterferon beta-1a and high-dose glatiramer acetate represent 2 new effective injectable options for MS that reduce burden of administration seen with traditional interferon and low-dose glatiramer acetate. Fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate represent new oral agents available for MS, and their efficacy in reducing annualized relapse rates is 48% to 55%, 22% to 36.3%, and 44% to 53%, respectively, compared with placebo. Alemtuzumab is a biologic given over a 2-year span that reduced annualized relapse rates by 55% in treatment-naive patients and by 49% in patients

  20. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Üstün, G.; Barut, E.; Bektaş, E.; Özcan, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature.

  1. Characterization of naïve, memory and effector T cells in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Birgitte Romme; Ratzer, Rikke; Börnsen, Lars; von Essen, Marina Rode; Christensen, Jeppe Romme; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2017-09-15

    We characterized naïve, central memory (CM), effector memory (EM) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and their expression of CD49d and CD26 in peripheral blood in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls. CD26 + CD28 + CD4 + TEMRA T cells were increased in all subtypes of MS, and CD26 + CD28 + CD8 + TEMRA T cells were increased in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive MS. Conversely, in progressive MS, CD49d + CM T cells were decreased and natalizumab increased the circulating number of all six subsets but reduced the frequency of most subsets expressing CD49d and CD26. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for the Role of B Cells and Immunoglobulins in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Keegan, B. Mark; Winters, Jeffrey L.; Astapenko, David; Warrington, Arthur E.; Bieber, Allan J.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains elusive. Recent reports advocate greater involvement of B cells and immunoglobulins in the initiation and propagation of MS lesions at different stages of their ontogeny. The key role of B cells and immunoglobulins in pathogenesis was initially identified by studies in which patients whose fulminant attacks of demyelination did not respond to steroids experienced remarkable functional improvement following plasma exchange. The positive response to Rituximab in Phase II clinical trials of relapsing-remitting MS confirms the role of B cells. The critical question is how B cells contribute to MS. In this paper, we discuss both the deleterious and the beneficial roles of B cells and immunoglobulins in MS lesions. We provide alternative hypotheses to explain both damaging and protective antibody responses. PMID:21961063

  3. Spasmodic Dysphonia in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment With Botulin Toxin A: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Di Stadio, Arianna; Bernitsas, Evanthia; Restivo, Domenico Antonio; Alfonsi, Enrico; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario

    2018-04-09

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of botulin toxin A in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) affected by spasmodic dysphonia (SD) and to show the safety and effectiveness of this treatment in long-term observation. This is a pilot study on three relapsing-remitting MS patients with SD and their response to botulin toxin A. None of the patients reported dysphagia or other adverse events. Significant improvement was observed in terms of both voice quality and laryngostroboscopy results. The treatment effect was durable for 6-8 months. Botulin toxin A is a safe treatment that can be successfully used to treat SD in patients with MS. Larger studies are necessary to confirm our results. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey of Latin American Neuroimmunologists on the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis with Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Yara Dadalti

    2015-01-01

    Natalizumab and alemtuzumab are monoclonal antibodies approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). A third monoclonal antibody, daclizumab, should soon become another alternative for RRMS therapy. A group of 26 doctors working at specific MS Units in seven different Latin American countries participated in the present study. All 26 neurologists had experience with natalizumab for the treatment of MS and were willing to discuss strategies for improving this treatment. Most neurologists had no confidence in starting a patient on natalizumab and alemtuzumab, which are new and efficient drugs approved by North American, European and most Latin American health agencies. The Latin American specialists felt they were not properly informed on daclizumab. Specific pharmacovigilance programs for each of these monoclonal antibodies were considered very important by the neurologists, who were also willing to discuss these therapeutic options with peers from other countries.

  5. Immediate transient thrombocytopenia at the time of alemtuzumab infusion in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Usha; Kaunzner, Ulrike; Foster, Stacyann; Vartanian, Timothy; Perumal, Jai S

    2018-04-01

    Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Although Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been reported as a secondary autoimmune phenomenon following alemtuzumab infusion, immediate thrombocytopenia during the infusion has not been reported. We report transient, reversible, self-limiting acute-onset thrombocytopenia during the first course with alemtuzumab. In total, 3 of 22 paitents developed mild self-limited bruising associated with a drop in platelet count from their baseline during the intial 5-day course of alemtuzumab. Upon chart review, all 22 patients who received alemtuzumab developed an immediate mostly asymptomatic drop in platelet count which returned to normal within 2 months post-infusion.

  6. [Multiple sclerosis. Clinical survey of 50 patients followed at the Ambulatory of Neurology UNIFESP-EPM].

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, E M; Annes, M; Oliveira, A S; Gabbai, A A

    1999-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis, seems to be a rare disease however in the population herein studied it is similar to the one described by others, in Brazil and abroad. We studied 50 patients classified according Poser's criteria that were followed at the Department of Neurology UNIFESP-EPM from 1983 to 1995. The clinical findings of these 50 patients were similar to those described in other series. We found a high prevalence among female young patients who presented relapsing-remitting evolution. The most common symptoms were those related to pyramidal and cerebellar dysfunctions. The EDSS score seems to be worse in patients with specific cerebellar and pyramidal signs, higher number of relapses and longer time of disease but it is not related to the number of white matter lesions found at MRI.

  7. Multiple adaptable mechanisms early in the primate visual pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dhruv, Neel T.; Tailby, Chris; Sokol, Sach H.; Lennie, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We describe experiments that isolate and characterize multiple adaptable mechanisms that influence responses of orientation-selective neurons in primary visual cortex (V1) of anesthetized macaque (Macaca fascicularis). The results suggest that three adaptable stages of machinery shape neural responses in V1: a broadly-tuned early stage and a spatio-temporally tuned later stage, both of which provide excitatory input, and a normalization pool that is also broadly tuned. The early stage and the normalization pool are revealed by adapting gratings that themselves fail to evoke a response from the neuron: either low temporal frequency gratings at the null orientation or gratings of any orientation drifting at high temporal frequencies. When effective, adapting stimuli that altered the sensitivity of these two mechanisms caused reductions of contrast gain and often brought about a paradoxical increase in response gain due to a relatively greater desensitization of the normalization pool. The tuned mechanism is desensitized only by stimuli well-matched to a neuron’s receptive field. We could thus infer desensitization of the tuned mechanism by comparing effects obtained with adapting gratings of preferred and null orientation modulated at low temporal frequencies. PMID:22016535

  8. Resting-state connectivity of pre-motor cortex reflects disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dogonowski, A-M; Siebner, H R; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Paulson, O B; Dyrby, T B; Blinkenberg, M; Madsen, K H

    2013-11-01

    To characterize the relationship between motor resting-state connectivity of the dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) and clinical disability in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 27 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RR-MS) and 15 patients with secondary progressive MS (SP-MS) underwent functional resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Independent component analysis was used to characterize motor resting-state connectivity. Multiple regression analysis was performed in SPM8 between the individual expression of motor resting-state connectivity in PMd and EDSS scores including age as covariate. Separate post hoc analyses were performed for patients with RR-MS and SP-MS. The EDSS scores ranged from 0 to 7 with a median score of 4.3. Motor resting-state connectivity of left PMd showed a positive linear relation with clinical disability in patients with MS. This effect was stronger when considering the group of patients with RR-MS alone, whereas patients with SP-MS showed no increase in coupling strength between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability. No significant relation between motor resting-state connectivity of the right PMd and clinical disability was detected in MS. The increase in functional coupling between left PMd and the motor resting-state network with increasing clinical disability can be interpreted as adaptive reorganization of the motor system to maintain motor function, which appears to be limited to the relapsing-remitting stage of the disease. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Multiple sclerosis - etiology and diagnostic potential.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Joanna; Koper, Olga M; Piechal, Kinga; Kemona, Halina

    2017-06-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. The main agents responsible for the MS development include exogenous, environmental, and genetic factors. MS is characterized by multifocal and temporally scattered central nervous system (CNS) damage which lead to the axonal damage. Among clinical courses of MS it can be distinguish relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPSM), primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RPMS). Depending on the severity of signs and symptoms MS can be described as benign MS or malignant MS. MS diagnosis is based on McDonald's diagnostic criteria, which link clinical manifestation with characteristic lesions demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and visual evoked potentials. Among CSF laboratory tests used to the MS diagnosis are applied: Tibbling & Link IgG index, reinbegrams, and CSF isoelectrofocusing for oligoclonal bands detection. It should be emphasized, that despite huge progress regarding MS as well as the availability of different diagnostics methods this disease is still a diagnostic challenge. It may result from fact that MS has diverse clinical course and there is a lack of single test, which would be of appropriate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for quick and accurate diagnosis.

  10. Monitoring My Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Namey, Marie; Halper, June

    2011-01-01

    Optimal health of people with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be promoted by patients' sharing of health information gained through periodic self-monitoring with their health-care providers. The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable self-administered scale to obtain information about MS patients' health status and the impact of the disease on their daily lives. We named this scale “Monitoring My Multiple Sclerosis” (MMMS). A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 171 MS patients who completed the MMMS and Patient-Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) scales and provided information on their MS disease classification and demographic characteristics. Data analysis included several parametric procedures. Factor analysis of the 26-item MMMS resulted in four factors with satisfactory α reliability coefficients for the total scale (0.90) and factored subscales: Physical (0.85), Relationships (0.80), Energy (0.70), and Cognitive/Mental (0.67). Analysis of variance demonstrated that the total scale and the Physical subscale, but not the Relationships subscale, showed significantly worse functioning for patients with either moderate or severe disability as measured by the PDDS than for patients with mild disability (P < .001). The Cognitive/Mental subscale showed significantly worse functioning for patients with moderate disability than for patients with mild disability (P < .05). However, the Energy subscale showed significantly worse functioning among moderately disabled patients than among severely disabled patients (P < .01). Independent t tests demonstrated that patients classified as having secondary progressive multiple sclerosis had significantly worse scores on the total MMMS (P < .05) and the Physical subscale (P < .001) than those classified as having relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The MMMS demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity and is recommended for use by MS patients and their health-care providers as a mechanism to promote

  11. The early-type multiple system QZ Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, P.; Lorenz, R.; Drechsel, H.; Abseim, A.

    2001-02-01

    We present an analysis of the early-type quadruple system QZ Car, consisting of an eclipsing and a non-eclipsing binary. The spectroscopic investigation is based on new high dispersion echelle and CAT/CES spectra of H and He lines. The elements for the orbit of the non-eclipsing pair could be refined. Lines of the brighter component of the eclipsing binary were detected in near-quadrature spectra, while signatures of the fainter component could be identified in only few spectra. Lines of the primary component of the non-eclipsing pair and of both components of the eclipsing pair were found to be variable in position and strength; in particular, the He ii 4686 emission line of the brighter eclipsing component is strongly variable. An ephemeris for the eclipsing binary QZ Car valid at present was derived Prim. Min. = hel. JD 2448687.16 + 5fd9991 * E. The relative orbit of the two binary constituents of the multiple system is discussed. In contrast to earlier investigations we found radial velocity changes of the systemic velocities of both binaries, which were used - together with an O-C analysis of the expected light-time effect - to derive approximate parameters of the mutual orbit of the two pairs. It is shown that this orbit and the distance to QZ Car can be further refined by minima timing and interferometry. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  12. Early response to therapy and survival in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schaar, C G; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; le Cessie, S; Franck, P F H; te Marvelde, M C; Wijermans, P W

    2004-04-01

    Whether the response to chemotherapy is a prognosticator in multiple myeloma (MM) is still not known. Therefore, the relationship between survival and the rate of monoclonal protein (M-protein) decrement during the first cycles of therapy was prospectively assessed in 262 patients with newly diagnosed MM that were included in a phase III trial (HOVON-16). M-proteins were collected monthly during melphalan-prednisone therapy (MP: melphalan 0.25 mg/kg, prednisone 1.0 mg/kg orally for 5 d every 4 weeks). Patients with light chain disease (n = 18), immunoglobulin M (IgM)-MM (n = 1) and no immunotyping (n = 1) were excluded. Of the 242 patients studied, 75% had IgG M-protein and 25% IgA; MM stages: I: 1%, II: 35% and III: 64%. The median M-protein decrease after the first cycle of MP was 21% for IgG and 27% for IgA, and declined to < 5% after four cycles. An obvious survival advantage was seen for patients who had an M-protein decrease of at least 30% after the first MP cycle, which became significant when an M-protein decrease of 40% or more was reached. As established prognostic parameters (Salmon & Durie stage, serum creatinine, and haemoglobin) also remained prognostically significant, we concluded that early response to MP predicts for survival in MM.

  13. Burden of illness in multiple sclerosis (DEFENSE) study: the costs and quality-of-life of Finnish patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ruutiainen, Juhani; Viita, Anna-Mari; Hahl, Jarmo; Sundell, Jesse; Nissinen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common causes of non-traumatic disability among young adults, no published data on its economic and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) burden is available from Finland. The DEFENSE study aimed to estimate the costs and HRQoL of patients with MS (PwMS) in Finland and explore how these variables are influenced by disease severity and relapses. Overall, 553 PwMS registered with the Finnish Neuro Society, a national patient association in Finland, completed a self-administered questionnaire capturing information on demographics, disease characteristics and severity (Expanded Disease Severity Scale [EDSS]), relapses, resource consumption and HRQoL. The PwMS had a mean EDSS score of 4.0. Overall, 44.1% had relapsing-remitting form of the disease (RRMS). The mean age was 53.8 years and 55.7% had retired prematurely due to MS. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) were used by 42.7% of the study population, and 21.5% across all disease types and severities had experienced relapses during the previous year. The mean total annual cost of MS was €46,994, which increased with advancing disease from €10,835 (EDSS score = 0) to €109,901 (EDSS score = 8-9). The mean utility was 0.644. HRQoL decreased with increasing disease severity. Relapses imposed an additional utility decrement among the PwMS with RRMS and EDSS ≤5 and had a trend-like effect on total costs. The cross-sectional setting did not allow assessment of the significance of relapses in early MS or the use of DMTs on the prognosis of the disease. The study confirms previous findings from other countries regarding a significant disease burden associated with MS and provides, for the first time, published numerical estimates from Finland. Treatments that slow disease progression and help PwMS retain employment for a longer duration have the highest potential to reduce the disease burden associated with MS.

  14. Cortical relapses in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Puthenparampil, Marco; Poggiali, Davide; Causin, Francesco; Rolma, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Francesca; Perini, Paola; Gallo, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a white and grey matter disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is recognized that cortical damage (i.e. focal lesions and atrophy) plays a role in determining the accumulation of physical and cognitive disability that is observed in patients with progressive MS. To date, an association of cortical lesions with clinical relapses has not been described. We report clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of five relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who had clinical relapses characterized by the acute appearance of cortical symptoms, due to the development of large, snake-like, cortical inflammatory lesions. Symptoms were: acute Wernicke's aphasia mimicking stroke; agraphia with acalculia, not associated to a motor deficit nor linguistic disturbance; hyposthenia of the left arm, followed by muscle twitching of the hand, spreading to arm and face; acute onset of left lower limb paroxysmal hypertonia; and temporal lobe status epilepticus, with psychotic symptoms. Cortical relapses may occur in MS. MRI examination in MS should include sequences, such as double inversion recovery (DIR) or phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR), that are aimed at visualizing cortical lesions, especially in the presence of symptoms of cortical dysfunction. Our observation further stresses and extends the clinical relevance of cortical pathology in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  15. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Intra-individual variability in information processing speed reflects white matter microstructure in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mazerolle, Erin L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena A; Omisade, Antonina; Fisk, John D

    2013-01-01

    Slowed information processing speed is commonly reported in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), and is typically investigated using clinical neuropsychological tests, which provide sensitive indices of mean-level information processing speed. However, recent studies have demonstrated that within-person variability or intra-individual variability (IIV) in information processing speed may be a more sensitive indicator of neurologic status than mean-level performance on clinical tests. We evaluated the neural basis of increased IIV in mildly affected relapsing-remitting MS patients by characterizing the relation between IIV (controlling for mean-level performance) and white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty women with relapsing-remitting MS and 20 matched control participants completed the Computerized Test of Information Processing (CTIP), from which both mean response time and IIV were calculated. Other clinical measures of information processing speed were also collected. Relations between IIV on the CTIP and DTI metrics of white matter microstructure were evaluated using tract-based spatial statistics. We observed slower and more variable responses on the CTIP in MS patients relative to controls. Significant relations between white matter microstructure and IIV were observed for MS patients. Increased IIV was associated with reduced integrity in more white matter tracts than was slowed information processing speed as measured by either mean CTIP response time or other neuropsychological test scores. Thus, despite the common use of mean-level performance as an index of cognitive dysfunction in MS, IIV may be more sensitive to the overall burden of white matter disease at the microstructural level. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential value of considering within-person fluctuations, in addition to mean-level performance, for uncovering brain-behavior relationships in neurologic disorders with widespread white matter pathology.

  17. Involvement of peripheral III nerve in multiple sclerosis patient: Report of a new case and discussion of the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shor, Natalia; Amador, Maria Del Mar; Dormont, Didier; Lubetzki, Catherine; Bertrand, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder that affects the central nervous system myelin. However, a few radiological cases have documented an involvement of peripheral cranial nerves, within the subarachnoid space, in MS patients. We report the case of a 36-year-old female with a history of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS who consulted for a subacute complete paralysis of the right III nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination showed enhancement and thickening of the cisternal right III nerve, in continuity with a linear, mesencephalic, acute demyelinating lesion. Radiological involvement of the cisternal part of III nerve has been reported only once in MS patients. Radiological involvement of the cisternal part of V nerve occurs more frequently, in almost 3% of MS patients. In both situations, the presence of a central demyelinating lesion, in continuity with the enhancement of the peripheral nerve, suggests that peripheral nerve damage is a secondary process, rather than a primary target of demyelination.

  18. The nature of verbal memory impairment in multiple sclerosis: a list-learning and meta-analytic study.

    PubMed

    Lafosse, Jose M; Mitchell, Sandra M; Corboy, John R; Filley, Christopher M

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have impaired acquisition rather than a retrieval deficit. Verbal memory impairment in MS was examined in 53 relapsing-remitting MS patients and 31 healthy controls (HC), and in a meta-analysis of studies that examined memory functioning in MS with list-learning tasks. The MS group demonstrated significantly lower acquisition and delayed recall performance than the HC group, and the meta-analysis revealed that the largest effect sizes were obtained for acquisition measures relative to delayed recall and recognition. Our data argue against a retrieval deficit as the sole explanation for verbal memory impairment in MS, and make a consistent case for the position that deficient acquisition contributes to the memory dysfunction of MS patients. Deficient acquisition may result from demyelination in relevant white matter tracts that reduces encoding efficiency as a result of impaired speed of information processing.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid ATP metabolites in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lazzarino, G; Amorini, A M; Eikelenboom, M J; Killestein, J; Belli, A; Di Pietro, V; Tavazzi, B; Barkhof, F; Polman, C H; Uitdehaag, B M J; Petzold, A

    2010-05-01

    Increased axonal energy demand and mitochondrial failure have been suggested as possible causes for axonal degeneration and disability in multiple sclerosis. Our objective was to test whether ATP depletion precedes clinical, imaging and biomarker evidence for axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis. The method consisted of a longitudinal study which included 21 patients with multiple sclerosis. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify biomarkers of the ATP metabolism (oxypurines and purines) from the cerebrospinal fluid at baseline. The Expanded Disability Status Scale, MRI brain imaging measures for brain atrophy (ventricular and parenchymal fractions), and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for axonal damage (phosphorylated and hyperphosphorylated neurofilaments) were quantified at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Central ATP depletion (sum of ATP metabolites >19.7 micromol/litre) was followed by more severe progression of disability if compared to normal ATP metabolites (median 1.5 versus 0, p< 0.05). Baseline ATP metabolite levels correlated with change of Expanded Disability Status Scale in the pooled cohort (r= 0.66, p= 0.001) and subgroups (relapsing-remitting patients: r= 0.79, p< 0.05 and secondary progressive/primary progressive patients: r= 0.69, p< 0.01). There was no relationship between central ATP metabolites and either biomarker or MRI evidence for axonal degeneration. The data suggests that an increased energy demand in multiple sclerosis may cause a quantifiable degree of central ATP depletion. We speculate that the observed clinical disability may be related to depolarisation associated conduction block.

  20. Understanding the positive benefit:risk profile of alemtuzumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis: perspectives from the Alemtuzumab Clinical Development Program.

    PubMed

    Havrdova, Eva; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Horakova, Dana; Kovarova, Ivana; Meluzinova, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of high-efficacy therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis has driven re-evaluation of treatment goals and benefit:risk considerations in treatment choice. In the alemtuzumab Phase II and III clinical trials, patients treated with alemtuzumab 12 mg versus subcutaneous interferon beta-1a demonstrated significantly reduced annualized relapse rates and improved magnetic resonance imaging outcomes, and were significantly more likely to achieve no evidence of disease activity and reduction in brain volume loss. In two of the studies, alemtuzumab-treated patients had a significantly reduced risk of 6-month confirmed disease worsening, compared with subcutaneous interferon beta-1a. Benefits were maintained throughout 5 years, with a majority of patients receiving no alemtuzumab retreatment or other disease-modifying therapy. Trial results support alemtuzumab's manageable, consistent safety profile in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Infusion-associated reactions, the most frequent adverse events (AEs), can be minimized by corticosteroid pretreatment, monitoring, and symptomatic management. Other AEs include infections and autoimmune events. Oral anti-herpes prophylaxis should be initiated on the first day of each alemtuzumab treatment course and continued according to local guidelines. Overall cancer risk was lower in the alemtuzumab clinical trials than in a reference population; however, continuing surveillance will determine if alemtuzumab may be associated with certain malignancies such as thyroid papillary carcinoma and melanoma, which are currently identified as potential risks. The post-approval risk management strategy includes a safety monitoring program. Autoimmune AEs (thyroid events, immune thrombocytopenia, nephropathies) can be detected in a timely manner with the monitoring program, which includes physician and patient education about the signs and symptoms, monthly renal and hematologic monitoring, and quarterly thyroid

  1. Gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis: possible influence of immunomodulators.

    PubMed

    Cantarel, Brandi L; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Chehoud, Christel; Kuczynski, Justin; DeSantis, Todd Z; Warrington, Janet; Venkatesan, Arun; Fraser, Claire M; Mowry, Ellen M

    2015-06-01

    Differences in gut bacteria have been described in several autoimmune disorders. In this exploratory pilot study, we compared gut bacteria in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls and evaluated the influence of glatiramer acetate and vitamin D treatment on the microbiota. Subjects were otherwise healthy white women with or without relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who were vitamin D insufficient. Patients with multiple sclerosis were untreated or were receiving glatiramer acetate. Subjects collected stool at baseline and after 90 days of vitamin D3 (5000 IU/d) supplementation. The abundance of operational taxonomic units was evaluated by hybridization of 16S rRNA to a DNA microarray. While there was overlap of gut bacterial communities, the abundance of some operational taxonomic units, including Faecalibacterium, was lower in patients with multiple sclerosis. Glatiramer acetate-treated patients with multiple sclerosis showed differences in community composition compared with untreated subjects, including Bacteroidaceae, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillaceae, Clostridium, and other Clostridiales. Compared with the other groups, untreated patients with multiple sclerosis had an increase in the Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, and Coprococcus genera after vitamin D supplementation. While overall bacterial communities were similar, specific operational taxonomic units differed between healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis. Glatiramer acetate and vitamin D supplementation were associated with differences or changes in the microbiota. This study was exploratory, and larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  2. Increasing serum levels of vitamin A, D and E are associated with alterations of different inflammation markers in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Røsjø, Egil; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Løken-Amsrud, Kristin Ingeleiv; Bakke, Søren Jacob; Beiske, Antonie G; Bjerve, Kristian S; Hovdal, Harald; Lilleås, Finn; Midgard, Rune; Pedersen, Tom; Benth, Jūratė Saltytė; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig; Michelsen, Annika E; Aukrust, Pål; Ueland, Thor; Holmøy, Trygve

    2014-06-15

    To explore the relationships between vitamin A, D and E and inflammation in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, we assessed their associations with 11 inflammation markers in 9 serial serum samples from 85 patients, before and during interferon-β1a treatment. A negative association was found between vitamin A and pentraxin 3 independent of interferon-β1a use, whereas positive associations between vitamin D and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and secreted frizzled-related protein 3 were seen before, and between vitamin E and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 during interferon-β1a treatment. These findings suggest associations with diverse inflammatory pathways, which may be differentially influenced by interferon-β1a treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dimethyl Fumarate Selectively Reduces Memory T Cells and Shifts the Balance between Th1/Th17 and Th2 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Wang, Qin; Mao, Guangmei; Dowling, Catherine A; Lundy, Steven K; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2017-04-15

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF; trade name Tecfidera) is an oral formulation of the fumaric acid ester that is Food and Drug Administration approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To better understand the therapeutic effects of Tecfidera and its rare side effect of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal studies by immunophenotyping cells from peripheral blood (particularly T lymphocytes) derived from untreated and 4-6 and 18-26 mo Tecfidera-treated stable relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using multiparametric flow cytometry. The absolute numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells were significantly decreased and the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased with DMF treatment. The proportions of both effector memory T cells and central memory T cells were reduced, whereas naive T cells increased in treated patients. T cell activation was reduced with DMF treatment, especially among effector memory T cells and effector memory RA T cells. Th subsets Th1 (CXCR3 + ), Th17 (CCR6 + ), and particularly those expressing both CXCR3 and CD161 were reduced most significantly, whereas the anti-inflammatory Th2 subset (CCR3 + ) was increased after DMF treatment. A corresponding increase in IL-4 and decrease in IFN-γ and IL-17-expressing CD4 + T cells were observed in DMF-treated patients. DMF in vitro treatment also led to increased T cell apoptosis and decreased activation, proliferation, reactive oxygen species, and CCR7 expression. Our results suggest that DMF acts on specific memory and effector T cell subsets by limiting their survival, proliferation, activation, and cytokine production. Monitoring these subsets could help to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DMF treatment. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Use of the PRIMUS scale to assess quality of life in a Spanish population of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M A; Mora, S

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with significant and progressive functional disability and have a profound impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). QoL and daily life activities are two areas that suffer major changes during the course of MS and there are currently no questionnaires specifically designed to evaluate these areas in MS patients. To evaluate QoL of MS patients using the PRIMUS questionnaire and determine the possible relationship between QoL, duration of disease, and disability measured on the EDSS. Multi-centre epidemiological and cross-sectional study including 261 patients with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) or secondary progressive MS (SPMS) treated with interferon beta-1b for at least 6 months. The validated version of the PRIMUS questionnaire was used for patient reporting of changes in QoL and life activities. Mean age of patients was 41.7±10.3 years; 61.3% were women. Most had RRMS (83.9%). Mean time since MS diagnosis was 7.6±5.8 years, and longer in the SPMS group (11.2±7.4 vs 6.9±5.2, P<.0001). Mean EDSS score was 2.6±1.75 (5.1±1.3 in SPMS vs 2.1±1.4 in RRMS, P<.0001). Mean time since start of treatment was 5.5±3.8 years. The PRIMUS QoL component was higher in the RRMS group: 18.3±6.8 vs 9.9±7.1 (P<.0001); it also decreased with increases in both time since diagnosis (P<.01) and disability scores (from 18.8±6.6 in early stages [EDSS<3.5] to 8.4±6.3 in advanced stages [EDSS>5], P<.0001). The PRIMUS activity limitations component followed the same pattern: activity became more limited with increases in time since diagnosis (P<.0001) and overall disability (P<.0001). QoL in MS patients varies according to the disease type, and it worsens progressively over time and with increasing disability. The PRIMUS questionnaire is a good tool for assessing QoL and activity in patients with MS. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. High-intensity resistance training in multiple sclerosis - An exploratory study of effects on immune markers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and on mood, fatigue, health-related quality of life, muscle strength, walking and cognition.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Olsson, Tomas; Johansson, Sverker; Ygberg, Sofia; Opava, Christina; Holmqvist, Lotta Widén; Piehl, Fredrik

    2016-03-15

    High-intensity resistance training is unexplored in people with multiple sclerosis. To evaluate effects of high-intensity resistance training on immune markers and on measures of mood, fatigue, health-related quality of life, muscle strength, walking and cognition. Further, to describe participants' opinion and perceived changes of the training. Twenty patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis performed high-intensity resistance training at an intensity of 80% of one-repetition maximum, twice a week for 12 weeks. Blood and optional cerebrospinal fluid samples, and data on secondary outcome measures were collected before and after intervention. A study-specific questionnaire was used for capturing participants' opinion. Seventeen participants completed the study. Plasma cytokine levels of tumor necrosis factor were significantly decreased post-intervention (p=0.001). Exploratory cytokine analyses in cerebrospinal fluid (n=8) did not reveal major changes. Significant and clinically important improvements were found in fatigue (p=0.001) and health-related quality of life (p=0.004). Measures of mood (p=0.002), muscle strength (p ≤ 0.001), walking speed (p=0.013) and cognition (p=0.04) were also improved. A majority of participants evaluated the training as very good and perceived changes to the better. High-intensity resistance training in persons with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis with low disability had positive effects on peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, led to clinically relevant improvements in measures of fatigue and health-related quality of life, and was well tolerated. These results provide a basis for a larger randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The endocannabinoid system and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Baker, David; Pryce, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that is characterised by repeated inflammatory/demyelinating events within the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to relapsing-remitting neurological insults, leading to loss of function, patients are often left with residual, troublesome symptoms such as spasticity and pain. These greatly diminish "quality of life" and have prompted some patients to self-medicate with and perceive benefit from cannabis. Recent advances in cannabinoid biology are beginning to support these anecdotal observations, notably the demonstration that spasticity is tonically regulated by the endogenous cannabinoid system. Recent clinical trials may indeed suggest that cannabis has some potential to relieve, pain, spasms and spasticity in MS. However, because the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor mediates both the positive and adverse effects of cannabis, therapy will invariably be associated with some unwanted, psychoactive effects. In an experimental model of MS, and in MS tissue, there are local perturbations of the endocannabinoid system in lesional areas. Stimulation of endocannabinoid activity in these areas either through increase of synthesis or inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation offers the positive therapeutic potential of the cannabinoid system whilst limiting adverse events by locally targeting the lesion. In addition, CB(1) and CB(2) cannabinoid receptor stimulation may also have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential as the endocannabinoid system controls the level of neurodegeneration that occurs as a result of the inflammatory insults. Therefore cannabinoids may not only offer symptom control but may also slow the neurodegenerative disease progression that ultimately leads to the accumulation of disability.

  7. The effect of low-dose naltrexone on quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharafaddinzadeh, Naser; Moghtaderi, Ali; Kashipazha, Davood; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Shalbafan, Bita

    2010-08-01

    Low-dose naltrexone (LDN) may promote psychological well-being as well as generalized health especially in autoimmune disorders. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of LDN on the Quality of Life (QoL) of patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) using the scales and composite scores of the MSQoL-54 questionnaire. A 17-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, crossover-design clinical trial was conducted in two universities. A total of 96 adult patients aged between 15 and 65 years with relapsing-remitting (RR) or secondary progressive (SP) clinically definite MS with disease duration longer than 6 months enrolled into the study. The primary outcome of the study was comparison of the scores of physical and mental health by conducting independent t-test of the results obtained in the middle and at the end of study between the two groups. Variables including presence of pain, energy, emotional well-being, social, cognitive, and sexual functions, role limitation due to physical and emotional problems, health distress, and overall QoL did not show any meaningful statistically difference between the two groups. Factor analysis revealed that health perception scores were statistically different between the groups before starting, in the middle, and at the end of the study. The study clearly illustrates that LDN is a relatively safe therapeutic option in RRMS and SPMS but its efficacy is under question and probably a long duration trial is needed in the future.

  8. Using Arrays to Build towards Multiplicative Thinking in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Lorraine; Mulligan, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Lorraine Jacob and Joanne Mulligan discuss how arrays can be used to promote students' early learning in relation to multiplication and division. They provide examples of activities that can be used from Foundation to Year 5.

  9. A regenerative approach to the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vishal A; Tardif, Virginie; Lyssiotis, Costas A; Green, Chelsea C; Kerman, Bilal; Kim, Hyung Joon; Padmanabhan, Krishnan; Swoboda, Jonathan G; Ahmad, Insha; Kondo, Toru; Gage, Fred H; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N; Lawson, Brian R; Schultz, Peter G; Lairson, Luke L

    2013-10-17

    Progressive phases of multiple sclerosis are associated with inhibited differentiation of the progenitor cell population that generates the mature oligodendrocytes required for remyelination and disease remission. To identify selective inducers of oligodendrocyte differentiation, we performed an image-based screen for myelin basic protein (MBP) expression using primary rat optic-nerve-derived progenitor cells. Here we show that among the most effective compounds identifed was benztropine, which significantly decreases clinical severity in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis when administered alone or in combination with approved immunosuppressive treatments for multiple sclerosis. Evidence from a cuprizone-induced model of demyelination, in vitro and in vivo T-cell assays and EAE adoptive transfer experiments indicated that the observed efficacy of this drug results directly from an enhancement of remyelination rather than immune suppression. Pharmacological studies indicate that benztropine functions by a mechanism that involves direct antagonism of M1 and/or M3 muscarinic receptors. These studies should facilitate the development of effective new therapies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that complement established immunosuppressive approaches.

  10. Early Years Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching through Multiple Metaphors and Multimodality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mildenhall, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Recent research findings indicate that using multiple metaphors in multimodal learning experiences are effective teaching approaches in early years mathematics. Using a social semiotic lens this paper reports on eight early years teachers' perceptions of this approach whilst engaging in a small collaborative professional learning group. This group…

  11. Multiple Literacies, Curriculum, and Instruction in Early Childhood and Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    This article describes some implications of using a multiple literacies perspective in the construction and implementation of literacy curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment in early childhood and elementary classrooms. After briefly laying out a theoretical perspective in sections focusing on early literacy, academic learning, literacy beyond…

  12. Early College for All: Efforts to Scale up Early Colleges in Multiple Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Given the positive impacts of the small, stand-alone early college model and the desire to provide those benefits to more students, organizations have begun efforts to scale up the early college model in a variety of settings. These efforts have been supported by the federal government, particularly by the Investing in Innovation (i3) program.…

  13. Multiple sclerosis lesions affect intrinsic functional connectivity of the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Benjamin N; Barry, Robert L; Rogers, Baxter P; Maki, Satoshi; Mishra, Arabinda; Thukral, Saakshi; Sriram, Subramaniam; Bhatia, Aashim; Pawate, Siddharama; Gore, John C; Smith, Seth A

    2018-06-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis present with focal lesions throughout the spinal cord. There is a clinical need for non-invasive measurements of spinal cord activity and functional organization in multiple sclerosis, given the cord's critical role in the disease. Recent reports of spontaneous blood oxygenation level-dependent fluctuations in the spinal cord using functional MRI suggest that, like the brain, cord activity at rest is organized into distinct, synchronized functional networks among grey matter regions, likely related to motor and sensory systems. Previous studies looking at stimulus-evoked activity in the spinal cord of patients with multiple sclerosis have demonstrated increased levels of activation as well as a more bilateral distribution of activity compared to controls. Functional connectivity studies of brain networks in multiple sclerosis have revealed widespread alterations, which may take on a dynamic trajectory over the course of the disease, with compensatory increases in connectivity followed by decreases associated with structural damage. We build upon this literature by examining functional connectivity in the spinal cord of patients with multiple sclerosis. Using ultra-high field 7 T imaging along with processing strategies for robust spinal cord functional MRI and lesion identification, the present study assessed functional connectivity within cervical cord grey matter of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (n = 22) compared to a large sample of healthy controls (n = 56). Patient anatomical images were rated for lesions by three independent raters, with consensus ratings revealing 19 of 22 patients presented with lesions somewhere in the imaged volume. Linear mixed models were used to assess effects of lesion location on functional connectivity. Analysis in control subjects demonstrated a robust pattern of connectivity among ventral grey matter regions as well as a distinct network among dorsal regions. A gender effect

  14. Care Partners and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quig, Mary Elizabeth; Tyry, Tuula; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Shearin, Edward; Johnson, Kamau; Simsarian, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be a stressful experience that requires clinical attention. We investigated the impact of caregiver stress on the emotional well-being and physical health of the MS care partner using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods: Care partners of NARCOMS participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire that captured demographic characteristics, health status, caregiver burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and impact of caregiving on employment. Results: Of 1446 care partners who agreed to participate, 1333 had complete data. Most were men (n = 825, 61.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 51.1 (11.2) years. The mean (SD) Zarit total score was 24.6 (15.1), placing the overall group in the mild caregiver burden range. Compared with male care partners, female care partners reported higher levels of burden and stress and more medication use for stress/anxiety and mood disorders. Male care partners were more likely to report physical concerns. Care partners of people with primary progressive MS reported greater perceived burden than did partners of people with secondary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. More than 40% of care partners (559 of 1288) had missed work during the past year owing to caregiving responsibilities. Conclusions: Care partners of people with MS have substantial physical and psychological health concerns and experience an adverse impact on employment. Future research should evaluate how to mitigate the adverse effects of caregiving and evaluate positive aspects of the role. PMID:26664330

  15. Early detection of ecosystem regime shifts: a multiple method evaluation for management application.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Gröger, Joachim P; Gårdmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited. Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of ecosystem change.

  16. Early Detection of Ecosystem Regime Shifts: A Multiple Method Evaluation for Management Application

    PubMed Central

    Lindegren, Martin; Dakos, Vasilis; Gröger, Joachim P.; Gårdmark, Anna; Kornilovs, Georgs; Otto, Saskia A.; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Critical transitions between alternative stable states have been shown to occur across an array of complex systems. While our ability to identify abrupt regime shifts in natural ecosystems has improved, detection of potential early-warning signals previous to such shifts is still very limited. Using real monitoring data of a key ecosystem component, we here apply multiple early-warning indicators in order to assess their ability to forewarn a major ecosystem regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea. We show that some indicators and methods can result in clear early-warning signals, while other methods may have limited utility in ecosystem-based management as they show no or weak potential for early-warning. We therefore propose a multiple method approach for early detection of ecosystem regime shifts in monitoring data that may be useful in informing timely management actions in the face of ecosystem change. PMID:22808007

  17. CD206-Targeted Liposomal Myelin Basic Protein Peptides in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Resistant to First-Line Disease-Modifying Therapies: A First-in-Human, Proof-of-Concept Dose-Escalation Study.

    PubMed

    Belogurov, Alexey; Zakharov, Konstantin; Lomakin, Yakov; Surkov, Kirill; Avtushenko, Sergey; Kruglyakov, Peter; Smirnov, Ivan; Makshakov, Gleb; Lockshin, Curtis; Gregoriadis, Gregory; Genkin, Dmitry; Gabibov, Alexander; Evdoshenko, Evgeniy

    2016-10-01

    Previously, we showed that CD206-targeted liposomal delivery of co-encapsulated immunodominant myelin basic protein (MBP) sequences MBP 46-62 , MBP 124-139 and MBP 147-170 (Xemys) suppressed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dark Agouti rats. The objective of this study was to assess the safety of Xemys in the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and secondary progressive MS, who failed to achieve a sustained response to first-line disease-modifying therapies. In this phase I, open-label, dose-escalating, proof-of-concept study, 20 patients with relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive MS received weekly subcutaneously injections with ascending doses of Xemys up to a total dose of 2.675 mg. Clinical examinations, including Expanded Disability Status Scale score, magnetic resonance imaging results, and serum cytokine concentrations, were assessed before the first injection and for up to 17 weeks after the final injection. Xemys was safe and well tolerated when administered for 6 weeks to a maximum single dose of 900 μg. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and numbers of T2-weighted and new gadolinium-enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging were statistically unchanged at study exit compared with baseline; nonetheless, the increase of number of active gadolinium-enhancing lesions on weeks 7 and 10 in comparison with baseline was statistically significant. During treatment, the serum concentrations of the cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and interleukin-7 decreased, whereas the level of tumor necrosis factor-α increased. These results provide evidence for the further development of Xemys as an antigen-specific, disease-modifying therapy for patients with MS.

  18. Acute effects of alemtuzumab infusion in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katja; Eisele, Judith; Rodriguez-Leal, Francisco Alejandro; Hainke, Undine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Alemtuzumab exerts its clinical efficacy by its specific pattern of depletion and repopulation of different immune cells. Beyond long-term immunologic and clinical data, little is known about acute changes in immunologic and routine laboratory parameters and their clinical relevance during the initial alemtuzumab infusion. Methods: Fifteen patients with highly active MS were recruited. In addition to parameters including heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and monitoring of adverse events, complete blood cell count, liver enzymes, kidney function, acute-phase proteins, serum cytokine profile, complement activation, peripheral immune cell distribution, and their potential of cytokine release were investigated prior to and after methylprednisolone and after alemtuzumab on each day of alemtuzumab infusion. Results: After the first alemtuzumab infusion, both the total leukocyte and granulocyte counts markedly increased, whereas lymphocyte counts dramatically decreased. In addition to lymphocyte depletion, cell subtypes important for innate immunity also decreased within the first week after alemtuzumab infusion. Although patients reported feeling well, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin peaked at serum levels consistent with septic conditions. Increases in liver enzymes were detected, although kidney function remained stable. Proinflammatory serum cytokine levels clearly rose after the first alemtuzumab infusion. Alemtuzumab led to impaired cytokine release ex vivo in nondepleted cells. Normal clinical parameters and mild adverse events were presented. Conclusions: Dramatic immunologic effects were observed. Standardized infusion procedure and pretreatment management attenuated infusion-related reactions. Alemtuzumab-mediated effects led to artificially altered parameters in standard blood testing. We recommend clinical decision-making based on primarily clinical symptoms within the first alemtuzumab treatment week. PMID:27213173

  19. Plasma Biomarkers Discriminate Clinical Forms of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Tejera-Alhambra, Marta; Casrouge, Armanda; de Andrés, Clara; Seyfferth, Ansgar; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Alonso, Bárbara; Vega, Janet; Fernández-Paredes, Lidia; Albert, Matthew L.; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, the most common cause of neurological disability in young population after trauma, represents a significant public health burden. Current challenges associated with management of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients stem from the lack of biomarkers that might enable stratification of the different clinical forms of MS and thus prompt treatment for those patients with progressive MS, for whom there is currently no therapy available. In the present work we analyzed a set of thirty different plasma cytokines, chemokines and growth factors present in circulation of 129 MS patients with different clinical forms (relapsing remitting, secondary progressive and primary progressive MS) and 53 healthy controls, across two independent cohorts. The set of plasma analytes was quantified with Luminex xMAP technology and their predictive power regarding clinical outcome was evaluated both individually using ROC curves and in combination using logistic regression analysis. Our results from two independent cohorts of MS patients demonstrate that the divergent clinical and histology-based MS forms are associated with distinct profiles of circulating plasma protein biomarkers, with distinct signatures being composed of chemokines and growth/angiogenic factors. With this work, we propose that an evaluation of a set of 4 circulating biomarkers (HGF, Eotaxin/CCL11, EGF and MIP-1β/CCL4) in MS patients might serve as an effective tool in the diagnosis and more personalized therapeutic targeting of MS patients. PMID:26039252

  20. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Multiple Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education. SUNY Series, Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    This book provides research in the area of educational play for early childhood teachers and teacher educators. Following an introduction by the editors, the chapters of the book are: (1) "A Historical Overview of Theories of Play" (Olivia Saracho and Bernard Spodek); (2) "Playing with a Theory of Mind" (Angeline Lillard); (3)…

  2. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Mei; Tian, Hong-Ji; Han, Zheng; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Ying; Gu, Jie-Bing; Bakshi, Rohit; Cao, Xia

    2017-05-01

    We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri), right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri), right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus), right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus), right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  3. Nutrition Facts in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness. PMID:25694551

  4. Deep learning of joint myelin and T1w MRI features in normal-appearing brain tissue to distinguish between multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Youngjin; Tang, Lisa Y W; Brosch, Tom; Li, David K B; Kolind, Shannon; Vavasour, Irene; Rauscher, Alexander; MacKay, Alex L; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tam, Roger C

    2018-01-01

    Myelin imaging is a form of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that measures myelin content and can potentially allow demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) to be detected earlier. Although focal lesions are the most visible signs of MS pathology on conventional MRI, it has been shown that even tissues that appear normal may exhibit decreased myelin content as revealed by myelin-specific images (i.e., myelin maps). Current methods for analyzing myelin maps typically use global or regional mean myelin measurements to detect abnormalities, but ignore finer spatial patterns that may be characteristic of MS. In this paper, we present a machine learning method to automatically learn, from multimodal MR images, latent spatial features that can potentially improve the detection of MS pathology at early stage. More specifically, 3D image patches are extracted from myelin maps and the corresponding T1-weighted (T1w) MRIs, and are used to learn a latent joint myelin-T1w feature representation via unsupervised deep learning. Using a data set of images from MS patients and healthy controls, a common set of patches are selected via a voxel-wise t -test performed between the two groups. In each MS image, any patches overlapping with focal lesions are excluded, and a feature imputation method is used to fill in the missing values. A feature selection process (LASSO) is then utilized to construct a sparse representation. The resulting normal-appearing features are used to train a random forest classifier. Using the myelin and T1w images of 55 relapse-remitting MS patients and 44 healthy controls in an 11-fold cross-validation experiment, the proposed method achieved an average classification accuracy of 87.9% (SD = 8.4%), which is higher and more consistent across folds than those attained by regional mean myelin (73.7%, SD = 13.7%) and T1w measurements (66.7%, SD = 10.6%), or deep-learned features in either the myelin (83.8%, SD = 11.0%) or T1w

  5. Multiple magnet ingestion: is there a role for early surgical intervention?

    PubMed

    Salimi, Amrollah; Kooraki, Soheil; Esfahani, Shadi Abdar; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2012-01-01

    Children often swallow foreign bodies. Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can result in serious complications. This study presents three unique cases of multiple magnet ingestion: one case an 8-year-old boy with multiple magnet ingestion resulting in gastric obstruction and the other two cases with intestinal perforations due to multiple magnet intake. History and physical examination are unreliable in children who swallow multiple magnets. Sometimes radiological findings are not conclusive, whether one magnet is swallowed or more. If magnets are not moved in sequential radiology images, we recommend early surgical intervention before gastrointestinal complications develop. Toy companies, parents, physicians, and radiologists should be warned about the potential complications of such toys.

  6. Epilepsy in multiple sclerosis: The role of temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, M; Castellaro, M; Bertoldo, A; De Luca, A; Pizzini, F B; Ricciardi, G K; Pitteri, M; Zimatore, S; Magliozzi, R; Benedetti, M D; Manganotti, P; Montemezzi, S; Reynolds, R; Gajofatto, A; Monaco, S

    2017-03-01

    Although temporal lobe pathology may explain some of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), its role in the pathogenesis of seizures has not been clarified yet. To investigate the role of temporal lobe damage in MS patients suffering from epilepsy, by the application of advanced multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. A total of 23 relapsing remitting MS patients who had epileptic seizures (RRMS/E) and 23 disease duration matched RRMS patients without any history of seizures were enrolled. Each patient underwent advanced 3T MRI protocol specifically conceived to evaluate grey matter (GM) damage. This includes grey matter lesions (GMLs) identification, evaluation of regional cortical thickness and indices derived from the Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging model. Regional analysis revealed that in RRMS/E, the regions most affected by GMLs were the hippocampus (14.2%), the lateral temporal lobe (13.5%), the cingulate (10.0%) and the insula (8.4%). Cortical thinning and alteration of diffusion metrics were observed in several regions of temporal lobe, in insular cortex and in cingulate gyrus of RRMS/E compared to RRMS ( p< 0.05 for all comparisons). Compared to RRMS, RRMS/E showed more severe damage of temporal lobe, which exceeds what would be expected on the basis of the global GM damage observed.

  7. Advising patients seeking stem cell interventions for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    von Wunster, Beatrice; Bailey, Steven; Wilkins, Alastair; Marks, David I; Scolding, Neil J; Rice, Claire M

    2018-05-30

    Given the intuitive potential of stem cell therapy and limitations of current treatment options for progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it is not surprising that patients consider undertaking significant clinical and financial risks to access stem cell transplantation. However, while increasing evidence supports autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) in aggressive relapsing-remitting MS, interventions employing haematopoietic or other stem cells should otherwise be considered experimental and recommended only in the context of a properly regulated clinical study. Understandably, most neurologists are unfamiliar with AHSCT procedures and the specific requirements for quality assurance and safety standards, as well as post-procedure precautions and follow-up. Consequently they may feel ill-equipped to advise patients. Here, we highlight important points for discussion in consultations with patients considering stem cell 'tourism' for MS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Qom: Demographic study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaali, Saeed; Khalilnezhad, Ahad; Naser Moghadasi, Abdorreza; Chaibakhsh, Samira; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated controversial results and somewhat increased frequency of multiple sclerosis (MS). We reevaluated the files of MS patients from Qom Province of Iran in order to investigate the epidemiology of the disease. Demographic and clinical records of 592 MS patients were reviewed, which included; age, sex, date of birth, marital and occupation status, presenting symptoms, time of onset, type and family history of MS, and history of autoimmune or other diseases. At the time of our study, 11 patients had died, and 581 were alive with a total female-to-male ratio of 3.4. The mean age of onset of the disease was 34.25 ± 9.01 for all the patients. 11.2% of patients had positive family history of MS. The majority of patients (80.1%) showed relapsing-remitting (RR) pattern. The prevalence of MS was calculated as 50.4/100000 for Qom. Qom is located within a high risk zone of MS. Although we found evidences about the role of environmental factors, geographical distribution, and etcetera, many more studies need to be performed in this respect.

  9. Newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis in state of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, N; Elsetouhy, A; Deleu, D; Kamran, S; AlHail, H; Elalamy, O; Mesraoua, B; Sokrab, T; Kamil, H; Melikyan, G; D'souza, A; Osman, Y; Imam, Y

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) are well-documented in the western population but to a lesser extent in Arab world. To study the demographics, clinical aspects, radiologic and laboratory features along with the degree of disability inflicted, and factors affecting disease progression and outcome of newly diagnosed MS patients at our institution. Data from all newly diagnosed MS patients fulfilling McDonald criteria from January 01, 2005 to December 31, 2010 were collected and analyzed. A total of 142 patients were identified, in which 82 (58%) were Qataris, and 90 (64%) females. Mean age was 31 years, and mean duration of symptoms was 24 days (median 15 days). Most common symptoms were sensory (63%), followed by visual (45%) and motor (43%). Mean EDSS was 2.3 at presentation. Treatment was given to 127 (89%), and relapse observed in 49%. Gadolinium enhancing lesions on follow-up MRI brain and relapsing remitting MS were associated with increased radiologic disease burden, while weakness at onset, EDSS of ≥2.5 and ≥3 clinical relapse was associated with clinical disease progression. MS in Qatar is an emerging disorder especially in the native population. The pattern of disease differs from other Middle Eastern countries by its milder clinical and aggressive radiologic disease presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Upper limb movement analysis during gait in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Elsworth-Edelsten, Charlotte; Bonnefoy-Mazure, Alice; Laidet, Magali; Armand, Stephane; Assal, Frederic; Lalive, Patrice; Allali, Gilles

    2017-08-01

    Gait disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are well studied; however, no previous study has described upper limb movements during gait. However, upper limb movements have an important role during locomotion and can be altered in MS patients due to direct MS lesions or mechanisms of compensation. The aim of this study was to describe the arm movements during gait in a population of MS patients with low disability compared with a healthy control group. In this observational study we analyzed the arm movements during gait in 52 outpatients (mean age: 39.7±9.6years, female: 40%) with relapsing-remitting MS with low disability (mean EDSS: 2±1) and 25 healthy age-matched controls using a 3-dimension gait analysis. MS patients walked slower, with increased mean elbow flexion and decreased amplitude of elbow flexion (ROM) compared to the control group, whereas shoulder and hand movements were similar to controls. These differences were not explained by age or disability. Upper limb alterations in movement during gait in MS patients with low disability can be characterized by an increase in mean elbow flexion and a decrease in amplitude (ROM) for elbow flexion/extension. This upper limb movement pattern should be considered as a new component of gait disorders in MS and may reflect subtle motor deficits or the use of compensatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gait Profile Score in multiple sclerosis patients with low disability.

    PubMed

    Morel, Eric; Allali, Gilles; Laidet, Magali; Assal, Frédéric; Lalive, Patrice H; Armand, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Gait abnormalities are subtle in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with low disability and need to be better determined. As a biomechanical approach, the Gait Profile Score (GPS) is used to assess gait quality by combining nine gait kinematic variables in one single value. This study aims i) to establish if the GPS can detect gait impairments and ii) to compare GPS with discrete spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters in low-disabled MS patients. Thirty-four relapsing-remitting MS patients with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ≤2 (mean age 36.32±8.72 years; 12 men, 22 women; mean EDSS 1.19±0.8) and twenty-two healthy controls (mean age 36.85±7.87 years; 6 men, 16 women) matched for age, weight, height, body mass index and gender underwent an instrumented gait analysis. No significant difference in GPS values and in spatiotemporal parameters was found between patients and controls. However patients showed a significant alteration at the ankle and pelvis level. GPS fails to identify gait abnormalities in low-disabled MS patients, although kinematic analysis revealed subtle gait alterations. Future studies should investigate other methods to assess gait impairments with a gait score in low-disabled MS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic Decisions In Multiple Sclerosis: Moving Beyond Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Brück, Wolfgang; Ralf, Gold; Lund, Brett T.; Celia, Oreja-Guevara; Prat, Alexandre; Spencer, Collin M.; Steinman, Lawrence; Mar, Tintoré; Vollmer, Timothy; Weber, Martin S.; Weiner, Leslie P.; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Zamvil, Scott S.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Several innovative disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) have been licensed recently, or are in late-stage development. The molecular targets of several of these DMTs are well defined. All affect at least one of four properties: (1) immune cell trafficking, (2) cell depletion, (3) immune cell function, or (4) cell replication. In contrast to β-interferons and glatiramer acetate, the first generation DMTs, several newer therapies are imbued with safety issues. In addition to efficacy, understanding the relationship between the mechanism of action (MOA) of the DMTs and their safety profile is essential for decision-making in patient care. Objective In this article, we relate safety issues of newer DMTs to their pharmacological characteristics, including molecular targets, MOA, chemical structure, and metabolism. Some newer DMTs also represent repurposing or modifications of previous treatments used in other diseases. Here, we describe how identification and understanding of adverse events (AEs) observed with these established drugs within the same class, provide clues regarding safety and toxicities of newer MS therapeutics. Conclusions and relevance While understanding mechanisms underlying DMT toxicities is incomplete, it is important to further develop this knowledge to minimize risk to patients, and to ensure future therapies have the most advantageous risk-benefit profiles. Recognizing the individual classes of DMTs described here may be beneficial when considering use of such agents sequentially and possibly in combination. PMID:23921521

  13. Redefining self: patients' decision making about treatment for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lowden, Diane; Lee, Virginia; Ritchie, Judith A

    2014-08-01

    The treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has become possible with the advent of disease-modifying therapies, but little is known about patients' experiences when faced with a complex array of treatment options. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experience of making a first decision about treatment with disease-modifying therapies for relapsing-remitting MS. Nine participants shared their perspectives on negotiating the decision to accept, refuse, or delay treatment. All individuals described a core theme in which decision making about treatment was part of a process of coming to a "redefined self." This core theme included reflections about self-image, quality of life, goals, and being a person with MS. Six common themes supporting this core theme were (a) weighing and deciding what's important, (b) acknowledging the illness as part of oneself, (c) playing the mental game, (d) seeking credible resources, (e) evaluating symptoms and fit with quality of life, and (f) managing the roles and involvement of family. The findings of this study provide a greater understanding about the experience of making a therapeutic choice for those with MS and offer insights for nurses when supporting patients faced with options about treatment.

  14. Loss of corticospinal tract integrity in early MS disease stages

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Jens; Kaufmann, Jörn; Heidel, Jan; Stadler, Erhard; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine; Sailer, Michael; Schreiber, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated corticospinal tract (CST) integrity in the absence of white matter (WM) lesions using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in early MS disease stages. Methods: Our study comprised 19 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 11 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, for whom MRI measures of CST integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD]), T1- and T2-based lesion load, and brain volumes were available. The mean (SD) disease duration was 3.5 (2.1) months, and disability score was low (median Expanded Disability Status Scale 1.5) at the time of the study. Results: Patients with CIS and RRMS had significantly lower CST FA and higher CST MD values compared with controls. These findings were present, irrespective of whether WM lesions affected the CST. However, no group differences in the overall gray or WM volume were identified. Conclusions: In early MS disease stages, CST integrity is already affected in the absence of WM lesions or brain atrophy. PMID:28959706

  15. Urea cycle disorder misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Algahtani, Hussein; Alameer, Seham; Marzouk, Yousef; Shirah, Bader

    2018-04-01

    Urea cycle disorders are a group of inborn errors of metabolism caused by dysfunction of any of the six enzymes or two transport proteins involved in urea biosynthesis. In this paper, we report a patient who presented with neurological dysfunction and coma in the immediate postpartum period. She was misdiagnosed for many years as a case of multiple sclerosis. The importance of reporting this case is to illustrate that the wrong diagnosis of patients as being affected with multiple sclerosis for many years due to magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities rather than the classic relapsing-remitting nature of the disease may lead to catastrophic consequences. The patient was treated with intravenous steroids several times, which is contraindicated in patients with urea cycle disorders as it may precipitate acute hyperammonemic attacks. In addition, the management of urea cycle disorder could have started earlier and avoided multiple admissions to the intensive care unit. We believe that the presence of symmetric hyperintense insular cortical changes are seen in multiple hyperammonemic processes, and in the context of the clinical presentation and high ammonia levels can be suggestive of a urea cycle disorder. For any patient presenting with atypical clinical features, images should be reviewed and discussed in detail with an experienced neuroradiologist. In addition, the ammonia levels should be checked if a urea cycle disorder is suspected.

  16. Treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: what works, what does not, and what is needed.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony; Freeman, Jenny; Lo, Albert C

    2015-02-01

    Disease-modifying drugs have mostly failed as treatments for progressive multiple sclerosis. Management of the disease therefore solely aims to minimise symptoms and, if possible, improve function. The degree to which this approach is based on empirical data derived from studies of progressive disease or whether treatment decisions are based on what is known about relapsing-remitting disease remains unclear. Symptoms rated as important by patients with multiple sclerosis include balance and mobility impairments, weakness, reduced cardiovascular fitness, ataxia, fatigue, bladder dysfunction, spasticity, pain, cognitive deficits, depression, and pseudobulbar affect; a comprehensive literature search shows a notable paucity of studies devoted solely to these symptoms in progressive multiple sclerosis, which translates to few proven therapeutic options in the clinic. A new strategy that can be used in future rehabilitation trials is therefore needed, with the adoption of approaches that look beyond single interventions to concurrent, potentially synergistic, treatments that maximise what remains of neural plasticity in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of exercise training on walking mobility in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Snook, Erin M; Motl, Robert W

    2009-02-01

    The study used meta-analytic procedures to examine the overall effect of exercise training interventions on walking mobility among individuals with multiple sclerosis. A search was conducted for published exercise training studies from 1960 to November 2007 using MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Current Contents Plus. Studies were selected if they measured walking mobility, using instruments identified as acceptable walking mobility constructs and outcome measures for individuals with neurologic disorders, before and after an intervention that included exercise training. Forty-two published articles were located and reviewed, and 22 provided enough data to compute effect sizes expressed as Cohen's d. Sixty-six effect sizes were retrieved from the 22 publications with 600 multiple sclerosis participants and yielded a weighted mean effect size of g = 0.19 (95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.28). There were larger effects associated with supervised exercise training ( g = 0.32), exercise programs that were less than 3 months in duration (g = 0.28), and mixed samples of relapsing-remitting and progressive multiple sclerosis (g = 0.52). The cumulative evidence supports that exercise training is associated with a small improvement in walking mobility among individuals with multiple sclerosis.

  18. Dislocation Multiplication in the Early Stage of Deformation in Mo Single Crystals

    SciT

    Hsiung, L.; Lassila, D.H.

    Initial dislocation structure in annealed high-purity Mo single crystals and deformation substructure in a crystal subjected to 1% compression have been examined and studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques in order to investigate dislocation multiplication mechanisms in the early stage of plastic deformation. The initial dislocation density is in a range of 10{sup 6} {approx} 10{sup 7} cm{sup -2}, and the dislocation structure is found to contain many grown-in superjogs along dislocation lines. The dislocation density increases to a range of 10{sup 8} {approx} 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}, and the average jog height is also found to increase aftermore » compressing for a total strain of 1%. It is proposed that the preexisting jogged screw dislocations can act as (multiple) dislocation multiplication sources when deformed under quasi-static conditions. The jog height can increase by stress-induced jog coalescence, which takes place via the lateral migration (drift) of superjogs driven by unbalanced line-tension partials acting on link segments of unequal lengths. The coalescence of superjogs results in an increase of both link length and jog height. Applied shear stress begins to push each link segment to precede dislocation multiplication when link length and jog height are greater than critical lengths. This ''dynamic'' dislocation multiplication source is suggested to be crucial for the dislocation multiplication in the early stage of plastic deformation in Mo.« less

  19. Recruitment of participants to a multiple sclerosis trial: The CombiRx experience

    PubMed Central

    Bhanushali, Minal J; Gustafson, Tarah; Powell, Steve; Conwit, Robin A; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Cutter, Gary R; Lublin, Fred; Cofield, Stacey S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Participant recruitment is central to all clinical trials. Any delay in recruitment affects the completion and ultimate success of the trial. We report our experience with patient screening and randomization in CombiRx, which may inform the design of other trials. CombiRx was a multi-center, phase III, double-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing the combined use of interferon beta-1a and glatiramer acetate to either agent alone in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This trial was launched in January 2005 in 69 centers in the U.S. and Canada under a co-operative agreement with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). The goal was to recruit 1000 patients over 1.5 years after a 6 month startup period. Instead, the investigators required 4.25 years to enroll 1008 patients. Methods: During this trial, we assessed the effectiveness of various recruitment strategies, utility of rescreening prior screen failures, and potential factors and strategies used in study conduct, research and infrastructure, all of which affected recruitment of participants and ultimately time to completion of CombiRx. We particularly were interested in the variability in time to site initiation between academic centers and private practice sites. Results: Physicians who were directly involved in the medical care of patients with RRMS were the primary source of patients recruited to CombiRx. A flexible study design that allowed for re-screening of the initial screen failures after a period of time was useful due to the relapsing/remitting course of the disease. Academic centers took longer to implement the trial than the private practice centers, but once sites were approved for enrollment, there was no important difference in the number of participants enrolled. Limitations: The CombiRx trial was conducted during a period when multiple new medications were being tested, thus affecting the pace of recruitment and

  20. Balancing the benefits and risks of disease-modifying therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2011-12-01

    Balancing efficacy versus burden of therapy is essential for the choice of disease-modifying therapy in every MS patient. The first-line therapies, interferon-? and glatiramer acetate, have well-established efficacy and present no major safety concerns. Certain second-line therapies, such as natalizumab, offer potentially greater efficacy, but are associated with an increased level of risk. Over the last year, the first two oral treatments of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, cladribine and fingolimod, have been marketed in certain countries, although cladribine was subsequently withdrawn. In the Phase III clinical development programme, both drugs appeared effective and reasonably safe. However, there were cases of serious adverse events (malignancies and fatal infections) whose relationship with treatment was unclear. Specific postmarketing studies will be necessary to assess the risks of these new oral therapies. Indeed, both natalizumab and mitoxantrone are known today to be associated with rare adverse drug reactions (progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy for natalizumab and treatment-related leukaemia for mitoxantrone), which were not identified before the treatments were approved. The use of therapies carrying potential serious risks is justified in patients who cannot be treated effectively with safe first-line therapies, but probably not in the average relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis or clinical isolated syndrome patient. Pivotal Phase III clinical trials, on which basis drug approval is generally granted, are designed to demonstrate clinical efficacy and reveal frequently occurring adverse effects of a new drug. However, post-approval trials with extensive patient exposure are needed to generate knowledge of more patient-specific clinical effectiveness and long-term safety, in particular with respect to rare adverse reactions. Other post-approval measures, such as risk management programmes, pharmacovigilance studies, or phased launch of

  1. Visual Search as a Tool for a Quick and Reliable Assessment of Cognitive Functions in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Kathrin S.; Hankeln, Thomas M. A.; Jung, Lena; Lämmer, Alexandra; Waschbisch, Anne; Lee, De-Hyung; Linker, Ralf A.; Schenk, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high frequency of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis, its assessment has not gained entrance into clinical routine yet, due to lack of time-saving and suitable tests for patients with multiple sclerosis. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the paradigm of visual search with neuropsychological standard tests, in order to identify the test that discriminates best between patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy individuals concerning cognitive functions, without being susceptible to practice effects. Methods Patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (n = 38) and age-and gender-matched healthy individuals (n = 40) were tested with common neuropsychological tests and a computer-based visual search task, whereby a target stimulus has to be detected amongst distracting stimuli on a touch screen. Twenty-eight of the healthy individuals were re-tested in order to determine potential practice effects. Results Mean reaction time reflecting visual attention and movement time indicating motor execution in the visual search task discriminated best between healthy individuals and patients with multiple sclerosis, without practice effects. Conclusions Visual search is a promising instrument for the assessment of cognitive functions and potentially cognitive changes in patients with multiple sclerosis thanks to its good discriminatory power and insusceptibility to practice effects. PMID:24282604

  2. Selective dentate gyrus disruption causes memory impairment at the early stage of experimental multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Planche, Vincent; Panatier, Aude; Hiba, Bassem; Ducourneau, Eva-Gunnel; Raffard, Gerard; Dubourdieu, Nadège; Maitre, Marlène; Lesté-Lasserre, Thierry; Brochet, Bruno; Dousset, Vincent; Desmedt, Aline; Oliet, Stéphane H; Tourdias, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Memory impairment is an early and disabling manifestation of multiple sclerosis whose anatomical and biological substrates are still poorly understood. We thus investigated whether memory impairment encountered at the early stage of the disease could be explained by a differential vulnerability of particular hippocampal subfields. By using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we identified that early memory impairment was associated with selective alteration of the dentate gyrus as pinpointed in vivo with diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI). Neuromorphometric analyses and electrophysiological recordings confirmed dendritic degeneration, alteration in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and impaired long-term synaptic potentiation selectively in the dentate gyrus, but not in CA1, together with a more severe pattern of microglial activation in this subfield. Systemic injections of the microglial inhibitor minocycline prevented DTI, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral impairments in EAE-mice. Furthermore, daily infusions of minocycline specifically within the dentate gyrus were sufficient to prevent memory impairment in EAE-mice while infusions of minocycline within CA1 were inefficient. We conclude that early memory impairment in EAE is due to a selective disruption of the dentate gyrus associated with microglia activation. These results open new pathophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic perspectives for memory impairment in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Raising multiples: mental health of mothers and fathers in early parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Battle, Cynthia L.; Tezanos, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of twin and higher-order gestation births has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States as well as other Western countries. Although the obstetrical and neonatal risks of multiple gestation pregnancies are well-documented, much less is known regarding the mental health impact on parents of multiples during the perinatal and early parenthood period. Given that parents of multiples face greater functional demands, as well as other pressures (financial, medical) this population may be at risk for heightened distress. We conducted a systematic review of quantitative, English language studies that assessed mental health outcomes of parents of multiples during pregnancy, in the first postpartum year, and in the period of early parenthood, including depression, anxiety, stress, and related constructs. Twenty-seven articles published between 1989 and 2014 met selection criteria and were included in the review. Studies utilized a wide range of methods and outcome constructs, often making comparisons difficult. Although some studies found no differences, most investigations that compared mental health outcomes in parents of multiples versus parents of singletons found that parents of multiples experience heightened symptoms of depression, anxiety, and parenting stress. We discuss gaps in the existing body of literature on parental mental health related to multiple gestation birth and conclude by discussing the need for novel intervention strategies to meet the needs of this growing population. Parents of multiples may experience worse mental health outcomes than parents of singletons. More research is needed, and future work should explore potential treatment and support options. PMID:25515039

  4. Disease-modifying treatments for early and advanced multiple sclerosis: a new treatment paradigm.

    PubMed

    Giovannoni, Gavin

    2018-06-01

    The treatment of multiple sclerosis is evolving rapidly with 11 classes of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). This article provides an overview of a new classification system for DMTs and treatment paradigm for using these DMTs effectively and safely. A summary of research into the use of more active approaches to early and effective treatment of multiple sclerosis with defined treatment targets of no evident disease activity (NEDA). New insights are discussed that is allowing the field to begin to tackle more advanced multiple sclerosis, including people with multiple sclerosis using wheelchairs. However, the need to modify expectations of what can be achieved in more advanced multiple sclerosis are discussed; in particular, the focus on neuronal systems with reserve capacity, for example, upper limb, bulbar and visual function. The review describes a new more active way of managing multiple sclerosis and concludes with a call to action in solving the problem of slow adoption of innovations and the global problem of untreated, or undertreated, multiple sclerosis.

  5. Pilot trial of intravenous autologous culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey A; Imrey, Peter B; Planchon, Sarah M; Bermel, Robert A; Fisher, Elizabeth; Fox, Robert J; Bar-Or, Amit; Sharp, Susan L; Skaramagas, Thomai T; Jagodnik, Patricia; Karafa, Matt; Morrison, Shannon; Reese Koc, Jane; Gerson, Stanton L; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2018-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit immunomodulatory, tissue-protective, and repair-promoting properties in vitro and in animals. Clinical trials in several human conditions support the safety and efficacy of MSC transplantation. Published experience in multiple sclerosis (MS) is modest. To assess feasibility, safety, and tolerability and explore efficacy of autologous MSC transplantation in MS. Participants with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), Expanded Disability Status Scale score 3.0-6.5, disease activity or progression in the prior 2 years, and optic nerve involvement were enrolled. Bone-marrow-derived MSCs were culture-expanded and then cryopreserved. After confirming fulfillment of release criteria, 1-2 × 10 6 MSCs/kg were thawed and administered IV. In all, 24 of 26 screened patients were infused: 16 women and 8 men, 10 RRMS and 14 SPMS, mean age 46.5, mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5.2, 25% with gadolinium-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions. Mean cell dosage (requiring 1-3 passages) was 1.9 × 10 6 MSCs/kg (range, 1.5-2.0) with post-thaw viability uniformly ⩾95%. Cell infusion was tolerated well without treatment-related severe or serious adverse events, or evidence of disease activation. Autologous MSC transplantation in MS appears feasible, safe, and well tolerated. Future trials to assess efficacy more definitively are warranted.

  6. Does natalizumab treatment increase the risk of herpes simplex encephalitis in multiple sclerosis? Case and discussion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kanchan; Ballham, Samantha A; Inglis, Kirsty E A; Renowden, Shelley; Cottrell, David A

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the 4th documented case worldwide of herpes simplex encephalitis in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab and the first case in the UK. Natalizumab is licensed for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in patients with high disease activity despite treatment with interferon-beta and patients with rapidly evolving severe, multiple sclerosis. Natalizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeted against alpha-4 integrin. Its proposed mechanism is attenuation of the migration of immune cells into the central nervous system. Reactivation of the JC virus causing progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) and its association with natalizumab is well documented. This case adds support to the suggestion that natalizumab also increases the reactivation risk of CNS herpes simplex infection. A 34 year old woman was admitted with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure, fever and confusion following her 40th infusion of natalizumab. MRI demonstrated increased signal in the medial temporal lobes and EEG showed focal sharp waves over the temporal lobe. CSF PCR later confirmed herpes simplex virus. The patient made an eventual excellent recovery following 21 days of intravenous acyclovir therapy followed by 14 days of oral treatment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of lipoic acid consumption on oxidative stress among multiple sclerosis patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Mohammad; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Eskandari, Ghazaleh; Sanoobar, Meisam; Sahraian, Mohamad Ali; Motevalian, Abbas; Norouzi, Abbas; Moftakhar, Shirin; Azimi, Amirreza

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative and demyelinating disease of central nervous system. High levels of oxidative stress are associated with inflammation and play an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. This double-blind, randomized controlled clinical study was carried out to determine the effect of daily consumption of lipoic acid on oxidative stress among multiple sclerosis patients. A total of 52 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, aged 18-50 years with Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤5.5 were assigned to consume either lipoic acid (1200 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected before the first dose taken and 12 hours after the last. Dietary intakes were obtained by using 3-day dietary records. Consumption of lipoic acid resulted in a significant improvement of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in comparison to the placebo group (P = 0.004). Although a significant change of TAC (-1511 mmol/L, P = 0.001) was found within lipoic acid group, other markers of oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and malondialdehyde levels were not affected by lipoic acid consumption. These results suggest that 1200 mg of lipoic acid improves serum TAC among multiple sclerosis patients but does not affect other markers of oxidative stress.

  8. A preliminary validation of the brief international cognitive assessment for multiple sclerosis (BICAMS) tool in an Irish population with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    PubMed

    O'Connell, K; Langdon, D; Tubridy, N; Hutchinson, M; McGuigan, C

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) irrespective of disease stage or subtype. It is typically underreported and neuropsychological testing can be required to detect more subtle evidence of cognitive impairment. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS) was an initiative undertaken by a panel of experts with the primary objective of identifying a brief cognitive assessment tool that could be administered by healthcare professionals without formal neuropsychological training to identify early or subtle cognitive impairment among MS patients. To validate BICAMS in Irish patients with MS and healthy controls. Consecutive patients attending the MS outpatient department from January to April 2014 were recruited. Age, gender, education, handedness, MS subtype, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and disease duration were recorded. They were administered BICAMS composed of Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-II) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test (BVMT-R). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Control participants were composed of unaffected relatives, spouses or carers attending the clinic with a patient and were matched by age, gender and years of education. Impairment on individual tests was defined as -1.5 SD below reference group means. 67 patients [73% women; mean age: 43.9 yrs (12.1); mean years of education: 13.6 yrs (2.7)] and 66 controls [68% women; mean age 42.7 yrs (12.7); mean years of education: 14.1 yrs (3.2)] were recruited. Of the MS patient group: 70% were classified as having relapsing remitting MS, 28% secondary progressive MS and 2% primary progressive MS (PPMS). Mean EDSS scores were 1.8 (SD: 0.9), 5.7 (SD: 1.4) and 7.0 in each group respectively with mean disease duration of 10.2 (SD: 8.4) years, 20.6 (10.2) and 17 years. Mean scores and standard deviations for patients and control participants

  9. Injectable interferon beta-1b for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Slobodan M

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease with either a progressive (10%-15%) or relapsing-remitting (85%-90%) course. The pathological hallmarks of MS are lesions of both white and grey matter in the central nervous system. The onset of the disease is usually around 30 years of age. The patients experience an acute focal neurologic dysfunction which is not characteristic, followed by partial or complete recovery. Acute episodes of neurologic dysfunction with diverse signs and symptoms will then recur throughout the life of a patient, with periods of partial or complete remission and clinical stability in between. Currently, there are several therapeutic options for MS with disease-modifying properties. Immunomodulatory therapy with interferon beta-1b (IFN-β1b) or -1a, glatiramer and natalizumab shows similar efficacy; in a resistant or intolerant patient, the most recently approved therapeutic option is mitoxantrone. IFN-β1b in patients with MS binds to specific receptors on surface of immune cells, changing the expression of several genes and leading to a decrease in quantity of cell-associated adhesion molecules, inhibition of major histocompatibility complex class II expression and reduction in inflammatory cells migration into the central nervous system. After 2 years of treatment, IFN-β1b reduces the risk of development of clinically defined MS from 45% (with placebo) to 28% (with IFN-β1b). It also reduces relapses for 34% (1.31 exacerbations annually with placebo and 0.9 with higher dose of IFN-β1b) and makes 31% more patients relapse-free. In secondary-progressive disease annual rate of progression is 3% lower with IFN-β1b. In recommended doses IFN-β1b causes the following frequent adverse effects: injection site reactions (redness, discoloration, inflammation, pain, necrosis and non-specific reactions), insomnia, influenza-like syndrome, asthenia, headache, myalgia, hypoesthesia, nausea, paresthesia, myasthenia

  10. Efficacy of natalizumab therapy in patients of African descent with relapsing multiple sclerosis: analysis of AFFIRM and SENTINEL data.

    PubMed

    Cree, Bruce A C; Stuart, William H; Tornatore, Carlo S; Jeffery, Douglas R; Pace, Amy L; Cha, Choon H

    2011-04-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) who are of African descent experience a more aggressive disease course than patients who are of white race/ethnicity. In phase 3 clinical trials (Natalizumab Safety and Efficacy in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis [AFFIRM] and Safety and Efficacy of Natalizumab in Combination With Interferon Beta-1a in Patients With Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis [SENTINEL]), natalizumab use significantly improved clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes over 2 years in patients with relapsing MS. Because patients of African descent may be less responsive to interferon beta treatment than patients of white race/ethnicity, the efficacy of natalizumab therapy in this population is clinically important. To evaluate the efficacy of natalizumab use in patients of African descent with relapsing MS. Post hoc analysis. Academic research. Patients of African descent with relapsing MS who received natalizumab or placebo in the phase 3 AFFIRM study and those who received natalizumab plus intramuscular interferon beta-1a or placebo plus intramuscular interferon beta-1a in the phase 3 SENTINEL study. Efficacy of natalizumab use in patients of African descent with relapsing MS who participated in the AFFIRM or SENTINEL trial. Forty-nine patients of African descent participated in AFFIRM (n = 10) or SENTINEL (n = 39). Demographic and baseline disease characteristics were similar between patients treated with natalizumab (n = 21) or placebo (n = 28). Natalizumab therapy significantly reduced the annualized MS relapse rate by 60% (0.21 vs 0.53 in the placebo group, P = .02). Compared with placebo use, natalizumab therapy also significantly reduced the accumulation of lesions observed on magnetic resonance imaging over 2 years: the mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions was reduced by 79% (0.19 vs 0.91, P = .03), and the mean number of new or enlarged T2-weighted lesions was reduced by 90% (0.88 vs 8.52, P = .008). Natalizumab therapy

  11. Progressive multiple sclerosis: from pathogenic mechanisms to treatment.

    PubMed

    Correale, Jorge; Gaitán, María I; Ysrraelit, María C; Fiol, Marcela P

    2017-03-01

    During the past decades, better understanding of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis disease mechanisms have led to the development of several disease-modifying therapies, reducing relapse rates and severity, through immune system modulation or suppression. In contrast, current therapeutic options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain comparatively disappointing and challenging. One possible explanation is a lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms driving progressive multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective, based on history of gradual neurological worsening with or without occasional relapses, minor remissions or plateaus. In addition, imaging methods as well as biomarkers are not well established. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in progressive multiple sclerosis show decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, probably reflecting compartmentalization of inflammation behind a relatively intact blood-brain barrier. Interestingly, a spectrum of inflammatory cell types infiltrates the leptomeninges during subpial cortical demyelination. Indeed, recent magnetic resonance imaging studies show leptomeningeal contrast enhancement in subjects with progressive multiple sclerosis, possibly representing an in vivo marker of inflammation associated to subpial demyelination. Treatments for progressive disease depend on underlying mechanisms causing central nervous system damage. Immunity sheltered behind an intact blood-brain barrier, energy failure, and membrane channel dysfunction may be key processes in progressive disease. Interfering with these mechanisms may provide neuroprotection and prevent disability progression, while potentially restoring activity and conduction along damaged axons by repairing myelin. Although most previous clinical trials in progressive multiple sclerosis have yielded disappointing results, important lessons have been learnt, improving the design of novel ones. This review discusses mechanisms involved

  12. Maternally derived trypsin may have multiple functions in the early development of turbot (Scopthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Chi, Liang; Liu, Qinghua; Xu, Shihong; Xiao, Zhizhong; Ma, Daoyuan; Li, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Trypsin is an important serine protease that is considered to be involved in digestion of protein in teleost fish. Nevertheless, studies on trypsin/trypsinogen in fish embryos are very limited. In this study, the trypsinogen of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) (tTG) was identified and the expression patterns and activity of trypsinogen/trypsin were investigated. The results showed that the tTG mRNA was evenly distributed in the oocytes and was also expressed along the yolk periphery in early embryos. At later embryo stages and 1 days after hatching (dph), the tTG mRNA concentrated at the alimentary tract and head. Quantitative expression analysis showed that the tTG transcripts decreased after fertilization until the gastrula stage, then increased with the embryo and larvae development. This result was also confirmed by the specific activity analysis of trypsin and in-situ-hybridization (ISH). All of the results indicated that tTG in early embryo stages was maternally derived and expressed by itself after gastrula stages. Additionally, location of tTG mRNA in embryos and larvae was investigated; we considered that trypsin may have multiple functions during the embryo development process. Based on our results regarding trypsinogen in embryos and early development, we concluded that the trypsin/trypsinogen in turbot embryos was inherited from a maternal source and we suggested that trypsin in early development has multiple functions in the process of development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute Responses of a Physical Training Session with a Nintendo Wii on Hemodynamic Variables of an Individual with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Junior, Renato Sobral; Dantas, Aretha; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological illness that decreases motor functions. This disease can cause weakness of cardiorespiratory muscles and impaired functional capacity and quality of life. Therefore it requires preventive treatments. This study investigated the acute responses of a virtual physical training session with the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ on hemodynamic variables of an individual with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting). A 34-year-old man with multiple sclerosis with previous experience in aerobic, strength, and functional training (2 years) was tested. His Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.5. We compared the heart rate, blood pressure, and double product obtained at rest and during (heart rate) and after the Nintendo Wii games "Boxing" and "Sword Play." In rest, the variables were measured in the supine position. Our results showed positive hemodynamic alterations after execution of both games. The peak of heart rate was 121 beats per minute (65% of maximal heart rate) and 104 beats per minute (56% of maximal heart rate) for "Boxing" and "Sword Play," respectively. The training session with "Boxing" was able to stimulate the heart rate to achieve the recommended values for the maintenance of physical fitness in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. We conclude that an exercise training program with the Nintendo Wii may improve physical fitness in people with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, these activities could improve affective status and perhaps maintain the individual engaged at treatment program.

  14. Responder definition of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale physical impact subscale for patients with physical worsening.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Glenn A; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Guo, Shien; Medori, Rossella; Altincatal, Arman; Wagner, Linda; Elkins, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    The 29-item Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) was developed to examine the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on physical and psychological functioning from a patient's perspective. To determine the responder definition (RD) of the MSIS-29 physical impact subscale (PHYS) in a group of patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) participating in a clinical trial. Data from the SELECT trial comparing daclizumab high-yield process with placebo in patients with RRMS were used. Physical function was evaluated in SELECT using three patient-reported outcomes measures and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Anchor- and distribution-based methods were used to identify an RD for the MSIS-29. Results across the anchor-based approach suggested MSIS-29 PHYS RD values of 6.91 (mean), 7.14 (median) and 7.50 (mode). Distribution-based RD estimates ranged from 6.24 to 10.40. An RD of 7.50 was selected as the most appropriate threshold for physical worsening based on corresponding changes in the EDSS (primary anchor of interest). These findings indicate that a ≥7.50 point worsening on the MSIS-29 PHYS is a reasonable and practical threshold for identifying patients with RRMS who have experienced a clinically significant change in the physical impact of MS. © The Author(s), 2014.

  15. Spinal cord atrophy in anterior-posterior direction reflects impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lundell, H; Svolgaard, O; Dogonowski, A-M; Romme Christensen, J; Selleberg, F; Soelberg Sørensen, P; Blinkenberg, M; Siebner, H R; Garde, E

    2017-10-01

    To investigate how atrophy is distributed over the cross section of the upper cervical spinal cord and how this relates to functional impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). We analysed the structural brain MRI scans of 54 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n=22), primary progressive MS (n=9), secondary progressive MS (n=23) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. We measured the cross-sectional area (CSA), left-right width (LRW) and anterior-posterior width (APW) of the spinal cord at the segmental level C2. We tested for a nonparametric linear relationship between these atrophy measures and clinical impairments as reflected by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and Multiple Sclerosis Impairment Scale (MSIS). In patients with MS, CSA and APW but not LRW were reduced compared to healthy controls (P<.02) and showed significant correlations with EDSS, MSIS and specific MSIS subscores. In patients with MS, atrophy of the upper cervical cord is most evident in the antero-posterior direction. As APW of the cervical cord can be readily derived from standard structural MRI of the brain, APW constitutes a clinically useful neuroimaging marker of disease-related neurodegeneration in MS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Impact of Depression, Fatigue, and Global Measure of Cortical Volume on Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    De Cola, Maria Cristina; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Sessa, Edoardo; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of demographic and clinical variables, such as depression, fatigue, and quantitative MRI marker on cognitive performances in a sample of patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods. 60 MS patients (52 relapsing remitting and 8 primary progressive) underwent neuropsychological assessments using Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N), the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II), and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). We performed magnetic resonance imaging to all subjects using a 3 T scanner and obtained tissue-specific volumes (normalized brain volume and cortical brain volume). We used Student's t-test to compare depressed and nondepressed MS patients. Finally, we performed a multivariate regression analysis in order to assess possible predictors of patients' cognitive outcome among demographic and clinical variables. Results. 27.12% of the sample (16/59) was cognitively impaired, especially in tasks requiring attention and information processing speed. From between group comparison, we find that depressed patients had worse performances on BRB-N score, greater disability and disease duration, and brain volume decrease. According to multiple regression analysis, the BDI-II score was a significant predictor for most of the neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the presence of depressive symptoms is an important determinant of cognitive performance in MS patients. PMID:25861633

  17. Finger and foot tapping as alternative outcomes of upper and lower extremity function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Makoto; Stein, Jason; Park, John; Kosa, Peter; Cortese, Irene; Bielekova, Bibiana

    2017-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging contrast-enhancing lesions represent an excellent screening tool for disease-modifying treatments in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), this biomarker is insensitive for testing therapies against compartmentalized inflammation in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Therefore, alternative sensitive outcomes are needed. Using machine learning, clinician-acquired disability scales can be combined with timed measures of neurological functions such as walking speed (e.g. 25-foot walk; 25FW) or fine finger movements (e.g. 9-hole peg test; 9HPT) into sensitive composite clinical scales, such as the recently developed combinatorial, weight-adjusted disability scale (CombiWISE). Ideally, these complementary simplified measurements of certain neurological functions could be performed regularly at patients' homes using smartphones. We asked whether tests amenable to adaptation to smartphone technology, such as finger and foot tapping have comparable sensitivity and specificity to current non-clinician-acquired disability measures. We observed that finger and foot tapping can differentiate RRMS and progressive MS in a cross-sectional study and can also measure yearly and two-year disease progression in the latter, with better power (based on z-scores) in comparison to currently utilized 9HPT and 25FW. Replacing the 9HPT and 25FW with simplified tests broadly adaptable to smartphone technology may enhance the power of composite scales for progressive MS.

  18. Dietary intake of nutrients and its correlation with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bitarafan, Sama; Harirchian, Mohammad-Hossein; Nafissi, Shahriar; Sahraian, Mohammad-Ali; Togha, Mansoureh; Siassi, Fereydoun; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Alipour, Elham; Mohammadpour, Nakisa; Chamary, Maryam; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of nutrition in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and related complications such as fatigue has been reported by several studies. The aim of this study is the assessment of nutritional status and its relationship with fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in which 101 relapsing-remitting MS patients were enrolled. The fatigue status was determined using the validated Persian version of of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS). Dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day food record questionnaire and compared to dietary reference intake (DRI) values. Association between variables was determined using Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Results In the preset study, 25 men and 76 women (total = 101) were enrolled. Analysis of dietary intake showed that daily intake of vitamin D, folate, calcium, and magnesium were significantly lower than DRI in all of patients. In men, zinc intake was significantly lower than DRI; while, in women, iron was significantly below the DRI level. After adjusting for energy, MFIS and its physical subscale were highly correlated with intake of folate and magnesium. Conclusion Our findings support that lower magnesium and folate diets are correlated with higher fatigue scores in MS patients. PMID:24800044

  19. Age and disability drive cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis across disease subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Luis; Portaccio, Emilio; Goretti, Benedetta; Niccolai, Claudia; Severo, Milton; Patti, Francesco; Cilia, Sabina; Gallo, Paolo; Grossi, Paola; Ghezzi, Angelo; Roscio, Marco; Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Trojano, Maria; Viterbo, Rosa Gemma; Amato, Maria Pia

    2017-08-01

    There is limited and inconsistent information on the clinical determinants of cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and profile of CI across MS disease subtypes and assess its clinical determinants. Cognitive performance was assessed through the Brief Repeatable Battery and the Stroop test in consecutive patients with MS referred to six Italian centers. CI was defined as impairment in ⩾ 2 cognitive domains. A total of 1040 patients were included, 167 with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), 759 with relapsing remitting (RR), 74 with secondary progressive (SP), and 40 with primary progressive (PP) disease course. The overall prevalence of CI was 46.3%; 34.5% in CIS, 44.5% in RR, 79.4% in SP, and 91.3% in PP. The severity of impairment and the number of involved domains were significantly higher in SP and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) than in CIS and RR. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the presence of CI was significantly associated with higher Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and older age. CI is present in all MS subtypes since the clinical onset and its frequency is increased in the progressive forms, but these differences seem to be more associated with patient age and physical disability than to disease subtype per se.

  20. Survey of diagnostic and treatment practices for multiple sclerosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fernández, O; Delvecchio, M; Edan, G; Fredrikson, S; Gionvannoni, G; Hartung, H-P; Havrdova, E; Kappos, L; Pozzilli, C; Soerensen, P S; Tackenberg, B; Vermersch, P; Comi, G

    2017-03-01

    Up-to-date information is needed on the extent to which neurologists treating multiple sclerosis (MS) in Europe are integrating rapidly evolving diagnostic criteria, disease-modifying therapies and recommendations for monitoring disease activity into their clinical practice. A steering committee of MS neurologists used a modified Delphi process to develop case- and practice-based questions for two sequential surveys distributed to MS neurologists throughout Europe. Case-based questions were developed for radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and RRMS with breakthrough disease. Multiple sclerosis neurologists from 11 European countries responded to survey 1 (n = 233) and survey 2 (n = 171). Respondents agreed that they would not treat the patients in the RIS or CIS cases but would treat a patient with a relatively mild form of RRMS. Choice of treatment was evenly distributed among first-line injectables and oral treatments for mild RRMS, and moved to second-line treatment as the RRMS case increased in severity. Additional results on RRMS with breakthrough disease are presented. Although there was general agreement on some aspects of treatment, responses to other management and clinical practice questions varied considerably. These results, which reflect current clinical practice patterns, highlight the need for additional MS treatment education and awareness and may help inform the development of MS practice guidelines in Europe. © 2017 EAN.

  1. White matter tract abnormalities are associated with cognitive dysfunction in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kim A; Muhlert, Nils; Cercignani, Mara; Sethi, Varun; Ron, Maria A; Thompson, Alan J; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan; Geurts, Jeroen Jg; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2016-10-01

    While our knowledge of white matter (WM) pathology underlying cognitive impairment in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasing, equivalent understanding in those with secondary progressive (SP) MS lags behind. The aim of this study is to examine whether the extent and severity of WM tract damage differ between cognitively impaired (CI) and cognitively preserved (CP) secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion MRI were acquired from 30 SPMS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive domains commonly affected in MS patients were assessed. Linear regression was used to predict cognition. Diffusion measures were compared between groups using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). A total of 12 patients were classified as CI, and processing speed was the most commonly affected domain. The final regression model including demographic variables and radial diffusivity explained the greatest variance of cognitive performance (R 2  = 0.48, p = 0.002). SPMS patients showed widespread loss of WM integrity throughout the WM skeleton when compared with HC. When compared with CP patients, CI patients showed more extensive and severe damage of several WM tracts, including the fornix, superior longitudinal fasciculus and forceps major. Loss of WM integrity assessed using TBSS helps to explain cognitive decline in SPMS patients. © The Author(s), 2016.

  2. Learning and cognitive fatigue trajectories in multiple sclerosis defined using a burst measurement design.

    PubMed

    Holtzer, Roee; Foley, Frederick; D'Orio, Vanessa; Spat, Jessica; Shuman, Melissa; Wang, Cuiling

    2013-10-01

    Compromised learning and cognitive fatigue are critical clinical features in multiple sclerosis. This study was designed to determine the effect of repeated exposures within and across study visits on performance measures of learning and cognitive fatigue in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Thirty patients with RRMS and 30 controls were recruited. Using a burst measurement design (i.e. repeated assessments within and across study visits) the oral version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) was administered three times during the baseline and two consecutive monthly follow-up visits for a total of nine test administrations. Learning was assessed within and across study visits whereas cognitive fatigue was assessed during the course of each test administration that was divided into three 30-second intervals. Linear mixed-effect models revealed compromised learning within (95% CI: 2.6355 to 3.9867) and across (95% CI: 1.3250 to 3.1861) visits and worse cognitive fatigue (95% CI: -2.1761 to -0.1720) in patients with RRMS compared with controls. Among patients with RRMS, worse self-rated cognitive dysfunction predicted poor learning within (95% CI: -0.1112 to -0.0020) and across (95% CI: -0.0724 to -0.0106) visits. Burst design is optimal to study learning and cognitive fatigue. This methodology, using the SDMT or other time-efficient tests as outcome measures, can be successfully implemented in longitudinal studies and clinical trials.

  3. Brain volume in early MS patients with and without IgG oligoclonal bands in CSF.

    PubMed

    Fenu, G; Lorefice, L; Sechi, V; Loi, L; Contu, F; Cabras, F; Coghe, G; Frau, J; Secci, M A; Melis, C; Schirru, L; Costa, G; Melas, V; Arru, M; Barracciu, M A; Marrosu, M G; Cocco, E

    2018-01-01

    Oligoclonal bands of IgG (OB) are proposed as an early prognostic factor of the disease. Growing attention is directed towards brain volume evaluation as a possible marker of the severity of MS. Previous studies found that MS patients lacking OB have less brain atrophy. to evaluate a possible relationship between OB and cerebral volume in a cohort of early MS patients. Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS; CSF analysis and MRI acquired simultaneously and within 12 months from clinical onset. A total of 15 healthy controls underwent MRI. In 20 MS patients, CSF analysis did not show OB synthesis (OB negative group). A control group of 25 MS patients in whom OB was detected was also randomly recruited (OB positive group). T test showed a significant difference in NWV between the OB positive and OB negative groups (P value = 0.01), and between the OB positive group and the healthy controls (P value = 0.001). No differences were detected between OB negative group and healthy controls. Multivariable linear regression showed a relationship between NWV and OB synthesis (P value = 0.02) controlling for age, gender, and EDSS. Our preliminary results suggest that OB positive patients show more atrophy of white matter since early phases of the disease, supporting the role of CSF analysis as a prognostic factor in MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential associations of early callous-unemotional, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors: multiple domains within early-starting conduct problems?

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Hyde, Luke W; Grabell, Adam S; Alves, Martha L; Olson, Sheryl L

    2015-06-01

    Early-starting child conduct problems (CP) are linked to the development of persistent antisocial behavior. Researchers have theorized multiple pathways to CP and that CP comprise separable domains, marked by callous-unemotional (CU) behavior, oppositional behavior, or ADHD symptoms. However, a lack of empirical evidence exists from studies that have examined whether there are unique correlates of these domains. We examined differential correlates of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors during the preschool years to test their potentially distinct nomological networks. Multimethod data, including parent and teacher reports and observations of child behavior, were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed at age 3 and age 6 (N = 240; 48% female). Dimensions of CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors were separable within Confirmatory Factor Analyses across mother and father reports. There were differential associations between CU, oppositional, and ADHD behaviors and socioemotional, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes: CU behavior was uniquely related to lower moral regulation, guilt, and empathy. ADHD was uniquely related to lower attentional focusing and observed effortful control. Finally, CU behavior uniquely predicted increases in teacher-reported externalizing from ages 3-6 over and above covariates, and ADHD and oppositional behavior. Consistent with theory, dimensions of CU, ADHD, and oppositional behavior demonstrated separable nomological networks representing separable facets within early-starting CP. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. In vivo characterization of cortical and white matter neuroaxonal pathology in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Tobias; Fan, Qiuyun; Treaba, Constantina Andrada; Ouellette, Russell; Herranz, Elena; Mangeat, Gabriel; Louapre, Céline; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Klawiter, Eric C; Sloane, Jacob A; Mainero, Caterina

    2017-11-01

    Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability. Twenty-six early stage multiple sclerosis subjects (disease duration ≤5 years) and 24 age-matched healthy controls underwent 7 T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation and 3 T T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging for assessing microstructural myelin, axonal and dendrite integrity in lesional and normal-appearing tissue of the cortex and the white matter. Conventional mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy metrics were also assessed for comparison. Cortical lesions were identified in 92% of early multiple sclerosis subjects and they were characterized by lower intracellular volume fraction (P = 0.015 by paired t-test), lower myelin-sensitive contrast (P = 0.030 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) and higher mean diffusivity (P = 0.022 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) relative to the contralateral normal-appearing cortex. Similar findings were observed in white matter lesions relative to normal-appearing white matter (all P < 0.001), accompanied by an increased orientation dispersion (P < 0.001 by paired t-test) and lower fractional anisotropy (P < 0.001 by related-samples Wilcoxon signed-rank test) suggestive of less coherent underlying fibre orientation. Additionally, the normal-appearing white matter in multiple sclerosis

  6. Effects of diazoxide in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Arroyo, Rafael; Paul, Friedemann; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Ramo, Cristina; Fernandez, Oscar; Saiz, Albert; Garcia-Merino, Antonio; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Casanova, Bonaventura; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Muñoz, Delicias; Martinez-Rodriguez, Jose Enrique; Lensch, Eckart; Prieto, Jose Maria; Meuth, Sven G.; Nuñez, Xavier; Campás, Clara; Pugliese, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the safety of diazoxide and to search for signs of efficacy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (treatment allocation was concealed), 102 patients with RRMS were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of diazoxide (0.3 and 4 mg/d) or placebo for 24 weeks (NCT01428726). The primary endpoint was the cumulative number of new T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions per patient, recorded every 4 weeks from week 4 to week 24. Secondary endpoints included brain MRI variables such as the number of new/enlarging T2 lesions and the percentage brain volume change (PBVC); clinical variables such as the percentage of relapse-free patients, relapse rate, and change in the Expanded Disability Status Scale score; and safety and tolerability. Results: Diazoxide was well-tolerated and it produced no serious adverse events other than 1 case of Hashimoto disease. At the 2 doses tested, diazoxide did not improve the primary endpoint or the MRI and clinical variables related to the presence of new lesions or relapses. Patients treated with diazoxide showed reduced PBVC compared with the placebo group, although such changes could be confounded by the higher disease activity of the treated group and the vascular effects of diazoxide. Conclusion: At the doses tested, oral diazoxide did not decrease the appearance of new lesions evident by MRI. The effects in slowing the progression of brain atrophy require further validation. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with RRMS, diazoxide (0.3 and 4 mg/d) does not significantly change the number of new MRI T1 gadolinium-enhancing lesions. PMID:26405686

  7. Agent based modeling of the effects of potential treatments over the blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Marzio; Russo, Giulia; Motta, Santo; Pappalardo, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system that involves the destruction of the insulating sheath of axons, causing severe disabilities. Since the etiology of the disease is not yet fully understood, the use of novel techniques that may help to understand the disease, to suggest potential therapies and to test the effects of candidate treatments is highly advisable. To this end we developed an agent based model that demonstrated its ability to reproduce the typical oscillatory behavior observed in the most common form of multiple sclerosis, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The model has then been used to test the potential beneficial effects of vitamin D over the disease. Many scientific studies underlined the importance of the blood-brain barrier and of the mechanisms that influence its permeability on the development of the disease. In the present paper we further extend our previously developed model with a mechanism that mimics the blood-brain barrier behavior. The goal of our work is to suggest the best strategies to follow for developing new potential treatments that intervene in the blood-brain barrier. Results suggest that the best treatments should potentially prevent the opening of the blood-brain barrier, as treatments that help in recovering the blood-brain barrier functionality could be less effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of multiple sclerosis with interferon β: an appraisal of cost-effectiveness and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, D.; Jacoby, A.; McNamee, P.; Miller, P.; Thomas, S.; Bates, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interferon beta-1b (IFβ-1b) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).
METHODS—Construction of a cost-effectiveness model using published data on IFβ-1b effectiveness and the natural history of RRMS, and new data on costs and quality of life (QoL) from a sample of 102patients with RRMS and resident in northern England.
RESULTS—Poorer QoL was found for patients with multiple sclerosis compared with the general population; those who had had a relapse; those with worse states identified by a clinical measure (expanded disability status scale (EDSS)). Relapses have effects over several months. Health state valuations were higher than in the general population. Costs were higher in relapse than remission and for worse EDSS states. IFβ-1b costs were larger than cost savings. The best cost-effectiveness estimate was £28 700 per relapse avoided, which is £809 900 per QALY gained; or £328 300 per QALY gained allowing for effects of progression over 5 years. Estimates were robust to changes in assumptions.
CONCLUSIONS—The impact of multiple sclerosis on QoL is substantial. Future trials should base outcomes measurement on QoL and be better linked to natural history and cost data. IFβ-1b produces important occasional short term QoL gains, but small gains in QALYs overall and large additional costs.

 PMID:10644777

  9. Gender as a prognostic factor and its impact on the incidence of multiple sclerosis in Lorraine, France.

    PubMed

    Debouverie, M

    2009-11-15

    We sought to identify (a) the change of incidence rates among gender from 1990 to 2002 from the LORSEP (Lorraine Multiple Sclerosis) population-based cohort, and (b) the role of gender as a predictive demographic factor of disability during the initial course of the disease among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The incidence rates of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Lorraine, France, have significantly increased in women, but not in men, from 1990 to 2002 but this increase in incidence of MS was not related to a better ascertainment of patients with mild disability. A total of 2871 MS patients were analyzed. For relapsing-remitting (RR) patients, a multivariate analysis showed that a shorter time to the assignment of an EDSS score of 3 and 4 was associated with the late onset MS, incomplete recovery from the first relapse and a high number of relapses during the first 5 years after the MS onset. Median times were not influenced by gender or by time between the first two relapses. The data were very different for the time between the assignment of scores of 4 and 6, since the median times were not influenced by any of the predicting variables.

  10. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    PubMed

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  11. Simultaneous or Early Sequential Rupture of Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: A Rare and Insufficiently Understood Entity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Kun; Zhao, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yan; Li, Guichen

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous or early sequential rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIAs) is encountered rarely, with no more than 10 cases having been reported. As a result of its rarity, there are a lot of questions concerning this entity need to be answered. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University (Eastern Division) from a local hospital after a sudden onset of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Head computed tomography (CT) at the local hospital revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that was concentrated predominately in the suprasellar cistern and interhemispheric fissure. During her transfer to our hospital, she experienced another episode of sudden headache. CT on admission to our hospital revealed that the SAH was increased with 2 isolated hematomas both in the interhemispheric fissure and the left paramedian frontal lobe. Further CT angiography and intraoperative findings were in favor of early sequential rupture of 2 intracranial aneurysms. To further elucidate the characteristics, mechanism, management, and prognosis of this specific entity, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature. The mechanism of simultaneous or early sequential rupture of MIAs is still obscure. Transient elevation of blood pressure might play a role in the process, and preventing the sudden elevation of blood pressure might be beneficial for patients with aneurysmal SAH and MIAs. The management of simultaneously or early sequentially ruptured aneurysms is more complex for its difficulty in responsible aneurysm determination, urgency in treatment, toughness in intraoperative manipulation and poorness in prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased CD8+ T Cell Response to Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Antigens in the Active Phase of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Daniela F.; Serafini, Barbara; Piras, Eleonora; Severa, Martina; Coccia, Eliana M.; Rosicarelli, Barbara; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Mechelli, Rosella; Salvetti, Marco; Borsellino, Giovanna; Aloisi, Francesca; Battistini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroprevalence and high immune reactivity to EBV and that infectious mononucleosis increases MS risk. This evidence led to postulate that EBV infection plays a role in MS etiopathogenesis, although the mechanisms are debated. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses to EBV latent (EBNA-3A, LMP-2A) and lytic (BZLF-1, BMLF-1) antigens in relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 113) and healthy donors (HD) (n = 43) and to investigate whether the EBV-specific CD8+ T cell response correlates with disease activity, as defined by clinical evaluation and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Using HLA class I pentamers, lytic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were detected in fewer untreated inactive MS patients than in active MS patients and HD while the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic and latent antigens was higher in active and inactive MS patients, respectively. In contrast, the CD8+ T cell response to cytomegalovirus did not differ between HD and MS patients, irrespective of the disease phase. Marked differences in the prevalence of EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were observed in patients treated with interferon-β and natalizumab, two licensed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS. Longitudinal studies revealed expansion of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic antigens during active disease in untreated MS patients but not in relapse-free, natalizumab-treated patients. Analysis of post-mortem MS brain samples showed expression of the EBV lytic protein BZLF-1 and interactions between cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and EBV lytically infected plasma cells in inflammatory white matter lesions and meninges. We therefore propose that inability to control EBV infection during inactive MS could set the stage for intracerebral viral reactivation and disease relapse. PMID:23592979

  13. Cognitive Implications of Deep Gray Matter Iron in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, E; Kmech, J A; Cobzas, D; Sun, H; Seres, P; Blevins, G; Wilman, A H

    2017-05-01

    Deep gray matter iron accumulation is increasingly recognized in association with multiple sclerosis and can be measured in vivo with MR imaging. The cognitive implications of this pathology are not well-understood, especially vis-à-vis deep gray matter atrophy. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between cognition and deep gray matter iron in MS by using 2 MR imaging-based iron-susceptibility measures. Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting, n = 16; progressive, n = 24) and 27 healthy controls were imaged at 4.7T by using the transverse relaxation rate and quantitative susceptibility mapping. The transverse relaxation rate and quantitative susceptibility mapping values and volumes (atrophy) of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus were determined by multiatlas segmentation. Cognition was assessed with the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests. Relationships between cognition and deep gray matter iron were examined by hierarchic regressions. Compared with controls, patients showed reduced memory ( P < .001) and processing speed ( P = .02) and smaller putamen ( P < .001), globus pallidus ( P = .002), and thalamic volumes ( P < .001). Quantitative susceptibility mapping values were increased in patients compared with controls in the putamen ( P = .003) and globus pallidus ( P = .003). In patients only, thalamus ( P < .001) and putamen ( P = .04) volumes were related to cognitive performance. After we controlled for volume effects, quantitative susceptibility mapping values in the globus pallidus ( P = .03; trend for transverse relaxation rate, P = .10) were still related to cognition. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was more sensitive compared with the transverse relaxation rate in detecting deep gray matter iron accumulation in the current multiple sclerosis cohort. Atrophy and iron accumulation in deep gray matter both have negative but separable relationships to cognition in multiple sclerosis.

  14. Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in La Rioja.

    PubMed

    Bártulos Iglesias, M; Marzo Sola, M E; Estrella Ruiz, L A; Bravo Anguiano, Y

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease that causes severe disability in younger patients. Many epidemiology studies have confirmed a variable prevalence. The objective of this study was to analyse the prevalence of this disease in La Rioja (Spain), using such variables as age and sex; type of progression, initial form of the disease, EDSS and number of relapses; disease-modifying treatment and reasons for treatment withdrawal; personal and family history of cancer; and incidence and mortality. Analysis of patients in La Rioja diagnosed with MS (according to Poser criteria or the 2005 McDonald criteria) during a 10-year period (2001-2011). Data were collected from hospital records, multiple sclerosis associations, and personal records kept by neurologists. The MS prevalence rate in La Rioja is 65 patients/100 000 inhabitants with an incidence rate of 3.5 cases/100 000 residents per year. Relapsing-remitting MS is present in 67.6% of the patient total. Mean age of onset is 20-29 years (range, 12 to 70). Most EDSS scores were mostly ≤ 2. Untreated MS cases account for 47.6% of the total and the most commonly used therapy is interferon. We detected 4 haematological tumours and 7 families with multiple members affected by MS. Prevalence and incidence are similar to those found in other regions Spain. The average age at onset age for primary progressive MS is slightly higher than in other papers (40-49 years). In families with multiple patients, MS may be more aggressive. Disability in these patients remains very severe. We require more epidemiology studies with a variety of data gathering methods to support findings for prevalence obtained in different provinces. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Does hippotherapy effect use of sensory information for balance in people with multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Lindroth, Jodi L; Sullivan, Jessica L; Silkwood-Sherer, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    This case-series study aimed to determine if there were observable changes in sensory processing for postural control in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) following physical therapy using hippotherapy (HPOT), or changes in balance and functional gait. This pre-test non-randomized design study, with follow-up assessment at 6 weeks, included two females and one male (age range 37-60 years) with diagnoses of relapse-remitting or progressive MS. The intervention consisted of twelve 40-min physical therapy sessions which included HPOT twice a week for 6 weeks. Sensory organization and balance were assessed by the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait was assessed using the Functional Gait Assessment (FGA). Following the intervention period, all three participants showed improvements in SOT (range 1-8 points), BBS (range 2-6 points), and FGA (average 4 points) scores. These improvements were maintained or continued to improve at follow-up assessment. Two of the three participants no longer over-relied on vision and/or somatosensory information as the primary sensory input for postural control, suggesting improved use of sensory information for balance. The results indicate that HPOT may be a beneficial physical therapy treatment strategy to improve balance, functional gait, and enhance how some individuals with MS process sensory cues for postural control. Randomized clinical trials will be necessary to validate results of this study.

  16. Resting-state functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis: an examination of group differences and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Alisha L; Boster, Aaron; Patterson, Beth A; Abduljalil, Amir; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, resulting in physical and cognitive disturbances. The goal of the current study was to examine the association between network integrity and composite measures of cognition and disease severity in individuals with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), relative to healthy controls. All participants underwent a neuropsychological and neuroimaging session, where resting-state data was collected. Independent component analysis and dual regression were employed to examine network integrity in individuals with MS, relative to healthy controls. The MS sample exhibited less connectivity in the motor and visual networks, relative to healthy controls, after controlling for group differences in gray matter volume. However, no alterations were observed in the frontoparietal, executive control, or default-mode networks, despite previous evidence of altered neuronal patterns during tasks of exogenous processing. Whole-brain, voxel-wise regression analyses with disease severity and processing speed composites were also performed to elucidate the brain-behavior relationship with neuronal network integrity. Individuals with higher levels of disease severity demonstrated reduced intra-network connectivity of the motor network, and the executive control network, while higher disease burden was associated with greater inter-network connectivity between the medial visual network and areas involved in visuomotor learning. Our findings underscore the importance of examining resting-state oscillations in this population, both as a biomarker of disease progression and a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging as a surrogate outcome for multiple sclerosis relapses

    PubMed Central

    Petkau, J; Reingold, SC; Held, U; Cutter, GR; Fleming, TR; Hughes, MD; Miller, DH; McFarland, HF; Wolinsky, JS

    2009-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lesions in the brain may be the best current candidate for a surrogate biological marker of clinical outcomes in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), based on its role as an objective indicator of disease pathology. No biological surrogate marker has yet been validated for MS clinical outcomes. Objective The objective of this study was to use a multi-phased study to determine if a valid surrogate relationship could be demonstrated between counts of contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and occurrence of relapses in MS. Methods We examined correlations for the concurrent and predictive relationship between CELs over 6 months and MS relapses over the same 6 months and an additional 6 months (total: 12 months), using available data on untreated patients from a large clinical trial and natural history database. Results Concurrent and predictive correlations were inadequate to justify continuation of this study to the planned additional phases required to demonstrate a surrogate relationship between CELs and MS relapses. Conclusions Confidence intervals for correlations between CELs and MS relapses exclude the possibility that CELs can be a good surrogate for relapses over the time scales we investigated. Further exploration of surrogacy between MRI measures and MS clinical outcomes may require improved datasets, the development of MRI techniques that couple better to clinical disease, and the ability to test a wide range of imaging- and clinically-based hypotheses for surrogacy. PMID:18535021

  18. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Di Bari, Maria; Reale, Marcella; Di Nicola, Marta; Orlando, Viviana; Galizia, Sabrina; Porfilio, Italo; Costantini, Erica; D'Angelo, Chiara; Ruggieri, Serena; Biagioni, Stefano; Gasperini, Claudio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-11-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS) patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD), is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis.

  19. Multiple sclerosis-related white matter microstructural change alters the BOLD hemodynamic response.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Nicholas A; Turner, Monroe; Hutchison, Joanna L; Ouyang, Austin; Strain, Jeremy; Oasay, Larry; Sundaram, Saranya; Davis, Scott; Remington, Gina; Brigante, Ryan; Huang, Hao; Hart, John; Frohman, Teresa; Frohman, Elliot; Biswal, Bharat B; Rypma, Bart

    2016-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) results in inflammatory damage to white matter microstructure. Prior research using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging indicates MS-related alterations to brain function. What is currently unknown is the extent to which white matter microstructural damage influences BOLD signal in MS. Here we assessed changes in parameters of the BOLD hemodynamic response function (HRF) in patients with relapsing-remitting MS compared to healthy controls. We also used diffusion tensor imaging to assess whether MS-related changes to the BOLD-HRF were affected by changes in white matter microstructural integrity. Our results showed MS-related reductions in BOLD-HRF peak amplitude. These MS-related amplitude decreases were influenced by individual differences in white matter microstructural integrity. Other MS-related factors including altered reaction time, limited spatial extent of BOLD activity, elevated lesion burden, or lesion proximity to regions of interest were not mediators of group differences in BOLD-HRF amplitude. Results are discussed in terms of functional hyperemic mechanisms and implications for analysis of BOLD signal differences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Effect of fish oil on glutathione redox system in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sorto-Gomez, Tania E; Ortiz, Genaro G; Pacheco-Moises, Fermín P; Torres-Sanchez, Erandis D; Ramirez-Ramirez, Viridiana; Macias-Islas, Miguel A; de la Rosa, Alfredo Celis; Velázquez-Brizuela, Irma E

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are implicated in the induction and progression of MS. Evidence suggests that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of fish oil on the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio in MS. 50 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were enrolled. The experimental group received orally 4 g/day of fish oil for 12 months. Fish oil supplementation resulted in a significant increase in n-3 fatty acids and a decrease n-6 fatty acids. No differences in glutathione reductase activity, content of reduced and oxidized glutathione, and GSH/GSSG ratio were found. Conclusion: Glutathione reductase activity was not significantly different between the groups; however, fish oil supplementation resulted in smaller increase in GR compared with control group, suggesting a possible effect on antioxidant defence mechanisms. PMID:27335704

  1. Accelerometry in persons with multiple sclerosis: measurement of physical activity or walking mobility?

    PubMed

    Weikert, Madeline; Motl, Robert W; Suh, Yoojin; McAuley, Edward; Wynn, Daniel

    2010-03-15

    Motion sensors such as accelerometers have been recognized as an ideal measure of physical activity in persons with MS. This study examined the hypothesis that accelerometer movement counts represent a measure of both physical activity and walking mobility in individuals with MS. The sample included 269 individuals with a definite diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS who completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12), Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS), and then wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7days. The data were analyzed using bivariate correlation and confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicated that (a) the GLTEQ and IPAQ scores were strongly correlated and loaded significantly on a physical activity latent variable, (b) the MSWS-12 and PDDS scores strongly correlated and loaded significantly on a walking mobility latent variable, and (c) the accelerometer movement counts correlated similarly with the scores from the four self-report questionnaires and cross-loaded on both physical activity and walking mobility latent variables. Our data suggest that accelerometers are measuring both physical activity and walking mobility in persons with MS, whereas self-report instruments are measuring either physical activity or walking mobility in this population.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Fulminant Case of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Füvesi, Judit; Hanrieder, Jörg; Bencsik, Krisztina; Rajda, Cecilia; Kovács, S. Krisztián; Kaizer, László; Beniczky, Sándor; Vécsei, László; Bergquist, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease, but in rare fulminant cases rapid progression may lead to death shortly after diagnosis. Currently there is no diagnostic test to predict disease course. The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers/proteins related to rapid progression. We present the case history of a 15-year-old male MS patient. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was taken at diagnosis and at the time of rapid progression leading to the patient’s death. Using isobaric tag labeling and nanoflow liquid chromatography in conjunction with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry we quantitatively analyzed the protein content of two CSF samples from the patient with fulminant MS as well as one relapsing-remitting (RR) MS patient and one control headache patient, whose CSF analysis was normal. Seventy-eight proteins were identified and seven proteins were found to be more abundant in both fulminant MS samples but not in the RR MS sample compared to the control. These proteins are involved in the immune response, blood coagulation, cell proliferation and cell adhesion. In conclusion, in this pilot study we were able to show differences in the CSF proteome of a rapidly progressing MS patient compared to a more typical clinical form of MS and a control subject. PMID:22837721

  3. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Di Bari, Maria; Reale, Marcella; Di Nicola, Marta; Orlando, Viviana; Galizia, Sabrina; Porfilio, Italo; Costantini, Erica; D’Angelo, Chiara; Ruggieri, Serena; Biagioni, Stefano; Gasperini, Claudio; Tata, Ada Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS) patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD), is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis. PMID:27916909

  4. Disturbed Glucose Metabolism in Rat Neurons Exposed to Cerebrospinal Fluid Obtained from Multiple Sclerosis Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Deepali; María-Lafuente, Eva; Ureña-Peralta, Juan R.; Sorribes, Lucas; Hernández, Alberto; Casanova, Bonaventura; López-Rodas, Gerardo; Coret-Ferrer, Francisco; Burgal-Marti, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Axonal damage is widely accepted as a major cause of permanent functional disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In relapsing-remitting MS, there is a possibility of remyelination by myelin producing cells and restoration of neurological function. The purpose of this study was to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning axonal injury through hitherto unknown factors present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that may regulate axonal damage, remyelinate the axon and make functional recovery possible. We employed primary cultures of rat unmyelinated cerebellar granule neurons and treated them with CSF obtained from MS and Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. We performed microarray gene expression profiling to study changes in gene expression in treated neurons as compared to controls. Additionally, we determined the influence of gene-gene interaction upon the whole metabolic network in our experimental conditions using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) program. Our findings revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in MS-derived CSF-treated neurons and upregulated expression of genes in NMO-derived CSF-treated neurons. We conclude that factors in the CSF of these patients caused a perturbation in metabolic gene(s) expression and suggest that MS appears to be linked with metabolic deformity. PMID:29267205

  5. Adenosine Triphosphate Metabolism Measured by Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Potential Biomarker for Multiple Sclerosis Severity.

    PubMed

    Kauv, Paul; Ayache, Samar S; Créange, Alain; Chalah, Moussa A; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Hodel, Jérôme; Brugières, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has previously shown abnormal changes in energy metabolites in the brain of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. However, the relationship between these energy metabolites - particularly adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - and the disease severity remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether measuring ATP metabolites can help to predict disease severity in MS patients. 31P-MRS at 3 tesla was performed in 9 relapsing remitting (RRMS), 9 secondary progressive MS patients (SPMS), and 10 age-matched healthy controls. ATP metabolites (expressed as %) in normally appearing white matter of the centrum semiovale were compared between patients and healthy controls. The relationship between Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and ATP metabolites was evaluated. RRMS and SPMS patients had higher phosphocreatine (PCr) and lower phosphodiesters than healthy controls. In addition, RRMS patients had higher β-ATP% than SPMS patients. β-ATP% was negatively correlated with EDSS in all patients. Our findings suggest a defective PCr metabolism in both patient groups, and a higher state of energy production in RRMS that might reflect a compensatory mechanism in face of the increased needs. The correlation of β-ATP with EDSS makes it a candidate biomarker for assessing MS disease severity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Extra-hippocampal subcortical limbic involvement predicts episodic recall performance in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dineen, Robert A; Bradshaw, Christopher M; Constantinescu, Cris S; Auer, Dorothee P

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory impairment is a common but poorly-understood phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS). We aim to establish the relative contributions of reduced integrity of components of the extended hippocampal-diencephalic system to memory performance in MS patients using quantitative neuroimaging. 34 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 24 healthy age-matched controls underwent 3 T MRI including diffusion tensor imaging and 3-D T1-weighted volume acquisition. Manual fornix regions-of-interest were used to derive fornix fractional anisotropy (FA). Normalized hippocampal, mammillary body and thalamic volumes were derived by manual segmentation. MS subjects underwent visual recall, verbal recall, verbal recognition and verbal fluency assessment. Significant differences between MS patients and controls were found for fornix FA (0.38 vs. 0.46, means adjusted for age and fornix volume, P<.0005) and mammillary body volumes (age-adjusted means 0.114 ml vs. 0.126 ml, P<.023). Multivariate regression analysis identified fornix FA and mammillary bodies as predictor of visual recall (R(2) = .31, P = .003, P = .006), and thalamic volume as predictive of verbal recall (R(2) = .37, P<.0005). No limbic measures predicted verbal recognition or verbal fluency. These findings indicate that structural and ultrastructural alterations in subcortical limbic components beyond the hippocampus predict performance of episodic recall in MS patients with mild memory dysfunction.

  7. Information processing speed and attention in multiple sclerosis: Reconsidering the Attention Network Test (ANT).

    PubMed

    Roth, Alexandra K; Denney, Douglas R; Lynch, Sharon G

    2015-01-01

    The Attention Network Test (ANT) assesses attention in terms of discrepancies between response times to items that differ in the burden they place on some facet of attention. However, simple arithmetic difference scores commonly used to capture these discrepancies fail to provide adequate control for information processing speed, leading to distorted findings when patient and control groups differ markedly in the speed with which they process and respond to stimulus information. This study examined attention networks in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using simple difference scores, proportional scores, and residualized scores that control for processing speed through statistical regression. Patients with relapsing-remitting (N = 20) or secondary progressive (N = 20) MS and healthy controls (N = 40) of similar age, education, and gender completed the ANT. Substantial differences between patients and controls were found on all measures of processing speed. Patients exhibited difficulties in the executive control network, but only when difference scores were considered. When deficits in information processing speed were adequately controlled using proportional or residualized score, deficits in the alerting network emerged. The effect sizes for these deficits were notably smaller than those for overall information processing speed and were also limited to patients with secondary progressive MS. Deficits in processing speed are more prominent in MS than those involving attention, and when the former are properly accounted for, differences in the latter are confined to the alerting network.

  8. Cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: the contribution of intellectual enrichment and brain MRI measures.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Gabriella; Bisecco, Alvino; Trojano, Luigi; Sacco, Rosaria; Siciliano, Mattia; d'Ambrosio, Alessandro; Della Corte, Marida; Lavorgna, Luigi; Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Gallo, Antonio

    2018-05-26

    Cognitive reserve (CR) is a construct that originates from the observation of poor correspondence between brain damage and clinical symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between cognitive reserve (CR), brain reserve (BR) and cognitive functions and to evaluate whether CR might attenuate/moderate the negative impact of brain atrophy and lesion load on cognitive functions in multiple sclerosis (MS). To achieve these aims, ninety-eight relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent the brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological tests and Stroop test (ST). CR was assessed by vocabulary-based estimate of lifetime intellectual enrichment. All patients underwent a 3T MRI to assess T2-lesion load and atrophy measures, including normalized gray matter and white matter (nWMV) volumes. The BR was evaluated by maximal lifetime brain volume expressed by intracranial volume (ICV). Hierarchical regressions were used to investigate whether higher BR and/or CR is related to better cognitive performances after controlling for potentially confounding factors. The ICV was not associated with any cognitive tests. Intellectual enrichment was positively associated with performance on tests assessing memory, attention and information processing speed, verbal fluency and inhibitory control. Significant relationship between nWMV and ST was moderated by intellectual enrichment. In conclusion, the findings suggested that CR seems to mitigate cognitive dysfunction in MS patients and can reduce the negative impact of brain atrophy on inhibitory control, relevant for integrity of instrumental activities of daily living.

  9. Reserve-building activities in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Ayandeh, Armon; Ramanathan, Murali; Benedict, Ralph; Dwyer, Michael G; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Zivadinov, Robert

    2015-08-12

    Cognitive reserve has been implicated as a possible protective factor in multiple sclerosis (MS) but to date no study has compared reserve-building activities across disease course or to healthy controls. This study aims to describe differences in reserve-building activities across the MS disease course and healthy controls. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional cohort study that included 276 healthy controls, and subjects with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS; n = 67), relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 358) and secondary progressive MS (PMS; n = 109). Past reserve-building activities were operationalized as occupational attainment and education. Current activities comprised 6 strenuous and 6 non-strenuous activities, including 5 reserve-building activities and television-watching. Multivariate Analysis of Variance models examined group differences in past and current activities, after adjusting for covariates. There were group differences in past and current reserve-building activities. SPMS patients had lower past reserve-building activities than healthy controls. All forms of MS engaged in fewer strenuous current reserve-building pursuits than healthy controls. RRMS read less than healthy controls. SPMS engaged in fewer job-related non-strenuous activities. All MS groups watched more television than healthy controls. MS patients show significantly fewer past and present reserve-building activities. Although it is difficult to establish causality without future prospective studies, lifestyle-modifying interventions should prioritize expanding MS patients' repertoire of strenuous and non-strenuous activities.

  10. Changes in gross grasp strength and fine motor skills in adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Squillace, Mary; Ray, Sharon; Milazzo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gross grasp strength and fine motor dexterity of adolescents, who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total sample size of 72 participants between the ages of 13 to 17 was studied. Thirty six with a diagnosis of pediatric relapse remitting MS and 36 matched control participants were selected from various local youth groups. Data on hand strength and dexterity was collected using a dynamometer, nine hole peg board and Purdue pegboard on both groups. Utilizing ANCOVA to describe the differences across the two groups by diagnosis, controlling for age and gender, it was found that the MS group demonstrated significantly decreased dexterity when compared to age and gender matched controls. There was no significant difference in gross grasp strength by diagnostic group. This preliminary study showed that children with a diagnosis of pediatric MS may have differences in fine motor dexterity, but not gross grasp strength from their peers who do not have the diagnosis. Further study is indicated to examine this phenomenon.

  11. Self-esteem is associated with perceived stress in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    N Ifantopoulou, Parthena; K Artemiadis, Artemios; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Chrousos, George; Papanastasiou, Ioannis; Darviri, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have showed that perceived stress (PS) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) constitutes an important factor for disease onset, relapse, symptomatology and psychological adjustment. The aim of this pilot cross-sectional study was to examine the role of self-esteem in PS, after controlling for sociodemographical characteristics, depression and personality in MS patients. Sixty-six relapsing-remitting MS patients (66.67% females, mean age of 40 ± 11.1 years old, mean duration of disease 133.6 ± 128.8 months) were studied. Perceived stress, self-esteem, depression and personality type were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Hierarchical multivariate regression modelling was used. Higher education and depression and lower self-esteem were independently and significantly associated with increased PS, accounting for 40.5% of its variance. Univariate analyses revealed that low extroversion and openness and higher neurotism were associated with higher PS, although no significant after adjusting for other factors. Although our findings need further confirmation, psychological interventions targetting self-esteem are strongly encouraged.

  12. Neurofilament light antibodies in serum reflect response to natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sandra; van der Star, Baukje J; Bosca, Isabel; Raffel, Joel; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Watchorn, Jonathan; Kuhle, Jens; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David; Malaspina, Andrea; Puentes, Fabiola

    2014-09-01

    Increased levels of antibodies to neurofilament light protein (NF-L) in biological fluids have been found to reflect neuroinflammatory responses and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate whether levels of serum antibodies against NF-L correlate with clinical variants and treatment response in MS. The autoantibody reactivity to NF-L protein was tested in serum samples from patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) (n=22) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS) (n=26). Two other cohorts of RRMS patients under treatment with natalizumab were analysed cross-sectionally (n=16) and longitudinally (n=24). The follow-up samples were taken at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after treatment, and the NF-L antibody levels were compared against baseline levels. NF-L antibodies were higher in MS clinical groups than healthy controls and in RRMS compared to SPMS patients (p<0.001). NF-L antibody levels were lower in natalizumab treated than in untreated patients (p<0.001). In the longitudinal series, NF-L antibody levels decreased over time and a significant difference was found following 24 months of treatment compared with baseline measurements (p=0.001). Drug efficacy in MS treatment indicates the potential use of monitoring the content of antibodies against the NF-L chain as a predictive biomarker of treatment response in MS. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. From Leflunomide to Teriflunomide: Drug Development and Immunosuppressive Oral Drugs in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aly, Lilian; Hemmer, Bernhard; Korn, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs have been used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) for a long time. Today, orally available second generation immunosuppressive agents have been approved or are filed for licensing as MS therapeutics. Due to semi-selective targeting of cellular processes, these second-generation immunosuppressive compounds might rather be immunomodulatory. For example, Teriflunomide inhibits the de novo pyrimidine synthesis and thus only targets rapidly proliferating cells, including lymphocytes. It is used as first line disease modifying therapy (DMT) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Review of online content related to oral immunosuppressants in MS with an emphasis on Teriflunomide. Teriflunomide and Cladribine are second-generation immunosuppressants that are efficient in the treatment of MS patients. For Teriflunomide, a daily dose of 14 mg reduces the annualized relapse rate (ARR) by more than 30% and disability progression by 30% compared to placebo. Cladribine reduces the ARR by about 50% compared to placebo but has not yet been licensed due to unresolved safety concerns. We also discuss the significance of older immunosuppressive compounds including Azathioprine, Mycophenolate mofetile, and Cyclophosphamide in current MS therapy. Teriflunomide has shown a favorable safety and efficacy profile in RRMS and is a therapeutic option for a distinct group of adult patients with RRMS. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein and Oxidative Stress in a Multiple Sclerosis Model.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Begoña M; Medina-Fernández, Francisco J; Aguilar-Luque, Macarena; Agüera, Eduardo; Feijoo, Montserrat; Garcia-Maceira, Fe I; Lillo, Rafael; Vieyra-Reyes, Patricia; Giraldo, Ana I; Luque, Evelio; Drucker-Colín, René; Túnez, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggest that altering certain bacterial populations present in the gut may lead to a proinflammatory condition, that could result in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, Reactive Oxygen Species seem to be involved in the course of MS. In this study, it has been aimed to relate all these variables starting from an analysis of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein (LBP) with the determination of parameters related to oxidative stress in the blood, brain and spinal cord. For this purpose, samples obtained from EAE rats and relapsing-remitting (RRMS) MS patients were used. In addition, EAE rats were treated with Natalizumab, N-acetyl-cysteine and dimethyl fumarate. Natalizumab was also employed in RRMS. The results of this study revealed an improvement in the clinical symptoms of the EAE and MS with the treatments, as well as a reduction in the oxidative stress parameters and in LBP. Correlations between the clinical variables of the disease, i.e. oxidative damage and LBP, were established. Although the conclusions of this research are indeed relevant, further investigation would be necessary to establish the intrinsic mechanisms of the MS-oxidative stress-microbiota relationship.

  15. Multi-task functional MRI in multiple sclerosis patients without clinical disability.

    PubMed

    Colorado, René A; Shukla, Karan; Zhou, Yuxiang; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2012-01-02

    While the majority of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop significant clinical disability, a subset experiences a disease course with minimal impairment even in the presence of significant apparent tissue damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in MS patients with low disability suggests that increased use of the cognitive control system may limit the clinical manifestation of the disease. The current fMRI studies tested the hypothesis that nondisabled MS patients show increased recruitment of cognitive control regions while performing sensory, motor and cognitive tasks. Twenty two patients with relapsing-remitting MS and an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of ≤1.5 and 23 matched healthy controls were recruited. Subjects underwent fMRI while observing flashing checkerboards, performing right or left hand movements, or executing the 2-back working memory task. Compared to control subjects, patients demonstrated increased activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex during the performance of the working memory task. This pattern of functional recruitment also was observed during the performance of non-dominant hand movements. These results support the mounting evidence of increased functional recruitment of cognitive control regions in the working memory system of MS patients with low disability and provide new evidence for the role of increased cognitive control recruitment in the motor system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Italian Pharmacovigilance Program: An Observational Study of Adverse Effects of Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Ruscica, Maria; Grimaldi, Luigi Maria; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-09-02

    BACKGROUND This study shows the results of a regional pharmacovigilance program on Natalizumab therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients after 3 years of experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of expected and unexpected adverse effects correlated to Natalizumab therapy in a cohort of 88 RR-MS patients from Sicily, Italy, and to investigate the procedures adopted by the physicians to minimize the risk of developing severe adverse reactions correlated to Natalizumab therapy. Secondary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Natalizumab therapy for a careful examination of the risk/benefit ratio and to assess the actions undertaken in case of adverse reactions. RESULTS Among 88 RR-MS patients, 55.68% did not report any type of adverse reaction, 35.22% showed expected adverse reactions (58.70% slight, 22.58% moderate, and 19.35% severe), and 9.10% showed unexpected adverse effects (62.50% slight, 25.00% moderate, and 12.50% severe). Approximately 4.54% of the patients treated with Natalizumab interrupted the therapy. Overall, among all patients, 56.62% showed ameliorated condition, 32.53% had stable disease condition, and 10.85% worsened. CONCLUSIONS We provide a short overview of evidence, which may be useful to better characterize the efficacy and potential adverse effects correlated to Natalizumab therapy.

  17. The Italian Pharmacovigilance Program: An Observational Study of Adverse Effects of Natalizumab in Multiple Sclerosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Ruscica, Maria; Grimaldi, Luigi Maria; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Background This study shows the results of a regional pharmacovigilance program on Natalizumab therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients after 3 years of experience. Material/Methods The primary objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence of expected and unexpected adverse effects correlated to Natalizumab therapy in a cohort of 88 RR-MS patients from Sicily, Italy, and to investigate the procedures adopted by the physicians to minimize the risk of developing severe adverse reactions correlated to Natalizumab therapy. Secondary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of Natalizumab therapy for a careful examination of the risk/benefit ratio and to assess the actions undertaken in case of adverse reactions. Results Among 88 RR-MS patients, 55.68% did not report any type of adverse reaction, 35.22% showed expected adverse reactions (58.70% slight, 22.58% moderate, and 19.35% severe), and 9.10% showed unexpected adverse effects (62.50% slight, 25.00% moderate, and 12.50% severe). Approximately 4.54% of the patients treated with Natalizumab interrupted the therapy. Overall, among all patients, 56.62% showed ameliorated condition, 32.53% had stable disease condition, and 10.85% worsened. Conclusions We provide a short overview of evidence, which may be useful to better characterize the efficacy and potential adverse effects correlated to Natalizumab therapy. PMID:28864818

  18. Thalamic lesions in multiple sclerosis by 7T MRI: Clinical implications and relationship to cortical pathology.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Daniel M; Oh, Jiwon; Roy, Snehashis; Wood, Emily T; Whetstone, Anna; Seigo, Michaela A; Jones, Craig K; Pham, Dzung; van Zijl, Peter; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A

    2015-08-01

    Pathology in both cortex and deep gray matter contribute to disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). We used the increased signal-to-noise ratio of 7-tesla (7T) MRI to visualize small lesions within the thalamus and to relate this to clinical information and cortical lesions. We obtained 7T MRI scans on 34 MS cases and 15 healthy volunteers. Thalamic lesion number and volume were related to demographic data, clinical disability measures, and lesions in cortical gray matter. Thalamic lesions were found in 24/34 of MS cases. Two lesion subtypes were noted: discrete, ovoid lesions, and more diffuse lesional areas lining the periventricular surface. The number of thalamic lesions was greater in progressive MS compared to relapsing-remitting (mean ±SD, 10.7 ±0.7 vs. 3.0 ±0.7, respectively, p < 0.001). Thalamic lesion burden (count and volume) correlated with EDSS score and measures of cortical lesion burden, but not with white matter lesion burden or white matter volume. Using 7T MRI allows identification of thalamic lesions in MS, which are associated with disability, progressive disease, and cortical lesions. Thalamic lesion analysis may be a simpler, more rapid estimate of overall gray matter lesion burden in MS. © The Author(s), 2015.

  19. CSF inflammation and axonal damage are increased and correlate in progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Börnsen, Lars; Khademi, Mohsen; Olsson, Tomas; Jensen, Poul Erik; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2013-06-01

    The mechanism underlying disease progression in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is uncertain. Pathological studies found widespread inflammation in progressive MS brains correlating with disease progression and axonal damage. To study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and clarify whether inflammation and axonal damage are associated in progressive MS. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analysed CSF from 40 secondary progressive (SPMS), 21 primary progressive (PPMS), and 36 relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and 20 non-inflammatory neurological disease (NIND) patients. Twenty-two of the SPMS patients participated in an MBP8298 peptide clinical trial and had CSF follow-up after one year. Compared to NIND patients, inflammatory biomarkers osteopontin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) were increased in all MS patients while CXCL13 was increased in RRMS and SPMS patients. Biomarkers of axonal damage (NFL) and demyelination (MBP) were increased in all MS patients. In progressive MS patients CSF levels of osteopontin and CXCL13 correlated with NFL while osteopontin and MMP9 correlated with MBP. MBP8298 treatment did not affect the levels of the biomarkers after one year of treatment. All biomarkers were continuously increased after one year of follow-up except MBP, which decreased. CSF biomarkers of inflammation, axonal damage and demyelination are continuously increased in progressive MS patients and correlate. These findings parallel pathology studies, emphasise a relationship between inflammation, axonal damage and demyelination and support the use of CSF biomarkers in progressive MS clinical trials.

  20. Role of IL-17-producing lymphocytes in severity of multiple sclerosis upon natalizumab treatment.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Ulrike; Fleischer, Vinzenz; Luessi, Felix; Rezk, Ayman; Belikan, Patrick; Graetz, Christiane; Gollan, René; Wolf, Christina; Lutz, Jens; Bar-Or, Amit; Siffrin, Volker; Zipp, Frauke

    2017-04-01

    Natalizumab is known to prevent T-helper cells entering the central nervous system (CNS). We hypothesize that more pathogenic T-helper cells are present outside the CNS and a possible relationship to disease severity. Characterization and enrichment of human CD4+IL-17+ cells were performed ex vivo using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from natalizumab-treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients ( n = 33), untreated RRMS patients ( n = 13), and healthy controls ( n = 33). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed routinely for patients. Lymphocytes were elevated in peripheral blood of natalizumab-treated patients compared to untreated patients and healthy controls. Whereas group comparison for CD4+IL-17+ numbers also differed, CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-22+ counts were not increased. CD4+IL-17+ cells not only expressed but also secreted IL-17. In natalizumab-treated patients, IL-17+ cell frequency was found to correlate with T1-hypointense lesions, but was not an indicator for rebound activity after treatment discontinuation, except in one patient who experienced a fulminant rebound, and interestingly, in whom the highest IL-17+ cell levels were observed. Increased lymphocytes and CD4+IL-17+ cells in the blood of RRMS patients receiving natalizumab corroborate the drug's mechanism of action, that is, blocking transmigration to CNS. Correlation between IL-17-expressing lymphocytes and T1-hypointense lesions underlines the important role of these cells in the disease pathology.

  1. Effect of in-painting on cortical thickness measurements in multiple sclerosis: A large cohort study.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Koushik A; Datta, Sushmita; Hasan, Khader M; Choi, Sangbum; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cofield, Stacey S; Cutter, Gary R; Lublin, Fred D; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the effect of lesion in-painting on the estimation of cortical thickness using magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a large cohort of 918 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients who participated in a phase III multicenter clinical trial. An automatic lesion in-painting algorithm was developed and implemented. Cortical thickness was measured using the FreeSurfer pipeline with and without in-painting. The effect of in-painting was evaluated using FreeSurfer's paired analysis pipeline. Multivariate regression analysis was also performed with field strength and lesion load as additional factors. Overall, the estimated cortical thickness was different with in-painting than without. The effect of in-painting was observed to be region dependent, more significant in the left hemisphere compared to the right, was more prominent at 1.5 T relative to 3 T, and was greater at higher lesion volumes. Our results show that even for data acquired at 1.5 T in patients with high lesion load, the mean cortical thickness difference with and without in-painting is ∼2%. Based on these results, it appears that in-painting has only a small effect on the estimated regional and global cortical thickness. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3749-3760, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mycophenolate Mofetil for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis-associated Uveitis.

    PubMed

    Hedayatfar, Alireza; Falavarjani, Khalil Ghasemi; Soheilian, Masoud; Elmi Sadr, Navid; Modarres, Mehdi; Parvaresh, Mohammad Mehdi; Naseripour, Masood; Rohani, Mohammad; Almasi, Mostafa; Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2017-06-01

    To report the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)-associated uveitis. In this retrospective, interventional case series, patients with MS-associated uveitis who were treated by MMF as an adjunct therapy to systemic corticosteroid were studied. Patients' demographics, clinical course, response to treatment, and complications were assessed. A total of 30 eyes of 15 patients with a mean age of 34.5 ± 8.3 years were studied. In three patients (20%), onset of uveitis preceded the diagnosis of MS. The course of MS was relapsing-remitting in 11 patients (73.3%) and secondary progressive in four patients (26.7%). At 1 year after institution of MMF, all the patients were on oral prednisolone ≤ 7.5 mg/day, all eyes were quiet without macular edema, and 53.3% of eyes gained visual improvement. Supplemental periocular and intraocular injections were needed during the first 6 months after starting MMF therapy. The systemic adverse effects were transient and minor in severity. MMF had beneficial effects on vision and intraocular inflammation with an acceptable safety profile.

  3. Urinary incontinence in multiple sclerosis: prevalence, severity and impact on patients' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zecca, C; Riccitelli, G C; Disanto, G; Singh, A; Digesu, G A; Panicari, L; Puccini, F; Mattioli, M; Tubaro, A; Gobbi, C

    2016-07-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) including frequent urination, nocturia and urge urinary incontinence negatively impact quality of life. This project aimed at characterizing the prevalence and severity of urinary incontinence in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its association with demographic and clinical features. In all, 403 consecutive clinically stable MS patients answered the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire (ICIQ) and the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) questionnaire. Demographic and clinical parameters including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were collected. Statistical analyses were performed using univariate and multivariate linear regression models. Females represented 72%, relapsing-remitting patients 82%. The mean (SD) disease duration and EDSS were 11.8 (8.6) years and 3.1 (1.9) respectively. Approximately 35% of patients reported urine incontinence. ICIQ scores were positively associated with EDSS, female gender, presence of LUTS therapies and absence of disease modifying treatments (P < 0.001). PPBC scores were positively associated with EDSS and the presence of LUTS therapies (P < 0.001). Urinary incontinence is frequent in MS, prevailing in more disabled and female patients. Currently available LUTS therapies appear insufficient in the treatment of this symptom. The negative impact of urinary incontinence on quality of life is high and requires more attention in clinical management and research. © 2016 EAN.

  4. Increased determinism in brain electrical activity occurs in association with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Carrubba, Simona; Minagar, Alireza; Chesson, Andrew L; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Increased determinism (decreased complexity) of brain electrical activity has been associated with some brain diseases. Our objective was to determine whether a similar association occurred for multiple sclerosis (MS). Ten subjects with a relapsing-remitting course of MS who were in remission were studied; the controls were age- and gender-matched clinically normal subjects. Recurrence plots were calculated using representative electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs (1-7 seconds) from six derivations; the plots were quantified using the nonlinear variables percent recurrence (%R) and percent determinism (%D). The results were averaged over all derivations for each participant, and the means were compared between the groups. As a linear control procedure the groups were also compared using spectral analysis. The mean±SD of %R for the MS subjects was 6·6±1·3%, compared with 5·1±1·3% in the normal group (P = 0·017), indicating that brain activity in the subjects with MS was less complex, as hypothesized. The groups were not distinguishable using %D or spectral analysis. Taken together with our earlier report that %R could be used to discriminate between MS and normal subjects based on the ability to exhibit evoked potentials, the evidence suggests that complexity analysis of the EEG has potential for development as a diagnostic test for MS.

  5. Automated brain volumetrics in multiple sclerosis: a step closer to clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Beadnall, H N; Hatton, S N; Bader, G; Tomic, D; Silva, D G

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole brain volume (WBV) estimates in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) correlate more robustly with clinical disability than traditional, lesion-based metrics. Numerous algorithms to measure WBV have been developed over the past two decades. We compare Structural Image Evaluation using Normalisation of Atrophy-Cross-sectional (SIENAX) to NeuroQuant and MSmetrix, for assessment of cross-sectional WBV in patients with MS. Methods MRIs from 61 patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 2 patients with clinically isolated syndrome were analysed. WBV measurements were calculated using SIENAX, NeuroQuant and MSmetrix. Statistical agreement between the methods was evaluated using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Precision and accuracy of WBV measurement was calculated for (1) NeuroQuant versus SIENAX and (2) MSmetrix versus SIENAX. Results Precision (Pearson's r) of WBV estimation for NeuroQuant and MSmetrix versus SIENAX was 0.983 and 0.992, respectively. Accuracy (Cb) was 0.871 and 0.994, respectively. NeuroQuant and MSmetrix showed a 5.5% and 1.0% volume difference compared with SIENAX, respectively, that was consistent across low and high values. Conclusions In the analysed population, NeuroQuant and MSmetrix both quantified cross-sectional WBV with comparable statistical agreement to SIENAX, a well-validated cross-sectional tool that has been used extensively in MS clinical studies. PMID:27071647

  6. Interobserver agreement on Poser's and the new McDonald's diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zipoli, V; Portaccio, E; Siracusa, G; Pracucci, G; Sorbi, S; Amato, M P

    2003-10-01

    We assessed the interobserver agreement on the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a study sample consisting of 41 MS (15 relapsing remitting, two secondary progressive, five primary progressive and 19 presenting their first clinical attack) and three non-MS cases. Clinical and paraclinical information was recorded in standardized forms. Four neurologists were asked to make a diagnosis using Poser's and McDonald's criteria and to assess MRI scans according to the McDonald's guidelines. In terms of the kappa statistic (kappa), we found a moderate agreement on the overall diagnosis using both Poser's and McDonald's criteria (kappa, respectively 0.57 and 0.52). As for distinct diagnostic categories, we observed a moderate to substantial agreement for the three McDonald categories (range of kappa values 0.49-0.64) and a fair to substantial agreement for the nine Poser categories (range of kappa values 0.37-0.67). Taking into account clinical information, the agreement on dissemination over time was substantially higher (kappa = 0.69) than that found on dissemination over space (kappa = 0.46). In contrast, for MRI assessment, the agreement for spatial dissemination was substantial (kappa = 0.74) compared with the fair agreement (kappa = 0.25) yielded by dissemination over time. The new McDonald's criteria yield a good overall diagnostic reliability, and compare favourably with Poser's classification in terms of agreement on distinct diagnostic categories.

  7. Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis: clinical correlates from a multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has recently been reported to be associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, its actual prevalence, possible association with specific MS phenotypes, and potential pathophysiological role are debated. Method We analysed the clinical data of 710 MS patients attending six centres (five Italian and one Canadian). All were submitted to venous Doppler sonography and diagnosed as having or not having CCSVI according to the criteria of Zamboni et al. Results Overall, CCSVI was diagnosed in 86% of the patients, but the frequency varied greatly between the centres. Even greater differences were found when considering singly the five diagnostic criteria proposed by Zamboni et al. Despite these differences, significant associations with clinical data were found, the most striking being age at disease onset (about five years greater in CCSVI-positive patients) and clinical severity (mean EDSS score about one point higher in CCSVI-positive patients). Patients with progressive MS were more likely to have CCSVI than those with relapsing-remitting MS. Conclusion The methods for diagnosing CCSVI need to be refined, as the between-centre differences, particularly in single criteria, were excessively high. Despite these discrepancies, the strong associations between CCSVI and MS phenotype suggest that the presence of CCSVI may favour a later development of MS in patients with a lower susceptibility to autoimmune diseases and may increase its severity. PMID:22029656

  8. Memory in multiple sclerosis is linked to glutamate concentration in grey matter regions

    PubMed Central

    Muhlert, Nils; Atzori, Matteo; De Vita, Enrico; Thomas, David L; Samson, Rebecca S; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Miller, David H; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Objective Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter and is involved in normal brain function. Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), and understanding its mechanisms is crucial for developing effective treatments. We used structural and metabolic brain imaging to test two hypotheses: (i) glutamate levels in grey matter regions are abnormal in MS, and (ii) patients show a relationship between glutamate concentration and memory performance. Methods Eighteen patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 17 healthy controls were cognitively assessed and underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T to assess glutamate levels in the hippocampus, thalamus, cingulate and parietal cortices. Regression models investigated the association between glutamate concentration and memory performance independently of magnetisation transfer ratio values and grey matter lesions withint he same regions, and whole-brain grey matter volume. Results Patients had worse visual and verbal memory than controls. A positive relationship between glutamate levels in the hippocampal, thalamic and cingulate regions and visuospatial memory was detected in patients, but not in healthy controls. Conclusions The relationship between memory and glutamate concentration, which is unique to MS patients, suggests the reliance of memory on glutamatergic systems in MS. PMID:24431465

  9. Localized grey matter damage in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis contributes to disability.

    PubMed

    Khaleeli, Z; Cercignani, M; Audoin, B; Ciccarelli, O; Miller, D H; Thompson, A J

    2007-08-01

    Disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) has been correlated with damage to the normal appearing brain tissues. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and volume changes indicate that much of this damage occurs in the normal appearing grey matter, but the clinical significance of this remains uncertain. We aimed to localize these changes to distinct grey matter regions, and investigate the clinical impact of the MTR changes. 46 patients with early PPMS and 23 controls underwent MT and high-resolution T1-weighted imaging. Patients were scored on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and subtests (Nine-Hole Peg Test, Timed Walk Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test [PASAT]). Grey matter volume and MTR were compared between patients and controls, adjusting for age. Mean MTR for significant regions within the motor network and in areas relevant to PASAT performance were correlated with appropriate clinical scores, adjusting for grey matter volume. Patients showed reduced MTR and atrophy in the right pre- and left post-central gyri, right middle frontal gyrus, left insula, and thalamus bilaterally. Reduced MTR without significant atrophy occurred in the left pre-central gyrus, left superior frontal gyri, bilateral superior temporal gyri, right insula and visual cortex. Higher EDSS correlated with lower MTR in the right primary motor cortex (BA 4). In conclusion, localized grey matter damage occurs in early PPMS, and MTR change is more widespread than atrophy. Damage demonstrated by reduced MTR is clinically eloquent.

  10. Which symptoms contribute the most to patients' perception of health in multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Green, Rivka; Cutter, Gary; Friendly, Michael; Kister, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a polysymptomatic disease. Little is known about relative contributions of the different multiple sclerosis symptoms to self-perception of health. To investigate the relationship between symptom severity in 11 domains affected by multiple sclerosis and self-rated health. Multiple sclerosis patients in two multiple sclerosis centers assessed self-rated health with a validated instrument and symptom burden with symptoMScreen, a validated battery of Likert scales for 11 domains commonly affected by multiple sclerosis. Pearson correlations and multivariate linear regressions were used to investigate the relationship between symptoMScreen scores and self-rated health. Among 1865 multiple sclerosis outpatients (68% women, 78% with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, mean age 46.38 ± 12.47 years, disease duration 13.43 ± 10.04 years), average self-rated health score was 2.30 ('moderate to good'). Symptom burden (composite symptoMScreen score) highly correlated with self-rated health ( r  = 0.68, P  < 0.0001) as did each of the symptoMScreen domain subscores. In regression analysis, pain ( t  = 7.00), ambulation ( t  = 6.91), and fatigue ( t  = 5.85) contributed the highest amount of variance in self-rated health ( P  < 0.001). Pain contributed the most to multiple sclerosis outpatients' perception of health, followed by gait dysfunction and fatigue. These findings suggest that 'invisible disability' may be more important to patients' sense of wellbeing than physical disability, and challenge the notion that physical disability should be the primary outcome measure in multiple sclerosis.

  11. Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Torben; Solanky, Bhavana S.; Yiannakas, Marios C.; Altmann, Dan R.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Peters, Amy L.; Day, Brian L.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability. Data from 21 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis within 6 years of disease onset, and 24 control subjects were analysed. Patients were clinically assessed on grip strength, vibration perception thresholds and postural stability, in addition to the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, and Modified Ashworth Scale. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging of the cervical cord and conventional brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Multivariate analyses and multiple regression models were used to assess the differences in imaging measures between groups and the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging measures and clinical scores, correcting for age, gender, spinal cord cross-sectional area, brain T2 lesion volume, and brain white matter and grey matter volume fractions. Although patients did not show significant cord atrophy when compared with healthy controls, they had significantly lower total N-acetyl-aspartate (mean 4.01 versus 5.31 mmol/l, P = 0.020) and glutamate-glutamine (mean 4.65 versus 5.93 mmol/l, P = 0.043) than controls. Patients showed an increase in q

  12. Evidence for early neurodegeneration in the cervical cord of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Khaled; Schneider, Torben; Solanky, Bhavana S; Yiannakas, Marios C; Altmann, Dan R; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Peters, Amy L; Day, Brian L; Thompson, Alan J; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-06-01

    Spinal neurodegeneration is an important determinant of disability progression in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Advanced imaging techniques, such as single-voxel (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging, have increased pathological specificity for neurodegeneration, but are challenging to implement in the spinal cord and have yet to be applied in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis. By combining these imaging techniques with new clinical measures, which reflect spinal cord pathology more closely than conventional clinical tests, we explored the potential for spinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging to detect early spinal neurodegeneration that may be responsible for clinical disability. Data from 21 patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis within 6 years of disease onset, and 24 control subjects were analysed. Patients were clinically assessed on grip strength, vibration perception thresholds and postural stability, in addition to the Expanded Disability Status Scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, and Modified Ashworth Scale. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy and q-space imaging of the cervical cord and conventional brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Multivariate analyses and multiple regression models were used to assess the differences in imaging measures between groups and the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging measures and clinical scores, correcting for age, gender, spinal cord cross-sectional area, brain T2 lesion volume, and brain white matter and grey matter volume fractions. Although patients did not show significant cord atrophy when compared with healthy controls, they had significantly lower total N-acetyl-aspartate (mean 4.01 versus 5.31 mmol/l, P = 0.020) and glutamate-glutamine (mean 4.65 versus 5.93 mmol/l, P = 0.043) than controls. Patients showed an increase in q

  13. A Novel Electrochemical Microfluidic Chip Combined with Multiple Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yao; Zhi, Xiao; Su, Haichuan; Wang, Kan; Yan, Zhen; He, Nongyue; Zhang, Jingpu; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

    2015-12-01

    Early diagnosis is very important to improve the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and to understand the biology of cancer. In order to meet the clinical demands for early diagnosis of gastric cancer, we developed a disposable easy-to-use electrochemical microfluidic chip combined with multiple antibodies against six kinds of biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), Helicobacter pylori CagA protein (H.P.), P53oncoprotein (P53), pepsinogen I (PG I), and PG-II). The six kinds of biomarkers related to gastric cancer can be detected sensitively and synchronously in a short time. The specially designed three electrodes system enables cross-contamination to be avoided effectively. The linear ranges of detection of the electrochemical microfluidic chip were as follows: 0.37-90 ng mL-1 for CEA, 10.75-172 U mL-1 for CA19-9, 10-160 U L-1 for H.P., 35-560 ng mL-1 for P53, 37.5-600 ng mL-1 for PG I, and 2.5-80 ng mL-1for PG II. This method owns better sensitivity compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results of 394 specimens of gastric cancer sera. Furthermore, we established a multi-index prediction model based on the six kinds of biomarkers for predicting risk of gastric cancer. In conclusion, the electrochemical microfluidic chip for detecting multiple biomarkers has great potential in applications such as early screening of gastric cancer patients, and therapeutic evaluation, and real-time dynamic monitoring the progress of gastric cancer in near future.

  14. Early versus Deferred Treatment for Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Van S.; Gao, Lu; Wu, Xiaosong; Tao, Yi; Hu, Xiaojing; Hou, Jun; Han, Ying; Xu, Hongwei; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Whether patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) needed to receive early interventional treatment remains controversial. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of early treatment over deferred treatment for patients with SMM. Methods MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched to May 2014 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of early treatment over deferred treatment. Primary outcome measure was mortality, and secondary outcome measures were progression, response rate, and adverse events. Results Overall, 5 trials including 449 patients were identified. There was a markedly reduced risk of disease progression with early treatment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07 to 0.24). There were no significant differences in mortality and response rate (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.45 to 1.60, and OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.32 to 1.23, respectively). More patients in the early treatment arm experienced gastrointestinal toxicities (OR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.32 to 23.23), constipation (OR = 8.58, 95%CI = 3.20 to 23.00) and fatigue or asthenia (OR = 2.72, 95%CI = 1.30 to 5.67). No significant differences were seen with the development of acute leukemia (OR = 2.80, 95%CI = 0.42 to 18.81), hematologic cancer (OR = 2.07, 95%CI = 0.43 to 10.01), second primary tumors (OR = 3.45, 95%CI = 0.81 to 14.68), nor vertebral compression (OR = 0.18, 95%CI = 0.02 to 1.59). Conclusions Early treatment delayed disease progression but increased the risk of gastrointestinal toxicities, constipation and fatigue or asthenia. The differences on vertebral compression, acute leukemia, hematological cancer and second primary tumors were not statistically significant. Based on the current evidence, early treatment didn’t significantly affect mortality and response rate. However, further much larger trials were needed to provide more evidence

  15. Differences in early speech patterns between Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Huh, Young Eun; Park, Jongkyu; Suh, Mee Kyung; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Jumin; Jeong, Yuri; Kim, Hee-Tae; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-08-01

    In Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), patterns of early speech impairment and their distinguishing features from Parkinson's disease (PD) require further exploration. Here, we compared speech data among patients with early-stage MSA-P, PD, and healthy subjects using quantitative acoustic and perceptual analyses. Variables were analyzed for men and women in view of gender-specific features of speech. Acoustic analysis revealed that male patients with MSA-P exhibited more profound speech abnormalities than those with PD, regarding increased voice pitch, prolonged pause time, and reduced speech rate. This might be due to widespread pathology of MSA-P in nigrostriatal or extra-striatal structures related to speech production. Although several perceptual measures were mildly impaired in MSA-P and PD patients, none of these parameters showed a significant difference between patient groups. Detailed speech analysis using acoustic measures may help distinguish between MSA-P and PD early in the disease process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrophysiological Evaluation of Dysphagia in the Mild or Moderate Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Concept of Subclinical Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Yesim; Gürgör, Nevin; Çakır, Ahmet; Arıcı, Şehnaz; İncesu, Tülay Kurt; Seçil, Yaprak; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2015-06-01

    Swallowing mechanism and neurogenic dysphagia in MS have been rarely studied by electromyographical (EMG) methods. This study aims to evaluate the presence of subclinical dysphagia in patients with mild multiple sclerosis (MS) using electrophysiological methods. A prospective study of 51 patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis and 18 age-matched healthy adults was investigated. We used electromyography to measure the activity of the submental muscles during swallowing. Electrophysiological recordings of patients were obtained during relapse, after relapse, and at any time in remission period. Clinical dysphagia was found in 12% of MS patients, while electrophysiological swallowing abnormalities were encountered in 33% of patients. Subclinical dysphagia was determined in 35% of patients during an MS relapse, in 20% of patients after a relapse, and in 25% of all 51 patients in the remission period based on EMG findings. Duration of swallowing signal of submental muscles in all MS patients was found to be longer than in normal subjects (p = 0.001). During swallowing of 50 ml of sequential water, the compensatory respiratory cycles occurred more often in MS patients than normal subjects, especially during a relapse (p = 0.005). This is the first study investigating swallowing abnormalities and subclinical dysphagia from the electrophysiological aspect in MS patients with mild disability. The electrophysiological tests described in this study are useful to uncover subclinical dysphagia since they have the advantage of being rapid, easy to apply, non-invasive, and without risk for the patients.

  17. Factors related to difficulties with employment in patients with multiple sclerosis: a review of 2002-2011 literature.

    PubMed

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Leonardi, Matilde; Giovannetti, Ambra M; Antozzi, Carlo; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Mantegazza, Renato; Raggi, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    We assess the knowledge available on the difficulties experienced by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in work-related activities. A literature review was carried out using the keywords 'multiple sclerosis' and 'employment' or 'work' through PubMed and EMBASE. Papers reporting patient-derived data on difficulties at work as primary or secondary outcome measures and published in the period 2002-December 2011 were searched. A total of 26 papers were selected, for a total of 32 507 patients (mean age 46.2 years; 42.1% with relapsing-remitting MS). Most papers reported observational studies or cross-sectional surveys focused on health-related quality of life and MS costs. Symptoms more frequently addressed are fatigue, mobility and cognitive impairments. Limited research has been carried out on the working environment. We found a relatively small number of papers published in the last 10 years on the difficulties that patients with MS can experience at work, and this kind of information always appeared as a secondary outcome. In general, it is possible to affirm that MS has a strong impact on patients' employment status, as the mean unemployment rate was 59%. Research on factors promoting maintenance of remunerative employment is required.

  18. New life to an old treatment: pegylated Interferon beta 1a in the management of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Miguel Angel; Espino-Paisan, Laura; Nunez, Concepcion; Alvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena

    2018-02-25

    In the 1990s, the betainterferons and glatiramer acetate were introduced for treating relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. These medications have a demonstrated record of efficacy and safety, although they require frequent administration via injection and are only partially effective. The optimization of treatment in patients who do not respond adequately to this first-line therapy is essential for attaining the best long-term outcomes. Switching to the recently approved emergent therapies is a strategy to consider for treatment of patients with a suboptimal response. This review summarizes the mechanisms of action, clinical benefits, and safety profiles of current multiple sclerosis disease-modifying therapies, including highly efficacious monoclonal antibodies or convenient oral therapies. Although the first-line interferon beta exhibits a favorable benefit-to-risk profile, treatment compliance is compromised potentially due to its known adverse events and frequent injectable administration. Less frequent dosing and improved pharmacological properties have been achieved by reaction of interferon beta with chemically activated polyethylene glycol. Provided that none of the available therapies shows better effectiveness for all outcomes and their safety in clinical practice is a fundamental concern, the pegylated form of interferon beta seems to keep its place as a competitive therapeutic option. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Real-world persistence with fingolimod for the treatment of multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kantor, Daniel; Johnson, Kristen; Vieira, Maria Cecilia; Signorovitch, James; Li, Nanxin; Gao, Wei; Koo, Valerie; Duchesneau, Emilie; Herrera, Vivian

    2018-05-15

    To systematically review reports of fingolimod persistence in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) across data sources and practice settings, and to develop a consensus estimate of the 1-year real-world persistence rate. A systematic literature review was conducted (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and abstracts from selected conferences [2013-2015]) to identify observational studies reporting 1-year fingolimod persistence among adult patients with RRMS (sample size ≥50). A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to estimate a synthesized 1-year persistence rate and to assess heterogeneity across studies. Of 527 publications identified, 25 real-world studies reporting 1-year fingolimod persistence rates were included. The studies included patients from different data sources (e.g., administrative claims, electronic medical records, or registries), used different definitions of persistence (e.g., based on prescriptions refills, patient report, or prescription orders), and spanned multiple geographic regions. Reported 1-year persistence rates ranged from 72%-100%, and exhibited statistical evidence of heterogeneity (I 2  = 93% of the variability due to heterogeneity across studies). The consensus estimate of the 1-year persistence rate was 82% (95% confidence interval: 79%-85%). Across heterogeneous study designs and patient populations found in real-world studies, the consensus 1-year fingolimod persistence rate exceeded 80%, consistent with persistence rates identified in the recently-completed trial, PREFERMS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure and early initiation of multiple substance use.

    PubMed

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L

    2012-06-01

    Earlier studies have shown a relation between prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (PCSE) and offspring initiation of tobacco use. No prior study has examined the association between PCSE and early initiation of multiple substances (EIMS) including marijuana and alcohol in addition to tobacco. We investigated the association between PCSE and multiple substance use during adolescence. Pregnant women attending an urban prenatal clinic were selected to participate in the prospective longitudinal study based on their substance use. This study is based on the 16-year follow-up phase and consists of 579 mother-offspring dyads. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, 54% were Black, and 53% reported smoking cigarettes. 52% of the offspring were female. EIMS is a measure of the number of substances initiated prior to age 16 by the adolescents; it ranged from 0 (no initiation, N = 166) to 3 (all, N = 162). Adolescents exposed to tobacco during first trimester of gestation were 1.4 times more likely to initiate multiple substances by age 16 than the nonexposed group. PCSE was a significant predictor of EIMS after controlling for other prenatal exposures, home environment, and demographic characteristics, using ordinal polytomous logistic regression. Other risk factors of EIMS were maternal and adolescent depression, less strict and less involved parenting, offspring attention problems, and lack of participation in a youth club. There is a significant relation between PCSE and adolescent's EIMS.

  1. An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J William L; Pardini, Matteo; Brownlee, Wallace J; Fernando, Kryshani; Samson, Rebecca S; Prados Carrasco, Ferran; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2017-01-01

    sclerosis. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient was not significantly affected by the presence of brain lesions [T2 lesions (P = 0.918), periventricular T2 lesions (P = 0.580) or gadolinium-enhancing T1 lesions (P = 0.724)]. The magnetization transfer ratio gradient also correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score 5 years later (Spearman r = 0.313, P = 0.027). An abnormal periventricular magnetization transfer ratio gradient occurs early in multiple sclerosis, is clinically relevant, and may arise from one or more mechanisms that are at least partly independent of lesion formation. PMID:28043954

  2. Intrathecal IgM index correlates with a severe disease course in multiple sclerosis: Clinical and MRI results.

    PubMed

    Ozakbas, Serkan; Cinar, Bilge Piri; Özcelik, Pinar; Baser, Hatice; Kosehasanoğullari, Gorkem

    2017-09-01

    Intrathecally synthesized IgM can be seen not only in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, but also in that of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Intrathecal IgM synthesis in MS seems to be correlated with an unfavorable disease course. In one cross-sectional study, intrathecal synthesis of IgM (IgM index) was found to be correlated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible relationship between the IgM index and MRI and clinical parameters. Eighty-one patients with MS (58 female) undergoing lumbar puncture were included in the study. Fifty-one patients had a relapsing-remitting (RR) disease course, while 30 cases were secondary progressive MS (SPMS). IgM was detected in paired CSF and serum specimens using ELISA. The IgM index was calculated using the formula CSF IgM/serum IgM: CSF albumin/serum albumin. IgM indexes higher than 0.1 were considered "increased". All patients underwent brain and whole spinal cord MRI. The IgM index was normal in 43 of the 81 patients (53.1%) and increased in 38 (46.9%). A significant correlation was determined between the IgM index and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (r=0.638, p=0.001). Most of the subjects with increased IgM indexes were SPMS patients, 28 having a SPMS course and 10 a RRMS course. Only two patients with SPMS courses had normal IgM indexes. EDSS scores were significantly higher in patients with increased IgM indexes (EDSS 4.3 vs EDSS 2.8, p=0.000). All patients with EDSS >3 had increased IgM indexes. All patients with IgM index values higher than 0.2 IgM had SPMS courses and EDSS >6. Time to onset of the secondary progressive phase of the disease was correlated with IgM index values (p=0.004). IgM index values were also correlated with T1 hypointense lesions (r=0.0431, p=0.008) and Gd enhancing lesions (r=0.0396, p=0.006). Patients with increased IgM indexes also had more

  3. Randomized study combining interferon and glatiramer acetate in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lublin, Fred D; Cofield, Stacey S; Cutter, Gary R; Conwit, Robin; Narayana, Ponnada A; Nelson, Flavia; Salter, Amber R; Gustafson, Tarah; Wolinsky, Jerry S

    2013-03-01

    A double-blind, randomized, controlled study was undertaken to determine whether combined use of interferon β-1a (IFN) 30 μg intramuscularly weekly and glatiramer acetate (GA) 20 mg daily is more efficacious than either agent alone in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. A total of 1,008 participants were randomized and followed until the last participant enrolled completed 3 years. The primary endpoint was reduction in annualized relapse rate utilizing a strict definition of relapse. Secondary outcomes included time to confirmed disability, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) score, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) metrics. Combination IFN+GA was not superior to the better of the single agents (GA) in risk of relapse. Both the combination therapy and GA were significantly better than IFN in reducing the risk of relapse. The combination was not better than either agent alone in lessening confirmed Expanded Disability Status Scale progression or change in MSFC over 36 months. The combination was superior to either agent alone in reducing new lesion activity and accumulation of total lesion volumes. In a post hoc analysis, combination therapy resulted in a higher proportion of participants attaining disease activity-free status (DAFS) compared to either single arm, driven by the MRI results. Combining the 2 most commonly prescribed therapies for multiple sclerosis did not produce a significant clinical benefit over 3 years. An effect was seen on some MRI metrics. In a test of comparative efficacy, GA was superior to IFN in reducing the risk of exacerbation. The extension phase for CombiRx will address whether the observed differences in MRI and DAFS findings predict later clinical differences. Copyright © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  4. Psychometric properties of the SDM-Q-9 questionnaire for shared decision-making in multiple sclerosis: item response theory modelling and confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Javier; Moral, Ester; Brieva, Luis; Ruiz-Beato, Elena; Prefasi, Daniel; Maurino, Jorge

    2017-04-22

    Shared decision-making is a cornerstone of patient-centred care. The 9-item Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9) is a brief self-assessment tool for measuring patients' perceived level of involvement in decision-making related to their own treatment and care. Information related to the psychometric properties of the SDM-Q-9 for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of the items composing the SDM-Q-9 and its dimensional structure in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. A non-interventional, cross-sectional study in adult patients with relapsing-remitting MS was conducted in 17 MS units throughout Spain. A nonparametric item response theory (IRT) analysis was used to assess the latent construct and dimensional structure underlying the observed responses. A parametric IRT model, General Partial Credit Model, was fitted to obtain estimates of the relationship between the latent construct and item characteristics. The unidimensionality of the SDM-Q-9 instrument was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis. A total of 221 patients were studied (mean age = 42.1 ± 9.9 years, 68.3% female). Median Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 2.5 ± 1.5. Most patients reported taking part in each step of the decision-making process. Internal reliability of the instrument was high (Cronbach's α = 0.91) and the overall scale scalability score was 0.57, indicative of a strong scale. All items, except for the item 1, showed scalability indices higher than 0.30. Four items (items 6 through to 9) conveyed more than half of the SDM-Q-9 overall information (67.3%). The SDM-Q-9 was a good fit for a unidimensional latent structure (comparative fit index = 0.98, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.07). All freely estimated parameters were statistically significant (P < 0.001). All items presented standardized parameter estimates with salient loadings (>0.40) with the

  5. Ignition and early soot formation in a DI diesel engine using multiple 2-D imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dec, John E.; Espey, Christoph

    Combined optical imaging diagnostics in the fuel jet of a direct-injection diesel engine to study the ignition and early soot formation processes. A diesel engine of the 'heavy-duty' size class was operated at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. Two fuels were used, a 42.5 cetane number mixture of the diesel reference fuels and a new low-sooting fuel. Combustion and soot formation are almost identical for both fuels. Ignition and early combustion were studied by imaging the natural chemiluminescence using a calibrated intensified video camera. Early soot development was investigated via luminosity imaging and simultaneous planar imaging of laser-induced incandescence (LII) and elastic scattering. The latter provide relative soot concentrations and particle size distributions. Data show that ignition occurs at multiple points across the downstream region of all the fuel jets prior to first apparent heat release well before any soot luminosity occurs. Quantitative vapor-fuel/air mixture images in the leading portion of the jet are also presented and discussed with respect to the early combustion data. The first soot occurs at random locations, and shortly thereafter, small soot particles develop throughout the cross section of the leading portion of the jet. Data indicate that this soot arises from the fuel-rich premixed burn. Then, significantly larger soot particles appear around the periphery of the jet, presumably from the initial diffusion combustion. By the end of the premixed burn, the soot has developed a distribution pattern of a higher concentration toward the front of the jet and a lower concentration upstream, with the larger-sized soot particles being generally confined to the periphery of the jet.

  6. Factors associated with clinically significant increased walking time in multiple sclerosis: results of a survival analysis of short-term follow-up data from a clinical database.

    PubMed

    Miller, Deborah M; Thompson, Nicolas R; Cohen, Jeffrey A; Fox, Robert J; Hartman, Jen; Schwetz, Kathleen; Conway, Devon S; Rudick, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Because multiple sclerosis (MS) is variable and unpredictable, if symptom worsening could be predicted, patients may feel better prepared to manage changes in function. The objective of this paper is to study the prediction of walking impairment in MS. We retrieved data for all MS patients at our center (2008-2009), including baseline and follow-up timed 25-foot walk (T25FW) times. We assessed the incidence of ≥20% worsening in T25FW by developing two survival models: (1) disease course and (2) Multiple Sclerosis Performance Scales (MSPS) score. The outcome was days until ≥20% worsening in T25FW. Covariates were disease subtype, years since diagnosis, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score, and demographics. Data were interval censored; missing data were handled with multiple imputation. Of 1544 patients, 309 (20%) experienced ≥20% worsening T25FW. For disease course, time to worsening was significantly shorter for secondary progressive vs. relapsing-remitting disease (p < 0.001). For MSPS, patients with lower baseline MSPS scores progressed more slowly (p = 0.001). In both models, sex, baseline T25W, and time since diagnosis were significantly associated with worsening. In the disease course model, PHQ 9 score may be related to worsening (p = 0.07). These findings suggest factors associated with worsening in T25FW and a potential approach to establishing indicators associated with clinically significant change. © The Author(s), 2014.

  7. Verification of multimarkers for detection of early stage diabetic retinopathy using multiple reaction monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunggon; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Dohyun; Jin, Jonghwa; Yu, Jiyoung; Park, Kyong Soo; Yu, Hyeong Gon; Kim, Youngsoo

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes and 80% of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients whose DM duration is over 10 years can be expected to suffer with DR. The diagnosis of DR depends on an ophthalmological examination, and no molecular methods of screening DR status exist. Nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is the early DR which is hard to be noticed in early NPDR, showing significant cause of adult blindness in type 2 diabetes patients. Protein biomarkers have been valuable in the diagnosis of disease and the use of multiple biomarkers has been suggested to overcome the low specificity of single ones. For biomarker development, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) has been spotlighted as an alternative method to quantify target proteins with no need for immunoassay. In this study, 54 candidate DR marker proteins from a previous study were verified by MRM in plasma samples from NPDR patients in 3 stages (mild, moderate and severe; 15 cases each) and diabetic patients without retinopathy (15 cases) as a control. Notably, 27 candidate markers distinguished moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, generating AUC values (>0.7). Specifically, 28 candidate proteins underwent changes in expression as type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy progressed to mild and moderate NPDR. Further, a combination of 4 markers from these 28 candidates had the improved specificity in distinguishing moderate NPDR from type 2 diabetic patients with no diabetic retinopathy, yielding a merged AUC value of nearly 1.0. We concluded that MRM is a fast, robust approach of multimarker panel determination and an assay platform that provides improved specificity compared with single biomarker assay systems.

  8. Benign multiple sclerosis: physical and cognitive impairment follow distinct evolutions.

    PubMed

    Gajofatto, A; Turatti, M; Bianchi, M R; Forlivesi, S; Gobbin, F; Azzarà, A; Monaco, S; Benedetti, M D

    2016-03-01

    Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) definitions rely on physical disability level but do not account sufficiently for cognitive impairment which, however, is not rare. To study the evolution of physical disability and cognitive performance of a group of patients with BMS followed at an University Hospital Multiple Sclerosis Center. A consecutive sample of 24 BMS cases (diagnosis according to 2005 McDonald's criteria, relapsing-remitting course, disease duration ≥ 10 years, and expanded disability status scale [EDSS] score ≤ 2.0) and 13 sex- and age-matched non-BMS patients differing from BMS cases for having EDSS score 2.5-5.5 were included. Main outcome measures were as follows: (i) baseline and 5-year follow-up cognitive impairment defined as failure of at least two tests of the administered neuropsychological battery; (ii) EDSS score worsening defined as confirmed increase ≥ 1 point (or 0.5 point if baseline EDSS score = 5.5). At inclusion, BMS subjects were 41 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 1.5 (range 0-2), while non-BMS patients were 46 ± 8 years old and had median EDSS score 3.0 (2.5-5.5). At baseline 16% of patients in both groups were cognitively impaired. After 5 years, EDSS score worsened in 8% of BMS and 46% of non-BMS patients (P = 0.008), while the proportion of cognitively impaired subjects increased to 25% in both groups. Patients with BMS had better physical disability outcome at 5 years compared to non-BMS cases. However, cognitive impairment frequency and decline over time appeared similar. Neuropsychological assessment is essential in patients with BMS given the distinct pathways followed by disease progression in cognitive and physical domains. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sexual Dysfunction and Incidence of Depression in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed

    Zavoreo, Iris; Gržinčić, Tihana; Preksavec, Marina; Madžar, Tomislav; Bašić Kes, Vanja

    2016-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system and usually occurs at the age when people would be expected to be in the prime of their sexual lives. In everyday practice, sexual dysfunction is underestimated because clinicians mostly concentrate on the classic neurologic deficits and often overlook symptoms that can seriously affect the quality of life. Our study included 98 patients (42 men and 56 women, mean age 35±12 years) with relapse from our MS register, with established diagnosis of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis according to McDonald criteria. Patients completed the questionnaires (Sexual Satisfaction Scale, SSS and Beck Depression Scale BDS), and underwent neurological assessment (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS). All patients were in the group with EDSS 2 to 4 points (mobile patients). There was no statistically significant difference in BDS and SSS values according to EDSS score. Correlation coefficients were calculated (BDS and SSS) for men (p=0.42) and women (p=0.44), yielding positive correlation. There was no statistically significant difference in BDS and SSS values according to gender, disease duration or immunomodulatory therapy. In our group of patients, despite low EDSS score (fully ambulatory without aid, self sufficient patients) we found positive correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, showing that even in such patients the quality of life can be decreased. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction and depression are mostly under-recognized by neurologists because they are not part of routine testing; therefore, some additional questionnaires should be used in the evaluation in MS patients, even those with low EDSS score, in order to improve their quality of life.

  10. Moral Cognition and Multiple Sclerosis: A Neuropsychological Study.

    PubMed

    Realmuto, Sabrina; Dodich, Alessandra; Meli, Riccardo; Canessa, Nicola; Ragonese, Paolo; Salemi, Giuseppe; Cerami, Chiara

    2018-05-30

    Recent literature proved that social cognition impairments may characterize the neuropsychological profile of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. However, little is still known about moral cognition in MS. In this study, we evaluated non-social, social, and moral cognitive performances in 45 relapsing-remitting MS patients. Patients underwent the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis battery, the Cognitive Estimation and Stroop tasks, the Ekman-60 Faces test, the Reading the Mind in the Eye and Story-based Empathy task. Additionally, a task of moral dilemmas including both "instrumental" and "incidental" conditions was administered to patients. Forty-five age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects (HC) were enrolled for comparisons. The majority of patients (i.e., 77.6%) showed deficits at non-social tasks, particularly in the executive domains. A subset of MS sample (i.e., 24%) presented with emotion recognition and socio-affective processing impairments. Overall, MS patients showed comparable levels of moral judgment with respect to HC. The rate of yes/no response in resolution of moral dilemmas and scores of attribution of emotional valence were comparable between groups. Nevertheless, lower moral permissibility and emotional arousal, particularly for the instrumental dilemmas, characterized the MS profile. Significant correlations between the attribution of emotional valence to moral actions and mentalizing scores emerged. Our findings expand current literature on MS supporting not only deficits in executive and socio-emotional domains but also low levels of permissibility of immoral actions and emotional detachment in the moral judgment process.

  11. Global exosome transcriptome profiling reveals biomarkers for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Selmaj, Igor; Cichalewska, Maria; Namiecinska, Magdalena; Galazka, Grazyna; Horzelski, Wojciech; Selmaj, Krzysztof W; Mycko, Marcin P

    2017-05-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a role for exosomes in immune regulation. In this study, we investigated the total circulating exosome transcriptome in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and healthy controls (HC). Next generation sequencing (NGS) was used to define the global RNA profile of serum exosomes in 19 RRMS patients (9 in relapse, 10 in remission) and 10 HC. We analyzed 5 million reads and >50,000 transcripts per sample, including a detailed analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) differentially expressed in RRMS. The discovery set data were validated by quantification using digital quantitative polymerase chain reaction with an independent cohort of 63 RRMS patients (33 in relapse, 30 in remission) and 32 HC. Exosomal RNA NGS revealed that of 15 different classes of transcripts detected, 4 circulating exosomal sequences within the miRNA category were differentially expressed in RRMS patients versus HC: hsa-miR-122-5p, hsa-miR-196b-5p, hsa-miR-301a-3p, and hsa-miR-532-5p. Serum exosomal expression of these miRNAs was significantly decreased during relapse in RRMS. These miRNAs were also decreased in patients with a gadolinium enhancement on brain magnetic resonance imaging. In vitro secretion of these miRNAs by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also significantly impaired in RRMS. These data show that circulating exosomes have a distinct RNA profile in RRMS. Because putative targets for these miRNAs include the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and the cell cycle regulator aryl hydrocarbon receptor, the data suggest a disturbed cell-to-cell communication in this disease. Thus, exosomal miRNAs might represent a useful biomarker to distinguish multiple sclerosis relapse. Ann Neurol 2017;81:703-717. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  12. [Recommendations for early identification of damage to the skeleton by malignant processes, and for early diagnosis of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Adam, Z; Bednarík, J; Neubauer, J; Chaloupka, R; Fojtík, Z; Vanícek, J; Pour, L; Cermákova, Z; Scudla, V; Maisnar, V; Straub, J; Schützová, M; Gregora, E; Weinreb, M; Stuchlíková, K; Stanícek, J; Hájek, R; Krejcí, M; Vorlícek, J

    2006-11-01

    The number of newly diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma in the Czech Republic is about 3-4 per 100 000 persons per year. In the higher age groups, the incidence increases. Multiple myeloma is an illness that reacts well to treatment which can result in periods of remission lasting for years. Some of the patients are even able to return to work. A pre-requisite for successful treatment is early diagnosis and this is usually in the hands of first line physicians. This is the reason why the Czech Myeloma Group, in conjunction with neurologists, orthopedicians and radio diagnosticians has issued the following recommendations for first line physicians containing a more detailed description of the symptoms and the diagnostic pitfalls of the disease. This disease reminds a chameleon for the variety of its symptoms. For the sake of clarification, we shall divide multiple myeloma symptoms into five points, each of which is reason enough to warrant an examination to confirm or rule out a malignant cause of health problems (a negative result does not automatically mean exclusion). If any of the recommended examinations results positive, the diagnostic process must be continued, in which case a general practitioner refers the patient to a specialist health centre. Observing these recommendations should minimize the number of cases of late diagnosis. 1. Bone destruction symptoms. - Unexplained backache for more than one month in any part of spine even without nerve root irritability or without pain in other part of skeleton (ribs, hips, or long bones). - Pain at the beginning of myeloma disease is very similar to benigne common discopathy, however the intensity of backache is decreasing within one months in benigne disease. In the case of malignant process the intensity of bone pain is steadily increasing. - Immediate imaging and laboratory investigation are indicated by resting and night pain in spinal column or in any part of skeleton. - Backache with the sign of spinal cord

  13. Early alveolar and systemic mediator release in patients at different risks for ARDS after multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Raymondos, Konstantinos; Martin, Michael U; Schmudlach, Tanja; Baus, Stefan; Weilbach, Christian; Welte, Tobias; Krettek, Christian; Frink, Michael; Hildebrand, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Alveolar IL-8 has been reported to early identify patients at-risk to develop ARDS. However, it remains unknown how alveolar IL-8 is related to pulmonary and systemic inflammation in patients predisposed for ARDS. We studied 24 patients 2-6h after multiple trauma. Patients with IL-8 >200 pg/ml in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were assigned to the group at high risk for ARDS (H, n = 8) and patients with BAL IL-8 <200 pg/ml to the group at low risk for ARDS (L, n = 16). ARDS developed within 24h after trauma in 5 patients at high and at least after 1 week in 2 patients at low risk for ARDS (p = 0.003). High-risk patients had also increased BAL IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-1ra levels (p<0.05). BAL neutrophil counts did not differ between patient groups (H vs. L, 12% (3-73%) vs. 6% (2-32%), p = 0.1) but correlated significantly with BAL IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1ra. High-risk patients had increased plasma levels of pro- but not anti-inflammatory mediators. The enhanced alveolar and systemic inflammation associated with alveolar IL-8 release should be considered to identify high-risk patients for pulmonary complications after multiple trauma to adjust surgical and other treatment strategies to the individual risk profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determining Multiple Sclerosis Phenotype from Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Richard E; Butler, Jorie; LaFleur, Joanne; Knippenberg, Kristin; C Kamauu, Aaron W; DuVall, Scott L

    2016-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS), a central nervous system disease in which nerve signals are disrupted by scarring and demyelination, is classified into phenotypes depending on the patterns of cognitive or physical impairment progression: relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), primary-progressive MS (PPMS), secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), or progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS). The phenotype is important in managing the disease and determining appropriate treatment. The ICD-9-CM code 340.0 is uninformative about MS phenotype, which increases the difficulty of studying the effects of phenotype on disease. To identify MS phenotype using natural language processing (NLP) techniques on progress notes and other clinical text in the electronic medical record (EMR). Patients with at least 2 ICD-9-CM codes for MS (340.0) from 1999 through 2010 were identified from nationwide EMR data in the Department of Veterans Affairs. Clinical experts were interviewed for possible keywords and phrases denoting MS phenotype in order to develop a data dictionary for NLP. For each patient, NLP was used to search EMR clinical notes, since the first MS diagnosis date for these keywords and phrases. Presence of phenotype-related keywords and phrases were analyzed in context to remove mentions that were negated (e.g., "not relapsing-remitting") or unrelated to MS (e.g., "RR" meaning "respiratory rate"). One thousand mentions of MS phenotype were validated, and all records of 150 patients were reviewed for missed mentions. There were 7,756 MS patients identified by ICD-9-CM code 340.0. MS phenotype was identified for 2,854 (36.8%) patients, with 1,836 (64.3%) of those having just 1 phenotype mentioned in their EMR clinical notes: 1,118 (39.2%) RRMS, 325 (11.4%) PPMS, 374 (13.1%) SPMS, and 19 (0.7%) PRMS. A total of 747 patients (26.2%) had 2 phenotypes, the most common being 459 patients (16.1%) with RRMS and SPMS. A total of 213 patients (7.5%) had 3 phenotypes, and 58 patients (2.0%) had 4 phenotypes mentioned

  15. Cluster analysis of behavioural and event-related potentials during a contingent negative variation paradigm in remitting-relapsing and benign forms of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Event-related potentials (ERPs) may be used as a highly sensitive way of detecting subtle degrees of cognitive dysfunction. On the other hand, impairment of cognitive skills is increasingly recognised as a hallmark of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). We sought to determine the psychophysiological pattern of information processing among MS patients with the relapsing-remitting form of the disease and low physical disability considered as two subtypes: 'typical relapsing-remitting' (RRMS) and 'benign MS' (BMS). Furthermore, we subjected our data to a cluster analysis to determine whether MS patients and healthy controls could be differentiated in terms of their psychophysiological profile. Methods We investigated MS patients with RRMS and BMS subtypes using event-related potentials (ERPs) acquired in the context of a Posner visual-spatial cueing paradigm. Specifically, our study aimed to assess ERP brain activity in response preparation (contingent negative variation -CNV) and stimuli processing in MS patients. Latency and amplitude of different ERP components (P1, eN1, N1, P2, N2, P3 and late negativity -LN) as well as behavioural responses (reaction time -RT; correct responses -CRs; and number of errors) were analyzed and then subjected to cluster analysis. Results Both MS groups showed delayed behavioural responses and enhanced latency for long-latency ERP components (P2, N2, P3) as well as relatively preserved ERP amplitude, but BMS patients obtained more important performance deficits (lower CRs and higher RTs) and abnormalities related to the latency (N1, P3) and amplitude of ERPs (eCNV, eN1, LN). However, RRMS patients also demonstrated abnormally high amplitudes related to the preparation performance period of CNV (cCNV) and post-processing phase (LN). Cluster analyses revealed that RRMS patients appear to make up a relatively homogeneous group with moderate deficits mainly related to ERP latencies, whereas BMS patients appear to

  16. A discrete-choice experiment to determine patient preferences for injectable multiple sclerosis treatments in Germany.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Christine; Kinter, Elizabeth; Yang, Jui-Chen; Bridges, John F P; Posner, Joshua; Gleißner, Erika; Mühlbacher, Axel; Kieseier, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of features of a hypothetical injectable disease-modifying treatment for patients with multiple sclerosis using a discrete-choice experiment. German residents at least 18 years of age with a self-reported physician diagnosis of multiple sclerosis completed a 25-30 minute online discrete-choice experiment. Patients were asked to choose one of two hypothetical injectable treatments for multiple sclerosis, defined by different levels of six attributes (disability progression, the number of relapses in the next 4 years, injection time, frequency of injections, presence of flu-like symptoms, and presence of injection-site reactions). The data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Of 202 adults who completed the survey, results from 189 were used in the analysis. Approximately 50% of all patients reported a diagnosis of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and 31% reported secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Approximately 71% of patients had current or prior experience with injectable multiple sclerosis medication. Approximately 53% had experienced flu-like symptoms caused by their medication, and 47% had experienced mild injection-site reactions. At least one significant difference was seen between levels in all attributes, except injection time. The greatest change in relative importance between levels of an attribute was years until symptoms get worse from 1 to 4 years. The magnitude of this difference was about twice that of relapses in the next 4 years, frequency of injections, and flu-like symptoms. Most attributes examined in this experiment had an influence on patient preference. Patients placed a significant value on improvements in the frequency of dosing and disability progression. Results suggest that changes in injection frequency can be as important as changes in efficacy and safety attributes. Understanding which attributes of injectable therapies influence patient

  17. Stable antigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness induced by tolerogenic dendritic cells from multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Raϊch-Regué, Dàlia; Grau-López, Laia; Naranjo-Gómez, Mar; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Pujol-Borrell, Ricardo; Martínez-Cáceres, Eva; Borràs, Francesc E

    2012-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Current therapies decrease the frequency of relapses and limit, to some extent, but do not prevent disease progression. Hence, new therapeutic approaches that modify the natural course of MSneed to be identified. Tolerance induction to self-antigens using monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) is a promising therapeutic strategy in autoimmunity. In this work, we sought to generate and characterize tolerogenic MDDCs (tolDCs) from relapsing-remitting (RR) MSpatients, loaded with myelin peptides as specific antigen, with the aim of developing immunotherapeutics for MS. MDDCs were generated from both healthy-blood donors and RR-MSpatients, and MDDCmaturation was induced with a proinflammatory cytokine cocktail in the absence or presence of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D(3) , a tolerogenicity-inducing agent. tolDCs were generated from monocytes of RR-MSpatients as efficiently as from monocytes of healthy subjects. The RR-MStolDCs expressed a stable semimature phenotype and an antiinflammatory profile as compared with untreated MDDCs. Importantly, myelin peptide-loaded tolDCs induced stable antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness in myelin-reactive T cells from RR-MS patients. These results suggest that myelin peptide-loaded tolDCs may be a powerful tool for inducing myelin-specific tolerance in RR-MS patients. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. From Leflunomide to Teriflunomide: Drug Development and Immuno-suppressive Oral Drugs in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Lilian; Hemmer, Bernhard; Korn, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Immunosuppressive drugs have been used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) for a long time. Today, orally available second generation immunosuppressive agents have been approved or are filed for licensing as MS therapeutics. Due to semi-selective targeting of cellular processes, these second-generation immunosuppressive compounds might rather be immunomodulatory. For example, Teriflunomide inhibits the de novo pyrimidine synthesis and thus only targets rapidly proliferating cells, including lymphocytes. It is used as first line disease modifying therapy (DMT) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Methods: Review of online content related to oral immunosuppressants in MS with an emphasis on Teriflunomide. Results: Teriflunomide and Cladribine are second-generation immunosuppressants that are efficient in the treatment of MS patients. For Teriflunomide, a daily dose of 14 mg reduces the annualized relapse rate (ARR) by more than 30% and disability progression by 30% compared to placebo. Cladribine reduces the ARR by about 50% compared to placebo but has not yet been licensed due to unresolved safety concerns. We also discuss the significance of older immunosuppressive compounds including Azathioprine, Mycophenolate mofetile, and Cyclophosphamide in current MS therapy. Conclusion: Teriflunomide has shown a favorable safety and efficacy profile in RRMS and is a therapeutic option for a distinct group of adult patients with RRMS. PMID:27928949

  19. No relevant impact of ambient temperature on disability measurements in a large cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stellmann, J-P; Young, K L; Vettorazzi, E; Pöttgen, J; Heesen, C

    2017-06-01

    Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) report a worsening of symptoms due to high ambient temperatures, but objective data about this association are rare and contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperature on standard clinical tests. We extracted the Symbol Digit Modality Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW), Timed Tandem Walk, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and quality-of-life items on cognition, fatigue and depression from our clinical database and matched them to historical temperatures. We used linear mixed-effect models to investigate the association between temperature and outcomes. A total of 1254 patients with MS (mean age, 42.7 years; 69.9% females; 52.1% relapsing-remitting MS, mean EDSS, 3.8) had 5751 assessments between 1996 and 2012. We observed a worsening in the T25FW with higher ambient temperatures in moderately disabled patients (EDSS ≥ 4) but not in less disabled patients. However, an increase of 10°C prolonged the T25FW by just 0.4 s. Other outcomes were not associated with ambient temperatures. Higher ambient temperature might compromise walking capabilities in patients with MS with a manifest walking impairment. However, effects are small and not detectable in mildly disabled patients. Hand function, cognition, mood and fatigue do not appear to be correlated with ambient temperature. © 2017 EAN.

  20. The Three Sisters of Fate in Multiple Sclerosis: Klotho (Clotho), Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (Lachesis), and Vitamin D (Atropos).

    PubMed

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Yilmaz, Necat; Kurtulus, Fatma; Aydin, Ozgur; Eren, Esin; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ince, Fatma Demet Arslan; Giray, Özlem; Yaman, Aylin

    2016-09-01

    The klotho (Klt)-fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)-vitamin D axis is the main component of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolisms; on the contrary, it is also secreted from the choroid plexus (CP). This study is aimed at evaluating serum soluble Klt (sKlt), FGF-23, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Thirty-two relapsing-remitting MS patients (11 males and 21 females; mean age 38.3 years) and 31 age-sex matched healthy controls (12 males and 19 females; median age 38.5 years) were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with MS according to the criteria of McDonald. Serum sKlt, FGF-23, and P levels were significantly higher in MS patients compared to the control group (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.02, respectively). Serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D and Ca levels were significantly lower in MS patients (p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). Klt, which is secreted from CP, could be a response to the inflammatory condition in MS. Elevated FGF-23 levels suppress 1α-hydroxylase and upregulates 24α-hydroxylase, which results in a decrease in 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 levels. Thus, the neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D might not be seen in MS patients.

  1. The Three Sisters of Fate in Multiple Sclerosis: Klotho (Clotho), Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (Lachesis), and Vitamin D (Atropos)

    PubMed Central

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Yilmaz, Necat; Kurtulus, Fatma; Aydin, Ozgur; Eren, Esin; Inci, Ayca; Dolu, Suleyman; Ince, Fatma Demet Arslan; Giray, Özlem; Yaman, Aylin

    2016-01-01

    Background The klotho (Klt)-fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23)-vitamin D axis is the main component of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolisms; on the contrary, it is also secreted from the choroid plexus (CP). Purpose This study is aimed at evaluating serum soluble Klt (sKlt), FGF-23, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Thirty-two relapsing-remitting MS patients (11 males and 21 females; mean age 38.3 years) and 31 age-sex matched healthy controls (12 males and 19 females; median age 38.5 years) were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with MS according to the criteria of McDonald. Results Serum sKlt, FGF-23, and P levels were significantly higher in MS patients compared to the control group (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p = 0.02, respectively). Serum 25-(OH)-vitamin D and Ca levels were significantly lower in MS patients (p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion Klt, which is secreted from CP, could be a response to the inflammatory condition in MS. Elevated FGF-23 levels suppress 1α-hydroxylase and upregulates 24α-hydroxylase, which results in a decrease in 1,25-(OH)2D3 levels. Thus, the neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D might not be seen in MS patients. PMID:27721584

  2. Short-term stability of T1 and T2 relaxation measures in multiple sclerosis normal appearing white matter.

    PubMed

    Liang, Alice L W; Vavasour, Irene M; Mädler, Burkhard; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Lang, Donna J; Li, David K B; MacKay, Alex L; Laule, Cornelia

    2012-06-01

    The presence of diffuse and widespread abnormalities within the 'normal appearing' white matter (NAWM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) brain has been established. T(1) histogram analysis has revealed increased T(1) (related to water content) in segmented NAWM, while quantitative assessment of T(2) relaxation measures has demonstrated decreased myelin water fraction (MWF, related to myelin content) and increased geometric mean T(2) (GMT(2)) of the intra/extracellular water pool. Previous studies with follow-up periods of 1-5 years have demonstrated longitudinal changes in T(1) histogram m