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Sample records for early retirement intentions

  1. Employees' Intentions to Retire Early: A Case of Planned Behavior and Anticipated Work Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dam, Karen; van der Vorst, Janine D. M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the early retirement intentions of 346 older Dutch employees by extending the theory of planned behavior with anticipated work conditions. The results showed that employees who felt a pressure from their spouse to retire early had a strong intention to leave the work force before the official retirement age, that is 65.…

  2. Employee well-being, early-retirement intentions, and company performance.

    PubMed

    von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Vanhala, Sinikka; Seitsamo, Jorma; Janhonen, Minna; Husman, Päivi

    2010-12-01

    To explore the relationship between employee well-being and early-retirement intentions, and the extent to which early-retirement intentions are associated with company performance. This study is based on cross-sectional survey data on the ageing employees of the Finnish metal industry and retail trade, collected in 2007 (company-level n = 129, employee-level n = 1281). It was analyzed using multinomial logistic and multiple regression analysis. Poor work ability, frequent emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and job control were associated with the prevalence of early-retirement intentions among aging employees in both industries. Metal industry employees' early-retirement intentions were associated with weaker company performance measured by the perceptions of the manager. By enhancing well-being, employees may stay at work for longer rather than retiring early. Early-retirement intentions can be counterproductive for companies.

  3. Organizational and Occupational Identification: Relations to Teacher Satisfaction and Intention to Early Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Murat; Hamarat, Bahattin; Colak, Ertugrul; Duran, Erol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the effects of two work related identification (occupational and organizational) of school teachers on intention to early retirement (withdrawal) and satisfaction with the occupation and satisfaction with the school. It also seeks the influence of perceived external prestige on withdrawal and satisfaction.…

  4. Mental health functioning (SF-36) and intentions to retire early among ageing municipal employees: the Helsinki Health Study.

    PubMed

    Harkonmäki, Karoliina; Lahelma, Eero; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Silventoinen, Karri

    2006-01-01

    To examine the associations of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early among ageing municipal employees. Cross-sectional survey data (n = 7,765) from the Helsinki Health Study in 2000, 2001, and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were sought with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" The dependent variable was divided into three categories: 1 = no intentions to retire early; 2 = weak intentions; 3 = strong intentions. Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Other variables included age, sex, physical health functioning (SF-36), limiting longstanding illness, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status. Multinomial regression analysis was used to examine the association of mental health functioning with intentions to retire early. Employees with the poorest mental health functioning were much more likely to report strong intentions to retire early (OR 6.09, 95% CI 4.97-7.47) than those with the best mental health functioning. Adjustments for physical health, socioeconomic status, and spouse's employment status did not substantially affect this association. The findings highlight the importance of mental health for intentions to retire early. Strategies aimed at keeping people at work for longer should emphasize the importance of mental well-being and the prevention of poor mental health. More evidence is needed on why mental problems among ageing baby-boomer employees are giving rise to increasing social consequences, although the overall prevalence of mental problems has not increased.

  5. Associations of SF-36 mental health functioning and work and family related factors with intentions to retire early among employees.

    PubMed

    Harkonmäki, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Silventoinen, K; Lahelma, E

    2006-08-01

    To examine the associations of mental health functioning (SF-36) and work and family related psychosocial factors with intentions to retire early. Cross sectional survey data (n = 5037) from the Helsinki Health Study occupational cohort in 2001 and 2002 were used. Intentions to retire early were inquired with a question: "Have you considered retiring before normal retirement age?" Mental health functioning was measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) mental component summary (MCS). Work and family related psychosocial factors included job demands and job control, procedural and relational justice, conflicts between work and family, and social network size. Multinomial regression models were used to analyse the data. Poor mental health functioning, unfavourable psychosocial working conditions, and conflicts between work and family were individually related to intentions to retire early. After adjustments for all work and family related factors the odds ratio for low mental health functioning was halved (from OR = 6.05 to 3.67), but nevertheless the association between poor mental health functioning and strong intentions to retire early remained strong. These findings highlight not only the importance of low mental health and unfavourable working conditions but also the simultaneous impact of conflicts between work and family to employees' intentions to retire early.

  6. Early and late retirement exits.

    PubMed

    Brougham, Ruby R; Walsh, David A

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal needs fulfilled by job employment remain important in retirement. The expectation for personal need fulfillment for identity, growth, and relatedness shifts from work to retirement for those who intend to retire early. The results are discussed in terms of the need for greater study of the relationship between expectations of personal need fulfillment, worker self-concept, and retirement decisions.

  7. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  8. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  9. Early Retirement Payoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  10. Retirement intentions of general practitioners aged 45-65 years.

    PubMed

    Brett, Thomas D; Arnold-Reed, Diane E; Hince, Dana A; Wood, Ian K; Moorhead, Robert G

    2009-07-20

    To ascertain the retirement intentions of a cohort of Australian general practitioners. Postal questionnaire survey of members of four Divisions of General Practice in Western Australia, sent out November 2007 - January 2008. A sample of 178 GPs aged 45-65 years. Intention to work in general practice until retirement; reasons for retiring before age 65 years; factors that might encourage working beyond chosen retirement age; and perceived obstacles to working in general practice. 63% of GPs intended to work to at least age 65 years, with men more likely to retire early. Of 63 GPs intending to retire early, 46% gave pressure of work, exhaustion and burnout as reasons for early retirement. Better remuneration, better staffing levels and more general support were incentives to continue working for 46% of the 64 GPs who responded to the question about incentives, and more flexible working hours, part-time work and reduced workload for 41%. Of 169 participants, 65% gave increasing bureaucracy, poor job satisfaction and disillusionment with the medical system or Medicare as obstacles to working in general practice in Australia, whereas workforce shortage, increasing patient demands and diminishing lifestyle through overwork were obstacles named by 48%. Many GPs are planning to retire early, reflecting an emerging trend among professionals and society generally. Declining job satisfaction, falling workforce numbers, excessive workload and increasing bureaucracy were recurrent concerns of older WA GPs considering premature retirement.

  11. Goal Expectations as Predictors of Retirement Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the contribution of personal goals to retirement decisions. A SMARTER methodology (to assess multiattribute utility) and taxonomy of human goals were used to investigate the relationship between older workers' personal goals and their retirement intentions. Two hundred and fifty-one employees of a large university,…

  12. Physician assistants and their intent to retire.

    PubMed

    Coombs, Jennifer; Hooker, Roderick S; Brunisholz, Kim

    2013-07-01

    To determine predictors of physician assistants (PAs) to retire or to permanently leave clinical practice. The intent was to create a measure of retention and attrition for purposes of forecasting PA supply. All PAs 55 years or older who were nationally certified in 2011 were surveyed. Statistical analysis included descriptive measures utilizing means, standard deviations, range, and proportions for all survey questions. Univariable analysis using χ² test for the categorical variables determined gender differences in participants' intent to retire. A studentized t test analysis for continuous variables was used to compare differences across genders. The estimated time interval until retirement was calculated using reported values from participants and then subtracting their projected retirement age from current age. The same calculation was used for estimating PA career length from date of graduation to retirement. For all analyses, a P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 12,005 were eligible and surveyed online; 4767 responded (38%). The mean age was 60 years and the years in clinical practice was 25. When asked to predict a retirement date or age, the mean duration of working beyond age 55 years was 12 years (range 5 to 21). Most respondents reported being confident they were on track to retire with an adequate income. The significant differences that emerged were that men were more confident than women in preparing to retire, having enough money for medical expenses, and being able to live comfortably in retirement. Men more than women stated that, if forced to retire, they were more confident in the preparation to do so. PAs 55 years and older report they are likely to delay retirement from practice until age 67 years, on average. Women were less confident than men in retirement preparation. This age prediction expands career projections and refines forecasting models for the profession. Correlations based on expectation

  13. Survival After Early and Normal Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Suzanne G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes an epidemiological study of the patterns and correlates of survival after early (age 62 to 64) and normal retirement (age 65). Death rates were significantly elevated during the first, fourth, and fifth years after early retirement. Pre-retirement health status was the only significant predictor of survival after early retirement.…

  14. Impact of the severity of trauma on early retirement.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Michael Bilde; Lohse, Nicolai; Sørensen, Anne Marie; Larsen, Claus Falck; Christensen, Karl Bang; Steinmetz, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    To assess the association between Injury Severity Score (ISS) and subsequent risk of early retirement. Observational cohort study with follow-up based on prospectively collected data. Hospital-based data were linked to national register data on pension reception and vital status. Level-one urban trauma centre. Patients aged 18-64 years entering the trauma centre in Copenhagen during 1999-2007 who were alive after three days were followed until early retirement, death or emigration. Primary outcome was early retirement, defined as receiving disability pension (unintentional) or voluntary early retirement pension (intentional) before the regular age of retirement (65 years). Relative risk of early retirement according to ISS (low, ISS 1-15 vs. high, ISS 16-75) was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age and gender. Of all 6687 patients admitted to the trauma centre, a total of 1722 trauma patients were included and followed for a median of 6.2 years (interquartile range (IQR) 3.7-9.1). Of these, 1305 (75.8%) were males, median age was 35.0 years (IQR 25.4-46.5), and median ISS was 16 (IQR 9-25). Three hundred and twenty-two patients retired during follow-up. Patients with high ISS, compared to patients with low ISS, had an increased risk of early retirement, adjusted hazard ratio 2.60 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.05-3.30; p<0.001). Relative increase in retirement risk was 1.04 (95% CI 1.03-1.05) per ISS point and 1.03 (95% CI 1.03-1.04) per year older. Gender was not found to be a significant risk factor (p=0.69). Five-year absolute risks of early retirement were 9.9% (95% CI 7.8-12.0%) for the low ISS group and 24.6% (95% CI 21.6-27.5%) for the high ISS group. The risk of early retirement is 2.6 times higher in severely injured patients (ISS 16-75) than the risk in low to moderately injured patients (ISS 1-15) and they have a high absolute 5-year risk as well. Early, targeted interventions to assist with return to work might be able

  15. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  16. The impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions over time.

    PubMed

    Stynen, Dave; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, IJmert

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions by studying the pathways (fatigue and work enjoyment) from resources to retirement intentions, the buffering role of resources for psychological job demands, in a cross-sectional and longitudinal timeframe. Longitudinal results on a subsample of full-time, older workers (n = 1642) from the Maastricht Cohort Study suggest that over four years of follow-up personal resources like personal mastery and perceived health related to less (prolonged) fatigue and more work enjoyment. Personal mastery also related to later retirement intentions. A work-related resource like decision authority related to less prolonged fatigue. (Prolonged) fatigue related to earlier retirement intentions, suggesting that fatigue may be a pathway to early retirement. Finally, little evidence was found for effect modification by resources. This prospective study indicates that work-related and personal resources may be useful for prolonging working careers. Practitioner Summary: To date, the impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers' retirement intentions is rarely studied. As this prospective study shows that resources may impact older workers' (prolonged) fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions, the monitoring and fostering of resources is of importance for prolonging their working careers.

  17. Early Retirement from Colleges and Universities: Considerations under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Larry E.

    1980-01-01

    Important considerations for institutions wanting to establish supplementary early retirement benefits to encourage the practice are outlined. Regulations concerning pension plans, tax-sheltered annuities, and deferred compensation are reviewed. Individually negotiated early retirement supplements are not recommended. (MSE)

  18. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.

    2014-01-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools. PMID:25436038

  19. Early retirement and non-employment after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindbohm, M-L; Kuosma, E; Taskila, T; Hietanen, P; Carlsen, K; Gudbergsson, S; Gunnarsdottir, H

    2014-06-01

    This study examined whether workplace support, sociodemographic factors and co-morbidity are associated with early retirement or non-employment due to other reasons among breast cancer survivors. We also compared quality of life and chronic symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety and depression) among employed, retired and other non-employed breast cancer survivors. We identified breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1997 and 2002 from either a hospital or a cancer registry in Denmark, Finland, Iceland and Norway (NOCWO study). All patients had been treated with curative intent. Information on employment, co-morbidity and support was collected via a questionnaire. The sample included 1111 working-aged cancer-free survivors who had been employed at the time of diagnosis. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyse the association of various determinants with early retirement and other non-employment (due to unemployment, subsidized employment or being a homemaker). Low education, low physical quality of life, co-morbidity and pain were associated with both early retirement and other non-employment after cancer. Other non-employed survivors also rated their mental quality of life as lower and experienced anxiety and fatigue more often than all the other survivors. Moreover, they reported a lower level of supervisor support after their diagnosis than the employed survivors. Retired survivors more often reported weak support from colleagues. Differences in ill health and functional status between various groups of non-employed cancer survivors need to be considered when planning policy measures for improving the labour market participation of this population and preventing their early withdrawal from working life. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Does Retiree Health Insurance Encourage Early Retirement?*

    PubMed Central

    Nyce, Steven; Schieber, Sylvester J.; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj; Wise, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The strong link between health insurance and employment in the United States may cause workers to delay retirement until they become eligible for Medicare at age 65. However, some employers extend health insurance benefits to their retirees, and individuals who are eligible for such retiree health benefits need not wait until age 65 to retire with group health coverage. We investigate the impact of retiree health insurance on early retirement using employee-level data from 54 diverse firms that are clients of Towers Watson, a leading benefits consulting firm. We find that retiree health coverage has its strongest effects at ages 62 through 64. Coverage that includes an employer contribution is associated with a 6.3 percentage point (36.2 percent) increase in the probability of turnover at age 62, a 7.7 percentage point (48.8 percent) increase in the probability of turnover at age 63, and a 5.5 percentage point (38.0 percent) increase in the probability of turnover at age 64. Conditional on working at age 57, such coverage reduces the expected retirement age by almost three months and reduces the total number of person-years worked between ages 58 and 64 by 5.6 percent. PMID:24039312

  1. The Influence of the Early Retirement Process on Satisfaction with Early Retirement and Psychological Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potocnik, Kristina; Tordera, Nuria; Peiro, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the influence of the early retirement process on adjustment to early retirement, taking into account the roles of individual characteristics and social context in this process. We proposed a systematic model integrating perceived ability to continue working, organizational pressures toward early retirement and group…

  2. THE LONG REACH OF EDUCATION: EARLY RETIREMENT

    PubMed Central

    Wise, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the long lasting effect of education on economic outcomes. We use the relationship between education and two routes to early retirement – the receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and the early claiming of Social Security retirement benefits – to illustrate the long-lasting influence of education. We find that for both men and women with less than a high school degree the median DI participation rate is 6.6 times the participation rate for those with a college degree or more. Similarly, men and women with less than a high school education are over 25 percentage points more likely to claim Social Security benefits early than those with a college degree or more. We focus on four critical “pathways” through which education may indirectly influence early retirement – health, employment, earnings, and the accumulation of assets. We find that for women health is the dominant pathway through which education influences DI participation. For men, the health, earnings, and wealth pathways are of roughly equal magnitude. For both men and women the principal channel through which education influences early Social Security claiming decisions is the earnings pathway. We also consider the direct effect of education that does not operate through these pathways. The direct effect of education is much greater for early claiming of Social Security benefits than for DI participation, accounting for 72 percent of the effect of education for men and 67 percent for women. For women the direct effect of education on DI participation is not statistically significant, suggesting that the total effect may be through the four pathways. PMID:26664822

  3. THE LONG REACH OF EDUCATION: EARLY RETIREMENT.

    PubMed

    Venti, Steven; Wise, David A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this paper is to draw attention to the long lasting effect of education on economic outcomes. We use the relationship between education and two routes to early retirement - the receipt of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and the early claiming of Social Security retirement benefits - to illustrate the long-lasting influence of education. We find that for both men and women with less than a high school degree the median DI participation rate is 6.6 times the participation rate for those with a college degree or more. Similarly, men and women with less than a high school education are over 25 percentage points more likely to claim Social Security benefits early than those with a college degree or more. We focus on four critical "pathways" through which education may indirectly influence early retirement - health, employment, earnings, and the accumulation of assets. We find that for women health is the dominant pathway through which education influences DI participation. For men, the health, earnings, and wealth pathways are of roughly equal magnitude. For both men and women the principal channel through which education influences early Social Security claiming decisions is the earnings pathway. We also consider the direct effect of education that does not operate through these pathways. The direct effect of education is much greater for early claiming of Social Security benefits than for DI participation, accounting for 72 percent of the effect of education for men and 67 percent for women. For women the direct effect of education on DI participation is not statistically significant, suggesting that the total effect may be through the four pathways.

  4. Do Early Outs Work Out? Teacher Early Retirement Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herb R.; Repa, J. Theodore

    1993-01-01

    School districts offer teacher early retirement incentive plans (TERIPs) as an opportunity to hire less expensive teachers, reduce fringe benefits costs, and eliminate teaching positions. Discusses reasons for teachers to accept TERIP, and describes a computer model that allows school officials to calculate and compare costs incurred if an…

  5. 'All those things together made me retire': qualitative study on early retirement among Dutch employees.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; de Wind, Astrid; Westerman, Marjan J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, Allard J; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2013-05-28

    Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early retirement have been identified in quantitative research, but little is known on why and how these factors influence early retirement. The present qualitative study investigated which non-health related factors influence early retirement, and why and how these factors influence early retirement. A qualitative study among 30 Dutch employees (60-64 years) who retired early, i.e. before the age of 65, was performed by means of face-to-face interviews. Participants were selected from the cohort Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). For most employees, a combination of factors played a role in the transition from work to early retirement, and the specific factors involved differed between individuals. Participants reported various factors that pushed towards early retirement ('push factors'), including organizational changes at work, conflicts at work, high work pressure, high physical job demands, and insufficient use of their skills and knowledge by others in the organization. Employees who reported such push factors towards early retirement often felt unable to find another job. Factors attracting towards early retirement ('pull factors') included the wish to do other things outside of work, enjoy life, have more flexibility, spend more time with a spouse or grandchildren, and care for others. In addition, the financial opportunity to retire early played an important role. Factors influenced early retirement via changes in the motivation, ability and opportunity to continue working or retire early. To support the prolongation of working life, it seems important to improve the fit between the physical and psychosocial job characteristics on the one hand, and

  6. Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions

  7. Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A; Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; Westerman, Marjan J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Burdorf, Alex; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2013-04-03

    Due to the aging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60-64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Poor and good health influence early

  8. Does Organizational Justice Modify the Association Between Job Involvement and Retirement Intentions of Nurses in Finland?

    PubMed

    Sulander, Juhani; Sinervo, Timo; Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Helkama, Klaus; Aalto, Anna-Mari

    2016-10-01

    Given the growing aging population in Finland, retaining health staff to care for them is important. In an exploration of predictors of quitting before the typical retirement age, which ranges from 63 to 68 years in Finland, we examined whether organizational justice moderated the association between job involvement and retirement intentions among nurses 50 years and over. The sample was 446 nurses (70% practical nurses) working in 134 assisted living facilities providing 24-hour care for older residents in Finland. Job involvement was measured with the Job Involvement Questionnaire, and organizational justice with a scale that tapped its three dimensions: distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. In covariance analyses, low organizational justice and low job involvement were associated with a higher likelihood of retirement intention. Both interactional justice and procedural justice moderated the association of job involvement with retirement intentions. Among nurses with low job involvement, those who experienced unjust treatment, that is, low interactional justice, and evaluated organizational procedures as unjust had significantly stronger retirement intentions than nurses with high levels of interactional and procedural justice. Distributive justice was associated with retirement intentions in both high and low job-involved respondents. Organizational justice may act as a buffer against retirement intention as one consequence of nurses' low job involvement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Early Retirement Is Not the Cat's Meow. The Endpaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Wayne S.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement plans are perceived as being beneficial to school staff and financially advantageous to schools. Four out of the five assumptions on which these perceptions are based are incorrect. The one correct assumption is that early retirement will make affirmative action programs move ahead more rapidly. The incorrect assumptions are: (1)…

  10. Professional and psychosocial factors affecting the intention to retire of Australian medical practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Chanaka; Earl, Joanne K; Peisah, Carmelle; Luscombe, Georgina M; Tibbertsma, Johanna

    2017-03-20

    To determine the professional and personal factors associated with the intention to retire (ITR) by medical practitioners. Cross-sectional survey of currently practising Australian doctors aged 55 or older registered with a commercial database. Participants completed an online self-report questionnaire in October 2015. Associations between intention to retire and demographic and practice characteristics; health; emotional, social and financial resources; work centrality; and anxiety about ageing. 62.0% of 1048 respondents (17.5% response rate) intended to retire, 11.4% had no intention of retiring and 26.6% were unsure. The odds of retiring were higher for those with adequate financial resources (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.44) and greater anxiety about ageing (aOR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09); the odds of retiring were lower for international medical graduates (aOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44-0.85), for those with greater work centrality (aOR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.92) and greater emotional resources (aOR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98). In a model including medical specialty as a variable, being a psychiatrist (aOR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20-0.79) or general practitioner (aOR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.87) were associated with reduced odds of intending to retire. Intention to retire was determined by a mixture of professional and psychosocial characteristics. In particular, our results support the view that delaying retirement by doctors may be related to the primacy of work compared with other life roles. Our results may be used to develop educational programs that support the transition to and improve adjustment to retirement.

  11. Educational influences on early retirement through disability in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Lawless, M; Buggy, C J; Codd, M B

    2015-06-01

    Studies suggest a higher prevalence of early retirement through disability among older people with lower educational attainment. There have been no national studies in Ireland on the factors that affect early withdrawal from the labour force through disability or long-term illness. To identify and analyse potential impacts of education on early retirement through disability in the over 50 age cohort of the Irish Labour force. We analysed the educational attainment of participants using The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA). The group of interest were those aged 50-75 who had retired early. The sample was dichotomized on disability. Examination of interviewer-recorded information on background influences determining early retirement decisions included the following factors: age, gender, education, family and socio-economic circumstances, including parental education. A total of 334 of 1179 study subjects (28%) retired early through disability. Comparison of those retired early with and without disability showed a significantly higher frequency of lower educational attainment both personally and for parents. Men with lower educational attainment and from a non-professional background were more likely to retire early through disability. Non-professional disabled respondents with less well-educated parents had lower educational attainment than non-disabled respondents. Among TILDA participants, educational attainment appears to influence early retirement through disability. The sector of previous employment was also a significant factor. Behaviour, lifestyle and employment choice are influenced by educational level, which may affect cognitive ability to process health information. Factors affecting the education-disability relationship could include parental education, employment status and socio-economic characteristics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For

  12. Precarious Employment, Bad Jobs, Labor Unions, and Early Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John R.; Sweeney, Megan M.; Hauser, Robert M.; Ho, Jeong-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent to which involuntary job loss, exposure to “bad jobs,” and labor union membership across the life course are associated with the risk of early retirement. Methods. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a large (N = 8,609) sample of men and women who graduated from high school in 1957, we estimated discrete-time event history models for the transition to first retirement through age 65. We estimated models separately for men and women. Results. We found that experience of involuntary job loss and exposure to bad jobs are associated with a lower risk of retiring before age 65, whereas labor union membership is associated with a higher likelihood of early retirement. These relationships are stronger for men than for women and are mediated to some extent by pre-retirement differences in pension eligibility, wealth, job characteristics, and health. Discussion. Results provide some support for hypotheses derived from theories of cumulative stratification, suggesting that earlier employment experiences should influence retirement outcomes indirectly through later-life characteristics. However, midlife employment experiences remain associated with earlier retirement, net of more temporally proximate correlates, highlighting the need for further theorization and empirical evaluation of the mechanisms through which increasingly common employment experiences influence the age at which older Americans retire. PMID:21310772

  13. [Part time work instead of early retirement: successful breakthrough for flexible and later retirement?].

    PubMed

    Bäcker, G; Naegele, G

    1996-01-01

    In order to stop the trend towards early retirement in Germany a law to promote partial retirement recently has been passed by parliament. Concerning the impact on the labour market the raising of the pension age for older unemployed which is fixed in this law has to be seen as contraproductive and it will deteriorate the financial situation of unemployed older workers. Concerning the implementation of partial-retirement as such, there are momentous obstacles to realize part-time working arrangements in practice: the insufficient financial compensation for older workers and the obligation for employers to hire unemployed workers. Supplementary collective agreements are seen to be necessary to establish part-time work for older workers.

  14. Housing tenure and early retirement for health reasons in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hartig, Terry; Fransson, Urban

    2006-01-01

    To assess the association between housing tenure and early retirement for health reasons in Sweden with a view to psychosocial vs. material values of home ownership. The data come from linked registers that cover all people resident in Sweden during 1990-2000. The study population consists of 449,233 people aged 40-63 years in 1997. Of these, 19,350 retired early for health reasons in 1998-99. The remaining 429,883 continued their employment without extended sick leave or income decline. None moved during 1990-2000. We calculated the odds of early retirement for four forms of juridical relationship to one's housing (private owner; part owner in a cooperative; private rental; rental from a public housing company), for men and women separately, controlling for age, education, employment income, household disposable income, region, foreign birth, and housing type. Men in cooperative ownership had lower odds of early retirement than those in the three other tenure forms, for which the odds were similar. Among women, public and private renters had similar odds of early retirement, which were higher than those of women in private or cooperative ownership. For both genders, inclusion of housing type in the model after housing tenure explained little additional variance. The odds of early retirement for health reasons varied across different housing tenure forms in Sweden in 1998-99. The pattern of associations differed as a function of gender. Home ownership appears to involve health resources independent of basic socio-physical factors captured with differences in housing type.

  15. Keep Up the Good Work! Age-Moderated Mediation Model on Intention to Retire.

    PubMed

    Dordoni, Paola; Van der Heijden, Beatrice; Peters, Pascale; Kraus-Hoogeveen, Sascha; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2017-01-01

    In European nations, the aging of the workforce is a major issue which is increasingly addressed both in national and organizational policies in order to sustain older workers' employability and to encourage longer working lives. Particularly older workers' employability can be viewed an important issue as this has the potential to motivate them for their work and change their intention to retire. Based on lifespan development theories and Van der Heijden's 'employability enhancement model', this paper develops and tests an age-moderated mediation model (which refers to the processes that we want to test in this model), linking older workers' (55 years old and over) perceptions of job support for learning (job-related factor) and perceptions of negative age stereotypes on productivity (organizational factor), on the one hand, and their intention to retire, on the other hand, via their participation in employability enhancing activities, being the mediator in our model. A total of 2,082 workers aged 55 years and above were included in the analyses. Results revealed that the two proposed relationships between the predictors and intention to retire were mediated by participation in employability enhancing activities, reflecting two mechanisms through which work context affects intention to retire (namely 'a gain spiral and a loss spiral'). Multi-Group SEM analyses, distinguishing between two age groups (55-60 and 61-65 years old), revealed different paths for the two distinguished groups of older workers. Employability mediated the relationship between perceptions of job support for learning and intention to retire in both age groups, whereas it only mediated the relationship between perceptions of negative age stereotypes and intention to retire in the 55-60 group. From our empirical study, we may conclude that employability is an important factor in the light of older workers' intention to retire. In order to motivate this category of workers to participate in

  16. Keep Up the Good Work! Age-Moderated Mediation Model on Intention to Retire

    PubMed Central

    Dordoni, Paola; Van der Heijden, Beatrice; Peters, Pascale; Kraus-Hoogeveen, Sascha; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2017-01-01

    In European nations, the aging of the workforce is a major issue which is increasingly addressed both in national and organizational policies in order to sustain older workers' employability and to encourage longer working lives. Particularly older workers' employability can be viewed an important issue as this has the potential to motivate them for their work and change their intention to retire. Based on lifespan development theories and Van der Heijden's ‘employability enhancement model’, this paper develops and tests an age-moderated mediation model (which refers to the processes that we want to test in this model), linking older workers' (55 years old and over) perceptions of job support for learning (job-related factor) and perceptions of negative age stereotypes on productivity (organizational factor), on the one hand, and their intention to retire, on the other hand, via their participation in employability enhancing activities, being the mediator in our model. A total of 2,082 workers aged 55 years and above were included in the analyses. Results revealed that the two proposed relationships between the predictors and intention to retire were mediated by participation in employability enhancing activities, reflecting two mechanisms through which work context affects intention to retire (namely ‘a gain spiral and a loss spiral’). Multi-Group SEM analyses, distinguishing between two age groups (55–60 and 61–65 years old), revealed different paths for the two distinguished groups of older workers. Employability mediated the relationship between perceptions of job support for learning and intention to retire in both age groups, whereas it only mediated the relationship between perceptions of negative age stereotypes and intention to retire in the 55–60 group. From our empirical study, we may conclude that employability is an important factor in the light of older workers' intention to retire. In order to motivate this category of workers to

  17. Quality of work, well-being, and intended early retirement of older employees: baseline results from the SHARE Study.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Johannes; Wahrendorf, Morten; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Jürges, Hendrik; Börsch-Supan, Axel

    2007-02-01

    Given the challenge of a high proportion of older employees who retire early from work we analyse associations of indicators of a poor psychosocial quality of work with intended premature departure from work in a large sample of older male and female employees in 10 European countries. Baseline data from the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' (SHARE) were obtained from 3523 men and 3318 women in 10 European countries. Data on intended early retirement, four measures of well-being (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, general symptom load, and quality of life), and quality of work (effort-reward imbalance; low control at work) were obtained from structured interviews and questionnaires. Country-specific and total samples are analysed, using logistic regression analysis. Poor quality of work is significantly associated with intended early retirement. After adjustment for well-being odds ratios (OR) of effort-reward imbalance [OR 1.72 (1.43-2.08)] and low control at work [OR 1.51 (1.27-1.80)] on intended early retirement are observed. Poor quality of work and reduced well-being are independently associated with the intention to retire from work. The consistent association of a poor psychosocial quality of work with intended early retirement among older employees across all European countries under study calls for improved investments into better quality of work, in particular increased control and an appropriate balance between efforts spent and rewards received at work.

  18. Hearing loss and risk of early retirement. The HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Krokstad, Steinar; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Background: We explore the possible consequences of measured hearing impairment (HI) and perceived hearing difficulties for early retirement in a large population-based study. Furthermore, we study whether having a part-time position was associated with measured HI and perceived hearing difficulties in the same population. Methods: This study included 25 740 persons from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) aged 20–54 years at baseline in HUNT1 (1984–1986) who also participated in the follow up, HUNT2, including a hearing examination 11 years later. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for men and women separately and in two age strata. Effects of low-, middle- and high-frequency hearing levels were explored, adjusting for each other. Further adjustment was made for socio-economic class and general health in HUNT1. Results: The risk of early retirement increased with degree of loss of low-frequency hearing in young and middle-aged men and middle-aged women. The middle-aged men and women experiencing hearing disability had an increased risk of early retirement. Degree of hearing level was not associated with part-time work, but in middle-aged men, awareness of having a hearing loss was associated with part-time employment. Conclusions: Degree of low-frequency hearing loss was associated with early retirement but not with part-time work. Perceived hearing disability increased the risk of early retirement in middle-aged men and women and also the risk of part-time work in middle-aged men. PMID:22930741

  19. Hearing loss and risk of early retirement. The HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Krokstad, Steinar; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-08-01

    We explore the possible consequences of measured hearing impairment (HI) and perceived hearing difficulties for early retirement in a large population-based study. Furthermore, we study whether having a part-time position was associated with measured HI and perceived hearing difficulties in the same population. This study included 25,740 persons from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) aged 20-54 years at baseline in HUNT1 (1984-1986) who also participated in the follow up, HUNT2, including a hearing examination 11 years later. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for men and women separately and in two age strata. Effects of low-, middle- and high-frequency hearing levels were explored, adjusting for each other. Further adjustment was made for socio-economic class and general health in HUNT1. The risk of early retirement increased with degree of loss of low-frequency hearing in young and middle-aged men and middle-aged women. The middle-aged men and women experiencing hearing disability had an increased risk of early retirement. Degree of hearing level was not associated with part-time work, but in middle-aged men, awareness of having a hearing loss was associated with part-time employment. Degree of low-frequency hearing loss was associated with early retirement but not with part-time work. Perceived hearing disability increased the risk of early retirement in middle-aged men and women and also the risk of part-time work in middle-aged men.

  20. Early-onset arthritis in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Golightly, Yvonne M; Marshall, Stephen W; Callahan, Leigh F; Guskiewicz, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    Injury has been identified as a potential risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, no previous study has addressed playing-career injuries and subsequent osteoarthritis in a large sample of former athletes. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of arthritis and osteoarthritis in retired professional football players. Self-reported arthritis prevalence and retrospectively-recalled injury history were examined in a cross-sectional survey of 2,538 retired football players. Football players reported a high incidence of injury from their professional playing days (52.8% reported knee injuries, 74.1% reported ligament/tendon injuries, and 14.2% reported anterior cruciate ligament tears). For those under 60 years, 40.6% of retired NFL players reported arthritis, compared with 11.7% of U.S. males (prevalence ratio = 3.5, 95% CI: 3.3 to 3.7). Within the retired NFL player cohort, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in those with a history of knee injury (prevalence ratio = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5 to 1.9) and ligament/tendon injury (prevalence ratio = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.4 to 1.9). In males under the age of 60, arthritis is over 3 times more prevalent in retired NFL players than in the general U.S. population. This excess of early-onset arthritis may be due to the high incidence of injury in football.

  1. The impact of early retirement on perceptions of life at work and at home: qualitative analyses of British civil servants participating in the Whitehall II Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Mein, Gill; Ellison, George T H

    2006-01-01

    This study examined pathways to retirement and the role of circumstances at work and at home (including the introduction of financially-enhanced early retirement schemes) on retirement-related decision-making. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted within 2 years of retirement with 59 British civil servants participating in the Whitehall II Study. Focusing on the experiences of 33 interviewees who spontaneously discussed "early retirement" we identified three pathways to retirement (non-applicants, successful applicants, and unsuccessful applicants for early retirement) each influenced by a range of complementary positive and negative factors at work and at home. The early retirement schemes influenced the balance between these factors in three ways: by encouraging participants to reflect on (and reconsider) existing retirement plans; by offering financial incentives to retire early; and because they were part of the ongoing process of restructuring and downsizing within the Civil Service which was accompanied by a perceived deterioration in conditions at work.

  2. Impact of Development and Accommodation Practices on Older Workers' Job Characteristics, Prolonged Fatigue, Work Engagement, and Retirement Intentions Over Time.

    PubMed

    Stynen, Dave; Jansen, Nicole W H; Slangen, Jos J M; Kant, IJmert

    2016-11-01

    The impact of development and accommodation practices on older workers' retirement intentions was investigated in this prospective study, together with potential pathways and the role of career stage. A subsample of full-time, older workers (n = 678) from the Maastricht Cohort Study was followed-up for 2 years. Regression analysis was conducted for three age groups. Development practices related positively with later retirement intentions in workers aged 55 to 59 years. The accommodation practice of demotion related negatively with later retirement intentions in worker aged at least 60 years. Decision latitude and work engagement were found to link development and accommodation practices with later retirement intentions in particular in workers aged 55 to 59 years. It was indicated in this prospective study that development and accommodation practices may be useful for prolonging working careers.

  3. A survey of retirement intentions of Baby Boomers: an overview of health, social and economic determinants.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne W; Pilkington, Rhiannon; Feist, Helen; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Hugo, Graeme

    2014-04-14

    Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants. In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire. In total, 25.9% (n = 210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65. An important finding of this study is the large number of

  4. A survey of retirement intentions of baby boomers: an overview of health, social and economic determinants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments have been implementing policies aimed at halting the trend towards early retirement for Baby Boomers. Public policies can have a strong effect on when a person retires and this analysis contributes to an improved understanding of retirement aspirations in regards to health, social, workplace and economic determinants. Methods In October 2011 a telephone survey was undertaken with participants aged 50 to 65 years who were in paid employment and who had been in the workforce for the previous three years. Participants were obtained from two identical South Australian cohort studies - the North West Adelaide Health Study and the Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study. The results of the telephone survey were linked to the original cohort data. Data were weighted by sex, age, postcode and probability of selection in the household. Work related questions included how much they thought about their retirement, current occupation, employment status, type of workplace and hours worked per week. Health related questions included current smoking status, physical activity, body mass index, self-reported health status and overall life satisfaction. Uni-variable and multi-variable analyses were undertaken to compare the different associations between people who were and were not intending to retire. Results In total, 25.9% (n = 210) of people who were currently in paid employment indicated that they intend to retire completely from the workforce. The remainder indicated that they will continue to work (41.8% retire from full-time work but work part-time, 25.7% continue working part-time but reduce their current hours, and 6.7% never retire). The multi-variable results indicate that those with lower education, having a savings habit, and sales workers more likely to anticipate complete retirement. The self-employed, and those thinking only moderately about retirement, were more likely to extend their working life beyond age 65. Conclusion An important

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of Factors Affecting Appraisal of the Decision to Take Early Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowan, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines why individuals elect to take the early retirement package offered by their employer, as well as factors affecting their appraisal of that decision. Results suggest that all early retirement decisions are not voluntary. Individuals who do not wish to retire and who had lower self-esteem, fewer financial resources, and plans to continue…

  6. The Impact of Early Retirement on Perceptions of Life at Work and at Home: Qualitative Analyses of British Civil Servants Participating in the Whitehall II Retirement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mein, Gill; Ellison, George T. H.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined pathways to retirement and the role of circumstances at work and at home (including the introduction of financially-enhanced early retirement schemes) on retirement-related decision-making. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted within 2 years of retirement with 59 British civil servants participating in the Whitehall…

  7. Post-retirement intentions of nurses and midwives living and working in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Voit, Katharina; Carson, D B

    2014-01-01

    Previous research undertaken in the Northern Territory of Australia has identified interest among nurses in engaging in the active workforce post-retirement. Relatively little is known about which nurses are interested in such engagement, and the types of work arrangements that might be of interest. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the retirement plans and post-retirement employment intentions of nurses and midwives living and working in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. An online survey was developed to examine retirement intentions, and investigate the types and facilitators significant for post-retirement engagement. The results indicated a strong interest among nurses and midwives in engaging in post-retirement work, with 73.2% of respondents (n=207) having considered continuing in the active workforce. The most preferred types of engagement included the gradual reduction of hours in current workplaces, part-year or seasonal employment, short-term placements, job-sharing or job-rotation, mentoring, research and policy development or acting as 'Northern Territory representatives' promoting jobs to prospective nurses and midwives elsewhere in Australia. A range of facilitators for post-retirement engagement was found, including for nurses who had not currently considered such engagement. The data collected from this research also identified barriers to post-retirement employment. The most favoured facilitators were financial incentives (90.0% of respondents identified it as a facilitator for post-retirement engagement), followed by support from line management (82.0%). Regardless of whether they had considered engaging post-retirement, the largest proportion of respondents intended to leave the NT for the time of their retirement (33.7%). The most prominent barrier to post-retirement engagement was that only a smaller proportion intended to retire in the NT (24.1%). Importantly, many nurses who had not currently considered post-retirement

  8. A comparison of early retirement pensions in the United States and Russia: the pensions of musicians.

    PubMed

    Turner, John; Guenther, Roy

    2005-01-01

    Early retirement pensions for particular occupations free national policy to establish the social security early retirement age at a later age that is more appropriate for the population as a whole. This paper focuses on early retirement pensions in the United States and the Russian Federation. While comparing early retirement pensions generally, the paper provides a more detailed discussion of the pensions for musicians. While this is an unconventional group to choose for the study of pensions, study of their pensions yields insights into the principles underlying retirement age policy in the two countries.

  9. Developing and Implementing an Early Retirement Incentive Program for Marin County School Districts. Vol. 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauzy, Byron W.

    In creating an early retirement incentive program for the Marin County (California) schools, the author examined the early retirement ethic, other early retirement plans in the public and private sectors, the impact of early retirement on Social Security benefits, opposition to such programs, and the factors in the California school districts that…

  10. Predisposing factors for early retirement in patients with schizophrenia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Reinhard; Friedel, Heiko; Erfurth, Andreas; Angermayer, Matthias; Clouth, Johannes; Eichmann, Florian

    2008-08-01

    Although early retirement causes major changes in the life of schizophrenic patients and is among the major cost factors to be covered by payers, the causes leading to early retirement of schizophrenic patients have not been investigated in detail. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective non-interventional case-control study was to generate hypotheses on predisposing factors for early retirement in schizophrenia. Logistic regression was used to explore potential predisposing parameters with regard to their effect on the outcome early retirement. As the study results indicate, schizophrenia severity, assistance or care in the patient's everyday life, age and antipsychotic treatment with typical antipsychotics are linked to the occurrence of early retirement. Further research should be planned to confirm or refute the hypotheses determined in this retrospective analysis and to determine whether atypical antipsychotics could help to avoid early retirement and to improve the situation of schizophrenic patients.

  11. Ill health and early retirement among school principals in Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Weltle, D; Lederer, P

    2005-05-01

    School principals play an important role in maintaining the performance and health of teachers but often feel over-burdened themselves and suffer illnesses, which not only impairs their health-promoting function but also leads to limitations in their fitness for the occupation. The aim of our study was, therefore, using objective parameters and larger numbers of cases, to obtain a differentiated insight into the morbidity and the health-related early retirement of school principals. In a prospective total assessment (the whole of Bavaria, a state in southern Germany) in the period from 1997 to 1999 all medical examinations of school principals performed to decide the question of early retirement were evaluated. The analysis included, e.g., socio-demographic/occupational factors, diagnoses, assessment of performance and rehabilitation. The data were sampled in a standardised, anonymous questionnaire, which provided the database. Evaluation was carried out by means of descriptive statistics. The median age of the 408 school principals included in the evaluation (heads and vice-heads, 30% of whom were women) was 58 years (minimum 41 years, maximum 64 years). The most frequent workplaces were primary schools (63%). A total of 84% (n=342) of the headmasters was assessed to be unfit for work. The main reasons for early retirement were psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders (F-ICD 10) which made up 45% of the cases. The relative frequency was higher in women than in men. Depressive disorders and exhaustion syndromes (burnout) dominated among the psychiatric diagnoses (proportion 57%). The most frequent somatic illnesses were cardiovascular diseases (I-ICD10) in 19% of cases, then muscular/skeletal diseases (M-ICD10) in 10% and malignant tumours (C-ICD 10) in 9% of cases. Cardiovascular diseases, in particular arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, were found in headmasters significantly more frequently than in teachers without a headship function (P

  12. The role of ability, motivation, and opportunity to work in the transition from work to early retirement--testing and optimizing the Early Retirement Model.

    PubMed

    de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-01-01

    Determinants in the domains health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors may influence early retirement through three central explanatory variables, namely, the ability, motivation, and opportunity to work. Based on the literature, we created the Early Retirement Model. This study aims to investigate whether data support the model and how it could be improved. Employees aged 58-62 years (N=1862), who participated in the first three waves of the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM) were included. Determinants were assessed at baseline, central explanatory variables after one year, and early retirement after two years. Structural equation modeling was applied. Testing the Early Retirement Model resulted in a model with good fit. Health, job characteristics, skills, and social and financial factors were related to the ability, motivation and/or opportunity to work (significant β range: 0.05-0.31). Lower work ability (β=-0.13) and less opportunity to work (attitude colleagues and supervisor about working until age 65: β=-0.24) predicted early retirement, whereas the motivation to work (work engagement) did not. The model could be improved by adding direct effects of three determinants on early retirement, ie, support of colleagues and supervisor (β=0.14), positive attitude of the partner with respect to early retirement (β=0.15), and not having a partner (β=-0.13). The Early Retirement Model was largely supported by the data but could be improved. The prolongation of working life might be promoted by work-related interventions focusing on health, work ability, the social work climate, social norms on prolonged careers, and the learning environment.

  13. A Case Study of the Development of an Early Retirement Program for University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Trainer, Aileen

    1985-01-01

    To offset declining enrollments, financial constraints, younger faculties, and high tenure ratios, some institutions are considering early retirement programs to facilitate faculty turnover. A University of Virginia faculty committee reviewed several early retirement options and selected a cost-effective bridging program with ample incentives and…

  14. Gender and social class differences in the association between early retirement and health in Spain.

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucia; Cortès, Imma; Borrell, Carme; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cascant, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    We sought to examine the association between reasons for early retirement and health status and to assess whether this association differs by gender and social class. The sample was all people currently working or retired between 50 and 64 years of age (2,497 men and 1,420 women) who were interviewed in the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. The health outcomes analyzed were self-perceived health status and mental health. Multiple logistic regression models stratified by gender and occupational social class were fitted. Female manual workers who were forced into early retirement due to organizational reasons were more likely to report poor self-perceived health status (adjusted odds ration [aOR], 4.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-11.32) and poor mental health (aOR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.15-6.33), whereas no such association was observed among male workers or among female nonmanual workers. Early retirement on health grounds was associated with both health outcomes in all groups, but retirement because of age, voluntary retirement, and retirement for other reasons were not related to poor health outcomes in any group analyzed. Forced early retirement owing to organizational reasons is related to poor health indicators only among female manual workers. Results highlight the importance of paying more attention to the potential vulnerability of female manual workers in downsizing processes as well as in early retirement policies. Copyright © 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Senior dental students' career intentions, work-life balance and retirement plans.

    PubMed

    Stewart, F M J; Drummond, J R; Carson, L; Theaker, E D

    2007-09-08

    To gather information from senior dental students about their future career plans, with particular emphasis on work-life balance issues, their attitudes towards the NHS and retirement plans. Senior dental students at the Universities of Dundee and Manchester were asked to complete a voluntary anonymous questionnaire. In all 141 questionnaires were completed, 42 by students in Manchester and 114 in Dundee. On qualification nearly all surveyed intend to work full time but after five years one quarter (26%) of females intend to work part time. This is significantly (p < 0.05) different from males where nearly all (98%) intend to work full time. Although the majority (65%) intend to work in general practice significant numbers (19%) wish to have a career in hospital dentistry and very few (3%) in community dentistry. Senior students seem to show no more commitment to the NHS than those in our previous study of dental school applicants. Only 3% intend to work exclusively for the NHS and 18% intend to work exclusively in the private sector. Surprising numbers had plans to retire or go part time before 60 years of age. Only 20% of the sample intended to continue working full time after the age of 60 years. The mode age that those surveyed intended to start a family was 30 years and a large majority of both sexes thought this would interrupt their professional life. More than half of the sample intend to take time out of dentistry until their children attended primary school (female 63%, male 38%) and 6% (female 6%, male 8%) until secondary school. Many of our findings suggest that future generations of dentists may have a pattern of professional life that will have the effect of reducing their clinical commitment, although it is not possible to determine how significant an effect this will have on the workforce. It may, however, be appropriate to take career intention into account when workforce planning.

  16. Early retirement and income loss in patients with early and advanced Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Scott; Davis, Matthew; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Birnbaum, Howard; Grubb, Elizabeth; Tarrants, Marcy; Siderowf, Andrew

    2011-11-01

    The indirect costs of Parkinson's disease (PD) may be larger than direct healthcare costs, and the largest component of indirect costs is income loss related to early retirement. No recent retrospective analysis details PD-related early retirement and income loss in the US. We used an observational, matched cohort to study wages and labour force participation over 4 years and to simulate lifetime income losses conditional on being newly diagnosed with PD (naive) or having evidence of increasing disability. Actively employed primary beneficiaries of private insurance policies aged 18-64 years with more than two PD diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM]: 332.x) or one diagnosis and a prescription of an antiparkinsonian drug were selected from a privately insured claims database. Continuous health coverage during analysis periods was required. Naive patients were defined as having no claims history indicative of PD during the year prior to first diagnosis or prescription use. A PD with ambulatory assistance devices (PDAAD) cohort was also followed from the date of first evidence of a wheelchair or walker. Controls without PD were matched on age, sex and region. Survival analysis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare rates of early retirement and income loss. A simulation of projected economic loss was conducted for PD cohorts diagnosed at different ages using Bureau of Labor Statistics labour force participation and income data. Naive PD patients (n = 278) and PDAAD patients (n = 28) were on average aged 53 years and had significantly higher rates of co-morbidities at baseline versus controls. Conditional on being employed, there was no statistical difference in earnings. However, the hazard of early retirement associated with PD was 2.08 (p < 0.001) for the naive cohort and 5.01 (p < 0.001) for the PDAAD cohort. From age 40 to 79 years, earnings losses in year 2009 values were

  17. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary early retirement authority must be signed by the head of the agency or by a specific designee. (c... to be accepted may be announced to a different group of employees as long as they are covered by the... retirement offer; and (2) Meets the following conditions which are covered in 5 U.S.C. 8336(d)(2): (i) Has...

  18. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... voluntary early retirement authority must be signed by the head of the agency or by a specific designee. (c... to be accepted may be announced to a different group of employees as long as they are covered by the... retirement offer; and (2) Meets the following conditions which are covered in 5 U.S.C. 8336(d)(2): (i) Has...

  19. Predictors of early retirement after cancer rehabilitation-a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, A; Barth, J; Gaspar, M; Leibbrand, B; Kegel, C-D; Bootsveld, W; Friedrich, M; Hartung, T J; Berger, D; Koch, U

    2017-09-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to assess patients' desire for early retirement and investigate which cancer-related and psychosocial characteristics are associated with early retirement. We assessed 750 cancer patients at the beginning (t 0 ) and end (t 1 ) of, and 12 months after (t 2 ) inpatient cancer rehabilitation. At t 0 , 22% had a desire to retire early. These patients reported significantly longer sick leave periods, less favourable workplace environments, lower work ability, higher psychological distress and lower quality of life than other patients. At t 2 , 12.5% of patients received temporary or permanent early retirement pensions. Of all patients with a desire for early retirement at t 0 , 43% had returned to work at t 2 . This subgroup had a significantly lower physical quality of life than other patients returning to work. The most influential predictors of early retirement were being on sick leave (OR = 6.50, 95% CI = 1.97-21.47) and a desire for early retirement (OR = 5.61, 95% CI = 2.73-11.52). Inverse predictors of early retirement were cancer remission (OR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.10-0.53), perceived productivity (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18-0.83), work satisfaction (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.17-0.77) and mental quality of life (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.91-0.98). This underlines the need for cancer-specific multi-professional rehabilitation and occupational therapy programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Work and Family Characteristics as Predictors of Early Retirement in Married Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kubicek, Bettina; Korunka, Christian; Hoonakker, Peter; Raymo, James M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an integrative model of early retirement using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The model extends prior work by incorporating work-family conflict to capture the interaction between the work and family domains and by assuming proximal and distal predictors of early retirement. More precisely, the model suggests that family and job demands and resources predict family-to-work and work-to-family conflict, respectively. All of these factors are presumed to have only indirect effects on retirement timing via the intervening effect of quality of life measures, that is, marital satisfaction, job satisfaction and health. The authors assume that these three factors constitute predictors of early retirement in addition to socioeconomic status and the availability of a pension plan and health insurance. The model was tested with structural equation modeling techniques, and the results were supportive. Therefore, the proposed model offers a general framework for the integration of previous research findings. PMID:21430790

  1. Organizational and Occupational Commitment in Relation to Bridge Employment and Retirement Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David A.; McIntosh, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the antecedents to retirement and bridge employment is important to older-aged adults who seek ways to smoothly transition to full retirement, and to organizations that benefit from retaining their highly skilled and most experienced workers, especially in occupations for which labor shortages are projected. We tested the effects of…

  2. Early retirement and the financial assets of individuals with back problems.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Percival, Richard; Callander, Emily J; Kelly, Simon J; Passey, Megan E

    2011-05-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between early retirement due to back problems and wealth, and contributes to a more complete picture of the full costs associated with back problems. The output data set of the microsimulation model Health&WealthMOD was analysed. Health&WealthMOD was specifically designed to measure the economic impacts of ill health on Australian workers aged 45-64 years. People aged 45-64 years who are out of the labour force due to back problems have significantly less chance of having any accumulated wealth. While almost all individuals who are in full-time employment with no chronic health condition have some wealth accumulated, a significantly smaller proportion (89%) of those who have retired early due to back problems do. Of those who have retired early due to back problems who do have some wealth, on average the total value of this wealth is 87% less (95% CI: -90 to -84%) than the total value of wealth accumulated by those who have remained in full-time employment with no health condition controlling for age, sex and education. The financial burden placed on those retiring early due to back problems is likely to cause financial stress in the future, as not only have retired individuals lost an income stream from paid employment, but they also have little or no wealth to draw upon. Preventing early retirement due to back problems will increase the time individuals will have to amass savings to finance their retirement and to protect against financial shocks.

  3. Time for My Life Now: Early Boomer Women's Anticipation of Volunteering in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored to what extent early Boomer women who work for pay will be interested in and committed to formal volunteering during retirement. Method: Data for this hermeneutic study were gathered through 2 in-depth conversational interviews of 19 English-speaking early Boomer women living in New Brunswick, Canada. Results:…

  4. The Mental and Physical Health Consequences of Changes in Private Insurance Before and After Early Retirement

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the impact of private insurance coverage on the symptoms of depression, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in the years leading up to Medicare eligibility focusing on the transition from full-time work to early full retirement. Method. The Health and Retirement Study was used to (a) estimate 2-stage selection equations of (i) the transition to retirement and (ii) current insurance status, and (b) the impact of insurance coverage on health, net of endogeneity associated retirement and insurance coverage. Results. Employment-based insurance coverage was generally associated with better health. Moreover, being without employment-based insurance was particularly problematic during the transition to retirement. Non-group insurance only moderated the association between losing employment-based insurance and IADLs. Discussion. Results indicated that private insurance coverage is an important contextual factor for the health of early retirees. Those who maintain steady coverage tend to fare the best in retirement. This highlights the dynamic nature of changes in health in later life. PMID:25819976

  5. Early retirement and the influence on healthcare budgets and insurance premiums in a diabetes population.

    PubMed

    Walzer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    To contribute to current discussions about budget impact modeling, two different approaches for the impact of a new pharmaceutical product were analyzed: firstly considering the impact on annual healthcare expenditures only, and secondly additional inclusion of lost insurance premiums due to possible early retirement in patients with chronic diseases. The dynamic model calculates the budget impact from two different perspectives: (a) the impact on healthcare expenditures and (b) on expenditures as well as on health insurance revenues due to premiums. The latter approach could especially be useful for patients with chronic diseases who have higher probabilities of early retirement. Early retirement rates and indirect costs were derived from published data. Healthcare premiums were calculated based on an average premium and a mean income. Epidemiological input data were obtained from the literature. Time horizon was 10 years. Results in terms of reimbursement decisions of the budget impact analysis varied depending on the assumptions made for the insurance premiums, costs, and early retirement rate. Sensitivity analyses revealed that in extreme cases the decision for accepting a new pharmaceutical product would probably be negative using approach (a), but positive using approach (b). Depending on the disease and population of interest in a budget impact analysis, not only the healthcare expenditures for a health insurance have to be considered but also the revenue side for an insurance due to retirement should be included.

  6. Mental Retirement*

    PubMed Central

    Rohwedder, Susann; Willis, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Some studies suggest that people can maintain their cognitive abilities through “mental exercise.” This has not been unequivocally proven. Retirement is associated with a large change in a person’s daily routine and environment. In this paper, we propose two mechanisms how retirement may lead to cognitive decline. For many people retirement leads to a less stimulating daily environment. In addition, the prospect of retirement reduces the incentive to engage in mentally stimulating activities on the job. We investigate the effect of retirement on cognition empirically using cross-nationally comparable surveys of older persons in the United States, England, and 11 European countries in 2004. We find that early retirement has a significant negative impact on the cognitive ability of people in their early 60s that is both quantitatively important and causal. Identification is achieved using national pension policies as instruments for endogenous retirement. PMID:20975927

  7. Respiratory impairment and symptoms as predictors of early retirement with disability in US underground coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.; Trent, R.B.

    1984-08-01

    A five-year prospective study of 1,394 United States underground coal miners was undertaken to study the effects of respiratory impairment on the rate of early retirement with disability (ERD). Using a logistic regression analysis, ERD was found to be related to reported persistent phlegm after adjustment was made for other respiratory symptoms, respiratory function measurements, cigarette smoking, and some demographic characteristics. No prediction of ERD occurred for spirometrically determined measures of respiratory function. The data thus give limited support to the hypothesis that early retirement with disability in underground coal miners can be predicted prospectively by measures of respiratory symptoms.

  8. Smoking and early retirement due to chronic disability.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Nilsson, Anton

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers the long-term effects of smoking on disability retirement in Sweden. Smoking is known to have damaging effects on health, but there is limited evidence on how the effects of smoking translate into worse labour market outcomes, such as the inability to work. In contrast to the few previous studies on smoking and disability retirement, we use a large population sample with registry information on smoking, which is recorded for all women who give birth in Sweden. Thanks to these comprehensive data, we are able to account for a much broader range of potential confounders. In particular, by the use of sibling and twin fixed effects, we account for unobserved heterogeneity in childhood environment and family characteristics. Given that smoking is often initiated in adolescence, one would suspect such factors to play important roles. Among individuals aged 50-64 in 2011, a simple model suggested smokers to have a 5 percentage point higher probability of receiving (full) disability pension, making them more than twice as likely as non-smokers to receive this. However, in a model with sibling fixed effects, the size of the effect was reduced by more than a third. The results point to the importance of confounders, such as childhood circumstances or behaviours, which were not accounted for by previous studies. We also consider effects on disability due to different health conditions. In relative terms, effects are the largest for circulatory conditions and tumours. Results are largely driven by health problems severe enough to merit hospitalization, and there is no evidence of a role played by financial incentives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intentional Mathematics Teaching in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon; Conderman, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Studies and discussions around "good teaching practices" have often identified intentionality as the chief characteristic of outstanding teachers. Intentional teachers are identified as maintaining the habit of informed reflection as they plan, teach, reflect on, and revise the effectiveness of their practices. Intentional teaching strategies are…

  10. The career intentions, work-life balance and retirement plans of dental undergraduates at the University of Bristol.

    PubMed

    Puryer, J; Patel, A

    2016-02-26

    Aim To investigate the career intentions, work-life balance and retirement plans of dental undergraduates at the University of Bristol in 2015.Method Cross-sectional survey of 210 clinical undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire.Results The response rate was 79%. The majority (81.7%) were 'satisfied' or 'extremely satisfied' with their choice of career. The majority (78.7%) felt men and women are equally likely to succeed in dentistry, although 42.9% felt men had an advantage over women with regards to career success. The majority (81.6%) intend on working within general practice, 11.3% within hospital dental services and 2.1% within community dental services. The majority (70.5%) intend to specialise within dentistry. Only 1.8% of participants intend on providing only National Health Service (NHS) dental treatment whereas the 86.5% would provide both NHS and private dental treatment. Fifteen years after qualifying, 52.2% plan to work part-time, and 37.8% intend on retiring at the age of 60 or below. The majority (86.6%) felt that childcare should be shared equally between both parents. Female students intend to take more time out of their career to concentrate on childcare and felt that having a child would affect their career more than males.Conclusion The anticipated career plans, work-life balance and retirement plans of undergraduates change over time, and further research should be carried out to monitor future career intentions of dental students in order to help with dental workforce planning.

  11. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designee. (c) The request must contain the following information: (1) Identification of the agency or... used, the request must include all of the information required by paragraph (c) of this section. (f... are covered by the approved voluntary early retirement authority. (j) Chapter 43 of title 38, United...

  12. 5 CFR 842.213 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designee. (c) The request must contain the following information: (1) Identification of the agency or... used, the request must include all of the information required by paragraph (c) of this section. (f... are covered by the approved voluntary early retirement authority. (j) Chapter 43 of title 38, United...

  13. Impact of an Early Retirement Program: A Case Analysis of a Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Lawrence Allen

    This case study examines the impact of Early Retirement Incentive Programs (ERIP) on Ohio's two-year public colleges through a single case study analysis at Monticello Community College. Data came from interviews and an examination of college documents. This study specifically sought to address: (1) the financial impact (savings versus costs) of…

  14. Proposal for an Early Retirement Incentive Program at Mercer County Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Arthur E.

    A project was undertaken to evaluate existing models of early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) and recommend an ERIP for New Jersey's Mercer County Community College (MCCC). The following categories of ERIPs were reviewed: state plans for New York and Minnesota; K-12 school districts plans at the Castro Valley Unified School District and 48…

  15. Intentionality of Perception in Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Karl-Heinz

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the intentionality of conceptually mediated perception and explicates a conception of immediate perception and its intentionality. The model of immediate perception is applied to studies of infant perceptual capacities in the first months of life. Prefigurations of the categories of object, identity, existence, permanence, and…

  16. ‘All those things together made me retire’: qualitative study on early retirement among Dutch employees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aging of the population and subsequent higher pressure on public finances, there is a need for employees in many European countries to extend their working lives. One way in which this can be achieved is by employees refraining from retiring early. Factors predicting early retirement have been identified in quantitative research, but little is known on why and how these factors influence early retirement. The present qualitative study investigated which non-health related factors influence early retirement, and why and how these factors influence early retirement. Methods A qualitative study among 30 Dutch employees (60–64 years) who retired early, i.e. before the age of 65, was performed by means of face-to-face interviews. Participants were selected from the cohort Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM). Results For most employees, a combination of factors played a role in the transition from work to early retirement, and the specific factors involved differed between individuals. Participants reported various factors that pushed towards early retirement (‘push factors’), including organizational changes at work, conflicts at work, high work pressure, high physical job demands, and insufficient use of their skills and knowledge by others in the organization. Employees who reported such push factors towards early retirement often felt unable to find another job. Factors attracting towards early retirement (‘pull factors’) included the wish to do other things outside of work, enjoy life, have more flexibility, spend more time with a spouse or grandchildren, and care for others. In addition, the financial opportunity to retire early played an important role. Factors influenced early retirement via changes in the motivation, ability and opportunity to continue working or retire early. Conclusion To support the prolongation of working life, it seems important to improve the fit between the physical and

  17. An Analysis of the California State University and Colleges Early Retirement Incentive Program: A Report Pursuant to Chapter 656 of the Statutes of 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Raymond M.

    The California State University and Colleges' (CSUC) Early Retirement Incentive (ERI) Program is described, and information is presented of those who retire during a three-month period with an incentive bonus of two additional years of (unearned) retirement service credit. During the eligibility period 1,047 CSUC employees retired, and it appears…

  18. Current determinants of early retirement among blue collar workers in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    The current demographic trend in Poland indicates a progressive ageing process, which will result in a decreased number of persons at the age of work capability. Thus it is essential to find out the reasons for the diminished occupational activity of elderly workers. The aim of the project was to identify the factors that significantly contribute to early retirement during the period of socioeconomic transformation in Poland. The analysis concerned 637 workers, aged over 45 years, but before reaching the age of retirement (60 years for women and 65 years for men) who were employed in selected industrial enterprises at technological or production-related departments. The study group was recruited from the population of former workers who quit their employment between 1996 and 2000, before they reached the age of retirement. The reference population, matched for age (+/- 3 years) and gender, comprised workers at similar workposts. The following groups of variables were found to be significant risk factors for early retirement: variables describing the conditions of work (piecework system, OR = 7.00, 95% CI: 2.01-24.37; heavy lifting at work OR = 2.24, 95% CI: 1.20-4.17) and variables related to the household characteristics (shortage of leisure time, OR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.16-4.67), health condition (disability, OR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.09-3.21; increased rate of sickness absence, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.52-3.17), and alcohol abuse (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.33-7.64). The data analysis revealed a spectrum of factors that either contribute to or decrease the risk for early retirement. These may be used as a reference in taking on activities aimed at preventing this adverse trend and stimulating occupational activity of elderly workers.

  19. Association between perceived present working conditions and demands versus attitude to early retirement among construction workers.

    PubMed

    Jebens, Einar; Medbø, Jon I; Knutsen, Oddvar; Mamen, Asgeir; Veiersted, Kaj Bo

    2014-01-01

    Early retirement is an increasing problem in the construction industry. There is limited information about causes leading employees to leave working life early. We have compared construction workers present situation with their perception of future demands at work to avoid early retirement. All 87 employees in a medium-sized Norwegian construction company participated in the study. All were men and answered questionnaires on health and pain, work ability, mechanical exposure, psychosocial conditions, and demands regarding future working conditions. Most workers showed good work ability, irrespective of age. Many reported high levels of mechanical exposure at work. The level of musculoskeletal pain was higher in the middle-aged (30-50 year old) age groups and seniors aged over 50 years than among the youngest workers less than 30 years of age. All workers reported that good health was important for continued working. Most workers stated that future work must not be too physically demanding. Many workers reported relatively low job satisfaction; consequently an interesting job was rated as important for continuing work. Good social conditions were a high priority. According to the examined construction workers, good health and reduced levels of mechanical exposure at work are essential to avoid early retirement.

  20. Mind the gap: the distributional effects of raising the early eligibility age and full retirement age.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6 (MINT6) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: increase the gap between the EEA and FRA by raising only the FRA, increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. Although all three options would improve system solvency by similar proportions, their effect on individual beneficiaries in the future would vary. Benefit reductions are greater under the proposals with more months between the EEA and FRA, while the option that maintains a 4-year gap results in benefit increases for some beneficiaries compared with current law.

  1. Early Retirement: A Meta-Analysis of Its Antecedent and Subsequent Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Topa, Gabriela; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Early or voluntary retirement (ER) can be defined as the full exit from an organizational job or career path of long duration, decided by individuals of a certain age at the mid or late career before mandatory retirement age, with the aim of reducing their attachment to work and closing a process of gradual psychological disengagement from working life. Given the swinging movements that characterize employment policies, the potential effects of ER—both for individuals and society—are still controversial. This meta-analysis examined the relationships between ER and its antecedent and subsequent correlates. Our review of the literature was generated with 151 empirical studies, containing a total number of 706,937 participants, with a wide range of sample sizes (from N = 27 to N = 127,384 participants) and 380 independent effect sizes (ESs), which included 171 independent samples. A negligible ES value for antecedent correlates of early retirement (family pull, job stress, job satisfaction, and income) was obtained (which ranged from r = −0.13 to 0.19), while a fair ES was obtained for workplace timing for retirement, organizational pressures, financial security, and poor physical and mental health, (ranging from r = 0.28 to 0.25). Regarding ER subsequent correlates, poor ESs were obtained, ranging from r = 0.08 to 0.18 for the relationships with subsequent correlates, and fair ESs only for social engagement (r = −0.25). Examination of the potential moderator variables has been conducted. Only a reduced percentage of variability of primary studies has been explained by moderators. Although potential moderator factors were examined, there are several unknown or not measurable factors which contribute to ER and about which there are very little data available. The discussion is aimed to offer theoretical and empirical implications suggestion in order to improve employee's well-being. PMID:29354075

  2. The Impact of Physical Work Demands on Need for Recovery, Employment Status, Retirement Intentions, and Ability to Extend Working Careers: A Longitudinal Study Among Older Workers.

    PubMed

    Gommans, Fleur G; Jansen, Nicole W H; Mackey, Martin G; Stynen, Dave; de Grip, Andries; Kant, I Jmert

    2016-04-01

    Prospectively investigating whether different approaches of physical work demands are associated with need for recovery (NFR), employment status, retirement intentions, and ability to prolong working life among older employees from the industry and health care sector. A subsample from the Maastricht Cohort Study was studied (n = 1126). Poisson, Cox, and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate outcomes. Perceiving physical work demands as strenuous was associated with higher NFR. Continuous physical strain was associated with being out of employment 4 years later. Employees with the highest amount of physical work demands perceived they were less able to prolong working life, although no significant associations between physical work demands and retirement intentions were found. Overall, physical work demands were associated with adverse outcomes, with divergent insights for the different approaches of physical work demands.

  3. Smoking and subsequent risk of early retirement due to permanent disability.

    PubMed

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2004-03-01

    Smoking is the most important single preventable cause of a variety of common diseases, and a considerable share of premature death is attributable to smoking. Although the effects of smoking on morbidity and mortality are widely recognized, little is known about the impact of smoking on early retirement due to chronic disease. The objective of the study is to determine the effects of smoking behaviour on early retirement due to permanent disability in a large sample of the general population. Follow-up study based on data from three longitudinal population studies conducted in the Copenhagen area. The final study population comprised 9,053 persons, 5,623 men and 3,430 women. Endpoint was grant of disability pension in the period 1980-1985. Baseline information was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Information about disability pensions was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Data analysis was performed by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Smoking was found to be strongly associated with the risk of being granted a disability pension after adjustment for various confounders. The risk increased with daily consumption reaching a maximum odds ratio of 5.66 (1.88-17.00) and 5.61 (2.11-14.92) in heavily smoking men and women, respectively, who were below age 60. Smokers are at considerably higher risk of early retirement due to chronic disease. In addition to the burden of disease, this leads to social and economic problems for the individual and has a significant economic impact on society.

  4. Determinants of working until retirement compared to a transition to early retirement among older workers with and without chronic diseases: Results from a Dutch prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sewdas, Ranu; van der Beek, Allard J; de Wind, Astrid; van der Zwaan, Lennart G L; Boot, Cécile R L

    2018-05-01

    The ageing society and recent policy changes may lead to an increase of older workers with chronic diseases in the workforce. To date, it is unclear whether workers with chronic diseases have specific needs while employed. The aim of this study is to explore the differences in determinants of working until retirement compared to a reference group who have transitioned to early retirement among workers with and without chronic diseases. Dutch workers aged 57-62 years ( n = 2445) were selected from an existing prospective cohort study, 'STREAM'. The potential determinants were categorized into: individual, health, work-related and social factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between these determinants and working until retirement - once for workers with and once for those without chronic diseases. To test differences, we included an interaction term between the determinant and the covariate 'having a chronic disease yes/no' in the analyses of the total population. In total, 1652 (68%) persons were employed from 2011 to 2013. The majority of the determinants appeared to be similar for workers with or without a chronic disease; the interaction terms for these determinants and the covariate 'having a chronic disease' showed a p-value higher than 0.05, except for one individual factor (i.e. mastery) and one work-related factor (i.e. autonomy), which showed a p-value below 0.05. Higher mastery and higher autonomy were statistically significantly associated with working until retirement for those with chronic diseases, whereas they were not for those without chronic diseases. Differences between workers with and without chronic diseases may exist for working until a statutory retirement age. Interventions aimed at encouraging work participation of older workers should make a distinction between the two groups. Autonomy at work and mastery were found to be factors that may promote work participation until higher age, specifically

  5. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    PubMed

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women.

  6. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?*

    PubMed Central

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women. PMID:24319299

  7. Working conditions as predictors of retirement intentions and exit from paid employment: a 10-year follow-up of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ewan; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Head, Jenny; Shelton, Nicola; Stafford, Mai; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola

    Population ageing in Western countries has made delayed retirement and extended working life a policy priority in recent years. Retirement timing has been linked to individual factors such as health and wealth, but less is known about the role of the psychosocial work environment. This paper drew upon longitudinal data on 3462 workers aged 50-69 from five waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Regression models were used to assess the association of working conditions with preferred timing of retirement and actual work exit. Adjusting for a range of covariates, job demands (aspects of the job requiring sustained physical or psychological effort) were associated with preferences for earlier retirement (by 0.18 years; 95 % C.I. 0.06, 0.31). Decision authority was associated with preferences for later retirement (by 0.38 years; 95 % C.I. 0.23, 0.53) and reduced odds of work exit (OR = 0.93; 95 % C.I. 0.88, 0.97). Low recognition at work was associated with increased odds of work exit (OR = 1.23; 95 % C.I. 1.10, 1.43). There was little evidence of any interactive relationship between demands and resources. Efforts to extend working life should address issues relating to the immediate psychosocial work environment. Providing older workers with increased sense of control, and ensuring contributions are adequately recognised, may delay retirement intentions and the timing of labour market exit.

  8. Retirement and relevant contemplation.

    PubMed

    Khan, H U; Latif, S A

    2010-01-01

    Retirement literally means withdrawing from the service. The retirement age varies from country to country, generally between 55 and 70 years. There are many effects of retirement upon retirees. The physical and mental health may be disrupted or decline or may remain unaffected. Early retirement have an increased mortality than those who retired lately. Mandatory retirement is applicable to certain occupation like military personnel and airline pilot. Life after retirement from service may have many options like retired community, charities, tourism, and care for grand children or devote to a hobby or sports. The responsibilities of the Government, family and society are the key for the betterment of retired persons. Staying healthy, maintaining social support, spiritual life, good finance and making daily routine prevent stress after retirement.

  9. Organizational change, psychosocial work environment, and non-disability early retirement: a prospective study among senior public employees.

    PubMed

    Breinegaard, Nina; Jensen, Johan Høy; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2017-05-01

    Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011. Weekly data on non-disability early retirement transfer were obtained from the DREAM register database, which holds weekly information about all public benefit payments in Denmark. Hazard ratios (HR) for early retirement following employees' 60 th birthday were estimated with Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Results Exposure to change of management [HR 1.37, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.13-1.66], mergers (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48), and relocation of work unit (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.54) increased rate of non-disability early retirement, while demerging of work unit did not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.79-1.33). Work units with lower levels of social capital (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.41), organizational justice, (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32), and quality of management (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.25) increased rate of early retirement. Conclusion Organizational change and poor psychosocial work environment contribute to non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees, measured at work-unit level.

  10. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003–2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998–2002. In addition, GPs’ retirement age was higher in 2003–2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. Methods In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. Results For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice within one year and the

  11. Motives for early retirement of self-employed GPs in the Netherlands: a comparison of two time periods.

    PubMed

    Van Greuningen, Malou; Heiligers, Phil J M; Van der Velden, Lud F J

    2012-12-18

    The high cost of training and the relatively long period of training for physicians make it beneficial to stimulate physicians to retire later. Therefore, a better understanding of the link between the factors influencing the decision to retire and actual turnover would benefit policies designed to encourage later retirement. This study focuses on actual GP turnover and the determining factors for this in the Netherlands. The period 2003-2007 saw fewer GPs retiring from general practice than the period 1998-2002. In addition, GPs' retirement age was higher in 2003-2007. For these two periods, we analysed work perception, objective workload and reasons for leaving, and related these with the probability that GPs would leave general practice at an early age. In 2003, a first retrospective survey was sent to 520 self-employed GPs who had retired between 1998 and 2002. In 2008, the same survey was sent to 405 GPs who had retired between 2003 and 2007. The response rates were 60% and 54%, respectively. Analyses were done to compare work perception, objective workload, external factors and personal reasons for retiring. For both male and female GPs, work perception was different in the periods under scrutiny: both groups reported greater job satisfaction and a lower degree of emotional exhaustion in the later period, although there was no notable difference in subjective workload. The objective workload was lower in the second period. Moreover, most external factors and personal reasons that may contribute to the decision to retire were reported as less important in the second period. There was a stronger decrease in the probability that female GPs leave general practice within one year than for male GPs. This underscores the gender differences and the need for disaggregated data collection. The results of this study suggest that the decrease in the probability of GPs leaving general practice within one year and the increasing retirement age are caused by a decrease in

  12. Comparison the effects of poor health and low income on early retirement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    HOMAIE RAD, Enayatollah; RASHIDIAN, Arash; ARAB, Mohamad; SOURI, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to estimate the effects of poor health and low income on early retirement. For this purpose systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Web of Science, PUBMED and Scopus databases were searched systematically. Finally 17 surveys were added in meta-analysis. These studies were conducted in 13 countries. At the end a Meta regression was done to show the effects of welfare system type on effect sizes of poor health and low income. The results of this study showed that poor health had effect on the risk of early retirement. (Poor health pooled effect sizes: 1.279 CI: (1.15 1.41), low income pooled effect sizes: 1.042 CI: (0.92 1.17), (poor health pooled marginal effects: 0.046 CI: (−0.03 0.12), low income pooled marginal effects: −0.002 CI: (−0.003 0.000). The results of this study showed that association between poor health and early retirement was stronger in comparison with low income and early retirement. PMID:28484145

  13. Comparison the effects of poor health and low income on early retirement: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohamad; Souri, Ali

    2017-08-08

    The main aim of this study was to estimate the effects of poor health and low income on early retirement. For this purpose systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Web of Science, PUBMED and Scopus databases were searched systematically. Finally 17 surveys were added in meta-analysis. These studies were conducted in 13 countries. At the end a Meta regression was done to show the effects of welfare system type on effect sizes of poor health and low income. The results of this study showed that poor health had effect on the risk of early retirement. (Poor health pooled effect sizes: 1.279 CI: (1.15 1.41), low income pooled effect sizes: 1.042 CI: (0.92 1.17), (poor health pooled marginal effects: 0.046 CI: (-0.03 0.12), low income pooled marginal effects: -0.002 CI: (-0.003 0.000). The results of this study showed that association between poor health and early retirement was stronger in comparison with low income and early retirement.

  14. An estimate of the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Interest in the impact of burnout on physicians has been growing because of the possible burden this may have on health care systems. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of burnout on early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of practicing physicians in Canada. Methods Using an economic model, the costs related to early retirement and reduction in clinical hours of physicians were compared for those who were experiencing burnout against a scenario in which they did not experience burnout. The January 2012 Canadian Medical Association Masterfile was used to determine the number of practicing physicians. Transition probabilities were estimated using 2007–2008 Canadian Physician Health Survey and 2007 National Physician Survey data. Adjustments were also applied to outcome estimates based on ratio of actual to planned retirement and reduction in clinical hours. Results The total cost of burnout for all physicians practicing in Canada is estimated to be $213.1 million ($185.2 million due to early retirement and $27.9 million due to reduced clinical hours). Family physicians accounted for 58.8% of the burnout costs, followed by surgeons for 24.6% and other specialists for 16.6%. Conclusion The cost of burnout associated with early retirement and reduction in clinical hours is substantial and a significant proportion of practicing physicians experience symptoms of burnout. As health systems struggle with human resource shortages and expanding waiting times, this estimate sheds light on the extent to which the burden could be potentially decreased through prevention and promotion activities to address burnout among physicians. PMID:24927847

  15. An Analysis of Factors Related to Retirement Intentions of Upper Level Civil Service Employees in the Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    workforce that is incapable of performing organizational objectives (Humple and Lyons , 1983; Tucker, 1985). . Research into retirement within the federal...organization (Donnelly, Gibson, Ivancevich ; 1984). The present study focuses on civilian middle managers, GM13 to GMI5, within technical career fields...Masson, Demestree, and Lyon ; 1979). The second study performed a factorial analysis on data from 457 respondents between the ages of 25 to 64 that worked

  16. Retirement Options to Offer College Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felicetti, Daniel A.

    1982-01-01

    Retirement options available to institutions are outlined, including early retirement incentives, phased retirement, facilitating consulting opportunities, travel and outplacement services, maintaining community involvement, annuities, and pensions. Suggestions are made for increasing cost-effectiveness and fitting the options to local…

  17. The impact of health changes on labor supply: evidence from merged data on individual objective medical diagnosis codes and early retirement behavior.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene

    2012-06-01

    The justification bias in the estimated impact of health shocks on retirement is mitigated by using objective health measures from a large, register-based longitudinal data set including medical diagnosis codes, along with labor market status, financial, and socio-economic variables. The duration until retirement is modeled using single and competing risk specifications, observed and unobserved heterogeneity, and flexible baseline hazards. Wealth is used as a proxy for elapsed duration to mitigate the potential selection bias stemming from conditioning on initial participation. The competing risk specification distinguishes complete multiperiod routes to retirement, such as unemployment followed by early retirement. A result on comparison of coefficients across all states is offered. The empirical results indicate a strong impact of health changes on retirement and hence a large potential for public policy measures intended to retain older workers longer in the labor force. Disability responds more to health shocks than early retirement, especially to diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as mental and behavioral disorders. Some unemployment spells followed by early retirement appear voluntary and spurred by life style diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Home-care workers: work conditions and occupational exclusion: a comparison between carers on early-retirement and regular pensions.

    PubMed

    Aronsson, G; Astvik, W; Thulin, A B

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify conditions associated with occupational exclusion from home-caring. In a group of 346 home-care workers who responded to a questionnaire, there were 18 newly-retired carers on early-retirement/disability pensions, and 28 carers who had just taken regular retirement. A discriminant analysis was conducted to identify work conditions that differentiated the two groups. The results show that a combination of variables--functional impairment (pain when doing physical work), psychosomatic complaints, and nature of relationship with/attitude to clients--significantly differentiated the two groups. When the discriminant coefficients were applied to other groups--older full-time and part-time employees (n = 224), carers who had undergone job transfers, and carers on long-term sick leave--the order of groups by discriminant-point score was largely as expected. The results are discussed in relation to dilemmas, psychological demands and organizational circumstances prevailing in home-care work.

  19. The contribution of former work-related activity levels to predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement: moderating role of educational level and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during retirement, so this is an important

  20. The Contribution of Former Work-Related Activity Levels to Predict Physical Activity and Sedentary Time during Early Retirement: Moderating Role of Educational Level and Physical Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Background The transition to retirement introduces a decline in total physical activity and an increase in TV viewing time. Nonetheless, as more time becomes available, early retirement is an ideal stage to implement health interventions. Therefore, knowledge on specific determinants of physical activity and sedentary time is needed. Former work-related physical activity has been proposed as a potential determinant, but concrete evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if former work-related sitting, standing, walking or vigorous activities predict physical activity and sedentary time during early retirement. Additionally, moderating effects of educational level and physical functioning were examined. Methods In total, 392 recently retired Belgian adults (>6 months, <5 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the SF-36 Health Survey and a questionnaire on sociodemographics and former work-related activities. Generalized linear regression analyses were conducted in R. Moderating effects were examined by adding cross-products to the models. Results More former work-related sitting was predictive of more screen time during retirement. Lower levels of former work-related vigorous activities and higher levels of former work-related walking were associated with respectively more cycling for transport and more walking for transport during retirement. None of the predictors significantly explained passive transportation, cycling and walking for recreation, and leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during retirement. Several moderating effects were found, but the direction of the interactions was not univocal. Conclusions Former-work related behaviors are of limited importance to explain physical activity during early retirement, so future studies should focus on other individual, social and environmental determinants. Nonetheless, adults who previously had a sedentary job had higher levels of screen time during

  1. Science of Materials: A Case Study of Intentional Teaching in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…

  2. Occupational stress and its association with early retirement and subjective need for occupational rehabilitation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Hilke M; Steimann, Monika; Rotsch, Martin; Zurborn, Karl-Heinz; Koch, Uwe; Bergelt, Corinna

    2013-08-01

    Returning to work often plays an important role for cancer survivors. Occupational stress may hamper a successful return to work, so cancer survivors should be given the opportunity to address occupational stress issues before returning to work. We investigated the amount of occupational stress among cancer patients and whether it is associated with their well-being, their subjective need for occupational rehabilitation and elevations in their risk of early retirement. At the beginning of rehabilitation, we asked cancer patients to respond to occupation-related and health-related questionnaires. We used t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression analyses to address our research questions. A total of 477 patients participated in the study. Of these, 19% were occupationally stressed, and 26% reported subjective need for occupational rehabilitation. Patients who reported work-related stress had a diminished quality of life, were more likely to report subjective need for occupational rehabilitation (OR = 2.16), and had a higher risk of early retirement (OR = 5.44). Furthermore, cancer patients reported deficits in both active coping abilities and mental stability at work. Because occupational stress is associated with a higher risk of early retirement, both patients and physicians should take work-related problems seriously. Screening patients for occupational stress may help physicians identify patients who are at risk of experiencing problematic work re-entries. Furthermore, the results of the study suggest that cancer patients might have problems maintaining confidence in their abilities to solve work-related problems. Therefore, facilitating the development of a perception of self-efficacy might be an important treatment goal. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Reflections on Women's Retirement.

    PubMed

    Karpen, Ruth Ray

    2017-02-01

    Popular literature often claims that baby boom women will "redefine" retirement, and there is some evidence in the gerontological literature that this may be true. However, considerably more research needs to be done on this generation of retirees. The author, a baby boomer herself, draws on recent research on retirement and her own experiences in early retirement to examine what a "good retirement" might mean, considering the diversity of baby boomers, the range of their experiences, and their relationship to work. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The role of retiree health insurance in the early retirement of public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Shoven, John B; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2014-12-01

    Most government employees have access to retiree health coverage, which provides them with group health coverage even if they retire before Medicare eligibility. We study the impact of retiree health coverage on the labor supply of public sector workers between the ages of 55 and 64. We find that retiree health coverage raises the probability of stopping full time work by 4.3 percentage points (around 38 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 55-59, and by 6.7 percentage points (around 26 percent) over two years among public sector workers aged 60-64. In the younger age group, retiree health insurance mostly seems to facilitate transitions to part-time work rather than full retirement. However, in the older age group, it increases the probability of stopping work entirely by 4.3 percentage points (around 22 percent). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints: an 11-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor; Maribo, Thomas

    2016-05-04

    Studies have shown a negative social gradient in the incidence of early retirement. To prevent undesired early retirement, there is a need for knowledge of specific predictors in addition to social factors with a limited potential for change. The main purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal complaints and working conditions as predictors of early retirement among Danish female cleaners. Using Cox regression with an adjustment for extraneous factors, we compared the risk of disability pension and retirement before the nominal retirement age (65 years) in an 11-year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. The adjusted hazard rate (HR) for disability pension among cleaners compared to the control group was 2.27 (95% CI 1.58 to 3.28) and, for voluntary early retirement, 1.01 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.20). In the subset of cleaners, the predictors of disability pension were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.98 (95% CI 1.47 to 2.67), elbow pain HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) and symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand HR: 1.58 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.20). Predictors of voluntary early retirement were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.40 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.67) and floor mopping for more than 10 h per week HR: 1.20 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.40). Cleaners have a twofold higher risk of disability pension compared to the control group. Risk factors for disability pension among cleaners were persistent shoulder and elbow pain together with symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand. The findings of specific health related predictors of early retirement could be used in secondary prevention with targeted temporary reduced workload.

  6. Disability retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Eligibility for disability retirement is discussed. General guidelines and a few standards are given. Usually the same basic medical principles apply to the evaluation of claims for disability retirement as apply to determining medical suitability for initial employment.

  7. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these…

  8. The personal and national costs of early retirement because of spinal disorders: impacts on income, taxes, and government support payments.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah J; Shrestha, Rupendra N; Percival, Richard; Passey, Megan E; Callander, Emily J; Kelly, Simon J

    2012-12-01

    Spinal disorders can reduce an individual's ability to participate in the labor force, and this can lead to considerable impacts on both the individual and the state. This study was aimed to quantify the personal cost of lost income and the cost to the state from lost income taxation, increased benefits payments, and lost gross domestic product (GDP) as a result of early retirement because of spinal disorders in Australians aged 45 to 64 years in 2009. This was done using cross-sectional analysis of the base population of Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model built on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, and STINMOD, an income and savings microsimulation model. Linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between spinal disorders, labor force participation, income, taxation, and government support payments. It was found that individuals aged 45 to 64 years who have retired early because of spinal disorders have significantly lower income (79% less; 95% confidence interval [CI], -84.7, -71.1; p<.0001), pay significantly less taxation (100% less; 95% CI, -100.0, 99.9; p<.0001), and receive significantly more in government support payments (21,000% more; 95% CI, 12,767.0, 35,336.4; p<.0001) than those employed full time with no health condition. Individuals who have retired early because of spinal disorders have a median value of total weekly income of only AU$310, whereas those who are employed full time are likely to receive four times this. This has a large national aggregate impact, with AU$4.8 billion lost in annual individual earnings, AU$622 million in additional welfare payments, AU$497 million lost in taxation revenue for governments, and AU$2.9 billion in lost GDP: all attributable to spinal disorders through their impact on labor force participation. Although the individual has to bear the economic costs of lost income in addition to the burden of the condition itself, the state

  9. Using Peer Injunctive Norms to Predict Early Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Adam C.; Aloise-Young, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the importance of the perceived injunctive norm to predict early adolescent cigarette smoking intentions. A total of 271 6th graders completed a survey that included perceived prevalence of friend smoking (descriptive norm), perceptions of friends’ disapproval of smoking (injunctive norm), and future smoking intentions. Participants also listed their five best friends, in which the actual injunctive norm was calculated. Results showed that smoking intentions were significantly correlated with the perceived injunctive norm but not with the actual injunctive norm. Secondly, the perceived injunctive norm predicted an additional 3.4% of variance in smoking intentions above and beyond the perceived descriptive norm. These results demonstrate the importance of the perceived injunctive norm in predicting early adolescent smoking intentions. PMID:24078745

  10. Factors Related to Teachers' Intention to Leave the Classroom Early

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippens, Abby; Ricketts, John C.; Morgan, A. Christian; Navarro, Marie; Flanders, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of retaining teachers in the profession of agricultural education is a prevalent and growing problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary factors contributing to intention to leave the profession among Georgia agriculture teachers. Teacher-participants responded to a web-based survey which…

  11. Plan Now to Prepare for Your Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    For teachers, in particular, the importance of early retirement investing has never been more critical. The reality is that, decades from now, when teachers arrive at retirement age, their current state teacher retirement plan may have changed substantially. As a result, they do not want to reach retirement and regret that they never considered…

  12. Senior Law Faculty Attitudes toward Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the retirement plans and personal characteristics of 273 senior law school faculty, focusing on health status, income, job satisfaction, and preferred age of retirement. The study suggests that early retirement incentives and a "senior faculty" alternative to full retirement are positive institutional options. (DB)

  13. Labour market trajectories and early retirement due to permanent disability: a study based on 14 972 new cases in Spain.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Fernando G; Duran, Xavier; Gimeno, David; Vanroelen, Christophe; Martínez, José Miguel

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the impact of labour market trajectory indicators on early retirement, measured by age at onset of permanent disability (PD). Four labour market trajectory indicators were reconstructed in 14 972 new cases of PD recognized between 2004 and 2010: (1) number of employment contracts, (2) number of unemployment periods, (3) number of periods without social security affiliation and (4) percentage of time spent in inactivity. The outcome was measured as the age at onset of PD. Median differences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were compared using a median regression. Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for occupational category and total time elapsed between the beginning of working life and the age at onset of PD: separately for each labour market indicator, and adjusted for each other. In men, the age at the onset of PD for workers with 15 or more employment contracts decreased by 4.8 years; and for workers with five or more periods without affiliation it decreased by 4.6 years. In women, the corresponding decreases were 5.8 years for 15 or more contracts and 7.2 years for five or more unaffiliated periods. The results for four indicators slightly changed when they were mutually adjusted. Poor employment conditions, such as having a high number of periods without affiliation, a high number of contracts (in men) and a higher percentage of inactive time (in women) are associated with early retirement due to PD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Incentive Early Retirement Programs for Faculty: Innovative Responses to a Changing Environment. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Kepple, Thomas R., Jr.

    The literature on incentive early retirement for faculty members is reviewed, including the findings of studies that have assessed the effectiveness of such programs. In addition to describing different types of programs and the incentives offered, attention is directed to legal issues, costs and benefits, assessing whether a program is feasible,…

  15. Early Career Teacher Attrition: Intentions of Teachers Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clandinin, D. Jean; Long, Julie; Schaefer, Lee; Downey, C. Aiden; Steeves, Pam; Pinnegar, Eliza; McKenzie Robblee, Sue; Wnuk, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    Early career teacher attrition has most often been conceptualized as either a problem associated with individual factors (e.g. burnout) or a problem associated with contextual factors (e.g. support and salary). This study considered early career teacher attrition as an identity making process that involves a complex negotiation between individual…

  16. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... that agencies treat employees on military duty, for all practical purposes, as though they were still on the job. Further, employees are not to be disadvantaged because of their military service. In... description of the types of personnel actions anticipated as a result of the agency's need for voluntary early...

  17. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that agencies treat employees on military duty, for all practical purposes, as though they were still on the job. Further, employees are not to be disadvantaged because of their military service. In... description of the types of personnel actions anticipated as a result of the agency's need for voluntary early...

  18. 5 CFR 831.114 - Voluntary early retirement-substantial delayering, reorganization, reduction in force, transfer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that agencies treat employees on military duty, for all practical purposes, as though they were still on the job. Further, employees are not to be disadvantaged because of their military service. In... description of the types of personnel actions anticipated as a result of the agency's need for voluntary early...

  19. Impact of Retirement Choices of Early Career Marines: A Choice Analysis Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    CHOICES OF EARLY CAREER MARINES: A CHOICE ANALYSIS MODEL by André G. La Taste Aaron Masaitis March 2013 Thesis Advisor: Michael Dixon... ANALYSIS MODEL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) André G. La Taste, Aaron Masaitis 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate...system. The research will be conducted using a discrete choice analysis methodology that is often used to differentiate factors that lead to

  20. Detecting gender before you know it: How implementation intentions control early gender categorization.

    PubMed

    Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Jaudas, Alexander; Achtziger, Anja

    2016-10-15

    Gender categorization is highly automatic. Studies measuring ERPs during the presentation of male and female faces in a categorization task showed that this categorization is extremely quick (around 130ms, indicated by the N170). We tested whether this automatic process can be controlled by goal intentions and implementation intentions. First, we replicated the N170 modulation on gender-incongruent faces as reported in previous research. This effect was only observed in a task in which faces had to be categorized according to gender, but not in a task that required responding to a visual feature added to the face stimuli (the color of a dot) while gender was irrelevant. Second, it turned out that the N170 modulation on gender-incongruent faces was altered if a goal intention was set that aimed at controlling a gender bias. We interpret this finding as an indicator of nonconscious goal pursuit. The N170 modulation was completely absent when this goal intention was furnished with an implementation intention. In contrast, intentions did not alter brain activity at a later time window (P300), which is associated with more complex and rather conscious processes. In line with previous research, the P300 was modulated by gender incongruency even if individuals were strongly involved in another task, demonstrating the automaticity of gender detection. We interpret our findings as evidence that automatic gender categorization that occurs at a very early processing stage can be effectively controlled by intentions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In-Service and Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Views and Intentions about ICT Use in Early Childhood Settings: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gialamas, Vasilis; Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra

    2010-01-01

    This paper regards a comparative study which investigates in-service and pre-service Greek early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. Views and intentions were investigated via a questionnaire administered to 240 in-service and 428 pre-service early childhood teachers.…

  2. Health as a predictor of early retirement before and after introduction of a flexible statutory pension age in Finland.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Taina; Laaksonen, Mikko; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Little is known of how pension reforms affect the retirement decisions of people with different health statuses, although this is crucial for the understanding of the broader societal impact of pension policies and for future policy development. We assessed how the Finnish statutory pension age reform introduced in 2005 influenced the role of health as a predictor of retirement. We used register-based data and cox regression analysis to examine the association of health (measured by purchases of psychotropic medication, hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, and the number of any prescription medications) with the risk of retirement at age 63-64 among those subject to the old pension system with fixed age limit at 65 (pre-reform group born in 1937-1941) and the new flexible system with 63 as the lower age limit (post-reform group born in 1941-1945) while controlling for socio-demographic factors. Retirement at age 63-64 was more likely among the post- than the pre-reform group (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.43-1.57). This reform-related increase in retirement was more pronounced among those without a history of psychotropic medication or hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, as well as among those with below median level medication use. As a result, poor health became a weaker predictor of retirement after the reform. Contrary to the expectations of the Finnish pension reform aimed at extending working lives, offering choice with respect to the timing of retirement may actually encourage healthy workers to choose earlier retirement regardless of the provided economic incentives for continuing in work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years": A Proposed Framework of Young Children's Musical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyajolu, Angela; Ockelford, Adam

    2016-01-01

    "Sounds of Intent in the Early Years" explores the musical development of children from birth to five years of age. Observational evidence has been utilised together with key literature on musical development and core concepts of zygonic theory (Ockelford, 2013) to investigate the applicability of the original "Sounds of…

  4. Help-seeking intentions for early dementia diagnosis in a sample of Irish adults.

    PubMed

    Devoy, Susan; Simpson, Ellen Elizabeth Anne

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors that may increase intentions to seek help for an early dementia diagnosis. Early dementia diagnosis in Ireland is low, reducing the opportunity for intervention, which can delay progression, reduce psychological distress and increase social supports. Using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and a mixed methods approach, three focus groups were conducted (N = 22) to illicit attitudes and beliefs about help seeking for an early dementia diagnosis. The findings informed the development of the Help Seeking Intentions for Early Dementia Diagnosis (HSIEDD) questionnaire which was piloted and then administered to a sample of community dwelling adults from Dublin and Kildare (N = 95). Content analysis revealed participants held knowledge of the symptoms of dementia but not about available interventions. Facilitators of help seeking were family, friends and peers alongside well informed health professionals. Barriers to seeking help were a lack of knowledge, fear, loss, stigma and inaccessible services. The quantitative findings suggest the TPB constructs account for almost 28% of the variance in intentions to seek help for an early diagnosis of dementia, after controlling for sociodemographic variables and knowledge of dementia. In the final step of the regression analysis, the main predictors of help seeking were knowledge of dementia and subjective norm, accounting for 6% and 8% of the variance, respectively. Future interventions should aim to increase awareness of the support available to those experiencing early memory problems, and should highlight the supportive role that family, friends, peers and health professionals could provide.

  5. Domains of cognitive function in early old age: which ones are predicted by pre-retirement psychosocial work characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, Erika; Andel, Ross; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Berr, Claudine

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work characteristics may predict cognitive functioning after retirement. However, little research has explored specific cognitive domains associated with psychosocial work environments. Our study tested whether exposure to job demands, job control, and their combination during working life predicted post-retirement performance on eight cognitive tests. Methods We used data from French GAZEL cohort members who had undergone post-retirement cognitive testing (n=2,149). Psychosocial job characteristics were measured on average four years before retirement using Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire (job demands, job control, demand-control combinations). We tested associations between these exposures and post-retirement performance on tests of executive function, visual-motor speed, psycho-motor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency using OLS regression. Results Low job control during working life was negatively associated with executive function, psychomotor speed, phonemic fluency, and semantic fluency after retirement (p’s<.05) even after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic status, health and social behaviours, and vascular risk factors. Both passive (low-demand, low-control) and high-strain (high-demand, low-control) jobs were associated with lower scores on phonemic and semantic fluency when compared to low-strain (low-demand, high-control) jobs. Conclusions Low job control, in combination with both high and low job demands, is associated with post-retirement deficits in some, but not all, cognitive domains. In addition to work stress, associations between passive work and subsequent cognitive function may implicate lack of cognitive engagement at work as a risk factor for future cognitive difficulties. PMID:27188277

  6. Domains of cognitive function in early old age: which ones are predicted by pre-retirement psychosocial work characteristics?

    PubMed

    Sabbath, Erika L; Andel, Ross; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Berr, Claudine

    2016-10-01

    Psychosocial work characteristics may predict cognitive functioning after retirement. However, little research has explored specific cognitive domains associated with psychosocial work environments. Our study tested whether exposure to job demands, job control and their combination during working life predicted post-retirement performance on eight cognitive tests. We used data from French GAZEL cohort members who had undergone post-retirement cognitive testing (n=2149). Psychosocial job characteristics were measured on average for 4 years before retirement using Karasek's Job Content Questionnaire (job demands, job control and demand-control combinations). We tested associations between these exposures and post-retirement performance on tests for executive function, visual-motor speed, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency using ordinary least squares regression. Low job control during working life was negatively associated with executive function, psychomotor speed, phonemic fluency and semantic fluency after retirement (p's<0.05), even after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic status, health and social behaviours and vascular risk factors. Both passive (low-demand, low-control) and high-strain (high-demand, low-control) jobs were associated with lower scores on phonemic and semantic fluency when compared to low-strain (low-demand, high-control) jobs. Low job control, in combination with both high and low-job demands, is associated with post-retirement deficits in some, but not all, cognitive domains. In addition to work stress, associations between passive work and subsequent cognitive function may implicate lack of cognitive engagement at work as a risk factor for future cognitive difficulties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Reinventing Military Retirement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    private sector retirement plan principles to the military retirement system. The increasing cost and generosity of military retirement coupled with political pressures to reduce federal spending have focused attention on reforming the military retirement system. Previous studies of the military retirement system are addressed and critiqued. Private retirement options are reviewed and a 401(k) plan is proposed to replace the current military retirement system. The new retirement system would eventually reduce federal outlays for military retirement by 66 percent while

  8. Retirement | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov Websites

    Comp All Other Programs Features Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Member Services Seminars Benefits > Retirement Online Counselor Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Member Welcome to the Retirement Section News Empower Increases Participant Account Security Help What retirement

  9. TIAA-CREF Retirement Options and Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastable, C. W.; Brady, Gerald P.

    1979-01-01

    The various retirement income options available to TIAA-CREF participants and federal taxes on each option are explained. The importance of early planning for retirement income is stressed and it is suggested that assessment of future financial needs will indicate the most appropriate settlement mode for retirement. (SF)

  10. Personal Values: Psychological Determinants of Retirement Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William F.

    With the trend toward early retirement and the fact that people are living to an older average age, more years of an individual's life will be spent in retirement. To examine personal values as psychological determinants of the retirement preparation process, 206 classified university employees, between the ages of 50 and 65 years of age,…

  11. 77 FR 66149 - Retirement of FASTforward Technology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... difficult. In February 2009, the USPS TM announced its intention to retire the FASTforward system by the end...

  12. Impact of 9/11-related chronic conditions and PTSD comorbidity on early retirement and job loss among World Trade Center disaster rescue and recovery workers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengchao; Brackbill, Robert M; Locke, Sean; Stellman, Steven D; Gargano, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    The economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attacks has rarely been studied. We examined the association between 9/11-related chronic health conditions with or without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and one important aspect of the economic impact, retirement, and job loss before age 60. A total of 7,662 workers who participated in the World Trade Center Health Registry surveys were studied. Logistic regression models examined the association of 9/11-related health and labor force exit. Workers with chronic conditions were more likely to experience early retirement and job loss, and the association was stronger in the presence of PTSD comorbidity: the odds ratios for reporting early retirement or job loss were increased considerably when chronic conditions were comorbid with PTSD. Disaster-related health burden directly impacts premature labor force exit and income. Future evaluation of disaster outcome should include its long-term impact on labor force. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:731-741, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Which psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics predict changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement? A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2017-01-01

    Background In the context of healthy ageing, it is necessary to identify opportunities to implement health interventions in order to develop an active lifestyle with sufficient physical activity and limited sedentary time in middle-aged and older adults. The transition to retirement is such an opportunity, as individuals tend to establish new routines at the start of retirement. Before health interventions can be developed, the psychological, social and physical environmental determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviors during early retirement should be identified, ideally with longitudinal studies. The aim of this paper was first to examine whether psychological, social and physical environmental factors at the start of retirement predict longitudinal changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviors during the first years of retirement. Second, moderating effects of gender and educational levels were examined. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in Flanders, Belgium. In total, 180 recently retired (>1 month, <2 years at baseline) adults completed a postal questionnaire twice (in 2012–2013 and two years later in 2014–2015). The validated questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychological, social and physical environmental characteristics. Multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results Higher perceived residential density (p < 0.001) and lower aesthetics (p = 0.08) predicted an increase in active transportation (adjusted R2 = 0.18). Higher baseline self-efficacy was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.13). A more positive perception of old age (p = 0.04) and perceiving less street connectivity (p = 0.001) were associated with an increase in screen time (adjusted R2 = 0.06). Finally, higher baseline levels of modeling from friends (p = 0.06) and lower perceived land

  14. Retirement Satisfaction among Coal Miners: A Correlational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Diane J.; And Others

    Because of increases in life expectancy and early retirement, the quality of life during retirement is of concern to many people. Previous research has found that health and adequate income have consistently been related to life satisfaction during retirement. Several satisfaction measures were administered to a group of 55 retired coal miners.…

  15. Understanding landowner intentions to create early successional forest habitat in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Stedman, Richard C.; Allred, Shorna B.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Early successional forest habitat (ESH) and associated wildlife species in the northeastern United States are in decline. One way to help create early successional forest conditions is engaging private forest landowners in even-aged forest management because their limited participation may have contributed to declines in ESH for wildlife species of high conservation concern. We applied the reasoned action approach from social psychology to predict intentions of landowners in the 13-county Southern Tier of New York State, USA, to conduct patch-cuts, which is a type of even-aged forest management. We tested the predictive ability of the model using data from a mail survey of landowners conducted from November 2010 to January 2011. Landowner intention to conduct patch-cuts was high (55% of respondents), with attitude being the strongest direct predictor of behavioral intention. Our results suggest that patch-cutting intentions are most likely expressed by landowners who think the behavior is good for their land and wildlife, believe in positive outcomes of land and wildlife management, belong to a game wildlife organization, and have conducted patch-cuts in the past. Strategies to engage more landowners in ESH management will have the highest likelihood of success if outreach efforts focus on influencing behavioral beliefs and subsequently attitudes, possibly working with game wildlife organizations to communicate a unified message for habitat conservation, including the importance of maintaining and creating ESH. Our results demonstrate the importance of social science research to increase the likelihood that conservation targets for declining wildlife species are met. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Investigating Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Views and Intentions about Integrating and Using Computers in Early Childhood Settings: Compilation of an Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the compilation of an instrument in order to investigate pre-service early childhood teachers' views and intentions about integrating and using computers in early childhood settings. For the purpose of this study a questionnaire was compiled and administered to 258 pre-service early childhood teachers (PECTs), in Greece. A…

  17. Are nurses prepared for retirement?

    PubMed

    Blakeley, Judith; Ribeiro, Violeta

    2008-09-01

    This study explored various factors and income sources that registered nurses believe are important in retirement planning. In many countries worldwide, many registered nurses are approaching retirement age. This raises concerns related to the level of preparedness of retiring nurses. A mail-out questionnaire was sent to 200 randomly selected nurses aged 45 and older. SPSS descriptors were used to outline the data. Multiple t-tests were conducted to test for significant differences between selected responses by staff nurses and a group of nurse managers, educators and researchers. Of 124 respondents, 71% planned to retire by age 60. Only 24% had done a large amount of planning. The top four planning strategies identified were related to keeping healthy and active, both physically and mentally; a major financial planning strategy ranked fifth. Work pensions, a government pension and a personal savings plan were ranked as the top three retirement income sources. No significant differences were found between the staff nurse and manager groups on any of the items. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGERS/CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that managers' preparation for retirement is no different from that of staff nurses. All nurses may need to focus more on financial preparation, and begin the process early in their careers if they are to have a comfortable and healthy retirement. Nurse managers are in a position to advocate with senior management for early and comprehensive pre-retirement education for all nurses and to promote educational sessions among their staff. Managers may find the content of this paper helpful as they work with nurses to help them better prepare for retirement. This exploratory study adds to the limited amount of research available on the topic.

  18. Is retirement beneficial for mental health? Antidepressant use before and after retirement

    PubMed Central

    Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Pentti, Jaana; Sjösten, Noora; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kivimäki, Mika

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies based on self-reported data suggest that retirement may have beneficial effects on mental health, but studies using objective endpoints remain scarce. This study examines longitudinally the changes in antidepressant medication use across the 9 years spanning the transition to retirement. Methods Participants were Finnish public-sector employees: 7138 retired at statutory retirement age (76% women, mean age 61.2 years), 1238 retired early due to mental health issues (78% women, mean age 52.0 years), and 2643 retired due to physical health issues(72% women, mean age 55.4 years). Purchase of antidepressant medication four years prior to and four years after retirement year were based on comprehensive national pharmacy records in 1994-2005. Results One year before retirement, the use of antidepressants was 4% among those who would retire at statutory age, 61% among those who would retire due to mental health issues, and 14% among those who would retire due to physical health issues. Retirement-related changes in antidepressant use depended on the reason for retirement. Among old-age retirees, antidepressant medication use decreased during the transition period (age- and calendar-year-adjusted prevalence ratio for antidepressant use 1 year after vs. 1 year before retirement = 0.77 [95% confidence interval = 0.68 – 0.88]). Among those whose main reason for disability pension was mental health issues or physical health issues, there was an increasing trend in antidepressant use prior to retirement and, for mental health retirements, a decrease after retirement. Conclusions Trajectories of recorded purchases of antidepressant medication are consistent with the hypothesis that retirement is beneficial for mental health. PMID:21502864

  19. A Health Production Model with Endogenous Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Galama, Titus; Kapteyn, Arie; Fonseca, Raquel; Michaud, Pierre-Carl

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a stylized structural model of health, wealth accumulation and retirement decisions building on the human capital framework of health and derive analytic solutions for the time paths of consumption, health, health investment, savings and retirement. We argue that the literature has been unnecessarily restrictive in assuming that health is always at the “optimal” health level. Exploring the properties of corner solutions we find that advances in population health decrease the retirement age, while at the same time individuals retire when their health has deteriorated. This potentially explains why retirees point to deteriorating health as an important reason for early retirement, while retirement ages have continued to fall in the developed world, despite continued improvements in population health and mortality. In our model, workers with higher human capital invest more in health and because they stay healthier retire later than those with lower human capital whose health deteriorates faster. PMID:22888062

  20. Heterogeneity in spending change at retirement

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The simple one-good model of life-cycle consumption requires that consumption be continuous over retirement; yet prior research based on partial measures of consumption or on synthetic panels indicates that spending drops at retirement, a result that has been called the retirement-consumption puzzle. Using panel data on total spending, nondurable spending and food spending, we find that spending declines at small rates at retirement, rates that could be explained by mechanisms such as the cessation of work-related expenses, unexpected retirement due to a health shock or by the substitution of time for spending. We find substantial heterogeneity in spending change at retirement: in the upper half of the wealth distribution spending increased. In the low-wealth population where spending did decline at higher rates, the main explanation for the decline appears to be early retirement due to poor health, possibly augmented by a short planning horizon by a minority of the population. PMID:24524026

  1. How are self-rated health and diagnosed disease related to early or deferred retirement? A cross-sectional study of employees aged 55-64.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Hydbom, Anna Rignell; Rylander, Lars

    2016-08-26

    More people will probably continue working into old age in the future due to the increased size of aging populations in many countries. We therefore need to know more about older workers' health in relation to their work situation and retirement. This study is a part of a theoretical development of older workers' situations. Older workers' situations are theoretically themed in nine areas by the authors of this study. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship between: i) diagnosed disease and factors in older workers' situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; ii) self-rated health and factors in older workers' situations, theoretically themed in nine areas; iii) diagnosed disease and self-rated health; and iv) the relationships between these health measures and retirement. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, using logistic regression, with 1,756 health care personnel aged 55-64 years. The questionnaire used gave an overview of most different areas in the older workers' situations. There was a difference in the participants' frequency of objectively specified diagnosed disease and their subjectively experienced self-rated health. A bad self-rated health was related higher to early retirement than diagnosed diseases. In the multivariate model, having 'Diagnosed disease' was not significantly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years of age. A bad 'Self-rated health' was also more highly related to whether older workers thought they could not work beyond 65 years, than if the respondents stated that a 'Diagnosed disease is a hindrance in my daily work' in the multivariate model. This study showed an important difference between older workers' own experiences and the effect of their self-rated health and their diagnosed diseases. Subjective self-rated health seems to be more important to people's retirement planning than diagnosed disease. The most important factors affecting older workers' self

  2. I spy with my little eye - the detection of intentional contingency in early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fett, Anne-Kathrin J; González Berdugo, Clara Isabel; Hanssen, Esther; Lemmers-Jansen, Imke; Shergill, Sukhi S; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Paranoid delusions have been associated with a tendency to over-attribute intentionality and contingency to others' actions and incidental events in individuals with chronic psychosis. However, this hyper-associative perception bias has not been investigated in the early illness stages of psychosis, during which it may play a particularly crucial role in the formation of symptoms. We used an experimental paradigm with 20 short film clips of simple animate and inanimate shapes that either moved in a contingent or non-contingent manner to investigate the perception of contingency in 38 adolescents with early psychosis and 93 healthy control adolescents. Participants rated the contingency between the shapes' movements on a scale from 0 to 10. The data were analysed with multilevel regression analyses to account for repeated measures within subjects. There were no significant differences between patients and controls; both perceived the contingency of the shapes' movements similarly across all conditions and patients' contingency perception was unrelated to their levels of paranoid delusions. Contingency perception was unimpaired in patients with early psychosis, suggesting that it might still be intact in the early illness stages. Future studies should set out to determine whether the early illness stages could offer a window for interventions that counteract the development of hyper-associative perceptions of contingency.

  3. Retired Adults: Perceptions on Successful Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of the perceptions offered by adults who self-identify as being successfully retired. The increase in the percentage of the retiring population in the United States in the immediate future alerts us to the need to identify strategies that have been reported by retirees to successfully transition into retirement.…

  4. Factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing in early adulthood: Comparison of Japanese and Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kaneko, Noriyo

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we identified the factors influencing behavioral intention to undergo Papanicolaou testing among Japanese and Korean women in early adulthood. Their behavioral intentions were compared in this cross-sectional descriptive study. In total, 887 women (Japanese = 498, Korean = 389) aged 20-39 years participated in this study. Using a self-report questionnaire, knowledge, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intention were surveyed. There were significant differences between Japanese and Korean women's scores on all main variables. For Japanese women, all the variables moderately correlated with behavioral intention. In comparison, for Korean women, all independent variables, except for knowledge, moderately correlated with behavioral intention. Through a multiple regression analysis, age, undergoing Papanicolaou testing, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were identified as significant predictors of behavioral intention among Japanese women. Among Korean women, job status, undergoing a Papanicolaou test, attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were demonstrated as significant predictors of behavioral intention. Health professionals should consider these factors to encourage Papanicolaou testing in women in early adulthood. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Social Security and the Retirement and Savings Behavior of Low Income Households1

    PubMed Central

    van der Klaauw, Wilbert; Wolpin, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and estimate a model of retirement and savings incorporating limited borrowing, stochastic wage offers, health status and survival, social security benefits, Medicare and employer provided health insurance coverage, and intentional bequests. The model is estimated on sample of relatively poor households from the first three waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), for whom we would expect social security income to be of particular importance. The estimated model is used to simulate the responses to changes in social security rules, including changes in benefit levels, in the payroll tax, in the social security earnings tax and in early and normal retirement ages. Welfare and budget consequences are estimated. PMID:21566719

  6. Work and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foner, Anne; Schwab, Karen

    Much research data are available on work and retirement which discounts the image of retirement as an affliction imposed on older workers. These findings indicate that increasing numbers of workers choose to retire before any mandatory age, few wish to return to work, and most are content with their retirement lives; however, negative views about…

  7. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media.

    PubMed

    Charmaraman, Linda; McKamey, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants' exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored.

  8. Urban Early Adolescent Narratives on Sexuality: Accidental and Intentional Influences of Family, Peers, and the Media

    PubMed Central

    McKamey, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the ways that early adolescents talked, interacted, and made references to events in their individual and collective lives during photography-based focus groups about sexuality and relationships. Twenty-three participants (10 boys and 13 girls) were recruited from three urban schools participating in a comprehensive sex education impact evaluation in the Northeast. We analyzed conversational narratives that were elicited in a group process while sharing photos of important people, contexts, and situations, showcasing participants’ exploration of sexuality and relationships. Our analysis revealed four main themes: (a) direct and indirect family communication about sexuality, (b) accidental and intentional Internet usage, (c) shared and contested peer knowledge, and (d) school as a direct and indirect learning context. Implications and future directions for practice, research, and policy are explored. PMID:22983141

  9. Retirement effects on health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Coe, Norma B; Zamarro, Gema

    2011-01-01

    What are the health impacts of retirement? As talk of raising retirement ages in pensions and social security schemes continues around the world, it is important to know both the costs and benefits for the individual, as well as the governments' budgets. In this paper we use the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) dataset to address this question in a multi-country setting. We use country-specific early and full retirement ages as instruments for retirement behavior. These statutory retirement ages clearly induce retirement, but are not related to an individual's health. Exploiting the discontinuities in retirement behavior across countries, we find significant evidence that retirement has a health-preserving effect on overall general health. Our estimates indicate that retirement leads to a 35 percent decrease in the probability of reporting to be in fair, bad, or very bad health, and an almost one standard deviation improvement in the health index. While the self-reported health seems to be a temporary impact, the health index indicates there are long-lasting health differences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Retirement and Cognition: A Life Course View.

    PubMed

    Denier, Nicole; Clouston, Sean A P; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the relationship between retirement and cognitive aging. We build on previous research by exploring how different specifications of retirement that reflect diverse pathways out of the labor market, including reason for leaving the pre-retirement job and duration spent in retirement, impact three domains of cognitive functioning. We further assess how early-life factors, including adolescent cognition, and mid-life work experiences, condition these relationships. To do so, we draw on longitudinal data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study , a cohort study of Wisconsin high school graduates collected prospectively starting in 1957 until most recently in 2011 when individuals were aged 71. Results indicate that retirement, on average, is associated with improved abstract reasoning, but not with verbal memory or verbal fluency. Yet, when accounting for the reason individuals left their pre-retirement job, those who had retired for health reasons had both lower verbal memory and verbal fluency scores and those who had retired voluntarily or for family reasons had improved abstract memory scores. Together, the results suggest that retirement has an inconsistent effect on cognitive aging across cognitive domains and that the conditions surrounding the retirement decision are important to understanding cognitive functioning at older ages.

  11. Retrenchment, Retirement Benefits, and the Faculty Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmann, Christoph K.

    1991-01-01

    Indiana University's experiences with trying to cancel an increasingly expensive early retirement system illustrates some of the ways in which faculty retirement benefits are subject to attack and some of the potential and weaknesses of the traditional faculty governance mechanisms in trying to shape a response. (MSE)

  12. Commission on College Retirement: "Trouble in River City."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graebner, William

    1984-01-01

    A speech made to an early meeting of the newly formed Commission on College Retirement recommends that the commission abandon the approach to retirement as an instrument of educational and social reform and concentrate instead on making the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association-College Retirement Equities Fund competitive and protecting…

  13. Work-family conflict and retirement preferences.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Sweeney, Megan M

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates relationships between retirement preferences and perceived levels of work-family conflict. Using the large sample of 52-54-year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next 10 years. We examined the association between retirement preferences and perceived work-family conflict, evaluated the extent to which work-family conflict was a mediating mechanism between stressful work and family circumstances and preferences to retire, and explored potential gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and preferring retirement. Work-family conflict was positively related to preferences for both full and partial retirement. Yet work-family conflict did not appear to mediate relationships between stressful work and family environments and retirement preferences, nor did significant gender differences emerge in this association. Our analyses provide the first direct evidence of the role played by work-family conflict in the early stages of the retirement process, although we were not able to identify the sources of conflict underlying this relationship. Identifying the sources of this conflict and the psychological mechanisms linking work-family conflict to retirement preferences is an important task for future researchers.

  14. Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2007-01-01

    We argue for the importance of processes of shared intentionality in children's early cognitive development. We look briefly at four important social-cognitive skills and how they are transformed by shared intentionality. In each case, we look first at a kind of individualistic version of the skill--as exemplified most clearly in the behavior of…

  15. Retirement Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edison State Community Coll., Piqua, OH.

    This curriculum guide was developed for use in Edison State Community College's (ESCC's) Community Pre-Retirement Training Program. The first of the guide's seven modules provides a brief look at retirement, retirement planning, and the ESCC program. The second module focuses on relationships, considering issues such as communication, finances,…

  16. Educational Mismatch and Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a panel data set of scientists in the US, we examine the hypothesis that workers in jobs poorly matched to their education are more likely to retire. In pooled estimates, we confirm that the mismatched are more likely to retire and that among retirees, the mismatched retire at younger ages. Hazard function estimates also support the…

  17. Alternative Retirement Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, John D.

    1984-01-01

    Alternative college retirement programs and features of a desirable retirement program are discussed. The historical, social, and economic forces that prompt institutions to consider alternative programs are identified. The present position of college faculty in terms of retirement options is also addressed. Since its inception, the Teachers…

  18. The looming retirement crisis.

    PubMed

    Walker, D M

    1997-06-01

    A retirement crisis looms in the United States due to a number of recent and emerging trends that affect government retirement programs, employer- and union-sponsored retirement benefits and personal savings arrangements. The crisis can be averted, but only with well-thought-out action on a number of issues, particularly Social Security and Medicare reform.

  19. Life stories of people with rheumatoid arthritis who retired early: how gender and other contextual factors shaped their everyday activities, including paid work.

    PubMed

    Stamm, T A; Machold, K P; Smolen, J; Prodinger, B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore how contextual factors affect the everyday activities of women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as evident in their life stories. Fifteen people with RA, who had retired early due to the disease, were interviewed up to three times, according to a narrative biographic interview style. The life stories of the participants, which were reconstructed from the biographical data and from the transcribed 'told story' were analysed from the perspective of contextual factors, including personal and environmental factors. The rigour and accuracy of the analysis were enhanced by reflexivity and peer-review of the results. The life stories of the participants in this study reflected how contextual factors (such as gender, the healthcare system, the support of families and social and cultural values) shaped their everyday activities. In a society such as in Austria, which is based on traditional patriarchal values, men were presented with difficulties in developing a non-paid-work-related role. For women, if paid work had to be given up, they were more likely to engage in alternative challenging activities which enabled them to develop reflective skills, which in turn contributed to a positive and enriching perspective on their life stories. Health professionals may thus use some of the women's strategies to help men. Interventions by health professionals in people with RA may benefit from an approach sensitive to personal and environmental factors.

  20. Women and retirement.

    PubMed

    Richardson, V E

    1999-01-01

    A feminist analysis of retirement is presented by questioning the applicability of traditional definitions and theories of retirement to retired women. The effects of marriage, caregiving and other family obligations on women's retirement are examined within the context of salient social, psychological and economic factors. An empowerment-oriented perspective that considers interactions and connections between family and work roles, public and private and personal and political levels are recommended to alleviate the high poverty rates among older women, to promote parity among men and women during retirement and to emancipate women from substantial involvement in unpaid work, specifically, caregiving and home labor.

  1. FERTILITY INTENTIONS AND EARLY LIFE HEALTH STRESS AMONG WOMEN IN EIGHT INDIAN CITIES: TESTING THE REPRODUCTIVE ACCELERATION HYPOTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Säävälä, Minna

    2015-09-01

    In life history theory, early life adversity is associated with an accelerated reproductive tempo. In harsh and unpredictable conditions in developing societies fertility is generally higher and the reproductive tempo faster than in more secure environments. This paper examines whether differences in female anthropometry, particularly adult height, are associated with fertility intentions of women in urban environments in India. The study population consists of women aged 15-29 (N=4485) in slums and non-slums of eight Indian cities in the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) of 2005-2006. Adult height is taken as a proxy for early childhood health and nutritional condition. Fertility intentions are examined by using two variables: the desire to have a child or another child, and to have it relatively soon, as indicative of accelerated reproductive scheduling. Evidence supporting the acceleration hypothesis is found in two urban frames out of 26 examined in a two-staged multinomial logistic model. In three cases, the relationship between fertility intentions and height is the opposite than expected by the acceleration hypothesis: taller women have a higher predictive probability of desiring a(nother) child and/or narrower birth spacing. Potential explanations for the partly contradictory relationship between the childhood health indicator and fertility intentions are discussed.

  2. MATERNAL ACCOUNTS OF THEIR BREASTFEEDING INTENT AND EARLY CHALLENGES AFTER CESAREAN CHILDBIRTH

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding outcomes are often worse after cesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. Objectives This study characterizes mothers’ breastfeeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after cesarean childbirth. Methods Data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1–6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled cesarean. Results Thematic analysis of the data suggested breastfeeding was mostly considered the “right thing to do,” preferable, natural, and “supposedly healthier,” but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for “thinking about yourself” was part of cesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breastfeeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following cesarean section. Some breastfeeding difficulty stemmed from “mucus” expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be “interested” in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breastfeeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breastfeed on the postnatal unit after their cesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. Conclusions For the majority of mothers, breastfeeding after a cesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breastfeeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after cesarean section childbirth. PMID:24252711

  3. Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth.

    PubMed

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2014-06-01

    breast-feeding outcomes are often worse after caesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. this study characterises mothers' breast-feeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after caesarean childbirth. data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006-March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1-6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled caesarean. thematic analysis of the data suggested was mostly considered the 'right thing to do,' preferable, natural, and 'supposedly healthier,' but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for 'thinking about yourself' was part of caesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breast-feeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following caesarean section. Some breast-feeding difficulty stemmed from 'mucus' expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be 'interested' in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breast feeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breast feed on the postnatal unit after their caesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. for the majority of mothers, breast feeding after a caesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breast-feeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after caesarean section childbirth. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Help-seeking intention for depression in early adolescents: Associated factors and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Ando, Shuntaro; Nishida, Atsushi; Usami, Satoshi; Koike, Shinsuke; Yamasaki, Syudo; Kanata, Sho; Fujikawa, Shinya; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Fukuda, Masato; Sawyer, Susan M; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2018-06-07

    Seeking help from others is an essential behavioural intention for humans to adapt to the social environment. Transgenerational and gender-related mechanisms of how this intention is shaped is an important but unresolved question in adolescent development. This study aimed to comprehensively examine the factors promoting or inhibiting intention to seek help for depression in 10-year-olds, including transgenerational factors, and to investigate the sex differences in the effect of these factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a community of 4478 10-year-old children and their parents using self-report questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. The dependent variable was intention of seeking help for depression, which was assessed using a depression case vignette. Independent variables were demographic, psychological, and transgenerational/social factors including depressive symptoms, psychotic-like symptoms, tendency to help classmates, and parents' help-seeking intention. Girls were more likely to seek help than boys. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors promoting help-seeking intention included the recognition of a need for help, emotional openness, tendency to help classmates, parents' positive intention of seeking help for depression, and the number of people to consult. The inhibiting factors included depressive symptoms, psychotic-like symptoms, and gender norms regarding problem solving. Gender norms inhibited intention of seeking help for depression more strongly in boys than in girls. Parents' and children's help-seeking intention were correlated to each other. Actions should be considered against gender norms presuming that boys should solve their own problems. Further, these actions should target adults as much as adolescents. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Effects of Defined Benefit Pension Incentives and Working Conditions on Teacher Retirement Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Joshua; Strauss, Robert P.; Vogt, William B.

    2006-01-01

    The retirement behavior of Pennsylvania public school teachers in 1997-98 and 1998-99, a period when state early retirement incentives were temporarily increased, is modeled using a choice framework that emphasizes both pecuniary and nonpecuniary factors of the retirement decision under a defined benefit retirement plan. We find each to have large…

  6. Quality of life at the retirement transition: Life course pathways in an early 'baby boom' birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Josephine M; Moffatt, Suzanne; Pearce, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Promoting quality of life (QoL) in later life is an important policy goal. However, studies using prospective data to explore the mechanisms by which earlier events influence QoL in older age are lacking. This study is the first to use prospective data to investigate pathways by which a range of measures of life-course socioeconomic status contribute to later-life QoL. The study uses data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study cohort (N = 1142), an early 'baby-boom' birth cohort born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne, an industrial city in north-east England. Using prospective survey data collected between birth and later adulthood (N = 393), a path analysis investigated the effects and relative contributions of a range of life-course socioeconomic factors to QoL at age 62-64 measured using the CASP-19 scale. Strong positive effects on later-life QoL were found for advantaged occupational status in mid-life and better self-reported health, employment and mortgage-freedom in later adulthood. Significant positive indirect effects on QoL were found from social class at birth and achieved education level, mediated through later-life socioeconomic advantage. Experiencing no adverse events by age five had a large total positive effect on QoL at age 62-64, comprising a direct effect and indirect effects, mediated through education, mid-life social class and later-life self-reported health. Results support a pathway model with the effects of factors in earlier life acting via later-life factors, and an accumulation model with earlier-life factors having large total, cumulative effects on later-life QoL. The presence of a direct effect of adverse childhood events by age five on QoL suggests a 'critical period' and indicates that policies across the life-course are needed to promote later-life QoL, with policies directed towards older adults perhaps too late to 'undo the damage' of earlier adverse events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social Security, retirement incentives, and retirement behavior: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Gruber, J; Wise, D

    1999-05-01

    Escalating rates of early retirement are imposing fiscal pressure on retirement systems around the world. In some developed countries, the labor-force participation rates of men ages 60-64 have fallen by 75 percent over the last three decades. One explanation for this striking decline is social security program provisions which create disincentives to continued labor-force participation by older workers. There are substantial differences among developed nations in the labor-force participation of older workers. While two-thirds of 60-year-old American males are working, only one-quarter of men that age are working in Belgium. Over the entire 55-65 age range, 63 percent of American males are working, compared with only 40 percent of French males and 33 percent of Belgians males. There is strong evidence that the early retirement provisions of social security systems in developed countries determine the modal age of retirement. There is a strong relationship between early retirement ages and labor-force withdrawal rates; for example, in France, 60 percent of those working at the early entitlement age of 60 leave the labor force at that age. The core of this analysis is the construction of "implicit tax/subsidy rates" on additional work at older ages through each nation's social security system. These rates measure the change in a worker's retirement wealth entitlement from delaying retirement for one year, relative to the amount that would have been earned over that year. The U.S. Social Security system has an actuarial adjustment for delayed benefits claiming and other features that avoid financial incentives to leave the labor force at age 62 for a married worker, there is a slight disincentive to work for single workers and high wage earners. However, at ages 65 and older there is a stronger incentive to leave the labor force, with implicit tax rates on work of 19 percent for married workers and 33 percent for single workers. By comparison, other nations do not

  8. The association of health and voluntary early retirement pension and the modifying effect of quality of supervision: Results from a Danish register-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wind, Astrid de; Burr, Hermann; Pohrt, Anne; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Van der Beek, Allard Johan; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-07-01

    The aims of this article are to (1) determine whether and to what extent general perceived health and quality of supervision predict voluntary early retirement pension (VERP) and (2) assess whether quality of supervision modifies the association between general perceived health and VERP. Employees aged 49-64 years who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study in 2000 were selected. Their questionnaire data about health and work were linked to register data on social transfer payments, among others VERP, from 2001 to 2012 in the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization ( N=1167). Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify the prospective association of general perceived health and quality of supervision on VERP. Relative excess risks due to interaction (RERIs) were calculated to assess whether quality of supervision modified the association between health and VERP. Employees with poor health at baseline had an increased risk of VERP during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR]=1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.49). Quality of supervision at baseline was not associated to VERP during follow-up (HR=1.04; 95% CI 0.90-1.21). There was no statistically significant interaction of poor health and poor quality of supervision with regard to risk of VERP (RERI=-0.33; 95% CI -1.79 to 1.14). This study did not support the notion that quality of supervision buffers the association between poor health and VERP. Future research is needed to determine whether other aspects of supervision, for example supervisors' opportunities to effectuate workplace adjustments, may modify the association of poor health and VERP.

  9. The association of health and voluntary early retirement pension and the modifying effect of quality of supervision: Results from a Danish register-based follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Wind, Astrid; Burr, Hermann; Pohrt, Anne; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Van der Beek, Allard Johan; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this article are to (1) determine whether and to what extent general perceived health and quality of supervision predict voluntary early retirement pension (VERP) and (2) assess whether quality of supervision modifies the association between general perceived health and VERP. Methods: Employees aged 49–64 years who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study in 2000 were selected. Their questionnaire data about health and work were linked to register data on social transfer payments, among others VERP, from 2001 to 2012 in the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization (N=1167). Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify the prospective association of general perceived health and quality of supervision on VERP. Relative excess risks due to interaction (RERIs) were calculated to assess whether quality of supervision modified the association between health and VERP. Results: Employees with poor health at baseline had an increased risk of VERP during follow-up (hazard ratio [HR]=1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.49). Quality of supervision at baseline was not associated to VERP during follow-up (HR=1.04; 95% CI 0.90–1.21). There was no statistically significant interaction of poor health and poor quality of supervision with regard to risk of VERP (RERI=−0.33; 95% CI −1.79 to 1.14). Conclusions: This study did not support the notion that quality of supervision buffers the association between poor health and VERP. Future research is needed to determine whether other aspects of supervision, for example supervisors’ opportunities to effectuate workplace adjustments, may modify the association of poor health and VERP. PMID:28381121

  10. Comparing Military Retirement to the California Highway Patrol Pension Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    retirement authority across all branches of service (USD(P&R), 2011). After World War II, the Navy faced the same overpopulation of the officer ranks...early retirement list were granted their request based upon seniority (USD(P&R), 2011). 2. 1900–1937 Overpopulation of the Navy’s senior officer ranks...remained an issue up until World War I. Consequently, the policy of early retirement, created by the act of March 3, 1899, remained in place until

  11. Early Career Teachers' Sense of Professional Agency in the Classroom: Associations with Turnover Intentions and Perceived Inadequacy in Teacher-Student Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikonen, Lauri; Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Toom, Auli; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' capacity to learn intentionally and responsively in the classroom is particularly vulnerable during the first years in the profession. This study investigated the interrelations between early career teachers' turnover intentions, perceived inadequacy in teacher-student interaction, and sense of professional agency in the classroom. The…

  12. Retirement and its consequences for women's health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rong

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the health consequences of retirement is important, as many developed countries have already started raising state pension eligibility age, with the intention to induce postponed retirement. This paper estimates the causal effect of retirement on the health outcomes of older women in Australia, utilising the exogenous variation in retirement induced by the change in age eligibility for the Australian Age Pension. Using a sample of 19,185 observations for 3771 women from waves 2001-2011 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, we show that retirement status has positive and significant effects on women's self-reported health, physical and mental health outcomes. We also find that longer time spent in retirement confers clear additional health benefits. We show that retirement affects physical and mental health in diverse ways and that the estimated positive health effects of retirement are coincidental with increased post-retirement physical activity and reduced smoking. Our finding that retirement can improve health suggests that the welfare losses from working life prolongation policies will be larger than currently though when we include the cost of the foregone health improvements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preferred Retirement Timing and Retirement Satisfaction in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane

    1987-01-01

    Explored retirement conditions affecting women's preferred retirement timing and retirement satisfaction in 115 women retirees. Revealed that women's life goals, sex role constancy over the years, the economic impact of retirement, and respondents' control over determination of retirement timing were relevant issues. (Author/KS)

  14. On Retirement of Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Roy

    1986-01-01

    This article takes a look at retirement in general, and the implications for physicians in particular. The recent application of the principles in the Canadian Charter of Rights has raised some unresolved issues for those doctors with contractual employment. They may no longer have mandatory retirement at age 65. Problems can and do arise when self-employed physicians defer retirement from active practice indefinitely. The evaluation of older physicians' competence is explored, and some suggestions offered. PMID:21267269

  15. Predictors of disability retirement.

    PubMed

    Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T

    1997-12-01

    Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.

  16. Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use…

  17. Retirement Trends and Public Policy: The Carrot and the Stick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Joseph F.; Burkhauser, Richard V.

    Recent trends toward earlier retirement have exacerbated the financial problems facing the Social Security system and many other public and private pension plans. The massive commitment of public and private funds to Social Security and pension funds is partly responsible for the trend to early retirement. This, in fact, was one of the early goals…

  18. Trump and the GOP agenda: implications for retirement policy.

    PubMed

    Madland, David; Rowell, Alex

    2018-04-11

    Policymakers need to act to protect Americans' retirement security. A significant portion of Americans are at risk of not being able to maintain their standard of living in retirement and research suggests that this percentage is likely to grow. This commentary provides background on the current state of American retirement, highlights recent efforts to reform retirement policy, and predicts what to expect under President Donald Trump. Retirement has not been a major focus of national policymakers in recent years. Early actions during the Trump administration to undo Obama administration policies may make it more difficult for individuals to save for retirement. While it is impossible to predict the future with any certainty, long standing trends and recent political developments suggest that major action will not be taken during the Trump presidency to boost retirement security.

  19. Retirement Preparation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddron, Edith, Ed.

    This guide consists of ten articles, each introducing a separate issue important to retirement planning. The series discusses a wide range of information about critical retirement issues and explores the uncertainties, expectations, and decisions that confront the future retiree. The articles also contain suggestions and planning aids, worksheets,…

  20. Faculty Emeriti: Retirement Reframed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Seth Matthew

    2010-01-01

    With the graying of the professoriate continuing and the massive number of baby boomers entering retirement age, universities and college administrations need to adequately prepare for retirement. This is beginning to cause some staffing shortages in the faculty pipeline as well as the loss of institutional history and professional knowledge.…

  1. Retirement Choice 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    and Aline Quester November 2015 Copyright © 2015 CNA This document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of issue. It does...RetirementChoiceCalculator.aspx. 3 The original paper was by Aline O. Quester and Lewis G. Lee, The Retirement Choice: FY 2006, CNA Research

  2. Preparing for asset retirement.

    PubMed

    Luecke, Randall W; Reinstein, Alan

    2003-04-01

    Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 143 requires organizations to recognize a liability for an asset retirement obligation when it is incurred--even if that occurs far in advance of the asset's planned retirement. For example, organizations must recognize future costs associated with medical equipment disposal that carries hazardous material legal obligations.

  3. Psychological morbidities in adolescent and young adult blood cancer patients during curative-intent therapy and early survivorship.

    PubMed

    Muffly, Lori S; Hlubocky, Fay J; Khan, Niloufer; Wroblewski, Kristen; Breitenbach, Katherine; Gomez, Joseline; McNeer, Jennifer L; Stock, Wendy; Daugherty, Christopher K

    2016-03-15

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer face unique psychosocial challenges. This pilot study was aimed at describing the prevalence of psychological morbidities among AYAs with hematologic malignancies during curative-intent therapy and early survivorship and at examining provider perceptions of psychological morbidities in their AYA patients. Patients aged 15 to 39 years with acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or Hodgkin lymphoma who were undergoing curative-intent therapy (on-treatment group) or were in remission within 2 years of therapy completion (early survivors) underwent a semistructured interview that incorporated measures of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress (PTS). A subset of providers (n = 15) concomitantly completed a survey for each of the first 30 patients enrolled that evaluated their perception of each subject's anxiety, depression, and PTS. Sixty-one of 77 eligible AYAs participated. The median age at diagnosis was 26 years (range, 15-39 years), 64% were male, and 59% were non-Hispanic white. On-treatment demographics differed significantly from early-survivor demographics only in the median time from diagnosis to interview. Among the 61 evaluable AYAs, 23% met the criteria for anxiety, 28% met the criteria for depression, and 13% met the criteria for PTS; 46% demonstrated PTS symptomatology. Thirty-nine percent were impaired in 1 or more psychological domains. Psychological impairments were as frequent among early survivors as AYAs on treatment. Provider perceptions did not significantly correlate with patient survey results. AYAs with hematologic malignancies experience substantial psychological morbidities while they are undergoing therapy and during early survivorship, with more than one-third of the patients included in this study meeting the criteria for anxiety, depression, or traumatic stress. This psychological burden may not be accurately identified by their oncology providers. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Using speakers' referential intentions to model early cross-situational word learning.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Goodman, Noah D; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2009-05-01

    Word learning is a "chicken and egg" problem. If a child could understand speakers' utterances, it would be easy to learn the meanings of individual words, and once a child knows what many words mean, it is easy to infer speakers' intended meanings. To the beginning learner, however, both individual word meanings and speakers' intentions are unknown. We describe a computational model of word learning that solves these two inference problems in parallel, rather than relying exclusively on either the inferred meanings of utterances or cross-situational word-meaning associations. We tested our model using annotated corpus data and found that it inferred pairings between words and object concepts with higher precision than comparison models. Moreover, as the result of making probabilistic inferences about speakers' intentions, our model explains a variety of behavioral phenomena described in the word-learning literature. These phenomena include mutual exclusivity, one-trial learning, cross-situational learning, the role of words in object individuation, and the use of inferred intentions to disambiguate reference.

  5. Military Retirement Benefits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-17

    RD-fi49 439 MILITARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS (U) ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE i/i 7" BARRACKS PA J D MEDLIN V MAY 84UNCLASSIFIED F/6 5/9 NL E=hhhhIhh SENSEhhhhh...appropriate military service or government agency. MILITARY RETIREMENT BENEFITS BY COLONEL JACK D. MEDLIN MEDICAL SERVICE cl- " JAN25 C r- Y4 . S17 MY...PERIOD COVERED Military Retirement Benefits S 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER() Colonel Jack D. Medlin

  6. Retirement and Marital Decision Making: Effects on Retirement Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how partner's employment and pre-retirement decision-making structures affect retirement satisfaction, using pooled data from Waves 1 to 4 of the Health and Retirement Surveys. Based on resource theory, the analyses indicate that retired husbands are least satisfied if their wives remain employed and had more say in decisions…

  7. Retiree health benefits-vesting of welfare benefits-early retirement-duty to bargain-termination of benefits-estoppel.

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Poore v. Simpson Paper Co., 2009 U.S. App. LEXIS 11170 (9th Cir. Or. May 21, 2009). To be able to sue under ERISA, retirement health plan participants need not show that their benefits are vested the same way pension benefits are vested; the rights to the benefits need not be fixed or unalterable, rather, the employee must have an entitlement to the benefits.

  8. Retirement of Massimo Tarenghi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.

    2013-09-01

    Massimo Tarenghi, chronologically MPG/ESO project scientist, NTT project manager, VLT programme manager and first Director, ALMA Director and ESO Representative in Chile, has retired after 35 years at ESO. A brief summary of his achievements is presented.

  9. Employment Trajectories Beyond Retirement.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Carola; Hochfellner, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Within the political and academic debate on working longer, post-retirement employment is discussed as an alternative to maintain older workers in the labor market. Our article enhances this discussion by studying determinants of transitions into post-retirement jobs within differing work environments of birth cohorts 1940-1942. We estimate proportional subhazard models accounting for competing risks using unique German social security data linked to pension accounts. Our findings suggest that individuals' preferences to take up post-retirement jobs are not mutually exclusive. Our study provides evidence that taking up post-retirement jobs is related to seeking financial security, continuity, and work ability, suggesting that public policy has to develop target-oriented support through a public policy mix of different measures aligned to the different peer groups in the labor market.

  10. Second Careers in Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Kellye

    1992-01-01

    Describes career changes and retirement choices made by outgoing "career" superintendents. Choices ranged from teaching and consulting to administering philanthropic organizations and launching a charter-boat business. (MLH)

  11. 26 CFR 1.1271-1 - Special rules applicable to amounts received on retirement, sale, or exchange of debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retirement, sale, or exchange of debt instruments. 1.1271-1 Section 1.1271-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... retirement, sale, or exchange of debt instruments. (a) Intention to call before maturity—(1) In general. For... instrument to which section 1271 applies is treated as interest income if there was an intention to call the...

  12. Using "Slowmation" for Intentional Teaching in Early Childhood Centres: Possibilities and Imaginings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn; Hoban, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Increased national and international attention towards early childhood education has resulted in the development of an Australian "Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) called "Belonging, Being and Becoming" (DEEWR, 2009) for realising agreed practice, principles and outcomes. The EYLF highlights the importance of educators…

  13. The Intention to Leave Education Early among Irish Junior Certificate Students: Variation by School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Michael; Freeney, Yseult

    2011-01-01

    Early school-leaving imposes costs on the individual and society, and is linked to factors including gender, family income and parental education, community deprivation, and academic history. In Ireland, the role of the school in shaping patterns of early school-leaving is unclear. Employing the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) from social…

  14. Job satisfaction, work environment and successful ageing: Determinants of delaying retirement among acute care nurses.

    PubMed

    Wargo-Sugleris, Michele; Robbins, Wendie; Lane, Christianne Joy; Phillips, Linda R

    2018-04-01

    To determine the relationships between job satisfaction, work environment and successful ageing and how these factors relate to Registered Nurses' intent to retire. Although little studied, retention of older nurses by delaying early retirement, before age 65, is an important topic for research. Qualitative and quantitative studies have indicated that job satisfaction work environment and successful ageing are key motivators in acute care Registered Nurses retention and/or delaying retirement. This study was designed to provide information to administrators and policy makers about retaining older, experienced RNs longer and more productively. This was a correlational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. An online survey of acute care Registered Nurses (N = 2,789) aged 40 years or older working in Florida was conducted from September - October 2013. Participants completed items related to job satisfaction, work environment, successful ageing and individual characteristics. Hypotheses derived from the modified Ellenbecker's Job Retention Model were tested using regression analysis. Job satisfaction scores were high. Highest satisfaction was with scheduling issues and co-workers; lowest with advancement opportunities. Successful ageing scores were also high with 81% reporting excellent or good health. Work environment explained 55% of the variance in job satisfaction. Years to retirement were significantly associated with successful ageing (p < .001), age (p < .001) and income (p < .010). This study provides quantitative evidence that environment and successful ageing are important areas that have an impact on job satisfaction and delay of retirement in older nurses and further studies in these areas are warranted to expand on this knowledge. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Causal effects of retirement timing on subjective physical and emotional health.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Esteban; Sarkisian, Natalia; Tamborini, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the effects of the timing of retirement on subjective physical and emotional health. Using panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), we test 4 theory-based hypotheses about these effects-that retirements maximize health when they happen earlier, later, anytime, or on time. We employ fixed and random effects regression models with instrumental variables to estimate the short- and long-term causal effects of retirement timing on self-reported health and depressive symptoms. Early retirements--those occurring prior to traditional and legal retirement age--dampen health. Workers who begin their retirement transition before cultural and institutional timetables experience the worst health outcomes; this finding offers partial support to the psychosocial-materialist approach that emphasizes the benefits of retiring later. Continued employment after traditionally expected retirement age, however, offers no health benefits. In combination, these findings offer some support for the cultural-institutional approach but suggest that we need to modify our understanding of how cultural-institutional forces operate. Retiring too early can be problematic but no disadvantages are associated with late retirements. Raising the retirement age, therefore, could potentially reduce subjective health of retirees by expanding the group of those whose retirements would be considered early.

  16. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  17. Financial Planning for Retirement: A Psychosocial Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Topa, Gabriela; Lunceford, Gregg; Boyatzis, Richard E.

    2018-01-01

    Retirement is a time of life that has grown ever longer in the developed world, and the number of pensioners has increased accordingly, questioning the strength of Social Security systems and the social safety net in general. Financial Planning for Retirement (FRP) consists of the series of activities involved in the accumulation of wealth to cover needs in the post-retirement stage of life. The negative short-, mid-, and long-term consequences of inadequate Financial Planning for Retirement do not only affect individuals, but also their extended families, homes, eventually producing an unwanted impact on the entire society. The Capacity-Willingness-Opportunity Model has been proposed to understand FPR, combined with Intentional Change Theory, a framework for understanding the process, antecedents and consequences of FPR. From this perspective, we propose this promising model, but there are a large number of variables that have not been included that offer novel ways to deepen our understanding of FPR. A focus on each dimension of the model, the role of age and psychosocial variables associated with demographic indicators such as gender, health status, and migration, allow us to provide a proposal of scientific advancement of FPR. PMID:29416519

  18. Financial Planning for Retirement: A Psychosocial Perspective.

    PubMed

    Topa, Gabriela; Lunceford, Gregg; Boyatzis, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Retirement is a time of life that has grown ever longer in the developed world, and the number of pensioners has increased accordingly, questioning the strength of Social Security systems and the social safety net in general. Financial Planning for Retirement (FRP) consists of the series of activities involved in the accumulation of wealth to cover needs in the post-retirement stage of life. The negative short-, mid-, and long-term consequences of inadequate Financial Planning for Retirement do not only affect individuals, but also their extended families, homes, eventually producing an unwanted impact on the entire society. The Capacity-Willingness-Opportunity Model has been proposed to understand FPR, combined with Intentional Change Theory, a framework for understanding the process, antecedents and consequences of FPR. From this perspective, we propose this promising model, but there are a large number of variables that have not been included that offer novel ways to deepen our understanding of FPR. A focus on each dimension of the model, the role of age and psychosocial variables associated with demographic indicators such as gender, health status, and migration, allow us to provide a proposal of scientific advancement of FPR.

  19. Planning for Retirement: Longitudinal Effect on Retirement Resources and Post-retirement Well-being

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Dannii Y.; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Retirement is a major life event, and a positive adjustment to retirement is essential for maintaining physical and psychological well-being in later life. Previous research demonstrates that pre-retirement planning predicts post-retirement well-being. This study further explores the underlying mechanism between planning activities and post-retirement well-being. By applying the resource-based dynamic model (Wang et al., 2011), the present longitudinal study examines whether pre-retirement planning activities can increase the total resources of retirees, including tangible, mental and social resources, and consequently contribute to better psychological and physical well-being 1 year after actual retirement. A total of 118 Hong Kong Chinese retirees completed three assessments: Time 1 assessment was conducted 6 months before retirement, and Times 2 and 3 assessments were carried out 6 and 12 months, respectively, after retirement. Latent growth models were employed to examine changes in retirement resources and post-retirement well-being over time. Consistent with the proposition of the resource-based dynamic model, positive changes in well-being were observed in the retirees with increases in retirement resources between pre- and post-retirement phases. The results of the latent growth mediation models also support our prediction: retirees with more preparatory activities before retirement acquire greater resources at the initial stage, which contribute to positive changes in post-retirement well-being over time. PMID:28798716

  20. Planning for Retirement: Longitudinal Effect on Retirement Resources and Post-retirement Well-being.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Zhou, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Retirement is a major life event, and a positive adjustment to retirement is essential for maintaining physical and psychological well-being in later life. Previous research demonstrates that pre-retirement planning predicts post-retirement well-being. This study further explores the underlying mechanism between planning activities and post-retirement well-being. By applying the resource-based dynamic model (Wang et al., 2011), the present longitudinal study examines whether pre-retirement planning activities can increase the total resources of retirees, including tangible, mental and social resources, and consequently contribute to better psychological and physical well-being 1 year after actual retirement. A total of 118 Hong Kong Chinese retirees completed three assessments: Time 1 assessment was conducted 6 months before retirement, and Times 2 and 3 assessments were carried out 6 and 12 months, respectively, after retirement. Latent growth models were employed to examine changes in retirement resources and post-retirement well-being over time. Consistent with the proposition of the resource-based dynamic model, positive changes in well-being were observed in the retirees with increases in retirement resources between pre- and post-retirement phases. The results of the latent growth mediation models also support our prediction: retirees with more preparatory activities before retirement acquire greater resources at the initial stage, which contribute to positive changes in post-retirement well-being over time.

  1. From "What Did I Write?" to "Is This Right?": Intention, Convention, and Accountability in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlwend, Karen E.

    2008-01-01

    When children enter public kindergartens in the current atmosphere of high-stakes testing, they often encounter an emphasis on correctness that casts doubt on the integrity of their personally invented messages, prompting them to ask not "What did I write?" but "Is this right?" This ethnographic case study examines early writing by 23 kindergarten…

  2. Cherokee Practice, Missionary Intentions: Literacy Learning among Early Nineteenth-Century Cherokee Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulder, M. Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how archival documents reveal early nineteenth-century Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…

  3. The Impacts of Organizational Justice on Early Childhood Educators' Intention to Participate in Professional Associations: The Mediator Role of Deliberative Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Guided by the general incentives rational action model and deliberative participatory democracy framework, we investigated whether deliberative beliefs, including normative and personal aspects, mediate the relationship between distributive, procedural, and interactive organizational justice and intention to participate in professional associations. Self-report measures of organizational justice, deliberative belief, and intention of participation were obtained from 789 early childhood educators in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the proposed model. According to the results of the study, there is a relationship between organizational justice and intention of professional association participation, and a fully significant mediation effect was found for deliberative beliefs between organizational justice and intention to participate. These findings are discussed with respect to improving professional association participation and applying deliberative pedagogy.

  4. I Do... Want to Save: Marriage and Retirement Savings in Young Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Melissa A. Z.; Tamborini, Christopher R.; Whitman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Increased policy and academic attention has been placed on promoting retirement savings early in the life course. This study investigates the extent to which retirement savings behavior among young persons, a population for which retirement savings is important but typically low, differs by marital status. We draw national survey data on young…

  5. Health and Retirement: Do Changes in Health Affect Retirement Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarry, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Health plays a vital role in the decision making process of retirement for an employee. The changes in retirement expectations are driven to a much greater degree by change in health rather than change in income or wealth.

  6. Hearing impairment and retirement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Pinto, Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2014-02-01

    Many factors influence the decision to retire including age, insurance, and pension availability along with physical and mental health. Hearing impairment may be one such factor. The purpose of this study was to compare the 15 yr retirement rate among subjects with and without hearing impairment. Prospective, population-based study. Subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal investigation of age-related hearing loss. Participants who were working full- or part-time in 1993-1995 were included (n = 1410, mean age = 57.8 yr). Data from four EHLS phases (1993-1995, 1998-2000, 2003-2005, and 2009-2010) were analyzed in 2010-2012. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure tone threshold average (at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) greater than 25 dB HL in the worse ear. Employment status was determined at each of the four phases. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of retirement were calculated, and Cox discrete-time modeling was used to determine the effect of hearing impairment on the rate of retirement. The cumulative incidence of retirement was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in those with a hearing impairment (77%) compared to those without a hearing impairment (74%). After adjustment for age, gender, self-reported health, and history of chronic disease, there was no significant difference in the rate of retirement between those with and without a hearing impairment (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7, 1.1). Similar results were observed when hearing aid users were excluded, when hearing impairment was based on the better ear thresholds, and when analyses were restricted to those under 65 yr of age and working full-time at baseline. Participants with a hearing impairment were less likely to state that the main reason for retirement was that the time seemed right. Hearing impairment was found to be associated with a higher rate of retirement, but the association was not independent of the

  7. Hearing Impairment and Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Pinto, Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many factors influence the decision to retire including age, insurance and pension availability along with physical and mental health. Hearing impairment may be one such factor. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the 15 year retirement rate among subjects with and without hearing impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN Prospective, population-based study STUDY SAMPLE Subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal investigation of age-related hearing loss. Participants who were working full- or part-time in 1993–1995 were included (n=1410, mean age=57.8 years). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from four EHLS phases (1993–1995, 1998–2000, 2003–2005, and 2009–2010) were analyzed in 2010–2012. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure tone threshold average (at 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz) greater than 25 dB HL in the worse ear. Employment status was determined at each of the four phases. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of retirement were calculated and Cox discrete-time modeling was used to determine the effect of hearing impairment on the rate of retirement. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of retirement was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in those with a hearing impairment (77%) compared to those without a hearing impairment (74%). After adjustment for age, gender, self-reported health, and history of chronic disease, there was no significant difference in the rate of retirement between those with and without a hearing impairment (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.7, 1.1). Similar results were observed when hearing aid users were excluded, when hearing impairment was based on the better ear thresholds, and when analyses were restricted to those less than 65 years of age and working full-time at baseline. Participants with a hearing impairment were less likely to state that the main reason for retirement was that the time seemed right. CONCLUSIONS Hearing impairment

  8. To Retire or Not to Retire? That Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    During the 1960s, there was extensive hiring of college and university faculty members. This large group of professors are now at or nearing retirement age. Concerns about the economy, the availability of good health insurance, increased life expectancy, and removal of mandatory retirement laws may influence decisions about when to retire.…

  9. Infants Understand Deceptive Intentions to Implant False Beliefs about Identity: New Evidence for Early Mentalistic Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Richman, Josh C.; Baillargeon, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Are infants capable of representing false beliefs, as the mentalistic account of early psychological reasoning suggests, or are they incapable of doing so, as the minimalist account suggests? The present research sought to shed light on this debate by testing the minimalist claim that a signature limit of early psychological reasoning is a specific inability to understand false beliefs about identity: because of their limited representational capabilities, infants should be unable to make sense of situations where an agent mistakes one object for another, visually identical object. To evaluate this claim, three experiments examined whether 17-month-olds could reason about the actions of a deceptive agent who sought to implant in another agent a false belief about the identity of an object. In each experiment, a thief attempted to secretly steal a desirable rattling toy during its owner’s absence by substituting a less desirable silent toy. Infants realized that this substitution could be effective only if the silent toy was visually identical to the rattling toy (Experiment 1) and the owner did not routinely shake her toy when she returned (Experiment 2). When these conditions were met, infants expected the owner to be deceived and to mistake the silent toy for the rattling toy she had left behind (Experiment 3). Together, these results cast doubt on the minimalist claim that infants cannot represent false beliefs about identity. More generally, these results indicate that infants in the 2nd year of life can reason not only about the actions of agents who hold false beliefs, but also about the actions of agents who seek to implant false beliefs, thus providing new support for the mentalistic claim that an abstract capacity to reason about false beliefs emerges early in human development. PMID:26374383

  10. Factors influencing the surgery intentions and choices of women with early breast cancer: the predictive utility of an extended theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women diagnosed with early breast cancer (stage I or II) can be offered the choice between mastectomy or breast conservation surgery with radiotherapy due to equivalence in survival rates. A wide variation in the surgical management of breast cancer and a lack of theoretically guided research on this issue highlight the need for further research into the factors influencing women’s choices. An extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) could provide a basis to understand and predict women’s surgery choices. The aims of this study were to understand and predict the surgery intentions and choices of women newly diagnosed with early breast cancer, examining the predictive utility of an extended TPB. Methods Sixty-two women recruited from three UK breast clinics participated in the study; 48 women, newly diagnosed with early breast cancer, completed online questionnaires both before their surgery and after accessing an online decision support intervention (BresDex). Questionnaires assessed views about breast cancer and the available treatment options using items designed to measure constructs of an extended TPB (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and anticipated regret), and women’s intentions to choose mastectomy or BCS. Objective data were collected on women’s choice of surgery via the clinical breast teams. Multiple and logistic regression analyses examined predictors of surgery intentions and subsequent choice of surgery. Results The extended TPB accounted for 69.9% of the variance in intentions (p <.001); attitudes and subjective norms were significant predictors. Including additional variables revealed anticipated regret to be a more important predictor than subjective norms. Surgery intentions significantly predicted surgery choices (p <.01). Conclusions These findings demonstrate the utility of an extended TPB in predicting and understanding women’s surgery intentions and choices for early breast cancer

  11. "Retirement Readiness" Deals With Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jack; Mearns, Margaret

    1975-01-01

    A retirement readiness seminar was held for Maryland Extension staff members in April, 1974 in which they discussed such important aspects of retirement as legal concerns, finances, use of time (travel and employment), and hospitalization. (Author)

  12. The Impacts of Workplace Advantage, Learning Intentions, and Technology Skills on the Use of Information Technology-Assisted Instruction by Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ru-Si

    2015-01-01

    The practical value and usefulness of IT-assisted instruction for Taiwanese preschool children are popular topics in academic and practical settings. The purpose of this study was to survey early childhood pre-service teachers' attitudes regarding the workplace advantage of IT-related pedagogy and their learning intentions regarding IT-based…

  13. Safeguarding Your Retirement Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1989-01-01

    Faculty members should consider becoming more involved in the oversight of their personal retirement funds. Both price and inflation risks are best controlled by taking a balanced or diversified approach to investing, with a portfolio based on a predetermined percentage of each type of investment. (MSE)

  14. Manfred Ziebell Retires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstadt, D.

    2002-12-01

    On December 1st, 2002, after thirty- seven years of service, first in Chile and then in Garching, Ms. Christa Euler will leave ESO to enjoy a welldeserved retirement. Among the current staff, she is probably the only person who started her career at ESO just four years after the Organization was founded.

  15. Faculty Retirement Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Legislature, Olympia. Joint Committee on Higher Education.

    The purpose of this report is to present findings and recommendations of the Joint Committee on Higher Education in the state of Washington. The specific mandate of the Committee in this instance was to study the retirement programs currently in force at the various state institutions of higher education and to make any necessary recommendations…

  16. Planning Your Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This guidebook on retirement planning helps potential retirees by raising important issues in such areas as changing roles and relationships, health and fitness, meaningful use of time, working options, financial and estate planning, and housing and lifestyle. The first section, on attitude and role adjustments, discusses support systems, changing…

  17. Retirement Choice 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    and Aline Quester November 2015 Copyright © 2015 CNA This document contains the best opinion of CNA at the time of issue. It does...by Aline O. Quester and Lewis G. Lee, The Retirement Choice: FY 2006, CNA Research Memorandum D0003713.A6/4REV, Oct. 2005. 2 First

  18. Planning Your Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This guidebook raises important issues for older workers to think about in planning for retirement. Sections of the book explore such areas as the following: changing roles and relationships; health and fitness; meaningful use of time, with a sampler of activities from which one may choose; working options, including a brief description of a…

  19. Ideas for Improving Retirement Wellness.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Anna M

    Employers can and should take steps to support retirement and financial wellness. This article provides a framework for retirement wellness informed by research conducted or supported by the Society of Actuaries. Research insights about Americans' finances, planning, decisions, money management, debt, retiree income shocks and other areas point to ways employers can provide retirement wellness support as a vital part of an overall benefit program. The author suggests several key considerations employers should pay attention to in order to improve retirement wellness.

  20. Changes in Sleep Difficulties During the Transition to Statutory Retirement.

    PubMed

    Myllyntausta, Saana; Salo, Paula; Kronholm, Erkki; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari

    2018-01-01

    This study examined changes in sleep during the transition from full-time work to statutory retirement. Both the prevalence of any sleep difficulty and the prevalence of specific sleep difficulties, such as difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, waking up too early in the morning, and nonrestorative sleep, were examined. Data from the Finnish Public Sector study were used. The study population consisted of 5,807 Finnish public sector employees who retired on statutory basis between 2000 and 2011. The participants responded on the Jenkins Sleep Problem Scale Questionnaire before and after retirement in surveys conducted every 4 years. At the last study wave before retirement, 30% of the participants had sleep difficulties. Prevalence of any sleep difficulty decreased during the retirement transition: the risk ratio (RR) for having sleep difficulties in the first study wave following retirement compared with the last study wave preceding retirement was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.94). During the retirement transition, both waking up too early in the morning (RR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.69-0.82) and nonrestorative sleep (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.42-0.53) decreased, whereas there was no change in difficulties falling asleep or difficulties maintaining sleep. The decreases in sleep difficulties occurred primarily among those with psychological distress, suboptimal self-rated health, short sleep duration, and job strain before retirement. These longitudinal data suggest that transition to statutory retirement is associated with a decrease in sleep difficulties, especially waking up too early in the morning and nonrestorative sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The Trend toward Retirement Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2008-01-01

    Many library media specialists are deciding to return to the workplace after retiring from full-time employment. This article focuses on general information about the trend of retirees acquiring retirement jobs, how and why retired library media specialists return to work, their perceptions of challenges facing library media programs, and advice…

  2. [The prognostic value of variables from the quality assurance program and of the rehabilitation-discharge report of the LVA Baden-Württemberg for early retirement: results of a retrospective cohort-study].

    PubMed

    Küpper-Nybelen, J; Rothenbacher, D; Jacobi, E; Brenner, H

    2003-12-01

    Since 1997 the LVA Baden-Württemberg pension insurance agency has implemented an instrument to measure the outcome quality of in-patient rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of various short-term rehabilitation success markers and of variables of the quality assurance program and the rehab-discharge report of the LVA Baden-Württemberg on early retirement by means of a retrospective cohort study. The analysis was based on routinely registered data of patients who underwent in-hospital rehabilitation in a hospital accredited by the LVA Baden-Württemberg between June 1997 and June 1999. Baseline data included information from medical discharge reports and from the quality assurance programme. Follow-up information with regard to disability was collected until July 2000. The prognostic value of the quality assurance programme and of 4 standardized documented items from the medical discharge report was estimated by proportional hazards regression. In this analysis 6,823 patients aged 30-59 years who underwent an in-patient rehab programme between June 1997 and July 1999 in 5 of 6 LVA rehab clinics were included. During follow-up (mean duration: 1.8 years) 908 (13.3%) patients retired because of health-related disability. The variables with the strongest prognostic values were the evaluation of the patient health status by the physician and the patients themselves and the capacity to work. The variables with the highest prognostic value were the evaluation on a 1-6 visual analogue scale; a better assessment by one mark of the health status by physician and patient himself, respectively, was associated with a 53% and 40% reduced risk of disability. Fitness for work at discharge was the most prognostic variable from the discharge report. Patients who were able to work had a 78% reduced risk of disability compared to patients unable to work. Also of prognostic relevance were a positive performance and the duration of the

  3. The value of adaptive regret management in retirement.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Jamie C; Wrosch, Carsten; Pushkar, Dolores; Li, Karen Z H

    2013-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study examined the associations between regret management, everyday activities, and retirement satisfaction among recent retirees. We hypothesized that the regulation of a severe life regret can facilitate activity engagement and retirement satisfaction, but only if retirees manage their regrets adaptively by either increasing effort and commitment when possessing favorable opportunities or disengaging when opportunity is unfavorable. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated that the highest baseline levels of activity (e.g., volunteering, traveling) and retirement satisfaction were observed among participants who perceived favorable opportunities for addressing their life regrets and had high levels of engagement. Longitudinal analyses showed that this pattern was also associated with increases in activity engagement. In contrast, disengagement protected individuals with unfavorable opportunity from 3-year declines in retirement satisfaction. These findings indicate that adaptive regulation of regrets can both contribute to gains and prevent losses in the early stages of retirement, which may have lasting consequences on retirees' quality of life.

  4. Variations in Receipt of Curative-Intent Surgery for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) by State.

    PubMed

    Sineshaw, Helmneh M; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Flanders, W Dana; Osarogiagbon, Raymond Uyiosa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies reported racial and socioeconomic disparities in receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the United States. We examined variation in receipt of surgery and whether the racial disparity varies by state. Patients in whom stage I or II NSCLC was diagnosed from 2007 to 2011 were identified from 38 state and the District of Columbia population-based cancer registries compiled by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Percentage of patients receiving curative-intent surgery was calculated for each registry. Adjusted risk ratios were generated by using modified Poisson regression to control for sociodemographic (e.g., age, sex, race, insurance) and clinical (e.g., grade, stage) factors. Non-Hispanic (NH) whites and Massachusetts were used as references for comparisons because they had the lowest uninsured rates. In all registries combined, 66.4% of patients with early-stage NSCLC (73,475 of 110,711) received curative-intent surgery. Receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage NSCLC varied substantially by state, ranging from 52.2% to 56.1% in Wyoming, Louisiana, and New Mexico to 75.2% to 77.2% in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Utah. In a multivariable analysis, the likelihood of receiving curative-intent surgery was significantly lower in all but nine states/registries compared with Massachusetts, ranging from 7% lower in California to 25% lower in Wyoming. Receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage NSCLC was lower for NH blacks than for NH whites in every state, although statistically significant in Florida and Texas. Receipt of curative-intent surgery for early-stage NSCLC varies substantially across states in the United States, with northeastern states generally showing the highest rates. Further, receipt of treatment appeared to be lower in NH blacks than in NH whites in every state, although statistically significant in Florida and Texas. Copyright © 2016

  5. Dementia attitudes and help-seeking intentions: an investigation of responses to two scenarios of an experience of the early signs of dementia.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Lyn; Magee, Christopher; Jones, Sandra; Reis, Samantha; Skladzien, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    To investigate associations between dementia-attitudes and help-seeking intentions. An online survey of 611 Australian adults (45-60 years) assessed dementia-related attitudes and help-seeking intentions in response to two scenarios of an experience of early dementia: for themselves (Scenario 1); and for a significant other (proxy help-seeking) (Scenario 2). Logistic regression models examined the relationship between four dementia-related attitudes (labelled Personal Avoidance, Fear of Labelling, Fear of Discrimination and Person Centredness) and help-seeking intentions. Most participants indicated they would seek help from a general practitioner (GP) for themselves (82.2%) or for a proxy (78.7%) in response to the scenarios. Whilst only 7.2% indicated they would seek help from no-one, 21.3% would delay seeking help. In response to Scenario 1, Personal Avoidance and Fear of Labelling were associated with intentions to delay help-seeking. Fear of both Labelling and Discrimination were associated with intentions to seek help from no-one. In response to Scenario 2, Personal Avoidance was associated with intentions to delay proxy help-seeking and a reduced likelihood of seeking help by phone or and with Fear of Discrimination, via a GP. Fear of Labelling was also associated with an intention to delay proxy help-seeking. Efforts to improve help-seeking for dementia should address attitudes relating to stigma including negative labelling and a desire for the avoidance of people with dementia. Fears relating to discrimination indicate a need to build public confidence regarding the capacity of the health and workforce sectors to support people with dementia ethically and appropriately.

  6. Retirement as Meaningful: Positive Retirement Stereotypes Associated with Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes. PMID:27346893

  7. Tax Shelter Use and Retirement Income of Retired Ohio Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Mark S.

    1983-01-01

    Empirical evidence of tax shelter usage is sparse. These data add weight to earlier concerns about whether tax incentives to save for retirement benefit upper-income groups more than middle- and lower-income groups and present the importance of different sources of income in providing retirement funds for this group. (Author/RC)

  8. Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project: A Healthy Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Donna

    This fourth in a series of six packages of instructional materials developed by the Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project contains a student's pre-retirement booklet specifically intended for adults with limited reading ability and teacher's guide, which consider these topics: dietary requirements, nutrition, facts and fallacies about health, foods and…

  9. Physical workload and thoughts of retirement.

    PubMed

    Perkiö-Mäkelä, Merja; Hirvonen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Finnish employees' opinions on continuing work until retirement pension and after the age of 63, and to find out if physical workload is related to these opinions. Altogether 39% of men and 40% of women had never had thoughts of early retirement, and 59% claimed (both men and women) that they would consider working beyond the age of 63. Own health (20%); financial gain such as salary and better pension (19%); meaningful, interesting and challenging work (15%); flexible working hours or part-time work (13%); lighter work load (13%); good work community (8%); and good work environment (6%) were stated as factors affecting the decision to continue working after the age of 63. Employees whose work involved low physical workload had less thoughts of early retirement and had considered continuing work after the age of 63 more often than those whose work involved high physical loads. Own health in particular was stated as a reason to consider continuing work by employees whose work was physically demanding.

  10. Working Women, Marriage, and Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkoff, Shelley; Fierst, Edith

    Women are at a disadvantage under both Social Security and private employee pension plans because the retirement systems were set up at a time when most women were non-working spouses of employed men, a condition that no longer exists. Today women workers, divorcees, and widows of retirees often find themselves with inadequate retirement benefits…

  11. Consequences of Retirement: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodily, Gerald P.

    Studies on retirement reporting that, compared to people not retired, recent retirees exhibited less income, more physical and mental illness, lower self-esteem, and less life satisfaction have been challenged and new findings have been revealed by longitudinal studies using data from large samples. It appears that perhaps the way individuals…

  12. Retirement as a Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Ford, Geoff; Hodkinson, Heather; Hawthorn, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article draws upon a major qualitative empirical research investigation in Great Britain to explore the relationships between retirement and learning. Though retirement is frequently viewed as an event leading to a life stage, our data show that it can perhaps be best understood as a lengthy process. This process begins well before actual…

  13. Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasang, Anette Eva

    2012-01-01

    How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…

  14. Land Retirement as a Habitat Restoration Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, P. N.; Wallender, W. W.

    2007-12-01

    Use of intensive irrigation in arid and semi-arid areas usually leads to gradual salination of the soil leading to crop yield decline. The salination problem is mitigated by applying irrigation in excess of crop requirements, which leaches the excess salt load to the groundwater. Insufficient natural or man made drainage to dispose off this saline recharge to the groundwater leads to a gradual rise in the water table and eventual encroachment upon the root zone. This may ultimately make the land unfit for any economically productive activity. The abandoned land may even lead to desertification with adverse environmental consequences. In drainage basins with no surface outflow (sometimes called closed basins), land retirement has been proposed as a management tool to address this problem. Land retirement essentially entails intentionally discontinuing irrigation of selected farmlands with the expectation that the shallow water table beneath those lands should drop and the root zone salinity level should decrease. In the San Joaquin Valley of California, intensive irrigation in conjunction with a shallow underlying layer of clay, known as the Corcoran clay layer and absence of a drainage system caused the root zone to become highly saline and the shallow water table to rise. Land retirement would remove from production those farmlands contributing the poorest quality subsurface drain water. Based on numerical models results, it was expected that with land retirement of substantial irrigated lands with poor drainage characteristics, beneath which lies shallow groundwater with high salt load, the shallow water table beneath those lands should drop. A part of the retired lands could also be used for wildlife habitat. A potential negative side of the land retirement option that has to be considered is that in certain enabling evapotranspiration, soil and water table conditions, water will be drawn upwards and evaporated, leaving a deposit of salts on the surface and in

  15. Job, Organizational, and Professional Context Antecedents as Predictors of Intent for Interrole Work Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year study of 672 medical technologists identified interrole work transitions as intent to leave the organization, intent to leave the profession, and intended retirement age. Job satisfaction had a significant impact on intent to leave. Organizational context influenced intent to leave the organization and professional commitment influenced…

  16. The Myth of Employee Planning for Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Malcolm H.

    1975-01-01

    A survey of male hourly-wage earners indicates employees face serious problems in planning for income security in retirement. Retirement preparation programs that supply information and technical planning expertise are needed to assist employees in realistic retirement planning. (EA)

  17. Retirement Choice 2016

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    22 YOS Age 40 14.8% 19.7% $444,080 $421,580 Age 42 14.5% 19.4% $388,860 $366,360 Age 44 14.2% 19.0% $339,205 $316,705 CWO- 4 at 24 YOS ...Age 42 13.2% 17.6% $460,820 $438,320 Age 44 12.9% 17.2% $401,748 $379,248 Age 46 12.5% 16.7% $349,128 $326,628 CWO- 4 at 26 YOS Age 44 11.3% 15.1...after tax) Breakeven interest ratea Total reduction in after-tax retirement pay “Interest”b O- 4 at 20 YOS Age 42 19.6% 27.2% $448,256

  18. Survival Analysis Of The Modernized Retirement System For The United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    November 2015 to begin as early as 2018. This online survey will assist the Marine Corps in determining the retention impacts of the new retirement...thesis determines if the Modernized Retirement System is likely to affect manpower levels. A survey was conducted within the active component of the U.S...2016. Specifically, this thesis determines if the Modernized Retirement System is likely to affect manpower levels. A survey was conducted within

  19. Recent developments in the employment and retirement of older workers in Germany.

    PubMed

    Naegele, G; Krämer, K

    2001-01-01

    Against a background of an aging population, rising social security costs, and foreseeable labor and skill shortages, there have been public policy changes affecting older workers in Germany. Labor-market related initiatives aim at an increase of labor force participation among this group. Enterprise-related, active age-management strategies aim at improving occupational conditions of aging workers. In this context, prolonging the working life must be seen as one option of "active aging." Another view of the current retirement discussion is the question of how the unused potential of Germany's younger, early-retired seniors can be exploited. Active aging has become a social duty nowadays, with the intention that older persons contribute to society to avoid generational conflicts. In the future, active aging will preserve the competitiveness of enterprises and of the entire economy, despite an aging labor force. But gerontological research points out that different options to carry out individual life plans of active aging are also required. This article reviews the changes in public policies towards older workers and includes the findings of a project that illustrates good practice to combat age barriers in the labor world.

  20. Working conditions as risk factors for disability retirement: a longitudinal register linkage study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Early retirement due to disability is a public health and work environment problem that shortens working careers. Transition to disability retirement is based on ill-health, but working conditions are also of relevance. We examined the contributions of work arrangements, physical working conditions and psychosocial working conditions to subsequent disability retirement. Methods The data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study cohort on employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Information on working conditions was obtained from the baseline surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002. These data were linked with register data on disability retirement and their main diagnoses obtained from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Follow up by the end of 2008 yielded 525 disability retirement events. The analysed data included 6525 participants and 525 disability retirement events. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated from Cox regression analysis. Results Several working conditions showed own associations with disability retirement before adjustment. After adjustment for all working conditions, the primary risk factors for all-cause disability retirement were physical workload among women (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.57-2.59) and men (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.18-3.38), and low job control among women (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29-1.99). In addition, for disability retirement due to musculoskeletal causes, the risk factors were physical workload and low job control. For disability retirement due to mental causes the risk factors were computer work and low job control. Furthermore, occupational class was a risk factor for disability retirement due to all causes and musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusions Among various working conditions, those that are physically demanding and those that imply low job control are potential risk factors for disability retirement. Improving the physical working environment and enhancing control over one’s job is likely

  1. An Experimental Evaluation of Competing Age-Predictions of Future Time Perspective between Workplace and Retirement Domains.

    PubMed

    Kerry, Matthew J; Embretson, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) is defined as "perceptions of the future as being limited or open-ended" (Lang and Carstensen, 2002; p. 125). The construct figures prominently in both workplace and retirement domains, but the age-predictions are competing: Workplace research predicts decreasing FTP age-change, in contrast, retirement scholars predict increasing FTP age-change. For the first time, these competing predictions are pitted in an experimental manipulation of subjective life expectancy (SLE). A sample of N = 207 older adults (age 45-60) working full-time (>30-h/week) were randomly assigned to SLE questions framed as either 'Live-to' or 'Die-by' to evaluate competing predictions for FTP. Results indicate general support for decreasing age-change in FTP, indicated by independent-sample t -tests showing lower FTP in the 'Die-by' framing condition. Further general-linear model analyses were conducted to test for interaction effects of retirement planning with experimental framings on FTP and intended retirement; While retirement planning buffered FTP's decrease, simple-effects also revealed that retirement planning increased intentions for sooner retirement, but lack of planning increased intentions for later retirement. Discussion centers on practical implications of our findings and consequences validity evidence in future empirical research of FTP in both workplace and retirement domains.

  2. An Experimental Evaluation of Competing Age-Predictions of Future Time Perspective between Workplace and Retirement Domains

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Matthew J.; Embretson, Susan E.

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) is defined as “perceptions of the future as being limited or open-ended” (Lang and Carstensen, 2002; p. 125). The construct figures prominently in both workplace and retirement domains, but the age-predictions are competing: Workplace research predicts decreasing FTP age-change, in contrast, retirement scholars predict increasing FTP age-change. For the first time, these competing predictions are pitted in an experimental manipulation of subjective life expectancy (SLE). A sample of N = 207 older adults (age 45–60) working full-time (>30-h/week) were randomly assigned to SLE questions framed as either ‘Live-to’ or ‘Die-by’ to evaluate competing predictions for FTP. Results indicate general support for decreasing age-change in FTP, indicated by independent-sample t-tests showing lower FTP in the ‘Die-by’ framing condition. Further general-linear model analyses were conducted to test for interaction effects of retirement planning with experimental framings on FTP and intended retirement; While retirement planning buffered FTP’s decrease, simple-effects also revealed that retirement planning increased intentions for sooner retirement, but lack of planning increased intentions for later retirement. Discussion centers on practical implications of our findings and consequences validity evidence in future empirical research of FTP in both workplace and retirement domains. PMID:29375435

  3. Health shocks and retirement: the role of welfare state institutions.

    PubMed

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2007-09-01

    We investigate the effect of an acute health shock on retirement among elderly male workers in Denmark, 1991-1999, and in particular whether various welfare state programs and institutions impinge on the retirement effect. The results show that an acute health event increases the retirement chances of elderly male workers by 8%, and that this increase in the baseline retirement probability is not affected by eligibility to early exit programs and persists even after accounting for selection due to take-up of disability pension. Neither is it affected by the relatively long duration of sickness benefits in Denmark nor by the promotion of corporate social responsibility initiatives since the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the retirement rate following a health shock is reduced to 3% with the introduction of the subsidized employment program ( fleksjob ) but this effect is on the margin of being significant. For the most part, the retirement effect following a health shock seems to be immune to the availability of a multitude of government programs for older workers in Denmark.

  4. HEALTH AND RETIREMENT STUDY (HRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    HRS is a national panel study based on biennial interviews. The study provides a portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning.

  5. Psychosocial work environment and retirement age: a prospective study of 1876 senior employees.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H; Bjørner, Jakob Bue

    2016-08-01

    Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement in a longitudinal study. Data about work environment, health, and background factors came from the DANES 2008 questionnaire survey. We followed members of the Danish early retirement scheme for up to 4 years in national registers-focusing on the age range, 60-64 years, where early retirement was possible. We used Cox proportional hazard regression to analyze the rate of early retirement. The study included 16 psychosocial work environment factors. The following 10 psychosocial factors were significant predictors of early retirement in covariate adjusted analyses: Low job satisfaction, low influence in job, low possibilities for development, low role clarity, perceived age discrimination, low recognition from management, low workplace justice, poor trust in management, poor leadership quality, and poor predictability. No significant association with early retirement was found for work pace, quantitative demands, emotional demands, role conflicts, social community between colleagues, and trust between colleagues. Older employees with high job satisfaction, influence, possibilities for development, positive management relations, and jobs with no age discrimination remained longer at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees' decision on early retirement.

  6. Honest Labor Bears a Lovely Face: Will Late-Life Unemployment Impact Health and Satisfaction in Retirement?

    PubMed

    Voss, Maren Wright; Birmingham, Wendy Church; Wadsworth, Lori; Chen, Wei; Bounsanga, Jerry; Gu, Yushan; Hung, Man

    2017-02-01

    Unemployment among older adults during recessionary cycles has been tied to early retirement decisions and negative health outcomes. This study explored episodes of unemployment experienced between age 50 and retirement as predictors of retirement age and health outcomes. A total of 1540 participants from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study aged 50 years and older who transitioned from workforce to retirement were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multiple regression controlling for unemployment, demographics, and health status. Late-life unemployment significantly related to earlier retirement age and lowered life satisfaction, independent of income effects. We found no main effect for late-life unemployment on physical health status. Potential improvements in future life satisfaction might be gained if job search obstacles are removed for older unemployed adults, reducing reliance on involuntary early retirement as an income source.

  7. [Who's afraid of retirement? Social factors influencing the attitude toward retirement].

    PubMed

    Gadourek, I; van Gelder, B A

    1985-10-01

    The four dimensions of the attitudes towards retirement (see Bela A. van Gelder in this journal) of 553 male older employees from the northern Netherlands were analyzed in relation to over 250 predictor-variables by means of stepwise regressions and other techniques of multivariate analysis. A simple recursive model of Palmore, George and Fillenbaum served as a theoretical guideline. It was tested by means of a path-analysis as applied to 20 variables (see figure I). Many of over 100 hypotheses derived from the model and from the literature pertaining to the matter were upheld by the findings: Single persons, widowers, or persons not happily married, appeared more afraid of retirement. If married, the spouse's judgment (as perceived by the interviewee) was another factor of importance. Age also affected the attitude: the closer one approaches retirement, the less positive the attitude (though age showed little variation in our sample). Social status affected the attitude indirectly: manual workers performing physically exacting (dirty, irregular, etc.) jobs, who have been working for the same firm (or: service) over a long period of time, who started earning money early in life--these were positive in their attitude towards retirement (needless to say that all these findings concern the attribute of lower status jobs). Finally, the pattern of and the attitude towards leisure played a decisive role: employees with strong work-involvement, with less intensive and rich leisure time, with intensive ties with people from their work-scene--these showed more negative attitudes towards retirement than their counterparts.

  8. How can organisations influence their older employees' decision of when to retire?

    PubMed

    Oakman, Jodi; Howie, Linsey

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study of older employees of a large public service organisation and examines their experiences of employment and their intentions to retire. This study collected qualitative data through focus group interviews with 42 participants. Key themes derived from data analysis with regard to influences on retirement intentions included: personal, organizational and legislative influences. The study concludes that organisations can retain their older workers longer if they provide sufficient support, the work offered is satisfying, and part-time work is available. Regular review of employees' performance and satisfaction is required to maximize the productivity and retention of older workers.

  9. The Labor Market Impacts of the Private Retirement System. Studies in Public Welfare, Paper No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Robert

    After giving an overview of the private retirement system and considering deferred wages and labor costs, the study explores the extent of the influence of private pensions on early retirement and on job opportunities of older persons, and the influence of lengthy job tenure requirements on worker mobility. The study weakens the case for…

  10. Longevity and survival analysis for a cohort of retired airline pilots.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-02-01

    There is a popular belief in the aviation industry that retired pilots die at a younger age than the general population. If this belief is in fact, correct, research into the factors or events precipitating an early mortality among retired airline cr...

  11. Social connectedness and the transition from work to retirement.

    PubMed

    Lancee, Bram; Radl, Jonas

    2012-07-01

    Although there are numerous studies on the role of social connections in early working life, research that examines how social connectedness matters in the later stages of a career is scarce. The present study analyzes to what extent social connectedness affects the timing of the transition from work to retirement. We draw on data from the German Socioeconomic Panel Study (GSOEP) from the years 1985-2009 (N = 10,225), and we apply techniques of event history analysis. Social connectedness includes social gatherings with friends, relatives, and neighbors (informal participation) as well as engagement in voluntary and civic associations and local politics (formal participation). The findings demonstrate that social connectedness matters for the transition from work to retirement, but its impact depends on the type of participation. Whereas informal participation results in earlier retirement, formal participation delays labor force withdrawal. The findings suggest a trade-off between informal participation and work in later life, which leads people with frequent social contacts to opt for early retirement. By contrast, the fact that formal participation is associated with postponed retirement points to employment benefits of volunteering and civic engagement among older workers.

  12. The Relation between Early Adolescents' Trust Beliefs in Peers and Reactions to Peer Provocation: Attributions of Intention and Retaliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Betts, Lucy R.; Moore, Jolene

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between early adolescents' trust beliefs in peers and both their attributions for, and retaliatory aggression to, peer provocation. One hundred and eight-five early adolescents (102 male) from the United Kingdom (M age = 12 years, 2 months, SD = 3 months) completed the Children's Generalized Trust Beliefs in peer…

  13. Losing All Interest in School: Social Participation as a Predictor of the Intention to Leave Upper Secondary School Early

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan; Mjaavatn, Per Egil

    2015-01-01

    Early school leaving in upper secondary education is a serious problem for both students and society. Several reviews have shown that there is no simple cause of early school leaving, but it seems to relate to demographic variables, social factors, academic achievement, and school factors. In this study, data from 2,045 students aged 16 from upper…

  14. The Predictors of the Intention to Leave School Early among a Representative Sample of Irish Second-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeney, Yseult; O'Connell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Early school-leaving exerts substantial costs on the individual and society. The literature indicates that quitting school early is predicted by an enmeshed group of indicators including academic and behavioural difficulties in school, deprived economic background and disengagement with the educational process. The attitudes and background of a…

  15. Is poor mental health a risk factor for retirement? Findings from a longitudinal population survey.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Sarah C; Butterworth, Peter; Rodgers, Bryan

    2012-05-01

    Poor mental health may influence people's decisions about, and ability to, keep working into later adulthood. The identification of factors that drive retirement provides valuable information for policymakers attempting to mitigate the effects of population ageing. This study examined whether mental health predicts subsequent retirement in a general population sample, and whether this association varied with the timing of retirement. Longitudinal data from 2,803 people aged 45-75 years were drawn from five waves of the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey. Discrete-time survival analyses were used to estimate the association between mental health and retirement. Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Index (MHI-5). The relative influences of other health, social, financial, and work-related predictors of retirement were considered to determine the unique contribution of mental health to retirement behaviour. Poor mental health was associated with higher rates of retirement in men (hazard rate ratio, HRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.29), and workforce exit more generally in women (HRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22). These associations varied with the timing of retirement and were driven by early retirees specifically. Physical functioning, income, social activity, job conditions (including job stress for women and job control for men), and aspects of job satisfaction also predicted subsequent retirement. Poor mental and physical health predict workforce departure in mid-to-late adulthood, particularly early retirement. Strategies to accommodate health conditions in the workplace may reduce rates of early retirement and encourage people to remain at work into later adulthood.

  16. Explicating how parent-child communication increases Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance Use.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Yang, Sijia

    2014-08-01

    This study used primary socialization theory and a focus theory of normative conduct to examine whether anti-substance-use norms mediated targeted parent-child communication against substance (alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana) use's effects on Latino and European American early adolescents' intentions to intervene in a friend's substance use. Further, this study investigated whether familism interacted with targeted parent-child communication to predict anti-substance-use norms, and whether this mediated moderation model functioned differently for Latino and European American early adolescents. Self-reported longitudinal survey data were collected from 6th-8th grade students (N = 627), attending rural IL public schools. Multigroup mediated moderation analyses revealed that as Latino and European American early adolescents engaged in targeted mother-child communication against substance use, they were more likely to develop anti-substance-use parent injunctive norms, and in turn, more likely to report anti-substance-use personal norms. Thus, they were more likely to report that if their friend used substances, they would talk to their friend, seek help from others, and end the friendship. They were, however, less likely to ignore the friend's substance use. Familism was not a significant moderator, and the hypothesized effects did not differ for Latino and European American early adolescents. The results suggest that parents of Latino and European American adolescents may discourage substance use by engaging in targeted parent-child communication, which may indirectly benefit their children's friends, as well.

  17. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Andrew D.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Seel, Joachim

    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO 2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basismore » and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO 2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.« less

  18. The pension incentive to retire: empirical evidence for West Germany.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, S

    1997-01-01

    "In this paper, the impact of the West German pension system on the retirement decisions of elderly citizens is analyzed within the framework of a discrete-time hazard rate model deduced from a micro-economic decision rule. The model is estimated using a panel dataset of elderly West German citizens. In order to improve the precision of the estimates obtained, the data from the sample are combined with aggregate-level information on the labour force participation behaviour of the elderly. Policy simulations based on the estimates reveal that the probability of early retirement can be reduced significantly by appropriate changes in the pension system." excerpt

  19. Personal Retirement Accounts and Saving†

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Aging populations are leading countries worldwide to social security reforms. Many countries are moving from pay-as-you-go to personal retirement account (PRA) systems because of their financial sustainability and positive impact on private savings. PRA systems boost private savings at a macro level by converting a government liability into financial wealth managed by private fund managers. However, at a micro level, changes in retirement wealth affect individuals' saving and consumption patterns through their working lives. Retirement wealth increased for lower-income workers after Mexico introduced PRAs, crowding out saving, increasing consumption, and offsetting some of the PRA effect on private savings. (JEL D14, E21, H55, J26, O16) PMID:28286607

  20. A prediction model for early death in non-small cell lung cancer patients following curative-intent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jochems, Arthur; El-Naqa, Issam; Kessler, Marc; Mayo, Charles S; Jolly, Shruti; Matuszak, Martha; Faivre-Finn, Corinne; Price, Gareth; Holloway, Lois; Vinod, Shalini; Field, Matthew; Barakat, Mohamed Samir; Thwaites, David; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Dekker, Andre; Lambin, Philippe

    2018-02-01

    Early death after a treatment can be seen as a therapeutic failure. Accurate prediction of patients at risk for early mortality is crucial to avoid unnecessary harm and reducing costs. The goal of our work is two-fold: first, to evaluate the performance of a previously published model for early death in our cohorts. Second, to develop a prognostic model for early death prediction following radiotherapy. Patients with NSCLC treated with chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone were included in this study. Four different cohorts from different countries were available for this work (N = 1540). The previous model used age, gender, performance status, tumor stage, income deprivation, no previous treatment given (yes/no) and body mass index to make predictions. A random forest model was developed by learning on the Maastro cohort (N = 698). The new model used performance status, age, gender, T and N stage, total tumor volume (cc), total tumor dose (Gy) and chemotherapy timing (none, sequential, concurrent) to make predictions. Death within 4 months of receiving the first radiotherapy fraction was used as the outcome. Early death rates ranged from 6 to 11% within the four cohorts. The previous model performed with AUC values ranging from 0.54 to 0.64 on the validation cohorts. Our newly developed model had improved AUC values ranging from 0.62 to 0.71 on the validation cohorts. Using advanced machine learning methods and informative variables, prognostic models for early mortality can be developed. Development of accurate prognostic tools for early mortality is important to inform patients about treatment options and optimize care.

  1. 20 CFR 404.1088 - Retirement payment to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....1088 Section 404.1088 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... must have been paid your full share of the partnership's capital before the close of the partnership's... to D were liquidated, and D's share of the capital of the partnership was paid to him. Retirement...

  2. Achieving a Financially Secure Retirement: A Retirement Community Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Francis Henry

    2014-01-01

    In the wake of recent events, especially the Great Recession of 2007-2009, affecting the economy, resulting in job losses, personal financial distress, and gloomy perceptions of their future well-being, many Americans are concerned about their financial quality of life in retirement. The media is replete with a plethora of advertisements for…

  3. 20 CFR 404.1088 - Retirement payment to retired partners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....1088 Section 404.1088 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... must have been paid your full share of the partnership's capital before the close of the partnership's... to D were liquidated, and D's share of the capital of the partnership was paid to him. Retirement...

  4. Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Retire Tool When Deciding Between High 36 Retirement and Blended TSP Retirement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    based on life expectancy and the TSP account selected. The TSP Growth and Annuity Element also estimates how taxes will increase at the time the service...the BRS. 14. SUBJECT TERMS military retirement, blended retirement, HIGH-36, thrift savings plan, investment risk, retirement taxes , net present...20 2. Tax Impacts

  5. Can they carry on working? Later retirement, health, and social inequality in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Bellaby, Paul

    2006-01-01

    In debates on pensions and retirement age, little attention has been paid to the relation between increased effective retirement age and the health of the older population. This article focuses on Britain at a crucial point in the past, when the reconstruction that followed recession in the late 1970s and early 1980s used previously accumulated pension and redundancy funds to pay off workers and make labor markets "flexible." Using secondary data analysis of surveys of the same nationally representative sample in 1984 and 1991, the author argues that, while early retirement and retirement at age 60 (women) and 65 (men) took many able-bodied people out of the labor force, every increase in retirement age would have faced diminishing returns. Moreover, unemployment and exit from the labor market were accompanied in most cases by a perceived decline in well-being. The findings suggest that retirement should be tapered, not abrupt. Finally, there was pronounced inequality in the aging process that would have led to a situation in which a uniform policy on later retirement deepened the disadvantage of those least able to fend for themselves. Accordingly, the present U.K. government should positively discriminate in favor of the disadvantaged at retirement by reinforcing the state pension.

  6. Young Registered Nurses' Intention to Leave the Profession and Professional Turnover in Early Career: A Qualitative Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Salanterä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    In a time of global nursing shortages an alarming number of young registered nurses have expressed a willingness to leave the profession. In this qualitative case study we investigate in depth why young nurses leave nursing profession and reeducate themselves for a new career. The study is based on longitudinal interviews of three young registered nurses in Finland. These nurses were first interviewed between December 2006 and May 2007, when they were 29–32 years old and having an intention to leave the profession. The second interview took place four years later, from January 2011 to March 2011 when all of them had made the transition to a new career. Data were analyzed in two stages. In the first stage, comprehensive career story narratives were formed on the basis of the interviews. In the second stage, emerging themes in these stories were compared, contrasted, and interpreted in the context of the overall career histories. Nursing as a second career choice and demanding work content as well as poor practice environment and the inability to identify with the stereotypical images of nurses were main themes that emerged from these career stories. The results of this interpretative qualitative study reflect a shift toward insights into understanding professional turnover as a complex and long-lasting process. PMID:24027640

  7. Young registered nurses' intention to leave the profession and professional turnover in early career: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Flinkman, Mervi; Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka; Salanterä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    In a time of global nursing shortages an alarming number of young registered nurses have expressed a willingness to leave the profession. In this qualitative case study we investigate in depth why young nurses leave nursing profession and reeducate themselves for a new career. The study is based on longitudinal interviews of three young registered nurses in Finland. These nurses were first interviewed between December 2006 and May 2007, when they were 29-32 years old and having an intention to leave the profession. The second interview took place four years later, from January 2011 to March 2011 when all of them had made the transition to a new career. Data were analyzed in two stages. In the first stage, comprehensive career story narratives were formed on the basis of the interviews. In the second stage, emerging themes in these stories were compared, contrasted, and interpreted in the context of the overall career histories. Nursing as a second career choice and demanding work content as well as poor practice environment and the inability to identify with the stereotypical images of nurses were main themes that emerged from these career stories. The results of this interpretative qualitative study reflect a shift toward insights into understanding professional turnover as a complex and long-lasting process.

  8. Phased Retirement: The European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swank, Constance

    This report provides United States corporate and union policymakers with practical information on one alternative work pattern for older employees--phased retirement--from European colleagues who already have implemented or negotiated specific phasing programs. An introduction provides details on the collection of information from companies in…

  9. Retired RNs: perceptions of volunteering.

    PubMed

    Cocca-Bates, Katherine C; Neal-Boylan, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore the perceptions of volunteering among retired registered nurses (RNs) in Kansas. Participants were volunteers in formal nursing roles or were using their nursing knowledge and experience in non-nursing roles, such as church work. Regardless of the type of volunteer position, retired RNs reported that they use what they have learned as nurses when they volunteer. Volunteering benefits include enhanced self-worth, intellectual stimulation, reduced social isolation, and opportunities to help others. Increased paperwork, new technology, difficulty finding nursing-specific volunteer opportunities, resistance from health care organizations, and a lack of respect for what these nurses know are challenges and barriers to volunteering. Retired RNs have accumulated years of clinical nursing experience and can be helpful to employed nurses. Health care organizations should launch targeted efforts to recruit and utilize retired RN volunteers. Health care professionals who care for older adults should recommend volunteering as a healthful endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retirement Patterns from Career Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Kevin E.; Giandrea, Michael D.; Quinn, Joseph F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how older Americans leave their career jobs and estimates the extent of intermediate labor force activity (bridge jobs) between full-time work on a career job and complete labor-force withdrawal. Design and Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we explored the work histories and retirement…

  11. Shelved: The Retired Librarian's Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Jane D.

    Free-lance librarianship is discussed, and retired librarians are urged to start their own information service as a business. Because computer based storage and retrieval systems are not socially, politically, or economically integrated, and one library cannot hold all information, new needs are emerging for information services. For example, a…

  12. Retirement: An Ego Alien View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Helen

    1977-01-01

    Since knowledge of ego development can be used in professional work, a needed classification of attitudes toward the work ethic is advanced. A radical departure from our retirement policy towards those over 65 years of age requires additional competence on the part of counselors in the field of aging. (Author)

  13. Tax Changes, Retirement, and Pensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumberg, Alfred D.

    1989-01-01

    The 1986 amendments to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and tax reforms from that year will require changes in retirement policies in higher education, especially pension plans, because of the extension of nondiscrimination rules to all tax-deferred annuities. (Author/MSE)

  14. Financial planning considerations at retirement.

    PubMed

    Cole, R J

    1998-03-01

    The process of retirement planning is a difficult one for a physician. The Planning process should address the areas of Investment Planning, Estate Planning, and Risk Management. This article examines each of these dimensions with special emphasis on Modern Portfolio Theory as the basis for investment planning.

  15. The 2009 Retirement Confidence Survey: economy drives confidence to record lows; many looking to work longer.

    PubMed

    Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack

    2009-04-01

    RECORD LOW CONFIDENCE LEVELS: Workers who say they are very confident about having enough money for a comfortable retirement this year hit the lowest level in 2009 (13 percent) since the Retirement Confidence Survey started asking the question in 1993, continuing a two-year decline. Retirees also posted a new low in confidence about having a financially secure retirement, with only 20 percent now saying they are very confident (down from 41 percent in 2007). THE ECONOMY, INFLATION, COST OF LIVING ARE THE BIG CONCERNS: Not surprisingly, workers overall who have lost confidence over the past year about affording a comfortable retirement most often cite the recent economic uncertainty, inflation, and the cost of living as primary factors. In addition, certain negative experiences, such as job loss or a pay cut, loss of retirement savings, or an increase in debt, almost always contribute to loss of confidence among those who experience them. RETIREMENT EXPECTATIONS DELAYED: Workers apparently expect to work longer because of the economic downturn: 28 percent of workers in the 2009 RCS say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. Of those, the vast majority (89 percent) say that they have postponed retirement with the intention of increasing their financial security. Nevertheless, the median (mid-point) worker expects to retire at age 65, with 21 percent planning to push on into their 70s. The median retiree actually retired at age 62, and 47 percent of retirees say they retired sooner than planned. WORKING IN RETIREMENT: More workers are also planning to supplement their income in retirement by working for pay. The percentage of workers planning to work after they retire has increased to 72 percent in 2009 (up from 66 percent in 2007). This compares with 34 percent of retirees who report they actually worked for pay at some time during their retirement. GREATER WORRY ABOUT BASIC AND HEALTH EXPENSES: Workers who say they very confident in

  16. A Worry-Free Retirement in Korea: Effectiveness of Retirement Coaching Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyejin; Suh, Wookyung; Lee, Jiyoung; Jang, Younju; Kim, Minjung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated a retirement coaching educational program using the mixed method research design. A structured survey was distributed to 48 financial planners who had undergone 50-hour retirement education including retirement coaching. The coaching was conducted in two sessions in 2015. Results revealed that first, the retirement coaching…

  17. Learning to Work No Longer: Exploring "Retirement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore learning for and through retirement from the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: First, "retirement" is considered in the light of the existing literature, demonstrating a complex concept. The paper describes the research project from which a theme of retirement as a learning process…

  18. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-06

    facilities and programs. Currently, active component personnel are eligible for retirement or “vested” after completing 20 years of service ( YOS ) and have...Defined Benefit Calculations ............................... 4 “High Three” Eligibility and Defined Benefit Calculations...Retirement Eligibility Flowchart ................... 4 Tables Table 1. DOD Retired Military Personnel, Survivors, and Program Costs, FY2005- FY2014

  19. The Ever-Changing Meanings of Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVittie, Chris; Goodall, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Shultz and Wang (April 2011) drew attention to the ways in which understandings of retirement have changed over time, both in terms of the place of retirement in the lives of individuals and in terms of how retirement can no longer usefully be taken to comprise a single defining event. As the authors pointed out, psychological research has…

  20. Retirement and Learning: A Longitudinal Qualitative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses retirement as a learning process, where learning, be it formal or informal, enables retirees to adjust to the transition from work to retirement. Such discussion is important given the fact that the world population is aging and that more people are retiring in the next few decades. Moreover, people are experiencing an…

  1. Blended Retirement System: Effects on Physician Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    as the military switches to a new Blended retirement system. This research paper will evaluate the financial differences between the current military...retirement system and the new Blended retirement system which takes effect January of 2018. Three critical decision points in a military physicians

  2. Tax and Financial Considerations at Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Chris B.; Falkenhagen, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Because of longer life expectancies and individually managed supplements to monthly pension checks, planning at retirement is becoming as important as planning for retirement. This article provides advice for retiring administrators concerning personal budgeting, setting goals, estate and tax planning, choosing medical coverage, converting assets,…

  3. Transition from the labor market: older workers and retirement.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Chris L; Murphy, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The new millennium has seen the projected growth of older populations as a source of many problems, not the least of which is how to sustain this increasingly aging population. Some decades ago, early retirement from work posed few problems for governments, but most nations are now trying to ensure that workers remain in the workforce longer. In this context, the role played by older employees can be affected by at least two factors: their productivity (or perceived productivity) and their acceptance by younger workers and management. If the goal of maintaining employees into older age is to be achieved and sustained, opportunities must be provided, for example, for more flexible work arrangements and more possibilities to pursue bridge employment (work after formal retirement). The retirement experience varies, depending on people's circumstances. Some people, for example, have retirement forced upon them by illness or injury at work, by ill-health (such as chronic illnesses), or by downsizing and associated redundancies. This article focuses on the problems and opportunities associated with working to an older age or leaving the workforce early, particularly due to factors beyond one's control.

  4. Attitudes toward retirement of ophthalmology department chairs.

    PubMed

    Dodds, David W; Cruz, Oscar A; Israel, Heidi

    2013-07-01

    To identify common perceptions and ideas about preparation and planning for retirement of chairs of academic departments of ophthalmology, determining areas of particular stress and proposing ways to better prepare for retirement. Cross-sectional study. One-hundred sixteen chairs of academic departments of ophthalmology in the United States. A confidential online survey emailed to ophthalmology chairs. Surveys assessed demographics; current work schedule; perceptions, preparation, and planning for retirement; and retirement training for faculty and residents. Ninety-six department chairs responded to the survey (82% response rate). Most chairs anticipate retiring around age 70. Significantly, only 9% are looking forward to retirement. Reasons for delaying retirement include keeping active (37%), income/insurance/benefits (20%), and maintaining lifestyle (17%). The most common concern is financing retirement (46%). Forty percent anticipate their reason for retirement will be because of age or health, whereas 20% anticipate fatigue or burnout. Nearly half of the respondents have no specific plan upon retirement. Most respondents anticipate pursuing other interests (43%); 32% intend to spend time with family, vacationing, and travelling. Younger respondents are more concerned with the financial aspects of retirement while more senior respondents appear to delay retirement to keep active or because they enjoy their work. Retirement is a source of stress for many ophthalmology department chairs and many indicate financial preparation is their major concern. Despite this, the major reason for putting off retirement is a desire to keep active. Developing a retirement plan eases stress and engenders a feeling of confidence about the future. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 12 CFR 615.5260 - Retirement of eligible borrower stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... course of business means: (i) Retirement upon repayment of a loan or under a retirement or revolvement... surplus subject to retirement under a revolving cycle and retired out or order pursuant to §§ 615.5280 and... institution retires eligible borrower stock in the ordinary course of business, such equities shall be retired...

  6. Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Surgery with Curative Intent: Current Status and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Young, Patrick. E.; Womeldorph, Craig M.; Johnson, Eric K.; Maykel, Justin A.; Brucher, Bjorn; Stojadinovic, Alex; Avital, Itzhak; Nissan, Aviram; Steele, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy, attention to proper surgical technique, and improved pathological staging for both the primary and metastatic lesions, almost half of all colorectal cancer patients will develop recurrent disease. More concerning, this includes ~25% of patients with theoretically curable node-negative, non-metastatic Stage I and II disease. Given the annual incidence of colorectal cancer, approximately 150,000 new patients are candidates each year for follow-up surveillance. When combined with the greater population already enrolled in a surveillance protocol, this translates to a tremendous number of patients at risk for recurrence. It is therefore imperative that strategies aim for detection of recurrence as early as possible to allow initiation of treatment that may still result in cure. Yet, controversy exists regarding the optimal surveillance strategy (high-intensity vs. traditional), ideal testing regimen, and overall effectiveness. While benefits may involve earlier detection of recurrence, psychological welfare improvement, and greater overall survival, this must be weighed against the potential disadvantages including more invasive tests, higher rates of reoperation, and increased costs. In this review, we will examine the current options available and challenges surrounding colorectal cancer surveillance and early detection of recurrence. PMID:24790654

  7. Effects of a Public Education Campaign on the Association Between Knowledge of Early Stroke Symptoms and Intention to Call an Ambulance at Stroke Onset: The Acquisition of Stroke Knowledge (ASK) Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Tomofumi; Okamura, Tomonori; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Morimoto, Akiko; Toyoda, Kazunori; Suzuki, Kazuo; Toyota, Akihiro; Hata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2016-01-01

    Background An immediate ambulance call offers the greatest opportunity for acute stroke therapy. Effectively using ambulance services requires strengthening the association between knowledge of early stroke symptoms and intention to call an ambulance at stroke onset, and encouraging the public to use ambulance services. Methods The present study utilized data from the Acquisition of Stroke Knowledge (ASK) study, which administered multiple-choice, mail-in surveys regarding awareness of early stroke symptoms and response to a stroke attack before and after a 2-year stroke education campaign in two areas subject to intensive and moderate intervention, as well as in a control area, in Japan. In these three areas, 3833 individuals (1680, 1088 and 1065 participants in intensive intervention, moderate intervention, and control areas, respectively), aged 40 to 74 years, who responded appropriately to each survey were included in the present study. Results After the intervention, the number of correctly identified symptoms significantly associated with intention to call an ambulance (P < 0.05) increased (eg, from 4 to 5 correctly identified symptoms), without increasing choice of decoy symptoms in the intensive intervention area. Meanwhile, in other areas, rate of identification of not only correct symptoms but also decoy symptoms associated with intention to call an ambulance increased. Furthermore, the association between improvement in the knowledge of stroke symptoms and intention to call an ambulance was observed only in the intensive intervention area (P = 0.009). Conclusions Our results indicate that intensive interventions are useful for strengthening the association between correct knowledge of early stroke symptoms and intention to call an ambulance, without strengthening the association between incorrect knowledge and intention to call an ambulance. PMID:26441211

  8. Did the Great Recession influence retirement plans?

    PubMed

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam; Martin, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    The recent recession constitutes one of the macro forces that may have influenced workers' retirement plans. We evaluate a multilevel model that addresses the influence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors on retirement plans, changes in these plans, and expected retirement age. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the Health and Retirement Study (N=2,618), we find that individuals with defined benefit plans are more prone to change toward plans to stop work before the stock market declined, whereas the opposite trend holds for those without pensions. Debts, ability to reduce work hours, and firm unionization also influenced retirement plans. Findings suggest retirement planning education may be particularly important for workers without defined pensions, especially in times of economic volatility. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    DOD Office of the Actuary , May 2011. 3 Department of Defense, Valuation of the Military Retirement System, September 30, 2010, Office of the Actuary ...January 2012, p. 13. 4 Department of Defense, Fiscal Year 2010 DOD Statistical Report on the Military Retirement System, Office of the Actuary , May... Actuary , FY2012 DOD Statistical Report on the Military Retirement System, May 2013. Statistical documents available by fiscal year for FY2005-FY2011 at

  10. Responsibility for retirement planning shifts to employees.

    PubMed

    Van Gelder, N

    1994-08-01

    In recent years, organizations have shifted away from offering their employees defined benefit plans that promise specified income streams to employees when they retire. Instead, they are offering employees defined contribution plans, which rely on investment performance, as directed by plan participants, to generate sufficient retirement income. Healthcare financial managers who work in organizations that offer retirement plans for their employees find themselves increasingly prevailed upon to play the role of instructor to plan participants. While some financial managers may not relish the role, the more successful financial managers are at helping plan participants achieve their retirement income goals, the better the chance of healthcare organizations avoiding future liability problems.

  11. Retirement and primary cardiac arrest in males.

    PubMed Central

    Siscovick, D S; Strogatz, D S; Weiss, N S; Rennert, G

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the association between retirement and primary cardiac arrest (PCA) in 126 male cases and controls, 25-75 years of age, without prior heart disease or comorbidity. After adjustment for age alone, retirement was not associated with an increased risk of PCA, (OR = 1.1; 95% confidence intervals = 0.5, 2.4). This lack of association was not uniform across age strata, however. In 10 of 19 discordant pairs 60 or more years of age, the control subject had been retired; in all seven discordant pairs under 60, the case had been retired (lower 95% CI of the relative risk = 1.9). PMID:2297069

  12. Federal Retirement: Use of Contractors to Implement the Federal Employees Retirement System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    incurred by the principal agencies responsible for implementing the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-335). We-also...services. The act provided.(t- a new retirement system for all federal civilian employees hired after December 1983 ancan opportunity for about 2.1...million employees covered by existing retirement systems, primarily the Civil Service Retirement System (csRs), to transfer to FERS during aD T1C July

  13. An Historical Analysis and Comparison of the Military Retirement System and the Federal Employee Retirement system

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    retirement programs in existence. This thesis concentrates on the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and its successor the Federal Employee Retirement...federal employees at the beginning of fiscal year 1995. (Ref. 11, p. 2) The basic objective of the CSRS and FERS programs is to attract quality...and FERS both provide pensions for retired federal employees , the programs are designed differently. CSRS was established in 1920 and predates the

  14. The Retirement Equity Act, Survivor Benefits Protections, and Public Employee Retirement Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebig, Phoebe S.

    The Retirement Equity Act (REA) sets out requirements for joint and survivor annuity coverage for married individuals who participate in federally regulated retirement plans. REA-mandated provisions do not apply to state and local government retirement systems. Because state and local government employees constitute a significant part of the work…

  15. Managing Your TIAA-CREF Retirement Accounts. Investment Strategies To Maximize Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodall, Leonard E.; Corney, William J.

    This book offers investment strategies for participants in the primary retirement organization for universities and nonprofit organizations, the Teachers Insurance and Annuity-College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF). The investment principles outlined also apply to retirement funds offered by other investment companies. The book's scope…

  16. The Relation between Self-Determination and Retirement Satisfaction among Active Retired Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Yannick; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the motivational forces leading retired individuals to engage in post-retirement activities and how they could be related to satisfaction with retirement. Using the self-determination framework, the purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine the nature of active retirees' motivation and its impact on satisfaction…

  17. The relation between self-determination and retirement satisfaction among active retired individuals.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the motivational forces leading retired individuals to engage in post-retirement activities and how they could be related to satisfaction with retirement. Using the self-determination framework, the purpose of the present exploratory study was to examine the nature of active retirees' motivation and its impact on satisfaction with life in retirement. The Global Motivation Scale and measures of satisfaction with retirement were administered to 150 active retired individuals engaged in organized post-retirement activities in a University-based organization. Results revealed that these individuals were mainly characterized by higher levels of intrinsic motivation for knowledge, stimulation and accomplishment, rather than extrinsic dimensions. Regression analysis further demonstrated that intrinsic motivation for both accomplishment and stimulation were positively related to satisfaction with retirement, over and above the significant contribution of time since retirement, anticipated satisfaction with retirement, and subjective health. This exploratory study highlights the motivational mechanisms through which post-retirement behaviors could positively influence satisfaction with life in retirement among active retirees.

  18. [Physician's professional retirement. Family dynamics].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Gas, Héctor G

    2011-01-01

    Human beings have a natural resistance to think about their old age, both personally and professionally. Governments have targeted efforts to successfully prolong the life of the population, situation which already is a social and economic problem. “Old is a person with physical, intellectual and emotional limitations, who has a reduced autonomy and welfare, as a result of the years lived”. Not everyone ages at the same age; it will depend on health, habits, physical and intellectual activity, nutritional status, vices and attitude towards life. A physician may decide not to continue exercising medicine due to: health problems, because they do not want to, because they do not feel competent, because of the risk of having to deal with a complaint or a lawsuit, to have a new life project, or because they have no patients. The options available for a doctor at the time of retirement will depend on his/her age, health status, stage of the aging process: autonomy, dependency or old age; his/her physical and mental condition, professional development, economic situation and family environment. A doctor may remain independent, join another family or seek shelter in a retirement home.

  19. Measuring Years of Inactivity, Years in Retirement, Time to Retirement, and Age at Retirement Within the Markov Model

    PubMed Central

    SKOOG, GARY R.; CIECKA, JAMES E.

    2010-01-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed—all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person’s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38 for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement. PMID:20879680

  20. Long-Term Outcomes and Patterns of Relapse of Early-Stage Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy With Curative Intent

    SciTech Connect

    Teckie, Sewit; Qi, Shunan; Lovie, Shona

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcome and patterns of relapse of a large cohort of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) patients treated with curative-intent radiation therapy (RT) alone. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the charts of 490 consecutive patients with stage IE or IIE MZL referred between 1992 and 2012 to our institution. Of those, 244 patients (50%) were treated with RT alone. Pathology was confirmed by hematopathologists at our institution. Patient and disease factors were analyzed for association with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median age of the cohort was 59 years, and median follow-up was 5.2 years. Annmore » Arbor stage was IE in 92%. Most common disease sites were stomach (50%), orbit (18%), non-thyroid head-and-neck (8%), skin (8%), and breast (5%). Median RT dose was 30 Gy. Five-year OS and RFS were 92% and 74%, respectively. Cumulative incidence of disease-specific death was just 1.1% by 5 years. Sixty patients (24%) developed relapse of disease; 10 were in the RT field. Crude rate of transformation to pathologically confirmed large-cell lymphoma was 1.6%. On multivariable analysis, primary disease site (P=.007) was independently associated with RFS, along with age (P=.04), presence of B-symptoms (P=.02), and International Prognostic Index risk group (P=.03). All disease sites except for head-and-neck had worse RFS relative to stomach. Conclusion: Overall and cause-specific survival are high in early-stage extra-nodal MZL treated with curative RT alone. In this large cohort of 244 patients, most patients did not experience relapse of MZL after curative RT; when relapses did occur, the majority were in distant sites. Stomach cases were less likely to relapse than other anatomic sites. Transformation to large-cell lymphoma was rare.« less

  1. Curative-intent Surgery for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma with and without Portal Vein Resection - A Comparative Analysis of Early and Late Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dumitraşcu, Traian; Stroescu, Cezar; Braşoveanu, Vladislav; Herlea, Vlad; Ionescu, Mihnea; Popescu, Irinel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The safety of portal vein resection (PVR) during surgery for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) has been demonstrated in Asia, America, and Western Europe. However, no data about this topic are reported from Eastern Europe. The aim of the present study is to comparatively assess the early and long-term outcomes after resection for PHC with and without PVR. The data of 21 patients with PVR were compared with those of 102 patients with a curative-intent surgery for PHC without PVR. The appropriate statistical tests were used to compare different variables between the groups. Results: A PVR was performed in 17% of the patients. In the PVR group, significantly more right trisectionectomies (p=0.031) and caudate lobectomies (0.049) were performed and, as expected, both the operative time (p=0.015) and blood loss (p=0.002) were significantly higher. No differences between the groups were observed regarding the severe postoperative morbidity and mortality rates, and completion of adjuvant therapy. However, in the PVR group the postoperative clinicallyrelevant liver failure rate was significantly higher (p=0.001). No differences between the groups were observed for the median overall survival times (34 vs. 26 months, p = 0.566). A histological proof of the venous tumor invasion was observed in 52% of the patients with a PVR and was associated with significantly worse survival (p=0.027). A PVR can be safely performed during resection for PHC, without significant added severe morbidity or mortality rates. However, clinically-relevant liver failure rates are significantly higher when a PVR is performed. Furthermore, increased operative times and blood loss should be expected when a PVR is performed. Histological tumor invasion of the portal vein is associated with significantly worse survival. Celsius.

  2. Individual and institutional push and pull factors as predictors of retirement timing in Europe: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    De Preter, Hanne; Van Looy, Dorien; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2013-12-01

    The number of retired people in Europe has increased significantly in recent decades. It remains unclear, however, whether individuals are more likely to be pulled toward retirement by their expectations about life after retirement than they are to be pushed out of the labour market due to poor health or dislike of one's job. The fact that retirement timing differs rather considerably between European countries suggests that not only micro, but also macro push (i.e. labour market constraints) and pull (i.e. economic incentives) factors influence retirement decisions. This duality heightens the need to determine the influence of micro-level and macro-level push and pull indicators on the retirement timing of older workers (50+) in Europe. Results are obtained performing multilevel event history analysis using longitudinal micro data from the first (2004/05) and second (2006/07) waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and macro data derived from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Eurostat. The results indicate that at the individual level, older workers are pushed out due to health problems as well as being attracted towards retirement to spend time with their grandchildren. At the institutional level, financial incentives such as a high implicit tax on continued work and high expenditures on early exit schemes make retirement attractive, whereas the institutional push context is of lesser importance. © 2013.

  3. Second Wind: Handbook for Happy Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Philip J.

    Reflecting 10 years of actual retirement experience, the author attempts to prove that older people can live interesting dynamic lives right to the last moment. The book, with its conversational, step-by-step style, has been written for anybody over 50. It presents retirement as a "stepping out" rather than a "stepping down"; the solid realities…

  4. Leisure and the Retired Professor: Occupation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine; Kolarik, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the leisure activities of retired professors, whose activity patterns in retirement may be different from those of other occupational groups because of their lifetime commitment to work. This interview study uses both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate: (a) the leisure and professional activities of…

  5. Retirement Plan Lawsuits: Preparing for the Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morahan, John; Turner, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Currently, higher education is being roiled by class-action lawsuits filed against high-profile institutions, including MIT, Yale and New York University, over management of their retirement plans. As the lawyers are deployed and the billable hours accrue, it is timely to examine how those who have responsibility for retirement plan…

  6. Retirement Counseling: Preparing for the "Golden Years."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuehlsdorff, Harry W.; Baldwin, Cynthia

    Preparing for retirement can sometimes be problematic since it means that one is aging and moving into another life cycle change. This paper will review some factors to consider in making the transition a more positive experience. The impact of retirement on older citizens is frequently neglected in the counseling arena. In the current youth…

  7. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  8. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds...

  9. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds...

  10. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  11. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  12. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  13. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  14. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds...

  15. Youth Individual Development Accounts: Retirement Planning Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shobe, Marcia A.; Sturm, Stephanie L.

    2007-01-01

    Given the growing interest in a privatized Social Security system and the lack of adequate retirement planning among many people in the United States, many households are often ill prepared for retirement. The outlook for low-income populations is even bleaker because they are often not privy to the same financial education and asset-building…

  16. Are You Planning and Saving for Retirement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakoboski, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, TIAA-CREF sponsored its first-ever "Retirement Confidence Survey of College and University Faculty" to discover the answer to this question: How well are faculty members taking advantage of employer-sponsored pension plans and saving for retirement? An additional objective of the project was to compare the survey's findings for higher…

  17. Retirement Policy. Overview. ERIC Digest No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkfield, Patricia Worthy

    While the Federal Government has been involved in the care of the elderly since the depression, a comprehensive and unified national retirement policy has never been established. Federal programs for the aged have avoided cutbacks, but adaptations in present retirement policy are required to meet the needs of young and old alike. Although public…

  18. Legal Forum: Sex Discrimination in Retirement Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews recent court cases regarding differential treatment of men and women in pension programs. Predicts that TIAA-CREF (Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association and College Retirement Equities Fund) will soon convert to unisex tables in calculating retirement benefits on future contributions to the fund. (GC)

  19. Retirement Plan Consortium Structures for K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevin, John

    2012-01-01

    As school districts continue to seek administrative efficiencies and cost reductions in the wake of severe budget pressures, the resources they devote to creating or expanding retirement plan consortia is increasing. Understanding how to structure a retirement plan consortium is paramount to successfully achieving the many objectives of…

  20. The Retirement Decision: A Question of Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rones, Philip L.

    1980-01-01

    This report attempts to clarify several retirement issues, focusing on (1) the extent to which labor force participation rates can be used to assess retirement decisions; (2) the impact on the elderly of the 1978 Amendments to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act; and (3) the true causes of nonparticipation among current retirees. (SK)

  1. The Retirement Problem: A Positive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A TIAA-CREF task force reports that there are steps an institution can take in dealing with the new mandatory retirement laws (not before age 70). They include preretirement counseling, provision of "Sweeteners," severance plans, a phased retirement program, and a continuing relationship with the college for retirees. (Author/LBH)

  2. There's More to Retirement than Financial Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetridge, Guild A.

    1990-01-01

    Since hobbies and recreational activities don't generate the intellectual satisfaction and adrenaline flow of a successful and challenging career, principals need to develop new midlife careers to replace some of the emotional supports that slip away after retirement. This article offers helpful advice on avoiding retirement pitfalls and pursuing…

  3. Women's Retirement Expectations: How Stable Are They?

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we examine between- and within-person differences in expected retirement age as a key element of the retirement planning process. The expectation typologies of 1,626 women born between 1923 and 1937 were classified jointly on the basis of specificity and consistency. Methods Latent class analysis was used to determine retirement expectation patterns over a 7-year span. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were employed to estimate the effects of demographic and status characteristics on the likelihood of reporting 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of retirement expectations. Results Substantial heterogeneity in reports of expected retirement age between and within individuals over the 7-year span was found. Demographic and status characteristics, specifically age, race, marital status, job tenure, and recent job change, sorted respondents into different retirement expectation patterns. Conclusions The frequent within-person fluctuations and substantial between-person heterogeneity in retirement expectations indicate uncertainty and variability in both expectations and process of expectation formation. Variability in respondents' reports suggests that studying retirement expectations at multiple time points better captures the dynamics of preretirement planning. PMID:19176483

  4. Retiree benefit mailing dates | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov Websites

    Employee Retiring Retiree Disabled Survivor Features Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Member Scheduler Empower Retirement Account Info Online myRnB Member Services Seminars AlaskaCare Wellness Forms

  5. Planning for Retirement with a Tax-Sheltered Mutual Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnee, Edward J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Greater attention has been focused on the role that employer-sponsored retirement plans and individual savings must play in ensuring retirement income security. Alternative tax retirement planning opportunities currently available to college personnel are explored. (MLW)

  6. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  7. Teacher Pension Incentives, Retirement Behavior, and Potential for Reform in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the Arkansas teacher pension plan and empirically gauge the behavioral response to incentives embedded in that plan and to possible reforms. The pattern of pension wealth accrual creates sharp incentives to work until eligible for early or normal retirement, often in one's early fifties, and to separate shortly thereafter. We…

  8. Motivational profiles of retired cosmonauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim; Brcic, Jelena

    2018-05-01

    Motivational patterns have been shown to be related to outcomes such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, cooperation, and conformity. They are likely to be important in adaptation to the demands of flying in a space crew. Autobiographical interviews with 20 retired long-duration male cosmonauts were scored for references to three core motives: the needs for Achievement, Power, and Affiliation. Overall, the cosmonauts mentioned need for Affiliation most often, followed by need for Achievement, with need for Power the least frequently mentioned. However, need for Power increased between reminiscences of one's pre-flight career to those concerning the in-flight and post-flight periods. Imagery related to both other needs decreased. Cosmonauts who had spent less than a year in space mentioned need for Achievement significantly more frequently than those who had spent more than a year. Other space-experience and demographic variables, and changes across pairs of career phases, were not significant. The high scores for need for Affiliation indicate the importance of selecting compatible teams and fostering friendship and cooperation during training and deployment. A relatively flat hierarchical organization would be harmonious with low Power motivation; but the increase during missions indicates a desire for autonomy. After retirement from spaceflight, former space crews should be afforded opportunities for leadership and decision-making to satisfy continuing need for Power. Comparison is made to the same measures applied to a sample of ISS crewmembers, and to the ISS vs. veteran data for 8 cosmonauts who were included in both sets of data.

  9. Are Your Employees Retirement-Ready?

    PubMed

    Vorchheiner, Alan H; Zaleta, Cynthia O

    2016-01-01

    Much of the discussion on the decumulation phase of retirement savings has focused on the lack of any lifetime annuities. But there is a whole range of options sponsors can employ to facilitate the generation of retirement income and bolster financial wellness. As U.S. employers show no sign of substantially increasing spending on compensation or benefits, it is imperative that human resources professionals help employees--particularly the retiring baby boomers--to maximize what they have saved. This article presents five first-step ideas toward achieving that goal.

  10. Leaving the labour market: the impact of exit routes from employment to retirement on health and wellbeing in old age.

    PubMed

    Halleröd, Björn; Örestig, Johan; Stattin, Mikael

    2013-03-01

    The study analyses whether and to what degree specific routes into retirement affect older people, i.e. the relationship between heterogeneous exit patterns and post-retirement health and wellbeing. We used longitudinal data from two points in time; data related to t 0 were collected in 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1996 and data related to t 1 were collected in 2002 and 2003 ( N  = 589). We focused on older people (55+ at t 1 ) who were employed at t 0 and retired at t 1 . We used confirmative factor analysis to identify identical measures of health and wellbeing at both t 0 and t 1 . Hence, we were able to control for pre-retirement health and wellbeing when evaluating the effects of different exit routes. These routes were defined as dependence on incomes from sickness benefit, disability pension, part-time pension, unemployment insurance and active labour market programmes. Our initial structural equation model showed a clear relation between exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing. People who prior to retirement were pushed into social benefit programmes related to health and unemployment were significantly worse off as retirees, especially those with health-related benefits. However, these relationships disappeared once pre-retirement wellbeing was added to the model. Our main conclusion is that post-retirement wellbeing first and foremost is a consequence of accumulation of advantages and disadvantages during the life course. Both labour market exit routes and post-retirement wellbeing can be seen as outcomes of this process. There are no independent effects of the retirement process. Judging from our findings, there is no reason to believe that involvement in social security programmes allowing early retirement on health grounds has any additional negative consequences for health and wellbeing.

  11. Memoirs of an armchair astronaut (retired)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Arthur C.

    1993-11-01

    According to my biographer Neil McAleer, who now knows far more about me than I have any wish to, I joined the British Interplanetary Society (BIS) in the summer of 1934, when it was one year old and I was approaching seventeen. Much of the next two years was spent bombarding the Society's patient secretary, Leslie Johnson, with technical queries which he did his best to answer, and which I am sure would make embarrassing reading today. During this period I also made contact with another active BIS member, the science-fiction writer Eric Frank Russell, to whom I owe a great debt of gratitude for early encouragement. I wish I still possessed his amusing and often bawdy letters, written in the most beautiful script I have ever encountered. In 1936, escaping from the uncharted wilds of rural Somerset to the genteel environs of Whitehall (literally - my office was next door to Downing Street) I made contact with the London members of the BIS, as well as the local s.f. fans. There was a 90% overlap between the two groups, and until the outbreak of war rocketry and science fiction dominated my life, with H.M. Civil Service a very poor third. A quarter of a century later, I looked back on those days in an essay which appeared in Holiday Magazine (May, 1963) and which has since been reprinted in Voices from the Sky (1965), Astounding Days (1989) and By Space Possessed (1993). Any attempt to update it would now be both impossible and absurd: it preserves the spirit of the early Space Age like a fly in amber. Here, exactly as originally published, are 'Memoirs of an Armchair Astronaut (Retired)'.

  12. A life course perspective on working beyond retirement-results from a longitudinal study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Wind, Astrid; van der Pas, Suzan; Blatter, Birgitte M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2016-06-10

    There is a societal need that workers prolong their working lives. By adopting a life course perspective, this study aimed to investigate the influence of work motives and motivation, health, job characteristics, skills, and financial and social situation on working beyond retirement, and differences between 'on time' and 'off time' retirees (retirement age 65 and <65 years, respectively). Retirees aged 57 to 67 years (N = 1,054) who participated in the Dutch Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included in this study. Participants filled out a questionnaire in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013. Predictors of working beyond retirement were identified using logistic regression analyses, and stratified analyses were performed to investigate differences between 'off time' and 'on time' retirees. High work engagement (OR = 1.3), good physical health (OR = 1.8), poor financial situation (OR = 2.4), and voluntary work (OR = 1.5) predicted working beyond retirement. For 'off time' retirees, no financial possibility to retire early (OR = 1.8) and not having a partner (OR = 1.9) predicted working beyond retirement. 'On time' retirees reporting more support at work (OR = 0.7) and without the financial possibility to retire early (OR = 0.5), worked beyond retirement less often. The results indicated that especially the motivation to work, physical health and the financial situation were the most relevant aspects with regard to working beyond retirement, which supports the idea that the principle of 'human agency' of the life course perspective is useful to understand factors that impact working beyond retirement. Most aspects of the life course principles of 'linked lives' and 'timing' seemed to be less relevant.

  13. Help-seeking intentions for early signs of mental illness and their associated factors: comparison across four kinds of health problems.

    PubMed

    Suka, Machi; Yamauchi, Takashi; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2016-04-07

    Failure and delay in initial treatment contact for mental disorders has been recognized as an important public health problem. According to the concept of mental health literacy, recognition of symptoms is crucial to making decisions to seek or not seek professional help. The aims of this study were to investigate the types of health problems for which Japanese adults intend to seek help, their preferred sources of help, and the factors associated with help-seeking intentions. A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in June 2014 among Japanese adults aged 20-59 years. A total of 3308 eligible respondents were included in this study. Help-seeking intentions were measured by listing potential sources of help (including 'would not receive help') and asking which ones would be chosen in four health conditions indicated by irritability, dizziness, insomnia, and depressed mood, respectively. In the case of dizziness, 85.9% of the participants reported a positive help-seeking intention and 42.7% gave first priority to seeking help from formal sources. These percentages were smaller in the cases of insomnia (75.4 and 25.0%), depressed mood (74.9 and 18.7%), and irritability (72.9 and 0.9%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors significantly associated with help-seeking intentions were almost identical across the four health problems. In particular, perception of family and friends regarding help-seeking, psychiatric history, contact with people with mental illness, better health literacy, and neighborhood communicativeness were significantly associated with the overall help-seeking intention and also the help-seeking intention from formal sources for all the problems of dizziness, insomnia, and depressed mood. The majority of participants indicated their intentions to seek help, but psychological problems (insomnia and depressed mood) were less likely to induce help-seeking intentions than a physical problem (dizziness). Besides

  14. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  15. Nudging toward a stable retirement.

    PubMed

    Kroncke, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The classical economics perspective is that public policy should be used to allow, not hinder, economic freedom. In some cases it may be possible for government to gently nudge individuals to change their behavior without hindering freedom. One example is a change from the default on pension program enrollment forms from "not contribute" to "contribute." This is generally viewed as a good nudge that gets people to do what the majority of people view as generally the correct behavior. However, a choice to contribute to a pension fund is not always in the individual's best interest - thus, it is a nudge, not a mandate. To maintain personal liberty, individuals should be fully informed about the consequences of their choice and the motives of the political authority. Saving for retirement is a complex issue, and pension contribution decisions are often made with little foresight or information. Pension contribution nudges may not always be freedom preserving because of complexity and unintended consequences. The benefits, risks, and limitations of default contribution pension nudges are discussed.

  16. Advice from working women with retired partners.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail

    2016-01-01

    in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners.

  17. Mortality Change, the Uncertainty Effect, and Retirement *

    PubMed Central

    Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem; Weil, David N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the role of declining mortality in explaining the rise of retirement over the course of the 20th century. We construct a model in which individuals make labor/leisure choices over their lifetimes subject to uncertainty about their dates of death. In an environment with high mortality, an individual who saves for retirement faces a high risk of dying before he can enjoy his planned leisure. In this case, the optimal plan is for people to work until they die. As mortality falls, however, it becomes optimal to plan, and save for, retirement. We analyze our model using two mathematical formulations of the survival function as well as data on actual changes in the US life table over the last century, and show that this “uncertainty effect” of declining mortality would have more than outweighed the “horizon effect” by which rising life expectancy would have led to later retirement. PMID:24363604

  18. Senior academic physicians and retirement considerations.

    PubMed

    Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986.

    PubMed

    Kerns, W L

    1986-11-01

    In June, President Reagan signed the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 (Public Law 99-335), which establishes the Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS) for employees hired after December 31, 1983. The program, which goes into effect on January 1, 1987, features a defined benefit retirement plan to augment mandatory coverage under social security. It also permits FERS participants to contribute up to 10 percent of their earnings, on a tax-deferred basis, to a thrift savings plan, with partial matching by the Government. This article describes the provisions of the new system, including survivor annuities and disability benefits. It also explains how employees covered under the Civil Service Retirement System may freeze their earned benefits under that program and transfer to FERS during the period July-December 1987.

  20. Inflation's Impact on Faculty Retirement Annuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Nancy S.

    1975-01-01

    The discussion is confined to the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association (TIAA) and College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) and how they have remained effective with the rise of inflation. (Author/BP)

  1. The retirement prospects of divorced women.

    PubMed

    Butrica, Barbara A; Smith, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    For decades, policymakers have discussed how to remedy the high poverty rates of older widows. Yet older divorced women are more likely to be poor than older widows, and historical divorce and remarriage trends suggest that in the future a larger share of retired women will be divorced. This article uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to project the retirement resources and wellbeing of divorced women. We find that Social Security benefits and retirement incomes are projected to increase for divorced women and that their poverty rates are projected to decline, due in large part to women's increasing lifetime earnings. However, not all divorced women will be equally well off economic well-being in retirement varies by Social Security benefit type.

  2. 20 CFR 404.1207 - Divided retirement system coverage groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided retirement system coverage groups. 404.1207 Section 404.1207 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE... retirement system coverage group. A divided retirement system coverage group is a grouping under a retirement...

  3. Effects of Retirement and Grandchild Care on Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how grandchild care in conjunction with grandparents' retirement affects depressive symptoms, using data from the Health and Retirement Survey. The findings demonstrate that retirement moderates the influence of grandchild care obligations on well-being, measured by depressive symptoms. For retired men, freedom from grandchild…

  4. 20 CFR 221.2 - Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. 221.2 Section 221.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.2 Railroad Retirement Board jurisdiction. (a) Life cases. The Board has...

  5. Attitudes toward Retirement and Preretirement Education among Nigerian Bank Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunbameru, Olakunle A.; Bamiwuye, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Retirement is viewed as a passage that can result in psychological, physiological, and economic problems among some retirees. Adequate preparation for retirement through preretirement education, as practiced in the Western-European societies, has been found to ease transition into retirement and adjustment in retirement. Preretirement education is…

  6. Attitudes toward Retirement and Preretirement Education Among Nigerian Bank Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunbameru, Olakunle; Bamiwuye, Sina

    2004-01-01

    Retirement is viewed as a passage that can result in psychological, physiological, and economic problems among some retirees. Adequate preparation for retirement through preretirement education, as practiced in the Western-European societies, has been found to ease transition into retirement and adjustment in retirement. Preretirement education is…

  7. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of... any further consideration. (b) Withdrawal of a disability retirement application does not ensure the...

  8. A Three-Phase Model of Retirement Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Beehr, Terry A.

    2011-01-01

    The present article organizes prominent theories about retirement decision making around three different types of thinking about retirement: imagining the possibility of retirement, assessing when it is time to let go of long-held jobs, and putting concrete plans for retirement into action at present. It also highlights important directions for…

  9. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...' retirement pay. 3.754 Section 3.754 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement pay by the Department of Veterans Affairs under Pub. L. 87-875 (sec. 11(b), Pub. L. 85-857) from date...

  10. Toward Efficient Military Retirement Accrual Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    benefited from reviews provided by Al Robbert of RAND and David Rodney of the CNA Corporation. 1 CHAPTER ONE Introduction Primary elements of the costs ...leaving the military. This report focuses on retirement benefits . Public Law (PL) 98–94, enacted in 1984 and implemented in fiscal year (FY) 1985...in the current budget the cost of future retirement benefits asso- ciated with current manning decisions. Under PL 98–94, DoD includes an accrual

  11. Changes in physical activity during the retirement transition: a series of novel n-of-1 natural experiments.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Suzanne; Vieira, Rute; Godfrey, Alan; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-12-08

    Existing evidence about the impact of retirement on physical activity (PA) has primarily focused on the average change in PA level after retirement in group-based studies. It is unclear whether findings regarding the direction of PA change after retirement from group-based studies apply to individuals. This study aimed to explore changes in PA, PA determinants and their inter-relationships during the retirement transition at the individual level. A series of n-of-1 natural experiments were conducted with seven individuals who were aged 55-76 years and approaching retirement. PA was measured by tri-axial accelerometry. Twice-daily self-report and ecological momentary assessments of evidence- and theory-based determinants of PA (e.g. sleep length/quality, happiness, tiredness, stress, time pressure, pain, intention, perceived behavioural control, priority, goal conflict and goal facilitation) were collected via a questionnaire for a period of between 3 and 7 months, which included time before and after the participant's retirement date. A personalised PA determinant was also identified by each participant and measured daily for the duration of the study. Dynamic regression models for discrete time binary data were used to analyse data for each individual participant. Two participants showed a statistically significant increase in the probability of engaging in PA bouts after retirement and two participants showed a significant time trend for a decrease and increase in PA bouts over time during the pre- to post-retirement period, respectively. There was no statistically significant change in PA after retirement for the remaining participants. Most of the daily questionnaire variables were significantly associated with PA for one or more participants but there were no consistent pattern of PA predictors across participants. For some participants, the relationship between questionnaire variables and PA changed from pre- to post-retirement. The findings from this

  12. Retirement: it's not about the finances!

    PubMed

    Cronan, John J

    2009-04-01

    Retirement. The word has traditionally represented a milestone for working individuals: after a lengthy phase of labor, one was rewarded with a new segment of life free from the responsibilities of one's vocation. As society has progressed, however, the concept of retirement has also changed, evolving to encompass much more than freedom from work. The elements of retirement that have been generally considered most important, financial security and leisure, have maintained their significance but are now accompanied by issues that reflect the population of today. Factors such as continued self-fulfillment, a sense of worth, social interactions, and intellectual stimulation have become equally as important. Life expectancies have increased, and the period of retirement has lengthened, presenting many retirees with unexpected challenges. Financial security and leisure have most likely been achieved, but what else is there? What can be found missing from the equation are components that have, for many years, shaped these individuals' existences. For physicians, an absence of the very valuable social, intellectual, and structural constants may be experienced. Lacking a definitive plan to address this possible void can lead one to feelings of insignificance and an uncertainty about what rewards retirement will afford one. Advanced planning can lessen the shock of the transition from the working phase to the retirement phase of one's life. Whether this is accomplished by choosing to continue one's career (albeit on a lesser scale), establishing a strong alternative social system, or developing self-satisfying and meaningful interests, a well thought-out plan can ensure that retirement serves its intended purpose of providing a rewarding chapter in the book of life.

  13. Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project: A Bibliography of Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenberg, Donna

    This bibliography cites title, source/publisher, availability, and cost for information and materials on various aspects of pre-retirement planning. Materials may be specifically for the elderly/retired person or of general interest. Bibliographies and periodicals are included. These materials and information are listed under twenty-three…

  14. The King Pre-Retirement Checklist: Assessing Differences in Pre-Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitzow, Darryl; King, Donald N.

    In an effort to assess the retirement preparedness of Midwestern populations above the age of 28, the King Pre-Retirement Checklist was administered to a sampling of 458 persons randomly selected and proportionally stratified by geographic location and community size. Factors examined were financial, social, family cohesion, mobility/health,…

  15. Planning For Retirement: Using Income Replacement Ratios in Setting Retirement Income Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a method for higher education faculty and staff to assess pension plan objectives by determining a retirement income replacement ratio to maintain the salary-based preretirement standard of living. The paper describes the RETIRE Project which researches income replacement using the federal government's annual "Consumer…

  16. Mandatory retirement and labor-force participation of respondents in the Retirement History Study.

    PubMed

    Barker, D T; Clark, R L

    1980-11-01

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) was amended in 1978 to prohibit mandatory retirement before age 70 in most occupations. The impact of this legislation on the probability of older persons remaining in the labor force is the primary concern of this article. Specifically, questions concerning which older workers are affected by mandatory-retirement provisions and the extent to which they are forced to retire and leave the labor force are examined. Tabular analysis of data from the Retirement History Study on persons aged 62-63 in 1969 shows significant variation in mandatory-retirement coverage between the public and private sectors and across industries, occupations, and demographic groups. Until age 65, the labor-force participation rate of those facing compulsory retirement is higher than or equal to that of those not covered but it drops significantly below the noncovered rate after 65. Logit analysis of the labor-force participation of persons before and after age 65 indicates that mandatory retirement at that age reduces the probability of retirement by approximately 16.7 percentage points for white men wage earners. This results in a decline in the labor-force participation rate of all men aged 66-67 of approximately 4 percentage points.

  17. Women and Retirement: The Effect of Multiple Careers on Retirement Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connidis, Ingrid

    1982-01-01

    The concept of career set is employed as the basis for a framework designed to analyze the impact of women's involvement in multiple careers on their adjustment to retirement. The author concludes that the familial careers engaged in by married, working women have a mediative effect on their transition to retirement. (Author/CT)

  18. Pilot Retention - A ’Gray’ Issue? The Impact of Airline Hiring of Retirement Eligible Pilots on Air Force Leadership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    13 Table L-- FAPA New Hires ...................................... I•- v I °, EXECUTIVE SUMMARY -"I, Part of our College mission...mandatory retirment beyond the current age of 60, FAPA indicates "more airline pilots are taking early retirment and the fet who would fly beyond age 60...more than likely not benefit the military in the near future. Kit Darby, FAPA Uice President/Marketing, summarized the weakened effect of’ economics

  19. Early career experiences and perceptions - a qualitative exploration of the turnover of young registered nurses and intention to leave the nursing profession in Finland.

    PubMed

    Flinkman, Mervi; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-11-01

    To describe why young registered nurses (RNs) had previously left an organisation and why they intend to leave the profession. Currently, many young registered nurses, including those in Finland, are considering leaving their job or have an intention to leave the profession. An in-depth, descriptive approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2012 from interviews with 15 registered nurses (under the age of 30 years). The interviews were semi-structured and analysed using conventional content analysis. The main questions addressed were: 'Why had the young registered nurses left their previous organisation?' and 'Why do young registered nurses have an intention to leave the profession?' The findings centre on three themes: poor nursing practice environments; lack of support, orientation and mentoring, and nursing as a 'second best' or serendipitous career choice. The first years of nursing are particularly stressful for newly-graduated and inexperienced registered nurses. An in-depth, qualitative approach reveals more complex reasons behind the turnover of registered nurses and intention to leave the profession than questionnaire surveys. Young registered nurses need social support from nurse managers and experienced colleagues to successfully transition into nursing practice environments. Adequate orientation and mentoring programmes are needed to facilitate this transition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Is pre-retirement planning always good? An exploratory study of retirement adjustment among Hong Kong Chinese retirees.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of four types of pre-retirement planning activities (financial, health, social life, and psychological planning) on retirement adjustment were investigated in a sample of Chinese retirees residing in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two phases of data collection, pre-retirement and post-retirement phases. Pre-retirement planning behaviors and psychological health (including attitudes toward retirement, adjustment to retirement, anxiety toward retirement, psychological well-being (PWB), and psychological distress) six months before and after retirement were measured. The final sample consisted of 90 Hong Kong Chinese retirees. Compared with the pre-retirement phase, retirees exhibited more positive attitudes toward retirement and better adjustment after they had actually retired, whereas their level of anxiety and psychological distress remained low over time. Pre-retirement planning was found to be predictive of changes in psychological health, though its impact was not always positive depending on the type of planning activities. In particular, greater psychological planning was associated with positive attitudes toward retirement and better PWB, whereas more social life planning activities were associated with greater psychological distress. In addition to financial and health planning, psychological planning activities should also be prompted to facilitate a smooth adjustment to retirement.

  1. Transitional Employment Aspirations for Bridging Retirement: Implications for Training and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Hitendra; Kelly, Kathy; Tones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the transitional employment (TE) aspirations and training and development needs of older and younger workers at risk of early retirement due to limited education and/or employment in blue-collar (BC) occupations. Design/methodology/approach: A computer-based methodology is used to evaluate the…

  2. Behavioral finance and retirement plan contributions: how participants behave, and prescriptive solutions.

    PubMed

    DiCenzo, Jodi

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral research has made important, relevant contributions to retirement saving and investing. This work has cast a new light on participant behavior and its underpinnings: By and large, individuals are inert--with good intentions, poor follow-through, and bounded rationality. Loss aversion and decision-making biases often lead to unfortunate outcomes, including a poorly funded retirement. Further, behavioral economists have demonstrated that education and communication programs alone may not be effective in changing behavior. Instead, with their behavioral insights, they have offered new retirement plan design alternatives and empirically tested their efficacy in overcoming identified suboptimal behavior. These efforts are helping to pave a path of least resistance that should lead to greater retirement security. The Pension Protection Act of 2006 appears to support these alternatives by providing incentives to plan sponsors that implement automatic features such as automatic enrollment and deferral rate escalation. It also allows plan sponsors to choose more aggressive investment defaults. Perhaps implicit in this support is some advice to sponsors to accept participant behavior and to think more about changing their own by embracing automatic plan features.

  3. Tax reform options: promoting retirement security.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2011-11-01

    TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future

  4. Health Problems during Compulsory Military Service Predict Disability Retirement: A Register-Based Study on Secular Trends during 40 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Frilander, Heikki; Lallukka, Tea; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967-1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26-1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967-1976. In conclusion, health problems-in particular mental problems-during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men, where

  5. Health Problems during Compulsory Military Service Predict Disability Retirement: A Register-Based Study on Secular Trends during 40 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Frilander, Heikki; Lallukka, Tea; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Heliövaara, Markku; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Disability retirement causes a significant burden on the society and affects the well-being of individuals. Early health problems as determinants of disability retirement have received little attention. The objective was to study, whether interrupting compulsory military service is an early indicator of disability retirement among Finnish men and whether seeking medical advice during military service increases the risk of all-cause disability retirement and disability retirement due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. We also looked at secular trends in these associations. We examined a nationally representative sample of 2069 men, who had entered military service during 1967–1996. We linked military service health records with cause-specific register data on disability retirement from 1968 to 2008. Secular trends were explored in three service time strata. We used the Cox regression model to estimate proportional hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. During the follow-up time altogether 140 (6.8%) men retired due to disability, mental disorders being the most common cause. The men who interrupted service had a remarkably higher cumulative incidence of disability retirement (18.9%). The associations between seeking medical advice during military service and all-cause disability retirement were similar across the three service time cohorts (overall hazard ratio 1.40 per one standard deviation of the number of visits; 95% confidence interval 1.26–1.56). Visits due to mental problems predicted disability retirement due to mental disorders in the men who served between 1987 and 1996 and a tendency for a similar cause-specific association was seen for musculoskeletal diseases in the men who served in 1967–1976. In conclusion, health problems—in particular mental problems—during late adolescence are strong determinants of disability retirement. Call-up examinations and military service provide access to the entire age cohort of men

  6. The Early Retirees of Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    Because an option for early retirement in Canadian Universities has created a need to know more about the vacancies early retirement creates and the potential to fill these vacancies, a survey of 15 representative universities was conducted. The sample included institutions of faculty numbering less than 100 to institutions of faculty numbering…

  7. Sleep to Implement an Intention

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep supports the consolidation of new memories. However, this effect has mainly been shown for memories of past events. Here we investigated the role of sleep for the implementation of intentions for the future. Design: Subjects were instructed on a plan that had to be executed after a delay of 2 days. After plan instruction, subjects were either allowed to sleep or stayed awake for one night (Exp. 1) or had a 3-h sleep period either during the early night (SWS-rich sleep) or late night (REM-rich sleep; Exp. 2). In both experiments, retesting took place 2 days later after one recovery night. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients or Participants: A total of 56 healthy young adults participated in the study. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All of the subjects who were allowed to sleep after plan instruction executed the intention 2 days later, whereas only 61% of wake subjects did so (P = 0.004; Exp. 1). Also after early SWS-rich sleep all of the subjects remembered to execute the intention, but only 55% did so after late REM-rich sleep (P = 0.015; Exp. 2). Conclusions: Sleep, especially SWS, plays an important role for the successful implementation of delayed intentions. Citation: Diekelmann S; Wilhelm I; Wagner U; Born J. Sleep to implement an intention. SLEEP 2013;36(1):149-153. PMID:23288982

  8. The 2012 Retirement Confidence Survey: job insecurity, debt weigh on retirement confidence, savings.

    PubMed

    Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack

    2012-03-01

    Americans' confidence in their ability to retire comfortably is stagnant at historically low levels. Just 14 percent are very confident they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement (statistically equivalent to the low of 13 percent measured in 2011 and 2009). Employment insecurity looms large: Forty-two percent identify job uncertainty as the most pressing financial issue facing most Americans today. Worker confidence about having enough money to pay for medical expenses and long-term care expenses in retirement remains well below their confidence levels for paying basic expenses. Many workers report they have virtually no savings and investments. In total, 60 percent of workers report that the total value of their household's savings and investments, excluding the value of their primary home and any defined benefit plans, is less than $25,000. Twenty-five percent of workers in the 2012 Retirement Confidence Survey say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. In 1991, 11 percent of workers said they expected to retire after age 65, and by 2012 that has grown to 37 percent. Regardless of those retirement age expectations, and consistent with prior RCS findings, half of current retirees surveyed say they left the work force unexpectedly due to health problems, disability, or changes at their employer, such as downsizing or closure. Those already in retirement tend to express higher levels of confidence than current workers about several key financial aspects of retirement. Retirees report they are significantly more reliant on Social Security as a major source of their retirement income than current workers expect to be. Although 56 percent of workers expect to receive benefits from a defined benefit plan in retirement, only 33 percent report that they and/or their spouse currently have such a benefit with a current or previous employer. More than half of workers (56 percent) report they and/or their spouse have not tried

  9. Flexible work schedules, older workers, and retirement.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, J K; Brenner, A M

    2000-01-01

    Older workers in the United States indicate that they would prefer flexible work arrangements rather than abrupt retirement, yet management has done very little to make this possible. A review of two bodies of literature from the late 1980s is presented: social science writings including sociological, gerontological, and economic literature, and business and management literature. There is a clash between the way jobs are traditionally scheduled and the needs of growing numbers of older workers. Workers continue to be subject to obstacles to phased retirement due to the structuring of health care and pension benefits, downsizing, organizational inflexibility, and "corporate culture." Thus, general views among social scientists regarding the desirability of flexible schedules toward retirement will not produce real changes unless management becomes committed to such changes and they are securely embedded in company policies.

  10. Who opts for self-employment after retirement? A longitudinal study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Solinge, Hanna

    2014-09-01

    Self-employment among older age groups is rising. A better understanding of the role of self-employment in extending the working lives of individuals is, therefore, relevant from a policy perspective. By bridging the gap in the literature on work/retirement decision-making and entrepreneurship, the present study examines the factors associated with entry into self-employment post-retirement, after a worker has left a regular salaried position. This decision is modelled as a choice between full retirement and prolonged labour force participation, in the form of either a typical wage-providing job or self-employment. Data were derived from the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Work and Retirement Panel, an ongoing longitudinal survey of older workers (50 years and over) employed by three private sector organisations and employed as civil servants in the Netherlands. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis. The results of this study show that the decision to pursue self-employment is primarily taken by retirees with relatively high levels of financial and human capital (wealth and educational attainment), those possessing entrepreneurial attitudes (high self-efficacy scores) and those who perceive their retirements to be completely involuntary. The results lend support to self-employment being selected as a postretirement path through opportunity rather than out of necessity. The fact that the retirements of the studied population were generally quite early, while not considered involuntary also suggests that the timing of the decision to retire may be driven by the emergence of new (business) opportunities.

  11. Academic productivity after retirement in pediatric neurology and neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Harvey B

    2018-05-25

    Many academic neurologists and neuropathologists who retire at the peak of their careers continue to be productive in research and teaching, enhanced by years of experience and mature perspective. The early 20th-century model of institutions depending upon the generosity of such individuals to donate their time and efforts without proper recognition or compensation, despite the service, prestige, and recognition they bring to their institutions, should be reconsidered in the early 21st century in the context of fairness, honesty, dignity, and increased longevity. University pensions do not distinguish retirees who continue to contribute from those who stop working. This essay represents the author's personal reflections and experience, reinforced by similar thoughts and encouragement by numerous distinguished colleagues named at the end of the text. Funding of stipends for active emeritus professors lacks precedent but should be sought. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. No more lock-step retirement: Boomers' shifting meanings of work and retirement.

    PubMed

    Kojola, Erik; Moen, Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    Standard pathways for work and retirement are being transformed as the large Boomer cohort moves through typical retirement ages during a moment of economic, social and political change. People are delaying retirement and moving into and out of paid work as the standard lock-step retirement becomes less dominant. However, little research has explored how and why Boomers are taking on these diverse pathways in their later careers. Accordingly, we conduct in-depth interviews with working and retired white-collar Boomers, exploring how they are working and the meanings and motivations for their decisions and plans in their later careers. We find that there is no single dominant pattern for retirement, but rather a diverse mix of pathways shaped by occupational identities, finances, health and perceptions of retirement. Boomers express a desire to have control over their time and to find meaning and purpose in either paid or unpaid activities. However, life course transitions, normative cultural scripts, and gender and class locations as well as workplace and social policies constrain their decisions and plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing.

  14. Policy Effects in Hyperbolic vs. Exponential Models of Consumption and Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Gustman, Alan L.; Steinmeier, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper constructs a structural retirement model with hyperbolic preferences and uses it to estimate the effect of several potential Social Security policy changes. Estimated effects of policies are compared using two models, one with hyperbolic preferences and one with standard exponential preferences. Sophisticated hyperbolic discounters may accumulate substantial amounts of wealth for retirement. We find it is frequently difficult to distinguish empirically between models with the two types of preferences on the basis of asset accumulation paths or consumption paths around the period of retirement. Simulations suggest that, despite the much higher initial time preference rate, individuals with hyperbolic preferences may actually value a real annuity more than individuals with exponential preferences who have accumulated roughly equal amounts of assets. This appears to be especially true for individuals with relatively high time preference rates or who have low assets for whatever reason. This affects the tradeoff between current benefits and future benefits on which many of the retirement incentives of the Social Security system rest. Simulations involving increasing the early entitlement age and increasing the delayed retirement credit do not show a great deal of difference whether exponential or hyperbolic preferences are used, but simulations for eliminating the earnings test show a non-trivially greater effect when exponential preferences are used. PMID:22711946

  15. Policy Effects in Hyperbolic vs. Exponential Models of Consumption and Retirement.

    PubMed

    Gustman, Alan L; Steinmeier, Thomas L

    2012-06-01

    This paper constructs a structural retirement model with hyperbolic preferences and uses it to estimate the effect of several potential Social Security policy changes. Estimated effects of policies are compared using two models, one with hyperbolic preferences and one with standard exponential preferences. Sophisticated hyperbolic discounters may accumulate substantial amounts of wealth for retirement. We find it is frequently difficult to distinguish empirically between models with the two types of preferences on the basis of asset accumulation paths or consumption paths around the period of retirement. Simulations suggest that, despite the much higher initial time preference rate, individuals with hyperbolic preferences may actually value a real annuity more than individuals with exponential preferences who have accumulated roughly equal amounts of assets. This appears to be especially true for individuals with relatively high time preference rates or who have low assets for whatever reason. This affects the tradeoff between current benefits and future benefits on which many of the retirement incentives of the Social Security system rest.Simulations involving increasing the early entitlement age and increasing the delayed retirement credit do not show a great deal of difference whether exponential or hyperbolic preferences are used, but simulations for eliminating the earnings test show a non-trivially greater effect when exponential preferences are used.

  16. Sleep problems and disability retirement: a register-based follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Haaramo, Peija; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2011-04-15

    Among aging employees, sleep problems are prevalent, but they may have serious consequences that are poorly understood. This study examined whether sleep problems are associated with subsequent disability retirement. Baseline questionnaire survey data collected in 2000-2002 among employees of the city of Helsinki, Finland, were linked with register data on disability retirement diagnoses by the end of 2008 (n = 457) for those with written consent for such linkages (74%; N = 5,986). Sleep problems were measured by the Jenkins Sleep Questionnaire. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for disability retirement. Gender- and age-adjusted frequent sleep problems predicted disability retirement due to all causes (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.26, 4.60), mental disorders (HR = 9.06, 95% CI: 3.27, 25.10), and musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 3.27, 95% CI: 1.91, 5.61). Adjustments for confounders, that is, baseline sociodemographic factors, work arrangements, psychosocial working conditions, and sleep duration, had negligible effects on these associations, whereas baseline physical working conditions and health attenuated the associations. Health behaviors and obesity did not mediate the examined associations. In conclusion, sleep problems are associated with subsequent disability retirement. To prevent early exit from work, sleep problems among aging employees need to be addressed.

  17. The Potential Effects of Obesity on Social Security Claiming Behavior and Retirement Benefits.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Melissa A Z; Shoffner, Dave; O'Leary, Samantha

    2018-04-16

    Obesity prevalence among Americans has increased for nearly three decades. We explore the relationship between the rise in obesity and Social Security retirement benefit claiming, a decision impacting nearly all aging Americans. Specifically, we investigate whether obesity can affect individuals' decision to claim benefits early, a choice that has important implications for financial security in retirement, particularly for those with lower socioeconomic status (SES). We use a microsimulation model called MINT6 (Modeling Income in the Near Term, version 6) to demonstrate the potential effects of obesity on subjective life expectancy and claiming behavior. We impute obesity status using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which describes the distribution of obesity prevalence within the United States by gender, poverty status, and race/ethnicity. We find that the rise in obesity and the consequent incidence of obesity-related diseases may lead some individuals to make claiming decisions that lead to lower monthly and lifetime Social Security retirement benefits. Further, we find that the potential economic impact of this decision is larger for those with lower SES. We present a behavioral perspective by addressing the potential effects that obesity can have on individuals' retirement decisions and their resulting Social Security retirement benefits.

  18. A post-crisis assessment of retirement income adequacy for Baby Boomers and Gen Xers.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2011-02-01

    DETERMINING THOSE "AT RISK" OF INSUFFICIENT RETIREMENT INCOME: The analysis in this paper was designed to answer two questions: 1) What percentage of U.S. households became "at risk" of insufficient retirement income as a result of the financial market and real estate crisis in 2008 and 2009? 2) Of those who are at risk, what additional savings do they need to make each year until retirement age to make up for their losses from the crisis? The results are from the 2010 EBRI Retirement Security Projection Model by the Employee Benefit Research Institute. Range at risk: The percentage of households that would not have been "at risk" without the 2008-2009 crisis but that ended up "at risk" varies from a low of 3.8 percent to a high of 14.3 percent. 50-50 chance of adequacy: Looking at all Early Boomer households that would need to save an additional amount (over and above the savings already factored into the baseline model), the median percentage of additional compensation for these households desiring a 50 percent probability of retirement income adequacy would be 3.0 percent of compensation each year until retirement age to account for the financial and housing market crisis in 2008 and 2009. 90 percent chance of adequacy: Looking at all Early Boomer households that would need to save an additional amount (over and above the savings already factored into the baseline model), the median percentage of additional compensation for these households desiring a 90 percent probability of retirement income adequacy would be 4.3 percent of compensation. Range of adequacy: Looking only at Early Boomer households that would need to save an additional amount (over and above the savings already factored into the baseline model), that had account balances in defined contribution plans and IRAs as well as exposure to the real estate crisis in 2008 and 2009 shows a median percentage for of 5.6 percent for a 50 percent probability and 6.7 percent for a 90 percent probability of

  19. Retirement before Age 65. Trends, Costs, and National Issues. Report to the Chairman, Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Two issues were analyzed--the changing characteristics of early pension recipients and the costs of early retirement. The analyses covered men and women aged 50 and older and were based primarily on data from the Census Bureau's March 1984 Current Population Survey. Findings showed that the percentage of the population receiving employer-sponsored…

  20. Family Health Histories and Their Impact on Retirement Confidence.

    PubMed

    Zick, Cathleen D; Mayer, Robert N; Smith, Ken R

    2015-08-01

    Retirement confidence is a key social barometer. In this article, we examine how personal and parental health histories relate to working-age adults' feelings of optimism or pessimism about their overall retirement prospects. This study links survey data on retirement planning with information on respondents' own health histories and those of their parents. The multivariate models control for the respondents' socio-demographic and economic characteristics along with past retirement planning activities when estimating the relationships between family health histories and retirement confidence. Retirement confidence is inversely related to parental history of cancer and cardiovascular disease but not to personal health history. In contrast, retirement confidence is positively associated with both parents being deceased. As members of the public become increasingly aware of how genetics and other family factors affect intergenerational transmission of chronic diseases, it is likely that the link between family health histories and retirement confidence will intensify. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Career and Retirement Theories: Relevance for Older Workers Across Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews selected career development theories as well as theories specifically focused on retirement, with an emphasis on their application to retirement decisions and vocational behavior in multicultural populations. Theories are evaluated based on whether: (a) retirement was considered a stage of working life, (b) work satisfaction, motivation, and other work variables at retirement age were addressed, (c) work choices at retirement age were included, and (d) cultural and other minority status issues were either directly considered in the work/retirement decision or if the model could be reasonably applied to retirement across cultures. We provide specific recommendations for research and practice with the aim of helping practitioners and scholars conceptualize the current concerns older adults face in their working lives and during retirement planning. PMID:26101455

  2. Supplemental Annuity Plan | Alaska Division of Retirement and Benefits

    Science.gov Websites

    Information Information Resources Forms Please enter your Email Address: Email Address Sign Up Changes Address Changes Apply for Retirement Insurance Enrollment Rollovers Report a Death Education AK Retirement

  3. Career and Retirement Theories: Relevance for Older Workers Across Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Megan C; Foley, Pamela F; Cotter, Elizabeth W

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews selected career development theories as well as theories specifically focused on retirement, with an emphasis on their application to retirement decisions and vocational behavior in multicultural populations. Theories are evaluated based on whether: (a) retirement was considered a stage of working life, (b) work satisfaction, motivation, and other work variables at retirement age were addressed, (c) work choices at retirement age were included, and (d) cultural and other minority status issues were either directly considered in the work/retirement decision or if the model could be reasonably applied to retirement across cultures. We provide specific recommendations for research and practice with the aim of helping practitioners and scholars conceptualize the current concerns older adults face in their working lives and during retirement planning.

  4. Diversification: Midland/Odessa Health & Retirement Endeavor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skipper, P. K.

    In reaction to the economic risks associated with an over reliance on oil and gas exports, residents of the Midland/Odessa area of Texas began seeking diversification options for the local economy and, in 1986, formed the Midland/Odessa Health and Retirement Endeavor (MOHRE). This non-profit corporation was formed to examine the feasibility of…

  5. 76 FR 4244 - Hybrid Retirement Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9505] RIN 1545-BG36 Hybrid Retirement Plans Correction In rule document 2010-25941 beginning on page 64123 in the issue of Tuesday, October 19, 2010, make the following correction: Sec. 1.411(a)(13)-1 [Corrected] On page 64137, in Sec. 1...

  6. Retirement Savings Behavior of Higher Education Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulebohn, James H.; Murray, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Higher education employees often participate in university-sponsored defined contribution pension plans that place the investment decision responsibility upon them. In order to examine investment decision-making behavior with retirement savings plans we investigated attitude-mediated, individual difference determinants of risky decision-making…

  7. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement... structure; (f) Heat damage from any source; (g) Diameter reduction due to wear that exceeds six percent of...

  8. Military Retirement Reform: An Australian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 2014 Author: Adam J. Crockett...military retirement system. Alexandria, VA: Department of Defense, Office of the Actuary . Department of Defense of the Under Secretary of Defense for

  9. Wisdom in a Learning in Retirement Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Seven men and women with an average age of 77 were interviewed regarding the role of wisdom in their experience of attending a Learning in Retirement Institute (LRI) in southern Ontario, Canada. A finding is that for wisdom gains to be an outcome of LRI education, older adult students need outward expression of their acquired learnings. A…

  10. [Retired physicians in Hungary - nationwide, representative study].

    PubMed

    Győrffy, Zsuzsa; Szél, Zsuzsanna; Girasek, Edmond

    2016-10-01

    The aging population and the aging physician society is an important challenge of the New Millenium. Despite this, very few publications are dealing with the older generations' physical and mental well-being, quality of life and working conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the retired physicians populations' (n = 2112) demographic data, work status, income and health status. Data of this representative, cross-sectional epidemiological study was obtained from online and paper-based questionnaires completed by 2112 retired physicians. The retired physicians' average age is 72 years, nearly two-thirds of the respondents retired after 35-45 years of service. Currently, nearly 60% are working, almost a quarter of them more than 40 hours per week. 35% of the respondents' income is below HUF 150,000. On this issue, significant differences emerge between female doctors and their male colleagues. The employment data of the results is consistent with the international trend, but the gender perspectives has unique significance in the international literature. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(43), 1729-1736.

  11. Like a High Wave: Adjustment to Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of the study are to provide a phenomenological description of the pre- and post-retirement experience and to examine adjustment during the two periods. Design and Methods: This is a longitudinal study of 56 Israeli men that employs both personal interviews and standard measures of physical and mental health. Results: The…

  12. Inspection of the Armed Forces Retirement Home

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    22 Tab D – Information Technology ............................................................................................. 25 Tab E...Forces Retirement Home February 25, 2010 Report No. IE-2010-002 Tab D – Information Technology Overall Assessment We used the National Institute of Science...and Technology (NIST) SP 800-53, Revision 2, “Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems,” dated December 2007 as the basis for

  13. Counseling Older Persons: Careers, Retirement, Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinick, Daniel

    The focus of this monograph is on three areas of counseling with older clients: career counseling, retirement counseling, and counseling regarding death and dying. The portion on career counseling includes reasons older persons change careers, obstacles they are likely to face when seeking employment, myths surrounding the employability of older…

  14. Toward Explaining Earlier Retirement after 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Rule changes in the social security system and pension plans suggest that labor force participation rates for men aged 55 to 64 fell by 20 percent from 1970 through 1986 because of the increase in social security benefits and a change in private pension rules encouraging earlier retirement. (Author/JOW)

  15. New Wrinkles on Retirement: Program Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Robert P.; Thorson, James A.

    The program notes were prepared to accompany the television series "New Wrinkles on Retirement." The eight units in the series are: facing inflation, which covers the decreasing value of the dollar, transportation costs, medical expenses, cutting expenses, family budgeting, investments, and places to live; vigor regained, which covers exercise and…

  16. Retirement Communities: A Financial Rewarding Educational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Michael D.; Rolett, Roderic L.

    1991-01-01

    For colleges and universities, development of underused assets can be compatible with or supportive of the institution's purpose and also be financially rewarding. Providing alumni retirement housing can enhance institutional ties with alumni, in turn boosting recruitment and fund raising. Successful development requires a unique blend of…

  17. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404.1050 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1050...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404.1050 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1050...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404.1050 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1050...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404.1050 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1050...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1050 - Retirement payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retirement payments. 404.1050 Section 404.1050 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1050...

  2. The Anguish of a Retired Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donna W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates her difficult adjustment to regular routine when she retired as a middle school librarian for over three decades. She recalls one incident in which she patrolled a beach after seeing women slathering on suntan oil and turning the pages of library books, leaving fingerprints on each page. She also tells of…

  3. Transition to Old Age (Transition to Retirement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Simon

    Several conceptualizations and definitions of retirement have been proposed. One of them--the three-stage transition process--can be illustrated from studies in Israel: (1) leaving the old role; (2) going through the act of formal separation; and (3) adjusting to the new situation and role. Today's higher rate of survival into later years means…

  4. 30 CFR 57.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A... Wire Ropes § 57.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length... percent of the total number of wires within any strand; (b) On a regular lay rope, more than one broken... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A... Wire Ropes § 57.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length... percent of the total number of wires within any strand; (b) On a regular lay rope, more than one broken... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A loss... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A loss... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length; (c) A... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A... Wire Ropes § 57.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length; (c) A... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length; (c) A... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A... Wire Ropes § 57.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire...

  15. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A loss... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19024 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length. (c) A loss... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Wire Ropes § 56.19024 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff, wire ropes...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length... percent of the total number of wires within any strand; (b) On a regular lay rope, more than one broken... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... broken wires within a rope lay length, excluding filler wires, exceeds either— (1) Five percent of the... regular lay rope, more than one broken wire in the valley between strands in one rope lay length; (c) A... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1434 Retirement criteria. Unless damage or deterioration is removed by cutoff...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1434 - Retirement criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when any of the following conditions occurs: (a) The number of broken wires within a rope lay length... percent of the total number of wires within any strand; (b) On a regular lay rope, more than one broken... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Hoisting and Mantrips Wire Ropes § 75.1434 Retirement...

  20. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-06

    nonmonetary benefits including exchange and commissary privileges, medical care through TRICARE, and access to Morale , Welfare and Recreation (MWR...include exchange and commissary privileges, medical care through TRICARE, and access to Morale , Welfare and Recreation facilities and programs...over the past decade. Congress grapples with constituent concerns as well as budgetary constraints in considering military retirement issues . In the

  1. Retirees' Social Identity and Satisfaction with Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michinov, Estelle; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Fernandez, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of retirees' social identity and its impact on satisfaction with retirement. From social identity theory formulations, we assumed that (1) retiree-identity was comprised of three distinct components (cognitive, evaluative, and affective), and (2) only the affective component would play a role…

  2. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  3. Retirement-Age Experience Under Flexible-Age Retirement Plans, 1930-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Francis P.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the retirement practices of a large number of institutions of higher education and examines twelve Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association plans which have flexible-age provisions. (Editor)

  4. Retirement and cognitive development in the Netherlands: Are the retired really inactive?

    PubMed

    de Grip, Andries; Dupuy, Arnaud; Jolles, Jelle; van Boxtel, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses longitudinal data to analyze the relation between retirement and cognitive development in the Netherlands. Controlling for individual fixed effects and lagged cognition, we find that retirees face lower declines in their cognitive flexibility than those who remain employed, which appears to be persistent 6 years after retirement. However, the information processing speed of low-educated retirees declines faster. The magnitude of both changes in cognition is such that retirees appear 5-6 years younger in terms of cognitive flexibility, and older in terms of information processing speed. We show that these relationships between retirement and cognitive development cannot be explained by (1) feeling relieved from routine work, (2) changes in mood, (3) changes in lifestyle, and (4) changes in blood pressure. The decline in information processing speed after retirement particularly holds for the low educated. This could increase the social costs of an aging society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 78 FR 68097 - Meeting of the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... MILITARY COMPENSATION AND RETIREMENT MODERNIZATION COMMISSION Meeting of the Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission AGENCY: Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization Commission. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Military Compensation and Retirement Modernization...

  6. The impact of a retirement savings account cap.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2013-08-01

    This Issue Brief provides an initial analysis of the potential financial impact on private-sector retirement benefits of the retirement savings account cap included in the Obama administration's FY 2014 budget proposal. It finds that although a very small percentage of current 401(k) participants with IRA accounts have combined balances sufficient to be immediately affected by the proposed limit, over time (and depending on the applicable discount rates, whether a defined benefit pension is involved, and the size of the 401(k) plan) the impact could be much greater. Simulation results for 401(k) participants assuming no defined benefit accruals and no job turnover show that more than 1 in 10 current 401(k) participants are likely to hit the proposed limit sometime prior to age 65, even at the current historically low discount rate of 4 percent. When the simulation is rerun with discount rate assumptions closer to historical averages, the percentage of 401(k) participants likely to be affected by these proposed limits increases substantially: For example, with an 8 percent discount rate, more than 20 percent of the 401(k) participants are simulated to reach the limit prior to retirement. When the impact of stylized, defined benefit account assumptions are added to the analysis, the percentage of 401(k) participants simulated to reach the proposed limits increases even more: In fact, for 401(k) participants assumed to be covered by a 2 percent, three-year, final-average plan with a subsidized early retirement at 62, nearly a third are assumed to be affected by the proposed limit at an 8 percent discount rate. Additional analysis is performed for small plans (those with less than 100 participants) to assess the potential impact of eventual plan terminations if an when the owners and/or key decision makers of the firms reach the cap threshold. Depending on plan size, this may involve as few as 18 percent of the firms (at a 4 percent discount rate) to as many as 75

  7. Predicting Intentional Communication in Preverbal Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sandbank, Micheal; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R; Gardner, Elizabeth; Keçeli Kaysili, Bahar; Yoder, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Intentional communication has previously been identified as a value-added predictor of expressive language in preverbal preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. In the present study, we sought to identify value-added predictors of intentional communication. Of five theoretically-motivated putative predictors of intentional communication measured early in the study (at study entry and 4 months after), three had significant zero-order correlations with later intentional communication (12 months after study entry) and were thus added to a linear model that predicted later intentional communication scores controlling for initial intentional communication scores at study entry. After controlling for initial intentional communication, early motor imitation was the only predictor that accounted for a significant amount of variance in children's later intentional communication.

  8. I Ain't Gonna Make It. Comparing Job Demands-Resources and Attrition Intention Between Senior Teachers and Senior Employees of Six Other Occupational Categories in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Van Droogenbroeck, Filip; Spruyt, Bram

    2016-07-01

    Teachers are often thought to retire early and have more stress and burnout than other human service professionals. In this article, we investigate attrition intention amongst senior teachers and senior employees of six other blue- and white-collar occupational categories using the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. We followed a two-step approach. First, analysis of variance and logistic regression analysis was used to assess differences in the level of job demands, resources, and attrition intention between occupations for male and female employees separately. Subsequently, multiple group path analysis was used to assess the invariance of the JD-R model across occupational groups and genders. We used representative data gathered in Flanders among 6,810 senior employees (45 years or older). Results indicate that there are differences in the determinants of attrition intention between men and women. The differences in attrition intention are minimal between occupations once controlled for job demands and resources. In addition, the JD-R model is largely invariant across white-collar occupations and gender. We provide support for both the energetic and motivational process of the JD-R model. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. 5 CFR 1653.2 - Qualifying retirement benefits court orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying retirement benefits court orders. 1653.2 Section 1653.2 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653...

  10. Uncovered: Social Security, Retirement Uncertainty, and 1 Million Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Leslie; Aldeman, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Retirement savings are often described as a three-legged stool: Social Security, employer retirement plans, and personal savings. For many American workers, Social Security is the most consistent portion of the three-legged model, providing a solid plank of retirement savings. But nationwide, more than 1 million teachers--about 40 percent of all…

  11. Retirement Resources Inventory: Construction, Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Cindy S. Y.; Earl, Joanne K.

    2012-01-01

    The scientific investigation of the relationship between resources and retirement well-being is impeded by the lack of proper measurement of resources. This study reports on the development of an inventory that assesses resources relevant to retirement well-being. The 35-item Retirement Resources Inventory (RRI) is a self-report measure consisting…

  12. Retiree Health and Optional Benefits | Alaska Division of Retirement and

    Science.gov Websites

    Categories Health Long-Term Care Life Forms Publications FAQs Features Empower Retirement Account Info Online Retirement Benefits Employer Services AlaskaCare Easy Navigation Retiree Health AlaskaCare Retiree Health Retiree Tax Implications FAQs Administration > Division of Retirement and Benefits > Health and

  13. 26 CFR 1.408-2 - Individual retirement accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual retirement accounts. 1.408-2 Section... accounts. (a) In general. An individual retirement account must be a trust or a custodial account (see... to qualify as an individual retirement account. It may be established and maintained by an individual...

  14. 75 FR 35098 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages...' Retirement System (FERS) Act of 1986. DATES: The revised normal cost percentages are effective at the... retirement system intended to cover most Federal employees hired after 1983. Most Federal employees hired...

  15. 76 FR 32242 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Retirement System; Normal Cost Percentages...' Retirement System (FERS) Act of 1986. DATES: The revised normal cost percentages are effective at the..., Public Law 99-335, created a new retirement system intended to cover most Federal employees hired after...

  16. Retirement financial planning and the RN: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

    2013-11-01

    This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability.

  17. Information Sources and Retirement Savings of Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsua, Chungwen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how retirement planning information search was related to retirement savings of working women. By controlling for sociodemographic variables, the study further explored factors associated with individual information sources for retirement planning. An online survey was developed to collect data from a national population,…

  18. Back to Work: Expectations and Realizations of Work after Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes a puzzling aspect of retirement behavior known as "unretirement." Nearly 50 percent of retirees follow a nontraditional retirement path that involves partial retirement or unretirement, and at least 26 percent of retirees later unretire. I explore two possible explanations: (1) unretirement transitions result from failures in…

  19. Retirement Financial Planning and the RN: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T

    2015-10-01

    This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability.

  20. The Taboo of Retirement for Diocesan Catholic Priests.

    PubMed

    Kane, Michael N

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers Catholic priests in the USA and their freedom to retire, the constraints that may restrain them from retirement, and the financial and psychological variables that impact them in ministry and in future retirement. Implications for pastoral care and counseling are considered. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. 42 CFR 421.212 - Railroad Retirement Board contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad Retirement Board contracts. 421.212... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Carriers § 421.212 Railroad Retirement Board contracts. In accordance with this subpart C, the Railroad Retirement Board contracts with DMEPOS regional...

  2. 42 CFR 408.42 - Deduction from railroad retirement benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. 408.42... § 408.42 Deduction from railroad retirement benefits. (a) Responsibility for deductions. If an enrollee is entitled to railroad retirement benefits, his or her SMI premiums are deducted from those benefits...

  3. Alternative skid trail retirement options for steep terrain logging

    Treesearch

    Mathew F. Smidt; Randall K. Kolka

    2001-01-01

    In winter 1999-2000 trials of deep tillage and recontouring of skid trails were implemented on three sites in northeastern Kentucky, USA to examine their potential as skid trail retirement options. While effective, current Best Management Practices (BMPs) for trail retirement do not address two potential benefits of retirement: recovery of normal hill slope hydrology...

  4. Alternative skid trail retirement options for steep terrain logging

    Treesearch

    Mathew F. Smidt; Randall K. Kelka

    2001-01-01

    In winter 1999-2000 trials of deep tillage and recontouring of skid trails were implemented on three sites in northeastern Kentucky, USA to examine their potential as skid trail retirement options. While effective, current Best Management Practices (BMPs) for trail retirement do not address two potential benefits of retirement: recovery of normal hill slope\\r\\...

  5. Beyond Health and Wealth: Predictors of Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2009-01-01

    Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…

  6. EXPLORATION OF SIMULATION AS A RETIREMENT EDUCATION TECHNIQUE. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOOCOCK, SARANE SPENCE; SPRAGUE, NORMAN

    A PILOT PROJECT EXPLORED THE ADAPTATION OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES TO FOUR RETIREMENT PROBLEMS--FINANCIAL POSITION, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT (HOUSING CHOICES), HEALTH, AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT (PLANNING AND GAINING SKILLS BEFORE RETIREMENT). A PRELIMINARY MODEL OF A GAME IN RETIREMENT FINANCE PRESENTS PLAYERS WITH THREE INVESTMENT SITUATIONS--SAVINGS…

  7. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency officers... continued to be payable under section 10 of Pub. L. 2, 73d Congress, or under section 1 of Pub. L. 743, 76th...

  8. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency officers... continued to be payable under section 10 of Pub. L. 2, 73d Congress, or under section 1 of Pub. L. 743, 76th...

  9. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency officers... continued to be payable under section 10 of Pub. L. 2, 73d Congress, or under section 1 of Pub. L. 743, 76th...

  10. 38 CFR 3.754 - Emergency officers' retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... officers' retirement pay. A retired emergency officer of World War I has basic eligibility to retirement... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency officers... continued to be payable under section 10 of Pub. L. 2, 73d Congress, or under section 1 of Pub. L. 743, 76th...

  11. The Information Seeking and Use Behaviors of Retired Investors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the information seeking and use behaviors of a group of US retired or near-retirement investors from everyday life information seeking and serious leisure perspectives. Although primarily qualitative, it also collects and analyzes quantitative data to describe retired investors' information preferences and use.…

  12. 7 CFR 1773.41 - Extraordinary retirement losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extraordinary retirement losses. 1773.41 Section 1773... Documentation § 1773.41 Extraordinary retirement losses. The CPA's workpapers must contain an analysis of retirement losses, including any required approval by a regulatory commission with jurisdiction in the matter...

  13. Survey of Changes in Faculty Retirement Policies 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Valerie Martin

    2007-01-01

    The Committee on Retirement of the American Association of University Professors initiated its first retirement policies survey in 2000 to address a lack of reliable and systematically collected information on retirement policies and practices across U.S. institutions of higher education. At the end of the 1990s, there was a sense that…

  14. We Never Had It So Good! Strategies for Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    Variations on the traditional methods of planning for retirement are offered to college faculty, focusing on use of Teachers Insurance and Annuities Association (TIAA) and College Retirement Equities Fund (CREF) investments, and other pension options. It is concluded that with careful planning, faculty can retire with close to full preretirement…

  15. Manpower Planning and Mandatory Retirement: Is the Older Worker Incompetent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baugher, Dan

    The general disposition and effects of prevailing manpower policies and programs for the elderly in the United States suggest that mandatory retirement will eventually be replaced by flexible retirement with no age limit. Inflationary trends may be possible causal factors which reduce post-retirement incomes, increase the age of the work force,…

  16. 5 CFR 831.1207 - Withdrawal of disability retirement applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Withdrawal of disability retirement applications. 831.1207 Section 831.1207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1207 Withdrawal of...

  17. Retirement Wealth, Income, and Decision Making in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, W. Cris

    1996-01-01

    Retirement programs for college faculty are evaluated in terms of both their wealth-creation attributes and the incentives they provide for retirement. Wealth accumulation and relative cash flow from working compared to retirement are evaluated at various ages under alternative assumptions about rates of return and contribution rates. The nature…

  18. 5 CFR 891.104 - Responsibilities of retirement offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIRED FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS Administration and General... amount withheld to the Retired Federal Employees Health Benefits Fund, and for reporting to OPM amounts... is responsible only for retired employees who are receiving compensation from the Office and is...

  19. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the...

  20. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the...

  1. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the...

  2. 5 CFR 843.210 - Transfers between retirement systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transfers between retirement systems. 843... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS One-time Payments § 843.210 Transfers between retirement systems. Transfers of employees' contributions between the...

  3. Fiscal Year 2014: Military Retirement Fund Audited Financial Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-07

    Reserve Retirement ................................................................................................................. 7 Survivor...benefits for military members’ retirement from active duty and the reserves , disability retirement benefits, and survivor benefits. The MRF accumulates... premium /discount amortization and accrued inflation compensation. In comparison, in FY 2013 the MRF received approximately $20.5 billion in normal cost

  4. Superintendent Retirement in a Reform State: Rhetoric and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyland, Lori; Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Indiana recently gained status as a national leader in educational reform. At the same time, a record number of superintendents retired, with 62 retirements in 2012 and 2013, representing 21% of superintendents in the state. The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing superintendents' decisions to retire during this time.…

  5. 22 CFR 19.10-3 - Marriage after retirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation to...

  6. Disconnected Expectations: Staff, Family, and Supported Employee Perspectives about Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigby, Christine; Wilson, Nathan J.; Balandin, Susan; Stancliffe, Roger J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Australia has few policies to support the transition of older people with intellectual disability from employment to retirement. This study aimed to identify the possibilities and barriers to retirement for older employees in supported employment services. Method: Five distinct participant groups discussed retirement in 6 separate…

  7. Retirement Education Programs. Overview: ERIC Digest No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imel, Susan

    Retirement is a phenomenon of contemporary, industrialized nations. Retirement, which may be either voluntary or forced, generally refers to that phase in life when full-time, paid employment ceases. Depending on individual circumstances, it may be viewed as either a positive or negative event. Retirement planning and preparation are key factors…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Work After Retirement: Examining Predictors of Bridge Employment, Continued Career Employment, and Retirement.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Misty M; Beehr, Terry A; Lepisto, Lawrence R

    2016-09-01

    Older employees are increasingly accepting bridge employment, which occurs when older workers take employment for pay after they retire from their main career. This study examined predictors of workers' decisions to engage in bridge employment versus full retirement and career employment. A national sample of 482 older people in the United States was surveyed regarding various work-related and nonwork related predictors of retirement decisions, and their retirement status was measured 5 years later. In bivariate analyses, both work-related variables (career goal achievement and experienced pressure to retire) and nonwork-related variables (psychological distress and traditional gender role orientation) predicted taking bridge employment, but in multinomial logistic regression, only nonwork variables had unique effects. Few predictors differentiated the bridge employed and fully retired groups. Nonwork variables were salient in making the decision to retire, and bridge employment may be conceptually more similar to full retirement than to career employment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Reluctance to Retire: A Qualitative Study on Work Identity, Intergenerational Conflict, and Retirement in Academic Medicine.

    PubMed

    Silver, Michelle Pannor; Williams, Sarah A

    2018-03-19

    Some professions foster expectations that individuals cultivate their work identity above all other aspects of life. This can be problematic when individuals are confronted with the expectation that they will readily terminate this identity in later-career stages as institutions seek to cycle in new generations. This study examines the relationship between work identity and retirement by examining multiple generations of academic physicians. This study used a multimethod qualitative design that included document analysis, participant observation, focus groups, and in-depth interviews with academic physicians from one of the oldest departments of medicine in North America. This study illustrates how participants were predisposed and then groomed through institutional efforts to embrace a career trajectory that emphasized work above all else and fostered negative sensibilities about retirement. Participants across multiple generations described a lack of work-life balance and a prioritization of their careers above nonwork commitments. Assertions that less experienced physicians were not as dedicated to medicine and implicit assumptions that later-career physicians should retire emerged as key concerns. Strong work identity and tensions between different generations may confound concerns about retirement in ways that complicate institutional succession planning and that demonstrate how traditional understandings of retirement are out of date. Findings support the need to creatively reconsider the ways we examine relations between work identity, age, and retirement in ways that account for the recent extensions in the working lives of professionals.

  10. Paying for retirement: sex differences in inclusion in employer-provided retirement plans.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rosemary

    2012-04-01

    This study examines sex differences among Baby Boom workers in the likelihood of coverage by an employer-provided retirement plan. This study used a sample of Baby Boom workers drawn from the 2009 Current Population Survey. Independent variables were selected to replicate as closely as possible those in two 1995 studies of retired workers and pension plans. Three new variables were added to reflect major social and economic shifts since 1995. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the effect of the independent variables on the likelihood of retirement plan coverage. In this cohort, the proportions of men and women included in employer-provided retirement plans were almost the same. The overall odds of women being included in a plan were only slightly less than even and in certain cases were significantly higher than the odds for men. Predictors of inclusion that were most important for both women and men were minority status, employment in a core industry or in a government position, educational level, and marital status. Although a much larger group of workers is included in retirement plans than in previous studies, and Baby Boom women are less disadvantaged in this regard than women in earlier studies, minority and immigrant workers continue to be disadvantaged, and the security of government retirement plans may be weakening with current economic difficulties.

  11. Work or retirement: Exploration of the experiences of Iranian retired nurses.

    PubMed

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Khoshknab, Masood Fallahi

    2015-01-01

    According to recent studies, the level of international interest in bridge employment, as return to work after retirement, has been growing. This study aimed to explore the experiences of retired nurses in Iran with regard to making a decision about whether or not to seek bridge employment. A qualitative study using a content analysis approach was conducted in an urban area of Iran. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 Iranian male and female retired nurses chosen using purposive sampling. During the data analysis, two main themes were identified as the participants' thoughts supporting the decision of seeking bridge employment. The first theme was entitled motivational factors with categories of ``serving the society,'' ``maintaining and promoting health,'' ``tendency toward flexible work,'' and ``maintaining the role and activity.'' The second theme was entitled forcing factors with categories of ``ardent desire to work (pluralistic ignorance)'' and ``financial need.' ' While some Iranian retired nurses were not motivated to seek work for health reasons, most preferred to return to work after retirement. They were motivated to seek bridge employment out of a desire to serve the society, to promote their own physical and mental health, to continue to use their expertise and maintain the worker role, and because of financial needs and perceived societal expectations. Nurses seeking employment later in life tended to look for job flexibility and less stressful work. Therefore, the management of bridge employment by healthcare system authorities can be useful in making use of the invaluable experiences of retired nurses.

  12. Sleep to implement an intention.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of new memories. However, this effect has mainly been shown for memories of past events. Here we investigated the role of sleep for the implementation of intentions for the future. Subjects were instructed on a plan that had to be executed after a delay of 2 days. After plan instruction, subjects were either allowed to sleep or stayed awake for one night (Exp. 1) or had a 3-h sleep period either during the early night (SWS-rich sleep) or late night (REM-rich sleep; Exp. 2). In both experiments, retesting took place 2 days later after one recovery night. Sleep laboratory. A total of 56 healthy young adults participated in the study. N/A. All of the subjects who were allowed to sleep after plan instruction executed the intention 2 days later, whereas only 61% of wake subjects did so (P = 0.004; Exp. 1). Also after early SWS-rich sleep all of the subjects remembered to execute the intention, but only 55% did so after late REM-rich sleep (P = 0.015; Exp. 2). Sleep, especially SWS, plays an important role for the successful implementation of delayed intentions.

  13. The long term financial impacts of CVD: living standards in retirement.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Deborah; Kelly, Simon; Shrestha, Rupendra; Passey, Megan; Callander, Emily; Percival, Richard

    2012-03-22

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has significant economic costs, however these are generally estimated for the present-time and little consideration is given to the long term economic consequences. This study estimates the value of savings those who retire early due to CVD will have accumulated by the time they reach the traditional retirement age of 65 years, and how much lower the value of these savings are compared to those who remained healthy and in the workforce. Using Health&WealthMOD - a microsimulation model of Australians aged 45 to 64 years, regression models were used to analyse the differences between the projected savings and the retirement incomes of people by the time they reach age 65 for those currently working with no chronic condition, and people not in the labour force due to CVD. Over 99% of individuals who are employed full-time will have accumulated some savings at age 65; whereas only 77% of those who are out of the labour force due to CVD will have done so. Those who retire early due to CVD will have a median value of total savings by the time they are 65 of $1833. This is far lower than the expected median value of savings for those who remained in the labour force full-time, who will have $281841 of savings. Not only will early retirement due to cardiovascular disease limit the immediate income and wealth available to individuals, but also reduce their long term financial capacity by reducing their savings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How does health insurance affect the retirement behavior of women?

    PubMed

    Kapur, Kanika; Rogowski, Jeannette

    2011-01-01

    The availability of health insurance is a crucial factor in the retirement decision. Women are substantially less likely to have health insurance from their own employment. Using the Health and Retirement Study, we examine the role of employer-provided retiree health insurance in the retirement decisions of single women, and women in single-earner and dual-earner couples. We compare the effect of health insurance on female and male retirement. Our results show that retiree health insurance increases retirement for all groups except single men. We find suggestive evidence that the role of health insurance for women hinges on their husbands' labor force status.

  15. Teacher Education, Motivation, Compensation, Workplace Support, and Links to Quality of Center-Based Child Care and Teachers' Intention to Stay in the Early Childhood Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to present a conceptual model for selection into the early childhood profession and to test the model using contemporaneous assessments. A stratified random sample of center-based child care providers in 4 Midwestern states (n=964) participated in a telephone interview, and 223 were also assessed with the Early…

  16. An Early Historical Examination of the Educational Intent of Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs) and Project-Based Learning in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning has been a component of agricultural education since its inception. In light of the current call for additional emphasis of the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) component of agricultural education, there is a need to revisit the roots of project-based learning. This early historical research study was conducted to…

  17. Gender differences in retirement decisions in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, William Keng Mun

    2005-01-01

    The study of labor force participation at older ages and the process of retirement do not have a long tradition in Asia's newly developed societies. This study, based on telephone survey of 950 respondents, examines various socio-economic factors that would influence retirement decision among older workers in Hong Kong. The findings show that older men were more likely to participate in the labor force than older women. Interestingly, older workers, in particular older women, with pension were less likely to retire. Having a working spouse decreased the likelihood of retirement and older workers, in particular older women, living with married children were more likely to retire. Poor health also discourages the propensity to continue working at old age. These findings confirm that retirement entails much more than just a decision to stop work, and that there were gender differences in retirement decision. Finally, several policy challenges, with reference to elderly women, concerning older workers' labor force participation were discussed.

  18. Rotation State Evolution of Retired Geosynchronous Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, C.; Scheeres, D. J.; Ryan, W. H.; Ryan, E. V.; Moskovitz, N.

    Non-periodic light curve rotation state analysis is conducted for the retired geosynchronous satellite GOES 8. This particular satellite has been observed periodically at the Maui Research and Technology Center as well as Magdalena Ridge and Lowell Observatories since 2013. To extract tumbling periods from the light curves, twodimensional Fourier series fits were used. Torque-free dynamics and the satellite’s known mass properties were then leveraged to constrain the candidate periods. Finally, simulated light curves were generated using a representative shape model for further validation. Analysis of the light curves suggests that GOES 8 transitioned from uniform rotation in 2014 to continually evolving tumbling motion by 2016. These findings are consistent with previous dynamical simulations and support the hypothesis that the Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect drives rotation state evolution of retired geosynchronous satellites.

  19. Demographics, the Third Age and partial retirement: Policy proposals to accommodate the changing picture of female retirement in Canada.

    PubMed

    Venne, Rosemary A; Hannay, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Much concern has been raised around the potential impact of the retirement of the large baby boom generation. This article specifically addresses the unique issues surrounding the retirement of female baby boomers. Demographic changes, including increased labor force participation, coupled with declining fertility rates, have resulted in a social transformation of the roles women play in society. Despite these changes, women still bear much of the caregiving responsibilities in the household, which can complicate retirement choices. This article examines female retirement in the Canadian context and presents three policy proposals to expand women's retirement choices, encourage longer-term labor force participation, and thereby extend their working lives into the Third Age.

  20. A Policy Analysis of Reserve Retirement Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    of the basic pay bill for the AC force, consistent with the practice of the DoD Actuary . This gives an amount, an accrual charge, sufficient to cover...accrual charges made during its AC service. This also follows the practice of the DoD Actuary . Specifically, the amount transferred from the AC...retirement reform. 16 The actuarial calculation is made for those leaving AC by AC year of service. For example, consider 100 AC service members in

  1. Military Retirement: Background and Recent Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-27

    have a choice between two options (High-Three or Career Status Bonus/Redux) based on career expectations and the individual’s financial situation...provides a choice between two retirement options based on career expectations and an individual’s financial situation. Eligibility is based on years of...actuarial principles and taking into consideration cost-of-living-adjustments. 17 This will be calculated by the DOD Office of the Actuary using average

  2. What causes EBRI retirement readiness ratings to vary: results from the 2014 Retirement Security Projection Model.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack

    2014-02-01

    RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY IMPROVED SLIGHTLY IN 2013: Due to the increase in financial market and housing values during 2013, the probability that Baby Boomers and Generation Xers would NOT run short of money in retirement increases between 0.5 and 1.6 percentage points, based on the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) Retirement Readiness Ratings (RRRs). ELIGIBILITY FOR PARTICIPATION IN AN EMPLOYER-SPONSORED DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN REMAINS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: RRR values double for Gen Xers in the lowest-income quartile when comparing those with 20 or more years of future eligibility with those with no years of future eligibility, while those in the middle income quartiles experience increases in RRR values by 27.1-30.3 percentage points. FUTURE SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE FOR THE RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY OF SOME HOUSEHOLDS, ESPECIALLY GEN XERS IN THE LOWEST-INCOME QUARTILE: If Social Security benefits are subject to proportionate decreases beginning in 2033 (according to the values in Figure 8), the RRR values for those households will drop by more than 50 percent: from 20.9 percent to 10.3 percent. LONGEVITY RISK AND STOCHASTIC HEALTH CARE RISK ARE ASSOCIATED WITH HUGE VARIATIONS IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: For both of these factors, a comparison between the most "risky" quartile with the least risky quartile shows a spread of approximately 30 percentage points for the lowest income range, approximately 25 to 40 percentage points for the highest income range, and even larger spreads for those in the middle income ranges. A GREAT DEAL OF THE VARIABILITY IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY COULD BE MITIGATED BY APPROPRIATE RISK-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AT OR NEAR RETIREMENT AGE: For example, the annuitization of a portion of the defined contribution and IRA balances may substantially increase the probability of not running short of money in retirement. Moreover, a well-functioning market in long

  3. Toys and Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relation between toys and intentions, focusing on preschoolers. Toys reveal important cultural concerns, help develop valued attributes, and can be sensitive indicators of historical change. Toys and play allow children freedom to express personal intentionality regarding cultural intentions. (SM)

  4. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers' Level of Household Income.

    PubMed

    Davies, Eleanor M M; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability.

  5. Job Satisfaction, Retirement Attitude and Intended Retirement Age: A Conditional Process Analysis across Workers’ Level of Household Income

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Eleanor M. M.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Flynn, Matt

    2017-01-01

    In the contemporary workplace, insight into retirement behaviors is of crucial importance. Previous empirical evidence has found mixed results regarding the relationship between work attitudes, such as job satisfaction, and retirement behaviors, suggesting that further scholarly examination incorporating moderating and mediating variables into retirement models is needed. Drawing on comparative models of attitude to retirement, we hypothesized a direct relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age for workers with a high household income and an indirect relationship between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for workers with a low or mean household income. We collected data from a sample of 590 United Kingdom workers aged 50+. Using conditional process analysis, we found that the underlying mechanisms in our research model differ according to socio-economic status. We found no direct effect between job satisfaction and intended retirement age. However, an indirect effect was observed between job satisfaction and intended retirement age, via retirement attitude, for both low- and mean-household income individuals. Specifically, the relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude differed according to socio-economic group: for high-household income older workers, there was no relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. However, for low- and mean-household income older workers, we observed a negative relationship between job satisfaction and retirement attitude. Otherwise stated, increases in job satisfaction for mean and low household income workers are likely to make the prospect of retirement less attractive. Therefore, we argue that utmost care must be taken around the conditions under which lower income employees will continue their work when getting older in order to protect their sustainable employability. PMID:28620329

  6. Pensions: worker coverage and retirement income, 1984.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1987-09-01

    The 4th wave topical module to the 1984 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, conducted September through December of 1984, contained supplemental questions on both pension eligibility of the working population and on characteristics of persons receiving retirement income. This report presents findings based on these supplemental questions. The prevalence of pension coverage among different segments of the population, the reliance on employee-directed retirement plans, and differences in the level of economic well-being of today's retirees are some of the topics discussed in this report. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) In 1984, 52.7 million (67.1%) of wage and salary workers were covered by an employer-sponsored pension plan. 2) The pension coverage rate of workers with monthly earnings of $500 was 37.8%; the pension coverage rate of workers with monthly earnings of $2000 or more was 84.1%. 3) Employees of larger firms were far more likely to be covered by an employee-sponsored pension plan than employees of smaller firms, 4) In 1984, 16.3 million wage and salary workers contributed to Individual Retirement Accounts. The pension coverage rate of these workers was 75.8%. 5) About 6.1% of all wage and salary workers participated in employer-sponsored thrift plans, known as 401(k) plans. 6) 72.1% of workers are covered by either an employer-sponsored pension, IRA, or 401 (k) plan. 7) There were 11.5 million retirees receiving pension benefits in August 1984. Their average monthly pension income was $570. 8) 66.4% of all retirees receiving pension benefits were male; male retirees received about $670 per month, while females received $370. 9) Retirees younger than 65 received significantly more pension income than those over 65. Older retirees were much more likely to be receiving Social Security benefits in addition to their pensions. 10) 19.6% of the 11.5 million retirement pension recipients completed 4 or more years of college. Their mean

  7. Retirement and mental health: analysis of the Australian national survey of mental health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Peter; Gill, Sarah C; Rodgers, Bryan; Anstey, Kaarin J; Villamil, Elena; Melzer, David

    2006-03-01

    Nation-wide research on mental health problems amongst men and women during the transition from employment to retirement is limited. This study sought to explore the relationship between retirement and mental health across older adulthood, whilst considering age and known risk factors for mental disorders. Data were from the 1997 National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being, a cross-sectional survey of 10,641 Australian adults. The prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders was analysed in the sub-sample of men (n = 1928) and women (n = 2261) aged 45-74 years. Mental health was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Instrument. Additional measures were used to assess respondents' physical health, demographic and personal characteristics. The prevalence of common mental disorders diminished across increasing age groups of men and women. Women aged 55-59, 65-69, and 70-74 had significantly lower rates of mental disorders than those aged 45-49. In contrast, only men aged 65-69 and 70-74 demonstrated significantly lower prevalence compared with men aged 45-49. Amongst younger men, retirees were significantly more likely to have a common mental disorder relative to men still in the labour force; however, this was not the case for retired men of, or nearing, the traditional retirement age of 65. Men and women with poor physical health were also more likely to have a diagnosable mental disorder. The findings of this study indicate that, for men, the relationship between retirement and mental health varies with age. The poorer mental health of men who retire early is not explained by usual risk factors. Given current policy changes in many countries to curtail early retirement, these findings highlight the need to consider mental health, and its influencing factors, when encouraging continued employment amongst older adults.

  8. Planning for retirement from medicine: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Pannor Silver, Michelle; Easty, Laura K

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests there are important personal and social consequences associated with inadequate retirement planning for physicians. We evaluated whether academic physicians felt satisfied with their retirement planning, and identified obstacles to retirement planning and a set of factors to facilitate retirement planning. We applied a sequential mixed-methods research design to explore and examine factors that facilitate academic physician retirement planning using data collected from multiple sources (including 7 focus groups, an internet-based survey and 23 in-depth interviews). We examined survey results regarding retirement planning satisfaction and preferences for complete versus gradual retirement. We used thematic analysis to examine verbatim transcripts and notes from the focus groups and interviews. Survey data (response rate 51%) indicated that 10% of respondents were very satisfied with their retirement planning and 89.5% would prefer to retire gradually rather than stop work completely. Key barriers to retirement planning that emerged included poor personal financial management, rigid institutional structures and professional norms. Facilitators included financial planning resources for physicians at multiple career stages, opportunities and resources for later-career transitions and later-career mentorship support for intergenerational collaboration, and recognition of retirees. Key findings highlight perceived barriers to retirement planning at various career stages in addition to factors that can enhance physicians' retirement planning, including creating gradual and flexible retirement options, supporting ongoing discussions about financial planning and later career transitions, and fostering a culture that continues to honour and involve retirees. Medical institutions could foster innovative models for later-career transitions from medicine in ways that address physicians' needs at various career stages, support gradual transitions from practice

  9. Planning for retirement from medicine: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Pannor Silver, Michelle; Easty, Laura K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests there are important personal and social consequences associated with inadequate retirement planning for physicians. We evaluated whether academic physicians felt satisfied with their retirement planning, and identified obstacles to retirement planning and a set of factors to facilitate retirement planning. Methods: We applied a sequential mixed-methods research design to explore and examine factors that facilitate academic physician retirement planning using data collected from multiple sources (including 7 focus groups, an internet-based survey and 23 in-depth interviews). We examined survey results regarding retirement planning satisfaction and preferences for complete versus gradual retirement. We used thematic analysis to examine verbatim transcripts and notes from the focus groups and interviews. Results: Survey data (response rate 51%) indicated that 10% of respondents were very satisfied with their retirement planning and 89.5% would prefer to retire gradually rather than stop work completely. Key barriers to retirement planning that emerged included poor personal financial management, rigid institutional structures and professional norms. Facilitators included financial planning resources for physicians at multiple career stages, opportunities and resources for later-career transitions and later-career mentorship support for intergenerational collaboration, and recognition of retirees. Interpretation: Key findings highlight perceived barriers to retirement planning at various career stages in addition to factors that can enhance physicians' retirement planning, including creating gradual and flexible retirement options, supporting ongoing discussions about financial planning and later career transitions, and fostering a culture that continues to honour and involve retirees. Medical institutions could foster innovative models for later-career transitions from medicine in ways that address physicians' needs at various career

  10. Perceptions of retired professional soccer players about the provision of support services before and after retirement.

    PubMed

    Drawer, S; Fuller, C W

    2002-02-01

    To determine the views of retired players about the provision of support services in English professional soccer before and after retirement and to assess the impact of career ending injury on these views. An anonymous self administered questionnaire was distributed to 500 former players registered with the English Professional Footballers' Association. The questions asked about personal details, current medical status, reasons for retirement, perceptions of the provision and quality of support services, and use of prophylactic treatments while injured. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 185 (37%) were returned. The Professional Footballers' Association provided significantly (p<0.001) more help and advice to retired players on medical, financial, career, and educational matters than any other organisation. Although respondents showed some satisfaction with the provision of medical support, they were significantly (p<0.001) less satisfied with the provision of sports science (23%) and education/welfare (19%) support. Respondents who had retired through injury, however, were more dissatisfied with the provision of all services. Significantly (p<0.001) more respondents agreed with the view that injuries would reduce income earning potential, contribute to medical problems, and restrict the duration of their playing career. Respondents who had been medically diagnosed with osteoarthritis were significantly more likely, at some time, to have regularly received steroid injections while injured. The results presented are consistent with other evidence that the provision of injury prevention and socioeconomic services at professional soccer clubs is inadequate. The soccer industry should therefore develop a long term strategy for managing the needs of players who are forced to retire through injury.

  11. Perceptions of retired professional soccer players about the provision of support services before and after retirement

    PubMed Central

    Drawer, S; Fuller, C.; Waddington, I

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the views of retired players about the provision of support services in English professional soccer before and after retirement and to assess the impact of career ending injury on these views. Method: An anonymous self administered questionnaire was distributed to 500 former players registered with the English Professional Footballers' Association. The questions asked about personal details, current medical status, reasons for retirement, perceptions of the provision and quality of support services, and use of prophylactic treatments while injured. Results: Of the 500 questionnaires distributed, 185 (37%) were returned. The Professional Footballers' Association provided significantly (p<0.001) more help and advice to retired players on medical, financial, career, and educational matters than any other organisation. Although respondents showed some satisfaction with the provision of medical support, they were significantly (p<0.001) less satisfied with the provision of sports science (23%) and education/welfare (19%) support. Respondents who had retired through injury, however, were more dissatisfied with the provision of all services. Significantly (p<0.001) more respondents agreed with the view that injuries would reduce income earning potential, contribute to medical problems, and restrict the duration of their playing career. Respondents who had been medically diagnosed with osteoarthritis were significantly more likely, at some time, to have regularly received steroid injections while injured. Conclusion: The results presented are consistent with other evidence that the provision of injury prevention and socioeconomic services at professional soccer clubs is inadequate. The soccer industry should therefore develop a long term strategy for managing the needs of players who are forced to retire through injury. PMID:11867490

  12. Retirement plan participation and features and standard of living of Americans 55 or older.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Craig

    2002-08-01

    This Issue Brief is the third in a series of Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) publications based on data collected in 1998 and released in 2002 as the Retirement and Pension Plan Coverage Topical Module of the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). This report completes the series by examining the survey's more detailed questions concerning workers' employment-based retirement plans. Specifically, it examines the percentage of workers who are participating in a plan, and also workers' reasons for not participating in a plan when working in a job where a plan is sponsored; the features of, or decisions made concerning salary reduction plans; historical participation in employment-based retirement plans; and a comparison of the standard of living of individuals age 55 or older with their living standard in their early 50s. As of June 1998, 64.3 percent of wage and salary workers age 16 or older worked for an employer or union that sponsored any type of retirement plan (defined contribution or defined benefit) for any of its employees or members (the "sponsorship rate"). Almost 47 percent of these wage and salary workers participated in a plan (the "participation rate"), with 43.2 percent being entitled to a benefit or eligible to receive a lump-sum distribution from a plan if their job terminated at the time of survey (the "vested rate"). The predominant reason for choosing not to participate in a retirement plan was that doing so was unaffordable. The eligible participation rate for salary reduction plans was 81.4 percent. Fifty-six percent of all workers have participated in some type of retirement plan sometime during their work life through 1998. For those ages 51-60, almost 72 percent have ever participated in a plan. The median account balance in salary reduction plans in 1998 was $14,000. In 1998, 12.9 percent of salary reduction plan participants eligible to take a loan had done so, and the average outstanding loan balance was $5

  13. Trajectories of Work Disability and Economic Insecurity Approaching Retirement.

    PubMed

    Shuey, Kim M; Willson, Andrea E

    2017-07-08

    In this article, we examine the connection between trajectories of work disability and economic precarity in late midlife. We conceptualize work disability as a possible mechanism linking early and later life economic disadvantage. We model trajectories of work disability characterized by timing and stability for a cohort of Baby Boomers (22-32 in 1981) using 32 years of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and latent class analysis. Measures of childhood disadvantage are included as predictors of work disability trajectories, which are subsequently included in logistic regression models predicting four economic outcomes (poverty, asset poverty, home ownership, and pension ownership) at ages 54-64. Childhood disadvantage selected individuals into five distinct classes of work disability that differed in timing and stability. All of the disability trajectories were associated with an increased risk of economic insecurity in late midlife compared to the never work disabled. This study contributes to the aging literature through its incorporation of the early life origins of pathways of disability and their links to economic outcomes approaching retirement. Findings suggest work disability is anchored in early life disadvantage and is associated with economic insecurity later in life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Travel: a long-range goal of retired women.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Pierfelice, Loretta

    2003-09-01

    The authors surveyed retired persons (predominately women) with regard to their immediate, intermediate, and long-range activities following retirement. As predicted, leisure travel emerged as a frequent long-range goal for persons retired more than 5 years. The travel activity preferences of long-retired older women present challenges and opportunities to both researchers and marketers. Length of trips and frequency of trips have been predicted from regression models, with trip length in particular being well predicted by the problem of daily life hassles. A theoretical model of continued post-retirement travel is presented as a variant of Solomon's opponent process theory of affect (R. L. Solomon, 1980). The authors suggest that to the degree that places traveled to are varied and different, older people may remain stimulated and continue to enjoy retirement.

  15. Facing the new facts of retirement income adequacy.

    PubMed

    Mills, Marjorie S; Young, Michael L

    2004-01-01

    A range of new factors is responsible for the current problem with insufficient retirement resources. Changes inside and outside the organization share partial responsibility, as do employee behaviors. In addition, other factors simply have been overlooked as employers and employees think about retirement income adequacy. The authors describe the current situation, discuss the significant risks it creates for both employers and employees and advise employers on what they should do to help employees build a more secure future in retirement.

  16. Athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms following retirement from varsity sports.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Zarina A; Haney, Colleen J; Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2017-11-01

    Despite evidence identifying adjustment difficulties among retiring athletes, research investigating factors that contribute to post-retirement complications is limited. Athletic identity may be an important determinant of adverse adaptation to sport retirement. The purpose of this study was to address the influence of athletic identity on post-retirement depression and anxiety symptoms among varsity athletes. An anonymous, online survey regarding athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms was completed by 72 self-identified varsity athletes during their final season of competition and 3 months after retiring from sport. After controlling for the effects of pre-retirement anxiety symptoms, endorsement of an athletic identity significantly predicted anxiety symptoms in the post-retirement period. A similar, but non-significant, pattern was observed for depressive symptoms. The findings of this study suggest that athletes' degree of athletic identity may be a risk factor for the emergence of psychiatric distress in the months following their retirement from sport. Identity-focused screening or intervention during athletes' sport careers could potentially mitigate some of the psychological difficulties associated with sport retirement.

  17. 78 FR 47018 - Civil Service Retirement System and Federal Employees' Retirement System; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... System; Opportunity for Annuitants to Elect Survivor Annuity Benefits for Same-Sex Spouses AGENCY: Office... providing notice of a 2-year opportunity for annuitants who are in legal same-sex marriages to elect...' Retirement System (FERS). DATES: All retirees who are in legal same-sex marriages have through June 26, 2015...

  18. Friends without Benefits: How States Systematically Shortchange Teachers' Retirement and Threaten Their Retirement Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldeman, Chad; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    To shore up the $46 billion pension debt the state has accrued over the past several decades, Illinois has been using its teachers as a piggy bank. New legislation adopted in December 2013 will raise the retirement age for mid-career workers and limit the amount retiree pensions can increase with inflation over time. State and national union…

  19. Paying for Retirement: Sex Differences in Inclusion in Employer-Provided Retirement Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines sex differences among Baby Boom workers in the likelihood of coverage by an employer-provided retirement plan. Design and Methods: This study used a sample of Baby Boom workers drawn from the 2009 Current Population Survey. Independent variables were selected to replicate as closely as possible those in two 1995…

  20. Medical retirement from sport after concussions

    PubMed Central

    Davis-Hayes, Cecilia; Baker, David R.; Bottiglieri, Thomas S.; Levine, William N.; Desai, Natasha; Gossett, James D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review In patients with a considerable history of sports-related concussion, the decision of when to discontinue participation in sports due to medical concerns including neurologic disorders has potentially life-altering consequences, especially for young athletes, and merits a comprehensive evaluation involving nuanced discussion. Few resources exist to aid the sports medicine provider. Recent findings In this narrative review, we describe 10 prototypical vignettes based upon the authors' collective experience in concussion management and propose an algorithm to help clinicians navigate retirement discussions. Issues for consideration include absolute and relative contraindications to return to sport, ranging from clinical or radiographic evidence of lasting neurologic injury to prolonged concussion recovery periods or reduced injury threshold to patient-centered factors including personal identity through sport, financial motivations, and navigating uncertainty in the context of long-term risks. Summary The authors propose a novel treatment algorithm based on real patient cases to guide medical retirement decisions after concussion in sport. PMID:29517059