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Sample records for early risk stratification

  1. Biomarkers from distinct biological pathways improve early risk stratification in medical emergency patients: the multinational, prospective, observational TRIAGE study.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Philipp; Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Kutz, Alexander; Conca, Antoinette; Reutlinger, Barbara; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat

    2015-10-29

    Early risk stratification in the emergency department (ED) is vital to reduce time to effective treatment in high-risk patients and to improve patient flow. Yet, there is a lack of investigations evaluating the incremental usefulness of multiple biomarkers measured upon admission from distinct biological pathways for predicting fatal outcome and high initial treatment urgency in unselected ED patients in a multicenter and multinational setting. We included consecutive, adult, medical patients seeking ED care into this observational, cohort study in Switzerland, France and the USA. We recorded initial clinical parameters and batch-measured prognostic biomarkers of inflammation (pro-adrenomedullin [ProADM]), stress (copeptin) and infection (procalcitonin). During a 30-day follow-up, 331 of 7132 (4.6 %) participants reached the primary endpoint of death within 30 days. In logistic regression models adjusted for conventional risk factors available at ED admission, all three biomarkers strongly predicted the risk of death (AUC 0.83, 0.78 and 0.75), ICU admission (AUC 0.67, 0.69 and 0.62) and high initial triage priority (0.67, 0.66 and 0.58). For the prediction of death, ProADM significantly improved regression models including (a) clinical information available at ED admission (AUC increase from 0.79 to 0.84), (b) full clinical information at ED discharge (AUC increase from 0.85 to 0.88), and (c) triage information (AUC increase from 0.67 to 0.83) (p <0.01 for each comparison). Similarly, ProADM also improved clinical models for prediction of ICU admission and high initial treatment urgency. Results were robust in regard to predefined patient subgroups by center, main diagnosis, presenting symptoms, age and gender. Combination of clinical information with results of blood biomarkers measured upon ED admission allows early and more adequate risk stratification in individual unselected medical ED patients. A randomized trial is needed to answer the question whether

  2. A novel protein-based prognostic signature improves risk stratification to guide clinical management in early lung adenocarcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Terroba, Elena; Behrens, Carmen; de Miguel, Fernando J; Agorreta, Jackeline; Monsó, Eduard; Millares, Laura; Sainz, Cristina; Mesa-Guzman, Miguel; Pérez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Lozano, María Dolores; Zulueta, Javier J; Pio, Ruben; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Montuenga, Luis M; Pajares, María J

    2018-05-13

    Each of the pathological stages (I-IIIa) in which surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer patients are classified conceals hidden biological heterogeneity, manifested in heterogeneous outcomes within each stage. Thus, the finding of robust and precise molecular classifiers to assess individual patient risk is an unmet medical need. Here we identified and validated the clinical utility of a new prognostic signature based on three proteins (BRCA1, QKI and SLC2A1) to stratify early lung adenocarcinoma patients according to their risk of recurrence or death. Patients were staged following the new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) staging criteria (8 th edition, 2018). A test cohort (n=239) was used to assess the value of this new prognostic index (PI) based on the three proteins. The prognostic signature was developed by Cox regression following stringent statistical criteria (TRIPOD: Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis). The model resulted in a highly significant predictor of five-year outcome for disease-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P<0.001). The prognostic ability of the model was externally validated in an independent multi-institutional cohort of patients (n=114, P=0.021). We also demonstrated that this molecular classifier adds relevant information to the gold standard TNM-based pathological staging with a highly significant improvement of likelihood ratio. We subsequently developed a combined prognostic index (CPI) including both the molecular and the pathological data which improved the risk stratification in both cohorts (P≤0.001). Moreover, the signature may help to select stage I-IIA patients who might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. In summary, this protein-based signature accurately identifies those patients with high risk of recurrence and death, and adds further prognostic information to the TNM-based clinical staging, even applying the

  3. Modern risk stratification in coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ginghina, C; Bejan, I; Ceck, C D

    2011-11-14

    The prevalence and impact of cardiovascular diseases in the world are growing. There are 2 million deaths due to cardiovascular disease each year in the European Union; the main cause of death being the coronary heart disease responsible for 16% of deaths in men and 15% in women. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Romania is estimated at 7 million people, of which 2.8 million have ischemic heart disease. In this epidemiological context, risk stratification is required for individualization of therapeutic strategies for each patient. The continuing evolution of the diagnosis and treatment techniques combines personalized medicine with the trend of therapeutic management leveling, based on guidelines and consensus, which are in constant update. The guidelines used in clinical practice have involved risk stratification and identification of patient groups in whom the risk-benefit ratio of using new diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has a positive value. Presence of several risk factors may indicate a more important total risk than the presence / significant increase from normal values of a single risk factor. Modern trends in risk stratification of patients with coronary heart disease are polarized between the use of simple data versus complex scores, traditional data versus new risk factors, generally valid scores versus personalized scores, depending on patient characteristics, type of coronary artery disease, with impact on the suggested therapy. All known information and techniques can be integrated in a complex system of risk assessment. The current trend in risk assessment is to identify coronary artery disease in early forms, before clinical manifestation, and to guide therapy, particularly in patients with intermediate risk, which can be classified in another class of risk based on new obtained information.

  4. Brugada syndrome: diagnosis, risk stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Adler, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS) have a small, but not trivial, risk of cardiac events. Their risk stratification and its impact on their management are controversial. The review focuses on the clinical aspects of BrS with special emphasis on the asymptomatic patient. Emerging data suggest that drug and fever-induced type I Brugada patterns are more common than previously appreciated. Although preliminary, these data may imply that asymptomatic patients with induced Brugada pattern are at an even lower risk than currently estimated.The latest data regarding induced ventricular arrhythmias during electrophysiological studies support its use as an indication for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator; however, this issue remains highly controversial.Several new risk markers, such as presence of the Brugada pattern in infero-lateral leads or the concomitant finding of an early repolarization pattern, have recently been proposed. Most asymptomatic BrS patients are at low risk of cardiac events. The presence of new risk markers in this population may prompt consideration of primary prevention measures; however, data supporting this approach are still limited.

  5. Novel Risk Stratification Score for Predicting Early Distant Brain Failure and Salvage Whole Brain Radiotherapy after Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Press, Robert H.; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Nickleach, Dana C.; Liu, Yuan; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Kandula, Shravan; Patel, Kirtesh R.; Curran, Walter J.; Crocker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of early distant brain failure (DBF) and salvage whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) after treatment with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases and create a clinically relevant risk score in order to stratify patients’ risk of these events. Methods We reviewed records of 270 patients with brain metastases treated with SRS between 2003-2012. Pre-treatment patient and tumor characteristics were analyzed by univariate and multivariable analyses. Cumulative incidence (CI) of first DBF and salvage WBRT were calculated. Significant factors were used to create a score for stratifying early (6-month) DBF risk. Results No prior WBRT, total lesion volume <1.3 cm3, primary breast cancer or malignant melanoma histology, and multiple metastases (≥2) were found to be significant predictors for early DBF. Each factor was ascribed one point due to similar hazard ratios. Scores of 0-1, 2, and 3-4 were considered low, intermediate, and high risk, respectively. This correlated with 6-month CI of DBF of 16.6%, 28.8%, and 54.4%, respectively (p<0.001). For patients without prior WBRT, the 6-month CI of salvage WBRT by 6-months was 2%, 17.7%, and 25.7%, respectively (p<0.001). Conclusion Early DBF after SRS requiring salvage WBRT remains a significant clinical problem. Patient stratification for early DBF can better inform the decision for initial treatment strategy for brain metastases. The provided risk score may help predict for early DBF and subsequent salvage WBRT if initial SRS is used. External validation is needed prior to clinical implementation. PMID:26242475

  6. Risk stratification in secondary cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Lazzeroni, Davide; Coruzzi, Paolo

    2018-02-19

    Worldwide, more than 7 million people experience acute myocardial infarction (AMI) every year (1), and although substantial reduction in mortality has been obtained in recent decades, one-year mortality rates are still in the range of 10%. Among patients who survive AMI, 20% suffer a second cardiovascular event in the first year and approximately 50% of major coronary events occur in those with a previous hospital discharge diagnosis of AMI (2). Despite the evidence that lifestyle changes and risk factors management strongly improve long-term prognosis, preventive care post-AMI remains sub-optimal. Cross-sectional data from the serially conducted EUROASPIRE surveys in patients with established ischemic heart disease (IHD) and people at high cardiovascular risk have demonstrated a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle, modifiable risk factors and inadequate use of drug therapies to achieve blood pressure and lipid goals (3). Secondary prevention programmes, defined as the level of preventive care focusing on early risk stratification, are highly recommended in all IHD patients, to restore quality of life, maintain or improve functional capacity and prevent recurrence.

  7. Early Dynamic Risk Stratification with Baseline Troponin Levels and 90-minute ST Segment Resolution to Predict 30 Day Cardiovascular Mortality in STEMI: Analysis from CLARITY TIMI-28

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Morrow, David A.; Scirica, Benjamin M.; Jiang, Songtao; Bode, Christoph; Rifai, Nader; Gerszten, Robert E.; Gibson, C. Michael; Cannon, Christopher P.; Braunwald, Eugene; Sabatine, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Troponin is the preferred biomarker for risk stratification in non-ST-elevation ACS. The incremental prognostic utility of the initial magnitude of troponin elevation and its value in conjunction with ST segment resolution (STRes) in STEMI is less well-defined. Methods Troponin T (TnT) was measured in 1250 patients at presentation undergoing fibrinolysis for STEMI in CLARITY-TIMI 28. STRes was measured at 90 minutes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent association between TnT levels, STRes, and 30-day cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Results Patients were classified into undetectable TnT at baseline (n=594), detectable but below the median of 0.12 ng/ml (n=330), and above the median (n=326). Rates of 30-day CV death were 1.5%, 4.5%, and 9.5% respectively (P<0.0001). Compared with those with undetectable levels and adjusting for baseline factors, the odds ratios for 30-day CV death were 4.56 (1.72-12.08, P=0.002) and 5.81 (2.29-14.73, P=0.0002) for those below and above the median, respectively. When combined with STRes, there was a significant gradient of risk, and in a multivariable model both baseline TnT (P=0.004) and STRes (P=0.003) were significant predictors of 30-day CV death. The addition of TnT and STRes to clinical risk factors significantly improved the C-statistic (0.86 to 0.90, P=0.02) and the integrated discriminative improvement 7.1% (P=0.0009). Conclusions Baseline TnT and 90-minute STRes are independent predictors of 30-day CV death in patients with STEMI. Use of these two simple, readily available tools can aid clinicians in early risk stratification. PMID:20569707

  8. External Validity of a Risk Stratification Score Predicting Early Distant Brain Failure and Salvage Whole Brain Radiation Therapy After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases.

    PubMed

    Press, Robert H; Boselli, Danielle M; Symanowski, James T; Lankford, Scott P; McCammon, Robert J; Moeller, Benjamin J; Heinzerling, John H; Fasola, Carolina E; Burri, Stuart H; Patel, Kirtesh R; Asher, Anthony L; Sumrall, Ashley L; Curran, Walter J; Shu, Hui-Kuo G; Crocker, Ian R; Prabhu, Roshan S

    2017-07-01

    A scoring system using pretreatment factors was recently published for predicting the risk of early (≤6 months) distant brain failure (DBF) and salvage whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone. Four risk factors were identified: (1) lack of prior WBRT; (2) melanoma or breast histologic features; (3) multiple brain metastases; and (4) total volume of brain metastases <1.3 cm 3 , with each factor assigned 1 point. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of this scoring system and its appropriateness for clinical use in an independent external patient population. We reviewed the records of 247 patients with 388 brain metastases treated with SRS between 2010 at 2013 at Levine Cancer Institute. The Press (Emory) risk score was calculated and applied to the validation cohort population, and subsequent risk groups were analyzed using cumulative incidence. The low-risk (LR) group had a significantly lower risk of early DBF than did the high-risk (HR) group (22.6% vs 44%, P=.004), but there was no difference between the HR and intermediate-risk (IR) groups (41.2% vs 44%, P=.79). Total lesion volume <1.3 cm 3  (P=.004), malignant melanoma (P=.007), and multiple metastases (P<.001) were validated as predictors for early DBF. Prior WBRT and breast cancer histologic features did not retain prognostic significance. Risk stratification for risk of early salvage WBRT were similar, with a trend toward an increased risk for HR compared with LR (P=.09) but no difference between IR and HR (P=.53). The 3-level Emory risk score was shown to not be externally valid, but the model was able to stratify between 2 levels (LR and not-LR [combined IR and HR]) for early (≤6 months) DBF. These results reinforce the importance of validating predictive models in independent cohorts. Further refinement of this scoring system with molecular information and in additional contemporary patient populations is warranted. Copyright © 2017

  9. The TRIAGE-ProADM Score for an Early Risk Stratification of Medical Patients in the Emergency Department - Development Based on a Multi-National, Prospective, Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Hausfater, Pierre; Amin, Devendra; Amin, Adina; Canavaggio, Pauline; Sauvin, Gabrielle; Bernard, Maguy; Conca, Antoinette; Haubitz, Sebastian; Struja, Tristan; Huber, Andreas; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inflammatory biomarker pro-adrenomedullin (ProADM) provides additional prognostic information for the risk stratification of general medical emergency department (ED) patients. The aim of this analysis was to develop a triage algorithm for improved prognostication and later use in an interventional trial. Methods We used data from the multi-national, prospective, observational TRIAGE trial including consecutive medical ED patients from Switzerland, France and the United States. We investigated triage effects when adding ProADM at two established cut-offs to a five-level ED triage score with respect to adverse clinical outcome. Results Mortality in the 6586 ED patients showed a step-wise, 25-fold increase from 0.6% to 4.5% and 15.4%, respectively, at the two ProADM cut-offs (≤0.75nmol/L, >0.75–1.5nmol/L, >1.5nmol/L, p ANOVA <0.0001). Risk stratification by combining ProADM within cut-off groups and the triage score resulted in the identification of 1662 patients (25.2% of the population) at a very low risk of mortality (0.3%, n = 5) and 425 patients (6.5% of the population) at very high risk of mortality (19.3%, n = 82). Risk estimation by using ProADM and the triage score from a logistic regression model allowed for a more accurate risk estimation in the whole population with a classification of 3255 patients (49.4% of the population) in the low risk group (0.3% mortality, n = 9) and 1673 (25.4% of the population) in the high-risk group (15.1% mortality, n = 252). Conclusions Within this large international multicenter study, a combined triage score based on ProADM and established triage scores allowed a more accurate mortality risk discrimination. The TRIAGE-ProADM score improved identification of both patients at the highest risk of mortality who may benefit from early therapeutic interventions (rule in), and low risk patients where deferred treatment without negatively affecting outcome may be possible (rule out). PMID:28005916

  10. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: early post-operative parathyroid hormone assay as a risk stratification and management tool.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Al Maqbali, T; Howe, D; Campbell, J

    2014-03-01

    To develop a practical, efficient and predictive algorithm to manage potential or actual post-operative hypocalcaemia after complete thyroidectomy, using a single post-operative parathyroid hormone assay. This paper reports a prospective study of 59 patients who underwent total or completion thyroidectomy over a period of 24 months. Parathyroid hormone levels were checked post-operatively on the day of surgery, and all patients were evaluated for hypocalcaemia both clinically and biochemically with serial corrected calcium measurements. No patient with an early post-operative parathyroid hormone level of 23 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately twice the lower limit of the normal range) developed hypocalcaemia. All the patients who initially had post-operative hypocalcaemia but had an early parathyroid hormone level of 8 ng/l or more (i.e. approximately two-thirds of the lower limit of the normal range) had complete resolution of their hypocalcaemia within three months. Early post-operative parathyroid hormone measurement can reliably predict patients at risk of post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia, and predict those patients expected to recover from temporary hypocalcaemia. A suggested post-operative management algorithm is presented.

  11. Systematic Review of Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers: A Panel for Early Detection, Management, and Risk Stratification in the West Virginian Population

    PubMed Central

    Srikanthan, Krithika; Feyh, Andrew; Visweshwar, Haresh; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Sodhi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome represents a cluster of related metabolic abnormalities, including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, with central obesity and insulin resistance in particular recognized as causative factors. These metabolic derangements present significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is commonly recognized as the primary clinical outcome, although other outcomes are possible. Metabolic syndrome is a progressive condition that encompasses a wide array of disorders with specific metabolic abnormalities presenting at different times. These abnormalities can be detected and monitored via serum biomarkers. This review will compile a list of promising biomarkers that are associated with metabolic syndrome and this panel can aid in early detection and management of metabolic syndrome in high risk populations, such as in West Virginia. Methods: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar to search for markers related to metabolic syndrome. Biomarkers searched included adipokines (leptin, adiponectin), neuropeptides (ghrelin), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), markers of antioxidant status (OxLDL, PON-1, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1). Results: According to the literature, the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), markers of pro-oxidant status (OxLDL, uric acid), and prothrombic factors (PAI-1) were elevated in metabolic syndrome. Additionally, leptin concentrations were found to be elevated in metabolic syndrome as well, likely due to leptin resistance. In contrast, concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), ghrelin, adiponectin, and antioxidant factors (PON-1) were decreased in metabolic syndrome, and these decreases also correlated with specific disorders within the cluster. Conclusion: Based on the evidence presented within the literature, the

  12. Risk stratification, genomic data and the law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alison; Finnegan, Thomas; Chowdhury, Susmita; Dent, Tom; Kroese, Mark; Burton, Hilary

    2018-02-22

    Risk prediction models have a key role in stratified disease prevention, and the incorporation of genomic data into these models promises more effective personalisation. Although the clinical utility of incorporating genomic data into risk prediction tools is increasingly compelling, at least for some applications and disease types, the legal and regulatory implications have not been examined and have been overshadowed by discussions about clinical and scientific utility and feasibility. We held a workshop to explore relevant legal and regulatory perspectives from four EU Member States: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK. While we found no absolute prohibition on the use of such data in those tools, there are considerable challenges. Currently, these are modest and result from genomic data being classified as sensitive data under existing Data Protection regulation. However, these challenges will increase in the future following the implementation of EU Regulations on data protection which take effect in 2018, and reforms to the governance of the manufacture, development and use of in vitro diagnostic devices to be implemented in 2022. Collectively these will increase the regulatory burden placed on these products as risk stratification tools will be brought within the scope of these new Regulations. The failure to respond to the challenges posed by the use of genomic data in disease risk stratification tools could therefore prove costly to those developing and using such tools.

  13. Mortality risk stratification in severely anaemic Jehovah's Witness patients.

    PubMed

    Beliaev, A M; Marshall, R J; Smith, W; Windsor, J A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to identify early risk factors of mortality and develop a mortality risk stratification instrument for severely anaemic Jehovah's Witness patients. It has been shown that Jehovah's Witness patients with the Auckland Anaemia Mortality Risk Score (Auckland AMRS) of 0 to 3 had 4% mortality, Auckland AMRS 4 to 5 32%, Auckland AMRS 6 to 7 50% and Auckland AMRS 8 and above 83%. It is concluded that the Auckland AMRS predicts mortality of severely anaemic Jehovah's Witness patients. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Is risk stratification ever the same as 'profiling'?

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, R Scott; Stevens, Elizabeth R; Caplan, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Physicians engage in risk stratification as a normative part of their professional duties. Risk stratification has the potential to be beneficial in many ways, and implicit recognition of this potential benefit underlies its acceptance as a cornerstone of the medical profession. However, risk stratification also has the potential to be harmful. We argue that 'profiling' is a term that corresponds to risk stratification strategies in which there is concern that ethical harms exceed likely or proven benefits. In the case of risk stratification for health goals, this would occur most frequently if benefits were obtained by threats to justice, autonomy or privacy. We discuss implications of the potential overlap between risk stratification and profiling for researchers and for clinicians, and we consider whether there are salient characteristics that make a particular risk stratification algorithm more or less likely to overlap with profiling, such as whether the risk stratification algorithm is based on voluntary versus non-voluntary characteristics, based on causal versus non-causal characteristics, or based on signifiers of historical disadvantage. We also discuss the ethical challenges created when a risk stratification scheme helps all subgroups but some more than others, or when risk stratification harms some subgroups but benefits the aggregate group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Syncope: risk stratification and clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Suzanne Y G; Hoek, Amber E; Mollink, Susan M; Huff, J Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Syncope is a common occurrence in the emergency department, accounting for approximately 1% to 3% of presentations. Syncope is best defined as a brief loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous and complete recovery. The spectrum of etiologies ranges from benign to life threatening, and a structured approach to evaluating these patients is key to providing care that is thorough, yet cost-effective. This issue reviews the most relevant evidence for managing and risk stratifying the syncope patient, beginning with a focused history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and tailored diagnostic testing. Several risk stratification decision rules are compared for performance in various scenarios, including how age and associated comorbidities may predict short-term and long-term adverse events. An algorithm for structured, evidence-based care of the syncope patient is included to ensure that patients requiring hospitalization are managed appropriately and those with benign causes are discharged safely.

  16. Risk Stratification in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Hugh; Corrado, Domenico; Marcus, Frank

    2017-11-21

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Although structural abnormalities of the right ventricle predominate, it is well recognized that left ventricular involvement is common, particularly in advanced disease, and that left-dominant forms occur. The pathological characteristic of ARVC is myocyte loss with fibrofatty replacement. Since the first detailed clinical description of the disorder in 1982, significant advances have been made in understanding this disease. Once the diagnosis of ARVC is established, the single most important clinical decision is whether a particular patient's sudden cardiac death risk is sufficient to justify placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The importance of this decision reflects the fact that ARVC is a common cause of sudden death in young people and that sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. This decision is particularly important because these are often young patients who are expected to live for many years. Although an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator can save lives in individuals with this disease, it is also well recognized that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is associated with both short- and long-term complications. Decisions about the placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator are based on an estimate of a patient's risk of sudden cardiac death, as well as their preferences and values. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature that concerns risk stratification in patients with ARVC and to place this literature in the framework of the 3 authors' considerable lifetime experiences in caring for patients with ARVC. The most important parameters to consider when determining arrhythmic risk include electric instability, including the frequency of premature ventricular contractions and

  17. Risk stratification and management of acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Becattini, Cecilia; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2016-12-02

    The clinical management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism is rapidly changing over the years. The widening spectrum of clinical management strategies for these patients requires effective tools for risk stratification. Patients at low risk for death could be candidates for home treatment or early discharge. Clinical models with high negative predictive value have been validated that could be used to select patients at low risk for death. In a major study and in several meta-analyses, thrombolysis in hemodynamically stable patients was associated with unacceptably high risk for major bleeding complications or intracranial hemorrhage. Thus, the presence of shock or sustained hypotension continues to be the criterion for the selection of candidates for thrombolytic treatment. Interventional procedures for early revascularization should be reserved to selected patients until further evidence is available. No clinical advantage is expected with the insertion of a vena cava filter in the acute-phase management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulants used in fixed doses without laboratory monitoring showed similar efficacy (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.12) and safety (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.77-1.03) in comparison with conventional anticoagulation in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Based on these results and on their practicality, direct oral anticoagulants are the agents of choice for the treatment of the majority of patients with acute pulmonary embolism. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative risk stratification in Markov chains with limiting conditional distributions.

    PubMed

    Chan, David C; Pollett, Philip K; Weinstein, Milton C

    2009-01-01

    Many clinical decisions require patient risk stratification. The authors introduce the concept of limiting conditional distributions, which describe the equilibrium proportion of surviving patients occupying each disease state in a Markov chain with death. Such distributions can quantitatively describe risk stratification. The authors first establish conditions for the existence of a positive limiting conditional distribution in a general Markov chain and describe a framework for risk stratification using the limiting conditional distribution. They then apply their framework to a clinical example of a treatment indicated for high-risk patients, first to infer the risk of patients selected for treatment in clinical trials and then to predict the outcomes of expanding treatment to other populations of risk. For the general chain, a positive limiting conditional distribution exists only if patients in the earliest state have the lowest combined risk of progression or death. The authors show that in their general framework, outcomes and population risk are interchangeable. For the clinical example, they estimate that previous clinical trials have selected the upper quintile of patient risk for this treatment, but they also show that expanded treatment would weakly dominate this degree of targeted treatment, and universal treatment may be cost-effective. Limiting conditional distributions exist in most Markov models of progressive diseases and are well suited to represent risk stratification quantitatively. This framework can characterize patient risk in clinical trials and predict outcomes for other populations of risk.

  19. Cardiac risk stratification: Role of the coronary calcium score

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rakesh K; Sharma, Rajiv K; Voelker, Donald J; Singh, Vibhuti N; Pahuja, Deepak; Nash, Teresa; Reddy, Hanumanth K

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) is an integral part of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is the leading cause of death in industrialized nations and there is a constant effort to develop preventative strategies. The emphasis is on risk stratification and primary risk prevention in asymptomatic patients to decrease cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The Framingham Risk Score predicts CHD events only moderately well where family history is not included as a risk factor. There has been an exploration for new tests for better risk stratification and risk factor modification. While the Framingham Risk Score, European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project, and European Prospective Cardiovascular Munster study remain excellent tools for risk factor modification, the CAC score may have additional benefit in risk assessment. There have been several studies supporting the role of CAC score for prediction of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. It has been shown to have great scope in risk stratification of asymptomatic patients in the emergency room. Additionally, it may help in assessment of progression or regression of coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the CAC score may help differentiate ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:20730016

  20. Utility of Risk Stratification for Paclitaxel Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    PubMed

    Otani, Iris M; Lax, Timothy; Long, Aidan A; Slawski, Benjamin R; Camargo, Carlos A; Banerji, Aleena

    2017-10-03

    Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are a common impediment to paclitaxel therapy. Management strategies to guide care after a paclitaxel-induced HSR are needed. The objective was to evaluate the utility and safety of risk stratification on the basis of severity of the initial HSR. A risk stratification pathway was developed on the basis of a retrospective review of the management and outcome of 130 patients with paclitaxel-induced HSRs at Massachusetts General Hospital. This pathway was then studied prospectively in patients referred to Allergy/Immunology with paclitaxel-induced HSRs. The study population (n = 35) had a mean age of 56.1 ± 12 years and most were women (n = 33 [94%]). All 5 patients (15%) with grade 1 initial HSRs were successfully reexposed to paclitaxel, 1 patient at the standard infusion rate and 4 patients at 50% of the standard infusion rate. Thirty patients (85%) with grade 2 to 4 initial HSRs underwent initial paclitaxel desensitization based on the risk stratification pathway. No patients developed severe HSRs using the pathway. Eleven (31%) patients had HSRs that were mild to moderate in nature (grade 1, n = 4 [11%]; grade 2, n = 6 [17%]; grade 3, n = 1 [3%]) during their first desensitization. Sixteen (46%) of the 35 patients safely returned to the outpatient infusion setting for paclitaxel treatment at 50% of the standard infusion rate. Seven (20%) discontinued paclitaxel before the completion of the risk stratification pathway because of disease progression, completion of therapy, or death. A management strategy using the initial HSR severity for risk stratification allowed patients to receive paclitaxel safely. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk stratification following acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep

    2007-07-01

    This article reviews the current risk assessment models available for patients presenting with myocardial infarction (MI). These practical tools enhance the health care provider's ability to rapidly and accurately assess patient risk from the event or revascularization therapy, and are of paramount importance in managing patients presenting with MI. This article highlights the models used for ST-elevation MI (STEMI) and non-ST elevation MI (NSTEMI) and provides an additional description of models used to assess risks after primary angioplasty (ie, angioplasty performed for STEMI).

  2. Prediction of Early Recurrent Thromboembolic Event and Major Bleeding in Patients With Acute Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation by a Risk Stratification Schema: The ALESSA Score Study.

    PubMed

    Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Caso, Valeria; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Furie, Karen L; Tadi, Prasanna; Becattini, Cecilia; Falocci, Nicola; Zedde, Marialuisa; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Lees, Kennedy R; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; D'Amore, Cataldo; Mosconi, Maria Giulia; Cimini, Ludovica Anna; Procopio, Antonio; Bovi, Paolo; Carletti, Monica; Rigatelli, Alberto; Cappellari, Manuel; Putaala, Jukka; Tomppo, Liisa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Bandini, Fabio; Marcheselli, Simona; Pezzini, Alessandro; Poli, Loris; Padovani, Alessandro; Masotti, Luca; Vannucchi, Vieri; Sohn, Sung-Il; Lorenzini, Gianni; Tassi, Rossana; Guideri, Francesca; Acampa, Maurizio; Martini, Giuseppe; Ntaios, George; Karagkiozi, Efstathia; Athanasakis, George; Makaritsis, Kostantinos; Vadikolias, Kostantinos; Liantinioti, Chrysoula; Chondrogianni, Maria; Mumoli, Nicola; Consoli, Domenico; Galati, Franco; Sacco, Simona; Carolei, Antonio; Tiseo, Cindy; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Bellesini, Marta; Colombo, Giovanna; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Ciccone, Alfonso; Scoditti, Umberto; Denti, Licia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Maccarrone, Miriam; Orlandi, Giovanni; Giannini, Nicola; Gialdini, Gino; Tassinari, Tiziana; De Lodovici, Maria Luisa; Bono, Giorgio; Rueckert, Christina; Baldi, Antonio; D'Anna, Sebastiano; Toni, Danilo; Letteri, Federica; Giuntini, Martina; Lotti, Enrico Maria; Flomin, Yuriy; Pieroni, Alessio; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Karapanayiotides, Theodore; Monaco, Serena; Baronello, Mario Maimone; Csiba, Laszló; Szabó, Lilla; Chiti, Alberto; Giorli, Elisa; Del Sette, Massimo; Imberti, Davide; Zabzuni, Dorjan; Doronin, Boris; Volodina, Vera; Michel, Patrik; Vanacker, Peter; Barlinn, Kristian; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Kepplinger, Jessica; Bodechtel, Ulf; Gerber, Johannes; Deleu, Dirk; Melikyan, Gayane; Ibrahim, Faisal; Akhtar, Naveed; Gourbali, Vanessa; Yaghi, Shadi

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to derive and validate a score to predict early ischemic events and major bleedings after an acute ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The derivation cohort consisted of 854 patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation included in prospective series between January 2012 and March 2014. Older age (hazard ratio 1.06 for each additional year; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) and severe atrial enlargement (hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.87) were predictors for ischemic outcome events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, and systemic embolism) at 90 days from acute stroke. Small lesions (≤1.5 cm) were inversely correlated with both major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.39; P =0.03) and ischemic outcome events (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-1.00). We assigned to age ≥80 years 2 points and between 70 and 79 years 1 point; ischemic index lesion >1.5 cm, 1 point; severe atrial enlargement, 1 point (ALESSA score). A logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure (C statistic) showed an area under the curve of 0.697 (0.632-0.763; P =0.0001) for ischemic outcome events and 0.585 (0.493-0.678; P =0.10) for major bleedings. The validation cohort consisted of 994 patients included in prospective series between April 2014 and June 2016. Logistic regression with the receiver-operating characteristic graph procedure showed an area under the curve of 0.646 (0.529-0.763; P =0.009) for ischemic outcome events and 0.407 (0.275-0.540; P =0.14) for hemorrhagic outcome events. In acute stroke patients with atrial fibrillation, high ALESSA scores were associated with a high risk of ischemic events but not of major bleedings. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Risk stratification for sudden death in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cadrin-Tourigny, Julia; Tadros, Rafik; Talajic, Mario; Rivard, Lena; Abadir, Sylvia; Khairy, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized inherited cardiomyopathy that is associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, particularly in young individuals. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is widely regarded as the only treatment modality with evidence to support improved survival in patients with ARVC and secondary prevention indications. In contrast, there is no universally accepted risk stratification scheme to guide ICD therapy for primary prevention against sudden cardiac death. Potential benefits must be weighed against the considerable risks of complications and inappropriate shocks in this young patient population. This article tackles the challenges of risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in ARVC and critically appraises available evidence for various proposed risk factors. The authors' over-arching objective is to provide the clinician with evidence-based guidance to inform decisions regarding the selection of appropriate candidates with ARVC for ICD therapy.

  4. Prehypertension: risk stratification and management considerations.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Julius, Stevo

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 37% of US adults are prehypertensive; about 31 million have blood pressures in the range of 130-139/85-89 mm Hg. These stage 2 prehypertensives have threefold greater risk for developing hypertension and twofold higher risk for cardiovascular events than normotensives. Lifestyle changes only are recommended for most prehypertensives, but evidence for community-wide effectiveness is limited. Projected numbers needed to treat to prevent a cardiovascular event are similar for stage 2 prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension when both groups are matched for concomitant risk factors. However, no clinical trials document that pharmacotherapy reduces cardiovascular events in stage 2 prehypertension. The Trial of Preventing Hypertension demonstrated that angiotensin receptor blockade safely lowers blood pressure and prevents or delays progression to hypertension in stage 2 prehypertensives. We believe it is reasonable for clinicians to identify stage 2 prehypertensives at high absolute risk for progression to hypertension and cardiovascular events, and to treat them with a renin-angiotensin system blocker when lifestyle changes alone are ineffective.

  5. Atherothrombotic Risk Stratification and Ezetimibe for Secondary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Bohula, Erin A; Morrow, David A; Giugliano, Robert P; Blazing, Michael A; He, Ping; Park, Jeong-Gun; Murphy, Sabina A; White, Jennifer A; Kesaniemi, Y Antero; Pedersen, Terje R; Brady, Adrian J; Mitchel, Yale; Cannon, Christopher P; Braunwald, Eugene

    2017-02-28

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in patients stabilized after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) when added to statin therapy. After ACS, patients vary considerably in their risk for recurrent CV events. This study tested the hypothesis that atherothrombotic risk stratification may be useful to identify post-ACS patients who have the greatest potential for benefit from the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy. The TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) Risk Score for Secondary Prevention (TRS 2°P) is a simple 9-point risk stratification tool, previously developed in a large population with atherothrombosis to predict CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemic stroke (CV death/MI/ischemic cerebrovascular accident [iCVA]). The current study applied this tool prospectively to 17,717 post-ACS patients randomized either to ezetimibe and simvastatin or to placebo and simvastatin in IMPROVE-IT (Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial). Treatment efficacy was assessed by baseline risk for CV death/MI/iCVA, the IMPROVE-IT composite endpoints (CE), and individual component endpoints at 7 years. All 9 clinical variables in the TRS 2°P were independent risk indicators for CV death/MI/iCVA (p < 0.001). The integer-based scheme showed a strong graded relationship with the rate of CV death/MI/iCVA, the trial CE, and the individual components (p trend <0.0001 for each). High-risk patients (n = 4,393; 25%), defined by ≥3 risk indicators, had a 6.3% (95% confidence interval: 2.9% to 9.7%) absolute risk reduction in CV death/MI/iCVA at 7 years with ezetimibe/simvastatin, thus translating to a number-needed-to-treat of 16. Intermediate-risk patients (2 risk indicators; n = 5,292; 30%) had a 2.2% (95% confidence interval: -0.3% to 4.6%) absolute risk reduction. Low-risk patients (0 to 1 risk indicators; n = 8,032; 45%) did not appear to derive benefit from the addition of ezetimibe (p interaction = 0.010). Similar

  6. Clinical Risk Stratification for Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Judy; Yee, Raymond; Healey, Jeffrey S.; Birnie, David; Simpson, Christopher S.; Crystal, Eugene; Mangat, Iqwal; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Wang, Xuesong; Krahn, Andrew D.; Dorian, Paul; Austin, Peter C.; Tu, Jack V.

    2015-01-01

    Background— A conceptualized model may be useful for understanding risk stratification of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators considering the competing risks of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock versus mortality. Methods and Results— In a prospective, multicenter, population-based cohort with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% referred for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator, we developed dual risk stratification models to determine the competing risks of appropriate defibrillator shock versus mortality using a Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard model. Among 7020 patients referred, 3445 underwent defibrillator implant (79.7% men, median, 66 years [25th, 75th: 58–73]). During 5918 person-years of follow-up, appropriate shock occurred in 204 patients (3.6 shocks/100 person-years) and 292 died (4.9 deaths/100 person-years). Competing risk predictors of appropriate shock included nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, serum creatinine concentration, digoxin or amiodarone use, and QRS duration near 130-ms peak. One-year cumulative incidence of appropriate shock was 0.9% in the lowest risk category, and 1.7%, 2.5%, 4.9%, and 9.3% in low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Hazard ratios for appropriate shock ranged from 4.04 to 7.79 in the highest 3 deciles (all P≤0.001 versus lowest risk). Cumulative incidence of 1-year death was 0.6%, 1.9%, 3.3%, 6.2%, and 17.7% in lowest, low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Mortality hazard ratios ranged from 11.48 to 36.22 in the highest 3 deciles (all P<0.001 versus lowest risk). Conclusions— Simultaneous estimation of risks of appropriate shock and mortality can be performed using clinical variables, providing a potential framework for identification of patients who are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PMID:26224792

  7. Coronary heart disease risk stratification: pitfalls and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Negi, Smita; Nambi, Vijay

    Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries, or coronary heart disease (CHD), is the most common cause of mortality in U.S. adults. The pathobiology of atherosclerosis and its complications is a continuum. At one end of the spectrum are young individuals without atherosclerotic disease who have not yet been exposed to lifestyle or other risk factors, and at the other end are patients with manifest atherosclerosis - myocardial infarction, stroke, and disabling peripheral arterial disease - where risk of recurrent disease and death is driven by the same factors initially responsible for the emergence of disease. However, it is clear that while risk factors are important in the development of CHD, not everyone with risk factors develops the disease and not everyone with CHD has risk factors. Furthermore, even similar degrees of exposure to a risk factor leads to disease in some individuals and not in others. Risk prediction, which is crucial in predicting and hence preventing disease, therefore becomes very challenging. In this article we review the currently available risk stratification tools for predicting CHD risk and discuss potential ways to improve risk prediction.

  8. Neuroblastoma: clinical and biological approach to risk stratification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, Vanessa P; Matthay, Katherine K

    2018-05-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of childhood and the most common in the first year of life. It is a unique malignancy in that infants often present with either localized or metastatic disease that can spontaneously regress without intervention while older children can succumb to the disease after months to years of arduous therapy. Given this wide range of outcomes, the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group was created to stratify patients based on presenting characteristics and tumor biology in order to guide intensity of treatment strategies. The goal has been to decrease therapy for low-risk patients to avoid long-term complications while augmenting and targeting therapies for high-risk patients to improve overall survival. The international risk stratification depends on age, stage, histology, MYCN gene amplification status, tumor cell ploidy and segmental chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment for asymptomatic low-risk patients with an estimated survival of > 98% is often observation or surgical resection alone, whereas intermediate-risk patients with an estimated survival of > 90% require moderate doses of response-adjusted chemotherapy along with resection. High-risk patients undergo multiple cycles of combination chemotherapy before surgery, followed by consolidation with myeloablative autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and local radiation and finally immunotherapy with differentiation therapy as maintenance phase. With this approach, outcome for patients with neuroblastoma has improved, as the field continues to expand efforts in more targeted therapies for high-risk patients.

  9. An Interoperable System toward Cardiac Risk Stratification from ECG Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Ramos-López, Javier; Quintanilla Fernández, Teresa; García-García, Antonio; Díez-Mazuela, Daniel; García-Alberola, Arcadi

    2018-01-01

    Many indices have been proposed for cardiovascular risk stratification from electrocardiogram signal processing, still with limited use in clinical practice. We created a system integrating the clinical definition of cardiac risk subdomains from ECGs and the use of diverse signal processing techniques. Three subdomains were defined from the joint analysis of the technical and clinical viewpoints. One subdomain was devoted to demographic and clinical data. The other two subdomains were intended to obtain widely defined risk indices from ECG monitoring: a simple-domain (heart rate turbulence (HRT)), and a complex-domain (heart rate variability (HRV)). Data provided by the three subdomains allowed for the generation of alerts with different intensity and nature, as well as for the grouping and scrutinization of patients according to the established processing and risk-thresholding criteria. The implemented system was tested by connecting data from real-world in-hospital electronic health records and ECG monitoring by considering standards for syntactic (HL7 messages) and semantic interoperability (archetypes based on CEN/ISO EN13606 and SNOMED-CT). The system was able to provide risk indices and to generate alerts in the health records to support decision-making. Overall, the system allows for the agile interaction of research and clinical practice in the Holter-ECG-based cardiac risk domain. PMID:29494497

  10. Novel Molecular Imaging Approaches to Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Toczek, Jakub; Meadows, Judith L.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2015-01-01

    Selection of patients for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair is currently based on aneurysm size, growth rate and symptoms. Molecular imaging of biological processes associated with aneurysm growth and rupture, e.g., inflammation and matrix remodeling, could improve patient risk stratification and lead to a reduction in AAA morbidity and mortality. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) magnetic resonance imaging are two novel approaches to AAA imaging evaluated in clinical trials. A variety of other tracers, including those that target inflammatory cells and proteolytic enzymes (e.g., integrin αvβ3 and matrix metalloproteinases), have proven effective in preclinical models of AAA and show great potential for clinical translation. PMID:26763279

  11. Advanced colorectal neoplasia risk stratification by penalized logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunzhi; Yu, Menggang; Wang, Sijian; Chappell, Richard; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. To facilitate the efficiency of colorectal cancer screening, there is a need to stratify risk for colorectal cancer among the 90% of US residents who are considered "average risk." In this article, we investigate such risk stratification rules for advanced colorectal neoplasia (colorectal cancer and advanced, precancerous polyps). We use a recently completed large cohort study of subjects who underwent a first screening colonoscopy. Logistic regression models have been used in the literature to estimate the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia based on quantifiable risk factors. However, logistic regression may be prone to overfitting and instability in variable selection. Since most of the risk factors in our study have several categories, it was tempting to collapse these categories into fewer risk groups. We propose a penalized logistic regression method that automatically and simultaneously selects variables, groups categories, and estimates their coefficients by penalizing the [Formula: see text]-norm of both the coefficients and their differences. Hence, it encourages sparsity in the categories, i.e. grouping of the categories, and sparsity in the variables, i.e. variable selection. We apply the penalized logistic regression method to our data. The important variables are selected, with close categories simultaneously grouped, by penalized regression models with and without the interactions terms. The models are validated with 10-fold cross-validation. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the penalized regression models dominate the receiver operating characteristic curve of naive logistic regressions, indicating a superior discriminative performance. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Lifetime risks for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: multivariable risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Vlak, Monique H M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Greebe, Paut; Greving, Jacoba P; Algra, Ale

    2013-06-01

    The overall incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in western populations is around 9 per 100 000 person-years, which confers to a lifetime risk of around half per cent. Risk factors for aSAH are usually expressed as relative risks and suggest that absolute risks vary considerably according to risk factor profiles, but such estimates are lacking. We aimed to estimate incidence and lifetime risks of aSAH according to risk factor profiles. We used data from 250 patients admitted with aSAH and 574 sex-matched and age-matched controls, who were randomly retrieved from general practitioners files. We determined independent prognostic factors with multivariable logistic regression analyses and assessed discriminatory performance using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Based on the prognostic model we predicted incidences and lifetime risks of aSAH for different risk factor profiles. The four strongest independent predictors for aSAH, namely current smoking (OR 6.0; 95% CI 4.1 to 8.6), a positive family history for aSAH (4.0; 95% CI 2.3 to 7.0), hypertension (2.4; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.8) and hypercholesterolaemia (0.2; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.4), were used in the final prediction model. This model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.76). Depending on sex, age and the four predictors, the incidence of aSAH ranged from 0.4/100 000 to 298/100 000 person-years and lifetime risk between 0.02% and 7.2%. The incidence and lifetime risk of aSAH in the general population varies widely according to risk factor profiles. Whether persons with high risks benefit from screening should be assessed in cost-effectiveness studies.

  13. Validating a Local Failure Risk Stratification for Use in Prospective Studies of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    Purpose: To inform prospective trials of adjuvant radiation therapy (adj-RT) for bladder cancer after radical cystectomy, a locoregional failure (LF) risk stratification was proposed. This stratification was developed and validated using surgical databases that may not reflect the outcomes expected in prospective trials. Our purpose was to assess sources of bias that may affect the stratification model's validity or alter the LF risk estimates for each subgroup: time bias due to evolving surgical techniques; trial accrual bias due to inclusion of patients who would be ineligible for adj-RT trials because of early disease progression, death, or loss to follow-up shortlymore » after cystectomy; bias due to different statistical methods to estimate LF; and subgrouping bias due to different definitions of the LF subgroups. Methods and Materials: The LF risk stratification was developed using a single-institution cohort (n=442, 1990-2008) and the multi-institutional SWOG 8710 cohort (n=264, 1987-1998) treated with radical cystectomy with or without chemotherapy. We evaluated the sensitivity of the stratification to sources of bias using Fine-Gray regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results: Year of radical cystectomy was not associated with LF risk on univariate or multivariate analysis after controlling for risk group. By use of more stringent inclusion criteria, 26 SWOG patients (10%) and 60 patients from the single-institution cohort (14%) were excluded. Analysis of the remaining patients confirmed 3 subgroups with significantly different LF risks with 3-year rates of 7%, 17%, and 36%, respectively (P<.01), nearly identical to the rates without correcting for trial accrual bias. Kaplan-Meier techniques estimated higher subgroup LF rates than competing risk analysis. The subgroup definitions used in the NRG-GU001 adj-RT trial were validated. Conclusions: These sources of bias did not invalidate the LF risk stratification or substantially change the model's LF

  14. Degree of Agreement between Cardiovascular Risk Stratification Tools.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme Thomé; Stamm, Ana Maria Nunes de Faria; Rosa, Ariel Córdova; Marasciulo, Antônio Carlos; Marasciulo, Rodrigo Conill; Battistella, Cristian; Remor, Alexandre Augusto de Costa

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil, and primary prevention care may be guided by risk stratification tools. The Framingham (FRS) and QRISK-2 (QRS) risk scores estimate 10-year overall cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic individuals, but the instrument of choice may lead to different therapeutic strategies. To evaluate the degree of agreement between FRS and QRS in 10-year overall cardiovascular risk stratification in disease-free individuals. Cross-sectional, observational, descriptive and analytical study in a convenience sample of 74 individuals attending the outpatient care service of a university hospital in Brazil between January 2014 and January 2015. After application of FRS and QRS, patients were classified in low/moderate risk (< 20%) or high risk (≥ 20%). The proportion of individuals classified as at high risk was higher in FRS than in QRS (33.7% vs 21.6%). A synergic effect of male gender with systemic arterial hypertension was observed in both tools, and with for geriatric age group in QRS (p < 0.05) in high-risk stratum. The Kappa index was 0.519 (95%CI = 0.386-0.652; p < 0.001) between both instruments. There was a moderate agreement between FRS and QRS in estimating 10-year overall cardiovascular risk. The risk scores used in this study can identify synergism between variables, and their behavior is influenced by the population in which it was derived. It is important to recognize the need for calibrating risk scores for the Brazilian population. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é a principal causa de morbimortalidade no Brasil, e a prevenção primária pode ser direcionada com ferramentas que estratificam o risco. Os escores de Framingham (ERF) e QRISK-2 (ERQ) estimam o risco cardiovascular (RCV) global em 10 anos em indivíduos assintomáticos, mas a escolha do instrumento pode implicar em terapêuticas distintas. Observar o grau de concordância entre o ERF e o ERQ, na estratificação do

  15. A probabilistic topic model for clinical risk stratification from electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengxing; Dong, Wei; Duan, Huilong

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification aims to provide physicians with the accurate assessment of a patient's clinical risk such that an individualized prevention or management strategy can be developed and delivered. Existing risk stratification techniques mainly focus on predicting the overall risk of an individual patient in a supervised manner, and, at the cohort level, often offer little insight beyond a flat score-based segmentation from the labeled clinical dataset. To this end, in this paper, we propose a new approach for risk stratification by exploring a large volume of electronic health records (EHRs) in an unsupervised fashion. Along this line, this paper proposes a novel probabilistic topic modeling framework called probabilistic risk stratification model (PRSM) based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). The proposed PRSM recognizes a patient clinical state as a probabilistic combination of latent sub-profiles, and generates sub-profile-specific risk tiers of patients from their EHRs in a fully unsupervised fashion. The achieved stratification results can be easily recognized as high-, medium- and low-risk, respectively. In addition, we present an extension of PRSM, called weakly supervised PRSM (WS-PRSM) by incorporating minimum prior information into the model, in order to improve the risk stratification accuracy, and to make our models highly portable to risk stratification tasks of various diseases. We verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach on a clinical dataset containing 3463 coronary heart disease (CHD) patient instances. Both PRSM and WS-PRSM were compared with two established supervised risk stratification algorithms, i.e., logistic regression and support vector machine, and showed the effectiveness of our models in risk stratification of CHD in terms of the Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC) analysis. As well, in comparison with PRSM, WS-PRSM has over 2% performance gain, on the experimental dataset, demonstrating that

  16. Utility of the exercise electrocardiogram testing in sudden cardiac death risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Marwan M; Hotait, Mostafa; Tseng, Zian H

    2014-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a major public health problem. Current established criteria identifying those at risk of sudden arrhythmic death, and likely to benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are neither sensitive nor specific. Exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) testing was traditionally used for information concerning patients' symptoms, exercise capacity, cardiovascular function, myocardial ischemia detection, and hemodynamic responses during activity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We conducted a systematic review of MEDLINE on the utility of exercise ECG testing in SCD risk stratification. Exercise testing can unmask suspected primary electrical diseases in certain patients (catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia or concealed long QT syndrome) and can be effectively utilized to risk stratify patients at an increased (such as early repolarization syndrome and Brugada syndrome) or decreased risk of SCD, such as the loss of preexcitation on exercise testing in asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Exercise ECG testing helps in SCD risk stratification in patients with and without arrhythmogenic hereditary syndromes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Implementing system-wide risk stratification approaches: A review of critical success and failure factors.

    PubMed

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Gillespie, James A; Wilson, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification has become a widely used tool for linking people identified at risk of health deterioration to the most appropriate evidence-based care. This article systematically reviews recent literature to determine key factors that have been identified as critical enablers and/or barriers to successful implementation of risk stratification tools at a system level. A systematic search found 23 articles and four promising protocols for inclusion in the review, covering the use to 20 different risk stratification tools. These articles reported on only a small fraction of the risk stratification tools used in health systems; suggesting that while the development and statistical validation of risk stratification algorithms is widely reported, there has been little published evaluation of how they are implemented in real-world settings. Controlled studies provided some evidence that the use of risk stratification tools in combination with a care management plan offer patient benefits and that the use of a risk stratification tool to determine components of a care management plan may contribute to reductions in hospital readmissions, patient satisfaction and improved patient outcomes. Studies with the strongest focus on implementation used qualitative and case study methods. Among these, the literature converged on four key areas of implementation that were found to be critical for overcoming barriers to success: the engagement of clinicians and safeguarding equity, both of which address barriers of acceptance; the health system context to address administrative, political and system design barriers; and data management and integration to address logistical barriers.

  18. World Health Organization cardiovascular risk stratification and target organ damage.

    PubMed

    Piskorz, D; Bongarzoni, L; Citta, L; Citta, N; Citta, P; Keller, L; Mata, L; Tommasi, A

    2016-01-01

    Prediction charts allow treatment to be targeted according to simple markers of cardiovascular risk; many algorithms do not recommend screening asymptomatic target organ damage which could change dramatically the assessment. To demonstrate that target organ damage is present in low cardiovascular risk hypertensive patients and it is more frequent and severe as global cardiovascular risk increases. Consecutive hypertensive patients treated at a single Latin American center. Cardiovascular risk stratified according to 2013 WHO/ISH risk prediction chart America B. Left ventricular mass assessed by Devereux method, left ventricular hypertrophy considered >95g/m(2) in women and >115g/m(2) in men. Transmitral diastolic peak early flow velocity to average septal/lateral peak early diastolic relaxation velocity (E/e' ratio) measured cut off value >13. Systolic function assessed by tissue Doppler average interventricular septum/lateral wall mitral annulus rate systolic excursion (s wave). A total of 292 patients were included of whom 159 patients (54.5%) had cardiovascular risk of <10%, 90 (30.8%) had cardiovascular risk of 10-20% and 43 (14.7%) had cardiovascular risk of >20%. Left ventricular hypertrophy was detected in 17.6% low risk patients, 27.8% in medium risk and 23.3% in high risk (p<0.05), abnormal E/e' ratio was found in 13.8%, 31.1% and 27.9%, respectively (p<0.05). Mean s wave was 8.03+8, 8.1+9 and 8.7+1cm/s for low, intermediate and high risk patients, respectively (p<0.025). Target organ damage is more frequent and severe in high risk; one over four subjects was misclassified due to the presence of asymptomatic target organ damage. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Why is cardiovascular risk stratification important in hypertensive patients?

    PubMed

    Coll-De-Tuero, Gabriel; Saez, Marc; Rodriguez-Poncelas, Antonio; Barceló-Rado, Antonia; Vargas-Vila, Susanna; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Sala, Victoria; Sieira, Angels; Gelada, Esther; Gelado-Ferrero, Jesús

    2012-06-01

    The aim is to evaluate whether cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients according to the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) guidelines, can predict the evolution of target organ damage (TOD) using routine examinations in clinical practice during 1 year. Prospective study of recently diagnosed untreated hypertensives. At the moment of inclusion and 1 year later, urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), blood analysis, electrocardiogram, retinography, self-monitored blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory BP measurement were performed. TOD was defined following the ESH guidelines and evaluated as having favorable or unfavorable evolution. Four hundred and seventy-nine hypertensive patients were included (58.8 years; 43.4% women). The baseline prevalence of TOD was: high UAER (2.4%), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (20.7%), advanced lesion of the fundus oculi (FO) (10.2%). After 1 year, no differences were found between the final systolic and diastolic BP neither in the high/very high nor in the low/moderate CV risk groups. Patients with low/moderate CV risk had less unfavorable TOD evolution, LVH (9.2% vs 41.7%; p <0.001), FO advanced damage (0.99% vs 14.3%; p <0.001), high UAER (0.3% vs 5.1%; p <0.005) and amount of TOD (9.2% vs 44.0%; 0<0.001) than those with high/very high CV risk. The odds ratios of favorable TOD evolution adjusted for BP change and antihypertensive drug treatment were (low/moderate vs high/very high CV risk); 5.14 (95% confidence interval, CI, 3.99-6.64) for LVH; 12.42 (6.67-23.14) FO advanced damage; 10.71 (3.67-31.22) high UAER and 13.99 (10.18-19.22) for amount of TOD. It is possible to detect variations in TOD in hypertensive patients with a 1-year follow-up using the examinations available in routine clinic practice. The risk determined by the ESH guidelines predicts the evolution of TOD at 1 year.

  20. Current approaches for risk stratification of infectious complications in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Härtel, Christoph; Deuster, Maresa; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Schultz, Christian

    2007-11-01

    Infections are serious complications of cytoreductive therapy in pediatric cancer patients presenting with febrile neutropenia. It is standard of care to initiate empirical intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics until the fever and neutropenia resolve. However, it might be effective and safe to allow for early hospital discharge in certain subgroups of patients. Two strategies for risk stratification of pediatric cancer patients with regard to infectious complications are discussed in this review: (1) clinical risk parameters and laboratory measures to assist therapeutic management at presentation with fever in neutropenia, and (2) investigations of individual genetic susceptibility factors to tailor potential prophylactic approaches. Given the data available from a significant number of small studies, a large prospective non-inferiority trial is essential to assess low-risk clinical factors and additional laboratory or genetic markers for their predictive value. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Auckland Cataract Study II: Reducing Complications by Preoperative Risk Stratification and Case Allocation in a Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bia Z; Patel, Dipika V; McKelvie, James; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2017-09-01

    To assess the effect of preoperative risk stratification for phacoemulsification surgery on intraoperative complications in a teaching hospital. Prospective cohort study. Prospective assessment of consecutive phacoemulsification cases (N = 500) enabled calculation of a risk score (M-score of 0-8) using a risk stratification system. M-scores of >3 were allocated to senior surgeons. All surgeries were performed in a public teaching hospital setting, Auckland, New Zealand, in early 2016. Postoperatively, data were reviewed for complications and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Results were compared to a prospective study (N = 500, phase 1) performed prior to formal introduction of risk stratification. Intraoperative complications increased with increasing M-scores (P = .044). Median M-score for complicated cases was higher (P = .022). Odds ratio (OR) for a complication increased 1.269 per unit increase in M-score (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.007-1.599, P = .043). Overall rate of any intraoperative complication was 5.0%. Intraoperative complication rates decreased from 8.4% to 5.0% (OR = 0.576, P = .043) comparing phase 1 and phase 2 (formal introduction of risk stratification). The severity of complications also reduced. A significant decrease in complications for M = 0 (ie, minimal risk cases) was also identified comparing the current study (3.1%) to phase 1 (7.2%), P = .034. There was no change in postoperative complication risks (OR 0.812, P = .434) or in mean postoperative CDVA (20/30, P = .484) comparing current with phase 1 outcomes. A simple preoperative risk stratification system, based on standard patient information gathered at preoperative consultation, appears to reduce intraoperative complications and support safer surgical training by appropriate allocation of higher-risk cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac risk stratification in cardiac rehabilitation programs: a review of protocols

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Kastelianne França; Barbosa, Marianne Penachini da Costa de Rezende; Bernardo, Aline Fernanda Barbosa; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    Objective Gather and describe general characteristics of different protocols of risk stratification for cardiac patients undergoing exercise. Methods We conducted searches in LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and SciELO electronic databases, using the following descriptors: Cardiovascular Disease, Rehabilitation Centers, Practice Guideline, Exercise and Risk Stratification in the past 20 years. Results Were selected eight studies addressing methods of risk stratification in patients undergoing exercise. Conclusion None of the methods described could cover every situation the patient can be subjected to; however, they are essential to exercise prescription. PMID:25140477

  3. A Personalized Risk Stratification Platform for Population Lifetime Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Daowd, Ali; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abusharekh, Ashraf; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2018-01-01

    Chronic diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. It is well understood that if modifiable risk factors are targeted, most chronic diseases can be prevented. Lifetime health is an emerging health paradigm that aims to assist individuals to achieve desired health targets, and avoid harmful lifecycle choices to mitigate the risk of chronic diseases. Early risk identification is central to lifetime health. In this paper, we present a digital health-based platform (PRISM) that leverages artificial intelligence, data visualization and mobile health technologies to empower citizens to self-assess, self-monitor and self-manage their overall risk of major chronic diseases and pursue personalized chronic disease prevention programs. PRISM offers risk assessment tools for 5 chronic conditions, 2 psychiatric disorders and 8 different cancers.

  4. Potential usefulness of apolipoprotein A2 isoforms for screening and risk stratification of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Kazufumi; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    Given the low incidence of pancreatic cancer in the general population, screening of pancreatic cancer in the general population using invasive modalities is not feasible. Combination of invasive screening with noninvasive biomarkers for pancreatic cancer and its precancerous lesions has the potential to reduce mortality due to pancreatic cancer. In this review, we focus on biomarkers found in the blood that can indicate early-stage pancreatic cancer, and we discuss current strategies for screening for pancreatic cancer. We recently identified a unique alteration in apolipoprotein A2 isoforms in pancreatic cancer and its precancerous lesions, and we describe its clinical usefulness as a potential biomarker for the early detection and risk stratification of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27673558

  5. Indiana chronic disease management program risk stratification analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjin; Holmes, Ann M; Rosenman, Marc B; Katz, Barry P; Downs, Stephen M; Murray, Michael D; Ackermann, Ronald T; Inui, Thomas S

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the ability of risk stratification models derived from administrative data to classify groups of patients for enrollment in a tailored chronic disease management program. This study included 19,548 Medicaid patients with chronic heart failure or diabetes in the Indiana Medicaid data warehouse during 2001 and 2002. To predict costs (total claims paid) in FY 2002, we considered candidate predictor variables available in FY 2001, including patient characteristics, the number and type of prescription medications, laboratory tests, pharmacy charges, and utilization of primary, specialty, inpatient, emergency department, nursing home, and home health care. We built prospective models to identify patients with different levels of expenditure. Model fit was assessed using R statistics, whereas discrimination was assessed using the weighted kappa statistic, predictive ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We found a simple least-squares regression model in which logged total charges in FY 2002 were regressed on the log of total charges in FY 2001, the number of prescriptions filled in FY 2001, and the FY 2001 eligibility category, performed as well as more complex models. This simple 3-parameter model had an R of 0.30 and, in terms in classification efficiency, had a sensitivity of 0.57, a specificity of 0.90, an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.80, and a weighted kappa statistic of 0.51. This simple model based on readily available administrative data stratified Medicaid members according to predicted future utilization as well as more complicated models.

  6. Developing a PTEN-ERG Signature to Improve Molecular Risk Stratification in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer (PCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous and the development of a molecular classification is...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0739 TITLE: Developing a PTEN-ERG Signature to Improve Molecular Risk Stratification in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Developing a PTEN-ERG Signature to Improve Molecular Risk Stratification in Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH

  7. Noninvasive risk stratification for sudden death in asymptomatic patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Novella, John; DeBiasi, Ralph M; Coplan, Neil L; Suri, Ranji; Keller, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) as the first clinical manifestation of Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is a well-documented, although rare occurrence. The incidence of SCD in patients with WPW ranges from 0% to 0.39% annually. Controversy exists regarding risk stratification for patients with preexcitation on surface electrocardiogram (ECG), particularly in those who are asymptomatic. This article focuses on the role of risk stratification using exercise and pharmacologic testing in patients with WPW pattern on ECG.

  8. [Comparison of the present and previously used protocol of risk stratification in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Glodkowska, Eliza; Bialas, Agnieszka; Jackowska, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is one of the most common cancers in children. In Poland, since November 2002 a new protocol of risk stratification has been recommended for assessment of risk factors and for choosing therapy regimens. assessment of accuracy of protocol ALL-IC 2002 in comparison to previously used risk stratification protocols. ALL was diagnosed in 100 children (44 girls, 56 boys; 1-18 years of age) in the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Warsaw Medical University, over the period from November 2002 to November 2006. According to the ALL-IC 2002 protocol the patients were divided into three risk groups: SR-standard, IR-intermediate and HR-high. The stratification was by age, leukocyte count, cytogenetic changes, early response to prednisone therapy and bone marrow remission. In the previously used risk stratification protocols-BFM-90, only hepatosplenomegaly and the number of blasts in peripheral blood (PB) were considered, and the patients were divided into three risk groups: low (LRG<0.8), medium (MRG) and high (HRG>1.2). out of the 100 patients qualified for treatment regimens according to the ALL-IC 2002 protocol, 97 entered remission, 11 died and 3 had a relapse. Under the ALL-IC 2002 protocol these children were stratified into the following groups: SR-31%, IR-44% and HR-25%. In the previously used stratification, there would be 26% children in low, 46% in the medium and 28% in the high risk group. According to the BFM-90 protocol 18/31 (58%) and 16/44 (36%) patients from the SR and IR groups respectively would be given more intensive treatment. On the other hand 11/44 (25%) and 14/25 (56%) patients from the IR and HR groups respectively would be given less intensive treatment. 1. ALL-IC 2002 protocol in comparison with the previously used protocol BFM-90, changes the qualification of children with ALL for the SR, IR and HR risk groups. This is linked to basic change of treatment protocol, adequate to severity of disease. 2

  9. Risk Stratification Methods and Provision of Care Management Services in Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative Practices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Ashok; Sessums, Laura; Gupta, Reshma; Jin, Janel; Day, Tim; Finke, Bruce; Bitton, Asaf

    2017-09-01

    Risk-stratified care management is essential to improving population health in primary care settings, but evidence is limited on the type of risk stratification method and its association with care management services. We describe risk stratification patterns and association with care management services for primary care practices in the Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative. We undertook a qualitative approach to categorize risk stratification methods being used by CPC practices and tested whether these stratification methods were associated with delivery of care management services. CPC practices reported using 4 primary methods to stratify risk for their patient populations: a practice-developed algorithm (n = 215), the American Academy of Family Physicians' clinical algorithm (n = 155), payer claims and electronic health records (n = 62), and clinical intuition (n = 52). CPC practices using practice-developed algorithm identified the most number of high-risk patients per primary care physician (282 patients, P = .006). CPC practices using clinical intuition had the most high-risk patients in care management and a greater proportion of high-risk patients receiving care management per primary care physician (91 patients and 48%, P =.036 and P =.128, respectively). CPC practices used 4 primary methods to identify high-risk patients. Although practices that developed their own algorithm identified the greatest number of high-risk patients, practices that used clinical intuition connected the greatest proportion of patients to care management services. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  10. Risk stratification of thyroid nodules on ultrasonography with the French TI-RADS: description and reflections

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of ultrasonography places it in a key position for use in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. The French proposal is a five-tier system, our version of a thyroid imaging reporting and database system (TI-RADS), which includes a standardized vocabulary and report and a quantified risk assessment. It allows the selection of the nodules that should be referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Effort should be directed towards merging the different risk stratification systems utilized around the world and testing this unified system with multi-center studies. PMID:26324117

  11. Superiority of delayed risk stratification in differentiated thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chae Moon; Lee, Won Kee; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the effectiveness of delayed risk stratification (DRS) in predicting structural progression and compare the predictive value of American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification with that of DRS in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). A total of 398 patients with DTC who underwent surgery followed by radioactive iodine ablation were enrolled. Patients were categorized as having excellent response, acceptable response, biochemical incomplete response, or structural incomplete response at 8-15 months' evaluation after radioactive iodine ablation for DRS. Effectiveness of DRS was evaluated according to structural progression-free survival (PFS; median follow-up, 10.7 years). A total of 229 patients (57.5%) were classified as having excellent response, 78 (19.6%) as having acceptable response, 62 (15.6%) as having biochemical incomplete response, and 29 patients (7.3%) as having structural incomplete response. After DRS, 60.2% of intermediate-risk patients and 20.5% of high-risk patients were shifted to the excellent response category. Sixty-nine patients (17.3%) showed structural progression. DRS showed statistical difference in PFS (hazard ratio, 4.268; 95% confidence interval, 3.258-5.477; P<0.001). In multivariate analysis of ATA risk stratification and DRS, DRS was significantly associated with PFS (hazard ratio, 4.383; 95% confidence interval, 3.250-5.912; P<0.001), but ATA risk stratification was not. There was no significant difference in deviances between the use of DRS alone and the use of both DRS and ATA risk stratification (χ=0.103, d.f.=1, P=0.748). DRS is superior to ATA risk stratification in predicting structural disease progression for DTC patients.

  12. New Methods for the Analysis of Heartbeat Behavior in Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leon; Lerma, Claudia; Shrier, Alvin

    2011-01-01

    Developing better methods for risk stratification for tachyarrhythmic sudden cardiac remains a major challenge for physicians and scientists. Since the transition from sinus rhythm to ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation happens by different mechanisms in different people, it is unrealistic to think that a single measure will be adequate to provide a good index for risk stratification. We analyze the dynamical properties of ventricular premature complexes over 24 h in an effort to understand the underlying mechanisms of ventricular arrhythmias and to better understand the arrhythmias that occur in individual patients. Two dimensional density plots, called heartprints, correlate characteristic features of the dynamics of premature ventricular complexes and the sinus rate. Heartprints show distinctive characteristics in individual patients. Based on a better understanding of the natures of transitions from sinus rhythm to sudden cardiac and the mechanisms of arrhythmia prior to cardiac arrest, it should be possible to develop better methods for risk stratification. PMID:22144963

  13. Paradigm of pretest risk stratification before coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jesper Møller; Ovrehus, Kristian A; Nielsen, Lene H; Jensen, Jesper K; Larsen, Henrik M; Nørgaard, Bjarne L

    2009-01-01

    The optimal method of determining the pretest risk of coronary artery disease as a patient selection tool before coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is unknown. We investigated the ability of 3 different clinical risk scores to predict the outcome of coronary MDCT. This was a retrospective study of 551 patients consecutively referred for coronary MDCT on a suspicion of coronary artery disease. Diamond-Forrester, Duke, and Morise risk models were used to predict coronary artery stenosis (>50%) as assessed by coronary MDCT. The models were compared by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The distribution of low-, intermediate-, and high-risk persons, respectively, was established and compared for each of the 3 risk models. Overall, all risk prediction models performed equally well. However, the Duke risk model classified the low-risk patients more correctly than did the other models (P < 0.01). In patients without coronary artery calcification (CAC), the predictive value of the Duke risk model was superior to the other risk models (P < 0.05). Currently available risk prediction models seem to perform better in patients without CAC. Between the risk prediction models, there was a significant discrepancy in the distribution of patients at low, intermediate, or high risk (P < 0.01). The 3 risk prediction models perform equally well, although the Duke risk score may have advantages in subsets of patients. The choice of risk prediction model affects the referral pattern to MDCT. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of diastolic function indices in the risk stratification of patients with mixed aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Egbe, Alexander C; Khan, Arooj R; Boler, Amber; Said, Sameh M; Geske, Jeffrey B; Miranda, William R; Akintoye, Emmanuel; Connolly, Heidi M; Warnes, Carole A; Oh, Jae K

    2018-06-01

    Determine the role of diastolic function indices in pre-operative and post-operative risk stratification in patients with moderate mixed aortic valve disease (MAVD). A retrospective study was conducted of asymptomatic patients with moderate MAVD (a combination of moderate aortic stenosis and moderate aortic regurgitation) and an ejection fraction of 50% or more who were followed up at Mayo Clinic from 1 January 2004, to 31 December 2013. A pre-requisite for inclusion in the study was assessment of diastolic function involving at least three of the following indices: tissue Doppler early diastolic velocity (e'), mitral inflow early velocity (E), tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial volume index. Primary endpoints were aortic valve replacement (AVR) or cardiac death while secondary endpoints were cardiovascular adverse events (CAEs) after AVR. We defined CAEs as stroke, heart failure hospitalization, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiac death. There were 214 patients (age 61 ± 8 years, men 146 [68%]) followed for 6.1 ± 2.3 years during which 162 (76%) AVRs and 11 (5%) cardiac deaths occurred. The multivariable risk factors for cardiac death or AVR were relative wall thickness (RWT) > 0.42 [hazard ratio (HR), 1.88 [95% CI, 1.28-2.59]; P = 0.001] and average E/e' >14 (HR, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.29-3.01]; P = 0.02). Freedom from CAE after AVR was significantly lower in the patients with baseline RWT >0.42 or mean E/e' >14 than the other patients: 79% (95% CI 74-83%) vs. 94% (95% CI 89-98%) at 3 years (P = 0.03). The presence of RWT >0.42 or E/e' >14 identifies a high-risk patient subset whose risk for cardiovascular morbidities persists even after AVR.

  15. The Auckland Cataract Study: Assessing Preoperative Risk Stratification Systems for Phacoemulsification Surgery in a Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bia Z; Patel, Dipika V; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate 2 preoperative risk stratification systems for assessing the risk of complications in phacoemulsification cataract surgery, performed by residents, fellows, and attending physicians in a public teaching hospital. Cohort study. One observer assessed the clinical data of 500 consecutive cases, prior to phacoemulsification cataract surgery performed between April and June 2015 at Greenlane Clinical Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. Preoperatively 2 risk scores were calculated for each case using the Muhtaseb and Buckinghamshire risk stratification systems. Complications, intraoperative and postoperative, and visual outcomes were analyzed in relation to these risk scores. Intraoperative complication rates increased with higher risk scores using the Muhtaseb or Buckinghamshire stratification system (P = .001 and P = .003, respectively, n = 500). The odds ratios for residents and fellows were not significantly different from attending physicians after case-mix adjustment according to risk scores (P > .05). Postoperative complication rates increased with higher Buckinghamshire risk scores but not with Muhtaseb scores (P = .014 and P = .094, respectively, n = 476). Postoperative corrected-distance visual acuity was poorer with higher risk scores (P < .001 for both, n = 476). This study confirms that the risk of intraoperative complications increases with higher preoperative risk scores. Furthermore, higher risk scores correlate with poorer postoperative visual acuity and the Buckinghamshire risk score also correlates with postoperative complications. Therefore, preoperative assessment using such risk stratification systems could assist individual informed consent, preoperative surgical planning, safe allocation of cases to trainees, and more meaningful analyses of outcomes for individual surgeons and institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recommendations on breast cancer screening and prevention in the context of implementing risk stratification: impending changes to current policies

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, J.; Lévesque, E.; Borduas, F.; Chiquette, J.; Diorio, C.; Duchesne, N.; Dumais, M.; Eloy, L.; Foulkes, W.; Gervais, N.; Lalonde, L.; L’Espérance, B.; Meterissian, S.; Provencher, L.; Richard, J.; Savard, C.; Trop, I.; Wong, N.; Knoppers, B.M.; Simard, J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, risk stratification has sparked interest as an innovative approach to disease screening and prevention. The approach effectively personalizes individual risk, opening the way to screening and prevention interventions that are adapted to subpopulations. The international perspective project, which is developing risk stratification for breast cancer, aims to support the integration of its screening approach into clinical practice through comprehensive tool-building. Policies and guidelines for risk stratification—unlike those for population screening programs, which are currently well regulated—are still under development. Indeed, the development of guidelines for risk stratification reflects the translational aspects of perspective. Here, we describe the risk stratification process that was devised in the context of perspective, and we then explain the consensus-based method used to develop recommendations for breast cancer screening and prevention in a risk-stratification approach. Lastly, we discuss how the recommendations might affect current screening policies. PMID:28050152

  17. An ischemia-guided approach for risk stratification in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pepine, C J

    2000-12-28

    attention to early risk stratification is essential in the ischemia-guided approach. The Braunwald classification for unstable angina helps identify independent clinical predictors of a poor outcome; high risk is clearly associated with Braunwald class III and type C. Electrocardiographic and biochemical markers for myocardial necrosis (cardiac troponin T or I) are important tools for assessing the presence and degree of ischemia and associated risk for adverse outcome. Noninvasive evaluation of left ventricular ejection fraction is essential for identifying those at high risk due to impaired contractile function. When these conventional markers do not provide conclusive information, noninvasive stress testing is most helpful to further identify those at highest risk for revascularization.

  18. Urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract: emerging biomarkers and integrative models for risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Romain; Vartolomei, Mihai D; Mbeutcha, Aurélie; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Briganti, Alberto; Roupret, Morgan; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current biomarkers and risk stratification models in urothelial cancer of the upper urinary tract (UTUC). A non-systematic Medline/PubMed literature search was performed using the terms "biomarkers", "preoperative models", "postoperative models", "risk stratification", together with "upper tract urothelial carcinoma". Original articles published between January 2003 and August 2015 were included based on their clinical relevance. Additional references were collected by cross referencing the bibliography of the selected articles. Various promising predictive and prognostic biomarkers have been identified in UTUC thanks to the increasing knowledge of the different biological pathways involved in UTUC tumorigenesis. These biomarkers may help identify tumors with aggressive biology and worse outcomes. Current tools aim at predicting muscle invasive or non-organ confined disease, renal failure after radical nephroureterectomy and survival outcomes. These models are still mainly based on imaging and clinicopathological feature and none has integrated biomarkers. Risk stratification in UTUC is still suboptimal, especially in the preoperative setting due to current limitations in staging and grading. Identification of novel biomarkers and external validation of current prognostic models may help improve risk stratification to allow evidence-based counselling for kidney-sparing approaches, perioperative chemotherapy and/or risk-based surveillance. Despite growing understanding of the biology underlying UTUC, management of this disease remains difficult due to the lack of validated biomarkers and the limitations of current predictive and prognostic tools. Further efforts and collaborations are necessaryry to allow their integration in daily practice.

  19. Prostate cancer: predicting high-risk prostate cancer-a novel stratification tool.

    PubMed

    Buck, Jessica; Chughtai, Bilal

    2014-05-01

    Currently, numerous systems exist for the identification of high-risk prostate cancer, but few of these systems can guide treatment strategies. A new stratification tool that uses common diagnostic factors can help to predict outcomes after radical prostatectomy. The tool aids physicians in the identification of appropriate candidates for aggressive, local treatment.

  20. State of the Art: Blood Biomarkers for Risk Stratification in Patients with Stable Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Omland, Torbjørn; White, Harvey D

    2017-01-01

    Multiple circulating biomarkers have been associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events and proposed as potential tools for risk stratification in stable ischemic heart disease (IHD), yet current guidelines do not make any firm recommendations concerning the use of biomarkers for risk stratification in this setting. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of biomarkers for risk stratification in stable IHD. Circulating biomarkers associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable IHD reflect different pathophysiological processes, including myocardial injury, myocardial stress and remodeling, metabolic status, vascular inflammation, and oxidative stress. Compared to the primary prevention setting, biomarkers reflecting end-organ damage and future risk of heart failure development and cardiovascular death may play more important roles in the stable IHD setting. Accordingly, biomarkers that reflect chronic, low-grade myocardial injury, and stress, i.e., high-sensitivity cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, provide graded and incremental prognostic information to conventional risk markers. In contrast, in stable IHD patients the prognostic value of traditional metabolic biomarkers, including serum lipids, is limited. Among several novel biomarkers, growth-differentiation factor-15 may provide the most robust prognostic information, whereas most inflammatory markers provide limited incremental prognostic information to risk factor models that include conventional risk factors, natriuretic peptides, and high-sensitivity troponins. Circulating biomarkers hold promise as useful tools for risk stratification in stable IHD, but their future incorporation into clinically useful risk scores will depend on prospective, rigorously performed clinical trials that document enhanced risk prediction. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. Risk Stratification and Shared Decision Making for Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Schroy, Paul C; Duhovic, Emir; Chen, Clara A; Heeren, Timothy C; Lopez, William; Apodaca, Danielle L; Wong, John B

    2016-05-01

    Eliciting patient preferences within the context of shared decision making has been advocated for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, yet providers often fail to comply with patient preferences that differ from their own. To determine whether risk stratification for advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) influences provider willingness to comply with patient preferences when selecting a desired CRC screening option. Randomized controlled trial. Asymptomatic, average-risk patients due for CRC screening in an urban safety net health care setting. Patients were randomized 1:1 to a decision aid alone (n= 168) or decision aid plus risk assessment (n= 173) arm between September 2012 and September 2014. The primary outcome was concordance between patient preference and test ordered; secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction with the decision-making process, screening intentions, test completion rates, and provider satisfaction. Although providers perceived risk stratification to be useful in selecting an appropriate screening test for their average-risk patients, no significant differences in concordance were observed between the decision aid alone and decision aid plus risk assessment groups (88.1% v. 85.0%,P= 0.40) or high- and low-risk groups (84.5% v. 87.1%,P= 0.51). Concordance was highest for colonoscopy and relatively low for tests other than colonoscopy, regardless of study arm or risk group. Failure to comply with patient preferences was negatively associated with satisfaction with the decision-making process, screening intentions, and test completion rates. Single-institution setting; lack of provider education about the utility of risk stratification into their decision making. Providers perceived risk stratification to be useful in their decision making but often failed to comply with patient preferences for tests other than colonoscopy, even among those deemed to be at low risk of ACN. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Risk stratification of ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tomoko S; Stevens, Gerin R; Jiang, Jeffrey; Schulze, P Christian; Gukasyan, Natalie; Lippel, Matthew; Levin, Alison; Homma, Shunichi; Mancini, Donna; Farr, Maryjane

    2013-03-01

    Risk stratification of ambulatory heart failure (HF) patients has relied on peak VO(2)<14 ml/kg/min. We investigated whether additional clinical variables might further specify risk of death, ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation (INTERMACS <4) or heart transplantation (HTx, Status 1A or 1B) within 1 year after HTx evaluation. We hypothesized that right ventricular stroke work index (RVSWI), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and the model for end-stage liver disease-albumin score (MELD-A) would be additive prognostic predictors. We retrospectively collected data on 151 ambulatory patients undergoing HTx evaluation. Primary outcomes were defined as HTx, LVAD or death within 1 year after evaluation. Average age in our cohort was 55 ± 11.1 years, 79.1% were male and 39% had an ischemic etiology (LVEF 21 ± 10.5% and peak VO(2) 12.6 ± 3.5 ml/kg/min). Fifty outcomes (33.1%) were observed (27 HTxs, 15 VADs and 8 deaths). Univariate logistic regression showed a significant association of RVSWI (OR 0.47, p = 0.036), PCWP (OR 2.65, p = 0.007) and MELD-A (OR 2.73, p = 0.006) with 1-year events. Stepwise regression showed an independent correlation of RVSWI<5gm-m(2)/beat (OR 6.70, p < 0.01), PCWP>20 mm Hg (OR 5.48, p < 0.01), MELD-A>14 (OR 3.72, p< 0.01) and peak VO(2)<14 ml/kg/min (OR 3.36, p = 0.024) with 1-year events. A scoring system was developed: MELD-A>14 and peak VO(2)<14-1 point each; and PCWP>20 and RVSWI<5-2 points each. A cut-off at≥4 demonstrated a 54% sensitivity and 88% specificity for 1-year events. Ambulatory HF patients have significant 1-year event rates. Risk stratification based on exercise performance, left-sided congestion, right ventricular dysfunction and liver congestion allows prediction of 1-year prognosis. Our findings support early and timely referral for VAD and/or transplant. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence-based Guidelines for Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening (PRSBS) for Colorectal Cancer: Lessons learned from the US Armed Forces: Consensus and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Itzhak; Langan, Russell C.; Summers, Thomas A.; Steele, Scott R.; Waldman, Scott A.; Backman, Vadim; Yee, Judy; Nissan, Aviram; Young, Patrick; Womeldorph, Craig; Mancusco, Paul; Mueller, Renee; Noto, Khristian; Grundfest, Warren; Bilchik, Anton J.; Protic, Mladjan; Daumer, Martin; Eberhardt, John; Man, Yan Gao; Brücher, Björn LDM; Stojadinovic, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States (U.S.), with estimates of 143,460 new cases and 51,690 deaths for the year 2012. Numerous organizations have published guidelines for CRC screening; however, these numerical estimates of incidence and disease-specific mortality have remained stable from years prior. Technological, genetic profiling, molecular and surgical advances in our modern era should allow us to improve risk stratification of patients with CRC and identify those who may benefit from preventive measures, early aggressive treatment, alternative treatment strategies, and/or frequent surveillance for the early detection of disease recurrence. To better negotiate future economic constraints and enhance patient outcomes, ultimately, we propose to apply the principals of personalized and precise cancer care to risk-stratify patients for CRC screening (Precision Risk Stratification-Based Screening, PRSBS). We believe that genetic, molecular, ethnic and socioeconomic disparities impact oncological outcomes in general, those related to CRC, in particular. This document highlights evidence-based screening recommendations and risk stratification methods in response to our CRC working group private-public consensus meeting held in March 2012. Our aim was to address how we could improve CRC risk stratification-based screening, and to provide a vision for the future to achieving superior survival rates for patients diagnosed with CRC. PMID:23459409

  4. Risk stratification for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: the role of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Klein, Helmut U; Goldenberg, Ilan; Moss, Arthur J

    2013-08-01

    The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy depends upon appropriate evaluation of a persisting risk of sudden death and estimation of the patient's overall survival. Assessment of a stable and unchangeable arrhythmogenic substrate is often difficult. Structural abnormality and ventricular dysfunction, the two major risk parameters, may recover, and heart failure symptoms can improve so that ICD therapy may not be indicated. Risk stratification can take time while the patient continues to be at high risk of arrhythmic death, and patients may need temporary bridging by a defibrillator in cases of interrupted ICD therapy. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) combines a long-term electrocardiogram (ECG)-monitoring system with an external automatic defibrillator. The LIfeVest® (ZOLL, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) is composed of a garment, containing two defibrillation patch electrodes on the back, and an elastic belt with a front-defibrillation patch electrode and four non-adhesive ECG electrodes, connected to a monitoring and defibrillation unit. The WCD is a safe and effective tool to terminate ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation events, unless a conscious patient withholds shock delivery. It may be used in patients in the early phase after acute myocardial infarction with poor left ventricular function, after acute coronary revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤35%), in patients with acute heart failure in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy of uncertain aetiology and prognosis. The WCD may be helpful in subjects with syncope of assumed tachyarrhythmia origin or in patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. The WCD may replace ICD implantation in patients waiting for heart transplantation or who need a ventricular-assist device. This review describes the technical details and characteristics of the WCD, discusses its

  5. A clinical risk stratification tool for predicting treatment resistance in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Perlis, Roy H

    2013-07-01

    Early identification of depressed individuals at high risk for treatment resistance could be helpful in selecting optimal setting and intensity of care. At present, validated tools to facilitate this risk stratification are rarely used in psychiatric practice. Data were drawn from the first two treatment levels of a multicenter antidepressant effectiveness study in major depressive disorder, the STAR*D (Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression) cohort. This cohort was divided into training, testing, and validation subsets. Only clinical or sociodemographic variables available by or readily amenable to self-report were considered. Multivariate models were developed to discriminate individuals reaching remission with a first or second pharmacological treatment trial from those not reaching remission despite two trials. A logistic regression model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve exceeding .71 in training, testing, and validation cohorts and maintained good calibration across cohorts. Performance of three alternative models with machine learning approaches--a naïve Bayes classifier and a support vector machine, and a random forest model--was less consistent. Similar performance was observed between more and less severe depression, men and women, and primary versus specialty care sites. A web-based calculator was developed that implements this tool and provides graphical estimates of risk. Risk for treatment resistance among outpatients with major depressive disorder can be estimated with a simple model incorporating baseline sociodemographic and clinical features. Future studies should examine the performance of this model in other clinical populations and its utility in treatment selection or clinical trial design. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Raynaud’s phenomenon and digital ischemia: a practical approach to risk stratification, diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Zsuzsanna H.; Wigley, Fredrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Digital ischemia is a painful and often disfiguring event. Such an ischemic event often leads to tissue loss and can significantly affect the patient’s quality of life. Digital ischemia can be secondary to a vasculopathy, vasculitis, embolic disease, trauma, or extrinsic vascular compression. It is an especially serious complication in patients with scleroderma. Risk stratification of patients with scleroderma at risk for digital ischemia is now possible with clinical assessment and autoantibody profiles. Because there are a variety of conditions that lead to digital ischemia, it is important to understand the pathophysiology underlying each ischemic presentation in order to target therapy appropriately. Significant progress has been made in the last two decades in defining the pathophysiological processes leading to digital ischemia in rheumatic diseases. In this article we review the risk stratification, diagnosis, and management of patients with digital ischemia and provide a practical approach to therapy, particularly in scleroderma. PMID:26523153

  7. External validation of scoring systems in risk stratification of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Anchu, Anna Cherian; Mohsina, Subair; Sureshkumar, Sathasivam; Mahalakshmy, T; Kate, Vikram

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to externally validate the four commonly used scoring systems in the risk stratification of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleed (UGIB). Patients of UGIB who underwent endoscopy within 24 h of presentation were stratified prospectively using the pre-endoscopy Rockall score (PRS) >0, complete Rockall score (CRS) >2, Glasgow Blatchford bleeding scores (GBS) >3, and modified GBS (m-GBS) >3 scores. Patients were followed up to 30 days. Prognostic accuracy of the scores was done by comparing areas under curve (AUC) in terms of overall risk stratification, re-bleeding, mortality, need for intervention, and length of hospitalization. One hundred and seventy-five patients were studied. All four scores performed better in the overall risk stratification on AUC [PRS = 0.566 (CI: 0.481-0.651; p-0.043)/CRS = 0.712 (CI: 0.634-0.790); p<0.001)/GBS = 0.810 (CI: 0.744-0.877; p->0.001); m-GBS = 0.802 (CI: 0.734-0.871; p<0.001)], whereas only CRS achieved significance in identifying re-bleed [AUC-0.679 (CI: 0.579-0.780; p = 0.003)]. All the scoring systems except PRS were found to be significantly better in detecting 30-day mortality with a high AUC (CRS = 0.798; p-0.042)/GBS = 0.833; p-0.023); m-GBS = 0.816; p-0.031). All four scores demonstrated significant accuracy in the risk stratification of non-variceal patients; however, only GBS and m-GBS were significant in variceal etiology. Higher cutoff scores achieved better sensitivity/specificity [RS > 0 (50/60.8), CRS > 1 (87.5/50.6), GBS > 7 (88.5/63.3), m-GBS > 7(82.3/72.6)] in the risk stratification. GBS and m-GBS appear to be more valid in risk stratification of UGIB patients in this region. Higher cutoff values achieved better predictive accuracy.

  8. Segmented Poincaré plot analysis for risk stratification in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Voss, A; Fischer, C; Schroeder, R; Figulla, H R; Goernig, M

    2010-01-01

    The prognostic value of heart rate variability in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is limited and does not contribute to risk stratification although the dynamics of ventricular repolarization differs considerably between DCM patients and healthy subjects. Neither linear nor nonlinear methods of heart rate variability analysis could discriminate between patients at high and low risk for sudden cardiac death. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability of the new developed segmented Poincaré plot analysis (SPPA) to enhance risk stratification in DCM. In contrast to the usual applied Poincaré plot analysis the SPPA retains nonlinear features from investigated beat-to-beat interval time series. Main features of SPPA are the rotation of cloud of points and their succeeded variability depended segmentation. Significant row and column probabilities were calculated from the segments and led to discrimination (up to p<0.005) between low and high risk in DCM patients. For the first time an index from Poincaré plot analysis of heart rate variability was able to contribute to risk stratification in patients suffering from DCM.

  9. Risk stratification in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases: Opportunities for clinicians and trialists

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Palak J.; Corpechot, Christophe; Pares, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are infrequent autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases, that disproportionate to their incidence and prevalence, remain very important causes of morbidity and mortality for patients with liver disease. Mechanistic insights spanning genetic risks and biological pathways to liver injury and fibrosis have led to a renewed interest in developing therapies beyond ursodeoxycholic acid that are aimed at both slowing disease course and improving quality of life. International cohort studies have facilitated a much greater understanding of disease heterogeneity, and in so doing highlight the opportunity to provide patients with a more individualized assessment of their risk of progressive liver disease, based on clinical, laboratory, or imaging findings. This has led to a new approach to patient care that focuses on risk stratification (both high and low risk); and furthermore allows such stratification tools to help identify patient subgroups at greatest potential benefit from inclusion in clinical trials. In this article, we review the applicability and validity of risk stratification in autoimmune cholestatic liver disease, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of current and emergent approaches. (Hepatology 2016;63:644–659) PMID:26290473

  10. Unification of favourable intermediate-, unfavourable intermediate-, and very high-risk stratification criteria for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Zelefsky, Michael J; Woo, Kaitlin M; Spratt, Daniel E; Kollmeier, Marisa A; McBride, Sean; Pei, Xin; Sandler, Howard M; Zhang, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    To improve on the existing risk-stratification systems for prostate cancer. This was a retrospective investigation including 2 248 patients undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single institution. We separated National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate-risk prostate cancer into 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Similarly, NCCN high-risk prostate cancer was stratified into 'standard' and 'very high-risk' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Patients with unfavourable-intermediate-risk (UIR) prostate cancer had significantly inferior prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P < 0.001), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, P < 0.001), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P < 0.001), and overall survival (OS, P < 0.001) compared with patients with favourable-intermediate-risk (FIR) prostate cancer. Similarly, patients with very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA-RFS (P < 0.001), DMFS (P < 0.001), and PCSM (P = 0.001) compared with patients with standard high-risk (SHR) prostate cancer. Moreover, patients with FIR and low-risk prostate cancer had similar outcomes, as did patients with UIR and SHR prostate cancer. Consequently, we propose the following risk-stratification system: Group 1, low risk and FIR; Group 2, UIR and SHR; and Group 3, VHR. These groups have markedly different outcomes, with 8-year distant metastasis rates of 3%, 9%, and 29% (P < 0.001) for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 8-year PCSM of 1%, 4%, and 13% (P < 0.001) after EBRT. This modified stratification system was significantly more accurate than the three-tiered NCCN system currently in clinical use for all outcomes. Modifying the NCCN risk-stratification system to group FIR with low-risk patients and UIR

  11. Current state of prognostication and risk stratification in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Amer M; Gore, Steven D; Padron, Eric; Komrokji, Rami S

    2015-03-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by significant biologic and clinical heterogeneity. Because of the wide outcome variability, accurate prognostication is vital to high-quality risk-adaptive care of MDS patients. In this review, we discuss the current state of prognostic schemes for MDS and overview efforts aimed at utilizing molecular aberrations for prognostication in clinical practice. Several prognostic instruments have been developed and validated with increasing accuracy and complexity. Oncologists should be aware of the inherent limitations of these prognostic tools as they counsel patients and make clinical decisions. As more therapies are becoming available for MDS, the focus of model development is shifting from prognostic to treatment-specific predictive instruments. In addition to providing additional prognostic data beyond traditional clinical and pathologic parameters, the improved understanding of the genetic landscape and pathophysiologic consequences in MDS may allow the construction of treatment-specific predictive instruments. How to best use the results of molecular mutation testing to inform clinical decision making in MDS is still a work in progress. Important steps in this direction include standardization in performance and interpretation of assays and better understanding of the independent prognostic importance of the recurrent mutations, especially the less frequent ones.

  12. Development of a Bayesian Classifier for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-29

    IV 0 2 10 23 BIRADS V 0 1 2 1 No mammogram 116 94 55 45 Breast biopsy category .4076 Benign, no atypia 19 12 27 34 Premalignant 1 0 2 4 Infiltrating... breast EIS result∗ Estimated outcome, % Known evidence Biopsy category EIS Gail Benign, no Infiltrating cancer Case frequency, % result cutoff‘ atypia or...Development of a Bayesian Classifier for Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: A Feasibility Study Alexander Stojadinovic, MD,a,b Christina Eberhardt,a

  13. Accurate Diabetes Risk Stratification Using Machine Learning: Role of Missing Value and Outliers.

    PubMed

    Maniruzzaman, Md; Rahman, Md Jahanur; Al-MehediHasan, Md; Suri, Harman S; Abedin, Md Menhazul; El-Baz, Ayman; Suri, Jasjit S

    2018-04-10

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which blood sugar levels are too high. About 8.8% of the world was diabetic in 2017. It is projected that this will reach nearly 10% by 2045. The major challenge is that when machine learning-based classifiers are applied to such data sets for risk stratification, leads to lower performance. Thus, our objective is to develop an optimized and robust machine learning (ML) system under the assumption that missing values or outliers if replaced by a median configuration will yield higher risk stratification accuracy. This ML-based risk stratification is designed, optimized and evaluated, where: (i) the features are extracted and optimized from the six feature selection techniques (random forest, logistic regression, mutual information, principal component analysis, analysis of variance, and Fisher discriminant ratio) and combined with ten different types of classifiers (linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, naïve Bayes, Gaussian process classification, support vector machine, artificial neural network, Adaboost, logistic regression, decision tree, and random forest) under the hypothesis that both missing values and outliers when replaced by computed medians will improve the risk stratification accuracy. Pima Indian diabetic dataset (768 patients: 268 diabetic and 500 controls) was used. Our results demonstrate that on replacing the missing values and outliers by group median and median values, respectively and further using the combination of random forest feature selection and random forest classification technique yields an accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and area under the curve as: 92.26%, 95.96%, 79.72%, 91.14%, 91.20%, and 0.93, respectively. This is an improvement of 10% over previously developed techniques published in literature. The system was validated for its stability and reliability. RF-based model showed the best

  14. Probabilistic Modeling Of Ocular Biomechanics In VIIP: Risk Stratification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feola, A.; Myers, J. G.; Raykin, J.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    the peak strains, we ranked and then normalized these coefficients, considering that normalized values 0.5 implied a substantial influence on the range of the peak strains in the optic nerve head (ONH). IOP and ICP were found to have a major influence on the peak strains in the ONH, as did optic nerve and LC stiffness. Interestingly, the stiffness of the sclera far from the scleral canal did not have a large influence on peak strains in ONH tissues; however, the collagen fiber stiffness in the peripapillary sclera and annular ring both influenced the peak strains within the ONH. We have created a physiologically relevant model that incorporated collagen fibers to study the effects of elevated ICP. Elevated ICP resulted in strains in the optic nerve that are not predicted to occur on earth: the upright or supine conditions. We found that IOP, ICP, lamina cribrosa stiffness and optic nerve stiffness had the highest association with these extreme strains in the ONH. These extreme strains may activate mechanosensitive cells that induce tissue remodeling and are a risk factor for the development of VIIP.

  15. Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3-2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period.

  16. Cytoplasmic expression of C-MYC protein is associated with risk stratification of mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Zhang, Xi; Chen, Rui; Wei, Yan; Zou, Zhongmin; Chen, Xinghua

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association of C-MYC protein expression and risk stratification in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), and to evaluate the utility of C-MYC protein as a prognostic biomarker in clinical practice. We conducted immunohistochemical staining of C-MYC, Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), CD8, Ki-67, p53 and SRY (sex determining region Y) -11 (SOX11) to investigate their expression in 64 patients with MCL. The staining results and other clinical data were evaluated for their roles in risk stratification of MCL cases using ANOVA, Chi-square, and Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient analysis. Immunohistochemical staining in our study indicated that SOX11, Ki-67 and p53 presented nuclear positivity of tumor cells, CD8 showed membrane positivity in infiltrating T lymphocytes while PD-L1 showed membrane and cytoplasmic positivity mainly in macrophage cells and little in tumor cells. We observed positive staining of C-MYC either in the nucleus or cytoplasm or in both subcellular locations. There were significant differences in cytoplasmic C-MYC expression, Ki-67 proliferative index of tumor cells, and CD8 positive tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (CD8+TIL) among three risk groups ( P  = 0.000, P  = 0.037 and P =0.020, respectively). However, no significant differences existed in the expression of nuclear C-MYC, SOX11, p53, and PD-L1 in MCL patients with low-, intermediate-, and high risks. In addition, patient age and serum LDH level were also significantly different among 3 groups of patients ( P  = 0.006 and P  = 0.000, respectively). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis indicated that cytoplasmic C-MYC expression, Ki-67 index, age, WBC, as well as LDH level had significantly positive correlations with risk stratification ( P  = 0.000, 0.015, 0.000, 0.029 and 0.000, respectively), while CD8+TIL in tumor microenvironment negatively correlated with risk stratification of patients ( P  = 0.006). Patients with increased positive

  17. A Risk Stratification Model for Lung Cancer Based on Gene Coexpression Network and Deep Learning

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Risk stratification model for lung cancer with gene expression profile is of great interest. Instead of previous models based on individual prognostic genes, we aimed to develop a novel system-level risk stratification model for lung adenocarcinoma based on gene coexpression network. Using multiple microarray, gene coexpression network analysis was performed to identify survival-related networks. A deep learning based risk stratification model was constructed with representative genes of these networks. The model was validated in two test sets. Survival analysis was performed using the output of the model to evaluate whether it could predict patients' survival independent of clinicopathological variables. Five networks were significantly associated with patients' survival. Considering prognostic significance and representativeness, genes of the two survival-related networks were selected for input of the model. The output of the model was significantly associated with patients' survival in two test sets and training set (p < 0.00001, p < 0.0001 and p = 0.02 for training and test sets 1 and 2, resp.). In multivariate analyses, the model was associated with patients' prognosis independent of other clinicopathological features. Our study presents a new perspective on incorporating gene coexpression networks into the gene expression signature and clinical application of deep learning in genomic data science for prognosis prediction. PMID:29581968

  18. Percentage of Positive Biopsy Cores: A Better Risk Stratification Model for Prostate Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Jiayi; Vicini, Frank A.; Williams, Scott G.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the prognostic value of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) and perineural invasion in predicting the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer and to explore the possibilities to improve on existing risk-stratification models. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 1,056 patients with clinical Stage T1c-T3N0M0 prostate cancer, who had four or more biopsy cores sampled and complete biopsy core data available, were treated with external beam RT, with or without a high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost at William Beaumont Hospital. The median follow-up was 7.6 years. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed with PPC, Gleasonmore » score, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, T stage, PNI, radiation dose, androgen deprivation, age, prostate-specific antigen frequency, and follow-up duration. A new risk stratification (PPC classification) was empirically devised to incorporate PPC and replace the T stage. Results: On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the PPC was an independent predictor of distant metastasis, cause-specific survival, and overall survival (all p < .05). A PPC >50% was associated with significantly greater distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-8.61), and its independent predictive value remained significant with or without androgen deprivation therapy (all p < .05). In contrast, PNI and T stage were only predictive for locoregional recurrence. Combining the PPC ({<=}50% vs. >50%) with National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk stratification demonstrated added prognostic value of distant metastasis for the intermediate-risk (hazard ratio, 5.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-16.6) and high-risk (hazard ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.70-11.3) groups, regardless of the use of androgen deprivation and high-dose RT (all p < .05). The proposed PPC classification appears to provide improved stratification of the clinical outcomes relative to the

  19. Preablation 131-I scans with SPECT/CT contribute to thyroid cancer risk stratification and 131-I therapy planning.

    PubMed

    Avram, Anca M; Esfandiari, Nazanene H; Wong, Ka Kit

    2015-05-01

    The use of preablation diagnostic radioiodine scans for risk stratification and radioiodine therapy planning for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains controversial. The objective was to assess the contribution of preablation diagnostic 131-I scans with SPECT/CT (Dx 131-I scan) to (1) the risk stratification and (2) the postoperative management of DTC. The study was designed as a prospective sequential patient series. The study was conducted at a University hospital. Three hundred twenty patients (pts) with DTC (219F; 101M, mean age 47.3 ± 16.4 y, range 10-90) were studied. Using clinical and histopathology information an endocrinologist performed risk stratification and determined postoperative management with respect to radioiodine therapy (RAI) planning. The decision to withhold or to administer RAI, and the recommended low, medium or high therapeutic 131-I activity were recorded. Dx 131-I scans were performed and interpreted by two nuclear medicine physicians as showing thyroid remnant, cervical nodal, or distant metastases. The endocrinologist then reperformed risk stratification and reformulated management after consideration of Dx 131-I scans and stimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) information. Main outcome measures were changes in risk stratification and management after Dx 131-I scans. Detection of unsuspected nodal and distant metastases and elevated stimulated Tg levels resulted in a change in the estimated risk of recurrence in 15% of patients, and management in 31% of patients, as compared to initial risk stratification and management based on histopathology alone. Both imaging data and stimulated thyroglobulin levels acquired at the time of Dx 131-I scans are consequential for 131-I therapy planning, providing information that changes risk stratification in 15% of patients as compared to recurrence risk estimation based on histopathology alone. Dx 131-I scans contribute to risk stratification by defining residual nodal and distant metastatic disease

  20. Improving risk-stratification of Diabetes complications using temporal data mining.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Lucia; Dagliati, Arianna; Segagni, Daniele; Leporati, Paola; Chiovato, Luca; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    To understand which factor trigger worsened disease control is a crucial step in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) patient management. The MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission under the FP7 program, has been designed to integrate heterogeneous data sources and provide decision support in chronic T2D management through patients' continuous stratification. In this work we show how temporal data mining can be fruitfully exploited to improve risk stratification. In particular, we exploit administrative data on drug purchases to divide patients in meaningful groups. The detection of drug consumption patterns allows stratifying the population on the basis of subjects' purchasing attitude. Merging these findings with clinical values indicates the relevance of the applied methods while showing significant differences in the identified groups. This extensive approach emphasized the exploitation of administrative data to identify patterns able to explain clinical conditions.

  1. Proposals for enhanced health risk assessment and stratification in an integrated care scenario

    PubMed Central

    Dueñas-Espín, Ivan; Vela, Emili; Pauws, Steffen; Bescos, Cristina; Cano, Isaac; Cleries, Montserrat; Contel, Joan Carles; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Kaye, Rachelle; Lahr, Maarten M H; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Moharra, Montserrat; Monterde, David; Mora, Joana; Nalin, Marco; Pavlickova, Andrea; Piera, Jordi; Ponce, Sara; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Schonenberg, Helen; Störk, Stefan; Tegner, Jesper; Velickovski, Filip; Westerteicher, Christoph; Roca, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. Settings The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). Participants Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. Primary and secondary outcome measures We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. Results There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. Conclusions The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches

  2. Proposals for enhanced health risk assessment and stratification in an integrated care scenario.

    PubMed

    Dueñas-Espín, Ivan; Vela, Emili; Pauws, Steffen; Bescos, Cristina; Cano, Isaac; Cleries, Montserrat; Contel, Joan Carles; de Manuel Keenoy, Esteban; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Kaye, Rachelle; Lahr, Maarten M H; Lluch-Ariet, Magí; Moharra, Montserrat; Monterde, David; Mora, Joana; Nalin, Marco; Pavlickova, Andrea; Piera, Jordi; Ponce, Sara; Santaeugenia, Sebastià; Schonenberg, Helen; Störk, Stefan; Tegner, Jesper; Velickovski, Filip; Westerteicher, Christoph; Roca, Josep

    2016-04-15

    Population-based health risk assessment and stratification are considered highly relevant for large-scale implementation of integrated care by facilitating services design and case identification. The principal objective of the study was to analyse five health-risk assessment strategies and health indicators used in the five regions participating in the Advancing Care Coordination and Telehealth Deployment (ACT) programme (http://www.act-programme.eu). The second purpose was to elaborate on strategies toward enhanced health risk predictive modelling in the clinical scenario. The five ACT regions: Scotland (UK), Basque Country (ES), Catalonia (ES), Lombardy (I) and Groningen (NL). Responsible teams for regional data management in the five ACT regions. We characterised and compared risk assessment strategies among ACT regions by analysing operational health risk predictive modelling tools for population-based stratification, as well as available health indicators at regional level. The analysis of the risk assessment tool deployed in Catalonia in 2015 (GMAs, Adjusted Morbidity Groups) was used as a basis to propose how population-based analytics could contribute to clinical risk prediction. There was consensus on the need for a population health approach to generate health risk predictive modelling. However, this strategy was fully in place only in two ACT regions: Basque Country and Catalonia. We found marked differences among regions in health risk predictive modelling tools and health indicators, and identified key factors constraining their comparability. The research proposes means to overcome current limitations and the use of population-based health risk prediction for enhanced clinical risk assessment. The results indicate the need for further efforts to improve both comparability and flexibility of current population-based health risk predictive modelling approaches. Applicability and impact of the proposals for enhanced clinical risk assessment require

  3. Risk Stratification in Arrhythmic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Without Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Brun, Francesca; Groeneweg, Judith A.; Gear, Kathleen; Sinagra, Gianfranco; van der Heijden, Jeroen; Mestroni, Luisa; Hauer, Richard N.; Borgstrom, Mark; Marcus, Frank I.; Hughes, Trina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study is risk stratification of patients with arrhythmic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Background There is a need to identify those who need an automatic implantable defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden death. Methods This is an analysis of 88 patients with ARVC from three centers who were not treated with an ICD. Results Risk factors for subsequent arrhythmic deaths were pre-enrollment sustained or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and decreased left ventricular function. Conclusion These factors serve as proposed guidelines for implantation of an ICD in patients with ARVC to prevent sudden death. PMID:27790640

  4. Role of Immune Microenvironmental Factors for Improving the IPI-related Risk Stratification of Aggressive B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Xi; Zou, Zhong Min; Chen, Xing Hua

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the risk stratification of aggressive B cell lymphoma using the immune microenvironment and clinical factors. A total of 127 patients with aggressive B cell lymphoma between 2014 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. CD4, Foxp3, CD8, CD68, CD163, PD-1, and PD-L1 expression levels were evaluated in paraffin-embedded lymphoma tissues to identify their roles in the risk stratification. Eleven factors were identified for further evaluation using analysis of variance, chi-square, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Significant differences in 11 factors (age, Ann Arbor stage, B symptom, ECOG performance status, infiltrating CD8+ T cells, PD-L1 expression, absolute blood monocyte count, serum lactate dehydrogenase, serum iron, serum albumin, and serum β2-microglobulin) were observed among patient groups stratified by at least two risk stratification methods [International Prognostic Index (IPI), revised IPI, and NCCN-IPI models] (P < 0.05). Concordance rates were high (81.4%-100.0%) when these factors were used for the risk stratification. No difference in the risk stratification results was observed with or without the Ann Arbor stage data. We developed a convenient and inexpensive tool for use in risk stratification of aggressive B cell lymphomas, although further studies on the role of immune microenvironmental factors are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk stratification using lean body mass in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Hioki, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kozuma, Ken; Yamamoto, Masanori; Naganuma, Toru; Araki, Motoharu; Tada, Norio; Shirai, Shinichi; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Higashimori, Akihiro; Mizutani, Kazuki; Tabata, Minoru; Takagi, Kensuke; Ueno, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kentaro

    2018-02-22

    The prognostic impact of skeletal muscle mass, assessed using lean body mass (LBM), remain unclear in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The aim of this study to assess prognostic impact of LBM on mortality after TAVR. We assessed 1,613 patients (median age 85 years, 70% female) who underwent TAVI from October 2013 to April 2016 using OCEAN (Optimized transCathEter vAlvular interveNtion)-TAVI registry data. LBM was calculated using the James formula. The primary endpoint was all-cause death after TAVR. Median follow-up period was 287 days (interquartile range 110-462). The Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with low LBM had significantly higher incidence of all-cause death than those with high LBM in male (32.3% vs. 9.9%, log rank P < 0.001) and female (15.8% vs. 9.2%, log-rank P = 0.011). On contrary, the risk stratification using body mass index (BMI) could not validate into female patients who underwent TAVR. The multivariate analysis showed that the LBM was an independent predictor of all-cause death in male (Hazard ratio [HR] 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.98) and female (HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99). Inversely, the assessment using BMI could not identify the high-risk population in a female. The patients with low LBM had the higher incidence of all-cause death after TAVR than those with high LBM, regardless of gender. Thus, the risk stratification using LBM might provide further insight to identify the high-risk TAVR population, compared to conventional risk stratification using BMI. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Prodromal Parkinsonism and Neurodegenerative Risk Stratification in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Michael; Rolinski, Michal; Evetts, Samuel; Baig, Fahd; Ruffmann, Claudio; Gornall, Aimie; Klein, Johannes C; Lo, Christine; Dennis, Gary; Bandmann, Oliver; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Hu, Michele TM

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is the most specific marker of prodromal alpha-synucleinopathies. We sought to delineate the baseline clinical characteristics of RBD and evaluate risk stratification models. Methods Clinical assessments were performed in 171 RBD, 296 control, and 119 untreated Parkinson’s (PD) participants. Putative risk measures were assessed as predictors of prodromal neurodegeneration, and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) criteria for prodromal PD were applied. Participants were screened for common leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)/glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA) gene mutations. Results Compared to controls, participants with RBD had higher rates of solvent exposure, head injury, smoking, obesity, and antidepressant use. GBA mutations were more common in RBD, but no LRRK2 mutations were found. RBD participants performed significantly worse than controls on Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III, timed “get-up-and-go”, Flamingo test, Sniffin Sticks, and cognitive tests and had worse measures of constipation, quality of life (QOL), and orthostatic hypotension. For all these measures except UPDRS-III, RBD and PD participants were equally impaired. Depression, anxiety, and apathy were worse in RBD compared to PD participants. Stratification of people with RBD according to antidepressant use, obesity, and age altered the odds ratio (OR) of hyposmia compared to controls from 3.4 to 45.5. 74% (95% confidence interval [CI] 66%, 80%) of RBD participants met the MDS criteria for probable prodromal Parkinson’s compared to 0.3% (95% CI 0.009%, 2%) of controls. Conclusions RBD are impaired across a range of clinical measures consistent with prodromal PD and suggestive of a more severe nonmotor subtype. Clinical risk stratification has the potential to select higher risk patients for neuroprotective interventions. PMID:28472425

  7. Overcoming intratumoural heterogeneity for reproducible molecular risk stratification: a case study in advanced kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Lubbock, Alexander L R; Stewart, Grant D; O'Mahony, Fiach C; Laird, Alexander; Mullen, Peter; O'Donnell, Marie; Powles, Thomas; Harrison, David J; Overton, Ian M

    2017-06-26

    Metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer (mccRCC) portends a poor prognosis and urgently requires better clinical tools for prognostication as well as for prediction of response to treatment. Considerable investment in molecular risk stratification has sought to overcome the performance ceiling encountered by methods restricted to traditional clinical parameters. However, replication of results has proven challenging, and intratumoural heterogeneity (ITH) may confound attempts at tissue-based stratification. We investigated the influence of confounding ITH on the performance of a novel molecular prognostic model, enabled by pathologist-guided multiregion sampling (n = 183) of geographically separated mccRCC cohorts from the SuMR trial (development, n = 22) and the SCOTRRCC study (validation, n = 22). Tumour protein levels quantified by reverse phase protein array (RPPA) were investigated alongside clinical variables. Regularised wrapper selection identified features for Cox multivariate analysis with overall survival as the primary endpoint. The optimal subset of variables in the final stratification model consisted of N-cadherin, EPCAM, Age, mTOR (NEAT). Risk groups from NEAT had a markedly different prognosis in the validation cohort (log-rank p = 7.62 × 10 -7 ; hazard ratio (HR) 37.9, 95% confidence interval 4.1-353.8) and 2-year survival rates (accuracy = 82%, Matthews correlation coefficient = 0.62). Comparisons with established clinico-pathological scores suggest favourable performance for NEAT (Net reclassification improvement 7.1% vs International Metastatic Database Consortium score, 25.4% vs Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center score). Limitations include the relatively small cohorts and associated wide confidence intervals on predictive performance. Our multiregion sampling approach enabled investigation of NEAT validation when limiting the number of samples analysed per tumour, which significantly degraded performance

  8. A new gender-specific model for skin autofluorescence risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Muhammad S.; Damanhouri, Zoheir A.; Kimhofer, Torben; Mosli, Hala H.; Holmes, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Non-invasive skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement serves as a proxy for tissue accumulation of AGEs. We assessed reference SAF and skin reflectance (SR) values in a Saudi population (n = 1,999) and evaluated the existing risk stratification scale. The mean SAF of the study cohort was 2.06 (SD = 0.57) arbitrary units (AU), which is considerably higher than the values reported for other populations. We show a previously unreported and significant difference in SAF values between men and women, with median (range) values of 1.77 AU (0.79–4.84 AU) and 2.20 AU (0.75–4.59 AU) respectively (p-value « 0.01). Age, presence of diabetes and BMI were the most influential variables in determining SAF values in men, whilst in female participants, SR was also highly correlated with SAF. Diabetes, hypertension and obesity all showed strong association with SAF, particularly when gender differences were taken into account. We propose an adjusted, gender-specific disease risk stratification scheme for Middle Eastern populations. SAF is a potentially valuable clinical screening tool for cardiovascular risk assessment but risk scores should take gender and ethnicity into consideration for accurate diagnosis. PMID:25974028

  9. Developing a risk stratification tool for audit of outcome after surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tighe, David F; Thomas, Alan J; Sassoon, Isabel; Kinsman, Robin; McGurk, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Patients treated surgically for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represent a heterogeneous group. Adjusting for patient case mix and complexity of surgery is essential if reporting outcomes represent surgical performance and quality of care. A case note audit totaling 1075 patients receiving 1218 operations done for HNSCC in 4 cancer networks was completed. Logistic regression, decision tree analysis, an artificial neural network, and Naïve Bayes Classifier were used to adjust for patient case-mix using pertinent preoperative variables. Thirty-day complication rates varied widely (34%-51%; P < .015) between units. The predictive models allowed risk stratification. The artificial neural network demonstrated the best predictive performance (area under the curve [AUC] 0.85). Early postoperative complications are a measurable outcome that can be used to benchmark surgical performance and quality of care. Surgical outcome reporting in national clinical audits should be taking account of the patient case mix. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Differences in short-term versus long-term outcomes of older black versus white patients with myocardial infarction: findings from the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines (CRUSADE).

    PubMed

    Mathews, Robin; Chen, Anita Y; Thomas, Laine; Wang, Tracy Y; Chin, Chee Tang; Thomas, Kevin L; Roe, Matthew T; Peterson, Eric D

    2014-08-19

    Blacks are less likely than whites to receive coronary revascularization and evidence-based therapies after acute myocardial infarction, yet the impact of these differences on long-term outcomes is unknown. We linked Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines (CRUSADE) registry data to national Medicare claims, creating a longitudinal record of care and outcomes among 40 500 patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated at 446 hospitals to examine mortality and readmission rates (mean follow-up, 2.4 years) among black and white patients. Relative to whites (n=37 384), blacks (n=3116) were more often younger and female; more often had diabetes mellitus and renal failure; and received less aggressive interventions, including cardiac catheterization (60.7% versus 54.0%; P<0.001), percutaneous coronary intervention (32.1% versus 23.8%; P<0.001), and coronary bypass surgery (9.2% versus 5.7%; P<0.001). Although blacks had lower 30-day mortality (9.1% versus 9.9%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-0.92), they had higher observed mortality at 1 year (27.9% versus 24.5%; P<0.001), although this was not significant after adjustment on long-term follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.07). Black patients also had higher 30-day (23.6% versus 20.0%; P<0.001) and 1-year (62.0% versus 54.6%; P<0.001) all-cause readmission, but these differences were no longer significant after risk adjustment on 30-day (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.13) and long-term (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.11) follow-up. Although older blacks with an acute myocardial infarction had lower initial mortality rates than whites, this early survival advantage did not persist during long-term follow-up. The reasons for this are multifactorial but may include

  11. Stratification of the Risk of Sudden Death in Nonischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maurício; Zimerman, Leandro Ioschpe; Rohde, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advancements, heart failure remains a highly prevalent clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 30%-40% patients, the etiology of heart failure is nonischemic. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is capable of preventing sudden death and decreasing total mortality in patients with nonischemic heart failure. However, a significant number of patients receiving ICD do not receive any kind of therapy during follow-up. Moreover, considering the situation in Brazil and several other countries, ICD cannot be implanted in all patients with nonischemic heart failure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify patients at an increased risk of sudden death because these would benefit more than patients at a lower risk, despite the presence of heart failure in both risk groups. In this study, the authors review the primary available methods for the stratification of the risk of sudden death in patients with nonischemic heart failure. PMID:25352509

  12. A two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amland, Robert C; Lyons, Jason J; Greene, Tracy L; Haley, James M

    2015-10-01

    To examine the diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis. Observational cohort study employing a two-stage sepsis clinical decision support to recognise and stratify patients with sepsis. The stage one component was comprised of a cloud-based clinical decision support with 24/7 surveillance to detect patients at risk of sepsis. The cloud-based clinical decision support delivered notifications to the patients' designated nurse, who then electronically contacted a provider. The second stage component comprised a sepsis screening and stratification form integrated into the patient electronic health record, essentially an evidence-based decision aid, used by providers to assess patients at bedside. Urban, 284 acute bed community hospital in the USA; 16,000 hospitalisations annually. Data on 2620 adult patients were collected retrospectively in 2014 after the clinical decision support was implemented. 'Suspected infection' was the established gold standard to assess clinical decision support clinimetric performance. A sepsis alert activated on 417 (16%) of 2620 adult patients hospitalised. Applying 'suspected infection' as standard, the patient population characteristics showed 72% sensitivity and 73% positive predictive value. A postalert screening conducted by providers at bedside of 417 patients achieved 81% sensitivity and 94% positive predictive value. Providers documented against 89% patients with an alert activated by clinical decision support and completed 75% of bedside screening and stratification of patients with sepsis within one hour from notification. A clinical decision support binary alarm system with cross-checking functionality improves early recognition and facilitates stratification of patients with sepsis.

  13. Emergence of molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm; implications for risk stratification and management

    PubMed Central

    Golestani, Reza; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Imaging cellular and molecular processes associated with aneurysm expansion, dissection, and rupture can potentially transform the management of patients with thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAA and AAA). Here, we review recent advances in molecular imaging of aortic aneurysm, focusing on imaging modalities with the greatest potential for clinical translation and application, PET, SPECT and MRI. Inflammation (e.g., with 18F-FDG, nanoparticles) and matrix remodeling (e.g., with matrix metalloproteinase-targeted tracers) are highlighted as promising targets for molecular imaging of aneurysm. Potential alternative or complementary approaches to molecular imaging for aneurysm risk stratification are briefly discussed. PMID:24381115

  14. Lagged segmented Poincaré plot analysis for risk stratification in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Fischer, Claudia; Schroeder, Rico; Figulla, Hans R; Goernig, Matthias

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to introduce a new type of heart-rate variability analysis improving risk stratification in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and to provide additional information about impaired heart beat generation in these patients. Beat-to-beat intervals (BBI) of 30-min ECGs recorded from 91 DCM patients and 21 healthy subjects were analyzed applying the lagged segmented Poincaré plot analysis (LSPPA) method. LSPPA includes the Poincaré plot reconstruction with lags of 1-100, rotating the cloud of points, its normalized segmentation adapted to their standard deviations, and finally, a frequency-dependent clustering. The lags were combined into eight different clusters representing specific frequency bands within 0.012-1.153 Hz. Statistical differences between low- and high-risk DCM could be found within the clusters II-VIII (e.g., cluster IV: 0.033-0.038 Hz; p = 0.0002; sensitivity = 85.7 %; specificity = 71.4 %). The multivariate statistics led to a sensitivity of 92.9 %, specificity of 85.7 % and an area under the curve of 92.1 % discriminating these patient groups. We introduced the LSPPA method to investigate time correlations in BBI time series. We found that LSPPA contributes considerably to risk stratification in DCM and yields the highest discriminant power in the low and very low-frequency bands.

  15. The evolving field of prognostication and risk stratification in MDS: Recent developments and future directions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Podoltsev, Nikolai; Gore, Steven D; Zeidan, Amer M

    2016-01-01

    The clinical course of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is characterized by wide variability reflecting the underlying genetic and biological heterogeneity of the disease. Accurate prediction of outcomes for individual patients is an integral part of the evidence-based risk/benefit calculations that are necessary for tailoring the aggressiveness of therapeutic interventions. While several prognostication tools have been developed and validated for risk stratification, each of these systems has limitations. The recent progress in genomic sequencing techniques has led to discoveries of recurrent molecular mutations in MDS patients with independent impact on relevant clinical outcomes. Reliable assays of these mutations have already entered the clinic and efforts are currently ongoing to formally incorporate mutational analysis into the existing clinicopathologic risk stratification tools. Additionally, mutational analysis holds promise for going beyond prognostication to therapeutic selection and individualized treatment-specific prediction of outcomes; abilities that would revolutionize MDS patient care. Despite these exciting developments, the best way of incorporating molecular testing for use in prognostication and prediction of outcomes in clinical practice remains undefined and further research is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Noninvasive Computed Tomography–based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M.; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A.; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A.; Bartholmai, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. Objectives: To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. Methods: We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. Conclusions: CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:26052977

  17. Noninvasive Computed Tomography-based Risk Stratification of Lung Adenocarcinomas in the National Lung Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Fabien; Duan, Fenghai; Raghunath, Sushravya M; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald A; Garg, Kavita; Greco, Erin; Nath, Hrudaya; Robb, Richard A; Bartholmai, Brian J; Peikert, Tobias

    2015-09-15

    Screening for lung cancer using low-dose computed tomography (CT) reduces lung cancer mortality. However, in addition to a high rate of benign nodules, lung cancer screening detects a large number of indolent cancers that generally belong to the adenocarcinoma spectrum. Individualized management of screen-detected adenocarcinomas would be facilitated by noninvasive risk stratification. To validate that Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY), a novel image analysis software, successfully risk stratifies screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas based on clinical disease outcomes. We identified retrospective 294 eligible patients diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma spectrum lesions in the low-dose CT arm of the National Lung Screening Trial. The last low-dose CT scan before the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma was analyzed using CANARY blinded to clinical data. Based on their parametric CANARY signatures, all the lung adenocarcinoma nodules were risk stratified into three groups. CANARY risk groups were compared using survival analysis for progression-free survival. A total of 294 patients were included in the analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis of all the 294 adenocarcinoma nodules stratified into the Good, Intermediate, and Poor CANARY risk groups yielded distinct progression-free survival curves (P < 0.0001). This observation was confirmed in the unadjusted and adjusted (age, sex, race, and smoking status) progression-free survival analysis of all stage I cases. CANARY allows the noninvasive risk stratification of lung adenocarcinomas into three groups with distinct post-treatment progression-free survival. Our results suggest that CANARY could ultimately facilitate individualized management of incidentally or screen-detected lung adenocarcinomas.

  18. Risk stratification in myelodysplastic syndromes: is there a role for gene expression profiling?

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Amer M; Prebet, Thomas; Saad Aldin, Ehab; Gore, Steven David

    2014-04-01

    Evaluation of: Pellagatti A, Benner A, Mills KI et al. Identification of gene expression-based prognostic markers in the hematopoietic stem cells of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. J. Clin. Oncol. 31(28), 3557-3564 (2013). Patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) exhibit wide heterogeneity in clinical outcomes making accurate risk-stratification an integral part of the risk-adaptive management paradigm. Current prognostic schemes for MDS rely on clinicopathological parameters. Despite the increasing knowledge of the genetic landscape of MDS and the prognostic impact of many newly discovered molecular aberrations, none to date has been incorporated formally into the major risk models. Efforts are ongoing to use data generated from genome-wide high-throughput techniques to improve the 'individualized' outcome prediction for patients. We here discuss an important paper in which gene expression profiling (GEP) technology was applied to marrow CD34(+) cells from 125 MDS patients to generate and validate a standardized GEP-based prognostic signature.

  19. Use of risk stratification to guide ambulatory management of neutropenic fever. Australian Consensus Guidelines 2011 Steering Committee.

    PubMed

    Worth, L J; Lingaratnam, S; Taylor, A; Hayward, A M; Morrissey, S; Cooney, J; Bastick, P A; Eek, R W; Wei, A; Thursky, K A

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of risk-stratification tools in the setting of neutropenic fever is currently limited by inadequate knowledge and lack of awareness. Within this context, the approach to management of low-risk patients with neutropenic fever is inconsistent with the available evidence across many Australian treating centres. These clinical guidelines define and clarify an accepted standard of care for this patient group given the current evidence base. The Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer risk index is presented as the preferred risk assessment tool for determining patient risk. Suitability of ambulatory care within specific patient populations is discussed, with defined eligibility criteria provided to guide clinical decision-making. Detailed recommendations for implementing appropriate ambulatory strategies, such as early discharge and outpatient antibiotic therapy, are also provided. Due consideration is given to infrastructural requirements and other supportive measures at a resourcing and operational level. An analysis of the relevant health economics is also presented. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Application of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) as a stratification tool on admission in an Italian acute medical ward: A perspective study.

    PubMed

    Spagnolli, Walter; Rigoni, Marta; Torri, Emanuele; Cozzio, Susanna; Vettorato, Elisa; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) as tool for patient risk stratification at admission in an acute Internal Medicine ward and to ensure patient placement in ward areas with the required and most appropriate intensity of care. As secondary objective, we considered NEWS performance in two subgroups of patients: sudden cardiac events (acute coronary syndromes and arrhythmic events), and chronic respiratory insufficiency. We conducted a perspective cohort single centre study on 2,677 unselected patients consecutively admitted from July 2013 to March 2015 in the Internal Medicine ward of the hospital of Trento, Italy. The NEWS was mandatory collected on ward admission. We defined three risk categories for clinical deterioration: low score (NEWS 0-4), medium score (NEWS 5-6), and high score (NEWS≥7). Following adverse outcomes were considered: total and early (<72 hours) in-hospital mortality, urgent transfers to a higher intensity of care. A logistic regression model quantified the association between outcomes and NEWS. For patients with NEWS >4 vs patients with NEWS <4, the risk of early death increased from 12 to 36 times, total mortality from 3.5 to 9, and urgent transfers from 3.5 to 7. In patients with sudden cardiac events, lower scores were significantly associated with higher risk of transfer to a higher intensity of care. In patients affected by chronic hypoxaemia, adverse outcomes occurred less in medium and high score categories of NEWS. National Early Warning Score assessed on ward admission may enable risk stratification of clinical deterioration and can be a good predictor of in-hospital serious adverse outcomes, although sudden cardiac events and chronic hypoxaemia could constitute some limits. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Risk stratification for death and all-cause hospitalization in heart failure clinic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Scott L; Ghalib, Hussam H; Ratz, David; Koelling, Todd M

    2013-11-01

    Most heart failure (HF) risk stratification models were developed for inpatient use, and available outpatient models use a complex set of variables. We hypothesized that routinely collected clinical data could predict the 6-month risk of death and all-cause medical hospitalization in HF clinic outpatients. Using a quality improvement database and multivariable Cox modeling, we derived the Heart Failure Patient Severity Index (HFPSI) in the University of Michigan HF clinic (UM cohort, n = 1,536; 314 reached primary outcome). We externally validated the HFPSI in the Ann Arbor Veterans' Affairs HF clinic (VA cohort, n = 445; 106 outcomes) and explored "real-time" HFPSI use (VA-RT cohort, n = 486; 141 outcomes) by tracking VA patients for 6 months from their most recently calculated HFPSI, rather than using an arbitrary start date for the cohort. The HFPSI model included blood urea nitrogen, B-type natriuretic peptide, New York Heart Association class, diabetes status, history of atrial fibrillation/flutter, and all-cause hospitalization within the prior 1 and 2 to 6 months. The concordance c statistics in the UM/VA/VA-RT cohorts were 0.71/0.68/0.74. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank testing demonstrated excellent risk stratification, particularly between a large, low-risk group (40% of patients, 6-month event rates in the UM/VA/VA-RT cohorts 8%/12%/12%) and a small, high-risk group (10% of patients, 6-month event rates in the UM/VA/VA-RT cohorts 57%/58%/79%). The HFPSI uses readily available data to predict the 6-month risk of death and/or all-cause medical hospitalization in HF clinic outpatients and could potentially help allocate specialized HF resources within health systems. © 2013.

  2. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José; Asayama, Kei; Hansen, Tine W; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovsky, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Wang, Jiguang; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-05-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (P<0.001), but BP load did not substantially refine risk prediction based on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net reclassification improvement ≤0.28%; integrated discrimination improvement ≤0.001%). Systolic/diastolic BP load of 40.0/42.3% or 91.8/73.6 mm Hg×h conferred a 10-year risk of a composite cardiovascular end point similar to a 24-hour systolic/diastolic BP of 130/80 mm Hg. In analyses dichotomized according to these thresholds, increased BP load did not refine risk prediction in the whole study population (R(2)≤0.051) or in untreated participants with 24-hour ambulatory normotension (R(2)≤0.034). In conclusion, BP load does not improve risk stratification based on 24-hour BP level. This also applies to subjects with normal 24-hour BP for whom BP load was proposed to be particularly useful in risk stratification.

  3. Standardized reporting guidelines for emergency department syncope risk-stratification research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Benjamin C; Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Cruz, Jeffrey Dela

    2012-06-01

    There is increasing research interest in the risk stratification of emergency department (ED) syncope patients. A major barrier to comparing and synthesizing existing research is wide variation in the conduct and reporting of studies. The authors wanted to create standardized reporting guidelines for ED syncope risk-stratification research using an expert consensus process. In that pursuit, a panel of syncope researchers was convened and a literature review was performed to identify candidate reporting guideline elements. Candidate elements were grouped into four sections: eligibility criteria, outcomes, electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, and predictors. A two-round, modified Delphi consensus process was conducted using an Internet-based survey application. In the first round, candidate elements were rated on a five-point Likert scale. In the second round, panelists rerated items after receiving information about group ratings from the first round. Items that were rated by >80% of the panelists at the two highest levels of the Likert scale were included in the final guidelines. There were 24 panelists from eight countries who represented five clinical specialties. The panel identified an initial set of 183 candidate elements. After two survey rounds, the final reporting guidelines included 92 items that achieved >80% consensus. These included 10 items for study eligibility, 23 items for outcomes, nine items for ECG abnormalities, and 50 items for candidate predictors. Adherence to these guidelines should facilitate comparison of future research in this area. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Applying Latent Class Analysis to Risk Stratification for Perioperative Mortality in Patients Undergoing Intraabdominal General Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Wall, Melanie M; Li, Guohua

    2016-07-01

    Perioperative risk stratification is often performed using individual risk factors without consideration of the syndemic of these risk factors. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify the classes of comorbidities and risk factors associated with perioperative mortality in patients presenting for intraabdominal general surgery. The 2005 to 2010 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to obtain a cohort of patients undergoing intraabdominal general surgery. Risk factors and comorbidities were entered into LCA models to identify the latent classes, and individuals were assigned to a class based on the highest posterior probability of class membership. Relative risk regression was used to determine the associations between the latent classes and 30-day mortality, with adjustments for procedure. A 9-class model was fit using LCA on 466,177 observations. After combining classes with similar adjusted mortality risks, 5 risk classes were obtained. Compared with the class with average mortality risk (class 4), the risk ratios (95% confidence interval) ranged from 0.020 (0.014-0.027) in the lowest risk class (class 1) to 6.75 (6.46-7.02) in the highest risk class. After adjusting for procedure and ASA physical status, the latent classes remained significantly associated with 30-day mortality. The addition of the risk class variable to a model containing ASA physical status and surgical procedure demonstrated a significant increase in the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.892 vs 0.915; P < 0.0001). Latent classes of risk factors and comorbidities in patients undergoing intraabdominal surgery are predictive of 30-day mortality independent of the ASA physical status and improve risk prediction with the ASA physical status.

  5. Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography Improves Pre-operative Risk Stratification Before the Total Cavopulmonary Connection.

    PubMed

    Park, Patsy W; Atz, Andrew M; Taylor, Carolyn L; Chowdhury, Shahryar M

    2017-05-01

    Single-ventricle patients with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) or end-diastolic pressure (EDP) are excluded from undergoing total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). However, a subset of patients deemed to be at acceptable risk experience prolonged length of stay (LOS) after TCPC. Routine assessment of ventricular function has been inadequate in identifying these high-risk patients. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel method for assessment of myocardial deformation that may be useful in single-ventricle patients. The aim of this study was to perform a contemporary preoperative risk assessment for prolonged LOS to determine whether STE improves risk stratification before TCPC. Our single institution's perioperative data were retrospectively collected. The primary outcome was postoperative LOS >14 days. Longitudinal and circumferential STE deformation measures were analyzed on echocardiograms obtained during preoperative catheterization. Patient-specific, echocardiographic, and catheterization data were included in multivariable logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic area under the curves (AUC) were analyzed. From 2007 to 2014, 135 patients who underwent TCPC were included in the analysis. The median LOS was 11 (IQR 9-14) days. The PVR (P < .01) and circumferential strain rate (CSR) (P < .01) were the only variables independently associated with LOS >14 days. For every 0.1 s -1 CSR increased, there was a 20% increased odds of prolonged LOS. The AUC for CSR was 0.70. The AUC for PVR and EDP combined was 0.68. The AUC for PVR, EDP, and CSR combined was 0.73. Preoperative CSR is independently associated with LOS >14 days and improves preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing TCPC. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Major bleeding events and risk stratification of antithrombotic agents in hemodialysis: Results from the DOPPS

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Manish M.; Larkina, Maria; Thumma, Jyothi R.; Tentori, Francesca; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Mendelssohn, David C.; Chan, Kevin; de Sequera, Patricia; Komenda, Paul; Rigatto, Claudio; Robinson, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    Benefits and risks of antithrombotic agents remain unclear in the hemodialysis population. We aimed to determine variation in antithrombotic agent use, rates of major bleeding events, and to determine factors predictive of stroke and bleeding to allow for risk stratification, enabling more rational decisions about using antithrombotic agents. The sample included 48,144 patients in 12 countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study Phase I–IV. Antithrombotic agents included oral anticoagulants (OAC), ASA and anti-platelet agents (APA). OAC prescription, comorbidities and vascular access were assessed at study entry; data on clinical events including hospitalization due to bleeding were collected every four months during follow-up. There was wide variation in OAC (0.3–18%), APA (3–25%) and ASA use (8–36%), and major bleeding rates (0.05–0.22 events/year) among countries. Rates of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and bleeding events requiring hospitalization were elevated in patients prescribed OAC across adjusted models. The CHADS2 score predicted the risk of stroke in atrial fibrillation patients. Gastrointestinal bleeding in the past 12 months was highly predictive of major bleeding events; for patients with previous gastrointestinal bleeding, the rate of bleeding exceeded the rate of stroke by at least 2-fold across categories of CHADS2 score. Prescription of antithrombotic agents varied greatly. The CHADS2 score and a history of gastrointestinal bleeding were predictive of stroke and bleeding events, respectively, with bleeding rates substantially exceeding stroke rates in all groups including patients at high stroke risk. Appropriate risk stratification and a cautious approach should be considered before OAC use in the dialysis population. PMID:23677245

  7. Risk stratification of childhood medulloblastoma in the molecular era: the current consensus.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Bouffet, Eric; Bailey, Simon; Clifford, Steven C; Doz, Francois; Kool, Marcel; Dufour, Christelle; Vassal, Gilles; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; von Hoff, Katja; Pietsch, Torsten; Northcott, Paul A; Gajjar, Amar; Robinson, Giles W; Padovani, Laetitia; André, Nicolas; Massimino, Maura; Pizer, Barry; Packer, Roger; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D; Pomeroy, Scott L

    2016-06-01

    Historical risk stratification criteria for medulloblastoma rely primarily on clinicopathological variables pertaining to age, presence of metastases, extent of resection, histological subtypes and in some instances individual genetic aberrations such as MYC and MYCN amplification. In 2010, an international panel of experts established consensus defining four main subgroups of medulloblastoma (WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4) delineated by transcriptional profiling. This has led to the current generation of biomarker-driven clinical trials assigning WNT tumors to a favorable prognosis group in addition to clinicopathological criteria including MYC and MYCN gene amplifications. However, outcome prediction of non-WNT subgroups is a challenge due to inconsistent survival reports. In 2015, a consensus conference was convened in Heidelberg with the objective to further refine the risk stratification in the context of subgroups and agree on a definition of risk groups of non-infant, childhood medulloblastoma (ages 3-17). Published and unpublished data over the past 5 years were reviewed, and a consensus was reached regarding the level of evidence for currently available biomarkers. The following risk groups were defined based on current survival rates: low risk (>90 % survival), average (standard) risk (75-90 % survival), high risk (50-75 % survival) and very high risk (<50 % survival) disease. The WNT subgroup and non-metastatic Group 4 tumors with whole chromosome 11 loss or whole chromosome 17 gain were recognized as low-risk tumors that may qualify for reduced therapy. High-risk strata were defined as patients with metastatic SHH or Group 4 tumors, or MYCN-amplified SHH medulloblastomas. Very high-risk patients are Group 3 with metastases or SHH with TP53 mutation. In addition, a number of consensus points were reached that should be standardized across future clinical trials. Although we anticipate new data will emerge from currently ongoing and recently

  8. Risk stratification of childhood medulloblastoma in the molecular era: The Current Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Bouffet, Eric; Bailey, Simon; Clifford, Steven C.; Doz, Francois; Kool, Marcel; Dufour, Christelle; Vassal, Gilles; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; von Hoff, Katja; Pietsch, Torsten; Northcott, Paul A.; Gajjar, Amar; Robinson, Giles W.; Padovani, Laetitia; André, Nicolas; Massimino, Maura; Pizer, Barry; Packer, Roger; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.; Pomeroy, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Historical risk stratification criteria for medulloblastoma rely primarily on clinicopathological variables pertaining to age, presence of metastases, extent of resection, histological subtypes and in some instances individual genetic aberrations such as MYC and MYCN amplification. In 2010, an international panel of experts established consensus defining four main subgroups of medulloblastoma (WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4) delineated by transcriptional profiling. This has led to the current generation of biomarker-driven clinical trials assigning WNT tumors to a favorable prognosis group in addition to clinicopathological criteria including MYC and MYCN gene amplifications. However, outcome prediction of non-WNT subgroups is a challenge due to inconsistent survival reports. In 2015, a consensus conference was convened in Heidelberg with the objective to further refine the risk stratification in the context of subgroups and agree on a definition of risk groups of non-infant, childhood medulloblastoma (ages 3–17). Published and unpublished data over the past five years were reviewed, and a consensus was reached regarding the level of evidence for currently available biomarkers. The following risk groups were defined based on current survival rates: low risk (>90% survival), average (standard) risk (75–90% survival), high risk (50–75% survival) and very high risk (<50% survival) disease. The WNT subgroup and non-metastatic Group 4 tumors with whole chromosome 11 loss or whole chromosome 17 gain were recognized as low risk tumors that may qualify for reduced therapy. High-risk strata were defined as patients with metastatic SHH or Group 4 tumors, or MYCN amplified SHH medulloblastomas. Very high-risk patients are Group 3 with metastases or SHH with TP53 mutation. In addition, a number of consensus points were reached that should be standardized across future clinical trials. Although we anticipate new data will emerge from currently ongoing and recently

  9. A three-gene expression signature model for risk stratification of patients with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Idoia; Mayol, Gemma; Ríos, José; Domenech, Gema; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Oberthuer, André; Fischer, Matthias; Maris, John M; Brodeur, Garrett M; Hero, Barbara; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Galvan, Patricia; de Torres, Carmen; Mora, Jaume; Lavarino, Cinzia

    2012-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor with contrasting clinical courses. Despite elaborate stratification strategies, precise clinical risk assessment still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to develop a PCR-based predictor model to improve clinical risk assessment of patients with neuroblastoma. The model was developed using real-time PCR gene expression data from 96 samples and tested on separate expression data sets obtained from real-time PCR and microarray studies comprising 362 patients. On the basis of our prior study of differentially expressed genes in favorable and unfavorable neuroblastoma subgroups, we identified three genes, CHD5, PAFAH1B1, and NME1, strongly associated with patient outcome. The expression pattern of these genes was used to develop a PCR-based single-score predictor model. The model discriminated patients into two groups with significantly different clinical outcome [set 1: 5-year overall survival (OS): 0.93 ± 0.03 vs. 0.53 ± 0.06, 5-year event-free survival (EFS): 0.85 ± 0.04 vs. 0.042 ± 0.06, both P < 0.001; set 2 OS: 0.97 ± 0.02 vs. 0.61 ± 0.1, P = 0.005, EFS: 0.91 ± 0.8 vs. 0.56 ± 0.1, P = 0.005; and set 3 OS: 0.99 ± 0.01 vs. 0.56 ± 0.06, EFS: 0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 0.43 ± 0.05, both P < 0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that the model was an independent marker for survival (P < 0.001, for all). In comparison with accepted risk stratification systems, the model robustly classified patients in the total cohort and in different clinically relevant risk subgroups. We propose for the first time in neuroblastoma, a technically simple PCR-based predictor model that could help refine current risk stratification systems. ©2012 AACR.

  10. A Three-Gene Expression Signature Model for Risk Stratification of Patients with Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Idoia; Mayol, Gemma; Ríos, José; Domenech, Gema; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Oberthuer, André; Fischer, Matthias; Maris, John M.; Brodeur, Garrett M.; Hero, Barbara; Rodríguez, Eva; Suñol, Mariona; Galvan, Patricia; de Torres, Carmen; Mora, Jaume; Lavarino, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor with contrasting clinical courses. Despite elaborate stratification strategies, precise clinical risk assessment still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to develop a PCR-based predictor model to improve clinical risk assessment of patients with neuroblastoma. Experimental Design The model was developed using real-time PCR gene expression data from 96 samples and tested on separate expression data sets obtained from real-time PCR and microarray studies comprising 362 patients. Results On the basis of our prior study of differentially expressed genes in favorable and unfavorable neuroblastoma subgroups, we identified three genes, CHD5, PAFAH1B1, and NME1, strongly associated with patient outcome. The expression pattern of these genes was used to develop a PCR-based single-score predictor model. The model discriminated patients into two groups with significantly different clinical outcome [set 1: 5-year overall survival (OS): 0.93 ± 0.03 vs. 0.53 ± 0.06, 5-year event-free survival (EFS): 0.85 ± 0.04 vs. 0.042 ± 0.06, both P < 0.001; set 2 OS: 0.97 ± 0.02 vs. 0.61 ± 0.1, P = 0.005, EFS: 0.91 ± 0.8 vs. 0.56 ± 0.1, P = 0.005; and set 3 OS: 0.99 ± 0.01 vs. 0.56 ± 0.06, EFS: 0.96 ± 0.02 vs. 0.43 ± 0.05, both P < 0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that the model was an independent marker for survival (P < 0.001, for all). In comparison with accepted risk stratification systems, the model robustly classified patients in the total cohort and in different clinically relevant risk subgroups. Conclusion We propose for the first time in neuroblastoma, a technically simple PCR-based predictor model that could help refine current risk stratification systems. PMID:22328561

  11. Stratification of breast cancer risk in women with atypia: a Mayo cohort study.

    PubMed

    Degnim, Amy C; Visscher, Daniel W; Berman, Hal K; Frost, Marlene H; Sellers, Thomas A; Vierkant, Robert A; Maloney, Shaun D; Pankratz, V Shane; de Groen, Piet C; Lingle, Wilma L; Ghosh, Karthik; Penheiter, Lois; Tlsty, Thea; Melton, L Joseph; Reynolds, Carol A; Hartmann, Lynn C

    2007-07-01

    Atypical hyperplasia is a well-recognized risk factor for breast cancer, conveying an approximately four-fold increased risk. Data regarding long-term absolute risk and factors for risk stratification are needed. Women with atypical hyperplasia in the Mayo Benign Breast Disease Cohort were identified through pathology review. Subsequent breast cancers were identified via medical records and a questionnaire. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using standardized incidence ratios, comparing the observed number of breast cancers with those expected based on Iowa Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. Age, histologic factors, and family history were evaluated as risk modifiers. Plots of cumulative breast cancer incidence provided estimates of risk over time. With mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 66 breast cancers (19.9%) occurred among 331 women with atypia. RR of breast cancer with atypia was 3.88 (95% CI, 3.00 to 4.94). Marked elevations in risk were seen with multifocal atypia (eg, three or more foci with calcifications [RR, 10.35; 95% CI, 6.13 to 16.4]). RR was higher for younger women (< 45; RR, 6.76; 95% CI, 3.24 to 12.4). Risk was similar for atypical ductal and atypical lobular hyperplasia, and family history added no significant risk. Breast cancer risk remained elevated over 20 years, and the cumulative incidence approached 35% at 30 years. Among women with atypical hyperplasia, multiple foci of atypia and the presence of histologic calcifications may indicate "very high risk" status (> 50% risk at 20 years). A positive family history does not further increase risk in women with atypia.

  12. Self-Reported Stroke Risk Stratification: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study.

    PubMed

    Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne E; Yuan, Ya; Long, D Leann; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-07-01

    The standard for stroke risk stratification is the Framingham Stroke Risk Function (FSRF), an equation requiring an examination for blood pressure assessment, venipuncture for glucose assessment, and ECG to determine atrial fibrillation and heart disease. We assess a self-reported stroke risk function (SRSRF) to stratify stroke risk in comparison to the FSRF. Participants from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) were evaluated at baseline and followed for incident stroke. The FSRF was calculated using directly assessed stroke risk factors. The SRSRF was calculated from 13 self-reported questions to exclude those with prevalent stroke and assess stroke risk. Proportional hazards analysis was used to assess incident stroke risk using the FSRF and SRSRF. Over an average 8.2-year follow-up, 939 of 23 983 participants had a stroke. The FSRF and SRSRF produced highly correlated risk scores ( r Spearman =0.852; 95% confidence interval, 0.849-0.856); however, the SRSRF had higher discrimination of stroke risk than the FSRF (c SRSRF =0.7266; 95% confidence interval, 0.7076-0.7457; c FSRF =0.7075; 95% confidence interval, 0.6877-0.7273; P =0.0038). The 10-year stroke risk in the highest decile of predicted risk was 11.1% for the FSRF and 13.4% for the SRSRF. A simple self-reported questionnaire can be used to identify those at high risk for stroke better than the gold standard FSRF. This instrument can be used clinically to easily identify individuals at high risk for stroke and also scientifically to identify a subpopulation enriched for stroke risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Risk stratification of prostate cancer: integrating multiparametric MRI, nomograms and biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Matthew J; George, Arvin K; Maruf, Mahir; Frye, Thomas P; Muthigi, Akhil; Kongnyuy, Michael; Valayil, Subin G; Pinto, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate risk stratification of prostate cancer is achieved with a number of existing tools to ensure the identification of at-risk patients, characterization of disease aggressiveness, prediction of cancer burden and extrapolation of treatment outcomes for appropriate management of the disease. Statistical tables and nomograms using classic clinicopathological variables have long been the standard of care. However, the introduction of multiparametric MRI, along with fusion-guided targeted prostate biopsy and novel biomarkers, are being assimilated into clinical practice. The majority of studies to date present the outcomes of each in isolation. The current review offers a critical and objective assessment regarding the integration of multiparametric MRI and fusion-guided prostate biopsy with novel biomarkers and predictive nomograms in contemporary clinical practice. PMID:27400645

  14. Doppler endoscopic probe as a guide to risk stratification and definitive hemostasis of peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dennis M; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Jutabha, Rome; Dulai, Gareth S; Machicado, Gustavo A

    2016-01-01

    For more than 4 decades endoscopists have relied on ulcer stigmata for risk stratification and as a guide to hemostasis. None used arterial blood flow underneath stigmata to predict outcomes. For patients with severe peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB), we used a Doppler endoscopic probe (DEP) for (1) detection of blood flow underlying stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH), (2) quantitating rates of residual arterial blood flow under SRH after visually directed standard endoscopic treatment, and (3) comparing risks of rebleeding and actual 30-day rebleed rates for spurting arterial bleeding (Forrest [F] IA) and oozing bleeding (F IB). Prospective cohort study of 163 consecutive patients with severe PUB and different SRH. All blood flow detected by the DEP was arterial. Detection rates were 87.4% in major SRH-spurting arterial bleeding (F IA), non-bleeding visible vessel (F IIA), clot (F IIB)-and were significantly lower at 42.3% (P < .0001) for an intermediate group of oozing bleeding (F IB) or flat spot (F IIC). For spurting bleeding (F IA) versus oozing (F IB), baseline DEP arterial flow was 100% versus 46.7%, residual blood flow detected after endoscopic hemostasis was 35.7% versus 0%, and 30-day rebleed rates were 28.6% versus 0% (all P < .05). (1) For major SRH versus oozing or spot, the arterial blood flow detection rate by the DEP was significantly higher, indicating a higher rebleed risk. (2) Before and after endoscopic treatment, spurting (F IA) PUB had significantly higher rates of blood flow detection than oozing (F IB) PUB and a significantly higher 30-day rebleed rate. (3) The DEP is recommended as a new endoscopic guide with SRH to improve risk stratification and potentially definitive hemostasis for PUB. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Doppler Endoscopic Probe as a Guide to Risk Stratification and Definitive Hemostasis of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas OG; Ghassemi, Kevin A.; Jutabha, Rome; Dulai, Gareth S.; Machicado, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims For more than 4 decades endoscopists have relied on ulcer stigmata for risk stratification and as a guide to hemostasis. None used arterial blood flow underneath stigmata to predict outcomes. For patients with severe peptic ulcer bleeding (PUBs), we used Doppler endoscopic probe (DEP) for: 1. detection of blood flow underlying stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH), 2. quantitating rates of residual arterial blood flow under SRH after visually directed standard endoscopic treatment, and 3. comparing risks of rebleeding and actual 30 day rebleed rates for spurting arterial bleeding (Forrest – FIA) and oozing bleeding (FIB). Methods Prospective cohort study of 163 consecutive patients with severe PUBs and different SRH. Results All blood flow detected by DEP was arterial. Detection rates were 87.4% in major SRH - spurting arterial bleeding (FIA), non bleeding visible vessel (FIIA), clot (FIIB) - and significantly lower at 42.3% (p<0.0001) for intermediate group of oozing bleeding (FIB) or flat spot (FIIC). For spurting bleeding (FIA) vs. oozing (FIB), baseline DEP arterial flow was 100% vs. 46.7%; residual blood flow detected after endoscopic hemostasis was 35.7% vs. 0%; and 30 day rebleed rates were 28.6% vs. 0% (all p<0.05). Conclusions 1. For major SRH vs. oozing or spot, the arterial blood flow detection rates by DEP was significantly higher, indicating a higher rebleed risk. 2. Before and after endoscopic treatment, spurting FIA PUB’s had significantly higher rates of blood flow detection than oozing FIB PUB’s and a significantly higher 30 rebleed rate. 3. DEP is recommended as a new endoscopic guide with SRH to improve risk stratification and potentially definitive hemostasis for PUBs. PMID:26318834

  16. SIOP‐PODC adapted risk stratification and treatment guidelines: Recommendations for neuroblastoma in low‐ and middle‐income settings

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Scott C.; Chantada, Guillermo; Israels, Trijn; Khattab, Mohammed; Alcasabas, Patricia; Lam, Catherine G.; Faulkner, Lawrence; Park, Julie R.; London, Wendy B.; Matthay, Katherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood in high‐income countries (HIC), where consistent treatment approaches based on clinical and tumor biological risk stratification have steadily improved outcomes. However, in low‐ and middle‐ income countries (LMIC), suboptimal diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment may occur due to limited resources and unavailable infrastructure. The clinical practice guidelines outlined in this manuscript are based on current published evidence and expert opinions. Standard risk stratification and treatment explicitly adapted to graduated resource settings can improve outcomes for children with neuroblastoma by reducing preventable toxic death and relapse. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:1305–1316. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25810263

  17. [Syncope and work: role of the occupational physician and global risk stratification].

    PubMed

    Barbic, F; Angaroni, L; Orlandi, M; Costantino, G; Dipaola, E; Borleri, D; Borchini, R; D'Adda, F; Perego, F; Borella, M; Galli, A; Solbiati, M; Scanella, E; Casazza, G; Seghizzi, P; Furlan, R

    2011-01-01

    Safety risk for subjects suffering from syncope while working has not been as yet addressed by occupational medicine. The present study was aimed at evaluating a new developed methodology for job tasks risk stratification in patients with syncope. During a work-shop on syncope and occupational risk, 149 occupational physicians (OP) with about 10 years of clinical experience were asked to fulfil a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) concerning the doctor's estimated potential damage (D) to the worker and the probability of a damage to occur (P) should syncope take place during the job task. Five job tasks characterized by different risk for safety (1, driving; 2, toxic products handling; 3, job performed closed to hot surfaces o free flames; 4, surgical activity; 5, office job) were identified. OP correctly stratified the risk associated to the different job tasks in patients with syncope. Unexpectedly, task #3 was given a risk similar to that obtained in drivers. This might be of paramount clinical and social importance when patients with syncope have to return to their job tasks.

  18. Application of multivariate probabilistic (Bayesian) networks to substance use disorder risk stratification and cost estimation.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Radano, Todd A; Jack, Timothy; Kalina, Philip; Eberhardt, John S

    2009-09-16

    This paper explores the use of machine learning and Bayesian classification models to develop broadly applicable risk stratification models to guide disease management of health plan enrollees with substance use disorder (SUD). While the high costs and morbidities associated with SUD are understood by payers, who manage it through utilization review, acute interventions, coverage and cost limitations, and disease management, the literature shows mixed results for these modalities in improving patient outcomes and controlling cost. Our objective is to evaluate the potential of data mining methods to identify novel risk factors for chronic disease and stratification of enrollee utilization, which can be used to develop new methods for targeting disease management services to maximize benefits to both enrollees and payers. For our evaluation, we used DecisionQ machine learning algorithms to build Bayesian network models of a representative sample of data licensed from Thomson-Reuters' MarketScan consisting of 185,322 enrollees with three full-year claim records. Data sets were prepared, and a stepwise learning process was used to train a series of Bayesian belief networks (BBNs). The BBNs were validated using a 10 percent holdout set. The networks were highly predictive, with the risk-stratification BBNs producing area under the curve (AUC) for SUD positive of 0.948 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.944-0.951) and 0.736 (95 percent CI, 0.721-0.752), respectively, and SUD negative of 0.951 (95 percent CI, 0.947-0.954) and 0.738 (95 percent CI, 0.727-0.750), respectively. The cost estimation models produced area under the curve ranging from 0.72 (95 percent CI, 0.708-0.731) to 0.961 (95 percent CI, 0.95-0.971). We were able to successfully model a large, heterogeneous population of commercial enrollees, applying state-of-the-art machine learning technology to develop complex and accurate multivariate models that support near-real-time scoring of novel payer

  19. A new risk stratification algorithm for the management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas.

    PubMed

    Birsen, Onur; Akyuz, Muhammet; Dural, Cem; Aksoy, Erol; Aliyev, Shamil; Mitchell, Jamie; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2014-10-01

    Although adrenal incidentalomas (AI) are detected in ≤5% of patients undergoing chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT), their management is challenging. The current guidelines include recommendations from the National Institutes of Health, the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES), and the American Association for Cancer Education (AACE). The aim of this study was to develop a new risk stratification model and compare its performance against the existing guidelines for managing AI. A risk stratification model was designed by assigning points for adrenal size (1, 2, or 3 points for tumors <4, 4-6, or >6 cm, respectively) and Hounsfield unit (HU) density on noncontrast CT (1, 2, or 3 points for HU <10, 10-20, or >20, respectively). This model was applied retrospectively to 157 patients with AI managed in an endocrine surgery clinic to assign a score to each tumor. The utility of this model versus the AAES/AACE guidelines was assessed. Of the 157 patients, 54 (34%), had tumors <4 cm with HU <10 (a score of 2). One third of these were hormonally active on biochemical workup and underwent adrenalectomy. The remaining two thirds were nonsecretory lesions and have been followed conservatively with annual testing. In 103 patients (66%), the adrenal mass was >4 cm and/or had indeterminate features on noncontrast CT (HU >10, irregular borders, heterogeneity), and adrenalectomy was performed after hormonal evaluation was completed (10 were hormonally active on biochemical testing). Seven of these patients (7%) had adrenocortical cancer on final pathology with tumor size <4 cm in 0, 4-6 cm in 1, and >6 cm in 5 patients. Of the hormonally inactive patients, 32% had a score of 3, 38% 4, and 30% 5 or 6. The incidence of adrenocortical cancer in these subgroups was 0, 0, and 25%, respectively. This study shows that an algorithm that utilizes the hormonal activity at the first decision step followed by a consolidated risk stratification, based on tumor

  20. Epithelial stratification and placode invagination are separable functions in early morphogenesis of the molar tooth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Panousopoulou, Eleni; Tucker, Abigail S.; Green, Jeremy B. A.

    2016-01-01

    Ectodermal organs, which include teeth, hair follicles, mammary ducts, and glands such as sweat, mucous and sebaceous glands, are initiated in development as placodes, which are epithelial thickenings that invaginate and bud into the underlying mesenchyme. These placodes are stratified into a basal and several suprabasal layers of cells. The mechanisms driving stratification and invagination are poorly understood. Using the mouse molar tooth as a model for ectodermal organ morphogenesis, we show here that vertical, stratifying cell divisions are enriched in the forming placode and that stratification is cell division dependent. Using inhibitor and gain-of-function experiments, we show that FGF signalling is necessary and sufficient for stratification but not invagination as such. We show that, instead, Shh signalling is necessary for, and promotes, invagination once suprabasal tissue is generated. Shh-dependent suprabasal cell shape suggests convergent migration and intercalation, potentially accounting for post-stratification placode invagination to bud stage. We present a model in which FGF generates suprabasal tissue by asymmetric cell division, while Shh triggers cell rearrangement in this tissue to drive invagination all the way to bud formation. PMID:26755699

  1. Customized oligonucleotide microarray gene expression-based classification of neuroblastoma patients outperforms current clinical risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Oberthuer, André; Berthold, Frank; Warnat, Patrick; Hero, Barbara; Kahlert, Yvonne; Spitz, Rüdiger; Ernestus, Karen; König, Rainer; Haas, Stefan; Eils, Roland; Schwab, Manfred; Brors, Benedikt; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2006-11-01

    To develop a gene expression-based classifier for neuroblastoma patients that reliably predicts courses of the disease. Two hundred fifty-one neuroblastoma specimens were analyzed using a customized oligonucleotide microarray comprising 10,163 probes for transcripts with differential expression in clinical subgroups of the disease. Subsequently, the prediction analysis for microarrays (PAM) was applied to a first set of patients with maximally divergent clinical courses (n = 77). The classification accuracy was estimated by a complete 10-times-repeated 10-fold cross validation, and a 144-gene predictor was constructed from this set. This classifier's predictive power was evaluated in an independent second set (n = 174) by comparing results of the gene expression-based classification with those of risk stratification systems of current trials from Germany, Japan, and the United States. The first set of patients was accurately predicted by PAM (cross-validated accuracy, 99%). Within the second set, the PAM classifier significantly separated cohorts with distinct courses (3-year event-free survival [EFS] 0.86 +/- 0.03 [favorable; n = 115] v 0.52 +/- 0.07 [unfavorable; n = 59] and 3-year overall survival 0.99 +/- 0.01 v 0.84 +/- 0.05; both P < .0001) and separated risk groups of current neuroblastoma trials into subgroups with divergent outcome (NB2004: low-risk 3-year EFS 0.86 +/- 0.04 v 0.25 +/- 0.15, P < .0001; intermediate-risk 1.00 v 0.57 +/- 0.19, P = .018; high-risk 0.81 +/- 0.10 v 0.56 +/- 0.08, P = .06). In a multivariate Cox regression model, the PAM predictor classified patients of the second set more accurately than risk stratification of current trials from Germany, Japan, and the United States (P < .001; hazard ratio, 4.756 [95% CI, 2.544 to 8.893]). Integration of gene expression-based class prediction of neuroblastoma patients may improve risk estimation of current neuroblastoma trials.

  2. Peri-procedural risk stratification and management of patients with Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Collins Ii, R Thomas; Collins, Margaret G; Schmitz, Michael L; Hamrick, Justin T

    2017-03-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a congenital, multisystem disorder affecting the cardiovascular, connective tissue, and central nervous systems in 1 in 10 000 live births. Cardiovascular involvement is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with WS, and noninvasive and invasive procedures are common. Sudden cardiovascular collapse in patients with WS is a well-known phenomenon, especially in the peri-procedural period. Detailed guidelines for peri-procedural management of patients with WS are limited. The goal of this review is to provide thoughtful, safe and effective management strategies for the peri-procedural care of patients with WS with careful consideration of hemodynamic impacts of anesthetic strategies. In addition, an expanded risk stratification system for anesthetic administration is provided. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The physical phenotype of frailty for risk stratification of older medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Forti, P; Maioli, F; Zagni, E; Lucassenn, T; Montanari, L; Maltoni, B; Luca Pirazzoli, G; Bianchi, G; Zoli, M

    2014-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of physical phenotype of frailty, cognitive impairment, and serum albumin for risk stratification of elderly medical impatients. Prospective, observational cohort study. A general internal medicine unit of a university hospital in Italy. Inpatients with an average age of 80.8 ± 7.5 yr (N = 470). Frailty was defined using the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Index, a parsimonious version of the physical phenotype (two of the following markers: weight loss, inability to rise five times from a chair, and exhaustion). Two frailty markers from non-physical dimensions were also evaluated: cognitive impairment (Mini-Cog score < 3) and low serum albumin on ward admission (< 3,5 gr/dl). Logistic regression adjusted for preadmission and admission-related confounders was used to investigate whether the physical phenotype of frailty and the two non-physical markers were associated with ward length of stay and unfavorable discharge (death plus any other ward discharge disposition different from direct return home). Areas Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUCs) and Likelihood Ratios (LRs) were used for evaluation of discriminatory ability and clinical usefulness of significant predictors. The physical phenotype of frailty was associated with both study outcomes (p < 0.010) but the association was mainly mediated by chair standing ability. Non-physical markers were associated only with unfavourable discharge (p < 0.001). All of these predictors, either alone or in combination, had poor discriminatory ability (AUCs < 0.70) and poor clinical usefulness (+LRs near 1) for the study outcomes. The physical phenotype of frailty appears of limited clinical use for risk stratification of older medical inpatients. Combination with markers from non-physical dimensions does not improve its prognostic abilities.

  4. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes in Pleural Infections. RAPID Score for Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    White, Heath D; Henry, Christopher; Stock, Eileen M; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-09-01

    Pleural infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The recently developed RAPID (renal, age, purulence, infection source, and dietary factors) score consists of five clinical factors that can identify patients at risk for increased mortality. The objective of this study was to further validate the RAPID score in a diverse cohort, identify factors associated with mortality, and provide long-term outcomes. We evaluated a single-center retrospective cohort of 187 patients with culture-positive pleural infections. Patients were classified by RAPID scores into low-risk (0-2), medium-risk (3-4), and high-risk (5-7) groups. The Social Security Death Index was used to determine date of death. All-cause mortality was assessed at 3 months, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years. Clinical factors and comorbid conditions were evaluated for association. Three-month mortality for low-, medium-, and high-risk groups was 1.5, 17.8, and 47.8%, respectively. Increased odds were observed among medium-risk (odds ratio, 14.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-112.6; P = 0.01) and high-risk groups (odds ratio, 53.3; 95% confidence interval, 6.8-416.8; P < 0.01). This trend continued at 1, 3, and 5 years. Factors associated with high-risk scores include gram-negative rod infections, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, lung disease, and increased length of stay. When applied to a diverse patient cohort, the RAPID score predicts outcomes in patients up to 5 years and may aid in long-term risk stratification on presentation.

  5. Microalbuminuria could improve risk stratification in patients with TIA and minor stroke.

    PubMed

    Elyas, Salim; Shore, Angela C; Kingwell, Hayley; Keenan, Samantha; Boxall, Leigh; Stewart, Jane; James, Martin A; Strain, William David

    2016-09-01

    Transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and minor strokes are important risk factors for recurrent strokes. Current stroke risk prediction scores such as ABCD2, although widely used, lack optimal sensitivity and specificity. Elevated urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular disease, stroke, and mortality. We explored the role of microalbuminuria (using albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) in predicting recurrence risk in patients with TIA and minor stroke. Urinary ACR was measured on a spot sample in 150 patients attending a daily stroke clinic with TIA or minor stroke. Patients were followed up at day 7, 30, and 90 to determine recurrent stroke, cardiovascular events, or death. Eligible patients had a carotid ultrasound Doppler investigation. High-risk patients were defined as those who had an event within 90 days or had >50% internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Fourteen (9.8%) recurrent events were reported by day 90 including two deaths. Fifteen patients had severe ICA stenosis. In total, 26 patients were identified as high risk. These patients had a higher frequency of previous stroke or hypercholesterolemia compared to low-risk patients (P = 0.04). ACR was higher in high-risk patients (3.4 [95% CI 2.2-5.2] vs. 1.7 [1.5-2.1] mg/mmol, P = 0.004), independent of age, sex, blood pressure, diabetes, and previous stroke. An ACR greater than 1.5 mg/mmol predicted high-risk patients (Cox proportional hazard ratio 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.5, P = 0.01). After TIA or minor stroke, a higher ACR predicted recurrent events and significant ICA stenosis. Incorporation of urinary ACR from a spot sample in the acute setting could improve risk stratification in patients with TIA and minor stroke.

  6. [Sports medical aspects in cardiac risk stratification--heart rate variability and exercise capacity].

    PubMed

    Banzer, W; Lucki, K; Bürklein, M; Rosenhagen, A; Vogt, L

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigates the association of the predicted CHD-risk (PROCAM) with the individual endurance capacity and heart rate variability (HRV) in a population-based sample of sedentary elderly. After stratification, in 57 men (48.1+/-9.5 yrs.) with an overall PROCAM-risk <10% (28.7+/-10.9 points) and 22 men (54.5+/-7.7 yrs.) with a coronary 10-year risk > or =10% (50.8+/-5.6 points) cycle ergometries and short-term HRV analysis of time (RRMEAN, SDNN, RMSSD) and frequency domain parameters (LF, HF, TP, LF/HF) were conducted. Additionally the autonomic stress index (SI) was calculated. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical correlation analysis (Spearman rho) and group comparisons (Mann-Whitney). For endurance capacity [W/kg] (r=-0.469, p<0.001), SDNN (r=-0.302, p<0.05), RMSSD (r= -0.311, p<0.05), LF (r=-0.325, p<0.05), HF (r= -0.311, p<0.05) and TP (r= -0.307, p<0.05) negative monotone correlations with the coronary score-risk were determined. Significant positive correlations were calculated for SI (r=0.476, p<0.001). Except for RRMEAN and LF/HF significant group differences (p<0.05) were computed for SDNN (30.0+/-20.0 vs 20.0+/-10.0 ms), RMSSD (22.2+/-18.3 vs 18.0+/-8.7 ms), LF (90.9+/-241.5 vs 41.35+/-81.1 ms(2)), HF (43.0+/-105.1 vs 18.0+/-27.0 ms(2)) and TP (189.0+/-457.1 vs 100.0+/-157.6 ms(2)). Significant differences (p<0.01) were evaluated for exercise capacity (2.4+/-0.5 vs 1.8+/-0.3 W/kg) and SI (90+/-183 vs 322+/-291). The results underline the predictive value of HRV analysis in risk stratification and outline the interrelation of a decreased exercise capacity and autonomic function with a raised individual 10-year cardiac risk. As an independent parameter of the vegetative regulatory state the stress index may contribute to an increased practical relevance of short-time HRV analysis.

  7. Scores for post-myocardial infarction risk stratification in the community.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Reeder, Guy S; Jacobsen, Steven J; Weston, Susan; Killian, Jill; Roger, Véronique L

    2002-10-29

    Several scores, most of which were derived from clinical trials, have been proposed for stratifying risk after myocardial infarctions (MIs). Little is known about their generalizability to the community, their respective advantages, and whether the ejection fraction (EF) adds prognostic information to the scores. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Predicting Risk of Death in Cardiac Disease Tool (PREDICT) scores in a geographically defined MI cohort and determine the incremental value of EF for risk stratification. MIs occurring in Olmsted County were validated with the use of standardized criteria and stratified with the ECG into ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and non-ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI) MI. Logistic regression examined the discriminant accuracy of the TIMI and PREDICT scores to predict death and recurrent MI and assessed the incremental value of the EF. After 6.3+/-4.7 years, survival was similar for the 562 STEMIs and 717 NSTEMIs. The discriminant accuracy of the TIMI score was good in STEMI but only fair in NSTEMI. Across time and end points, irrespective of reperfusion therapy, the discriminant accuracy of the PREDICT score was consistently superior to that of the TIMI scores, largely because PREDICT includes comorbidity; EF provided incremental information over that provided by the scores and comorbidity. In the community, comorbidity and EF convey important prognostic information and should be included in approaches for stratifying risk after MI.

  8. Surveillance of Pediatric Cardiac Surgical Outcome Using Risk Stratifications at a Tertiary Care Center in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok; Laohaprasitiporn, Duangmanee; Durongpisitkul, Kritvikrom; Chantong, Prakul; Soongswang, Jarupim; Cheungsomprasong, Paweena; Nana, Apichart; Sriyoschati, Somchai; Subtaweesin, Thawon; Thongcharoen, Punnarerk; Prakanrattana, Ungkab; Krobprachya, Jiraporn; Pooliam, Julaporn

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To determine in-hospital mortality and complications of cardiac surgery in pediatric patients and identify predictors of hospital mortality. Methods. Records of pediatric patients who had undergone cardiac surgery in 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery (RACHS-1) method, the Aristotle basic complexity score (ABC score), and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Mortality score (STS-EACTS score) were used as measures. Potential predictors were analyzed by risk analysis. Results. 230 pediatric patients had undergone congenital cardiac surgery. Overall, the mortality discharge was 6.1%. From the ROC curve of the RACHS-1, the ABC level, and the STS-EACTS categories, the validities were determined to be 0.78, 0.74, and 0.67, respectively. Mortality risks were found at the high complexity levels of the three tools, bypass time >85 min, and cross clamp time >60 min. Common morbidities were postoperative pyrexia, bleeding, and pleural effusion. Conclusions. Overall mortality and morbidities were 6.1%. The RACHS-1 method, ABC score, and STS-EACTS score were helpful for risk stratification. PMID:21738856

  9. Clinical risk stratification in patients with surgically resectable micropapillary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mario I; Williams, Stephen B; Willis, Daniel L; Slack, Rebecca S; Dickstein, Rian J; Parikh, Sahil; Chiong, Edmund; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene O; Guo, Charles C; Czerniak, Bogdan A; McConkey, David J; Shah, Jay B; Pisters, Louis L; Grossman, H Barton; Dinney, Colin P N; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-05-01

    To analyse survival in patients with clinically localised, surgically resectable micropapillary bladder cancer (MPBC) undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) with and without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and develop risk strata based on outcome data. A review of our database identified 103 patients with surgically resectable (≤cT4acN0 cM0) MPBC who underwent RC. Survival estimates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was performed to identify risk groups for survival. For the entire cohort, estimated 5-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates were 52% and 58%, respectively. CART analysis identified three risk subgroups: low-risk: cT1, no hydronephrosis; high-risk: ≥cT2, no hydronephrosis; and highest-risk: cTany with tumour-associated hydronephrosis. The 5-year DSS for the low-, high-, and highest-risk groups were 92%, 51%, and 17%, respectively (P < 0.001). Patients down-staged at RC risk stratification before treatment recommendations can be made. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk stratification and rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department - a quasi-randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chik Loon; Siu, Vivan Wing Yin; Ang, Hou; Phuah, Madeline Wei Ling; Ooi, Chee Kheong

    2014-08-30

    To determine if risk stratification followed by rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department (ED) reduced functional decline, ED reattendance and hospitalisation. This was a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomised by the last digit of their national registration identity card (NRIC). Odd number controls received standard ED care; even number patients received geriatric screening, followed by intervention and/or onward referrals. Patients were followed up for 12 months. There were 500 and 280 patients in the control and intervention groups. The intervention group had higher Triage Risk Screening Tool (TRST) scores (34.3% vs 25.4% TRST ≥3, p = 0.01) and lower baseline Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) scores (22.84 vs 24.18, p < 0.01). 82.9% of the intervention group had unmet needs; 62.1% accepted our interventions. Common positive findings were fall risk (65.0%), vision (61.4%), and footwear (58.2%). 28.2% were referred to a geriatric clinic and 11.8% were admitted. 425 (85.0%) controls and 234 (83.6%) in the intervention group completed their follow-up. After adjusting for TRST and baseline IADL, the intervention group had significant preservation in function (Basic ADL -0.99 vs -0.24, p < 0.01; IADL -2.57 vs +0.45, p < 0.01) at 12 months. The reduction in ED reattendance (OR0.75, CI 0.55-1.03, p = 0.07) and hospitalization (OR0.77, CI0.57-1.04, p = 0.09) were not significant, however the real difference would have been wider as 21.2% of the control group received geriatric screening at the request of the ED doctor. A major limitation was that a large proportion of patients who were randomized to the intervention group either refused (18.8%) or left the ED before being approached (32.0%). These two groups were not followed up, and hence were excluded in our analysis. Risk stratification and focused geriatric screening in ED resulted in significant preservation of patients' function at 12

  11. New Insight Into the Biology, Risk Stratification, and Targeted Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Haider, Mintallah; Duncavage, Eric J; Afaneh, Khalid F; Bejar, Rafael; List, Alan F

    2017-01-01

    In myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), somatic mutations occur in five major categories: RNA splicing, DNA methylation, activated cell signaling, myeloid transcription factors, and chromatin modifiers. Although many MDS cases harbor more than one somatic mutation, in general, there is mutual exclusivity of mutated genes within a class. In addition to the prognostic significance of individual somatic mutations, more somatic mutations in MDS have been associated with poor prognosis. Prognostic assessment remains a critical component of the personalization of care for patient with MDS because treatment is highly risk adapted. Multiple methods for risk stratification are available with the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), currently considered the gold standard. Increasing access to myeloid gene panels and greater evidence for the diagnostic and predictive value of somatic mutations will soon make sequencing part of the standard evaluation of patients with MDS. In the absence of formal guidelines for their prognostic use, well-validated mutations can still refine estimates of risk made with the IPSS-R. Not only are somatic gene mutations advantageous in understanding the biology of MDS and prognosis, they also offer potential as biomarkers and targets for the treatment of patients with MDS. Examples include deletion 5q, spliceosome complex gene mutations, and TP53 mutations.

  12. Validation of risk stratification for children with febrile neutropenia in a pediatric oncology unit in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Anirban; Trehan, Amita; Oberoi, Sapna; Bansal, Deepak

    2017-06-01

    The study aims to validate a score predicting risk of complications in pediatric patients with chemotherapy-related febrile neutropenia (FN) and evaluate the performance of previously published models for risk stratification. Children diagnosed with cancer and presenting with FN were evaluated in a prospective single-center study. A score predicting the risk of complications, previously derived in the unit, was validated on a prospective cohort. Performance of six predictive models published from geographically distinct settings was assessed on the same cohort. Complications were observed in 109 (26.3%) of 414 episodes of FN over 15 months. A risk score based on undernutrition (two points), time from last chemotherapy (<7 days = two points), presence of a nonupper respiratory focus of infection (two points), C-reactive protein (>60 mg/l = five points), and absolute neutrophil count (<100 per μl = two points) was used to stratify patients into "low risk" (score <7, n = 208) and assessed using the following parameters: overall performance (Nagelkerke R 2 = 34.4%), calibration (calibration slope = 0.39; P = 0.25 in Hosmer-Lemeshow test), discrimination (c-statistic = 0.81), overall sensitivity (86%), negative predictive value (93%), and clinical net benefit (0.43). Six previously published rules demonstrated inferior performance in this cohort. An indigenous decision rule using five simple predefined variables was successful in identifying children at risk for complications. Prediction models derived in developed nations may not be appropriate for low-middle-income settings and need to be validated before use. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cardiovascular risk stratification in overweight or obese patients in primary prevention. Implications for use of statins.

    PubMed

    Masson, Walter; Lobo, Martín; Huerín, Melina; Molinero, Graciela; Manente, Diego; Pángaro, Mario; Vitagliano, Laura; Zylbersztejn, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular risk estimation in patients with overweight/obesity is not standardized. Our objectives were to stratify cardiovascular risk using different scores, to analyze use of statins, to report the prevalence of carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP), and to determine the optimal cut-off point (OCP) of scores that discriminate between subjects with or without CAP. Non-diabetic patients with overweight or obesity in primary prevention were enrolled. The Framingham score (FS), the European score (ES), and the score proposed by the new American guidelines (NS) were calculated, and statin indication was evaluated. Prevalence of CAP was determined by ultrasound examination. A ROC analysis was performed. A total of 474 patients (67% with overweight and 33% obese) were enrolled into the study. The FS classified the largest number of subjects as low risk. PAC prevalence was higher in obese as compared to overweight subjects (44.8% vs. 36.1%, P=.04). According to the FS, ES, and NS respectively, 26.7%, 39.1%, and 39.1% of overweight subjects and 28.6%, 39.0%, and 39.0% of obese subjects had an absolute indication for statins. All three scores were shown to acceptably discriminate between subjects with and without CAP (area under the curve>0.7). The OCPs evaluated did not agree with the risk category values. Risk stratification and use of statins varied in the overweight/obese population depending on the function used. Understanding of the relationship between scores and presence of CAP may optimize risk estimate. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Derivation of genetic biomarkers for cancer risk stratification in Barrett's oesophagus: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Timmer, Margriet R.; Martinez, Pierre; Lau, Chiu T.; Westra, Wytske M.; Calpe, Silvia; Rygiel, Agnieszka M.; Rosmolen, Wilda D.; Meijer, Sybren L.; ten Kate, Fiebo J.W.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.W.; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie C.; Naber, Anton H.J.; van Oijen, Arnoud H.A.M.; Baak, Lubbertus C.; Scholten, Pieter; Böhmer, Clarisse J.M.; Fockens, Paul; Maley, Carlo C.; Graham, Trevor A.; Bergman, Jacques J.G.H.M.; Krishnadath, Kausilia K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The risk of developing adenocarcinoma in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus is low and difficult to predict. Accurate tools for risk stratification are needed to increase the efficiency of surveillance. We aimed to develop a prediction model for progression using clinical variables and genetic markers. Methods In a prospective cohort of patients with non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus, we evaluated six molecular markers: p16, p53, Her-2/neu, 20q, MYC, and aneusomy by DNA fluorescence in situ hybridisation on brush cytology specimens. Primary study outcomes were the development of high-grade dysplasia or oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The most predictive clinical variables and markers were determined using Cox proportional-hazards models, receiver-operating-characteristic curves and a leave-one-out analysis. Results A total of 428 patients participated (345 men; median age 60 years) with a cumulative follow-up of 2019 patient-years (median 45 months per patient). Of these patients, 22 progressed; nine developed high-grade dysplasia and 13 oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The clinical variables, age and circumferential Barrett's length, and the markers, p16 loss, MYC gain, and aneusomy, were significantly associated with progression on univariate analysis. We defined an ‘Abnormal Marker Count’ that counted abnormalities in p16, MYC and aneusomy, which significantly improved risk prediction beyond using just age and Barrett's length. In multivariate analysis, these three factors identified a high-risk group with an 8.7-fold (95% CI, 2.6 to 29.8) increased hazard ratio compared with the low-risk group, with an area under the curve of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.86). Conclusion A prediction model based on age, Barrett's length, and the markers p16, MYC, and aneusomy determines progression risk in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus. PMID:26104750

  15. Dynamic Risk Stratification in Stage I Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patients Younger Than 45 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Cho, Jae Won; Lee, Yu-Mi; Lee, Yi Ho; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Choi, Young Jun; Song, Dong Eun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Yoon, Jong Ho; Hong, Suck Joon

    2017-11-01

    This study validated the dynamic risk stratification (DRS) system with regard to its association with structural recurrence and risk factors associated with non-excellent responses in patients <45 years with stage I classical papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This historical cohort study included 598 patients with stage I classical PTC <45 years of age treated with total thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine remnant ablation (n = 440), total thyroidectomy without radioactive iodine remnant ablation (n = 23), and thyroid lobectomy alone (n = 135). The median follow-up period was 123 months. Structural recurrence occurred in 4.2% (n = 18/432) of the patients with an excellent response, 17.1% (18/105) of patients with an indeterminate response, 44.7% (17/38) of patients with a biochemically incomplete response, and 82.6% (19/23) of patients with a structurally incomplete response (p < 0.001) during the follow-up. The disease-free survival curves of each response showed significant differences (p < 0.001). Extensive extrathyroidal extension and extranodal extension were the independent risk factors associated with non-excellent response (p < 0.05). DRS may reduce unnecessary additional treatments by reclassifying initial risk estimates of structural recurrence. Furthermore, applying the risk factors associated with non-excellent response to initial therapy may be a more useful and viable surrogate of the risk for structural recurrence in stage I PTC patients <45 years of age.

  16. Implementation of a Risk Stratification and Management Pathway for Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Baugh, Christopher W; Greenberg, Jeffrey O; Mahler, Simon A; Kosowsky, Joshua M; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Parmar, Siddharth; Ciociolo, George R; Carr, Christina W; Ghazinouri, Roya; Scirica, Benjamin M

    2016-12-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department, and a small but important minority represents an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Variation in diagnostic workup, risk stratification, and management may result in underuse, misuse, and/or overuse of resources. From July to October 2014, we conducted a prospective cohort study in an academic medical center by implementing a Standardized Clinical Assessment and Management Plan (SCAMP) for chest pain based on the HEART score. In addition to capturing adherence to the SCAMP algorithm and reasons for any deviations, we measured troponin sample timing; rates of stress test utilization; length of stay (LOS); and 30-day rates of revascularization, ACS, and death. We identified 239 patients during the enrollment period who were eligible to enter the SCAMP, of whom 97 patients were entered into the pathway. Patients were risk stratified into one of 3 risk tiers: high (n = 3), intermediate (n = 40), and low (n = 54). Among low-risk patients, recommendations for troponin testing were not followed in 56%, and 11% received stress tests contrary to the SCAMP recommendation. None of the low-risk patients had elevated troponin measurements, and none had an abnormal stress test. Mean LOS in low-risk patients managed with discordant plans was 22:26 h/min, compared with 9:13 h/min in concordant patients (P < 0.001). Mean LOS in intermediate-risk patients with stress testing was 25:53 h/min, compared with 7:55 h/min for those without (P < 0.001). At 30 days, 10% of intermediate-risk patients and 0% of low-risk patients experienced an ACS event (risk difference 10% [0.7%-19%]); none experienced revascularization or death. The most frequently cited reason for deviation from the SCAMP was lack of confidence in the tool. Compliance with SCAMP recommendations for low- and intermediate-risk patients was poor, largely due to lack of confidence in the tool. However, in our study population, outcomes suggest that deviation

  17. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography for risk stratification in patients with an intermediate pretest likelihood.

    PubMed

    van Werkhoven, J M; Gaemperli, O; Schuijf, J D; Jukema, J W; Kroft, L J; Leschka, S; Alkadhi, H; Valenta, I; Pundziute, G; de Roos, A; van der Wall, E E; Kaufmann, P A; Bax, J J

    2009-10-01

    To assess whether multislice computed tomography coronary angiography (MSCTA) may be useful for risk stratification of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) at intermediate pretest likelihood according to Diamond and Forrester. MSCTA images were evaluated for the presence of significant CAD in 316 patients with suspected CAD (60% male, average (SD) age 57 (11) years) and an intermediate pretest likelihood according to Diamond and Forrester. Patients were followed up to determine the occurrence of an event. A combined end point of all-cause mortality, non-fatal infarction and unstable angina requiring revascularisation. Significant CAD was seen in 89 patients (28%), whereas normal MSCTA or non-significant CAD was seen in the remaining 227 (72%) patients. During follow-up (median 621 days (25-75th centile 408-835) an event occurred in 13 patients (4.8%). The annualised event rate was 0.8% in patients with normal MSCT, 2.2% in patients with non-significant CAD and 6.5% in patients with significant CAD. Moreover, MSCTA remained a significant predictor (p<0.05) of events after multivariate correction (hazard ratio = 3.460 (95% CI 1.142 to 10.480). The results suggest that in patients with an intermediate pretest likelihood, MSCTA is highly effective in re-stratifying patients into either a low or high post-test risk group. These results further emphasise the usefulness of non-invasive imaging with MSCTA in this patient population.

  18. A Practical Risk Stratification Approach for Implementing a Primary Care Chronic Disease Management Program in an Underserved Community.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junjun; Williams-Livingston, Arletha; Gaglioti, Anne; McAllister, Calvin; Rust, George

    2018-01-01

    The use of value metrics is often dependent on payer-initiated health care management incentives. There is a need for practices to define and manage their own patient panels regardless of payer to participate effectively in population health management. A key step is to define a panel of primary care patients with high comorbidity profiles. Our sample included all patients seen in an urban academic family medicine clinic over a two-year period. The simplified risk stratification was built using internal electronic health record and billing system data based on ICD-9 codes. There were 347 patients classified as high-risk out of the 5,364 patient panel. Average age was 59 years (SD 15). Hypertension (90%), hyperlipidemia (62%), and depression (55%) were the most common conditions among high-risk patients. Simplified risk stratification provides a feasible option for our team to understand and respond to the nuances of population health in our underserved community.

  19. Developing and validating a novel metabolic tumor volume risk stratification system for supplementing non-small cell lung cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yonglin; Zhang, James X; Liu, Haiyan; Appelbaum, Daniel; Meng, Jianfeng; Penney, Bill C

    2018-06-07

    We hypothesized that whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTVwb) could be used to supplement non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) staging due to its independent prognostic value. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a novel MTVwb risk stratification system to supplement NSCLC staging. We performed an IRB-approved retrospective review of 935 patients with NSCLC and FDG-avid tumor divided into modeling and validation cohorts based on the type of PET/CT scanner used for imaging. In addition, sensitivity analysis was conducted by dividing the patient population into two randomized cohorts. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to determine the prognostic value of the MTVwb risk stratification system. The cut-off values (10.0, 53.4 and 155.0 mL) between the MTVwb quartiles of the modeling cohort were applied to both the modeling and validation cohorts to determine each patient's MTVwb risk stratum. The survival analyses showed that a lower MTVwb risk stratum was associated with better overall survival (all p < 0.01), independent of TNM stage together with other clinical prognostic factors, and the discriminatory power of the MTVwb risk stratification system, as measured by Gönen and Heller's concordance index, was not significantly different from that of TNM stage in both cohorts. Also, the prognostic value of the MTVwb risk stratum was robust in the two randomized cohorts. The discordance rate between the MTVwb risk stratum and TNM stage or substage was 45.1% in the modeling cohort and 50.3% in the validation cohort. This study developed and validated a novel MTVwb risk stratification system, which has prognostic value independent of the TNM stage and other clinical prognostic factors in NSCLC, suggesting that it could be used for further NSCLC pretreatment assessment and for refining treatment decisions in individual patients.

  20. Emergency department management of syncope: need for standardization and improved risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Thiruganasambandamoorthy, Venkatesh; Taljaard, Monica; Stiell, Ian G; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Murray, Heather; Vaidyanathan, Aparna; Rowe, Brian H; Calder, Lisa A; Lang, Eddy; McRae, Andrew; Sheldon, Robert; Wells, George A

    2015-08-01

    Variations in emergency department (ED) syncope management have not been well studied. The goals of this study were to assess variations in management, and emergency physicians' risk perception and disposition decision making. We conducted a prospective study of adults with syncope in six EDs in four cities over 32 months. We collected patient characteristics, ED management, disposition, physicians' prediction probabilities at index presentation and followed patients for 30 days for serious outcomes: death, myocardial infarction (MI), arrhythmia, structural heart disease, pulmonary embolism, significant hemorrhage, or procedural interventions. We used descriptive statistics, ROC curves, and regression analyses. We enrolled 3662 patients: mean age 54.3 years, and 12.9 % were hospitalized. Follow-up data were available for 3365 patients (91.9 %) and 345 patients (10.3 %) suffered serious outcomes: 120 (3.6 %) after ED disposition including 48 patients outside the hospital. After accounting for differences in patient case mix, the rates of ED investigations and disposition were significantly different (p < 0.0001) across the four study cities; as were the rates of 30-day serious outcomes (p < 0.0001) and serious outcomes after ED disposition (p = 0.0227). There was poor agreement between physician risk perception and both observed event rates and referral patterns (p < 0.0001). Only 76.7 % (95 % CI 68.1-83.6) of patients with serious outcomes were appropriately referred. There are large and unexplained differences in ED syncope management. Moreover, there is poor agreement between physician risk perception, disposition decision making, and serious outcomes after ED disposition. A valid risk-stratification tool might help standardize ED management and improve disposition decision making.

  1. Optimizing risk stratification in heart failure and the selection of candidates for heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pereira-da-Silva, Tiago; M Soares, Rui; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Pinto, Iola; Feliciano, Joana; Almeida-Morais, Luís; Abreu, Ana; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2018-02-01

    Selecting patients for heart transplantation is challenging. We aimed to identify the most important risk predictors in heart failure and an approach to optimize the selection of candidates for heart transplantation. Ambulatory patients followed in our center with symptomatic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% prospectively underwent a comprehensive baseline assessment including clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters. All patients were followed for 60 months. The combined endpoint was cardiac death, urgent heart transplantation or need for mechanical circulatory support, up to 36 months. In the 263 enrolled patients (75% male, age 54±12 years), 54 events occurred. The independent predictors of adverse outcome were ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO 2 ) slope (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.11-1.18), creatinine level (HR 2.23, 95% CI 1.14-4.36), and left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99). VE/VCO 2 slope was the most accurate risk predictor at any follow-up time analyzed (up to 60 months). The threshold of 39.0 yielded high specificity (97%), discriminated a worse or better prognosis than that reported for post-heart transplantation, and outperformed peak oxygen consumption thresholds of 10.0 or 12.0 ml/kg/min. For low-risk patients (VE/VCO 2 slope <39.0), sodium and creatinine levels and variations in end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure on exercise identified those with excellent prognosis. VE/VCO 2 slope was the most accurate parameter for risk stratification in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Those with VE/VCO 2 slope ≥39.0 may benefit from heart transplantation. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic performance of an acoustic-based system for coronary artery disease risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Winther, Simon; Nissen, Louise; Schmidt, Samuel Emil; Westra, Jelmer Sybren; Rasmussen, Laust Dupont; Knudsen, Lars Lyhne; Madsen, Lene Helleskov; Kirk Johansen, Jane; Larsen, Bjarke Skogstad; Struijk, Johannes Jan; Frost, Lars; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Botker, Hans Erik; Bøttcher, Morten

    2018-06-01

    Diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) continues to require substantial healthcare resources. Acoustic analysis of transcutaneous heart sounds of cardiac movement and intracoronary turbulence due to obstructive coronary disease could potentially change this. The aim of this study was thus to test the diagnostic accuracy of a new portable acoustic device for detection of CAD. We included 1675 patients consecutively with low to intermediate likelihood of CAD who had been referred for cardiac CT angiography. If significant obstruction was suspected in any coronary segment, patients were referred to invasive angiography and fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment. Heart sound analysis was performed in all patients. A predefined acoustic CAD-score algorithm was evaluated; subsequently, we developed and validated an updated CAD-score algorithm that included both acoustic features and clinical risk factors. Low risk is indicated by a CAD-score value ≤20. Haemodynamically significant CAD assessed from FFR was present in 145 (10.0%) patients. In the entire cohort, the predefined CAD-score had a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 44%. In total, 50% had an updated CAD-score value ≤20. At this cut-off, sensitivity was 81% (95% CI 73% to 87%), specificity 53% (95% CI 50% to 56%), positive predictive value 16% (95% CI 13% to 18%) and negative predictive value 96% (95% CI 95% to 98%) for diagnosing haemodynamically significant CAD. Sound-based detection of CAD enables risk stratification superior to clinical risk scores. With a negative predictive value of 96%, this new acoustic rule-out system could potentially supplement clinical assessment to guide decisions on the need for further diagnostic investigation. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02264717; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Management of acute paracetamol (acetaminophen) toxicity: a standardised proforma improves risk assessment and overall risk stratification by emergency medicine doctors.

    PubMed

    McQuade, David J; Aknuri, Srikanth; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David M

    2012-12-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning is the most common toxicological presentation in the UK. Doctors managing patients with paracetamol poisoning need to assess the risk of their patient developing hepatotoxicity before determining appropriate treatment. Patients deemed to be at 'high risk' of hepatotoxicity have lower treatment thresholds than those deemed to be at 'normal risk'. Errors in this process can lead to harmful or potentially fatal under or over treatment. To determine how well treating doctors assess risk factor status and whether a standardised proforma is useful in the risk stratification process. Retrospective 12-month case note review of all patients presenting with paracetamol poisoning to our large inner-city emergency department. Data were collected on the documentation of risk factors, the presence of a local hospital proforma and treatment outcomes. 249 presentations were analysed and only 59 (23.7%) had full documentation of all the risk factors required to make a complete risk assessment. 56 of the 59 (94.9%) had the local hospital proforma included in the notes; the remaining 3 (5.1%) had full documentation of risk factors despite the absence of a proforma. A local hospital proforma was more likely to be included in the emergency department notes in those with 'adequate documentation' (78 out of 120 (65%)) than for those with 'inadequate documentation' (16 out of 129 (12.4%)); X(2), p<0.001. Despite a low overall uptake of the proforma, use of a standardised proforma significantly increased the likelihood of documentation of the risk factors which increase risk for hepatotoxicity following paracetamol poisoning.

  4. A clinical study of ischaemic strokes with micro-albuminuria for risk stratification, short-term predictive value and outcome.

    PubMed

    Das, Sukdeb; Yadav, Ujjal; Ghosh, Kartik Chandra; Panchadhyayee, Sujoy; Kundu, Shib Shankar; Ganguly, Prasanta Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Stroke results more than 4.3 million deaths worldwide per annum and 85% of all strokes are ischaemic in nature. Besides numerous modifiable and non-modifiable known risk factors, microalbuminuria is thought to be an important marker of global endothelial dysfunction and associated with cardiovascular disease including stroke. Fifty ischaemic stroke cases and 50 (age, sex matched) control subjects were subjected to study to compare and evaluate risk stratification of micro-albuminuria, its predictive value and outcome on day 1 and day 7 among admitted ischaemic stroke cases.The result was found that micro-albuminuria was present in 66% of ischaemic stroke cases compared to only 8% of control group (p < 0.001). Most validated National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was used for evaluation and calculation of predictive value and outcome of micro-albuminuria positive patient where higher value indicates poor prognosis, and the result was mean NIHSS score 29.12 versus 18.88 between two groups of strokes ie, with and without micro-albuminuria. Out of 50 ischaemic stroke patients 33 (66%) had micro-albuminuria. Among 11 patients who died, 10 (90.9%) had micro-albuminuria and NIHSS score was 33.64 and 25.0 on day 1 and day 7. Among 39 patients who were discharged, 23 patients (58.97%) were MA positive and NIHSS score was much less than death group ie, 23.38 and 16.38 on day 1 and day 7 respectively. So this study reveals micro-albuminuria itself results higher risk for ischaemic stroke compared to control group and it shows good predictive value for early assessment of clinical severity and subsequent fatal outcome. This is also simple, cost effective and affordable.

  5. A national approach to diabetes foot risk stratification and foot care.

    PubMed

    Leese, G P; Stang, D; Pearson, D W

    2011-08-01

    The Scottish Diabetes Foot Action Group (SDG) has developed and introduced a national strategy plan for diabetic foot care across Scotland. This has involved the implementation of an evidence-based national foot screening and risk stratification programme that has already covered 61% of the population in just the first two years. Nationally agreed patient information foot leaflets and professional education material have been introduced, and a consensus for antibiotic use in the diabetic foot has been published. Information on multidisciplinary specialist foot services has been collected, indicating that 58% of Health Board areas have consultants with dedicated sessions in their job plan to a foot clinic, and 42% had integrated orthotic involvement. The SDG aims to increase these figures. Work has been undertaken to support local podiatry networks and improve communication between the specialist centre and the community. At a national level the SDG is working with Foot in Diabetes UK (FDUK) to recognize key podiatry skills by developing core competencies and a competency framework for the diabetes podiatrist and diabetes orthotist. The annual Scottish Diabetes Survey indicates some improvement in amputation rates with prevalence decreasing from 0.8% to 0.5%, and improved recording of foot ulceration at a national level. This national strategy has helped highlight the importance and difficulties facing diabetes foot care and should help to continue to improve the quality of care of people with diabetes who have foot-related problems.

  6. Derivation of genetic biomarkers for cancer risk stratification in Barrett's oesophagus: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Margriet R; Martinez, Pierre; Lau, Chiu T; Westra, Wytske M; Calpe, Silvia; Rygiel, Agnieszka M; Rosmolen, Wilda D; Meijer, Sybren L; Ten Kate, Fiebo J W; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie C; Naber, Anton H J; van Oijen, Arnoud H A M; Baak, Lubbertus C; Scholten, Pieter; Böhmer, Clarisse J M; Fockens, Paul; Maley, Carlo C; Graham, Trevor A; Bergman, Jacques J G H M; Krishnadath, Kausilia K

    2016-10-01

    The risk of developing adenocarcinoma in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus is low and difficult to predict. Accurate tools for risk stratification are needed to increase the efficiency of surveillance. We aimed to develop a prediction model for progression using clinical variables and genetic markers. In a prospective cohort of patients with non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus, we evaluated six molecular markers: p16, p53, Her-2/neu, 20q, MYC and aneusomy by DNA fluorescence in situ hybridisation on brush cytology specimens. Primary study outcomes were the development of high-grade dysplasia or oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The most predictive clinical variables and markers were determined using Cox proportional-hazards models, receiver operating characteristic curves and a leave-one-out analysis. A total of 428 patients participated (345 men; median age 60 years) with a cumulative follow-up of 2019 patient-years (median 45 months per patient). Of these patients, 22 progressed; nine developed high-grade dysplasia and 13 oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The clinical variables, age and circumferential Barrett's length, and the markers, p16 loss, MYC gain and aneusomy, were significantly associated with progression on univariate analysis. We defined an 'Abnormal Marker Count' that counted abnormalities in p16, MYC and aneusomy, which significantly improved risk prediction beyond using just age and Barrett's length. In multivariate analysis, these three factors identified a high-risk group with an 8.7-fold (95% CI 2.6 to 29.8) increased HR when compared with the low-risk group, with an area under the curve of 0.76 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.86). A prediction model based on age, Barrett's length and the markers p16, MYC and aneusomy determines progression risk in non-dysplastic Barrett's oesophagus. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Anomalous Coronary Arteries and Myocardial Bridges: Risk Stratification in Children Using Novel Cardiac Catheterization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Hitesh; Molossi, Silvana; Alam, Mahboob; Sexson-Tejtel, S Kristen; Mery, Carlos M; McKenzie, E Dean; Fraser, Charles D; Qureshi, Athar M

    2017-03-01

    The evaluation of the vast majority of children with anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) and/or myocardial bridges is performed with non-invasive testing. However, a subset of these patients may benefit from invasive testing for risk stratification. All patients included in the Coronary Anomalies Program (CAP) at Texas Children's Hospital who underwent cardiac catheterization were included. Techniques included selective coronary angiograms (SCA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements with provocative testing using adenosine and/or dobutamine infusions. Out of the 131 patients followed by the CAP between 12/12-4/16, 8 (6%) patients underwent 9 cath investigations at median age 13.1 (2.6-18.7) years and median weight 49.5 (11.4-142.7) kg. Six patients presented with cardiac signs/symptoms. Four patients had myocardial bridges of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, 2 patients had isolated AAOCA, and 2 patients had an anomalous left coronary artery (LCA) with an intramyocardial course of the LAD. SCA was performed in all patients. FFR was positive in 4/6 patients: IVUS showed >70% intraluminal narrowing in 3/5 patients. One patient had hemodynamic instability that reversed with catheter removal from the coronary ostium. Based on the catheterization data obtained, findings were reassuring in three patients, surgery was performed in three patients, and two patients are being medically managed/restricted from competitive sports. In our small cohort of patients, we demonstrated that IVUS and FFR can safely be performed in children and may help to risk stratify some patients with AAOCA and myocardial bridges.

  8. Comparison of different risk stratification systems in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Hashemi, Behrooz; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Motamedi, Maryam; Mirmohseni, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining etiologic causes and prognosis can significantly improve management of syncope patients. The present study aimed to compare the values of San Francisco, Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL), Boston, and Risk Stratification of Syncope in the Emergency Department (ROSE) score clinical decision rules in predicting the short-term serious outcome of syncope patients. Materials and Methods: The present diagnostic accuracy study with 1-week follow-up was designed to evaluate the predictive values of the four mentioned clinical decision rules. Screening performance characteristics of each model in predicting mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) were calculated and compared. To evaluate the value of each aforementioned model in predicting the outcome, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated and receiver-operating curve (ROC) curve analysis was done. Results: A total of 187 patients (mean age: 64.2 ± 17.2 years) were enrolled in the study. Mortality, MI, and CVA were seen in 19 (10.2%), 12 (6.4%), and 36 (19.2%) patients, respectively. Area under the ROC curve for OESIL, San Francisco, Boston, and ROSE models in prediction the risk of 1-week mortality, MI, and CVA was in the 30–70% range, with no significant difference among models (P > 0.05). The pooled model did not show higher accuracy in prediction of mortality, MI, and CVA compared to others (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed the weakness of all four evaluated models in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients referred to the emergency department without any significant advantage for one among others. PMID:27904602

  9. Comparison of different risk stratification systems in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients.

    PubMed

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Hashemi, Behrooz; Rahmati, Farhad; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Motamedi, Maryam; Mirmohseni, Ladan

    2016-01-01

    Determining etiologic causes and prognosis can significantly improve management of syncope patients. The present study aimed to compare the values of San Francisco, Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL), Boston, and Risk Stratification of Syncope in the Emergency Department (ROSE) score clinical decision rules in predicting the short-term serious outcome of syncope patients. The present diagnostic accuracy study with 1-week follow-up was designed to evaluate the predictive values of the four mentioned clinical decision rules. Screening performance characteristics of each model in predicting mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) were calculated and compared. To evaluate the value of each aforementioned model in predicting the outcome, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were calculated and receiver-operating curve (ROC) curve analysis was done. A total of 187 patients (mean age: 64.2 ± 17.2 years) were enrolled in the study. Mortality, MI, and CVA were seen in 19 (10.2%), 12 (6.4%), and 36 (19.2%) patients, respectively. Area under the ROC curve for OESIL, San Francisco, Boston, and ROSE models in prediction the risk of 1-week mortality, MI, and CVA was in the 30-70% range, with no significant difference among models ( P > 0.05). The pooled model did not show higher accuracy in prediction of mortality, MI, and CVA compared to others ( P > 0.05). This study revealed the weakness of all four evaluated models in predicting short-term serious outcome of syncope patients referred to the emergency department without any significant advantage for one among others.

  10. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease heterogeneity: challenges for health risk assessment, stratification and management.

    PubMed

    Roca, Josep; Vargas, Claudia; Cano, Isaac; Selivanov, Vitaly; Barreiro, Esther; Maier, Dieter; Falciani, Francesco; Wagner, Peter; Cascante, Marta; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Kalko, Susana; De Mas, Igor; Tegnér, Jesper; Escarrabill, Joan; Agustí, Alvar; Gomez-Cabrero, David

    2014-11-28

    Heterogeneity in clinical manifestations and disease progression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) lead to consequences for patient health risk assessment, stratification and management. Implicit with the classical "spill over" hypothesis is that COPD heterogeneity is driven by the pulmonary events of the disease. Alternatively, we hypothesized that COPD heterogeneities result from the interplay of mechanisms governing three conceptually different phenomena: 1) pulmonary disease, 2) systemic effects of COPD and 3) co-morbidity clustering, each of them with their own dynamics. To explore the potential of a systems analysis of COPD heterogeneity focused on skeletal muscle dysfunction and on co-morbidity clustering aiming at generating predictive modeling with impact on patient management. To this end, strategies combining deterministic modeling and network medicine analyses of the Biobridge dataset were used to investigate the mechanisms of skeletal muscle dysfunction. An independent data driven analysis of co-morbidity clustering examining associated genes and pathways was performed using a large dataset (ICD9-CM data from Medicare, 13 million people). Finally, a targeted network analysis using the outcomes of the two approaches (skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering) explored shared pathways between these phenomena. (1) Evidence of abnormal regulation of skeletal muscle bioenergetics and skeletal muscle remodeling showing a significant association with nitroso-redox disequilibrium was observed in COPD; (2) COPD patients presented higher risk for co-morbidity clustering than non-COPD patients increasing with ageing; and, (3) the on-going targeted network analyses suggests shared pathways between skeletal muscle dysfunction and co-morbidity clustering. The results indicate the high potential of a systems approach to address COPD heterogeneity. Significant knowledge gaps were identified that are relevant to shape strategies aiming at

  11. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: 2012 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Sameer A; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2012-06-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder that is classified as a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm by the 2008 World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tumors. It is characterized by absolute monocytosis (>1 × 10(9) L(-1) ) in the peripheral blood that persists for at least 3 months. Patients may present with symptoms related to cytopenias and/or an underlying hypercatabolic state with drenching night sweats, splenomegaly, and weight loss. The diagnosis of CMML rests on a combination of morphologic, histopathologic, and chromosomal abnormalities in the bone marrow, after careful exclusion of other conditions (both malignant and nonmalignant) that can cause monocytosis. Numerous molecular abnormalities have been recently recognized in patients with CMML-unfortunately, no single pathognomonic finding specific to CMML has been identified thus far. The International Prognostic Scoring System for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cannot be used to risk stratify patients with CMML because this model excluded patients with a leukocyte count >12 × 10(9) L(-1) . Other risk stratification models such as the MD Anderson prognostic score and Dusseldorf score have been published. In the only model that took karyotype into account, bone marrow blasts ≥ 10%, leukocyte count ≥ 13 × 10(9) L(-1) , hemoglobin < 10 g/dL, platelet count < 100 × 10(9) L(-1) , and presence of trisomy 8, abnormalities of chromosome 7, or complex karyotype were found to be independent predictors of adverse survival. The Food and Drug Administration has approved azacitidine and decitabine for the treatment of patients with CMML based on two pivotal trials in MDS. Novel classes of agents including immunomodulatory drugs, nucleoside analogs, and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being investigated in the treatment of CMML. With the advent of reduced intensity conditioning, an allogeneic stem cell transplant has also become

  12. Analytical and assay issues for use of cardiac troponin testing for risk stratification in primary care.

    PubMed

    Wu, Alan H B; Christenson, Robert H

    2013-08-01

    Cardiac troponin is the standard marker for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and risk stratification of patients who present to an emergency department with signs and symptoms of acute cardiac ischemia. Over the past few years, the analytical sensitivity of assays for cardiac troponin has improved significantly to the point where a detectable amount of troponin can be measured in essentially all healthy subjects. Recent studies have shown that use of a highly sensitive troponin assays may provide value to traditional markers of primary disease risk for patients, i.e., for those who have no history of heart disease. There are barriers to the adoption of cardiac troponin for screening high risk cohorts such as the elderly, diabetics and perhaps even the asymptomatic population. Strategies used for the assignment of cutoff concentrations in acute care, i.e., the 99 th percentile, may not be appropriate for primary care as changes over baseline levels may provide more accurate information of risk than cross-sectional results. A review of biological variation has shown that cardiac troponin as a biomarker has low index of individuality, indicating that reference values are of little utility. Whether or not cardiac troponin can be released in reversible injury is a debate that could have significance for detecting minor myocardial injury. A major hurdle for use of troponin in primary care is the lack of assay standardization and nomenclature for the different generations of troponin assays. Standardization requires knowledge of what is released after cardiac injury and what the various cardiac troponin assays are measuring. Currently it is not clear if the cardiac troponin release after ischemic injury is identical to that in circulation of healthy individuals. This may affect the design of future assays and standardization approaches. There is potential that a marker of myocardial injury such as troponin can add to the value of existing indicators and biomarkers

  13. Analysis of agreement between cardiac risk stratification protocols applied to participants of a center for cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ana A. S.; Silva, Anne K. F.; Vanderlei, Franciele M.; Christofaro, Diego G. D.; Gonçalves, Aline F. L.; Vanderlei, Luiz C. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Cardiac risk stratification is related to the risk of the occurrence of events induced by exercise. Despite the existence of several protocols to calculate risk stratification, studies indicating that there is similarity between these protocols are still unknown. Objective To evaluate the agreement between the existing protocols on cardiac risk rating in cardiac patients. Method The records of 50 patients from a cardiac rehabilitation program were analyzed, from which the following information was extracted: age, sex, weight, height, clinical diagnosis, medical history, risk factors, associated diseases, and the results from the most recent laboratory and complementary tests performed. This information was used for risk stratification of the patients in the protocols of the American College of Sports Medicine, the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, the protocol designed by Frederic J. Pashkow, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, the Société Française de Cardiologie, and the Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and the analysis of agreement between the protocols was calculated using the Kappa coefficient. Differences were considered with a significance level of 5%. Results Of the 21 analyses of agreement, 12 were considered significant between the protocols used for risk classification, with nine classified as moderate and three as low. No agreements were classified as excellent. Different proportions were observed in each risk category, with significant differences between the protocols for all risk categories. Conclusion The agreements between the protocols were considered low and moderate and the risk proportions differed between protocols. PMID:27556385

  14. Call for Standardized Definitions of Osteoarthritis and Risk Stratification for Clinical Trials and Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Virginia Byers; Blanco, Francisco J.; Englund, Martin; Karsdal, Morten A.; Lohmander, L. Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a heterogeneous disorder. The goals of this review are (1) To stimulate use of standardized nomenclature for osteoarthritis (OA) that could serve as building blocks for describing OA and defining OA phenotypes, in short to provide unifying disease concepts for a heterogeneous disorder; and (2) To stimulate establishment of ROAD (Risk of Osteoarthritis Development) and ROAP (Risk of Osteoarthritis Progression) tools analogous to the FRAX™ instrument for predicting risk of fracture in osteoporosis; and (3) To stimulate formulation of tools for identifying disease in its early preradiographic and/or molecular stages -- REDI (Reliable Early Disease Identification). Consensus around more sensitive and specific diagnostic criteria for OA could spur development of disease modifying therapies for this entity that has proved so recalcitrant to date. We fully acknowledge that as we move forward, we expect to develop more sophisticated definitions, terminology and tools. PMID:25865392

  15. Incorporating Stroke and Bleeding Risk Stratification Tools into Atrial Fibrillation Management Making Sense of the Alphabet Soup.

    PubMed

    Deering, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia managed by many physicians in a variety of clinical settings. One of the most important clinical decisions related to effective AF management centers upon the need to perform accurate thromboembolic risk stratification followed by effective management decisions that align with established guidelines. This manuscript will review the present state of the art and provide guidance to physicians to enhance patient outcomes.

  16. Risk Factors and Risk Stratification for Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes After Appendectomy or Cholecystectomy During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Adam; Guglielminotti, Jean; Miller, Russell; Landau, Ruth; Smiley, Richard; Li, Guohua

    2017-05-01

    Identification of risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy is necessary for evidence-based risk reduction and adequate patient counseling. To identify risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy and stratify the risk of such outcomes. A cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of patients discharged from community hospitals in the United States, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Multivariable analysis of risk factors for adverse obstetric outcomes was performed for 19 926 women undergoing appendectomy or cholecystectomy during pregnancy and a scoring system for such risk factors was developed. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2015, to July 31, 2016. A composite measure including 7 adverse obstetrical outcomes throughout pregnancy and occurring before hospital discharge. Of the 19 926 women (mean [SD] age, 26 [6] years) in the study, 1018 adverse obstetrical events were recorded in 953 pregnant women (4.8%). The 3 most frequent adverse events were preterm delivery (360 [35.4%]), preterm labor without preterm delivery (269 [26.4%]), and miscarriage (262 [25.7%]). The risk factors associated most strongly with an adverse obstetrical outcome included cervical incompetence (adjusted odds ratio, 24.29; 95% CI, 7.48-78.81), preterm labor during current pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 18.34; 95% CI, 4.95-67.96), vaginitis or vulvovaginitis (adjusted odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.19-12.23), and sepsis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.08-5.51). A scoring system based on statistically significant variables classified the study sample into 3 risk groups corresponding to predicted probabilities of adverse obstetrical outcomes of 2.5% (≤4 points), 8.2% (5-8 points), and 21.8% (≥9 points). Approximately 5% of women experience adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy

  17. Risk Factors and Risk Stratification for Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes After Appendectomy or Cholecystectomy During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Guglielminotti, Jean; Miller, Russell; Landau, Ruth; Smiley, Richard; Li, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    Importance Identification of risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy is necessary for evidence-based risk reduction and adequate patient counseling. Objectives To identify risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy and stratify the risk of such outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants A cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of patients discharged from community hospitals in the United States, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Multivariable analysis of risk factors for adverse obstetric outcomes was performed for 19 926 women undergoing appendectomy or cholecystectomy during pregnancy and a scoring system for such risk factors was developed. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2015, to July 31, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures A composite measure including 7 adverse obstetrical outcomes throughout pregnancy and occurring before hospital discharge. Results Of the 19 926 women (mean [SD] age, 26 [6] years) in the study, 1018 adverse obstetrical events were recorded in 953 pregnant women (4.8%). The 3 most frequent adverse events were preterm delivery (360 [35.4%]), preterm labor without preterm delivery (269 [26.4%]), and miscarriage (262 [25.7%]). The risk factors associated most strongly with an adverse obstetrical outcome included cervical incompetence (adjusted odds ratio, 24.29; 95% CI, 7.48-78.81), preterm labor during current pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 18.34; 95% CI, 4.95-67.96), vaginitis or vulvovaginitis (adjusted odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.19-12.23), and sepsis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.08-5.51). A scoring system based on statistically significant variables classified the study sample into 3 risk groups corresponding to predicted probabilities of adverse obstetrical outcomes of 2.5% (≤4 points), 8.2% (5-8 points), and 21.8% (≥9

  18. Thrombocytosis: Diagnostic Evaluation, Thrombotic Risk Stratification, and Risk-Based Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, Jonathan S.; Hogan, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is a commonly encountered clinical scenario, with a large proportion of cases discovered incidentally. The differential diagnosis for thrombocytosis is broad and the diagnostic process can be challenging. Thrombocytosis can be spurious, attributed to a reactive process or due to clonal disorder. This distinction is important as it carries implications for evaluation, prognosis, and treatment. Clonal thrombocytosis associated with the myeloproliferative neoplasms, especially essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera, carries a unique prognostic profile, with a markedly increased risk of thrombosis. This risk is the driving factor behind treatment strategies in these disorders. Clinical trials utilizing targeted therapies in thrombocytosis are ongoing with new therapeutic targets waiting to be explored. This paper will outline the mechanisms underlying thrombocytosis, the diagnostic evaluation of thrombocytosis, complications of thrombocytosis with a special focus on thrombotic risk as well as treatment options for clonal processes leading to thrombocytosis, including essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. PMID:22084665

  19. Stratification, Sediment Transport, and the Early Wet Surface of Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotzinger, J. P.; Athena Science Team

    2004-12-01

    Several stratification styles are present in the outcrops investigated by the Opportunity rover at Meridiani Planum. These include planar lamination, low-angle cross-stratification, cross-bedding, ripple cross-lamination, and crinkly and undulatory lamination. Planar lamination and low angle stratification are well-developed in several locations, particularly at Slickrock and Shoemakers Patio in Eagle crater and at Karatepe in Endurance crater. MI images at Slickrock show "pinstripe" lamination where individual laminae can be single-grain thick layers, suggestive of eolian sedimentation. At Shoemaker's Patio, a single cross-bed set with thickness of 5-7 cm is preserved. At Burn's Cliff, in Endurance crater, a single cross-bed set of up to several meters thickness is preserved. In contrast, ripple cross-lamination with festoon geometry is present at several locations within Eagle crater including Last Chance, the Dells, and in an isolated rock (Scoop) on the southwest rim of the crater. Ripple cross-laminae sets are 0.8 to 1.7 cm thick. In the case of Scoop, the sets are possibly climbing. Grain size appears to range from 0.1 to 0.8 mm in diameter. The cross-bedding preserved at Eagle crater suggests both eolian and subaqeous environments. The set at Shoemaker's patio represents deposition from either subaerial or subaqeous dunes. The thicker, meter-scale set at Burns Cliff is most consistent with transport by eolian dunes. In contrast, the small-scale festoon cross-laminae at Eagle crater are indicative of sediment transport in subaqueous ripples. The reconstructed size of former bedforms is inferred to be only a few cm, and therefore inconsistent with eolian dunes which commonly have significantly larger minimum amplitudes. Yet the cross-lamination is significantly larger and of differing geometry from the climbing translatent cross-strata produced by wind ripples. Thus, the size of bedforms that produced the cm-scale cross-laminae preserved at Eagle crater occupy

  20. Systemic mastocytosis in adults: 2017 update on diagnosis, risk stratification and management.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, Animesh

    2016-11-01

    Disease overview:Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in one or more extra-cutaneous organs. The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of morphologically abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC expression of CD25 and/or CD2, and presence of KITD816V. Risk stratification: The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of SM has been shown to be prognostically relevant. Classification of SM patients into indolent (SM), aggressive SM (ASM), SM associated with a clonal non-MC lineage disease (SM-AHNMD) and mast cell leukemia (MCL) subgroups is a useful first step in establishing prognosis. SM treatment is generally palliative. ISM patients have a normal life expectancy and receive symptom-directed therapy; infrequently, cytoreductive therapy may be indicated for refractory symptoms. ASM patients have disease-related organ dysfunction; interferon-α (±corticosteroids) can control dermatological, hematological, gastrointestinal, skeletal and mediator-release symptoms, but is hampered by poor tolerability. Similarly, cladribine has broad therapeutic activity, with particular utility when rapid MC debulking is indicated; the main toxicity is myelosuppression. Imatinib has a therapeutic role in the presence of an imatinib-sensitive KIT mutation or in KITD816-unmutated patients. Treatment of SM-AHNMD is governed primarily by the non-MC neoplasm; hydroxyurea has modest utility in this setting; there is a role for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in select cases. Investigational drugs: Recent data confirms midostaurin's significant anti-MC activity in patients with advanced SM. Am. J. Hematol. 91:1147-1159, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Stroke Risk Stratification and its Validation using Ultrasonic Echolucent Carotid Wall Plaque Morphology: A Machine Learning Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Araki, Tadashi; Jain, Pankaj K; Suri, Harman S; Londhe, Narendra D; Ikeda, Nobutaka; El-Baz, Ayman; Shrivastava, Vimal K; Saba, Luca; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Laird, John R; Gupta, Ajay; Suri, Jasjit S

    2017-01-01

    Stroke risk stratification based on grayscale morphology of the ultrasound carotid wall has recently been shown to have a promise in classification of high risk versus low risk plaque or symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques. In previous studies, this stratification has been mainly based on analysis of the far wall of the carotid artery. Due to the multifocal nature of atherosclerotic disease, the plaque growth is not restricted to the far wall alone. This paper presents a new approach for stroke risk assessment by integrating assessment of both the near and far walls of the carotid artery using grayscale morphology of the plaque. Further, this paper presents a scientific validation system for stroke risk assessment. Both these innovations have never been presented before. The methodology consists of an automated segmentation system of the near wall and far wall regions in grayscale carotid B-mode ultrasound scans. Sixteen grayscale texture features are computed, and fed into the machine learning system. The training system utilizes the lumen diameter to create ground truth labels for the stratification of stroke risk. The cross-validation procedure is adapted in order to obtain the machine learning testing classification accuracy through the use of three sets of partition protocols: (5, 10, and Jack Knife). The mean classification accuracy over all the sets of partition protocols for the automated system in the far and near walls is 95.08% and 93.47%, respectively. The corresponding accuracies for the manual system are 94.06% and 92.02%, respectively. The precision of merit of the automated machine learning system when compared against manual risk assessment system are 98.05% and 97.53% for the far and near walls, respectively. The ROC of the risk assessment system for the far and near walls is close to 1.0 demonstrating high accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk stratification and staging in prostate cancer with prostatic specific membrane antigen PET/CTObjective: A one-stop-shop.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Rawal, Sudhir; Goel, Harish Chandra; Singh, Amitabh; Talwar, Vineet; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Current imaging modalities for prostate cancer (PC) had limitations for risk stratification and staging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) frequently underestimated lymphatic metastasis while bone scintigraphy often had diagnostic dilemmas. Prostatic specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) has been remarkable in diagnosing PC recurrence and staging. We hypothesized it can become one-stop-shop for initial risk stratification and staging. Ninety seven PSMA PET-CT studies were re analysed for tumor node metastases (TNM) staging and risk stratification of lymphatic and distant metastases proportion. The histopathology of 23/97 patients was available as gold standard. Chi-square test was used for proportion comparison. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), over-estimation, under-estimation and correct-estimation of T and N stages were calculated. Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) was derived for inter-rater agreement. Lymphic or distant metastases detection on PSMA PET/CT increased significantly with increase in risk category. PSMA PET/CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for extra prostatic extension (EPE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and lymphatic metastases were 63.16%, 100%, 100%, 36.36% & 55%, 100%, 100%, 25% and 65.62%, 99.31%, 87.50%, 97.53%, respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficient showed substantial agreement between PSMA PET/CT and histopathological lymphic metastases (κ 0.734) however, it was just in fair agreement (κ 0.277) with T stage. PSMA PET/CT over-estimated, under-estimated and correct-estimated T and N stages in 8.71%, 39.13%, 52.17% and 8.71%, 4.35%, 86.96% cases, respectively. We found that PSMA PET/CT has potential for initial risk stratifications with reasonable correct estimation for N stage. However, it can underestimate T stage. Hence, we suggest that PSMA PET/CT should be used for staging and initial risk stratification of PC as one

  3. Role of late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance in the risk stratification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Tevfik F; Jabbour, Andrew; Gulati, Ankur; Mallorie, Amy; Raza, Sadaf; Cowling, Thomas E; Das, Bibek; Khwaja, Jahanzaib; Alpendurada, Francisco D; Wage, Ricardo; Roughton, Michael; McKenna, William J; Moon, James C; Varnava, Amanda; Shakespeare, Carl; Cowie, Martin R; Cook, Stuart A; Elliott, Perry; O'Hanlon, Rory; Pennell, Dudley J; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2014-12-01

    Myocardial fibrosis identified by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with adverse cardiovascular events, but its value as an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We investigated the role of LGE-CMR in the risk stratification of HCM. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a tertiary referral centre. Consecutive patients with HCM (n=711, median age 56.3 years, IQR 46.7-66.6; 70.0% male) underwent LGE-CMR and were followed for a median 3.5 years. The primary end point was SCD or aborted SCD. Overall, 471 patients (66.2%) had myocardial fibrosis (median 5.9% of left ventricular mass, IQR: 2.2-13.3). Twenty-two (3.1%) reached the primary end point. The extent but not the presence of fibrosis was a significant univariable predictor of the primary end point (HR per 5% LGE: 1.24, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.45; p=0.007 and HR for LGE: 2.69, 95% CI 0.91 to 7.97; p=0.073, respectively). However, on multivariable analysis, only LV-EF remained statistically significant (HR: 0.92, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.95; p<0.001). For the secondary outcome of cardiovascular mortality/aborted SCD, the presence and the amount of fibrosis were significant predictors on univariable but not multivariable analysis after adjusting for LV-EF and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. The amount of myocardial fibrosis was a strong univariable predictor of SCD risk. However, this effect was not maintained after adjusting for LV-EF. Further work is required to elucidate the interrelationship between fibrosis and traditional predictors of outcome in HCM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Detection and risk stratification of women at high risk of preterm birth in rural communities near Nagpur, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Archana; Prakash, Amber Abhijeet; Pusdekar, Yamini V; Kulkarni, Hemant; Hibberd, Patricia

    2017-09-19

    Presently, preterm birth is globally the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Prompt community based identification of women at high risk for preterm births (HRPB) can either help to avert preterm births or avail effective interventions to reduce neonatal mortality due to preterm births. We evaluated the performance of a package to train community workers to detect the presence of signs or symptoms of HRPB. Pregnant women enrolled in the intervention arm of a cluster randomized trial of Antenatal Corticosteroids (ACT Trial) conducted at Nagpur, India were informed about 4 directly observable signs and symptoms of preterm labor. Community health workers actively monitored these women from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation for these signs or symptoms. If they were present (HRPB positive) the identified women were brought to government health facilities for assessment and management. HRPB positive could also be determined by the provider if the woman presented directly to the facility. Risk stratification was based on the number of signs or symptoms present. The outcome of preterm birth was based on the clinical assessment of gestational age < 37 weeks at delivery or a birth weight of <2000 g. Between July 1, 2012 and 30 November, 2013, 686 of 7050 (9.7%) pregnant women studied, delivered preterm. 732 (10.4%) women were HRPB positive, of whom 333 (45.5%) delivered preterm. Of the remaining 6318(89.6%) HRPB negative women 353 (5.6%) delivered preterm. The likelihood ratio (LR) of a preterm birth in the HRPB positives was 8.14 (95% confidence interval 7.16-9.26). The LR of a preterm birth increased in women who had more signs or symptoms of HRBP (p < 0.00001). More signs or symptoms of HRPB were also associated with a shorter time to delivery, lower birth weight and higher rates of stillbirths, neonatal deaths and postnatal complications. Addition of risk stratification improved the prediction of preterm delivery (Integrated Discrimination Improvement 17% (95% CI 15

  5. Coronary Artery Calcium Scores and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Stratification in Smokers: MESA.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Adam; McEvoy, John W; Garg, Parveen; Carr, J Jeffrey; Sandfort, Veit; Oelsner, Elizabeth C; Budoff, Matthew; Herrington, David; Yeboah, Joseph

    2018-02-09

    This study assessed the utility of the pooled cohort equation (PCE) and/or coronary artery calcium (CAC) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment in smokers, especially those who were lung cancer screening eligible (LCSE). The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommended and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services currently pays for annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography scans in a specified group of cigarette smokers. CAC can be obtained from these low-dose scans. The incremental utility of CAC for ASCVD risk stratification remains unclear in this high-risk group. Of 6,814 MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) participants, 3,356 (49.2% of total cohort) were smokers (2,476 former and 880 current), and 14.3% were LCSE. Kaplan-Meier, Cox proportional hazards, area under the curve, and net reclassification improvement (NRI) analyses were used to assess the association between PCE and/or CAC and incident ASCVD. Incident ASCVD was defined as coronary death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or fatal or nonfatal stroke. Smokers had a mean age of 62.1 years, 43.5% were female, and all had a mean of 23.0 pack-years of smoking. The LCSE sample had a mean age of 65.3 years, 39.1% were female, and all had a mean of 56.7 pack-years of smoking. After a mean of 11.1 years of follow-up 13.4% of all smokers and 20.8% of LCSE smokers had ASCVD events; 6.7% of all smokers and 14.2% of LCSE smokers with CAC = 0 had an ASCVD event during the follow-up. One SD increase in the PCE 10-year risk was associated with a 68% increase risk for ASCVD events in all smokers (hazard ratio: 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.57 to 1.80) and a 22% increase in risk for ASCVD events in the LCSE smokers (hazard ratio: 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.00 to 1.47). CAC was associated with increased ASCVD risk in all smokers and in LCSE smokers in all the Cox models. The C-statistic of the PCE for ASCVD was higher in all

  6. Risk stratification after paracetamol overdose using mechanistic biomarkers: results from two prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Dear, James W; Clarke, Joanna I; Francis, Ben; Allen, Lowri; Wraight, Jonathan; Shen, Jasmine; Dargan, Paul I; Wood, David; Cooper, Jamie; Thomas, Simon H L; Jorgensen, Andrea L; Pirmohamed, Munir; Park, B Kevin; Antoine, Daniel J

    2018-02-01

    Paracetamol overdose is common but patient stratification is suboptimal. We investigated the usefulness of new biomarkers that have either enhanced liver specificity (microRNA-122 [miR-122]) or provide mechanistic insights (keratin-18 [K18], high mobility group box-1 [HMGB1], and glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH]). The use of these biomarkers could help stratify patients for their risk of liver injury at hospital presentation. Using data from two prospective cohort studies, we assessed the potential for biomarkers to stratify patients who overdose with paracetamol. We completed two independent prospective studies: a derivation study (MAPP) in eight UK hospitals and a validation study (BIOPAR) in ten UK hospitals. Patients in both cohorts were adults (≥18 years in England, ≥16 years in Scotland), were diagnosed with paracetamol overdose, and gave written informed consent. Patients who needed intravenous acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol overdose had circulating biomarkers measured at hospital presentation. The primary endpoint was acute liver injury indicating need for continued acetylcysteine treatment beyond the standard course (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] activity >100 U/L). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, category-free net reclassification index (cfNRI), and integrated discrimination index (IDI) were applied to assess endpoint prediction. Between June 2, 2010, and May 29, 2014, 1187 patients who required acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol overdose were recruited (985 in the MAPP cohort; 202 in the BIOPAR cohort). In the derivation and validation cohorts, acute liver injury was predicted at hospital presentation by miR-122 (derivation cohort ROC-area under the curve [AUC] 0·97 [95% CI 0·95-0·98]), HMGB1 (0·95 [0·93-0·98]), and full-length K18 (0·95 [0·92-0·97]). Results were similar in the validation cohort (miR-122 AUC 0·97 [95% CI 0·95-0·99], HMGB1 0·98 [0·96-0·99], and full-length K18 0·93 [0·86-0·99]). A

  7. Pulmonary 18F-FDG uptake helps refine current risk stratification in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

    PubMed

    Win, Thida; Screaton, Nicholas J; Porter, Joanna C; Ganeshan, Balaji; Maher, Toby M; Fraioli, Francesco; Endozo, Raymondo; Shortman, Robert I; Hurrell, Lynn; Holman, Beverley F; Thielemans, Kris; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Hutton, Brian F; Lukey, Pauline T; Flynn, Aiden; Ell, Peter J; Groves, Ashley M

    2018-05-01

    There is a lack of prognostic biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of 18 F-FDG-PET/ CT to predict mortality in IPF. A total of 113 IPF patients (93 males, 20 females, mean age ± SD: 70 ± 9 years) were prospectively recruited for 18 F-FDG-PET/CT. The overall maximum pulmonary uptake of 18 F-FDG (SUV max ), the minimum pulmonary uptake or background lung activity (SUV min ), and target-to-background (SUV max / SUV min ) ratio (TBR) were quantified using routine region-of-interest analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to identify associations of PET measurements with mortality. We also compared PET associations with IPF mortality with the established GAP (gender age and physiology) scoring system. Cox analysis assessed the independence of the significant PET measurement(s) from GAP score. We investigated synergisms between pulmonary 18 F-FDG-PET measurements and GAP score for risk stratification in IPF patients. During a mean follow-up of 29 months, there were 54 deaths. The mean TBR ± SD was 5.6 ± 2.7. Mortality was associated with high pulmonary TBR (p = 0.009), low forced vital capacity (FVC; p = 0.001), low transfer factor (TLCO; p < 0.001), high GAP index (p = 0.003), and high GAP stage (p = 0.003). Stepwise forward-Wald-Cox analysis revealed that the pulmonary TBR was independent of GAP classification (p = 0.010). The median survival in IPF patients with a TBR < 4.9 was 71 months, whilst in those with TBR > 4.9 was 24 months. Combining PET data with GAP data ("PET modified GAP score") refined the ability to predict mortality. A high pulmonary TBR is independently associated with increased risk of mortality in IPF patients.

  8. Prognostic factors and risk stratification in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving docetaxel-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shimpei; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Iguchi, Takashi; Koike, Hiroyuki; Kusumoto, Hiroki; Iba, Akinori; Kikkawa, Kazuro; Kodama, Yoshiki; Matsumura, Nagahide; Hara, Isao

    2016-03-22

    While novel drugs have been developed, docetaxel remains one of the standard initial systemic therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Despite the excellent anti-tumor effect of docetaxel, its severe adverse effects sometimes distress patients. Therefore, it would be very helpful to predict the efficacy of docetaxel before treatment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential value of patient characteristics in predicting overall survival (OS) and to develop a risk classification for CRPC patients treated with docetaxel-based chemotherapy. This study included 79 patients with CRPC treated with docetaxel. The variables, including patient characteristics at diagnosis and at the start of chemotherapy, were retrospectively collected. Prognostic factors predicting OS were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Risk stratification for overall survival was determined based on the results of multivariate analysis. PSA response ≥50 % was observed in 55 (69.6 %) of all patients, and the median OS was 22.5 months. The multivariate analysis showed that age, serum PSA level at the start of chemotherapy, and Hb were independent prognostic factors for OS. In addition, ECOG performance status (PS) and the CRP-to-albumin ratio were not significant but were considered possible predictors for OS. Risk stratification according to the number of these risk factors could effectively stratify CRPC patients treated with docetaxel in terms of OS. Age, serum PSA level at the start of chemotherapy, and Hb were identified as independent prognostic factors of OS. ECOG PS and the CRP-to-albumin ratio were not significant, but were considered possible predictors for OS in Japanese CRPC patients treated with docetaxel. Risk stratification based on these factors could be helpful for estimating overall survival.

  9. Exploring the color feature power for psoriasis risk stratification and classification: A data mining paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Vimal K; Londhe, Narendra D; Sonawane, Rajendra S; Suri, Jasjit S

    2015-10-01

    A large percentage of dermatologist׳s decision in psoriasis disease assessment is based on color. The current computer-aided diagnosis systems for psoriasis risk stratification and classification lack the vigor of color paradigm. The paper presents an automated psoriasis computer-aided diagnosis (pCAD) system for classification of psoriasis skin images into psoriatic lesion and healthy skin, which solves the two major challenges: (i) fulfills the color feature requirements and (ii) selects the powerful dominant color features while retaining high classification accuracy. Fourteen color spaces are discovered for psoriasis disease analysis leading to 86 color features. The pCAD system is implemented in a support vector-based machine learning framework where the offline image data set is used for computing machine learning offline color machine learning parameters. These are then used for transformation of the online color features to predict the class labels for healthy vs. diseased cases. The above paradigm uses principal component analysis for color feature selection of dominant features, keeping the original color feature unaltered. Using the cross-validation protocol, the above machine learning protocol is compared against the standalone grayscale features with 60 features and against the combined grayscale and color feature set of 146. Using a fixed data size of 540 images with equal number of healthy and diseased, 10 fold cross-validation protocol, and SVM of polynomial kernel of type two, pCAD system shows an accuracy of 99.94% with sensitivity and specificity of 99.93% and 99.96%. Using a varying data size protocol, the mean classification accuracies for color, grayscale, and combined scenarios are: 92.85%, 93.83% and 93.99%, respectively. The reliability of the system in these three scenarios are: 94.42%, 97.39% and 96.00%, respectively. We conclude that pCAD system using color space alone is compatible to grayscale space or combined color and grayscale

  10. Impact of self-reported fasting duration on lipid profile variability, cardiovascular risk stratification and metabolic syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Janovsky, Carolina Castro Porto Silva; Laurinavicius, Antonio; Cesena, Fernando; Valente, Viviane; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo; Mangueira, Cristovão; Conceição, Raquel; Santos, Raul D; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer

    2018-01-01

    We sought to investigate the impact of self-reported fasting duration times on the lipid profile results and its impact on the cardiovascular risk stratification and metabolic syndrome diagnosis. We analyzed data from all consecutive individuals evaluated in a comprehensive health examination at the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to December 2015. We divided these patients in three groups, according to the fasting duration recalled (< 8h, 8-12h and > 12h). We calculated the global cardiovascular risk and diagnosed metabolic syndrome according to the current criteria and estimated their change according to fasting duration. A total of 12,196 (42.3 ± 9.2 years-old, 30.2% females) patients were evaluated. The distribution of cardiovascular risk was not different among groups defined by fasting duration in both men and women (p = 0.547 for women and p = 0.329 for men). Similarly, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was not influenced by the fasting duration (p = 0.431 for women and p = 0.166 for men). Self-reported fasting duration had no significant impact on the lipid profile results, including triglyceride levels. Consequently, no changes on the cardiovascular risk stratification using the Framingham risk score nor changes on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were noted.

  11. Risk stratification by the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score to guide decision-making in patients with suspected appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, A J; Mason, S E; Arunakirinathan, M; Reissis, Y; Kinross, J M; Smith, J J

    2015-04-01

    Current management of suspected appendicitis is hampered by the overadmission of patients with non-specific abdominal pain and a significant negative exploration rate. The potential benefits of risk stratification by the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) score to guide clinical decision-making were assessed. During this 50-week prospective observational study at one institution, the AIR score was calculated for all patients admitted with suspected appendicitis. Appendicitis was diagnosed by histological examination, and patients were classified as having non-appendicitis pain if histological findings were negative or surgery was not performed. The diagnostic performance of the AIR score and the potential for risk stratification to reduce admissions, optimize imaging and prevent unnecessary explorations were quantified. A total of 464 patients were included, of whom 210 (63·3 per cent) with non-appendicitis pain were correctly classified as low risk. However, 13 low-risk patients had appendicitis. Low-risk patients accounted for 48·1 per cent of admissions (223 of 464), 57 per cent of negative explorations (48 of 84) and 50·7 per cent of imaging requests (149 of 294). An AIR score of 5 or more (intermediate and high risk) had high sensitivity for all severities of appendicitis (90 per cent) and also for advanced appendicitis (98 per cent). An AIR score of 9 or more (high risk) was very specific (97 per cent) for appendicitis, and the majority of patients with appendicitis in the high-risk group (21 of 30, 70 per cent) had perforation or gangrene. Ultrasound imaging could not exclude appendicitis in low-risk patients (negative likelihood ratio (LR) 1·0) but could rule-in the diagnosis in intermediate-risk patients (positive LR 10·2). CT could exclude appendicitis in low-risk patients (negative LR 0·0) and rule-in appendicitis in the intermediate group (positive LR 10·9). Risk stratification of patients with suspected appendicitis by the AIR score could

  12. Acute myeloid leukemia: 2013 update on risk-stratification and management.

    PubMed

    Estey, Elihu H

    2013-04-01

    RNA) expression also affect resistance as do post treatment factors, in particular the presence of minimal residual disease. These newer mutations and MRD are discussed in this update. Patients with inv (16) or t(8;21) or who are NPM1+/FLT3ITD-can receive standard therapy (daunorubicin + cytarabine) and should not receive HCT in first CR. It seems likely that use of a daily daunorubicin dose of 90 mg/m(2) will further improve outcome in these patients. There appears no reason to use doses of cytarabine > 1 g/m(2) (for example bid X 6 days), as opposed to the more commonly used 3 g/m(2) . Patients with an unfavorable karyotype (particularly MK) are unlikely to benefit from standard therapy (even with dose escalation) and are thus prime candidates for clinical trials of new drugs or new approaches to HCT; the latter should be done in first CR. Patients with intermediate prognoses (for example NK and NPM and FLT3ITD negative) should also receive HCT in first CR and can plausibly receive either investigational or standard induction therapy, with the same prognostic information about standard therapy leading one patient to choose the standard and another an investigational option. This update discusses results with newer agents: quizartinib and crenolanib, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, clofarabine and cladribine, azacitidine and decitabine, volasertib, and means to prevent relapse after allogeneic transplant. The diagnosis of AML essentially is made as it was in 2012. Thus this review will emphasize new developments in risk stratification and treatment using as references many papers published in 2012. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Drain Management after Pancreatoduodenectomy: Reappraisal of a Prospective Randomized Trial Using Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Matthew T; Malleo, Giuseppe; Bassi, Claudio; Butturini, Giovanni; Salvia, Roberto; Roses, Robert E; Lee, Major K; Fraker, Douglas L; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Vollmer, Charles M

    2015-10-01

    A recent randomized trial used the Fistula Risk Score (FRS) to develop guidelines for selective drainage based on clinically relevant fistula (CR-POPF) risk. Additionally, postoperative day (POD) 1 drain and serum amylase have been identified as accurate postoperative predictors of CR-POPF. This study sought to identify patients who may benefit from selective drainage, as well as the optimal timing for drain removal after pancreatoduodenectomy. One hundred six pancreatoduodenectomies from a previously reported RCT were assessed using risk-adjustment. The incidence of CR-POPF was compared between FRS risk cohorts. Drain and serum amylase values from POD 1 were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to establish cut-offs predictive of CR-POPF occurrence. A regression analysis compared drain removal randomizations (POD 3 vs POD 5). Three-quarters of patients had moderate/high CR-POPF risk. This group had a CR-POPF rate of 36.3% vs 7.7% among negligible/low risk patients (p = 0.005). The areas under the ROC curve for CR-POPF prediction using POD 1 drain and serum amylase values were 0.800 (p = 0.000001; 95% CI 0.70-0.90) and 0.655 (p = 0.012; 95% CI 0.55-0.77), respectively. No significant serum amylase cut-offs were identified. Moderate/high risk patients with POD 1 drain amylase ≤ 5,000 U/L had significantly lower rates of CR-POPF when randomized to POD 3 drain removal (4.2% vs 38.5%; p = 0.003); moreover, these patients experienced fewer complications and shorter hospital stays. A clinical care protocol is proposed whereby drains are recommended for moderate/high FRS risk patients, but may be omitted in patients with negligible/low risk. Drain amylase values in moderate/high risk patients should then be evaluated on POD 1 to determine the optimal timing for drain removal. Moderate/high risk patients with POD 1 drain amylase ≤ 5,000 U/L have lower rates of CR-POPF with POD 3 (vs POD ≥ 5) drain removal; early drain removal is

  14. Clinically Feasible Stratification of 3-Year Chronic Disease Risk in Primary Care: The Mental Health Integration Risk Score.

    PubMed

    May, Heidi T; Reiss-Brennan, Brenda; Brunisholz, Kimberly D; Horne, Benjamin D

    Depression is a common illness that imposes a disproportionately large health burden. Depression is generally associated with a higher prevalence of chronic disease risk factors and may contribute to higher chronic disease risk. This study aimed to create and validate sex-specific Mental Health Integration Risk Scores (MHIRS) that predict 3-year chronic disease diagnosis. MHIRS was created to predict the first diagnosis of any of the 10 chronic diseases in patients completing a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Depression Survey who were free at baseline from those 10 chronic disease diagnoses. MHIRS used sex-specific weightings of Patient Health Questionnaire 9 results, age, and components of the complete metabolic profile and complete blood count in randomly chosen derivation (70%) and validation (30%) groups. Among females (N = 10,162, age: 48 ± 16), c-statistics for the composite chronic disease end point were 0.746 (0.725, 0.767) for the derivation group and 0.717 (0.682, 0.753) for the validation group, whereas males (N = 4615, age: 48 ± 15) had 0.755 (0.727, 0.783) and 0.742 (0.702, 0.782). In the validation group, MHIRS strata of low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories had hazard ratios (HR) for any 3-year chronic disease diagnosis among females of HR = 3.42 for moderate vs low and HR = 9.75 for high vs low, whereas males had HR = 4.80 and HR = 10.68, respectively (all p < 0.0001). A clinical decision tool comprised by depression severity and common laboratory tests, and MHIRS provides very good stratification of a 3-year chronic disease diagnosis. Designed to be calculated electronically by an electronic health record, MHIRS can be efficiently obtained by clinicians to identify patients at higher chronic disease risk who require further evaluation and more precise clinical management. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency medical service providers' role in the early heart attack care program: prevention and stratification strategies.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, G S; Steiner, S R

    1997-01-01

    Emergency Medical Services-Early Heart Attack Care (EMS-EHAC) is a community-based program where paramedics increase the consumer's awareness about early chest pain symptom recognition. EMS-EHAC prevention, along with seamless chest pain care (between the paramedic and chest pain emergency department) can be the basis for an outcome-based study to examine the impact of advanced life support EMS. Studies that show the impact of care given by paramedics on the outcome of patient care must be designed to demonstrate the value and the cost benefit of providing advanced life support (ALS). Third party payers are going to examine if there are significant quality differences between ALS and basic life support (BLS) services. If significant benefits of ALS care cannot be demonstrated, the cost differences could potentially place the future of advanced life support paramedic programs in jeopardy. A positive outcome resulting in a lower acute cardiac event, and the realization of the cost benefits from the EMS-EHAC program could be utilized by EMS management to justify or expand advanced life support programs.

  16. Adaptation of a Biomarker-Based Sepsis Mortality Risk Stratification Tool for Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yehya, Nadir; Wong, Hector R

    2018-01-01

    -based risk stratification tool designed for pediatric sepsis was adapted for use in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. The newly derived Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Biomarker Risk Model demonstrates good test characteristics internally and requires external validation in a larger cohort. Tools such as Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Biomarker Risk Model have the potential to provide improved risk stratification and prognostic enrichment for future trials in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  17. Congenital and hereditary causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults: diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Garg, Anubhav; Patel, Smita; Melville, David M; Kazerooni, Ella A; Mueller, Gisela C

    2013-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is defined as death from unexpected circulatory arrest-usually a result of cardiac arrhythmia-that occurs within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms. Proper and timely identification of individuals at risk for sudden cardiac death and the diagnosis of its predisposing conditions are vital. A careful history and physical examination, in addition to electrocardiography and cardiac imaging, are essential to identify conditions associated with sudden cardiac death. Among young adults (18-35 years), sudden cardiac death most commonly results from a previously undiagnosed congenital or hereditary condition, such as coronary artery anomalies and inherited cardiomyopathies (eg, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy [ARVC], dilated cardiomyopathy, and noncompaction cardiomyopathy). Overall, the most common causes of sudden cardiac death in young adults are, in descending order of frequency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery anomalies with an interarterial or intramural course, and ARVC. Often, sudden cardiac death is precipitated by ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and may be prevented with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Risk stratification to determine the need for an ICD is challenging and involves imaging, particularly echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Coronary artery anomalies, a diverse group of congenital disorders with a variable manifestation, may be depicted at coronary computed tomographic angiography or MR angiography. A thorough understanding of clinical risk stratification, imaging features, and complementary diagnostic tools for the evaluation of cardiac disorders that may lead to sudden cardiac death is essential to effectively use imaging to guide diagnosis and therapy.

  18. A new evidence-based risk stratification system for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma into low, intermediate, and high risk groups with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Baum, Christian L; Wright, Adam C; Martinez, Juan-Carlos; Arpey, Christopher J; Brewer, Jerry D; Roenigk, Randall K; Otley, Clark C

    2018-01-01

    Most primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are cured with surgery. A subset, however, may develop local and nodal metastasis that may eventuate in disease-specific; death. This subset has been variably termed high risk. Herein, we review; an emerging body of data on the risks of these outcomes and propose an evidence-based; risk stratification for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk tumors that takes into; account both tumor and patient characteristics. Finally, we discuss a framework for; management of these tumors on the basis of data, when available, and our; recommendations when data are sparse. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel metric that quantifies risk stratification for evaluating diagnostic tests: The example of evaluating cervical-cancer screening tests across populations.

    PubMed

    Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Our work involves assessing whether new biomarkers might be useful for cervical-cancer screening across populations with different disease prevalences and biomarker distributions. When comparing across populations, we show that standard diagnostic accuracy statistics (predictive values, risk-differences, Youden's index and Area Under the Curve (AUC)) can easily be misinterpreted. We introduce an intuitively simple statistic for a 2 × 2 table, Mean Risk Stratification (MRS): the average change in risk (pre-test vs. post-test) revealed for tested individuals. High MRS implies better risk separation achieved by testing. MRS has 3 key advantages for comparing test performance across populations with different disease prevalences and biomarker distributions. First, MRS demonstrates that conventional predictive values and the risk-difference do not measure risk-stratification because they do not account for test-positivity rates. Second, Youden's index and AUC measure only multiplicative relative gains in risk-stratification: AUC = 0.6 achieves only 20% of maximum risk-stratification (AUC = 0.9 achieves 80%). Third, large relative gains in risk-stratification might not imply large absolute gains if disease is rare, demonstrating a "high-bar" to justify population-based screening for rare diseases such as cancer. We illustrate MRS by our experience comparing the performance of cervical-cancer screening tests in China vs. the USA. The test with the worst AUC = 0.72 in China (visual inspection with acetic acid) provides twice the risk-stratification (i.e. MRS) of the test with best AUC = 0.83 in the USA (human papillomavirus and Pap cotesting) because China has three times more cervical precancer/cancer. MRS could be routinely calculated to better understand the clinical/public-health implications of standard diagnostic accuracy statistics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Preventing tomorrow's sudden cardiac death today: part I: Current data on risk stratification for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sanders, Gillian D; Bigger, J Thomas; Buxton, Alfred E; Califf, Robert M; Carlson, Mark; Curtis, Anne; Curtis, Jeptha; Fain, Eric; Gersh, Bernard J; Gold, Michael R; Haghighi-Mood, Ali; Hammill, Stephen C; Healey, Jeff; Hlatky, Mark; Hohnloser, Stefan; Kim, Raymond J; Lee, Kerry; Mark, Daniel; Mianulli, Marcus; Mitchell, Brent; Prystowsky, Eric N; Smith, Joseph; Steinhaus, David; Zareba, Wojciech

    2007-06-01

    Accurate and timely prediction of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a necessary prerequisite for effective prevention and therapy. Although the largest number of SCD events occurs in patients without overt heart disease, there are currently no tests that are of proven predictive value in this population. Efforts in risk stratification for SCD have focused primarily on predicting SCD in patients with known structural heart disease. Despite the ubiquity of tests that have been purported to predict SCD vulnerability in such patients, there is little consensus on which test, in addition to the left ventricular ejection fraction, should be used to determine which patients will benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. On July 20 and 21, 2006, a group of experts representing clinical cardiology, cardiac electrophysiology, biostatistics, economics, and health policy were joined by representatives of the US Food and Drug administration, Centers for Medicare Services, Agency for Health Research and Quality, the Heart Rhythm Society, and the device and pharmaceutical industry for a round table meeting to review current data on strategies of risk stratification for SCD, to explore methods to translate these strategies into practice and policy, and to identify areas that need to be addressed by future research studies. The meeting was organized by the Duke Center for the Prevention of SCD at the Duke Clinical Research Institute and was funded by industry participants. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions that occurred at that meeting.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of prognostic gene expression signature-based stratification of early breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Blank, Patricia R; Filipits, Martin; Dubsky, Peter; Gutzwiller, Florian; Lux, Michael P; Brase, Jan C; Weber, Karsten E; Rudas, Margaretha; Greil, Richard; Loibl, Sibylle; Szucs, Thomas D; Kronenwett, Ralf; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Gnant, Michael

    2015-02-01

    The individual risk of recurrence in hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancer patients determines whether adjuvant endocrine therapy should be combined with chemotherapy. Clinicopathological parameters and molecular tests such as EndoPredict(®) (EPclin) can support decision making in patients with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative cancer. Using a life-long Markov state transition model, we determined the health economic impact and incremental cost effectiveness of EPclin-based risk stratification in combination with clinical guidelines [German-S3, National Comprehensive Cancer Center Network (NCCN), and St. Gallen] to decide on chemotherapy use. Information on overall and metastasis-free survival came from Austrian Breast & Colorectal Cancer Study Group clinical trials 6/8 (n = 1,619) and published literature. Effectiveness was assessed as quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs (2010) were assessed from a German third-party payer perspective. Lifetime costs per patient ranged from 28,268 (St.Gallen and EPclin) to 33,756 (NCCN). Due to an imperfect prognostic value and differences in chemotherapy use, strategies achieved between 13.165 QALYs (NCCN) and 13.173 QALYs (EPclin alone) per patient. Using German-S3 as reference, three strategies showed dominant results (St. Gallen and EPclin, German-S3 and EPclin, EPclin alone). Compared to German-S3, the addition of EPclin saved 3,388 and gained 0.002 QALYs per patient. Combining guidelines with EPclin remained preferable in sensitivity analysis. Our study suggests that molecular markers can be sensibly combined with clinical guidelines to determine the risk profile of adjuvant breast cancer patients. Compared with the current German best practice (German-S3), combinations of EPclin with the St. Gallen, German-S3 or NCCN guideline and EPclin alone were dominant from the perspective of the German healthcare system.

  2. Risk stratification personalised model for prediction of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Frolov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Vaikhanskaya, Tatjana Gennadjevna; Melnikova, Olga Petrovna; Vorobiev, Anatoly Pavlovich; Guel, Ludmila Michajlovna

    2017-01-01

    The development of prognostic factors of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) continues to maintain its priority and relevance in cardiology. The development of a method of personalised prognosis based on multifactorial analysis of the risk factors associated with life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances is considered a key research and clinical task. To design a prognostic and mathematical model to define personalised risk for life-threatening VTA in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The study included 240 patients with CHF (mean-age of 50.5 ± 12.1 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 32.8 ± 10.9%; follow-up period 36.8 ± 5.7 months). The participants received basic therapy for heart failure. The elec-trocardiogram (ECG) markers of myocardial electrical instability were assessed including microvolt T-wave alternans, heart rate turbulence, heart rate deceleration, and QT dispersion. Additionally, echocardiography and Holter monitoring (HM) were performed. The cardiovascular events were considered as primary endpoints, including SCD, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) based on HM-ECG data, and data obtained from implantable device interrogation (CRT-D, ICD) as well as appropriated shocks. During the follow-up period, 66 (27.5%) subjects with CHF showed adverse arrhythmic events, including nine SCD events and 57 VTAs. Data from a stepwise discriminant analysis of cumulative ECG-markers of myocardial electrical instability were used to make a mathematical model of preliminary VTA risk stratification. Uni- and multivariate Cox logistic regression analysis were performed to define an individualised risk stratification model of SCD/VTA. A binary logistic regression model demonstrated a high prognostic significance of discriminant function with a classification sensitivity of 80.8% and specificity of 99.1% (F = 31.2; c2 = 143.2; p < 0.0001). The method of personalised risk

  3. Risk stratification of gallbladder polyps (1-2 cm) for surgical intervention with 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Yun, Mijin; Kim, Kyoung-Sik; Lee, Jong-Doo; Kim, Chun K

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the value of (18)F-FDG uptake in the gallbladder polyp (GP) in risk stratification for surgical intervention and the optimal cutoff level of the parameters derived from GP (18)F-FDG uptake for differentiating malignant from benign etiologies in a select, homogeneous group of patients with 1- to 2-cm GPs. Fifty patients with 1- to 2-cm GPs incidentally found on the CT portion of PET/CT were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had histologic diagnoses. GP (18)F-FDG activity was visually scored positive (≥liver) or negative (risk stratification. Twenty GPs were classified as malignant and 30 as benign. Multivariate analyses showed that the age and all parameters (visual criteria, SUVgp, and GP/L) related to (18)F-FDG uptake were significant risk factors, with the GP/L being the most significant. The sex, size of GPs, and presence of concurrent gallstones were found to be insignificant. (18)F-FDG uptake in a GP is a strong risk factor that can be used to determine the necessity of surgical intervention more effectively than other known risk factors. However, all criteria derived from (18)F-FDG uptake presented in this series may be applicable to the assessment of 1- to 2-cm GPs.

  4. The HAT Score-A Simple Risk Stratification Score for Coagulopathic Bleeding During Adult Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lonergan, Terence; Herr, Daniel; Kon, Zachary; Menaker, Jay; Rector, Raymond; Tanaka, Kenichi; Mazzeffi, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The study objective was to create an adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) coagulopathic bleeding risk score. Secondary analysis was performed on an existing retrospective cohort. Pre-ECMO variables were tested for association with coagulopathic bleeding, and those with the strongest association were included in a multivariable model. Using this model, a risk stratification score was created. The score's utility was validated by comparing bleeding and transfusion rates between score levels. Bleeding also was examined after stratifying by nadir platelet count and overanticoagulation. Predictive power of the score was compared against the risk score for major bleeding during anti-coagulation for atrial fibrillation (HAS-BLED). Tertiary care academic medical center. The study comprised patients who received venoarterial or venovenous ECMO over a 3-year period, excluding those with an identified source of surgical bleeding during exploration. None. Fifty-three (47.3%) of 112 patients experienced coagulopathic bleeding. A 3-variable score-hypertension, age greater than 65, and ECMO type (HAT)-had fair predictive value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.66) and was superior to HAS-BLED (AUC = 0.64). As the HAT score increased from 0 to 3, bleeding rates also increased as follows: 30.8%, 48.7%, 63.0%, and 71.4%, respectively. Platelet and fresh frozen plasma transfusion tended to increase with the HAT score, but red blood cell transfusion did not. Nadir platelet count less than 50×10 3 /µL and overanticoagulation during ECMO increased the AUC for the model to 0.73, suggesting additive risk. The HAT score may allow for bleeding risk stratification in adult ECMO patients. Future studies in larger cohorts are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in risk stratification of adult syncope

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Matthew J; Newby, David E; Coull, Andrew J; Jacques, Keith G; Prescott, Robin J; Gray, Alasdair J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To assess the value of a near‐patient brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) test to predict medium term (3 month) serious outcome for adult syncope patients presenting to a UK emergency department (ED). Methods This was a prospective cohort pilot study. Consecutive patients aged ⩾16 years presenting with syncope over a 3 month period were eligible for prospective enrolment. All patients who were medium or high risk according to our ED's existing syncope guidelines underwent near‐patient BNP testing using the Triage point of care machine. Results 99 patients were recruited. 72 of 82 high and medium risk patients underwent BNP measurement. 11 patients had a serious outcome, 9 of whom had BNP measured. In 25 (35%) patients, BNP was ⩾100 pg/ml, and in 3 of these it was >1000 pg/ml. 6 of the 25 patients (24%) with a BNP >100 pg/ml, and all 3 patients with a BNP >1000 pg/ml, were in the serious outcome group. BNP was raised over 100 pg/ml in 6 of the 9 serious outcome patients having a BNP measured (66%), and over 1000 pg/ml in 3 (33%). Conclusions This early work suggests that BNP may have a role in the risk assessment of syncope patients in the ED. Further work is required to see how BNP interacts with other clinical variables. Near‐patient BNP testing may be shown to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome either alone or incorporated into existing syncope clinical decision rules and scores in order to improve their sensitivity and specificity. Further studies are required to evaluate this. PMID:17954830

  6. Risk stratification of patients with diabetes and the role of sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors 2 during Ramadan fasting.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Zaina

    2017-09-01

    The month of Ramadan represents a golden opportunity for better management of patients with diabetes not only during Ramadan month, but also through the entire year. Pre Ramadan period is crucial for evaluating and preparing patients with diabetes intending to Fast Ramadan. The risk stratification categories should take into consideration patients with diabetes having specific conditions such as nephrotic syndrome who are predisposed to thrombosis independent to their estimated glomerular filtration rate and glycated haemoglobin. Furthermore, population-specific conditions such as nomadic Bedouins living in remote areas should be considered as part of the very high risk category for fasting Ramadan. Published data regarding the use of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors during Ramadan is very limited. Dapagliflozin was the only agent studied during Ramadan. Therefore, it is suggested to categorize this group of agents differently from other agents such as metformin and incretin based therapy studied vastly during Ramadan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk stratification of gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm using high-resolution ultrasonography and texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Won; Kim, Jung Hoon; Park, Sang Joon; Ahn, Su Joa; Joo, Ijin; Han, Joon Koo

    2018-01-01

    To assess important features for risk stratification of gallbladder (GB) polyps >10 mm using high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) and texture analysis. We included 136 patients with GB polyps (>10 mm) who underwent both HRUS and cholecystectomy (non-neoplastic, n = 58; adenomatous, n = 32; and carcinoma, n = 46). Two radiologists retrospectively assessed HRUS findings and texture analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify significant predictors for neoplastic polyps and carcinomas. Single polyp (OR, 3.680-3.856) and larger size (OR, 1.450-1.477) were independently associated with neoplastic polyps (p < 0.05). In a single or polyp >14 mm, sensitivity for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic polyps was 92.3%. To differentiate carcinoma from adenoma, sessile shape (OR, 9.485-41.257), larger size (OR, 1.267-1.303), higher skewness (OR, 6.382) and lower grey-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) contrast (OR, 0.963) were significant predictors (p < 0.05). In a polyp >22 mm or sessile, sensitivity for differentiating carcinomas from adenomas was 93.5-95.7%. If a polyp demonstrated at least one HRUS finding and at least one texture feature, the specificity for diagnosing carcinoma was increased to 90.6-93.8%. In a GB polyp >10 mm, single and diameter >14 mm were useful for predicting neoplastic polyps. In neoplastic polyps, sessile shape, diameter >22 mm, higher skewness and lower GLCM contrast were useful for predicting carcinoma. • Risk of neoplastic polyp is low in <14 mm and multiple polyps • A sessile polyp or >22 mm has increased risk for GB carcinomas • Higher skewness and lower GLCM contrast are predictors of GB carcinoma • HRUS is useful for risk stratification of GB polyps >1 cm.

  8. Prediction of Emergent Heart Failure Death by Semi-Quantitative Triage Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Van Spall, Harriette G. C.; Atzema, Clare; Schull, Michael J.; Newton, Gary E.; Mak, Susanna; Chong, Alice; Tu, Jack V.; Stukel, Thérèse A.; Lee, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Generic triage risk assessments are widely used in the emergency department (ED), but have not been validated for prediction of short-term risk among patients with acute heart failure (HF). Our objective was to evaluate the Canadian Triage Acuity Scale (CTAS) for prediction of early death among HF patients. Methods We included patients presenting with HF to an ED in Ontario from Apr 2003 to Mar 2007. We used the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System and vital statistics databases to examine care and outcomes. Results Among 68,380 patients (76±12 years, 49.4% men), early mortality was stratified with death rates of 9.9%, 1.9%, 0.9%, and 0.5% at 1-day, and 17.2%, 5.9%, 3.8%, and 2.5% at 7-days, for CTAS 1, 2, 3, and 4–5, respectively. Compared to lower acuity (CTAS 4–5) patients, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for 1-day death were 1.32 (95%CI; 0.93–1.88; p = 0.12) for CTAS 3, 2.41 (95%CI; 1.71–3.40; p<0.001) for CTAS 2, and highest for CTAS 1: 9.06 (95%CI; 6.28–13.06; p<0.001). Predictors of triage-critical (CTAS 1) status included oxygen saturation <90% (aOR 5.92, 95%CI; 3.09–11.81; p<0.001), respiratory rate >24 breaths/minute (aOR 1.96, 95%CI; 1.05–3.67; p = 0.034), and arrival by paramedic (aOR 3.52, 95%CI; 1.70–8.02; p = 0.001). While age/sex-adjusted CTAS score provided good discrimination for ED (c-statistic = 0.817) and 1-day (c-statistic = 0.724) death, mortality prediction was improved further after accounting for cardiac and non-cardiac co-morbidities (c-statistics 0.882 and 0.810, respectively; both p<0.001). Conclusions A semi-quantitative triage acuity scale assigned at ED presentation and based largely on respiratory factors predicted emergent death among HF patients. PMID:21853068

  9. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome Without Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease: Usefulness of Metabolic Syndrome Severity Score.

    PubMed

    Masson, Walter; Epstein, Teo; Huerín, Melina; Lobo, Lorenzo Martín; Molinero, Graciela; Angel, Adriana; Masson, Gerardo; Millán, Diana; De Francesca, Salvador; Vitagliano, Laura; Cafferata, Alberto; Losada, Pablo

    2017-09-01

    The estimated cardiovascular risk determined by the different risk scores, could be heterogeneous in patients with metabolic syndrome without diabetes or vascular disease. This risk stratification could be improved by detecting subclinical carotid atheromatosis. To estimate the cardiovascular risk measured by different scores in patients with metabolic syndrome and analyze its association with the presence of carotid plaque. Non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III definition) without cardiovascular disease were enrolled. The Framingham score, the Reynolds score, the new score proposed by the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator were calculated. Prevalence of carotid plaque was determined by ultrasound examination. A Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was performed. A total of 238 patients were enrolled. Most patients were stratified as "low risk" by Framingham score (64%) and Reynolds score (70.1%). Using the 2013 ACC/AHA score, 45.3% of the population had a risk ≥7.5%. A significant correlation was found between classic scores but the agreement (concordance) was moderate. The correlation between classical scores and the Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator was poor. Overall, the prevalence of carotid plaque was 28.2%. The continuous metabolic syndrome score used in our study showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque (area under the curve 0.752). In this population, the calculated cardiovascular risk was heterogenic. The prevalence of carotid plaque was high. The Metabolic Syndrome Severity Calculator showed a good predictive power to detect carotid plaque.

  10. Recent biologic and genetic advances in neuroblastoma: Implications for diagnostic, risk stratification, and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Newman, Erika A; Nuchtern, Jed G

    2016-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic cancer of neural crest cell lineage, accounting for up to 10% of all pediatric cancer. The clinical course is heterogeneous ranging from spontaneous regression in neonates to life-threatening metastatic disease in older children. Much of this clinical variance is thought to result from distinct pathologic characteristics that predict patient outcomes. Consequently, many research efforts have been focused on identifying the underlying biologic and genetic features of neuroblastoma tumors in order to more clearly define prognostic subgroups for treatment stratification. Recent technological advances have placed emphasis on the integration of genetic alterations and predictive biologic variables into targeted treatment approaches to improve patient survival outcomes. This review will focus on these recent advances and the implications they have on the diagnostic, staging, and treatment approaches in modern neuroblastoma clinical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation: nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock; Hansen, Peter Riis; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Selmer, Christian; Ahlehoff, Ole; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2011-01-31

    To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS(2) (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age ≥ 75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc (CHA(2)DS(2)-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes to predict thromboembolism. Registry based cohort study. Nationwide data on patients admitted to hospital with atrial fibrillation. Population All patients with atrial fibrillation not treated with vitamin K antagonists in Denmark in the period 1997-2006. Stroke and thromboembolism. Of 121,280 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, 73,538 (60.6%) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. In patients at "low risk" (score = 0), the rate of thromboembolism per 100 person years was 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 1.89) with CHADS(2) and 0.78 (0.58 to 1.04) with CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc at one year's follow-up. In patients at "intermediate risk" (score = 1), this rate was 4.75 (4.45 to 5.07) with CHADS(2) and 2.01 (1.70 to 2.36) with CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc. The rate of thromboembolism depended on the individual risk factors composing the scores, and both schemes underestimated the risk associated with previous thromboembolic events. When patients were categorised into low, intermediate, and high risk groups, C statistics at 10 years' follow-up were 0.812 (0.796 to 0.827) with CHADS(2) and 0.888 (0.875 to 0.900) with CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc. The risk associated with a specific risk stratification score depended on the risk factors composing the score. CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc performed better than CHADS(2) in predicting patients at high risk, and those categorised as low risk by CHA(2)DS(2)-VASc were truly at low risk for thromboembolism.

  12. 68Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT: a promising new technique for predicting risk stratification and metastatic risk of prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Liu, Teli; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yiqiang; Li, Nan; Du, Peng; Yang, Yong; Liu, Ming; Gong, Kan; Yang, Xing; Zhu, Hua; Yan, Kun; Yang, Zhi

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of 68 Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT in predicting risk stratification and metastatic risk of prostate cancer. Fifty newly diagnosed patients with prostate cancer as confirmed by needle biopsy were continuously included, 40 in a train set and ten in a test set. 68 Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT and clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed. Semi-quantitative analysis of PET images provided maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) of primary prostate cancer and volumetric parameters including intraprostatic PSMA-derived tumor volume (iPSMA-TV) and intraprostatic total lesion PSMA (iTL-PSMA). According to prostate cancer risk stratification criteria of the NCCN Guideline, all patients were simplified into a low-intermediate risk group or a high-risk group. The semi-quantitative parameters of 68 Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT were used to establish a univariate logistic regression model for high-risk prostate cancer and its metastatic risk, and to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the predictive model. In the train set, 30/40 (75%) patients had high-risk prostate cancer and 10/40 (25%) patients had low-to-moderate-risk prostate cancer; in the test set, 8/10 (80%) patients had high-risk prostate cancer while 2/10 (20%) had low-intermediate risk prostate cancer. The univariate logistic regression model established with SUVmax, iPSMA-TV and iTL-PSMA could all effectively predict high-risk prostate cancer; the AUC of ROC were 0.843, 0.802 and 0.900, respectively. Based on the test set, the sensitivity and specificity of each model were 87.5% and 50% for SUVmax, 62.5% and 100% for iPSMA-TV, and 87.5% and 100% for iTL-PSMA, respectively. The iPSMA-TV and iTL-PSMA-based predictive model could predict the metastatic risk of prostate cancer, the AUC of ROC was 0.863 and 0.848, respectively, but the SUVmax-based prediction model could not predict metastatic risk. Semi-quantitative analysis indexes of 68 Ga-PSMA-617 PET/CT imaging can be

  13. Hodgkin lymphoma: 2018 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Stephen M

    2018-05-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoid malignancy affecting 8500 new patients annually and representing approximately 10.2% of all lymphomas in the United States. HL is composed of two distinct disease entities: classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominant HL. Nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich HL are subgroups of classical HL. An accurate assessment of the stage of disease in patients with HL is critical for the selection of the appropriate therapy. Prognostic models that identify patients at low or high risk for recurrence, as well as the response to therapy as determined by positron emission tomography scan, are used to optimize therapy. Initial therapy for HL patients is based on the histology of the disease, the anatomical stage and the presence of poor prognostic features. Patients with early stage disease are typically treated with combined modality strategies utilizing abbreviated courses of combination chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiation therapy, while those with advanced stage disease receive a longer course of chemotherapy often without radiation therapy. Newer agents including brentuximab vedotin are now being incorporated into frontline therapy and these new combinations are becoming a standard of care. High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the standard of care for most patients who relapse following initial therapy. For patients who fail HDCT with ASCT, brentuximab vedotin, PD-1 blockade, nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplant or participation in a clinical trial should be considered. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hodgkin lymphoma: 2012 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoid malignancy affecting 9,000 new patients annually and representing approximately 11% of all lymphomas in the United States. HL is composed of two distinct disease entities; the more commonly diagnosed classical HL and the rare nodular lymphocyte predominant HL. Nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich HL are subgroups under the designation of classical HL. An accurate assessment of the stage of disease in patients with HL is critical for the selection of the appropriate therapy. Prognostic models that identify patients at low or high risk for recurrence are used to optimize therapy for patients with limited or advanced stage disease. Initial therapy for HL patients is based on the histology of the disease, the anatomical stage and the presence of poor prognostic features. Patients with early stage disease are treated with combined modality strategies utilizing abbreviated courses of combination chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiation therapy, while those with advanced stage disease receive a longer course of chemotherapy often without radiation therapy. High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the standard of care for most patients who relapse following initial therapy. For patients who fail HDCT with ASCT, brentuximab vedotin, palliative chemotherapy, non-myeloablative allogeneic transplant or participation in a clinical trial should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hodgkin lymphoma: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Stephen M

    2016-06-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoid malignancy affecting 9,050 new patients annually and representing approximately 11.2% of all lymphomas in the United States. HL is composed of two distinct disease entities; the more commonly diagnosed classical HL and the rare nodular lymphocyte predominant HL. Nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich HL are subgroups under the designation of classical HL. An accurate assessment of the stage of disease in patients with HL is critical for the selection of the appropriate therapy. Prognostic models that identify patients at low or high risk for recurrence, as well as the response to therapy as determined by positron emission tomography (PET) scan, are used to optimize therapy. Initial therapy for HL patients is based on the histology of the disease, the anatomical stage and the presence of poor prognostic features. Patients with early stage disease are typically treated with combined modality strategies utilizing abbreviated courses of combination chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiation therapy, while those with advanced stage disease receive a longer course of chemotherapy often without radiation therapy. Management of relapsed/refractory disease: High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the standard of care for most patients who relapse following initial therapy. For patients who fail HDCT with ASCT, brentuximab vedotin, PD-1 blockade, nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplant or participation in a clinical trial should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Hodgkin lymphoma: 2014 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Stephen M

    2014-07-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoid malignancy affecting 9,200 new patients annually and representing approximately 11.5% of all lymphomas in the United States. HL is composed of two distinct disease entities; the more commonly diagnosed classical HL and the rare nodular lymphocyte-predominant HL. Nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich HL are subgroups under the designation of classical HL. An accurate assessment of the stage of disease in patients with HL is critical for the selection of the appropriate therapy. Prognostic models that identify patients at low or high risk for recurrence, as well as the response to therapy as determined by positron emission tomography scan, are used to optimize therapy. Initial therapy for HL patients is based on the histology of the disease, the anatomical stage, and the presence of poor prognostic features. Patients with early stage disease are treated with combined modality strategies using abbreviated courses of combination chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiation therapy, while those with advanced stage disease receive a longer course of chemotherapy often without radiation therapy. Management of relapsed/refractory disease: High-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) followed by an autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is the standard of care for most patients who relapse following initial therapy. For patients who fail HDCT with ASCT, brentuximab vedotin, palliative chemotherapy, nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplant, or participation in a clinical trial should be considered. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Risk stratification of childhood cancer survivors necessary for evidence-based clinical long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Frobisher, Clare; Glaser, Adam; Levitt, Gill A; Cutter, David J; Winter, David L; Lancashire, Emma R; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Guha, Joyeeta; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reorganisation of clinical follow-up care in England was proposed by the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative (NCSI), based on cancer type and treatment, ranging from Level 1 (supported self-management) to Level 3 (consultant-led care). The objective of this study was to provide an investigation of the risks of serious adverse health-outcomes associated with NCSI Levels of clinical care using a large population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. Methods: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) was used to investigate risks of specific causes of death, subsequent primary neoplasms (SPNs) and non-fatal non-neoplastic outcomes by NCSI Level. Results: Cumulative (excess) risks of specified adverse outcomes by 45 years from diagnosis among non-leukaemic survivors assigned to NCSI Levels 1, 2 and 3 were for: SPNs—5% (two-fold expected), 14% (four-fold expected) and 21% (eight-fold expected); non-neoplastic death—2% (two-fold expected), 4% (three-fold expected) and 8% (seven-fold expected); non-fatal non-neoplastic condition—14%, 27% and 40%, respectively. Consequently overall cumulative risks of any adverse health outcome were 21%, 45% and 69%, respectively. Conclusions: Despite its simplicity the risk stratification tool provides clear and strong discrimination between survivors assigned to different NCSI Levels in terms of long-term cumulative and excess risks of serious adverse outcomes. PMID:29065109

  18. Doppler Endoscopic Probe Monitoring of Blood Flow Improves Risk Stratification and Outcomes of Patients With Severe Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Dennis M; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Ohning, Gordon V; Ghassemi, Kevin; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S; Sedarat, Alireza; Jutabha, Rome; Gornbein, Jeffrey

    2017-05-01

    For 4 decades, stigmata of recent hemorrhage in patients with nonvariceal lesions have been used for risk stratification and endoscopic hemostasis. The arterial blood flow that underlies the stigmata rarely is monitored, but can be used to determine risk for rebleeding. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether Doppler endoscopic probe monitoring of blood flow improves risk stratification and outcomes in patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. In a single-blind study performed at 2 referral centers we assigned 148 patients with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (125 with ulcers, 19 with Dieulafoy's lesions, and 4 with Mallory Weiss tears) to groups that underwent standard, visually guided endoscopic hemostasis (control, n = 76), or endoscopic hemostasis assisted by Doppler monitoring of blood flow under the stigmata (n = 72). The primary outcome was the rate of rebleeding after 30 days; secondary outcomes were complications, death, and need for transfusions, surgery, or angiography. There was a significant difference in the rates of lesion rebleeding within 30 days of endoscopic hemostasis in the control group (26.3%) vs the Doppler group (11.1%) (P = .0214). The odds ratio for rebleeding with Doppler monitoring was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.143-0.8565) and the number needed to treat was 7. In a randomized controlled trial of patients with severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from ulcers or other lesions, Doppler probe guided endoscopic hemostasis significantly reduced 30-day rates of rebleeding compared with standard, visually guided hemostasis. Guidelines for nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding should incorporate these results. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT00732212 (CLIN-013-07F). Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The risk stratification and prognostic evaluation of soluble programmed death-1 on patients with sepsis in emergency department.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongzhen; Jia, Yumei; Li, Chunsheng; Fang, Yingying; Shao, Rui

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of soluble programmed death-1 (sPD-1) for risk stratification and prediction of 28-day mortality in patients with sepsis, we compared serum sPD-1 with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score. A total of 60 healthy volunteers and 595 emergency department (ED) patients were recruited for this prospective cohort study. According to the severity of their condition on ED arrival, the patients were allocated to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome group (130 cases), sepsis group (276 cases), severe sepsis group (121 cases), and septic shock group (68 cases). In addition, all patients with sepsis were also divided into the survivor group (349 cases) and nonsurvivor group (116 cases) according to the 28-day outcomes. When the severity of sepsis increased, the levels of sPD-1 gradually increased. The levels of sPD-1, PCT, CRP and the MEDS score were also higher in the nonsurvivor group compared to the survivor group. Logistic regression suggested that sPD-1, PCT, and the MEDS score were independent risk factors for 28-day mortality of patients with sepsis. Area under the curve (AUC) of sPD-1, PCT and the MEDS score for 28-day mortality was 0.725, 0.693, and 0.767, respectively, and the AUC was improved when all 3 factors were combined (0.843). Serum sPD-1 is positively correlated with the severity of sepsis, and it is valuable for risk stratification of patients and prediction of 28-day mortality. Combining sPD-1 with PCT and the MEDS score improves the prognostic evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Proposal for a new risk stratification classification for meningioma based on patient age, WHO tumor grade, size, localization, and karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Patrícia Henriques; Sousa, Pablo; Otero, Álvaro; Gonçalves, Jesus Maria; Ruiz, Laura; de Oliveira, Catarina; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor recurrence remains the major clinical complication of meningiomas, the majority of recurrences occurring among WHO grade I/benign tumors. In the present study, we propose a new scoring system for the prognostic stratification of meningioma patients based on analysis of a large series of meningiomas followed for a median of >5 years. Methods Tumor cytogenetics were systematically investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization in 302 meningioma samples, and the proposed classification was further validated in an independent series of cases (n = 132) analyzed by high-density (500K) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. Results Overall, we found an adverse impact on patient relapse-free survival (RFS) for males, presence of brain edema, younger patients (<55 years), tumor size >50 mm, tumor localization at intraventricular and anterior cranial base areas, WHO grade II/III meningiomas, and complex karyotypes; the latter 5 variables showed an independent predictive value in multivariate analysis. Based on these parameters, a prognostic score was established for each individual case, and patients were stratified into 4 risk categories with significantly different (P < .001) outcomes. These included a good prognosis group, consisting of approximately 20% of cases, that showed a RFS of 100% ± 0% at 10 years and a very poor-prognosis group with a RFS rate of 0% ± 0% at 10 years. The prognostic impact of the scoring system proposed here was also retained when WHO grade I cases were considered separately (P < .001). Conclusions Based on this risk-stratification classification, different strategies may be adopted for follow-up, and eventually also for treatment, of meningioma patients at different risks for relapse. PMID:24536048

  1. Stratificational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algeo, John

    1968-01-01

    According to the author, most grammarians have been writing stratificational grammars without knowing it because they have dealt with units that are related to one another, but not simply as a whole to its parts, or as a class to its members. The question, then, is not whether a grammar is stratified but whether it is explicitly stratified. This…

  2. Pretreatment risk stratification of feeding tube use in patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nigel J; Jackson, James E; Smith, Jennifer G; Wada, Morikatsu; Schneider, Michal; Poulsen, Michael; Rolfo, Maureen; Fahandej, Maziar; Gan, Hui; Joon, Daryl Lim; Khoo, Vincent

    2018-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to establish a risk stratification model for feeding tube use in patients who undergo intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancers. One hundred thirty-nine patients treated with definitive IMRT (+/- concurrent chemotherapy) for head and neck mucosal cancers were included in this study. Patients were recommended a prophylactic feeding tube and followed up by a dietician for at least 8 weeks postradiotherapy (post-RT). Potential prognostic factors were analyzed for risk and duration of feeding tube use for at least 25% of dietary requirements. Many variables had significant effects on risk and/or duration of feeding tube use in univariate analyses. Subsequent multivariable analysis showed that T classification ≥3 and level 2 lymphadenopathy were the best independent significant predictors of higher risk and duration of feeding tube use, respectively, in oral cavity, pharyngeal, and supraglottic primaries. In patients treated with definitive IMRT, T classification ≥3 and level 2 lymphadenopathy can potentially stratify patients into 4 risk groups for developing severe dysphagia requiring feeding tube use. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Stratification strategy for evaluating the influence of diabetes complication severity index on the risk of hospitalization: a record linkage data in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ninh Thi; Harris, Mark; Robinson, Suzanne; Preen, David; Moorin, Rachael

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a risk stratification strategy for evaluating the relationship between complications of diabetes and the risk of diabetic-related hospitalization to accurately classify diabetes severity. The study used administrative health records for 40,624 individuals with diabetes aged ≥18years in Western Australian. The adapted Diabetes Complication Severity Index (DCSI), socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were used in random effects negative binomial and threshold effect models to determine the optimal stratification strategy for diabetes severity based on the homogeneity of the risk of hospitalization in response to variation of the DCSI. The optimal stratification of people with diabetes was specified by four sub-populations. The first sub-population was no complications with an inverse association with the risk of hospitalizations (coefficient-0.247, SE 0.03). Further three sub-populations with DCSI at one (coefficient 0.289, SE 0.01), two (coefficient 0.339, SE 0.01) and three or more (coefficient 0.381, SE 0.01) were used to accurately describe the impact of DCSI on the risk of hospitalization. A stratification into four subpopulations based on the homogeneous impact of diabetes DCSI on the risk of hospitalization may be more suitable for evaluating health care interventions and planning health care provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of copeptin as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for risk stratification in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is activated in response to stress. One of the activated hypothalamic hormones is arginine vasopressin, a hormone involved in hemodynamics and osmoregulation. Copeptin, the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin precursor peptide, is a sensitive and stable surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin release. Measurement of copeptin levels has been shown to be useful in a variety of clinical scenarios, particularly as a prognostic marker in patients with acute diseases such as lower respiratory tract infection, heart disease and stroke. The measurement of copeptin levels may provide crucial information for risk stratification in a variety of clinical situations. As such, the emergency department appears to be the ideal setting for its potential use. This review summarizes the recent progress towards determining the prognostic and diagnostic value of copeptin in the emergency department. PMID:22264220

  5. Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health study (BIRCH) protocol: rationale and design of a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to identify novel cardiovascular risk indicators in Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander adults.

    PubMed

    Rémond, Marc G W; Stewart, Simon; Carrington, Melinda J; Marwick, Thomas H; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Meikle, Peter; O'Brien, Darren; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Maguire, Graeme P

    2017-08-23

    Of the estimated 10-11 year life expectancy gap between Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people) and non-Indigenous Australians, approximately one quarter is attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Risk prediction of CVD is imperfect, but particularly limited for Indigenous Australians. The BIRCH (Better Indigenous Risk stratification for Cardiac Health) project aims to identify and assess existing and novel markers of early disease and risk in Indigenous Australians to optimise health outcomes in this disadvantaged population. It further aims to determine whether these markers are relevant in non-Indigenous Australians. BIRCH is a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian adults (≥ 18 years) living in remote, regional and urban locations. Participants will be assessed for CVD risk factors, left ventricular mass and strain via echocardiography, sleep disordered breathing and quality via home-based polysomnography or actigraphy respectively, and plasma lipidomic profiles via mass spectrometry. Outcome data will comprise CVD events and death over a period of five years. Results of BIRCH may increase understanding regarding the factors underlying the increased burden of CVD in Indigenous Australians in this setting. Further, it may identify novel markers of early disease and risk to inform the development of more accurate prediction equations. Better identification of at-risk individuals will promote more effective primary and secondary preventive initiatives to reduce Indigenous Australian health disadvantage.

  6. Validation of MASCC Score for Risk Stratification in Patients of Hematological Disorders with Febrile Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Taj, M; Nadeem, M; Maqsood, S; Shah, T; Farzana, T; Shamsi, T S

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of MASCC score (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer Score) in patients with febrile neutropenia (as resultant treatment of hematological disorders) for risk assessment of morbidity and mortality. Patients presenting with Febrile Neutropenia from November 2011 till December 2013 were enrolled in the study. Initially all patients were hospitalized and their MASCC score was calculated, however those with high risk stayed in hospital till full ANC recovery while low risk group was discharged earlier and keenly followed as out-patient while being on prophylactic oral antibiotics. The MASCC risk-index score was calculated and patients with risk score >21 were regarded as low-risk while <21 were labeled as high-risk. On the basis of 226 febrile neutropenia patient 132(58.4 %) were categorized as low risk while 94(41.5 %) as high risk patients according to MASCC risk index score. In low risk group 123(93 %) had uncomplicated infection while 9(7 %) had complicated infections. There was no mortality documented in low risk group while eight patients died in high risk group. In this study we correctly predicted outcome of 123(93 %) low risk group patients. The study had positive predictive value of 93 % with both sensitivity and specificity of 65 and 75 % respectively. The MASCC risk score is a valuable tool in determining the outcome in patients with febrile neutropenia.

  7. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance-Verified Myocardial Fibrosis in Chagas Disease: Clinical Correlates and Risk Stratification

    PubMed Central

    Uellendahl, Marly; de Siqueira, Maria Eduarda Menezes; Calado, Eveline Barros; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Sobral, Dário; Ribeiro, Clébia; Oliveira, Wilson; Martins, Silvia; Narula, Jagat; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (CD) is an important cause of heart failure and mortality, mainly in Latin America. This study evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the heart as well the extent of myocardial fibrosis (MF) in patients with CD by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). The prognostic value of MF evaluated by myocardial-delayed enhancement (MDE) was compared with that via Rassi score. Methods This study assessed 39 patients divided into 2 groups: 28 asymptomatic patients as indeterminate form group (IND); and symptomatic patients as Chagas Heart Disease (CHD) group. All patients underwent CMR using the techniques of cine-MRI and MDE, and the amount of MF was compared with the Rassi score. Results Regarding the morphological and functional analysis, significant differences were observed between both groups (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between the extent of MF and the Rassi score (r = 0.76). Conclusions CMR is an important technique for evaluating patients with CD, stressing morphological and functional differences in all clinical presentations. The strong correlation with the Rassi score and the extent of MF detected by CMR emphasizes its role in the prognostic stratification of patients with CD. PMID:27982271

  8. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for prostate cancer staging and risk stratification in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zang, Shiming; Shao, Guoqiang; Cui, Can; Li, Tian-Nv; Huang, Yue; Yao, Xiaochen; Fan, Qiu; Chen, Zejun; Du, Jin; Jia, Ruipeng; Sun, Hongbin; Hua, Zichun; Tang, Jun; Wang, Feng

    2017-02-14

    We evaluated the clinical utility of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for staging and risk stratification of treatment-naïve prostate cancer (PCa) and metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Twenty-two consecutive patients with treatment-naïve PCa and 18 with mCRPC were enrolled. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for the evaluation of primary prostatic lesions, and bone scans were used for evaluation bone metastasis. Among the 40 patients, 37 (92.5% [22 treatment-naïve PCa, 15 mCRPC]) showed PSMA-avid lesions on 68Ga-PSMA-11 images. Only 3 patients with stable mCRPC after chemotherapy were negative for PSMA. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA-11 imaging were 97.3%, 100.0% and 97.5%, respectively. The maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) of prostatic lesions was 17.09 ± 11.08 and 13.33 ± 12.31 in treatment-naïve PCa and mCRPC, respectively. 68Ga-PSMA-11 revealed 105 metastatic lymph nodes in 15 patients; the SUVmax was 16.85 ± 9.70 and 7.54 ± 5.20 in treatment-naïve PCa and mCRPC, respectively. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT also newly detected visceral metastasis in 9 patients (22.5%) and bone metastasis in 29 patients (72.5%). 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT exhibits potential for staging and risk stratification in naïve PCa, as well as improved sensitivity for detection of lymph node and remote metastasis.

  9. Novel biparametric MRI and targeted biopsy improves risk stratification in men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (IMPROD Trial).

    PubMed

    Jambor, Ivan; Boström, Peter J; Taimen, Pekka; Syvänen, Kari; Kähkönen, Esa; Kallajoki, Markku; Perez, Ileana Montoya; Kauko, Tommi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Ettala, Otto; Merisaari, Harri; Kiviniemi, Aida; Dean, Peter B; Aronen, Hannu J

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the role of a 3T biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI), T 2 -weighted imaging, and three separate diffusion-weighted imaging acquisitions combined with targeted biopsy (TB) for improving risk stratification of men with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Between March 2013 and February 2015, 175 men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa) were offered bpMRI (NCT01864135) based on a suspicion of PCa (two repeated PSA measurements in the range 2.5-20.0 ng/ml and/or abnormal digital rectal examination). Men with an equivocal to high suspicion of PCa had two TBs of the dominant lesion using cognitive ultrasound guidance, followed by systematic biopsy (SB). Men with a low to very low suspicion had only SB. In total, 161 (161/175, 92%) prospectively enrolled men completed the trial and were included in the final analyses. The primary endpoint of the trial was the cancer detection rate (CDR) of TB and SB. Clinically significant cancer (SPCa) was defined as Gleason score ≥3 + 4. TB compared with SB had higher CDR for SPCa (45%, 72/161 vs. 39%, 63/161, respectively; P > 0.05) and a lower CDR for Gleason score 3 + 3 (8%, 15/161 vs. 16%, 30/161; P < 0.05). Restricting biopsy to men with equivocal to highly suspicious bpMRI findings would have resulted in a 24% (38/161) reduction in the number of men undergoing biopsy, while missing 4 (2%) with SPCa. All anonymized datasets, including bpMRI reports and follow up information, are freely available on the trial server. Prebiopsy bpMRI and TB in men with a clinical suspicion of PCa improved risk stratification. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 5 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1089-1095. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Cardiac stress test as a risk-stratification tool for posttransplant cardiac outcomes in diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeraj; Parikh, Samir; Bhatt, Udayan; Vonvisger, Jon; Nori, Uday; Hasan, Ayesha; Samavedi, Srinivas; Andreoni, Kenneth; Henry, Mitchell; Pelletier, Ronald; Rajab, Amer; Elkhammas, Elmahdi; Pesavento, Todd

    2012-12-27

    The utility of cardiac stress testing as a risk-stratification tool before kidney transplantation remains debatable owing to discordance with coronary angiography and outcome yields at different centers. We conducted a retrospective study of 273 diabetic kidney transplant recipients from 2006 to 2010. By protocol, all diabetic patients underwent pharmacological radionucleotide stress test or dobutamine stress echocardiography before transplant. We compared the 1-year cardiac outcomes between those with negative stress test results and those with positive stress test results. Patients with a positive stress test result (n=67) underwent coronary angiogram, and significant coronary artery disease (≥70% coronary stenosis) was found in 35 (52.2%) patients. Of the latter, 32 (91.4%) underwent cardiac revascularization (24 underwent cardiac stenting and 8 underwent coronary artery bypass grafting). The rest (n=35) were treated medically. Within 1 year after transplant, the group with positive stress test results experienced more cardiac events (34.3% vs. 3.9%, P<0.001) including acute myocardial infarction (22.4% vs. 3.4%, P<0.001) and ventricular arrhythmias (8.9% vs. 0.05%, P=0.001), higher all-cause mortality (19.4% vs. 4.8%, P<0.001), and cardiac mortality (17.9% vs. 0.9%, P<0.001) compared with the group with negative stress test results. In this diabetic population, stress testing showed positive and negative predictive values of 34.3% and 96.1%, respectively. Pharmacological cardiac stress testing provided excellent risk stratification in diabetic kidney transplant recipients.

  11. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for prostate cancer staging and risk stratification in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Can; Li, Tian-Nv; Huang, Yue; Yao, Xiaochen; Fan, Qiu; Chen, Zejun; Du, Jin; Jia, Ruipeng; Sun, Hongbin; Hua, Zichun; Tang, Jun; Wang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical utility of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT for staging and risk stratification of treatment-naïve prostate cancer (PCa) and metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Twenty-two consecutive patients with treatment-naïve PCa and 18 with mCRPC were enrolled. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for the evaluation of primary prostatic lesions, and bone scans were used for evaluation bone metastasis. Among the 40 patients, 37 (92.5% [22 treatment-naïve PCa, 15 mCRPC]) showed PSMA-avid lesions on 68Ga-PSMA-11 images. Only 3 patients with stable mCRPC after chemotherapy were negative for PSMA. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA-11 imaging were 97.3%, 100.0% and 97.5%, respectively. The maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) of prostatic lesions was 17.09 ± 11.08 and 13.33 ± 12.31 in treatment-naïve PCa and mCRPC, respectively. 68Ga-PSMA-11 revealed 105 metastatic lymph nodes in 15 patients; the SUVmax was 16.85 ± 9.70 and 7.54 ± 5.20 in treatment-naïve PCa and mCRPC, respectively. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT also newly detected visceral metastasis in 9 patients (22.5%) and bone metastasis in 29 patients (72.5%). 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT exhibits potential for staging and risk stratification in naïve PCa, as well as improved sensitivity for detection of lymph node and remote metastasis. PMID:28103574

  12. Risk stratification and rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department – a quasi-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if risk stratification followed by rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department (ED) reduced functional decline, ED reattendance and hospitalisation. Method This was a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomised by the last digit of their national registration identity card (NRIC). Odd number controls received standard ED care; even number patients received geriatric screening, followed by intervention and/or onward referrals. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Results There were 500 and 280 patients in the control and intervention groups. The intervention group had higher Triage Risk Screening Tool (TRST) scores (34.3% vs 25.4% TRST ≥3, p = 0.01) and lower baseline Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) scores (22.84 vs 24.18, p < 0.01). 82.9% of the intervention group had unmet needs; 62.1% accepted our interventions. Common positive findings were fall risk (65.0%), vision (61.4%), and footwear (58.2%). 28.2% were referred to a geriatric clinic and 11.8% were admitted. 425 (85.0%) controls and 234 (83.6%) in the intervention group completed their follow-up. After adjusting for TRST and baseline IADL, the intervention group had significant preservation in function (Basic ADL -0.99 vs -0.24, p < 0.01; IADL -2.57 vs +0.45, p < 0.01) at 12 months. The reduction in ED reattendance (OR0.75, CI 0.55-1.03, p = 0.07) and hospitalization (OR0.77, CI0.57-1.04, p = 0.09) were not significant, however the real difference would have been wider as 21.2% of the control group received geriatric screening at the request of the ED doctor. A major limitation was that a large proportion of patients who were randomized to the intervention group either refused (18.8%) or left the ED before being approached (32.0%). These two groups were not followed up, and hence were excluded in our analysis. Conclusion Risk stratification and focused geriatric screening in ED resulted in significant preservation

  13. A novel dual-marker expression panel for easy and accurate risk stratification of patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Mitsuro; Murotani, Kenta; Tanaka, Haruyoshi; Miwa, Takashi; Umeda, Shinichi; Tanaka, Chie; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Hayashi, Masamichi; Hattori, Norifumi; Suenaga, Masaya; Yamada, Suguru; Nakayama, Goro; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2018-05-07

    Development of specific biomarkers is necessary for individualized management of patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to design a simple expression panel comprising novel molecular markers for precise risk stratification. Patients (n = 200) who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were randomly assigned into learning and validation sets. Tissue mRNA expression levels of 15 candidate molecular markers were determined using quantitative PCR analysis. A dual-marker expression panel was created according to concordance index (C-index) values of overall survival for all 105 combinations of two markers in the learning set. The reproducibility and clinical significance of the dual-marker expression panel were evaluated in the validation set. The patient characteristics of the learning and validation sets were well balanced. The C-index values of combinations were significantly higher compared with those of single markers. The panel with the highest C-index (0.718) of the learning set comprised SYT8 and MAGED2, which clearly stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. The reproducibility of the panel was demonstrated in the validation set. High expression scores were significantly associated with larger tumor size, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, peritoneal metastasis, and advanced disease. The dual-marker expression panel provides a simple tool that clearly stratifies patients with gastric cancer into low-, intermediate-, and high risk after gastrectomy. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Update on risk stratification and treatment of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Prashant; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy. Chromosomal aberrations are important prognostic determinants that influence the clinical decision-making in newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Patients are considered high-risk if any of the following features are detected: hypodiploidy, deletion 13 by cytogenetics, t(4;14), t(14;16), t(14;20) and/or 17 p deletion. In the absence of these features patients are considered standard risk. Outside of trials, risk-adapted therapy in the transplant-eligible high-risk patients advocates use of bortezomib-based induction therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and bortezomib-based maintenance therapy. High-risk, transplant-ineligible patients should also utilize bortezomib as initial therapy since it is known to overcome the poor prognosis associated with some high-risk features. The goal of therapy in high-risk patients is to attain and maintain a state of complete remission as much as possible. In contrast, the standard-risk, transplant-eligible patients may be treated with either lenalidomide-dexamethasone or bortezomib-based therapy followed by ASCT. In such patients, ASCT can also be deferred until first relapse if the patients are tolerating initial therapy well. Lenalidomide maintenance therapy in the post-transplant setting in standard-risk patients is controversial and not recommended routinely. For transplant-ineligible standard-risk patients, multiple options exist, although in the absence direct comparisons, we prefer lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone over melphalan-based combinations. This review outlines evidence-based management approaches in NDMM, with a focus on risk-adapted therapy.

  15. Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, Bridget F., E-mail: bridget.koontz@duke.edu; Tsivian, Matvey; Mouraviev, Vladimir

    Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patientsmore » had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.« less

  16. Impact of primary Gleason grade on risk stratification for Gleason score 7 prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Bridget F; Tsivian, Matvey; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Sun, Leon; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Moul, Judd; Lee, W Robert

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heart rate variability based on risk stratification for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Silva-E-Oliveira, Julia; Amélio, Pâmela Marina; Abranches, Isabela Lopes Laguardia; Damasceno, Dênis Derly; Furtado, Fabianne

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate heart rate variability among adults with different risk levels for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was assessed in 130 participants (89 females) based on the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and was classified as low risk (n=26), slightly elevated risk (n=41), moderate risk (n=27) and high risk (n=32). To measure heart rate variability, a heart-rate monitor Polar S810i® was employed to obtain RR series for each individual, at rest, for 5 minutes, followed by analysis of linear and nonlinear indexes. The groups at higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus had significantly lower linear and nonlinear heart rate variability indexes. The individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus have lower heart rate variability. Avaliar a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca em adultos com diferentes níveis de risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2. O grau de risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 de 130 participantes (41 homens) foi avaliado pelo questionário Finnish Diabetes Risk Score. Os participantes foram classificados em baixo risco (n=26), risco levemente elevado (n=41), risco moderado (n=27) e alto risco (n=32). Para medir a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca, utilizou-se o frequencímetro Polar S810i® para obter séries de intervalo RR para cada indivíduo, em repouso, durante 5 minutos; posteriormente, realizou-se análise por meio de índices lineares e não-lineares. O grupo com maior risco para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 teve uma diminuição significante nos índices lineares e não-lineares da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. Os resultados apontam que indivíduos com risco alto para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tem menor variabilidade da frequência cardíaca. To evaluate heart rate variability among adults with different risk levels for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was assessed in 130 participants (89 females) based on the questionnaire Finnish Diabetes Risk Score

  18. Risk stratification of smoldering multiple myeloma incorporating revised IMWG diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Arjun; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Buadi, Francis K; Binder, Moritz; Gertz, Morie A; Lacy, Martha Q; Dispenzieri, Angela; Dingli, David; Fonder, Amie L; Hayman, Suzanne R; Hobbs, Miriam A; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Kapoor, Prashant; Leung, Nelson; Go, Ronald S; Lin, Yi; Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Warsame, Rahma; Lust, John A; Russell, Stephen J; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Kyle, Robert A; Kumar, Shaji K

    2018-06-12

    In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group reclassified patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) and bone marrow-plasma cell percentage (BMPC%) ≥ 60%, or serum free light chain ratio (FLCr) ≥ 100 or >1 focal lesion on magnetic resonance imaging as multiple myeloma (MM). Predictors of progression in patients currently classified as SMM are not known. We identified 421 patients with SMM, diagnosed between 2003 and 2015. The median time to progression (TTP) was 57 months (CI, 45-72). BMPC% > 20% [hazard ratio (HR): 2.28 (CI, 1.63-3.20); p < 0.0001]; M-protein > 2g/dL [HR: 1.56 (CI, 1.11-2.20); p = 0.01], and FLCr > 20 [HR: 2.13 (CI, 1.55-2.93); p < 0.0001] independently predicted shorter TTP in multivariate analysis. Age and immunoparesis were not significant. We stratified patients into three groups: low risk (none of the three risk factors; n = 143); intermediate risk (one of the three risk factors; n = 121); and high risk (≥2 of the three risk factors; n = 153). The median TTP for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 110, 68, and 29 months, respectively (p < 0.0001). BMPC% > 20%, M-protein > 2 g/dL, and FLCr > 20 at diagnosis can be used to risk stratify patients with SMM. Patients with high-risk SMM need close follow-up and are candidates for clinical trials aiming to prevent progression.

  19. External Validation of a risk stratification model to assist shared decision making for patients starting renal replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Patrick; Van Biesen, Wim; Veys, Nic; Lemahieu, Wim; De Moor, Bart; De Meester, Johan

    2016-04-07

    Shared decision making is nowadays acknowledged as an essential step when deciding on starting renal replacement therapy. Valid risk stratification of prognosis is, besides discussing quality of life, crucial in this regard. We intended to validate a recently published risk stratification model in a large cohort of incident patients starting renal replacement therapy in Flanders. During 3 years (2001-2003), the data set collected for the Nederlandstalige Belgische Vereniging voor Nefrologie (NBVN) registry was expanded with parameters of comorbidity. For all incident patients, the abbreviated REIN score(aREIN), being the REIN score without the parameter "mobility", was calculated, and prognostication of mortality at 3, 6 and 12 month after start of renal replacement therapy (RRT) was evaluated. Three thousand four hundred seventy-two patients started RRT in Flanders during the observation period (mean age 67.6 ± 14.3, 56.7 % men, 33.6 % diabetes). The mean aREIN score was 4.1 ± 2.8, and 56.8, 23.1, 12.6 and 7.4 % of patients had a score of ≤4, 5-6, 7-8 or ≥9 respectively. Mortality at 3, 6 and 12 months was 8.6, 14.1 and 19.6 % in the overall and 13.2, 21.5 and 31.9 % in the group with age >75 respectively. In RoC analysis, the aREIN score had an AUC of 0.74 for prediction of survival at 3, 6 and 12 months. There was an incremental increase in mortality with the aREIN score from 5.6 to 45.8 % mortality at 6 months for those with a score ≤4 or ≥9 respectively. The aREIN score is a useful tool to predict short term prognosis of patients starting renal replacement therapy as based on comorbidity and age, and delivers meaningful discrimination between low and high risk populations. As such, it can be a useful instrument to be incorporated in shared decision making on whether or not start of dialysis is worthwhile.

  20. Value of Donor–Specific Anti–HLA Antibody Monitoring and Characterization for Risk Stratification of Kidney Allograft Loss

    PubMed Central

    Viglietti, Denis; Loupy, Alexandre; Vernerey, Dewi; Bentlejewski, Carol; Gosset, Clément; Aubert, Olivier; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Jouven, Xavier; Legendre, Christophe; Glotz, Denis; Zeevi, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis system for allograft loss lacks accurate individual risk stratification on the basis of donor–specific anti–HLA antibody (anti-HLA DSA) characterization. We investigated whether systematic monitoring of DSA with extensive characterization increases performance in predicting kidney allograft loss. This prospective study included 851 kidney recipients transplanted between 2008 and 2010 who were systematically screened for DSA at transplant, 1 and 2 years post-transplant, and the time of post–transplant clinical events. We assessed DSA characteristics and performed systematic allograft biopsies at the time of post–transplant serum evaluation. At transplant, 110 (12.9%) patients had DSAs; post-transplant screening identified 186 (21.9%) DSA-positive patients. Post–transplant DSA monitoring improved the prediction of allograft loss when added to a model that included traditional determinants of allograft loss (increase in c statistic from 0.67; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.62 to 0.73 to 0.72; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.77). Addition of DSA IgG3 positivity or C1q binding capacity increased discrimination performance of the traditional model at transplant and post-transplant. Compared with DSA mean fluorescence intensity, DSA IgG3 positivity and C1q binding capacity adequately reclassified patients at lower or higher risk for allograft loss at transplant (category–free net reclassification index, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.67; P<0.001 and 0.93; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.36; P<0.001, respectively) and post-transplant (category–free net reclassification index, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.62; P<0.001 and 0.95; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.28; P<0.001, respectively). Thus, pre– and post–transplant DSA monitoring and characterization may improve individual risk stratification for kidney allograft loss. PMID:27493255

  1. The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) fibrosis score, cardiovascular risk stratification and a strategy for secondary prevention with ezetimibe.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tracey G; Corey, Kathleen E; Cannon, Christopher P; Blazing, Michael; Park, Jeong-Gun; O'Donoghue, Michelle L; Chung, Raymond T; Giugliano, Robert P

    2018-05-26

    The nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score (NFS) is comprised of unique metabolic risk indicators that may accurately predict residual cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with established coronary disease and metabolic dysfunction. We applied the NFS prospectively to 14,819 post-ACS patients randomized to ezetimibe/simvastatin (E/S) or placebo/simvastatin (P/S), in the IMPROVE-IT trial, using validated NFS cutoffs. The primary endpoint included CV death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, revascularization or stroke. Outcomes were compared between NFS categories and treatment arms using frequency of events, KM rates and adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. The ability of the NFS to predict recurrent CV events was independently validated in 5395 placebo-treated patients enrolled in the SOLID-TIMI 52 trial. Among 14,819 patients enrolled in IMPROVE-IT, 14.2% (N = 2106) were high-risk (NFS > 0.67). The high-risk group had a 30% increased risk of recurrent major CV events, compared to the low-risk NFS group (HR 1.30 [1.19-1.43]; p < 0.001). Among high-risk patients, ezetimibe/simvastatin conferred a 3.7% absolute reduction in risk of recurrent CV events, compared to placebo/simvastatin (HR 0.85 [0.74-0.98]), translating to a number-needed-to-treat of 27. Similar benefit was not found in the low-risk group (HR ezetimibe/simvastatin vs. placebo/simvastatin, 1.01 [0.91-1.12]; p-interaction = 0.053). The relationship between NFS category and recurrent CV events was independently validated in patients enrolled in SOLID-TIMI 52 (HR for NFS > 0.67 vs. NFS < -1.455 = 1.55 [1.32-1.81]; p < 0.001). Stratification of cardiovascular risk by NFS identifies an independent population of patients who are at highest risk of recurrent events, and most likely to benefit from dual lipid-lowering therapy. Clinical trials.gov: NCT00202878. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric Minor Head Injury 2.0: Moving from Injury Exclusion to Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    Homme, James Jim L

    2018-05-01

    Visits for pediatric minor blunt head trauma continue to increase. Variability exists in clinician evaluation and management of this generally low-risk population. Clinical decision rules identify very low-risk children who can forgo neuroimaging. Observation before imaging decreases neuroimaging rates. Outcome data can be used to risk stratify children into more discrete categories. Decision aids improves knowledge and accuracy of risk perception and facilitates identification of caregiver preferences, allowing for shared decision making. For children in whom imaging is performed and is normal or shows isolated linear skull fractures, deterioration and neurosurgical intervention are rare and hospital admission can be avoided. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plaque Tissue Morphology-Based Stroke Risk Stratification Using Carotid Ultrasound: A Polling-Based PCA Learning Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Saba, Luca; Jain, Pankaj K; Suri, Harman S; Ikeda, Nobutaka; Araki, Tadashi; Singh, Bikesh K; Nicolaides, Andrew; Shafique, Shoaib; Gupta, Ajay; Laird, John R; Suri, Jasjit S

    2017-06-01

    Severe atherosclerosis disease in carotid arteries causes stenosis which in turn leads to stroke. Machine learning systems have been previously developed for plaque wall risk assessment using morphology-based characterization. The fundamental assumption in such systems is the extraction of the grayscale features of the plaque region. Even though these systems have the ability to perform risk stratification, they lack the ability to achieve higher performance due their inability to select and retain dominant features. This paper introduces a polling-based principal component analysis (PCA) strategy embedded in the machine learning framework to select and retain dominant features, resulting in superior performance. This leads to more stability and reliability. The automated system uses offline image data along with the ground truth labels to generate the parameters, which are then used to transform the online grayscale features to predict the risk of stroke. A set of sixteen grayscale plaque features is computed. Utilizing the cross-validation protocol (K = 10), and the PCA cutoff of 0.995, the machine learning system is able to achieve an accuracy of 98.55 and 98.83%corresponding to the carotidfar wall and near wall plaques, respectively. The corresponding reliability of the system was 94.56 and 95.63%, respectively. The automated system was validated against the manual risk assessment system and the precision of merit for same cross-validation settings and PCA cutoffs are 98.28 and 93.92%for the far and the near wall, respectively.PCA-embedded morphology-based plaque characterization shows a powerful strategy for risk assessment and can be adapted in clinical settings.

  4. Public health implications from COGS and potential for risk stratification and screening.

    PubMed

    Burton, Hilary; Chowdhury, Susmita; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Pashayan, Nora; Pharoah, Paul

    2013-04-01

    The PHG Foundation led a multidisciplinary program, which used results from COGS research identifying genetic variants associated with breast, ovarian and prostate cancers to model risk-stratified prevention for breast and prostate cancers. Implementing such strategies would require attention to the use and storage of genetic information, the development of risk assessment tools, new protocols for consent and programs of professional education and public engagement.

  5. Ultrasound-Based Risk Stratification for Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules: A Four-Tier Categorization System.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyobin; Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ji Won

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to stratify the malignancy risk of US features, with an emphasis on nodule echogenicity. A total of 1,058 nodules of 824 consecutive patients (236 malignant and 822 benign) were included in this study. Malignancy risk of each nodule was analyzed according to US features, with an emphasis on nodule echogenecity, and was stratified into 4-tier categories. In multivariate analysis, isoechogenicity, indistinct margin, non-solid internal content, and parallel orientation were predictive of benign nodules (P < 0.002), while hypoechogenicity, marked hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margin, solid content, nonparallel orientation (taller than wide), microcalcification, and macrocalcification were predictive of malignancy (P ≤ 0.037). Although the presence of US features associated with malignancy was significantly predictive of malignancy in hypoechoic and markedly hypoechoic nodules (P ≤ 0.004), it was not associated with malignancy in isoechoic or hyperechoic nodules. Thyroid nodules could be stratified into four categories according to the malignancy risk: benign (risk 0%), probably benign (risk ≤ 5%), indeterminate (risk > 5 and < 50%), and suspicion of malignancy (risk > 50%). The US-based four-tier categorization system will be useful for predicting the risk of malignancy and decisions regarding FNA for thyroid nodules. • No US feature was predictive of malignancy in isoechoic nodules. • Isoechoic nodules without calcification can be included in the probably benign category. • We suggest a four-tier categorization stratified primarily by nodule echogenecity. • The four-tier categorization of thyroid nodules will be useful for FNA decisions.

  6. Risk Stratification of Stress Fractures and Prediction of Return to Duty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    enrollment. In study Task 1 we aim to determine the sex- and race -ethnicity-specific bone traits that may contribute to stress fracture risk in military...SUBJECT TERMS bone microarchitecture, HRpQCT, race , gender, sex, bone mineral density, vBMD, bone geometry, stress fracture 16. SECURITY...sectional study aimed at identifying the bone properties that may be related to the well-known sex and race /ethnicity differences in risk for stress

  7. Cardiac risk stratification in renal transplantation using a form of artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Heston, T F; Norman, D J; Barry, J M; Bennett, W M; Wilson, R A

    1997-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if an expert network, a form of artificial intelligence, could effectively stratify cardiac risk in candidates for renal transplant. Input into the expert network consisted of clinical risk factors and thallium-201 stress test data. Clinical risk factor screening alone identified 95 of 189 patients as high risk. These 95 patients underwent thallium-201 stress testing, and 53 had either reversible or fixed defects. The other 42 patients were classified as low risk. This algorithm made up the "expert system," and during the 4-year follow-up period had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 77%, and accuracy of 78%. An artificial neural network was added to the expert system, creating an expert network. Input into the neural network consisted of both clinical variables and thallium-201 stress test data. There were 5 hidden nodes and the output (end point) was cardiac death. The expert network increased the specificity of the expert system alone from 77% to 90% (p < 0.001), the accuracy from 78% to 89% (p < 0.005), and maintained the overall sensitivity at 88%. An expert network based on clinical risk factor screening and thallium-201 stress testing had an accuracy of 89% in predicting the 4-year cardiac mortality among 189 renal transplant candidates.

  8. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance-Verified Myocardial Fibrosis in Chagas Disease: Clinical Correlates and Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    Uellendahl, Marly; Siqueira, Maria Eduarda Menezes de; Calado, Eveline Barros; Kalil-Filho, Roberto; Sobral, Dário; Ribeiro, Clébia; Oliveira, Wilson; Martins, Silvia; Narula, Jagat; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is an important cause of heart failure and mortality, mainly in Latin America. This study evaluated the morphological and functional characteristics of the heart as well the extent of myocardial fibrosis (MF) in patients with CD by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). The prognostic value of MF evaluated by myocardial-delayed enhancement (MDE) was compared with that via Rassi score. This study assessed 39 patients divided into 2 groups: 28 asymptomatic patients as indeterminate form group (IND); and symptomatic patients as Chagas Heart Disease (CHD) group. All patients underwent CMR using the techniques of cine-MRI and MDE, and the amount of MF was compared with the Rassi score. Regarding the morphological and functional analysis, significant differences were observed between both groups (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between the extent of MF and the Rassi score (r = 0.76). CMR is an important technique for evaluating patients with CD, stressing morphological and functional differences in all clinical presentations. The strong correlation with the Rassi score and the extent of MF detected by CMR emphasizes its role in the prognostic stratification of patients with CD. A doença de Chagas (DC) é importante causa de insuficiência cardíaca e mortalidade, principalmente na América Latina. Este estudo avaliou as características morfológicas e funcionais do coração, assim como a extensão da fibrose miocárdica (FM) em pacientes com DC através de ressonância magnética cardíaca (RMC). O valor prognóstico da FM avaliada por realce tardio miocárdico (RTM) foi comparado àquele do escore de Rassi. Avaliação de 39 pacientes divididos em 2 grupos: grupo 'forma indeterminada' (IND), 28 pacientes assintomáticos; e grupo 'cardiopatia chagásica' (CC), pacientes sintomáticos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a RMC com as técnicas de cine-RM e RTM, sendo a quantidade de FM evidenciada ao exame comparada ao escore de

  9. Sudden Cardiac Risk Stratification with Electrocardiographic Indices - A Review on Computational Processing, Technology Transfer, and Scientific Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno-Blanes, Francisco J.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barquero-Pérez, Óscar; García-Alberola, Arcadi; Rojo-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted in recent years to the development of sudden cardiac risk predictors as a function of electric cardiac signals, mainly obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. But these prediction techniques are still seldom used in clinical practice, partly due to its limited diagnostic accuracy and to the lack of consensus about the appropriate computational signal processing implementation. This paper addresses a three-fold approach, based on ECG indices, to structure this review on sudden cardiac risk stratification. First, throughout the computational techniques that had been widely proposed for obtaining these indices in technical literature. Second, over the scientific evidence, that although is supported by observational clinical studies, they are not always representative enough. And third, via the limited technology transfer of academy-accepted algorithms, requiring further meditation for future systems. We focus on three families of ECG derived indices which are tackled from the aforementioned viewpoints, namely, heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T-wave alternans. In terms of computational algorithms, we still need clearer scientific evidence, standardizing, and benchmarking, siting on advanced algorithms applied over large and representative datasets. New scenarios like electronic health recordings, big data, long-term monitoring, and cloud databases, will eventually open new frameworks to foresee suitable new paradigms in the near future. PMID:27014083

  10. Efficacy of risk stratification in tailoring immunosuppression regimens in kidney transplant patients at the national kidney and transplant institute.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Gumba, M A; Danguilan, R A; Casasola, C C; Ona, E T

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of tailored immunosuppressive regimens prescribed according to a risk stratification scoring system based on the number of HLA mismatches, donor source, panel-reactive antibodies (PRA), and repeat transplant. Patients in a retrospective cohort of 329 kidney transplantations performed from October 2004 to December 2005 were assigned scores of 0, 2, 4, or 6 with higher scores for > or =1 HLA mismatches, PRA > 10%, repeat transplant, and unrelated or deceased donor. Added scores of < or =4 comprised the low-risk group who received a Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based regimen without induction, whereas a score > or = 6 denoted high risk including a CNI-based regimen with an interleukin-2 receptor antibody. The efficacy analysis compared the incidences of biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes (BPAR) at 1 year. Only 227 (69%) of 329 patients had a complete data set and 84 were excluded because they did not follow the prescribed protocol, yielding 113 low- and 30 high-risk patients in the final population. Low-risk patients had a mean PRA of 5.4%, living related donors in 68%, and primary transplants. High-risk patients had a mean PRA of 18.8% (range = 10%-97%), living nonrelated donors in 84%, four deceased donors, and four repeat transplants. The overall 1-year incidence of BPAR was 5.7%. No significant difference (P = .081) was observed in 1-year BPAR between the low- (4.5%) and high-risk (9.8%) groups. Likewise, no significant difference in the 1-year mean serum creatinine was observed according to the CNI. The mean creatinine was 1.12 for cyclosporine and 1.38 for tacrolimus treatment (P = .06) in the low-risk group and 1.08 for cyclosporine and 1.2 for tacrolimus (P = .61) in the high-risk cohort. There was no significant difference in acute rejection rates between the immunologically low- or high-risk patients using tailored immunosuppression, which was effective to minimize its occurrence with good renal function at 1 year.

  11. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation: nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Hansen, Morten Lock; Hansen, Peter Riis; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Selmer, Christian; Ahlehoff, Ole; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the individual risk factors composing the CHADS2 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age≥75 years, Diabetes, previous Stroke) score and the CHA2DS2-VASc (CHA2DS2-Vascular disease, Age 65-74 years, Sex category) score and to calculate the capability of the schemes to predict thromboembolism. Design Registry based cohort study. Setting Nationwide data on patients admitted to hospital with atrial fibrillation. Population All patients with atrial fibrillation not treated with vitamin K antagonists in Denmark in the period 1997-2006. Main outcome measures Stroke and thromboembolism. Results Of 121 280 patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, 73 538 (60.6%) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. In patients at “low risk” (score=0), the rate of thromboembolism per 100 person years was 1.67 (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 1.89) with CHADS2 and 0.78 (0.58 to 1.04) with CHA2DS2-VASc at one year’s follow-up. In patients at “intermediate risk” (score=1), this rate was 4.75 (4.45 to 5.07) with CHADS2 and 2.01 (1.70 to 2.36) with CHA2DS2-VASc. The rate of thromboembolism depended on the individual risk factors composing the scores, and both schemes underestimated the risk associated with previous thromboembolic events. When patients were categorised into low, intermediate, and high risk groups, C statistics at 10 years’ follow-up were 0.812 (0.796 to 0.827) with CHADS2 and 0.888 (0.875 to 0.900) with CHA2DS2-VASc. Conclusions The risk associated with a specific risk stratification score depended on the risk factors composing the score. CHA2DS2-VASc performed better than CHADS2 in predicting patients at high risk, and those categorised as low risk by CHA2DS2-VASc were truly at low risk for thromboembolism. PMID:21282258

  12. Performance of 2014 NICE defibrillator implantation guidelines in heart failure risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Lorraine C; Gierula, John; Byrom, Rowenna; Paton, Maria; Sengupta, Anshuman; Patel, Peysh A; Mn Walker, Andrew; Cairns, David A; Rajwani, Adil; Hall, Alistair S; Sapsford, Robert J; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-05-15

    Define the real-world performance of recently updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (TA314) on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use in people with chronic heart failure. Multicentre prospective cohort study of 1026 patients with stable chronic heart failure, associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% recruited in cardiology outpatient departments of four UK hospitals. We assessed the capacity of TA314 to identify patients at increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or appropriate ICD shock. The overall risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock was 2.1 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.6). Patients meeting TA314 ICD criteria (31.1%) were 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.6 to 3.9) more likely to suffer SCD or appropriate ICD shock; they were also 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) more likely to die from non-cardiovascular causes and 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) more likely to die from progressive heart failure. Patients with diabetes not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients without diabetes who met TA314 criteria. Patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who met TA314 criteria. TA314 can identify patients with reduced LVEF who are at increased relative risk of sudden death. Clinicians should also consider clinical context and the absolute risk of SCD when advising patients about the potential risks and benefits of ICD therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Risk stratification of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia in a multi-ethnic cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterozygous Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common autosomal dominant disorder resulting in in very high blood cholesterol levels and premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is a wide variation in the occurrence of CVD in these patients. The aim of this study is to determine risk factors that are responsible for the variability of CVD events in FH patients. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of a large multiethnic cohort of patients with definite FH attending the Healthy Heart Prevention Clinic in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to assess the association of the risk factors to the hard cardiovascular outcomes. Results 409 patients were identified as having “definite” FH, according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Criteria (DLCNC), with 111 (27%) having evidence of CVD. Male sex, family history of premature CVD, diabetes mellitus, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) were significant, independent risk factors for CVD. In men, family history, diabetes and low levels of HDL-C were significant risk factors while in women smoking, diabetes mellitus and high Lp (a) were significant risk factors for CVD. There were no significant differences in risk factors between ethnicities. Conclusion In conclusion, men and women differ in the impact of the risk factors on the presence of CVD with family history of CVD and low HDL-C being a significant factor in men while smoking and increased Lp (a) were significant factors in women. Diabetes was a significant factor in both men and women. PMID:24712315

  14. Risk stratification of periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention: Analysis based on the SCAI definition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Yiping; Yin, Dong; He, Yuan; Chen, Changzhe; Song, Chenxi; Yan, Ruohua; Zhu, Chen'gang; Xu, Bo; Dou, Kefei

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the predictors of and generate a risk prediction method for periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using the new PMI definition proposed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI). The SCAI-defined PMI was found to be associated with worse prognosis than the PMI diagnosed by other definitions. However, few large-sample studies have attempted to predict the risk of SCAI-defined PMI. A total of 3,371 patients (3,516 selective PCIs) were included in this single-center retrospective analysis. The diagnostic criteria for PMI were set according to the SCAI definition. All clinical characteristics, coronary angiography findings and PCI procedural factors were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of PMI. To evaluate the risk of PMI, a multivariable risk score (PMI score) was constructed with incremental weights attributed to each component variable according to their estimated coefficients. PMI occurred in 108 (3.1%) of all patients. Age, multivessel treatment, at least one bifurcation treatment and total treated lesion length were independent predictors of SCAI-defined PMI. PMI scores ranged from 0 to 20. The C-statistic of PMI score was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66-0.76). PMI rates increased significantly from 1.96% in the non-high-risk group (PMI score < 10) to 6.26% in the high-risk group (PMI score ≥ 10) (P < 0.001). Age, multivessel treatment, at least one bifurcation treatment, and total treated lesion length are predictive of PMI. The PMI score could help identify patients at high risk of PMI after PCI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Coronary risk stratification of patients undergoing surgery for valvular heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hasselbalch, Rasmus Bo; Engstrøm, Thomas; Pries-Heje, Mia; Heitmann, Merete; Pedersen, Frants; Schou, Morten; Mickley, Hans; Elming, Hanne; Steffensen, Rolf; Køber, Lars; Iversen, Kasper

    2017-01-15

    Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive, less expensive, low-radiation alternative to coronary angiography (CAG) prior to valvular heart surgery. MSCT has a high negative predictive value for coronary artery disease (CAD) but previous studies of patients with valvular disease have shown that MSCT, as the primary evaluation technique, lead to re-evaluation with CAG in about a third of cases and it is therefore not recommended. If a subgroup of patients with low- to intermediate risk of CAD could be identified and examined with MSCT, it could be cost-effective, reduce radiation and the risk of complications associated with CAG. The study cohort was derived from a national registry of patients undergoing CAG prior to valvular heart surgery. Using logistic regression, we identified significant risk factors for CAD and developed a risk score (CT-valve score). The score was validated on a similar cohort of patients from another registry. The study cohort consisted of 2221 patients, 521 (23.5%) had CAD. The validation cohort consisted of 2575 patients, 771 (29.9%) had CAD. The identified risk factors were male sex, age, smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, aortic valve disease, extracardiac arteriopathy, ejection fraction <30% and diabetes mellitus. CT-valve score could identify a third of the population with a risk about 10%. A score based on risk factors of CAD can identify patients that might benefit from using MSCT as a gatekeeper to CAG prior to heart valve surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing and evaluating an automated appendicitis risk stratification algorithm for pediatric patients in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Deleger, Louise; Brodzinski, Holly; Zhai, Haijun; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kirkendall, Eric S; Alessandrini, Evaline; Solti, Imre

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate a proposed natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning based automated method to risk stratify abdominal pain patients by analyzing the content of the electronic health record (EHR). We analyzed the EHRs of a random sample of 2100 pediatric emergency department (ED) patients with abdominal pain, including all with a final diagnosis of appendicitis. We developed an automated system to extract relevant elements from ED physician notes and lab values and to automatically assign a risk category for acute appendicitis (high, equivocal, or low), based on the Pediatric Appendicitis Score. We evaluated the performance of the system against a manually created gold standard (chart reviews by ED physicians) for recall, specificity, and precision. The system achieved an average F-measure of 0.867 (0.869 recall and 0.863 precision) for risk classification, which was comparable to physician experts. Recall/precision were 0.897/0.952 in the low-risk category, 0.855/0.886 in the high-risk category, and 0.854/0.766 in the equivocal-risk category. The information that the system required as input to achieve high F-measure was available within the first 4 h of the ED visit. Automated appendicitis risk categorization based on EHR content, including information from clinical notes, shows comparable performance to physician chart reviewers as measured by their inter-annotator agreement and represents a promising new approach for computerized decision support to promote application of evidence-based medicine at the point of care.

  17. Flat Epithelial Atypia: Upgrade Rates and Risk-Stratification Approach to Support Informed Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Leslie R; Bahl, Manisha; Gadd, Michele A; Lehman, Constance D

    2017-12-01

    Our aim was to determine upgrade rates of pure flat epithelial atypia (FEA) to malignancy and higher-risk lesions and to identify patients with FEA at low risk for upgrade. Medical chart review from 2007 to 2016 identified 208 consecutive patients with pure FEA diagnosed by image-guided core needle biopsy who underwent surgical excision (96.2% [200 of 208]) or had at least 2 years of imaging follow-up (3.8% [8 of 208]). Medical records were reviewed for risk factors and surgical outcomes. Overall upgrade rate of FEA to malignancy was 2.4% (5 of 208). All 5 upgraded cases were ductal carcinoma in situ at operation. The upgrade rate to atypical ductal hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ, or atypical lobular hyperplasia was 29.8% (62 of 208). The FEA lesions in patients with a genetic mutation were more likely to upgrade to malignancy than FEA lesions in patients without a genetic mutation (33.3% [1 of 3] vs 2.0% [4 of 205]; p < 0.01). The FEA lesions in patients with a personal history of breast cancer were more likely to upgrade to higher-risk lesions than those without a personal history (47.8% [11 of 23] vs 27.6% [51 of 185]; p = 0.046) but were not more likely to be upgraded to malignancy (0% [0 of 23] vs 2.7% [5 of 185]; p = 0.42). The overall risk of upgrade of FEA to malignancy is low at 2.4%; however, the upgrade rate to a higher-risk lesion is nearly 30%. Surveillance rather than surgical excision of FEA can be a reasonable option for patients without a genetic mutation who opt against chemoprevention. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generative statistical modeling of left atrial appendage appearance to substantiate clinical paradigms for stroke risk stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanatkhani, Soroosh; Menon, Prahlad G.

    2018-03-01

    Left atrial appendage (LAA) is the source of 91% of the thrombi in patients with atrial arrhythmias ( 2.3 million US adults), turning this region into a potential threat for stroke. LAA geometries have been clinically categorized into four appearance groups viz. Cauliflower, Cactus, Chicken-Wing and WindSock, based on visual appearance in 3D volume visualizations of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) imaging, and have further been correlated with stroke risk by considering clinical mortality statistics. However, such classification from visual appearance is limited by human subjectivity and is not sophisticated enough to address all the characteristics of the geometries. Quantification of LAA geometry metrics can reveal a more repeatable and reliable estimate on the characteristics of the LAA which correspond with stasis risk, and in-turn cardioembolic risk. We present an approach to quantify the appearance of the LAA in patients in atrial fibrillation (AF) using a weighted set of baseline eigen-modes of LAA appearance variation, as a means to objectify classification of patient-specific LAAs into the four accepted clinical appearance groups. Clinical images of 16 patients (4 per LAA appearance category) with atrial fibrillation (AF) were identified and visualized as volume images. All the volume images were rigidly reoriented in order to be spatially co-registered, normalized in terms of intensity, resampled and finally reshaped appropriately to carry out principal component analysis (PCA), in order to parametrize the LAA region's appearance based on principal components (PCs/eigen mode) of greyscale appearance, generating 16 eigen-modes of appearance variation. Our pilot studies show that the most dominant LAA appearance (i.e. reconstructable using the fewest eigen-modes) resembles the Chicken-Wing class, which is known to have the lowest stroke risk per clinical mortality statistics. Our findings indicate the possibility that LAA geometries with high

  19. Clinically feasible stratification of 1-year to 3-year post-myocardial infarction risk

    PubMed Central

    Muhlestein, Joseph B; Bhandary, Durgesh; Hoetzer, Greta L; Khan, Naeem D; Bair, Tami L; Lappé, Donald L

    2018-01-01

    Objective Post-myocardial infarction (MI) care is crucial to preventing recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), but can be complicated to personalise. A tool is needed that effectively stratifies risk of cardiovascular (CV) events 1–3 years after MI but is also clinically usable. Methods Patients surviving ≥1 year after an index MI with ≥1 risk factor for recurrent MI (ie, age ≥65 years, prior MI, multivessel coronary disease, diabetes, glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were studied. Cox regression derived sex-specific Intermountain Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (IMACE) risk scores for the composite of 1-year to 3-year MACE (CV death, MI or stroke). Derivation was performed in 70% of subjects (n=1342 women; 3047 men), with validation in the other 30% (n=576 women; 1290 men). Secondary validations were also performed. Results In women, predictors of CV events were glucose, creatinine, haemoglobin, platelet count, red cell distribution width (RDW), age and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP); among men, they were potassium, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, haematocrit, white blood cell count, RDW, mean platelet volume, age and BNP. In the primary validation, in women, IMACE ranged from 0 to 11 (maximum possible: 12) and had HR=1.44 per +1 score (95% CI 1.29 to 1.61; P<0.001); men had IMACE range 0–14 (maximum: 16) and HR=1.29 per +1 score (95% CI 1.20 to 1.38; P<0.001). IMACE ≥5 in women (≥6 in men) showed strikingly higher MACE risk. Conclusions Sex-specific risk scores strongly stratified 1-year to 3-year post-MI MACE risk. IMACE is an inexpensive, dynamic, electronically delivered tool for evaluating and better managing post-MI patient care. PMID:29531761

  20. Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas in Children: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis Validating COG Risk Stratifications

    SciTech Connect

    Waxweiler, Timothy V., E-mail: timothy.waxweiler@ucdenver.edu; Rusthoven, Chad G.; Proper, Michelle S.

    Purpose: Non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) are a heterogeneous group of sarcomas that encompass over 35 histologies. With an incidence of ∼500 cases per year in the United States in those <20 years of age, NRSTS are rare and therefore difficult to study in pediatric populations. We used the large Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to validate the prognostic ability of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) risk classification system and to define patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics. Methods and Materials: From SEER data from 1988 to 2007, we identified patients ≤18 years of age with NRSTS. Data for age, sex,more » year of diagnosis, race, registry, histology, grade, primary size, primary site, stage, radiation therapy, and survival outcomes were analyzed. Patients with nonmetastatic grossly resected low-grade tumors of any size or high-grade tumors ≤5 cm were considered low risk. Cases of nonmetastatic tumors that were high grade, >5 cm, or unresectable were considered intermediate risk. Patients with nodal or distant metastases were considered high risk. Results: A total of 941 patients met the review criteria. On univariate analysis, black race, malignant peripheral nerve sheath (MPNST) histology, tumors >5 cm, nonextremity primary, lymph node involvement, radiation therapy, and higher risk group were associated with significantly worse overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). On multivariate analysis, MPNST histology, chemotherapy-resistant histology, and higher risk group were significantly poor prognostic factors for OS and CSS. Compared to low-risk patients, intermediate patients showed poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 6.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.53-10.47, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 6.27; 95% CI: 3.44-11.43, P<.001), and high-risk patients had the worst OS (HR: 13.35, 95% CI: 8.18-21.76, P<.001) and CSS (HR: 14.65, 95% CI: 8.49-25.28, P<.001). Conclusions: The current COG risk

  1. Does quantifying epicardial and intrathoracic fat with noncontrast computed tomography improve risk stratification beyond calcium scoring alone?

    PubMed

    Forouzandeh, Farshad; Chang, Su Min; Muhyieddeen, Kamil; Zaid, Rashid R; Trevino, Alejandro R; Xu, Jiaqiong; Nabi, Faisal; Mahmarian, John J

    2013-01-01

    Noncontrast cardiac computed tomography allows calculation of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and measurement of epicardial adipose tissue (EATv) and intrathoracic fat (ITFv) volumes. It is unclear whether fat volume information contributes to risk stratification. Cardiac computed tomography was performed in 760 consecutive patients with acute chest pain admitted thorough the emergency department. None had prior coronary artery disease. CACS was calculated using the Agatston method. EATv and ITFv were semiautomatically calculated. Median patient follow-up was 3.3 years. Mean patient age was 54.4±13.7 years and Framingham risk score 8.2±8.2. The 45 patients (5.9%) with major acute cardiac events (MACE) were older (64.8±13.9 versus 53.7±13.4 years), more frequently male (60% versus 40%), and had a higher median Framingham risk score (16 versus 4) and CACS (268 versus 0) versus those without events (all P<0.01). The MACE group had a higher median of EATv (154 versus 116 mL) and ITFv (330 versus 223 mL), and a higher prevalence of EATv >125 mL (67% versus 44%) and ITFv >250 mL (64% versus 42%) (all P<0.01). CACS, EATv, and ITFv were all independently associated with MACE. CACS was associated with MACE after adjustment for fat volumes (P<0.0001), whereas EATv and ITFv improved the risk model only in patients with CACS >400. CACS and fat volumes are independently associated with MACE in acute chest pain patients and beyond that provided by clinical information alone. Although fat volumes may add prognostic value in patients with CACS >400, CACS is most strongly correlated with outcome.

  2. Risk stratification of patients with severe heart failure awaiting heart transplantation-prospective national registry POLKARD HF.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, T; Browarek, A; Zembala, M; Sadowski, J; Zakliczyński, M; Przybylowski, P; Roguski, K; Kosakowska, A B; Korewicki, J

    2009-10-01

    Most methods used in the risk assessment of heart transplant candidates do not include new biomarkers. The aim of the study was to examine the value of NTproBNP and hsCRP and their combined use together with HFSS score in the risk assessment of patients with heart failure enlisted for heart transplantation. Data of 658 patients enlisted for heart transplantation in all active transplantation centers were stored in a prospective registry. The composite end point-death or urgent transplantation was recorded during the follow-up. Death or urgent transplantation was recorded in 161 (24%) of pts. 102 (15%) patients died and 59 (9%) were transplanted urgently. Kaplan-Meier curves for risk of death or urgent transplantation where highly significant when pts were stratified by the quartiles of NT proBNP (P < .000001) or quartiles according to the hsCRP level on admission (P < .002). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, the significance was observed for NTproBNP (P < .01) and HFSS (P < .02), and borderline significance for hsCRP (P = .057). When ROC analyses of the area under the curve (AUC) values were considered, AUC area was for HFSS - 0.645, for NTproBNP - 0.653 and for hsCRP - 0.566. When all those variables were included together in the model, the AUC value rose to 0.6943. Based on those results a weighted risk model with all three parameters was proposed. HFSS, NTproBNP and hsCRP levels are independent stratification variables of survival or need for urgent heart transplantation. Their predictive value is moderately increased when they are analyzed together.

  3. Molecular markers of carcinogenesis for risk stratification of individuals with colorectal polyps: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Samir; Sun, Han; Yi, Sang; Storm, Joy; Xiao, Guanghua; Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Zhang, Song; Ashfaq, Raheela; Rockey, Don C

    2014-10-01

    Risk stratification using number, size, and histology of colorectal adenomas is currently suboptimal for identifying patients at increased risk for future colorectal cancer. We hypothesized that molecular markers of carcinogenesis in adenomas, measured via immunohistochemistry, may help identify high-risk patients. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a retrospective, 1:1 matched case-control study (n = 216; 46% female) in which cases were patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous adenoma and controls were patients with adenoma but no colorectal cancer at baseline or within 5 years of follow-up. In phase I of analyses, we compared expression of molecular markers of carcinogenesis in case and control adenomas, blind to case status. In phase II of analyses, patients were randomly divided into independent training and validation groups to develop a model for predicting case status. We found that seven markers [p53, p21, Cox-2, β-catenin (BCAT), DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNApkcs), survivin, and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)] were significantly associated with case status on unadjusted analyses, as well as analyses adjusted for age and advanced adenoma status (P < 0.01 for at least one marker component). When applied to the validation set, a predictive model using these seven markers showed substantial accuracy for identifying cases [area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC), 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.92]. A parsimonious model using three markers performed similarly to the seven-marker model (AUC, 0.84). In summary, we found that molecular markers of carcinogenesis distinguished adenomas from patients with and without colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we speculate that prospective studies using molecular markers to identify individuals with polyps at risk for future neoplasia are warranted. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. The arterial baroreflex effectiveness index in risk stratification of chronic heart failure patients who are candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Serôdio, João; Martins Oliveira, Mário; Matoso Laranjo, Sérgio; Tavares, Cristiano; Silva Cunha, Pedro; Abreu, Ana; Branco, Luísa; Alves, Sandra; Rocha, Isabel; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-06-01

    Baroreflex function is an independent marker of prognosis in heart failure (HF). However, little is known about its relation to response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aim of this study is to assess arterial baroreflex function in HF patients who are candidates for CRT. The study population consisted of 25 patients with indication for CRT, aged 65±10 years, NYHA functional class ≥III in 52%, QRS width 159±15 ms, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 29±5%, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) 150±48 ml, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) 357±270 pg/ml, and peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) 18.4±5.0 ml/kg/min. An orthostatic tilt test was performed to assess the baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI) by the sequence method. This group was compared with 15 age-matched healthy individuals. HF patients showed a significantly depressed BEI during tilt (31±12% vs. 49±18%, p=0.001). A lower BEI was associated with higher BNP (p=0.038), lower peak VO2 (p=0.048), and higher LVESV (p=0.031). By applying a cut-off value of 25% for BEI, two clusters of patients were identified: lower risk cluster (BEI >25%) QRS 153 ms, LVESV 129 ml, BNP 146 pg/ml, peak VO2 19.0 ml/kg/min; and higher risk cluster (IEB ≤25%) QRS 167 ms, LVESV 189 ml, BNP 590 pg/ml, peak VO2 16.2 ml/kg/min. Candidates for CRT show depressed arterial baroreflex function. Lower BEI was observed in high-risk HF patients. Baroreflex function correlated closely with other clinical HF parameters. Therefore, BEI may improve risk stratification in HF patients undergoing CRT. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for risk stratification in obese and non-obese subjects from 10 populations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T W; Thijs, L; Li, Y; Boggia, J; Liu, Y; Asayama, K; Kikuya, M; Björklund-Bodegård, K; Ohkubo, T; Jeppesen, J; Torp-Pedersen, C; Dolan, E; Kuznetsova, T; Stolarz-Skrzypek, K; Tikhonoff, V; Malyutina, S; Casiglia, E; Nikitin, Y; Lind, L; Sandoya, E; Kawecka-Jaszcz, K; Filipovský, J; Imai, Y; Wang, J; O'Brien, E; Staessen, J A

    2014-09-01

    Overweight clusters with high blood pressure (BP), but the independent contribution of both risk factors remains insufficiently documented. In a prospective population study involving 8467 participants (mean age 54.6 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations, we studied the contribution of body mass index (BMI) to risk over and beyond BP, taking advantage of the superiority of ambulatory over conventional BP. Over 10.6 years (median), 1271 participants (15.0%) died and 1092 (12.9%), 637 (7.5%) and 443 (5.2%) experienced a fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular, cardiac or cerebrovascular event. Adjusted for sex and age, low BMI (<20.7 kg m(-2)) predicted death (hazard ratio (HR) vs average risk, 1.52; P<0.0001) and high BMI (> or = 30.9 kg m(-2)) predicted the cardiovascular end point (HR, 1.27; P=0.006). With adjustments including 24-h systolic BP, these HRs were 1.50 (P<0.001) and 0.98 (P=0.91), respectively. Across quartiles of the BMI distribution, 24-h and nighttime systolic BP predicted every end point (1.13 < or = standardized HR < or = 1.67; 0.046 < or = P<0.0001). The interaction between systolic BP and BMI was nonsignificant (P > or = .22). Excluding smokers removed the contribution of BMI categories to the prediction of mortality. In conclusion, BMI only adds to BP in risk stratification for mortality but not for cardiovascular outcomes. Smoking probably explains the association between increased mortality and low BMI.

  6. Risk stratification for malignant progression in Barrett's esophagus: Gender, age, duration and year of surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gatenby, Piers; Bhattacharjee, Santanu; Wall, Christine; Caygill, Christine; Watson, Anthony

    2016-12-28

    To clarify risk based upon segment length, diagnostic histological findings, patient age and year of surveillance, duration of surveillance and gender. Patients registered with the United Kingdom Barrett's Oesophagus Registry from 9 United Kingdom centers were included. The outcome measures were (1) development of all grades of dysplasia; (2) development of high-grade of dysplasia or adenocarcinoma; and (3) development of adenocarcinoma. Prevalent cases and subjects with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. The covariates examined were segment length, previous biopsy findings, age at surveillance, duration of surveillance, year of surveillance and gender. One thousand and one hundred thirty six patients were included (total 6474 patient-years). Fifty-four patients developed adenocarcinoma (0.83% per annum), 70 developed high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma (1.1% per annum) and 190 developed any grade of dysplasia (3.5% per annum). High grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma increased with age and duration of surveillance. The risk of low-grade dysplasia development was not dependent on age at surveillance. Segment length and previous biopsy findings were also significant factors for development of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. The risk of development of low-grade dysplasia is independent of age at surveillance, but high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma were more commonly found at older age. Segment length and previous biopsy findings are also markers of risk. This study did not demonstrate stabilisation of the metaplastic segment with prolonged surveillance.

  7. Outpatient management of febrile neutropenia associated with cancer chemotherapy: risk stratification and treatment review.

    PubMed

    Pherwani, Nisha; Ghayad, Joanna M; Holle, Lisa M; Karpiuk, Emilie L

    2015-04-15

    Strategies for the management of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN), including assessment tools for determining which patients are at low risk for FN complications and can be treated in the outpatient setting, are discussed. Due to the potential for life-threatening complications, the development of FN in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy traditionally prompted hospitalization and i.v. antimicrobial therapy, but there is convincing published evidence that an identifiable subset of patients can be safely treated as outpatients. Two validated assessment tools recommended for identifying patients at low risk for FN complications are the Talcott classification system and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) risk index; the MASCC index is superior in terms of sensitivity and negative predictive value but has lower specificity. In low-risk FN cases, outpatient oral antimicrobial therapy has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to i.v. therapy for both inpatients and outpatients; current practice guidelines recommend an oral fluoroquinolone (e.g., ciprofloxacin) in combination with oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. The guidelines emphasize that in certain cases of FN (e.g., those involving prolonged or pronounced neutropenia or serious comorbidities), inpatient i.v. therapy is required. Pharmacists can play an important role in the management of chemotherapy-associated FN through involvement in risk assessment to identify candidates for outpatient oral antimicrobial therapy, selection of appropriate pharmacotherapy, drug therapy monitoring, and development of institutional guidelines or pathways. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin and the Risk Stratification of Patients With Renal Impairment Presenting With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Hodges, Eve; Anand, Atul; Shah, Anoop S.V.; Chapman, Andrew R.; Gallacher, Peter; Lee, Kuan Ken; Farrah, Tariq; Halbesma, Nynke; Blackmur, James P.; Newby, David E.; Mills, Nicholas L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin testing may improve the risk stratification and diagnosis of myocardial infarction, but concentrations can be challenging to interpret in patients with renal impairment, and the effectiveness of testing in this group is uncertain. Methods: In a prospective multicenter study of consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, we evaluated the performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I in those with and without renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60mL/min/1.73m2). The negative predictive value and sensitivity of troponin concentrations below the risk stratification threshold (5 ng/L) at presentation were reported for a primary outcome of index type 1 myocardial infarction, or type 1 myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. The positive predictive value and specificity at the 99th centile diagnostic threshold (16 ng/L in women, 34 ng/L in men) was determined for index type 1 myocardial infarction. Subsequent type 1 myocardial infarction and cardiac death were reported at 1 year. Results: Of 4726 patients identified, 904 (19%) had renal impairment. Troponin concentrations <5 ng/L at presentation identified 17% of patients with renal impairment as low risk for the primary outcome (negative predictive value, 98.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 96.0%–99.7%; sensitivity 98.9%; 95%CI, 97.5%–99.9%), in comparison with 56% without renal impairment (P<0.001) with similar performance (negative predictive value, 99.7%; 95% CI, 99.4%–99.9%; sensitivity 98.4%; 95% CI, 97.2%–99.4%). The positive predictive value and specificity at the 99th centile were lower in patients with renal impairment at 50.0% (95% CI, 45.2%–54.8%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 67.5%–74.2%), respectively, in comparison with 62.4% (95% CI, 58.8%–65.9%) and 92.1% (95% CI, 91.2%–93.0%) in those without. At 1 year, patients with troponin concentrations >99th centile and renal impairment were at greater risk of

  9. Clinical risk stratification model for advanced colorectal neoplasia in persons with negative fecal immunochemical test results.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Park, Chan Hyuk; Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il

    2018-01-01

    The fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has low sensitivity for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN); thus, a considerable portion of FIT-negative persons may have ACRN. We aimed to develop a risk-scoring model for predicting ACRN in FIT-negative persons. We reviewed the records of participants aged ≥40 years who underwent a colonoscopy and FIT during a health check-up. We developed a risk-scoring model for predicting ACRN in FIT-negative persons. Of 11,873 FIT-negative participants, 255 (2.1%) had ACRN. On the basis of the multivariable logistic regression model, point scores were assigned as follows among FIT-negative persons: age (per year from 40 years old), 1 point; current smoker, 10 points; overweight, 5 points; obese, 7 points; hypertension, 6 points; old cerebrovascular attack (CVA), 15 points. Although the proportion of ACRN in FIT-negative persons increased as risk scores increased (from 0.6% in the group with 0-4 points to 8.1% in the group with 35-39 points), it was significantly lower than that in FIT-positive persons (14.9%). However, there was no statistical difference between the proportion of ACRN in FIT-negative persons with ≥40 points and in FIT-positive persons (10.5% vs. 14.9%, P = 0.321). FIT-negative persons may need to undergo screening colonoscopy if they clinically have a high risk of ACRN. The scoring model based on age, smoking habits, overweight or obesity, hypertension, and old CVA may be useful in selecting and prioritizing FIT-negative persons for screening colonoscopy.

  10. Risk of early surgery for Crohn's disease: implications for early treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Sands, Bruce E; Arsenault, Joanne E; Rosen, Michael J; Alsahli, Mazen; Bailen, Laurence; Banks, Peter; Bensen, Steven; Bousvaros, Athos; Cave, David; Cooley, Jeffrey S; Cooper, Herbert L; Edwards, Susan T; Farrell, Richard J; Griffin, Michael J; Hay, David W; John, Alex; Lidofsky, Sheldon; Olans, Lori B; Peppercorn, Mark A; Rothstein, Richard I; Roy, Michael A; Saletta, Michael J; Shah, Samir A; Warner, Andrew S; Wolf, Jacqueline L; Vecchio, James; Winter, Harland S; Zawacki, John K

    2003-12-01

    In this study we aimed to define the rate of early surgery for Crohn's disease and to identify risk factors associated with early surgery as a basis for subsequent studies of early intervention in Crohn's disease. We assembled a retrospective cohort of patients with Crohn's disease diagnosed between 1991 and 1997 and followed for at least 3 yr, who were identified in 16 community and referral-based practices in New England. Chart review was performed for each patient. Details of baseline demographic and disease features were recorded. Surgical history including date of surgery, indication, and procedure were also noted. Risk factors for early surgery (defined as major surgery for Crohn's disease within 3 yr of diagnosis, exclusive of major surgery at time of diagnosis) were identified by univariate analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors. Of 345 eligible patients, 69 (20.1%) required surgery within 3 yr of diagnosis, excluding the 14 patients (4.1%) who had major surgery at the time of diagnosis. Overall, the interval between diagnosis and surgery was short; one half of all patients who required surgery underwent operation within 6 months of diagnosis. Risk factors identified by univariate analysis as significantly associated with early surgery included the following: smoking; disease of small bowel without colonic involvement; nausea and vomiting or abdominal pain on presentation; neutrophil count; and steroid use in the first 6 months. Disease localized to the colon only, blood in the stool, use of 5-aminosalicylate, and lymphocyte count were inversely associated with risk of early surgery. Logistic regression confirmed independent associations with smoking as a positive risk factor and involvement of colon without small bowel as a negative risk factor for early surgery. The rate of surgery is high in the first 3 yr after diagnosis of Crohn's disease, particularly in the first 6 months. These results suggest that

  11. Computational cardiology and risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: one of the grand challenges for cardiology in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hill, Adam P; Perry, Matthew D; Abi-Gerges, Najah; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Fermini, Bernard; Hancox, Jules C; Knollmann, Bjorn C; Mirams, Gary R; Skinner, Jon; Zareba, Wojciech; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2016-12-01

    Risk stratification in the context of sudden cardiac death has been acknowledged as one of the major challenges facing cardiology for the past four decades. In recent years, the advent of high performance computing has facilitated organ-level simulation of the heart, meaning we can now examine the causes, mechanisms and impact of cardiac dysfunction in silico. As a result, computational cardiology, largely driven by the Physiome project, now stands at the threshold of clinical utility in regards to risk stratification and treatment of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. In this white paper, we outline a roadmap of what needs to be done to make this translational step, using the relatively well-developed case of acquired or drug-induced long QT syndrome as an exemplar case. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  12. Computational cardiology and risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: one of the grand challenges for cardiology in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Matthew D.; Abi‐Gerges, Najah; Couderc, Jean‐Philippe; Fermini, Bernard; Hancox, Jules C.; Knollmann, Bjorn C.; Mirams, Gary R.; Skinner, Jon; Zareba, Wojciech; Vandenberg, Jamie I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Risk stratification in the context of sudden cardiac death has been acknowledged as one of the major challenges facing cardiology for the past four decades. In recent years, the advent of high performance computing has facilitated organ‐level simulation of the heart, meaning we can now examine the causes, mechanisms and impact of cardiac dysfunction in silico. As a result, computational cardiology, largely driven by the Physiome project, now stands at the threshold of clinical utility in regards to risk stratification and treatment of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. In this white paper, we outline a roadmap of what needs to be done to make this translational step, using the relatively well‐developed case of acquired or drug‐induced long QT syndrome as an exemplar case. PMID:27060987

  13. Understanding PSA and its derivatives in prediction of tumor volume: addressing health disparities in prostate cancer risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Chinea, Felix M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Epstein, Jonathan I; Kwon, Deukwoo; Smith, Paul Taylor; Pollack, Alan; Cote, Richard J; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To address health disparities in risk stratification of U.S. Hispanic/Latino men by characterizing influences of prostate weight, body mass index, and race/ethnicity on the correlation of PSA derivatives with Gleason score 6 (Grade Group 1) tumor volume in a diverse cohort. Results Using published PSA density and PSA mass density cutoff values, men with higher body mass indices and prostate weights were less likely to have a tumor volume <0.5 cm3. Variability across race/ethnicity was found in the univariable analysis for all PSA derivatives when predicting for tumor volume. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, area under the curve values for all PSA derivatives varied across race/ethnicity with lower optimal cutoff values for Hispanic/Latino (PSA=2.79, PSA density=0.06, PSA mass=0.37, PSA mass density=0.011) and Non-Hispanic Black (PSA=3.75, PSA density=0.07, PSA mass=0.46, PSA mass density=0.008) compared to Non-Hispanic White men (PSA=4.20, PSA density=0.11 PSA mass=0.53, PSA mass density=0.014). Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 589 patients with low-risk prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Pre-operative PSA, patient height, body weight, and prostate weight were used to calculate all PSA derivatives. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for each PSA derivative per racial/ethnic group to establish optimal cutoff values predicting for tumor volume ≥0.5 cm3. Conclusions Increasing prostate weight and body mass index negatively influence PSA derivatives for predicting tumor volume. PSA derivatives’ ability to predict tumor volume varies significantly across race/ethnicity. Hispanic/Latino and Non-Hispanic Black men have lower optimal cutoff values for all PSA derivatives, which may impact risk assessment for prostate cancer. PMID:28160549

  14. Understanding PSA and its derivatives in prediction of tumor volume: Addressing health disparities in prostate cancer risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Chinea, Felix M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Epstein, Jonathan I; Kwon, Deukwoo; Smith, Paul Taylor; Pollack, Alan; Cote, Richard J; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2017-03-28

    To address health disparities in risk stratification of U.S. Hispanic/Latino men by characterizing influences of prostate weight, body mass index, and race/ethnicity on the correlation of PSA derivatives with Gleason score 6 (Grade Group 1) tumor volume in a diverse cohort. Using published PSA density and PSA mass density cutoff values, men with higher body mass indices and prostate weights were less likely to have a tumor volume <0.5 cm3. Variability across race/ethnicity was found in the univariable analysis for all PSA derivatives when predicting for tumor volume. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, area under the curve values for all PSA derivatives varied across race/ethnicity with lower optimal cutoff values for Hispanic/Latino (PSA=2.79, PSA density=0.06, PSA mass=0.37, PSA mass density=0.011) and Non-Hispanic Black (PSA=3.75, PSA density=0.07, PSA mass=0.46, PSA mass density=0.008) compared to Non-Hispanic White men (PSA=4.20, PSA density=0.11 PSA mass=0.53, PSA mass density=0.014). We retrospectively analyzed 589 patients with low-risk prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Pre-operative PSA, patient height, body weight, and prostate weight were used to calculate all PSA derivatives. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for each PSA derivative per racial/ethnic group to establish optimal cutoff values predicting for tumor volume ≥0.5 cm3. Increasing prostate weight and body mass index negatively influence PSA derivatives for predicting tumor volume. PSA derivatives' ability to predict tumor volume varies significantly across race/ethnicity. Hispanic/Latino and Non-Hispanic Black men have lower optimal cutoff values for all PSA derivatives, which may impact risk assessment for prostate cancer.

  15. Hyperuricemia and the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation--could it refine clinical risk stratification in AF?

    PubMed

    Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Su-Jung; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tsao, Hsuan-Ming; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although hyperuricemia has been reported to be a risk factor of stroke, the relationship between hyperuricemia and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains uncertain. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether hyperuricemia could potentially refine clinical risk stratification in AF. This study used the "National Health Insurance Research Database" in Taiwan. A total of 7601 AF patients who did not receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants were identified as the study population. Hyperuricemia was defined as having at least one episode of gout attack necessitating long-term treatment with uric acid-lowering agents. The association between hyperuricemia and ischemic stroke was analyzed. During the follow up of 3.0±2.7 years, 1116 patients (14.7%) experienced ischemic stroke with an annual rate of around 4.9%. Hyperuricemia significantly predicts stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.280 after adjusting for CHA2DS2-VASc score and other comorbidities. Among the 376 patients with a CHA2DS2VASc score of 0, hyperuricemia can further stratify them into 2 groups with different stroke rates (7.1% versus 1.3%, p=0.020). The adjusted HR of hyperuricemia in predicting ischemic stroke diminished from 7.491 for patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 0 to 1.659 for those with a score of 3, and became insignificant for patients with a score ≥4. Hyperuricemia was a significant risk factor of stroke which could potentially refine the clinical risk stratification in AF. It deserves a prospective trial to investigate whether it would change the current strategy for stroke preventions using oral anticoagulants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine redox stratification during the early Cambrian (ca. 529-509 Ma) and its control on the development of organic-rich shales in Yangtze Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuying; He, Zhiliang; Jiang, Shu; Gao, Bo; Liu, Zhongbao; Han, Bo; Wang, Hu

    2017-06-01

    High resolution geochemical data from nine sections representing shelf to basinal environments in the Yangtze Platform were analyzed to reconstruct the marine redox environment during early Cambrian. Based on Fe species and Mo/TOC ratios, we have supplemented marine redox stratification during Stage 4 (late Canglangpuian-Longwangmiaoan, ˜514-509 Ma) on basis of the previously studied Stage 2-Stage 3 (Meishucunian-Qiongzhusian, ˜529-514 Ma). A new proposed marine stratified redox model indicates that the middepth "euxinic wedge" developed at the base of slope during ˜514-509 Ma in contrast to that the "euxinic wedge" prevailed at the shelf margin during ˜529-514 Ma, even though these middepth euxinic waters both occurred between the oxic surface waters and ferruginous deep waters. This marine redox stratification resulted in high production and good preservation of organic matter during early Cambrian. TOC values in euxinic waters in the middle are generally higher than in ferruginous waters due to upwelling in slope. Therefore, the lower Cambrian organic-rich shales in the Yangtze Platform are inferred to be deposited under the anoxic-ferruginous and euxinic bottom waters with moderate-strong restriction.

  17. Hemodynamic Based Coronary Artery Aneurysm Thrombosis Risk Stratification in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande Gutierrez, Noelia; Mathew, M.; McCrindle, B.; Kahn, A.; Burns, J.; Marsden, A.

    2017-11-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) as a result of Kawasaki Disease (KD) put patients at risk for thrombosis and myocardial infarction. Current AHA guidelines recommend CAA diameter >8 mm or Z-score >10 as the criterion for initiating systemic anticoagulation. Our hypothesis is that hemodynamic data derived from computational blood flow simulations is a better predictor of thrombosis than aneurysm diameter alone. Patient-specific coronary models were constructed from CMRI for a cohort of 10 KD patients (5 confirmed thrombosis cases) and simulations with fluid structure interaction were performed using the stabilized finite element Navier-Stokes solver available in SimVascular. We used a closed-loop lumped parameter network (LPN) to model the heart and vascular boundary conditions coupled numerically to the flow solver. An automated parameter estimation method was used to match LPN values to clinical data for each patient. Hemodynamic data analysis resulted in low correlation between Wall Shear Stress (WSS)/ Particle Residence Time (PRT) and CAA diameter but demonstrates the positive correlation between hemodynamics and adverse patient outcomes. Our results suggest that quantifying WSS and PRT should enable identification of regions at higher risk of thrombosis. We propose a quantitative method to non-invasively assess the abnormal flow in CAA following KD that could potentially improve clinical decision-making regarding anticoagulation therapy.

  18. Highly sensitive troponin T for risk stratification of acutely destabilized heart failure.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Figal, Domingo A; Casas, Teresa; Ordonez-Llanos, Jordi; Manzano-Fernández, Sergio; Bonaque, Juan C; Boronat, Miguel; Muñoz-Esparza, Carmen; Valdés, Mariano; Januzzi, James L

    2012-06-01

    A highly sensitive assay for troponin T (hsTnT) has been recently developed, which allows for the detection of even minor myocardial necrosis with high precision. It remains unexplored whether hsTnT provides incremental prognostic accuracy beyond conventional (c)TnT in patients with acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). A total of 202 consecutive patients admitted with ADHF and without criteria for acute myocardial infarction were studied. Troponin T was measured using the highly sensitive assay and compared with the conventional method. Patients were clinically followed up at a median of 406 days, with a primary outcome measure of all-cause mortality. The high-sensitive assay detected measurable TnT in 98% of patients vs 56% for cTnT; 81% had an hsTnT above the 99th percentile for a healthy reference population, and it reclassified 60% of those with undetectable cTnT. Both TnT methods predicted the risk of death in adjusted multivariable Cox regression analyses, without a superiority of hsTnT over cTnT in the entire population (area under the curve 0.67 vs 0.71, P = .2). Among patients with a cTnT below 0.03 ng/mL (the lowest cut-point with <10% imprecision; n = 134), solely hsTnT improved the prediction of death over clinical risk factors (relative integrated discrimination improvement +36%, P = .01) and hsTnT above 20 pg/mL identified a significant higher risk of death (hazard ratio 4.7, 95% CI 1.6-13.8, P = .005). Among patients with ADHF, myocardial necrosis (as detected with the hsTnT assay) was nearly ubiquitous. The highly sensitive assay for TnT provides comparable prognostic information to cTnT overall, but among those in whom the cTnT method was less precise or frankly negative, the hsTnT assay provided prognostic information. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Stratification and in Hospital Morality in Patients Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in Bahrain

    PubMed Central

    Garadah, Taysir S; Thani, Khalid Bin; Sulibech, Leena; Jaradat, Ahmed A; Al Alawi, Mohamed E; Amin, Haytham

    2018-01-01

    Background: Risk factors and short-term mortality in patients presented with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) in Bahrain has not been evaluated before. Aim: In this prospective observational study, we aim to determine the clinical risk profiles of patients with ACS in Bahrain and describe the incidence, pattern of presentation and predictors of in-hospital clinical outcomes after admission. Methods: Patients with ACS were prospectively enrolled over a 12 month period. The rate of incidence of risk factors in patients was compared with 635 non-cardiac patient admissions that matched for age and gender. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict poor outcomes in patients with ACS. The variables were ages >65 years, body mass index (BMI) >28 kg/m2, GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) score >170, history of diabetes mellitus (DM), systolic hypertension >180 mmHg, level of creatinine >160 μmol/l and Heart Rate (HR) on admission >90 bpm, serum troponin rise and ST segment elevation on the ECG. Results: Patients with ACS (n=635) were enrolled consecutively. Mean age was 61.3 ± 13.2 years, with 417 (65.6%) male. Mean age for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, n=156) compared with non-STEMI (NSTEMI, n=158) and unstable angina (UA, n=321) was 56.5± 12.8 vs 62.5±14.0 years respectively. In-hospital mortality was 5.1%, 3.1% and 2.5% for patients with STEMI, NSTEMI, and UA, respectively. In STEMI patients, thrombolytic therapy was performed in 88 (56.5%) patients and 68 (43.5%) had primary coronary angioplasty (PCI). The predictive value of different clinical variables for in-hospital mortality and cardiac events in the study were: 2.8 for GRACE score >170, 3.1 for DM, 2.2 for SBP >180 mmHg, 1.4 for age >65 years, 1.8 for BMI >28, 1.7 for creatinine >160 μmol/L, 2.1 for HR >90 bpm, 2.2 for positive serum troponin and 2.3 for ST elevation. Conclusion: Patients with STEMI compared with NSTEMI and UA were of younger age

  20. Stratification by interferon-γ release assay level predicts risk of incident TB.

    PubMed

    Winje, Brita Askeland; White, Richard; Syre, Heidi; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Oftung, Fredrik; Mengshoel, Anne Torunn; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Brantsæter, Arne Broch; Holter, Ellen Kristine; Handal, Nina; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov; Afset, Jan Egil; Bakken Kran, Anne Marte

    2018-04-05

    Targeted testing and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) are priorities on the global health agenda, but LTBI management remains challenging. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the QuantiFERON TB-Gold (QFT) test for incident TB, focusing on the interferon (IFN)-γ level, when applied in routine practice in a low TB incidence setting. In this large population-based prospective cohort, we linked QFT results in Norway (1 January 2009-30 June 2014) with national registry data (Norwegian Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases, Norwegian Prescription Database, Norwegian Patient Registry and Statistics Norway) to assess the prognostic value of QFT for incident TB. Participants were followed until 30 June 2016. We used restricted cubic splines to model non-linear relationships between IFN-γ levels and TB, and applied these findings to a competing risk model. The prospective analyses included 50 389 QFT results from 44 875 individuals, of whom 257 developed TB. Overall, 22% (n=9878) of QFT results were positive. TB risk increased with the IFN-γ level until a plateau level, above which further increase was not associated with additional prognostic information. The HRs for TB were 8.8 (95% CI 4.7 to 16.5), 19.2 (95% CI 11.6 to 31.6) and 31.3 (95% CI 19.8 to 49.5) times higher with IFN-γ levels of 0.35 to <1.00, 1.00 to <4.00 and >4.00 IU/mL, respectively, compared with negative tests (<0.35 IU/mL). Consistently, QFT demonstrates increased risk of incident TB with rising IFN-γ concentrations, indicating that IFN-γ levels may be used to guide targeted treatment of LTBI. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Development of an Echocardiographic Risk-Stratification Index to Predict Heart Failure in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Steven M.; Farzaneh-Far, Ramin; Na, Beeya; Whooley, Mary A.; Schiller, Nelson B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to determine which transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) measurements most strongly predict heart failure (HF) and to develop an index for risk stratification in outpatients with coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND Many TTE measurements have been shown to be predictive of HF, and they might be useful if aggregated into a risk-prediction index. METHODS We performed TTE in 1,024 outpatients with stable CAD enrolled in the Heart and Soul study and followed them for 4.4 years. With Cox proportional hazard models, we evaluated the association of 15 TTE measurements with subsequent HF hospital stay. Those measurements that independently predicted HF were combined into an index. Variables were defined as normal or abnormal on the basis of dichotomous cutoffs determined from the American Society of Echocardiography. Abnormal variables in each measurement were assigned points on the basis of strength of association with HF. RESULTS Of the 15 variables, 5 measurements were independent predictors of HF: left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left atrial volume index (LAVI), mitral regurgitation (MR), left ventricular outflow tract velocity-time integral (VTILVOT), and diastolic dysfunction (DD). In multivariate analysis, each of the 5 measurements independently predicted HF: LVMI >90 g/m2 (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3 to 7.2, p < 0.0001); pseudo-normal or restrictive DD (HR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.8 to 4.5, p < 0.0001); VTILVOT <22 mm (HR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4 to 3.5, p = 0.0004); mild, moderate, or severe MR (HR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2 to 2.8, p = 0.009); and LAVI >29 ml/m2 (HR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.5, p = 0.06). Combining these measurements, the Heart Failure Index ranged from 0 to 8, representing risk as follows: 3 points for LVMI, 2 points for DD, and 1 point for VTILVOT, MR, and LAVI. Among participants with 0 to 2 points: 4% had HF hospital stays (reference); 3 to 4 points: 10% (HR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3 to 4.4, p = 0.003); 5 to 6 points

  2. Improved cancer risk stratification and diagnosis via quantitative phase microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; Hartman, Douglas J.

    2017-02-01

    Pathology remains the gold standard for cancer diagnosis and in some cases prognosis, in which trained pathologists examine abnormality in tissue architecture and cell morphology characteristic of cancer cells with a bright-field microscope. The limited resolution of conventional microscope can result in intra-observer variation, missed early-stage cancers, and indeterminate cases that often result in unnecessary invasive procedures in the absence of cancer. Assessment of nanoscale structural characteristics via quantitative phase represents a promising strategy for identifying pre-cancerous or cancerous cells, due to its nanoscale sensitivity to optical path length, simple sample preparation (i.e., label-free) and low cost. I will present the development of quantitative phase microscopy system in transmission and reflection configuration to detect the structural changes in nuclear architecture, not be easily identifiable by conventional pathology. Specifically, we will present the use of transmission-mode quantitative phase imaging to improve diagnostic accuracy of urine cytology and the nuclear dry mass is progressively correlate with negative, atypical, suspicious and positive cytological diagnosis. In a second application, we will present the use of reflection-mode quantitative phase microscopy for depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of clinically prepared formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. We demonstrated that the quantitative phase microscopy system detects a gradual increase in the density alteration of nuclear architecture during malignant transformation in animal models of colon carcinogenesis and in human patients with ulcerative colitis, even in tissue that appears histologically normal according to pathologists. We evaluated the ability of nanoNAM to predict "future" cancer progression in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  3. TP53 mutational status is a potential marker for risk stratification in Wilms tumour with diffuse anaplasia.

    PubMed

    Maschietto, Mariana; Williams, Richard D; Chagtai, Tasnim; Popov, Sergey D; Sebire, Neil J; Vujanic, Gordan; Perlman, Elizabeth; Anderson, James R; Grundy, Paul; Dome, Jeffrey S; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The presence of diffuse anaplasia in Wilms tumours (DAWT) is associated with TP53 mutations and poor outcome. As patients receive intensified treatment, we sought to identify whether TP53 mutational status confers additional prognostic information. We studied 40 patients with DAWT with anaplasia in the tissue from which DNA was extracted and analysed for TP53 mutations and 17p loss. The majority of cases were profiled by copy number (n = 32) and gene expression (n = 36) arrays. TP53 mutational status was correlated with patient event-free and overall survival, genomic copy number instability and gene expression profiling. From the 40 cases, 22 (55%) had TP53 mutations (2 detected only after deep-sequencing), 20 of which also had 17p loss (91%); 18 (45%) cases had no detectable mutation but three had 17p loss. Tumours with TP53 mutations and/or 17p loss (n = 25) had an increased risk of recurrence as a first event (p = 0.03, hazard ratio (HR), 3.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-16.0) and death (p = 0.04, HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.36-31.7) compared to tumours lacking TP53 abnormalities. DAWT carrying TP53 mutations showed increased copy number alterations compared to those with wild-type, suggesting a more unstable genome (p = 0.03). These tumours showed deregulation of genes associated with cell cycle and DNA repair biological processes. This study provides evidence that TP53 mutational analysis improves risk stratification in DAWT. This requires validation in an independent cohort before clinical use as a biomarker.

  4. Identifying Unique Versus Shared Pre- and Perinatal Risk Factors for ASD and ADHD Using a Simplex-Multiplex Stratification.

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, Anoek M; Burmanje, Marlot J; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2016-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. Besides shared genetic factors, pre- and perinatal risk factors (PPFs) may determine if ASD, ADHD, or the combination of both disorders becomes manifest. This study aimed to test shared and unique involvement of PPFs for ASD and ADHD, using an approach that stratifies the sample into affected/unaffected offspring and single-incidence (SPX) versus multi-incidence (MPX) families. Pre- perinatal data based on retrospective parent-report were collected in 288 children (71 % males) from 31 SPX and 59 MPX ASD families, 476 children (65 % males) from 31 SPX and 171 MPX ADHD families, and 408 control children (42 % males). Except for large family size and more firstborns amongst affected offspring, no shared PFFs were identified for ASD and ADHD. PPFs predominantly related to ASD (maternal infections and suboptimal condition at birth) were more often reported in affected than unaffected siblings. PPFs associated with ADHD (low parental age, maternal diseases, smoking and stress) were shared between affected and unaffected siblings. Firstborn-ship was more frequent in SPX than MPX ASD probands. Our results suggest that the co-morbidity of ASD and ADHD is not likely explained by shared PPFs. Instead, PPFs might play a crucial role in the developmental pathways leading up to either disorder. PPFs in ADHD appear to index an increased shared risk, whereas in ASD PPFs possibly have a more determining role in the disorder. SPX-MPX stratification detected possible etiological differences in ASD families, but provided no deeper insight in the role of PPFs in ADHD.

  5. TP53 Mutational Status Is a Potential Marker for Risk Stratification in Wilms Tumour with Diffuse Anaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chagtai, Tasnim; Popov, Sergey D.; Sebire, Neil J.; Vujanic, Gordan; Perlman, Elizabeth; Anderson, James R.; Grundy, Paul; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The presence of diffuse anaplasia in Wilms tumours (DAWT) is associated with TP53 mutations and poor outcome. As patients receive intensified treatment, we sought to identify whether TP53 mutational status confers additional prognostic information. Patients and Methods We studied 40 patients with DAWT with anaplasia in the tissue from which DNA was extracted and analysed for TP53 mutations and 17p loss. The majority of cases were profiled by copy number (n = 32) and gene expression (n = 36) arrays. TP53 mutational status was correlated with patient event-free and overall survival, genomic copy number instability and gene expression profiling. Results From the 40 cases, 22 (55%) had TP53 mutations (2 detected only after deep-sequencing), 20 of which also had 17p loss (91%); 18 (45%) cases had no detectable mutation but three had 17p loss. Tumours with TP53 mutations and/or 17p loss (n = 25) had an increased risk of recurrence as a first event (p = 0.03, hazard ratio (HR), 3.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26–16.0) and death (p = 0.04, HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.36–31.7) compared to tumours lacking TP53 abnormalities. DAWT carrying TP53 mutations showed increased copy number alterations compared to those with wild-type, suggesting a more unstable genome (p = 0.03). These tumours showed deregulation of genes associated with cell cycle and DNA repair biological processes. Conclusion This study provides evidence that TP53 mutational analysis improves risk stratification in DAWT. This requires validation in an independent cohort before clinical use as a biomarker. PMID:25313908

  6. Coronary artery atherosclerosis and risk stratification in young adults with an intermediate pretest likelihood detected by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhi-hui; Lu, Bin; Gao, Yang; Yu, Fang-fang; Cao, Hui-li; Jiang, Shi-liang; Roy, Sion K; Budoff, Matthew J

    2012-11-01

    To document the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients younger than 45 years of age with intermediate pretest likelihood of CAD, and to determine whether coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) is useful for risk stratification of this cohort. We followed 452 intermediate pretest likelihood (according to Diamond and Forrester) outpatients who were suspected of CAD and underwent cCTA. They were all younger than 45 years old. The endpoint was MACE, defined as composite cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 427 patients (94.5%) with a median follow-up period of 1081 days. No plaque was noted in 357 (83.6%) patients. Nonsignificant CAD was noted in 33 (7.7%) individuals and 37 (8.7%) patients with significant CAD. At the end of the follow-up period, 12 (2.8%) patients experienced MACE. The annualized event rate was 0.2% in patients with no plaque, 2.0% in patients with nonsignificant CAD, and 7.3% in patients with significant CAD. Hypertension, smoking, and significant CAD in cCTA were significant predictors of MACE in univariate analysis. Moreover, cCTA remained a predictor (P < .001) of events after multivariate correction (hazard ratio: 8.345, 95% CI: 3.438-17.823, P < .001). The prevalence of CAD and MACE in young adults with an intermediate pretest likelihood of CAD was considerable. cCTA is effective in restratifying patients into either a low or high posttest risk group. These results further emphasize the usefulness of cCTA in this cohort. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of a risk stratification tool for fall-related injury in a state-wide cohort.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Thomas H; Castro, Victor M; Cagan, Andrew; Roberson, Ashlee M; Perlis, Roy H

    2017-02-06

    A major preventable contributor to healthcare costs among older individuals is fall-related injury. We sought to validate a tool to stratify such risk based on readily available clinical data, including projected medication adverse effects, using state-wide medical claims data. Sociodemographic and clinical features were drawn from health claims paid in the state of Massachusetts for individuals aged 35-65 with a hospital admission for a period spanning January-December 2012. Previously developed logistic regression models of hospital readmission for fall-related injury were refit in a testing set including a randomly selected 70% of individuals, and examined in a training set comprised of the remaining 30%. Medications at admission were summarised based on reported adverse effect frequencies in published medication labelling. The Massachusetts health system. A total of 68 764 hospitalised individuals aged 35-65 years. Hospital readmission for fall-related injury defined by claims code. A total of 2052 individuals (3.0%) were hospitalised for fall-related injury within 90 days of discharge, and 3391 (4.9%) within 180 days. After recalibrating the model in a training data set comprised of 48 136 individuals (70%), model discrimination in the remaining 30% test set yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.74 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.76). AUCs were similar across age decades (0.71 to 0.78) and sex (0.72 male, 0.76 female), and across most common diagnostic categories other than psychiatry. For individuals in the highest risk quartile, 11.4% experienced fall within 180 days versus 1.2% in the lowest risk quartile; 57.6% of falls occurred in the highest risk quartile. This analysis of state-wide claims data demonstrates the feasibility of predicting fall-related injury requiring hospitalisation using readily available sociodemographic and clinical details. This translatable approach to stratification allows for identification of

  8. Risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism with heart-type fatty acid-binding protein: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Anurag; Rathor, Parul; Sehgal, Vishal; Shetty, Ajay; Kabak, Besher; Hosur, Srikanth

    2015-10-01

    Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) has emerged as a new biomarker in risk stratification of patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We performed a meta-analysis of studies in patients with acute PE to assess the prognostic value of elevated H-FABP for short-term adverse outcomes. Two independent reviewers systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database until June 2014. Studies were searched using MeSH word "fatty acid-binding protein" and "pulmonary embolism." Prospective studies were included if those were done on patients with acute PE and if serum H-FABP assay was done. Relevant data on study design, year of publication, patient population, inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria, mean age, sex, type of H-FABP assay, cutoff of H-FABP used, and outcomes were extracted. The primary end point was 30-day complicated clinical course and PE-related mortality. The secondary end point was right ventricular dysfunction (RVD). A random-effects model was used to pool study results. Nine studies, including 1680 patients, reported data on the 30-day complicated clinical course. Elevated H-FABP was significantly associated with the increased risk of 30-day complicated clinical course (odds ratio [OR], 17.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.02-51.89; I(2) = 80%). Similarly, 6 studies, including 676 patients, reported 30-day mortality data. Elevated H-FABP was associated with increased risk of 30-day PE-related mortality (OR, 32.94; 95% CI, 8.80-123.21, I(2) = 53%). The risk of RVD was significantly higher in patients with elevated H-FABP as compared with patients with normal H-FABP (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05-6.33, I(2) = 57%). The prognostic sensitivity and specificity of H-FABP were 71% and 74% in predicting 30-day complicated clinical course and were 90% and 70% in predicting 30-day mortality. This meta-analysis indicates that elevated H-FABP levels are associated with increased risk of 30-day complicated clinical course, mortality, and RVD

  9. Delayed risk stratification, to include the response to initial treatment (surgery and radioiodine ablation), has better outcome predictivity in differentiated thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Maria Grazia; Maino, Fabio; Cipri, Claudia; Belardini, Valentina; Theodoropoulou, Alexandra; Cevenini, Gabriele; Pacini, Furio

    2011-09-01

    After initial treatment, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients are stratified as low and high risk based on clinical/pathological features. Recently, a risk stratification based on additional clinical data accumulated during follow-up has been proposed. To evaluate the predictive value of delayed risk stratification (DRS) obtained at the time of the first diagnostic control (8-12 months after initial treatment). We reviewed 512 patients with DTC whose risk assessment was initially defined according to the American (ATA) and European Thyroid Association (ETA) guidelines. At the time of the first control, 8-12 months after initial treatment, patients were re-stratified according to their clinical status: DRS. Using DRS, about 50% of ATA/ETA intermediate/high-risk patients moved to DRS low-risk category, while about 10% of ATA/ETA low-risk patients moved to DRS high-risk category. The ability of the DRS to predict the final outcome was superior to that of ATA and ETA. Positive and negative predictive values for both ATA (39.2 and 90.6% respectively) and ETA (38.4 and 91.3% respectively) were significantly lower than that observed with the DRS (72.8 and 96.3% respectively, P<0.05). The observed variance in predicting final outcome was 25.4% for ATA, 19.1% for ETA, and 62.1% for DRS. Delaying the risk stratification of DTC patients at a time when the response to surgery and radioiodine ablation is evident allows to better define individual risk and to better modulate the subsequent follow-up.

  10. Rationale, objectives, and design of the EUTrigTreat clinical study: a prospective observational study for arrhythmia risk stratification and assessment of interrelationships among repolarization markers and genotype

    PubMed Central

    Seegers, Joachim; Vos, Marc A.; Flevari, Panagiota; Willems, Rik; Sohns, Christian; Vollmann, Dirk; Lüthje, Lars; Kremastinos, Dimitrios T.; Floré, Vincent; Meine, Mathias; Tuinenburg, Anton; Myles, Rachel C.; Simon, Dirk; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Friede, Tim; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Lehnart, Stephan E.; Zabel, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Aims The EUTrigTreat clinical study has been designed as a prospective multicentre observational study and aims to (i) risk stratify patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for mortality and shock risk using multiple novel and established risk markers, (ii) explore a link between repolarization biomarkers and genetics of ion (Ca2+, Na+, K+) metabolism, (iii) compare the results of invasive and non-invasive electrophysiological (EP) testing, (iv) assess changes of non-invasive risk stratification tests over time, and (v) associate arrythmogenomic risk through 19 candidate genes. Methods and results Patients with clinical ICD indication are eligible for the trial. Upon inclusion, patients will undergo non-invasive risk stratification, including beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR), T-wave alternans, T-wave morphology variables, ambient arrhythmias from Holter, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence. Non-invasive or invasive programmed electrical stimulation will assess inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, with the latter including recordings of monophasic action potentials and assessment of restitution properties. Established candidate genes are screened for variants. The primary endpoint is all-cause mortality, while one of the secondary endpoints is ICD shock risk. A mean follow-up of 3.3 years is anticipated. Non-invasive testing will be repeated annually during follow-up. It has been calculated that 700 patients are required to identify risk predictors of the primary endpoint, with a possible increase to 1000 patients based on interim risk analysis. Conclusion The EUTrigTreat clinical study aims to overcome current shortcomings in sudden cardiac death risk stratification and to answer several related research questions. The initial patient recruitment is expected to be completed in July 2012, and follow-up is expected to end in September 2014. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01209494. PMID:22117037

  11. Using pharmacists to improve risk stratification and management of stage 3A chronic kidney disease: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alex R; Evans, Michael; Yule, Christina; Bohn, Larissa; Young, Amanda; Lewis, Meredith; Graboski, Elisabeth; Gerdy, Bethany; Ehmann, William; Brady, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leah; Antunes, Natacha; Green, Jamie; Snyder, Susan; Kirchner, H Lester; Grams, Morgan; Perkins, Robert

    2016-11-08

    Measurement of albuminuria to stratify risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not done universally in the primary care setting despite recommendation in KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines. Pharmacist medication therapy management (MTM) may be helpful in improving CKD risk stratification and management. We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial using seven primary care clinic sites in the Geisinger Health System to evaluate the feasibility of pharmacist MTM in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and uncontrolled blood pressure (≥150/85 mmHg). In the three pharmacist MTM sites, pharmacists were instructed to follow a protocol aimed to improve adherence to KDIGO guidelines on testing for proteinuria and lipids, and statin and blood pressure medical therapy. In the four control clinics, patients received usual care. The primary outcome was proteinuria screening over a follow-up of 1 year. A telephone survey was administered to physicians, pharmacists, and patients in the pharmacist MTM arm at the end of the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between pharmacist MTM (n = 24) and control (n = 23) patients, although pharmacist MTM patients tended to be younger (64 vs. 71 y; p = 0.06) and less likely to have diabetes (17 % vs. 35 %; p = 0.2) or baseline proteinuria screening (41.7 % vs. 60.9 %, p = 0.2). Mean eGFR was 54 ml/min/1.73 m 2 in both groups. The pharmacist MTM intervention did not significantly improve total proteinuria screening at the population level (OR 2.6, 95 % CI: 0.5-14.0; p = 0.3). However, it tended to increase screening of previously unscreened patients (78.6 % in the pharmacist MTM group compared to 33.3 % in the control group; OR 7.3, 95 % CI: 0.96-56.3; p = 0.05). In general, the intervention was well-received by patients, pharmacists, and providers, who agreed that pharmacists could play an important role in CKD

  12. Predictive risk stratification model: a progressive cluster-randomised trial in chronic conditions management (PRISMATIC) research protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An ageing population increases demand on health and social care. New approaches are needed to shift care from hospital to community and general practice. A predictive risk stratification tool (Prism) has been developed for general practice that estimates risk of an emergency hospital admission in the following year. We present a protocol for the evaluation of Prism. Methods/Design We will undertake a mixed methods progressive cluster-randomised trial. Practices begin as controls, delivering usual care without Prism. Practices will receive Prism and training randomly, and thereafter be able to use Prism with clinical and technical support. We will compare costs, processes of care, satisfaction and patient outcomes at baseline, 6 and 18 months, using routine data and postal questionnaires. We will assess technical performance by comparing predicted against actual emergency admissions. Focus groups and interviews will be undertaken to understand how Prism is perceived and adopted by practitioners and policy makers. We will model data using generalised linear models and survival analysis techniques to determine whether any differences exist between intervention and control groups. We will take account of covariates and explanatory factors. In the economic evaluation we will carry out a cost-effectiveness analysis to examine incremental cost per emergency admission to hospital avoided and will examine costs versus changes in primary and secondary outcomes in a cost-consequence analysis. We will also examine changes in quality of life of patients across the risk spectrum. We will record and transcribe focus groups and interviews and analyse them thematically. We have received full ethical and R&D approvals for the study and Information Governance Review Panel (IGRP) permission for the use of routine data. We will comply with the CONSORT guidelines and will disseminate the findings at national and international conferences and in peer-reviewed journals

  13. Risk-stratification, resource availability, and choice of surgical location for the management of parturients with abnormal placentation: a survey of United States-based obstetric anesthesiologists.

    PubMed

    Grant, T R; Ellinas, E H; Kula, A O; Muravyeva, M Y

    2018-05-01

    Parturients with abnormally adherent placentas present anesthetic challenges that include risk-stratification, management planning and resource utilization. The labor and delivery unit may be remote from the main operating room services. Division chiefs of North American obstetric anesthesiology services were surveyed about their practices and management of parturients with an abnormally adherent placenta. Eighty-four of 122 chiefs, representing 103 hospital sites, responded to the survey (response rate 69%). Sixty-one percent of respondents agreed that women with preoperative placental imaging that was "suspicious" of placenta accreta represented a lower risk category; all other suggested descriptions fell into a higher risk category. Seventy-nine percent of respondents indicated that lower risk cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit, while 71% indicated that higher risk cases would be managed in the main operating room. Institutions where all cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit had better access to human and technical resources, were less remote from their main operating areas, and promoted neuraxial rather than general anesthesia, even for parturients perceived to be at higher risk. Obstetric anesthesia leaders identified patients at lower clinical risk and those less likely to require greater resources. Additional resources were available in institutions where all abnormal placentation cases were managed on the labor and delivery unit. Practitioners should consider risk-stratification and resource availability when planning high-risk cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk behaviours among early adolescents: risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Lin, Shu-Yuan; Cheng, Chung-Ping; Lee, Shu-Li

    2010-02-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine the influence of risk/protective factors on risk behaviours of early adolescents and whether protective factors moderate their impact. An understanding of how risk and protective factors operate to influence risk behaviours of early adolescents will better prepare nurses to perform interventions appropriately to reduce risk behaviours of early adolescents. A cross-sectional study was carried out, based on a sample of public junior high schools (from 7th to 9th grades) in one city and one county in Taiwan. An anonymous questionnaire designed to measure five risk factors, six protective factors and risk behaviours was administered from October 2006 to March 2007. Data from 878 students were used for the present analysis. Pearson's correlations, anova with random effect models, and generalized linear models were used to analyse the statistically significant explanatory variables for risk behaviours. Gender, perceived father's risk behaviour, perceived mother's risk behaviour, health self-efficacy, interaction of health self-efficacy and perceived peers' risk behaviour, and interaction of emotional regulation and perceived peers' risk behaviour were statistically significant explanatory variables of risk behaviours. Health self-efficacy and emotional regulation moderated the negative effects of peers' perceived risk behaviour on risk behaviours. All protective factors were negative statistically correlated with risk behaviours, and all risk factors positively statistically correlated with risk behaviours. Male adolescents should be considered an at-risk group for risk behaviour intervention. Nurses could provide early adolescents with training regarding health self-efficacy improvement, self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills to reduce their risk behaviours.

  15. Identifying inequities in maternal and child health through risk stratification to inform health systems strengthening in Northern Togo

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Katharine J.; Braganza, Sandra; Fiori, Kevin; Gbeleou, Christophe; Kpakpo, Vivien; Lopez, Andrew; Schechter, Jennifer; Singham Goodwin, Alicia; Jones, Heidi E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective In Togo, substantial progress in maternal and child health is needed to reach global development goals. To better inform clinic and community-based health services, this study identifies factors associated with maternal and child health care utilization in the Kara region of Northern Togo. Methods We conducted a population-representative household survey of four health clinic catchment areas of 1,075 women of reproductive age in 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model individual and structural factors associated with utilization of four maternal and child health services. Key outcomes were: facility-based delivery, maternal postnatal health check by a health professional within the first six weeks of birth, childhood vaccination, and receipt of malaria medication for febrile children under age five within 72 hours of symptom onset. Results 83 percent of women who gave birth in the last 2 years delivered at a health facility. In adjusted models, the strongest predictor of facility delivery in the rural catchment areas was proximity to a health center, with women living under three kilometers having 3.7 (95% CI 1.7, 7.9) times the odds of a facility birth. Only 11 percent of women received a health check by a health provider at any time in the postnatal period. Postnatal health checks were less likely for women in the poorest households and for women who resided in rural areas. Children of polygamous mothers had half the odds of receiving malaria medication for fever within 72 hours of symptom onset, while children with increased household wealth status had increased odds of childhood vaccination and receiving treatment for malaria. Conclusion Our analysis highlights the importance of risk stratification analysis to inform the delivery and scope of maternal and child health programs needed to reach those with the least access to care. PMID:28301539

  16. Dynamic Risk Stratification of Patient Long-Term Outcome After Pulmonary Endarterectomy: Results From the United Kingdom National Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, John E.; Su, Li; Kiely, David G.; Page, Kathleen; Toshner, Mark; Swietlik, Emilia; Treacy, Carmen; Ponnaberanam, Anie; Condliffe, Robin; Sheares, Karen; Taboada, Dolores; Dunning, John; Tsui, Steven; Ng, Choo; Gopalan, Deepa; Screaton, Nicholas; Elliot, Charlie; Gibbs, Simon; Howard, Luke; Corris, Paul; Lordan, James; Johnson, Martin; Peacock, Andrew; MacKenzie-Ross, Robert; Schreiber, Benji; Coghlan, Gerry; Dimopoulos, Kostas; Wort, Stephen J.; Gaine, Sean; Moledina, Shahin; Jenkins, David P.; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Background Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension results from incomplete resolution of pulmonary emboli. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is potentially curative, but residual pulmonary hypertension following surgery is common and its impact on long-term outcome is poorly understood. We wanted to identify factors correlated with poor long-term outcome after surgery and specifically define clinically relevant residual pulmonary hypertension post-PEA. Methods and Results Eight hundred eighty consecutive patients (mean age, 57 years) underwent PEA for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Patients routinely underwent detailed reassessment with right heart catheterization and noninvasive testing at 3 to 6 months and annually thereafter with discharge if they were clinically stable at 3 to 5 years and did not require pulmonary vasodilator therapy. Cox regressions were used for survival (time-to-event) analyses. Overall survival was 86%, 84%, 79%, and 72% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years for the whole cohort and 91% and 90% at 1 and 3 years for the recent half of the cohort. The majority of patient deaths after the perioperative period were not attributable to right ventricular failure (chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension). At reassessment, a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥30 mm Hg correlated with the initiation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy post-PEA. A mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥38 mm Hg and pulmonary vascular resistance ≥425 dynes·s–1·cm–5 at reassessment correlated with worse long-term survival. Conclusions Our data confirm excellent long-term survival and maintenance of good functional status post-PEA. Hemodynamic assessment 3 to 6 months and 12 months post-PEA allows stratification of patients at higher risk of dying of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and identifies a level of residual pulmonary hypertension that may guide the long-term management of patients postsurgery. PMID:27052413

  17. Urinary Proteomic Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Risk Stratification of Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Andreas D.; Serra, Andreas L.; Siwy, Justyna; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Torres, Vicente E.; Mrug, Michal; Grantham, Jared J.; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Bost, James E.; Mullen, William; Wüthrich, Rudolf P.; Mischak, Harald; Chapman, Arlene B.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) will likely become available in the near future, hence reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for the disease are strongly needed. Here, we aimed to define urinary proteomic patterns in ADPKD patients, which aid diagnosis and risk stratification. By capillary electrophoresis online coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS), we compared the urinary peptidome of 41 ADPKD patients to 189 healthy controls and identified 657 peptides with significantly altered excretion, of which 209 could be sequenced using tandem mass spectrometry. A support-vector-machine based diagnostic biomarker model based on the 142 most consistent peptide markers achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 84.5% and specificity of 94.2% in an independent validation cohort, consisting of 251 ADPKD patients from five different centers and 86 healthy controls. The proteomic alterations in ADPKD included, but were not limited to markers previously associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). The diagnostic biomarker model was highly specific for ADPKD when tested in a cohort consisting of 481 patients with a variety of renal and extrarenal diseases, including AKI. Similar to ultrasound, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic score depended on patient age and genotype. We were furthermore able to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression. A proteomic severity score was developed to predict height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) based on proteomic analysis of 134 ADPKD patients and showed a correlation of r = 0.415 (p<0.0001) with htTKV in an independent validation cohort consisting of 158 ADPKD patients. In conclusion, the performance of peptidomic biomarker scores is superior to any other biochemical markers of ADPKD and the proteomic biomarker patterns are a promising tool for prognostic evaluation of ADPKD. PMID:23326375

  18. Elevated liver fibrosis index FIB-4 is not reliable for HCC risk stratification in predominantly non-Asian CHB patients

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Münevver; Grünewald, Friederike; Lang, Sonja; Schramm, Christoph; Bowe, Andrea; Mück, Vera; Kütting, Fabian; Goeser, Tobias; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to validate the liver fibrosis index FIB-4 as a model for risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma development in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B infection seen at a tertiary referral center in Germany. We retrospectively analyzed 373 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Patient demographics, hepatitis B markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, results from liver imaging and histology were recorded. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their FIB-4 levels and their hazard ratios for developing hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and antiviral medication. Median follow-up was 8.7 years (range 1–21.3 years), 93% of patients were of non-Asian origin, and 64% were male. Compared with patients with a low FIB-4 (<1.25) patients with FIB-4 ≥1.25 showed a hazard ratio for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma of 3.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–7.41) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 0.64–4.74). Notably, 68% of patients with liver cirrhosis and 68% of those who developed HCC during observation had a low FIB-4 (<1.25). We could not confirm that a FIB-4 value ≥1.25 is a reliable clinical indicator for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further studies in geographically and ethnically diverse populations are needed to prove its utility as a predictive tool. PMID:27661015

  19. Elevated liver fibrosis index FIB-4 is not reliable for HCC risk stratification in predominantly non-Asian CHB patients.

    PubMed

    Demir, Münevver; Grünewald, Friederike; Lang, Sonja; Schramm, Christoph; Bowe, Andrea; Mück, Vera; Kütting, Fabian; Goeser, Tobias; Steffen, Hans-Michael

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to validate the liver fibrosis index FIB-4 as a model for risk stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma development in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B infection seen at a tertiary referral center in Germany.We retrospectively analyzed 373 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Patient demographics, hepatitis B markers, antiviral treatment, laboratory parameters, results from liver imaging and histology were recorded. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their FIB-4 levels and their hazard ratios for developing hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and antiviral medication.Median follow-up was 8.7 years (range 1-21.3 years), 93% of patients were of non-Asian origin, and 64% were male. Compared with patients with a low FIB-4 (<1.25) patients with FIB-4 ≥1.25 showed a hazard ratio for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma of 3.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-7.41) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.75 (95% CI: 0.64-4.74). Notably, 68% of patients with liver cirrhosis and 68% of those who developed HCC during observation had a low FIB-4 (<1.25).We could not confirm that a FIB-4 value ≥1.25 is a reliable clinical indicator for incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in predominantly non-Asian patients with chronic hepatitis B. Further studies in geographically and ethnically diverse populations are needed to prove its utility as a predictive tool.

  20. Combining abdominal and cosmetic breast surgery does not increase short-term complication rates: a comparison of each individual procedure and pretreatment risk stratification tool.

    PubMed

    Khavanin, Nima; Jordan, Sumanas W; Vieira, Brittany L; Hume, Keith M; Mlodinow, Alexei S; Simmons, Christopher J; Murphy, Robert X; Gutowski, Karol A; Kim, John Y S

    2015-11-01

    Combined abdominal and breast surgery presents a convenient and relatively cost-effective approach for accomplishing both procedures. This study is the largest to date assessing the safety of combined procedures, and it aims to develop a simple pretreatment risk stratification method for patients who desire a combined procedure. All women undergoing abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, augmentation mammaplasty, and/or mastopexy in the TOPS database were identified. Demographics and outcomes for combined procedures were compared to individual procedures using χ(2) and Student's t-tests. Multiple logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for the effect of a combined procedure on 30-day complications. Among combined procedures, a logistic regression model determined point values for pretreatment risk factors including diabetes (1 point), age over 53 (1), obesity (2), and 3+ ASA status (3), creating a 7-point pretreatment risk stratification tool. A total of 58,756 cases met inclusion criteria. Complication rates among combined procedures (9.40%) were greater than those of aesthetic breast surgery (2.66%; P < .001) but did not significantly differ from abdominal procedures (9.75%; P = .530). Nearly 77% of combined cases were classified as low-risk (0 points total) with a 9.78% complication rates. Medium-risk patients (1 to 3 points) had a 16.63% complication rate, and high-risk (4 to 7 points) 38.46%. Combining abdominal and breast procedures is safe in the majority of patients and does not increase 30-day complications rates. The risk stratification tool can continue to ensure favorable outcomes for patients who may desire a combined surgery. 4 Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Stephen J; Yow, Heng; Saedon, Mahmud; Shakespeare, Joanna; Hill, Christopher E; Watson, Duncan; Marshall, Colette; Mahmood, Asif; Higman, Daniel; Imray, Christopher He

    2013-05-19

    In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction.A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison.Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ≥ 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT < 11 ml/kg/min) and CPET-submaximal (no AT generated) subgroups with control subjects was performed. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality, survival and length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were non-operative inpatient costs. Of 230 subjects, 188 underwent CPET: CPET-pass n = 131, CPET-fail n = 35 and CPET-submaximal n = 22. When compared to the controls, CPET-pass patients exhibited reduced median total LOS (10 vs 13 days for open surgery, n = 74, P < 0.01 and 4 vs 6 days for EVAR, n = 29, P < 0.05), intensive therapy unit requirement (3 vs 4 days for open repair only, P < 0.001), non-operative costs (£5,387 vs £9,634 for open repair, P < 0.001) and perioperative

  2. Risk stratification by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing improves outcomes following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the NHS evidence adoption center and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a review of the use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). They recommended the development of a risk-assessment tool to help identify AAA patients with greater or lesser risk of operative mortality and to contribute to mortality prediction. A low anaerobic threshold (AT), which is a reliable, objective measure of pre-operative cardiorespiratory fitness, as determined by pre-operative cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is associated with poor surgical outcomes for major abdominal surgery. We aimed to assess the impact of a CPET-based risk-stratification strategy upon perioperative mortality, length of stay and non-operative costs for elective (open and endovascular) infra-renal AAA patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken. Pre-operative CPET-based selection for elective surgical intervention was introduced in 2007. An anonymized cohort of 230 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2007 to 2011) was studied. A historical control group of 128 consecutive infra-renal AAA patients (2003 to 2007) was identified for comparison. Comparative analysis of demographic and outcome data for CPET-pass (AT ≥ 11 ml/kg/min), CPET-fail (AT < 11 ml/kg/min) and CPET-submaximal (no AT generated) subgroups with control subjects was performed. Primary outcomes included 30-day mortality, survival and length of stay (LOS); secondary outcomes were non-operative inpatient costs. Results Of 230 subjects, 188 underwent CPET: CPET-pass n = 131, CPET-fail n = 35 and CPET-submaximal n = 22. When compared to the controls, CPET-pass patients exhibited reduced median total LOS (10 vs 13 days for open surgery, n = 74, P < 0.01 and 4 vs 6 days for EVAR, n = 29, P < 0.05), intensive therapy unit requirement (3 vs 4 days for open repair only, P < 0.001), non-operative costs (£5,387 vs £9,634 for open repair, P < 0

  3. Evaluation of risk scores for risk stratification of acute coronary syndromes in the Myocardial Infarction National Audit Project (MINAP) database.

    PubMed

    Gale, C P; Manda, S O M; Weston, C F; Birkhead, J S; Batin, P D; Hall, A S

    2009-03-01

    To compare the discriminative performance of the PURSUIT, GUSTO-1, GRACE, SRI and EMMACE risk models, assess their performance among risk supergroups and evaluate the EMMACE risk model over the wider spectrum of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Observational study of a national registry. All acute hospitals in England and Wales. 100 686 cases of ACS between 2003 and 2005. Model performance (C-index) in predicting the likelihood of death over the time period for which they were designed. The C-index, or area under the receiver-operating curve, range 0-1, is a measure of the discriminative performance of a model. The C-indexes were: PURSUIT C-index 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 0.80); GUSTO-1 0.80 (0.79 to 0.81); GRACE in-hospital 0.80 (0.80 to 0.81); GRACE 6-month 0.80 (0.79 to 0.80); SRI 0.79 (0.78 to 0.80); and EMMACE 0.78 (0.77 to 0.78). EMMACE maintained its ability to discriminate 30-day mortality throughout different ACS diagnoses. Recalibration of the model offered no notable improvement in performance over the original risk equation. For all models the discriminative performance was reduced in patients with diabetes, chronic renal failure or angina. The five ACS risk models maintained their discriminative performance in a large unselected English and Welsh ACS population, but performed less well in higher-risk supergroups. Simpler risk models had comparable performance to more complex risk models. The EMMACE risk score performed well across the wider spectrum of ACS diagnoses.

  4. Early and Late Recurrent Epistaxis Admissions: Patterns of Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Oded; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Warman, Meir; Tzelnick, Sharon; Haimovich, Yaara; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Halperin, Doron; Lahav, Yonatan

    2017-09-01

    Objective Epistaxis is a common complaint, yet few studies have focused on the incidence and risk factors of recurrent epistaxis. Our objective was to determine the patterns of incidence and risk factors for recurrent epistaxis admission (REA). Study Design Case series with chart review. Settings Single academic center. Subjects and Methods The medical records of patients admitted for epistaxis between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. The follow-up period was defined as 3 years following initial admission. REAs were categorized as early (30 days) and late (31 days to 3 years) following initial admission. Logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of REAs. Results A total of 653 patients were included. Eighty-six patients (14%) had REAs: 48 (7.5%) early and 38 (6.5%) late. Nonlinear incidence curve was demonstrated for both early and late REAs. Based on logistic regression, prior nasal surgery and anemia were independent risk factors for early REAs. According to multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with late REAs. Conclusion Early and late REAs demonstrate different risk predictors. Knowledge of such risk factors may help in risk stratification for this selected group of patients. All patients at risk should be advised on possible preventive measures. Patients at risk for early REA may benefit from a more proactive approach.

  5. From differences in means between cases and controls to risk stratification: a business plan for biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom

    2013-02-01

    Researchers developing biomarkers for early detection can determine the potential for clinical benefit at early stages of development. We provide the theoretical background showing the quantitative connection between biomarker levels in cases and controls and clinically meaningful risk measures, as well as a spreadsheet for researchers to use in their own research. We provide researchers with tools to decide whether a test is useful, whether it needs technical improvement, whether it may work only in specific populations, or whether any further development is futile. The methods described here apply to any method that aims to estimate risk of disease based on biomarkers, clinical tests, genetics, environment, or behavior. Many efforts go into futile biomarker development and premature clinical testing. In many instances, predictions for translational success or failure can be made early, simply based on critical analysis of case–control data. Our article presents well-established theory in a form that can be appreciated by biomarker researchers. Furthermore, we provide an interactive spreadsheet that links biomarker performance with specific disease characteristics to evaluate the promise of biomarker candidates at an early stage.

  6. Pharmacogenetic Risk Stratification in Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Treated Patients with Congestive Heart Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nelveg-Kristensen, Karl Emil; Busk Madsen, Majbritt; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Køber, Lars; Egfjord, Martin; Berg Rasmussen, Henrik; Riis Hansen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence for pharmacogenetic risk stratification of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) treatment is limited. Therefore, in a cohort of ACEI-treated patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), we investigated the predictive value of two pharmacogenetic scores that previously were found to predict ACEI efficacy in patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertension, respectively. Score A combined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the angiotensin II receptor type 1 gene (rs275651 and rs5182) and the bradykinin receptor B1 gene (rs12050217). Score B combined SNPs of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (rs4343) and ABO blood group genes (rs495828 and rs8176746). Methods Danish patients with CHF enrolled in the previously reported Echocardiography and Heart Outcome Study were included. Subjects were genotyped and categorized according to pharmacogenetic scores A and B of ≤1, 2 and ≥3 each, and followed for up to 10 years. Difference in cumulative incidences of cardiovascular death and all-cause death were assessed by the cumulative incidence estimator. Survival was modeled by Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results We included 667 patients, of whom 80% were treated with ACEIs. Differences in cumulative incidences of cardiovascular death (P = 0.346 and P = 0.486) and all-cause death (P = 0.515 and P = 0.486) were not significant for score A and B, respectively. There was no difference in risk of cardiovascular death or all-cause death between subjects with score A ≤1 vs. 2 (HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.79–1.34] and HR 1.11 [95% CI 0.88–1.42]), score A ≤1 vs. ≥3 (HR 0.80 [95% CI 0.59–1.08] and HR 0.91 [95% CI 0.70–1.20]), score B ≤1 vs. 2 (HR 1.02 [95% CI 0.78–1.32] and HR 0.98 [95% CI 0.77–1.24]), and score B ≤1 vs. ≥3 (HR 1.03 [95% CI 0.75–1.41] and HR 1.05 [95% CI 0.79–1.40]), respectively. Conclusions We found no association between either of the analyzed pharmacogenetic scores and fatal outcomes in ACEI

  7. Anion gap as a prognostic tool for risk stratification in critically ill patients - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Glasmacher, Stella Andrea; Stones, William

    2016-08-30

    recommended for risk stratification in critically ill patients. The probable influence of intravenous fluids on AG levels renders the AG an impractical tool in clinical practice. Future research should focus on increasing the availability of lactate monitoring in low resource settings. CRD42015015249 . Registered on 4th February 2015.

  8. High-sensitivity troponin T and risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation during treatment with apixaban or warfarin.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ziad; Wallentin, Lars; Siegbahn, Agneta; Andersson, Ulrika; Alexander, John H; Atar, Dan; Gersh, Bernard J; Hanna, Michael; Harjola, Veli Pekka; Horowitz, John D; Husted, Steen; Hylek, Elaine M; Lopes, Renato D; McMurray, John J V; Granger, Christopher B

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) in addition to clinical risk factors and the CHA2DS2VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, 75 years of age and older, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, 65 to 74 years of age, female) risk score in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The level of troponin is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. A total of 14,897 patients with AF were randomized to treatment with apixaban or warfarin in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for the Prevention of Stroke in Subjects With Atrial Fibrillation) trial. The associations between baseline hs-TnT levels and outcomes were evaluated using adjusted Cox regression models. Levels of hs-TnT were measurable in 93.5% of patients; 75% had levels >7.5 ng/l, 50% had levels >11.0 ng/l, and 25% had levels >16.7 ng/l. During a median 1.9-year period, the annual rates of stroke or systemic embolism ranged from 0.87% in the lowest hs-TnT quartile to 2.13% in the highest hs-TnT quartile (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35 to 2.78; p = 0.0010). The annual rates in the corresponding groups ranged from 0.46% to 4.24% (adjusted HR: 4.31; 95% CI: 2.91 to 6.37; p < 0.0001) for cardiac death and from 1.26% to 4.21% (adjusted HR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.43 to 2.56; p = 0.0001) for major bleeding. Adding hs-TnT levels to the CHA2DS2VASc score improved the C statistic from 0.620 to 0.635 for stroke or systemic embolism (p = 0.0226), from 0.592 to 0.711 for cardiac death (p < 0.0001), and from 0.591 to 0.629 for major bleeding (p < 0.0001). Apixaban reduced rates of stroke, mortality, and bleeding regardless of the hs-TnT level. Levels of hs-TnT are often elevated in patients with AF. The hs-TnT level is independently associated with an increased risk of stroke, cardiac death, and major bleeding and improves risk stratification beyond the CHA2DS2VASc risk score

  9. Electrophysiologic profile and results of invasive risk stratification in asymptomatic children and adolescents with the Wolff-Parkinson-White electrocardiographic pattern.

    PubMed

    Kubuš, Peter; Vít, Pavel; Gebauer, Roman A; Materna, Ondřej; Janoušek, Jan

    2014-04-01

    Data on the results and clinical effect of an invasive risk stratification strategy in asymptomatic young patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White electrocardiographic pattern are scarce. Eighty-five consecutive patients aged<18 years with a Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern and persistent preexcitation at maximum exercise undergoing invasive risk stratification were retrospectively studied. Adverse accessory pathway (AP) properties were defined according to currently consented criteria as any of the following: shortest preexcited RR interval during atrial fibrillation/rapid atrial pacing≤250 ms (or antegrade effective refractory period≤250 ms if shortest preexcited RR interval was not available) or inducible atrioventricular re-entrant tachycardia. Age at evaluation was median 14.9 years. Eighty-two patients had a structurally normal heart and 3 had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A single manifest AP was present in 80, 1 manifest and 1 concealed AP in 4, and 2 manifest APs in 1 patient. Adverse AP properties were present in 32 of 85 patients (37.6%) at baseline and in additional 16 of 44 (36.4%) after isoproterenol. Ablation was performed in 41 of these 48 patients. Ablation was deferred in the remaining 7 for pathway proximity to the atrioventricular node. In addition, 18 of the low-risk patients were ablated based on patient/parental decision. Adverse AP properties at baseline were exhibited by 37.6% of the evaluated patients with an asymptomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White preexcitation persisting at peak exercise. Isoproterenol challenge yielded additional 36.4% of those tested at higher risk. Ablation was performed in a total of 69.4% of patients subjected to invasive risk stratification.

  10. Noninvasive Assessment of Preload Reserve Enhances Risk Stratification of Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kensuke; Onishi, Akira; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Kusunose, Kenya; Suto, Makiko; Hatani, Yutaka; Matsuzoe, Hiroki; Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2018-05-01

    The leg-positive pressure maneuver can safely and noninvasively apply preload stress without increase in total body fluid volume. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preload stress could be useful for risk stratification of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. For this study, 120 consecutive patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction were prospectively recruited. The stroke work index was estimated as product of stroke volume index and mean blood pressure, and the E/e' ratio was calculated to estimate ventricular filling pressure. The echocardiographic parameters were obtained both at rest and during leg-positive pressure stress. During the median follow-up period of 20 months, 30 patients developed adverse cardiovascular events. During preload stress, stroke work index increased significantly (from 3280±1371 to 3857±1581 mm Hg·mL/m 2 ; P <0.001) along with minimal changes in ventricular filling pressure (E/e', from 16±10 to 17±9; P <0.05) in patients without cardiovascular events. However, patients with cardiovascular events showed impairment of Frank-Starling mechanism (stroke work index, from 2863±969 to 2903±1084 mm Hg·mL/m 2 ; P =0.70) and a serious increase in E/e' ratio (from 19±11 to 25±14; P <0.001). Both the patients without contractile reserve and those without diastolic reserve exhibited worse event-free survival than the others ( P <0.001). In a Cox proportional-hazards analysis, the changes in stroke work index (hazard ratio: 0.44 per 500 mm Hg·mL/m 2 increase; P =0.001) and in E/e' (hazard ratio: 2.58 per 5-U increase; P <0.001) were predictors of cardiovascular events. Contractile reserve and diastolic reserve during leg-positive pressure stress are important determinants of cardiovascular outcomes for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. The Lactate/Albumin Ratio: A Valuable Tool for Risk Stratification in Septic Patients Admitted to ICU

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenauer, Michael; Wernly, Bernhard; Ohnewein, Bernhard; Kabisch, Bjoern; Masyuk, Maryna; Lauten, Alexander; Schulze, Paul Christian; Hoppe, Uta C.; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The lactate/albumin ratio has been reported to be associated with mortality in pediatric patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the lactate/albumin ratio for its prognostic relevance in a larger collective of critically ill (adult) patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 348 medical patients admitted to a German ICU for sepsis between 2004 and 2009 were included. Follow-up of patients was performed retrospectively between May 2013 and November 2013. The association of the lactate/albumin ratio (cut-off 0.15) and both in-hospital and post-discharge mortality was investigated. An optimal cut-off was calculated by means of Youden’s index. The lactate/albumin ratio was elevated in non-survivors (p < 0.001). Patients with an increased lactate/albumin ratio were of similar age, but clinically in a poorer condition and had more pronounced laboratory signs of multi-organ failure. An increased lactate/albumin ratio was associated with adverse in-hospital mortality. An optimal cut-off of 0.15 was calculated and was associated with adverse long-term outcome even after correction for APACHE2 and SAPS2. We matched 99 patients with a lactate/albumin ratio >0.15 to case-controls with a lactate/albumin ratio <0.15 corrected for APACHE2 scores: The group with a lactate/albumin ratio >0.15 evidenced adverse in-hospital outcome in a paired analysis with a difference of 27% (95%CI 10–43%; p < 0.01). Regarding long-term mortality, again, patients in the group with a lactate/albumin ratio >0.15 showed adverse outcomes (p < 0.001). An increased lactate/albumin ratio was significantly associated with an adverse outcome in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU, even after correction for confounders. The lactate/albumin ratio might constitute an independent, readily available, and important parameter for risk stratification in the critically ill. PMID:28869492

  12. The Lactate/Albumin Ratio: A Valuable Tool for Risk Stratification in Septic Patients Admitted to ICU.

    PubMed

    Lichtenauer, Michael; Wernly, Bernhard; Ohnewein, Bernhard; Franz, Marcus; Kabisch, Bjoern; Muessig, Johanna; Masyuk, Maryna; Lauten, Alexander; Schulze, Paul Christian; Hoppe, Uta C; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian

    2017-09-02

    The lactate/albumin ratio has been reported to be associated with mortality in pediatric patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the lactate/albumin ratio for its prognostic relevance in a larger collective of critically ill (adult) patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 348 medical patients admitted to a German ICU for sepsis between 2004 and 2009 were included. Follow-up of patients was performed retrospectively between May 2013 and November 2013. The association of the lactate/albumin ratio (cut-off 0.15) and both in-hospital and post-discharge mortality was investigated. An optimal cut-off was calculated by means of Youden's index. The lactate/albumin ratio was elevated in non-survivors ( p < 0.001). Patients with an increased lactate/albumin ratio were of similar age, but clinically in a poorer condition and had more pronounced laboratory signs of multi-organ failure. An increased lactate/albumin ratio was associated with adverse in-hospital mortality. An optimal cut-off of 0.15 was calculated and was associated with adverse long-term outcome even after correction for APACHE2 and SAPS2. We matched 99 patients with a lactate/albumin ratio >0.15 to case-controls with a lactate/albumin ratio <0.15 corrected for APACHE2 scores: The group with a lactate/albumin ratio >0.15 evidenced adverse in-hospital outcome in a paired analysis with a difference of 27% (95%CI 10-43%; p < 0.01). Regarding long-term mortality, again, patients in the group with a lactate/albumin ratio >0.15 showed adverse outcomes ( p < 0.001). An increased lactate/albumin ratio was significantly associated with an adverse outcome in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU, even after correction for confounders. The lactate/albumin ratio might constitute an independent, readily available, and important parameter for risk stratification in the critically ill.

  13. Effect of symptom-based risk stratification on the costs of managing patients with chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bruce K; Lu, Guanning; Kwasny, Mary J; Hsueh, Wayne D; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Conley, David B; Chandra, Rakesh K; Kern, Robert C; Leung, Randy

    2013-11-01

    costly if the nasal endoscopy was positive. Among patients with classic CRS symptoms, the frequency of individual symptoms varied the likelihood of a CRS diagnosis marginally. Only hyposmia, the absence of facial pain, and discolored discharge sufficiently increased the likelihood of diagnosis to potentially make EMT less costly. The development of an evidence-based, multisymptom-based risk stratification model could substantially affect the management costs of the subsequent diagnostic algorithm. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. Electrocardiologic and related methods of non-invasive detection and risk stratification in myocardial ischemia: state of the art and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Thomas; Goernig, Matthias; Schuepbach, Michael; Sanz, Ernst; Pilgram, Roland; Seeck, Andrea; Voss, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background: Electrocardiographic methods still provide the bulk of cardiovascular diagnostics. Cardiac ischemia is associated with typical alterations in cardiac biosignals that have to be measured, analyzed by mathematical algorithms and allegorized for further clinical diagnostics. The fast growing fields of biomedical engineering and applied sciences are intensely focused on generating new approaches to cardiac biosignal analysis for diagnosis and risk stratification in myocardial ischemia. Objectives: To present and review the state of the art in and new approaches to electrocardiologic methods for non-invasive detection and risk stratification in coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial ischemia; secondarily, to explore the future perspectives of these methods. Methods: In follow-up to the Expert Discussion at the 2008 Workshop on "Biosignal Analysis" of the German Society of Biomedical Engineering in Potsdam, Germany, we comprehensively searched the pertinent literature and databases and compiled the results into this review. Then, we categorized the state-of-the-art methods and selected new approaches based on their applications in detection and risk stratification of myocardial ischemia. Finally, we compared the pros and cons of the methods and explored their future potentials for cardiology. Results: Resting ECG, particularly suited for detecting ST-elevation myocardial infarctions, and exercise ECG, for the diagnosis of stable CAD, are state-of-the-art methods. New exercise-free methods for detecting stable CAD include cardiogoniometry (CGM); methods for detecting acute coronary syndrome without ST elevation are Body Surface Potential Mapping, functional imaging and CGM. Heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses, microvolt T-wave alternans and signal-averaged ECG mainly serve in detecting and stratifying the risk for lethal arrythmias in patients with myocardial ischemia or previous myocardial infarctions. Telemedicine and ambient

  15. The Value of Elastic Modulus Index as a Novel Surrogate Marker for Cardiovascular Risk Stratification by Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Carotid Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Cho, In-Jeong; Sung, Ji Min; Lee, Jinyong; Ryoo, Hojin; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Chung, Namsik

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and the presence of carotid plaque have been used for risk stratification of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date, however, the association between multi-directional functional properties of carotid artery and CVD has not been fully elucidated. We sought to explore the multi-directional mechanics of the carotid artery in relation to cardiovascular risk. Methods Four hundred one patients who underwent carotid ultrasound were enrolled between January 2010 and April 2013. A high risk of CVD was defined as more than 20% of 10-year risk based on the Framingham risk score. Using a speckle-tracking technique, the longitudinal and radial movements were analyzed in the B-mode images. Peak longitudinal and radial displacements, strain and strain rate were also measured. Beta stiffness and elastic modulus index were calculated from the radial measurements. Results Of the overall sample, 13% (52) of patients comprised the high-risk group. In multivariate logistic regression, CIMT and elastic modulus index were independently associated with a high-risk of CVD {odds ratio (OR): 1.810 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.249–2.622] and OR: 1.767 (95% CI: 1.177–2.652); p = 0.002, 0.006, respectively}. The combination of CIMT and elastic modulus index correlated with a high-risk of CVD more so than CIMT alone. Conclusion The elastic modulus index of the carotid artery might serve as a novel surrogate marker of high-risk CVD. Measurement of the multi-directional mechanics of the carotid artery using the speckle tracking technique has potential for providing further information over conventional B-mode ultrasound for stratification of CVD risk. PMID:27721952

  16. Pre-discharge stress echocardiography and exercise ECG for risk stratification after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction: results of the COSTAMI-II (cost of strategies after myocardial infarction) trial

    PubMed Central

    Desideri, A; Fioretti, P M; Cortigiani, L; Trocino, G; Astarita, C; Gregori, D; Bax, J; Velasco, J; Celegon, L; Bigi, R; Pirelli, S; Picano, E

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare in a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial the relative merits of pre-discharge exercise ECG and early pharmacological stress echocardiography concerning risk stratification and costs of treating patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. Design: 262 patients from six participating centres with a recent uncomplicated myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to early (day 3–5) pharmacological stress echocardiography (n  =  132) or conventional pre-discharge (day 7–9) maximum symptom limited exercise ECG (n  =  130). Results: No complication occurred during either stress echocardiography or exercise ECG. At one year follow up there were 26 events (1 death, 5 non-fatal reinfarctions, 20 patients with unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in patients randomly assigned to early stress echocardiography and 18 events (2 reinfarctions, 16 unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in the group randomly assigned to exercise ECG (not significant). The negative predictive value was 92% for stress echocardiography and 88% for exercise ECG (not significant). Total costs of the two strategies were similar (not significant). Conclusion: Early pharmacological stress echocardiography and conventional pre-discharge symptom limited exercise ECG have similar clinical outcome and costs after uncomplicated infarction. Early pharmacological stress echocardiography should be considered a valid alternative even for patients with interpretable baseline ECG who can exercise. PMID:15657220

  17. Pre-discharge stress echocardiography and exercise ECG for risk stratification after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction: results of the COSTAMI-II (cost of strategies after myocardial infarction) trial.

    PubMed

    Desideri, A; Fioretti, P M; Cortigiani, L; Trocino, G; Astarita, C; Gregori, D; Bax, J; Velasco, J; Celegon, L; Bigi, R; Pirelli, S; Picano, E

    2005-02-01

    To compare in a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial the relative merits of pre-discharge exercise ECG and early pharmacological stress echocardiography concerning risk stratification and costs of treating patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. 262 patients from six participating centres with a recent uncomplicated myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to early (day 3-5) pharmacological stress echocardiography (n = 132) or conventional pre-discharge (day 7-9) maximum symptom limited exercise ECG (n = 130). No complication occurred during either stress echocardiography or exercise ECG. At one year follow up there were 26 events (1 death, 5 non-fatal reinfarctions, 20 patients with unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in patients randomly assigned to early stress echocardiography and 18 events (2 reinfarctions, 16 unstable angina requiring hospitalisation) in the group randomly assigned to exercise ECG (not significant). The negative predictive value was 92% for stress echocardiography and 88% for exercise ECG (not significant). Total costs of the two strategies were similar (not significant). Early pharmacological stress echocardiography and conventional pre-discharge symptom limited exercise ECG have similar clinical outcome and costs after uncomplicated infarction. Early pharmacological stress echocardiography should be considered a valid alternative even for patients with interpretable baseline ECG who can exercise.

  18. Value of Exercise Stress Electrocardiography for Risk Stratification in Patients With Suspected or Known Coronary Artery Disease in the Era of Advanced Imaging Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Jamieson M.; Beller, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise stress electrocardiography (ExECG) is underutilized as the initial test modality in patients with interpretable electrocardiograms able to exercise. Although, stress myocardial imaging techniques provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information, variables derived from ExECG can yield substantial data for risk stratification, either supplementary to imaging variables, or without concurrent imaging. In addition to exercise-induced ischemic ST depression, such markers as ST segment elevation in lead AVR, abnormal heart rate recovery post-exercise, failure to achieve target heart rate, and poor exercise capacity improve risk stratification of ExECG. For example, patients achieving ≥10 METS on ExECG have a very low prevalence of inducible ischemia and an excellent prognosis. In contrast, cardiac imaging techniques add diagnostic and prognostic value in higher risk populations (e.g. poor functional capacity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease). Optimal test selection for symptomatic patients with suspected coronary artery disease requires a patient-centered approach factoring in the risk/benefit ratio and cost-effectiveness. PMID:26563861

  19. Maximization of the usage of coronary CTA derived plaque information using a machine learning based algorithm to improve risk stratification; insights from the CONFIRM registry.

    PubMed

    van Rosendael, Alexander R; Maliakal, Gabriel; Kolli, Kranthi K; Beecy, Ashley; Al'Aref, Subhi J; Dwivedi, Aeshita; Singh, Gurpreet; Panday, Mohit; Kumar, Amit; Ma, Xiaoyue; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Andreini, Daniele; Bax, Jeroen J; Berman, Daniel S; Budoff, Matthew J; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; Cury, Ricardo C; DeLago, Augustin; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Maffei, Erica; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert L; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Gransar, Heidi; Lu, Yao; Jones, Erica C; Peña, Jessica M; Lin, Fay Y; Min, James K

    Machine learning (ML) is a field in computer science that demonstrated to effectively integrate clinical and imaging data for the creation of prognostic scores. The current study investigated whether a ML score, incorporating only the 16 segment coronary tree information derived from coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), provides enhanced risk stratification compared with current CCTA based risk scores. From the multi-center CONFIRM registry, patients were included with complete CCTA risk score information and ≥3 year follow-up for myocardial infarction and death (primary endpoint). Patients with prior coronary artery disease were excluded. Conventional CCTA risk scores (conventional CCTA approach, segment involvement score, duke prognostic index, segment stenosis score, and the Leaman risk score) and a score created using ML were compared for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Only 16 segment based coronary stenosis (0%, 1-24%, 25-49%, 50-69%, 70-99% and 100%) and composition (calcified, mixed and non-calcified plaque) were provided to the ML model. A boosted ensemble algorithm (extreme gradient boosting; XGBoost) was used and the entire data was randomly split into a training set (80%) and testing set (20%). First, tuned hyperparameters were used to generate a trained model from the training data set (80% of data). Second, the performance of this trained model was independently tested on the unseen test set (20% of data). In total, 8844 patients (mean age 58.0 ± 11.5 years, 57.7% male) were included. During a mean follow-up time of 4.6 ± 1.5 years, 609 events occurred (6.9%). No CAD was observed in 48.7% (3.5% event), non-obstructive CAD in 31.8% (6.8% event), and obstructive CAD in 19.5% (15.6% event). Discrimination of events as expressed by AUC was significantly better for the ML based approach (0.771) vs the other scores (ranging from 0.685 to 0.701), P < 0.001. Net reclassification improvement

  20. Cloning of the first human anti-JCPyV/VP1 neutralizing monoclonal antibody: epitope definition and implications in risk stratification of patients under natalizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Diotti, Roberta Antonia; Mancini, Nicasio; Clementi, Nicola; Sautto, Giuseppe; Moreno, Guisella Janett; Criscuolo, Elena; Cappelletti, Francesca; Man, Petr; Forest, Eric; Remy, Louise; Giannecchini, Simone; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    JC virus (JCPyV) has gained novel clinical importance as cause of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare demyelinating disease recently associated to immunomodulatory drugs, such as natalizumab used in multiple sclerosis (MS) cases. Little is known about the mechanisms leading to PML, and this makes the need of PML risk stratification among natalizumab-treated patients very compelling. Clinical and laboratory-based risk-stratification markers have been proposed, one of these is represented by the JCPyV-seropositive status, which includes about 54% of MS patients. We recently proposed to investigate the possible protective role of neutralizing humoral immune response in preventing JCPyV reactivation. In this proof-of-concept study, by cloning the first human monoclonal antibody (GRE1) directed against a neutralizing epitope on JCPyV/VP1, we optimized a robust anti-JCPyV neutralization assay. This allowed us to evaluate the neutralizing activity in JCPyV-positive sera from MS patients, demonstrating the lack of correlation between the level of anti-JCPyV antibody and anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity. Relevant consequences may derive from future clinical studies induced by these findings; indeed the study of the serum anti-JCPyV neutralizing activity could allow not only a better risk stratification of the patients during natalizumab treatment, but also a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to PML, highlighting the contribution of peripheral versus central nervous system JCPyV reactivation. Noteworthy, the availability of GRE1 could allow the design of novel immunoprophylactic strategies during the immunomodulatory treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Benefit of Adjuvant Brachytherapy Versus External Beam Radiation for Early Breast Cancer: Impact of Patient Stratification on Breast Preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Grace L.; Jiang, Jing; Buchholz, Thomas A.

    Purpose: Brachytherapy after lumpectomy is an increasingly popular breast cancer treatment, but data concerning its effectiveness are conflicting. Recently proposed “suitability” criteria guiding patient selection for brachytherapy have never been empirically validated. Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results–Medicare linked database, we compared women aged 66 years or older with invasive breast cancer (n=28,718) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=7229) diagnosed from 2002 to 2007, treated with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy, or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). The likelihood of breast preservation, measured by subsequent mastectomy risk, was compared by use of multivariate proportional hazards, further stratified by American Societymore » for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) brachytherapy suitability groups. We compared 1-year postoperative complications using the χ{sup 2} test and 5-year local toxicities using the log-rank test. Results: For patients with invasive cancer, the 5-year subsequent mastectomy risk was 4.7% after lumpectomy alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1%-5.4%), 2.8% after brachytherapy (95% CI, 1.8%-4.3%), and 1.3% after EBRT (95% CI, 1.1%-1.5%) (P<.001). Compared with lumpectomy alone, brachytherapy achieved a more modest reduction in adjusted risk (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40-0.94) than achieved with EBRT (HR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.18-0.28). Relative risks did not differ when stratified by ASTRO suitability group (P=.84 for interaction), although ASTRO “suitable” patients did show a low absolute subsequent mastectomy risk, with a minimal absolute difference in risk after brachytherapy (1.6%; 95% CI, 0.7%-3.5%) versus EBRT (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.1%). For patients with ductal carcinoma in situ, EBRT maintained a reduced risk of subsequent mastectomy (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.28-0.55; P<.001), whereas the small number of patients treated with brachytherapy (n=179) precluded definitive comparison with lumpectomy

  2. From Statistical Significance to Clinical Relevance: A Simple Algorithm to Integrate BNP and the Seattle Heart Failure Model for Risk Stratification in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    AbouEzzeddine, Omar F.; French, Benjamin; Mirzoyev, Sultan A.; Jaffe, Allan S; Levy, Wayne C.; Fang, James C.; Sweitzer, Nancy K.; Cappola, Thomas P.; Redfield, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) guidelines recommend brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and multivariable risk-scores such as the Seattle HF Model (SHFM) to predict risk in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). A practical way to integrate information from these two prognostic tools is lacking. We sought to establish a SHFM+BNP risk-stratification algorithm. Methods The retrospective derivation cohort included consecutive patients with HFrEF at Mayo. One-year outcome (death, transplantation or ventricular assist device) was assessed. The SHFM+BNP algorithm was derived by stratifying patients within SHFM-predicted risk categories (≤2.5%, 2.6–≤10%, >10%) according to BNP above or below 700 pg/mL and comparing SHFM-predicted and observed event rates within each SHFM+BNP category. The algorithm was validated in a prospective, multicenter HFrEF registry (Penn HF Study). Results Derivation (n=441; one-year event rate 17%) and validation (n=1513; one-year event rate 12%) cohorts differed with the former being older and more likely ischemic with worse symptoms, lower EF, worse renal function, higher BNP and SHFM scores. In both cohorts, across the three SHFM-predicted risk strata, a BNP>700 pg/ml consistently identified patients with approximately three-fold the risk that the SHFM would have otherwise estimated regardless stage of HF, intensity and duration of HF-therapy, and comorbidities. Conversely, the SHFM was appropriately calibrated in patients with a BNP<700 pg/ml. Conclusion The simple SHFM+BNP algorithm displays stable performance across diverse HFrEF cohorts and may enhance risk stratification to enable appropriate decisions regarding HF therapeutic or palliative strategies. PMID:27021278

  3. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  4. Early sport specialization: roots, effectiveness, risks.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Year-round training in a single sport beginning at a relatively young age is increasingly common among youth. Contributing factors include perceptions of Eastern European sport programs, a parent's desire to give his or her child an edge, labeling youth as talented at an early age, pursuit of scholarships and professional contracts, the sporting goods and services industry, and expertise research. The factors interact with the demands of sport systems. Limiting experiences to a single sport is not the best path to elite status. Risks of early specialization include social isolation, overdependence, burnout, and perhaps risk of overuse injury. Commitment to a single sport at an early age immerses a youngster in a complex world regulated by adults, which is a setting that facilitates manipulation - social, dietary, chemical, and commercial. Youth sport must be kept in perspective. Participants, including talented young athletes, are children and adolescents with the needs of children and adolescents.

  5. CMV-Specific T Cell Monitoring Offers Superior Risk Stratification of CMV-Seronegative Kidney Transplant Recipients of a CMV-Seropositive Donor.

    PubMed

    Schachtner, Thomas; Stein, Maik; Reinke, Petra

    2017-10-01

    Detectable cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells in CMV-seronegative kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have been attributed to an absence of circulating antibodies despite CMV sensitization. The diagnostic value of CMV-specific T cells, however, needs to be implemented in risk stratification for CMV replication. Three hundred twenty-six KTRs were studied and classified with respect to CMV serostatus and presence of CMV-specific T cells. Samples were collected pretransplantation, at +1, +2, and +3 months posttransplantation. CMV-specific T cells directed to CMV-IE1 and CMV-pp65 were measured by interferon-γ Elispot assay. Nineteen (28%) of 67 D+R- KTRs showed pretransplant CMV-specific T cells. Although no differences were observed for CMV replication, KTRs with CMV-specific T cells presented with lower initial and peak CMV loads (P < 0.05). KTRs with decreasing/undetectable CMV-IE1-specific T cells pretransplantation and posttransplantation were at greatest risk of CMV replication. KTRs with stable/increasing CMV-IE1-specific T cells from pretransplantation to posttransplantation, however, showed low risk of CMV replication (P < 0.001). One hundred sixty-two (80%) of 203 R+ KTRs showed pretransplant CMV-specific T cells. Decreasing/undetectable CMV-IE1-specific T cells from pretransplantation and posttransplantation identified those R+ KTRs at increased risk of CMV replication (65/80 KTRs; 81%; P < 0.001). Despite CMV prophylaxis, D+R- KTRs are at greatest risk of CMV disease. Our data suggest that monitoring CMV-specific T cell kinetics from pretransplantation to posttransplantation, particularly directed to CMV-IE1, offers superior risk stratification compared with CMV serostatus alone.

  6. Adenosine triphosphate stress myocardial perfusion imaging for risk stratification of patients aged 70 years and older with suspected coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhiming; Zhu, Hui; Li, Wenchan; Chen, Congxia; Wang, Hua; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Wenjie

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the cardiac risk stratification value of adenosine triphosphate stress myocardial perfusion imaging (ATP-MPI) in patients aged 70 years and older with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We identified a series of 415 consecutive patients aged 70 years and older with suspected CAD, who had undergone ATP-MPI with 99m Tc-MIBI. The presence of a fixed and/or reversible perfusion defect was considered as an abnormal MPI. Follow-up was available in 399 patients (96.1%) over 3.45 ± 1.71 years after excluding 16 patients who underwent early coronary revascularization <60 days after MPI. The major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, nonfatal infarction, and late coronary revascularization, were recorded. One hundred twenty-five (31.3%) patients had abnormal MPI and the remaining had normal MPI. A multivariable analysis using Cox regression demonstrated that abnormal MPI was independently associated with MACE (hazard ratio 19.50 and 95% confidence interval 5.91-64.31, P value .000). The patients with SSS > 8 had significantly higher cumulative MACE rate than patients with SSS ≤ 8 had (37.8% vs 5.2%, respectively, P < .001). The Kaplan-Meier cumulative MACE-free survival in patients with abnormal MPI (57.0%) was significantly lower than that in patients with normal MPI (89.6%), P < .0001. Among patients with SSS > 8, the Kaplan-Meier cumulative MACE-free survival were 36.9% in patients ≥80 years old and 49.5% in patients 70-79 years old, respectively, P < .05. However, among patients with SSS ≤ 8, there was no difference between the Kaplan-Meier cumulative MACE-free survivals of these two age groups. ATP-MPI data are useful for the prediction of major adverse cardiac events in patients aged 70 years and older with suspected CAD.

  7. Development and applications of the Veterans Health Administration's Stratification Tool for Opioid Risk Mitigation (STORM) to improve opioid safety and prevent overdose and suicide.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Elizabeth M; Bowe, Thomas; Tavakoli, Sara; Martins, Susana; Lewis, Eleanor T; Paik, Meenah; Wiechers, Ilse; Henderson, Patricia; Harvey, Michael; Avoundjian, Tigran; Medhanie, Amanuel; Trafton, Jodie A

    2017-02-01

    Concerns about opioid-related adverse events, including overdose, prompted the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) to launch an Opioid Safety Initiative and Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution program. To mitigate risks associated with opioid prescribing, a holistic approach that takes into consideration both risk factors (e.g., dose, substance use disorders) and risk mitigation interventions (e.g., urine drug screening, psychosocial treatment) is needed. This article describes the Stratification Tool for Opioid Risk Mitigation (STORM), a tool developed in VHA that reflects this holistic approach and facilitates patient identification and monitoring. STORM prioritizes patients for review and intervention according to their modeled risk for overdose/suicide-related events and displays risk factors and risk mitigation interventions obtained from VHA electronic medical record (EMR)-data extracts. Patients' estimated risk is based on a predictive risk model developed using fiscal year 2010 (FY2010: 10/1/2009-9/30/2010) EMR-data extracts and mortality data among 1,135,601 VHA patients prescribed opioid analgesics to predict risk for an overdose/suicide-related event in FY2011 (2.1% experienced an event). Cross-validation was used to validate the model, with receiver operating characteristic curves for the training and test data sets performing well (>.80 area under the curve). The predictive risk model distinguished patients based on risk for overdose/suicide-related adverse events, allowing for identification of high-risk patients and enrichment of target populations of patients with greater safety concerns for proactive monitoring and application of risk mitigation interventions. Results suggest that clinical informatics can leverage EMR-extracted data to identify patients at-risk for overdose/suicide-related events and provide clinicians with actionable information to mitigate risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Peripheral zone lesions of intermediary risk in multiparametric prostate MRI: Frequency and validation of the PI-RADSv2 risk stratification algorithm based on focal contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Matthias; Waibel, Lorenz; Krönig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula Annette; Langer, Mathias; Krauss, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    To validate the risk stratification algorithm of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADSv2) for intermediary risk lesions (PI-RADSv2 category 3) in the peripheral zone based on focal contrast enhancement and to compare cancer rates in category 3, upgraded category 4 and category 4 based on markedly low ADC value. We retrospectively analyze 172 consecutive patients undergoing prostate MRI with 315 histopathologically verified lesions. We select all lesions either assigned category 3 or category 4 in the peripheral zone for further analysis. We compare cancer rates with the two-sided chi-squared test. To determine inter-observer agreement about contrast enhancement two blinded radiologists evaluate the subset of category 3 lesions based on the diffusion weighted sequence. The frequency of peripheral PI-RADS 3, upgraded PI-RADS 4 and PI-RADS 4 lesions based on markedly low ADC value is 10.8%, 10.8% and 20.3%, respectively. Cancer rates (significant cancer only) in these subgroups are 8.8% (3/34), 23.5% (8/34) and 40.6% (26/64), P < 0.01. Inter-observer agreement is moderate for evaluation of contrast enhancement with kappa values between 0.46 and 0.5. We demonstrate a trend of increasing cancer rate from PI-RADSv2 category 3 to upgraded category 4 to category 4 based on markedly low ADC value. Peripheral lesions of intermediary risk in the diffusion weighted sequence account for 21.6% of all prostate lesions encountered. Since it is likely that patient management recommendations will be linked to assessment categories in future versions of PI-RADS, cancer rates in upgraded category 4 and category 4 based on markedly low ADC values should be in a similar range. We conclude that in future studies of PI-RADSv2 upgraded category 4 and category 4 based on markedly low ADC value should be reported separately to generate a database for meta-analysis of cancer rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  10. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels for dynamic risk stratification of patients with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Heeschen, Christopher; Hamm, Christian W; Mitrovic, Veselin; Lantelme, Nicte-Ha; White, Harvey D

    2004-11-16

    Elevated baseline levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and the N-terminal fragments of its prohormone, N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-proBNP), have been associated with adverse long-term outcome in patients with acute coronary syndromes, whereas the prognostic implications of serial NT-proBNP measurements have not been investigated to date. NT-proBNP, troponin T, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at 48 and 72 hours in 1791 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. Death and myocardial infarction were recorded during 30 days of follow-up. After adjustment for independent predictors of cardiac risk, baseline NT-proBNP levels >250 ng/L were associated with higher event rates (adjusted OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.3 to 5.7; P<0.001). In troponin T-negative patients, NT-proBNP identified a subgroup of high-risk patients (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.6 to 13.3; P<0.001). The risk in those patients (7.2%) did not significantly differ from that in troponin T-positive patients (9.8%; P=0.25). Importantly, clinical stabilization without refractory ischemia was associated with a rapid (as soon as 48 hours after onset of symptoms) and significant (48 hours; -24%; 72 hours, -49%; both P<0.001) decline in NT-proBNP levels. In patients with high NT-proBNP baseline levels, lack of a rapid decline in NT-proBNP levels (< or =250 ng/L) was linked to an adverse short-term prognosis (OR, 33.7; 95% CI, 8.2 to 138.8; P<0.001). In patients with low NT-proBNP baseline levels, a rise in NT-proBNP levels over 72 hours to >250 ng/L was also linked to an adverse 30-day prognosis (OR, 24.0; 95% CI, 8.4 to 68.5; P<0.001). Neurohumoral activation as evidenced by NT-proBNP appears as a unifying feature that is independent of other biochemical markers (myocardial necrosis, inflammation) and is a powerful and independent determinant of the short-term cardiac risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Whether serial measurements of NT-proBNP in patients with ACS may be used to more

  11. Implications of delayed bone marrow aspirations at the end of treatment induction for risk stratification and outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Zuna, Jan; Moericke, Anja; Arens, Mari; Koehler, Rolf; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Bartram, Claus R; Fischer, Susanna; Fronkova, Eva; Zaliova, Marketa; Schrauder, André; Stanulla, Martin; Zimmermann, Martin; Trka, Jan; Stary, Jan; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Mann, Georg; Schrappe, Martin; Cario, Gunnar

    2016-06-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) at the end of induction therapy is important for risk stratification of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), but bone marrow (BM) aspiration is often postponed or must be repeated to fulfil qualitative and quantitative criteria for morphological assessment of haematological remission and/or MRD analysis. The impact of BM aspiration delay on measured MRD levels and resulting risk stratification is currently unknown. We analysed paired MRD data of 289 paediatric ALL patients requiring a repeat BM aspiration. MRD levels differed in 108 patients (37%) with a decrease in the majority (85/108). This would have resulted in different risk group allocation in 64 of 289 patients (23%) when applying the ALL-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster 2000 criteria. MRD change was associated with the duration of delay; 40% of patients with delay ≥7 days had a shift to lower MRD levels compared to only 18% after a shorter delay. Patients MRD-positive at the original but MRD-negative at the repeat BM aspiration (n = 50) had a worse 5-year event-free survival than those already negative at first aspiration (n = 115) (86 ± 5% vs. 94 ± 2%; P = 0·024). We conclude that BM aspirations should be pursued as scheduled in the protocol because delayed MRD sampling at end of induction may result in false-low MRD load and distort MRD-based risk assessment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify pulmonary hypertension patients according to European society of cardiology exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Michaela B; Garcia, Rodrigue; Christiaens, Luc; Larrieu-Ardilouze, Elisa; Howard, Luke S; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-04-15

    Right ventricular function is the major determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The ESC risk assessment strategy for PAH is based on clinical status, exercise testing, NTproBNP, imaging and haemodynamics but does not include right ventricular function. Our aims were to test the power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify PAH patients according to ESC exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs and to determine if the classification power of echocardiographic parameters varied in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively and consecutively recruited 46 PAH patients and 42 CTEPH patients referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing and comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography. Exercise testing parameters analyzed were peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal diagnostic cut-off values of echocardiographic parameters for classifying the patients in intermediate or high risk category according to exercise testing. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function were the best for classifying in PAH (area under the curve 0.815 to 0.935). Measurements of right ventricular pressure overload (0.810 to 0.909) were optimal for classifying according to exercise testing in CTEPH. Measurements of left ventricular function were of no use in either group. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function can classify according to exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs in PAH. However, this is not the case in CTEPH where pressure overload, rather than right ventricular function seems to be linked to exercise performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Stratification of Acute Kidney Injury Using the Blood Urea Nitrogen/Creatinine Ratio in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Goto, Yoichi; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kawano, Yuhei

    2015-01-01

    Risk stratification of acute kidney injury (AKI) is important for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical markers, such as the blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr) or BUN or creatinine values alone, stratify the risk of AKI for mortality. In all, 371 consecutive ADHF patients were enrolled in the study. AKI was defined as serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dl or a 1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine levels within 48 h. During ADHF therapy, AKI occurred in 99 patients; 55 patients died during the 12-month follow-up period. Grouping patients according to AKI and a median BUN/Cr at admission of 22.1 (non-AKI+low BUN/Cr, non-AKI+high BUN/Cr, AKI+low BUN/Cr, and AKI+high BUN/Cr groups) revealed higher mortality in the AKI+high BUN/Cr group (log-rank test, P<0.001). Cox's proportional hazard analysis revealed an association between AKI+high BUN/Cr and mortality, whereas the association with AKI+low BUN/Cr did not reach statistical significance. When patients were grouped according to AKI and median BUN or creatinine values at admission, AKI was associated with mortality, regardless of BUN or creatinine. The combination of AKI and elevated BUN/Cr, but not BUN or creatinine individually, is linked with an increased risk of mortality in ADHF patients, suggesting that the BUN/Cr is useful for risk stratification of AKI.

  14. Measurable residual disease detection by high-throughput sequencing improves risk stratification for pediatric B-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brent; Wu, David; Crossley, Beryl; Dai, Yunfeng; Williamson, David; Gawad, Charles; Borowitz, Michael J.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Maloney, Kelly W.; Larsen, Eric; Winick, Naomi; Raetz, Elizabeth; Carroll, William L.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Loh, Mignon L.; Robins, Harlan

    2018-01-01

    Early response to induction chemotherapy is an important prognostic factor in B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Here, we compare high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of IGH and TRG genes vs flow cytometry (FC) for measurable residual disease (MRD) detection at the end of induction chemotherapy in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed B-ALL. Six hundred nineteen paired pretreatment and end-of-induction bone marrow samples from Children’s Oncology Group studies AALL0331 (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00103285) (standard risk [SR]; with MRD by FC at any level) and AALL0232 (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00075725) (high risk; with day 29 MRD <0.1% by FC) were evaluated by HTS and FC for event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS). HTS and FC showed similar 5-year EFS and OS for MRD-positive and -negative patients using an MRD threshold of 0.01%. However, there was a high discordant rate with HTS identifying 55 (38.7%) more patients MRD positive at this threshold. These discrepant patients have worse outcomes than FC MRD-negative patients. In addition, the increased analytic sensitivity of HTS permitted identification of 19.9% of SR patients without MRD at any detectable level who had excellent 5-year EFS (98.1%) and OS (100%). The higher analytic sensitivity and lower false-negative rate of HTS improves upon FC for MRD detection in pediatric B-ALL by identifying a novel subset of patients at end of induction who are essentially cured using current chemotherapy and identifying MRD at 0.01% in up to one-third of patients who are missed at the same threshold by FC. PMID:29284596

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: Risk Stratification of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) by the Primary Care Physician Using the NAFLD Fibrosis Score.

    PubMed

    Tapper, Elliot B; Hunink, M G Myriam; Afdhal, Nezam H; Lai, Michelle; Sengupta, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The complications of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are dependent on the presence of advanced fibrosis. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD in the US, the optimal evaluation of NAFLD likely involves triage by a primary care physician (PCP) with advanced disease managed by gastroenterologists. We compared the cost-effectiveness of fibrosis risk-assessment strategies in a cohort of 10,000 simulated American patients with NAFLD performed in either PCP or referral clinics using a decision analytical microsimulation state-transition model. The strategies included use of vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE), the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), combination testing with NFS and VCTE, and liver biopsy (usual care by a specialist only). NFS and VCTE performance was obtained from a prospective cohort of 164 patients with NAFLD. Outcomes included cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) and correct classification of fibrosis. Risk-stratification by the PCP using the NFS alone costs $5,985 per QALY while usual care costs $7,229/QALY. In the microsimulation, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000, the NFS alone in PCP clinic was the most cost-effective strategy in 94.2% of samples, followed by combination NFS/VCTE in the PCP clinic (5.6%) and usual care in 0.2%. The NFS based strategies yield the best biopsy-correct classification ratios (3.5) while the NFS/VCTE and usual care strategies yield more correct-classifications of advanced fibrosis at the cost of 3 and 37 additional biopsies per classification. Risk-stratification of patients with NAFLD primary care clinic is a cost-effective strategy that should be formally explored in clinical practice.

  16. Health care professionals' attitudes towards population-based genetic testing and risk-stratification for ovarian cancer: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Hann, Katie E J; Fraser, Lindsay; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C; Freeman, Madeleine; Jacobs, Ian; Lanceley, Anne

    2017-12-16

    Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at a late stage when outcomes are poor. Personalised ovarian cancer risk prediction, based on genetic and epidemiological information and risk stratified management in adult women could improve outcomes. Examining health care professionals' (HCP) attitudes to ovarian cancer risk stratified management, willingness to support women, self-efficacy (belief in one's own ability to successfully complete a task), and knowledge about ovarian cancer will help identify training needs in anticipation of personalised ovarian cancer risk prediction being introduced. An anonymous survey was distributed online to HCPs via relevant professional organisations in the UK. Kruskal-Wallis tests and pairwise comparisons were used to compare knowledge and self-efficacy scores between different types of HCPs, and attitudes toward population-based genetic testing and risk stratified management were described. Content analysis was undertaken of free text responses concerning HCPs willingness to discuss risk management options with women. One hundred forty-six eligible HCPs completed the survey: oncologists (31%); genetics clinicians (30%); general practitioners (22%); gynaecologists (10%); nurses (4%); and 'others'. Scores for knowledge of ovarian cancer and genetics, and self-efficacy in conducting a cancer risk consultation were generally high but significantly lower for general practitioners compared to genetics clinicians, oncologists, and gynaecologists. Support for population-based genetic testing was not high (<50%). Attitudes towards ovarian cancer risk stratification were mixed, although the majority of participants indicated a willingness to discuss management options with patients. Larger samples are required to investigate attitudes to population-based genetic testing for ovarian cancer risk and to establish why some HCPs are hesitant to offer testing to all adult female patients. If ovarian cancer risk assessment using genetic testing and non

  17. Risk stratification and prognostic performance of the predisposition, infection, response, and organ dysfunction (PIRO) scoring system in septic patients in the emergency department: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Xia; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2014-04-16

    The predisposition, infection, response and organ dysfunction (PIRO) staging system was designed as a stratification tool to deal with the inherent heterogeneity of septic patients. The present study was conducted to assess the performance of PIRO in predicting multiple organ dysfunction (MOD), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 28-day mortality in septic patients in the emergency department (ED), and to compare this scoring system with the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores. Consecutive septic patients (n = 680) admitted to the ED of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital were enrolled. PIRO, MEDS, and APACHE II scores were calculated for each patient on ED arrival. Organ function was reassessed within 3 days of enrollment. All patients were followed up for 28 days. Outcome criteria were the development of MOD within 3 days, ICU admission or death within 28 days after enrollment. The predictive ability of the four components of PIRO was analyzed separately. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the prognostic and risk stratification value of the scoring systems. Organ dysfunction independently predicted ICU admission, MOD, and 28-day mortality, with areas under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.888, 0.851, and 0.816, respectively. The predictive value of predisposition, infection, and response was weaker than that of organ dysfunction. A negative correlation was found between the response component and MOD, as well as mortality. PIRO, MEDS, and APACHE II scores significantly differed between patients who did and did not meet the outcome criteria (P < 0.001). PIRO and APACHE II independently predicted ICU admission and MOD, but MEDS did not. All three systems were independent predictors of 28-day mortality with similar AUC values. The AUC of PIRO was 0.889 for ICU admission, 0.817 for MOD, and 0.744 for 28-day mortality. The AUCs

  18. Malaria ecotypes and stratification.

    PubMed

    Schapira, Allan; Boutsika, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    To deal with the variability of malaria, control programmes need to stratify their malaria problem into a number of smaller units. Such stratification may be based on the epidemiology of malaria or on its determinants such as ecology. An ecotype classification was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) around 1990, and it is time to assess its usefulness for current malaria control as well as for malaria modelling on the basis of published research. Journal and grey literature was searched for articles on malaria or Anopheles combined with ecology or stratification. It was found that all malaria in the world today could be assigned to one or more of the following ecotypes: savanna, plains and valleys; forest and forest fringe; foothill; mountain fringe and northern and southern fringes; desert fringe; coastal and urban. However, some areas are in transitional or mixed zones; furthermore, the implications of any ecotype depend on the biogeographical region, sometimes subregion, and finally, the knowledge on physiography needs to be supplemented by local information on natural, anthropic and health system processes including malaria control. Ecotyping can therefore not be seen as a shortcut to determine control interventions, but rather as a framework to supplement available epidemiological and entomological data so as to assess malaria situations at the local level, think through the particular risks and opportunities and reinforce intersectoral action. With these caveats, it does however emerge that several ecotypic distinctions are well defined and have relatively constant implications for control within certain biogeographic regions. Forest environments in the Indo-malay and the Neotropics are, with a few exceptions, associated with much higher malaria risk than in adjacent areas; the vectors are difficult to control, and the anthropic factors also often converge to impose constraints. Urban malaria in Africa is associated with lower risk than savanna

  19. Integration of copy number and transcriptomics provides risk stratification in prostate cancer: A discovery and validation cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ross-Adams, H.; Lamb, A.D.; Dunning, M.J.; Halim, S.; Lindberg, J.; Massie, C.M.; Egevad, L.A.; Russell, R.; Ramos-Montoya, A.; Vowler, S.L.; Sharma, N.L.; Kay, J.; Whitaker, H.; Clark, J.; Hurst, R.; Gnanapragasam, V.J.; Shah, N.C.; Warren, A.Y.; Cooper, C.S.; Lynch, A.G.; Stark, R.; Mills, I.G.; Grönberg, H.; Neal, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the heterogeneous genotypes and phenotypes of prostate cancer is fundamental to improving the way we treat this disease. As yet, there are no validated descriptions of prostate cancer subgroups derived from integrated genomics linked with clinical outcome. Methods In a study of 482 tumour, benign and germline samples from 259 men with primary prostate cancer, we used integrative analysis of copy number alterations (CNA) and array transcriptomics to identify genomic loci that affect expression levels of mRNA in an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) approach, to stratify patients into subgroups that we then associated with future clinical behaviour, and compared with either CNA or transcriptomics alone. Findings We identified five separate patient subgroups with distinct genomic alterations and expression profiles based on 100 discriminating genes in our separate discovery and validation sets of 125 and 103 men. These subgroups were able to consistently predict biochemical relapse (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.016 respectively) and were further validated in a third cohort with long-term follow-up (p = 0.027). We show the relative contributions of gene expression and copy number data on phenotype, and demonstrate the improved power gained from integrative analyses. We confirm alterations in six genes previously associated with prostate cancer (MAP3K7, MELK, RCBTB2, ELAC2, TPD52, ZBTB4), and also identify 94 genes not previously linked to prostate cancer progression that would not have been detected using either transcript or copy number data alone. We confirm a number of previously published molecular changes associated with high risk disease, including MYC amplification, and NKX3-1, RB1 and PTEN deletions, as well as over-expression of PCA3 and AMACR, and loss of MSMB in tumour tissue. A subset of the 100 genes outperforms established clinical predictors of poor prognosis (PSA, Gleason score), as well as previously published gene

  20. Improving cardiovascular risk stratification in essential hypertensive patients by indexing left ventricular mass to height(2.7).

    PubMed

    Cuspidi, Cesare; Giudici, Valentina; Negri, Francesca; Meani, Stefano; Sala, Carla; Zanchetti, Alberto; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2009-12-01

    Clinical abnormalities associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) only defined by left ventricular mass (LVM) indexed to height(2.7) are still undefined. We investigated the prevalence, clinical correlates and extracardiac organ damage of such a cardiac phenotype in essential hypertensive patients. Subclinical organ damage was searched in 3719 untreated and treated hypertensive patients. LVH was defined by two sets of sex-specific criteria, namely, LVM indexed to height(2.7) (left ventricular mass index >49/45 g/m in men and women, respectively) and LVM indexed to body surface area (BSA; left ventricular mass index >125/110 g/m in men and women, respectively). Patients were categorized into three groups, according to the absence of LVH by both criteria (n = 1912, group I), presence of LVH by the height(2.7) criterion only (n = 784, group II) and presence of LVH by both criteria (n = 997, group III). A fourth group (n = 26, <1%), positive for LVH only by the BSA criterion, was excluded from the analysis as being too small. Group II included a higher number of female, obese patients and individuals with metabolic syndrome than the other groups. Moreover, in group II, absolute LVM values and the extent of extracardiac organ damage, as assessed by carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaques, microalbuminuria and retinal changes were intermediate between group I and III. Our data indicate that a consistent portion of essential hypertensive patients are positive for LVH by the criterion of LVM indexed to height(2.7), but not to BSA; this population is characterized by an unhealthy metabolic profile as well as by the presence of extracardiac organ damage. They also suggest that, in order to improve cardiovascular stratification, LVM should be routinely indexed to both BSA and height(2.7) and patients categorized according to the consistency of both criteria.

  1. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbaugh, Mark J., E-mail: mjamsb01@louisville.edu; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth

    Purpose/Objective(s): To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. Methods and Materials: All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ{sup 2}, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. Results: The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016),more » and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. Conclusions: For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC

  2. Distribution of Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Era of Risk Stratification Using Human Papillomavirus and Smoking Status.

    PubMed

    Amsbaugh, Mark J; Yusuf, Mehran; Cash, Elizabeth; Silverman, Craig; Wilson, Elizabeth; Bumpous, Jeffrey; Potts, Kevin; Perez, Cesar; Bert, Robert; Redman, Rebecca; Dunlap, Neal

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the factors contributing to the clinical presentation of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in the era of risk stratification using human papilloma virus (HPV) and smoking status. All patients with OPSCC presenting to our institutional multidisciplinary clinic from January 2009 to June 2015 were reviewed from a prospective database. The patients were grouped as being at low risk, intermediate risk, and high risk in the manner described by Ang et al. Variance in clinical presentation was examined using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and logistic regression analyses. The rates of HPV/p16 positivity (P<.001), never-smoking (P=.016), and cervical lymph node metastases (P=.023) were significantly higher for patients with OPSCC of the tonsil, base of tongue (BOT), or vallecula subsites when compared with pharyngeal wall or palate subsites. Low-risk patients with tonsil, base of tongue, or vallecula primary tumors presented with nodal stage N2a at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.007), and high-risk patients presented with tumor stage T4 at a much higher than expected frequency (P=.003). Patients with BOT primary tumors who were never-smokers were less likely to have clinically involved ipsilateral neck disease than were former smokers (odds ratio 1.8; P=.038). The distribution of cervical lymph node metastases was not associated with HPV/p16 positivity, risk group, or subsite. When these data were compared with those in historical series, no significant differences were seen in the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases for patients with OPSCC. For patients with OPSCC differences in HPV status, smoking history and anatomic subsite were associated with differences in clinical presentation but not with distribution of cervical lymph node metastases. Historical series describing the patterns of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with OPSCC remain clinically relevant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Unanswered questions for management of acute coronary syndrome: risk stratification of patients with minimal disease or normal findings on coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Bugiardini, Raffaele; Manfrini, Olivia; De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2006-07-10

    The prognostic implication of chest pain associated with normal or near-normal findings on angiography is still unknown. We explored outcomes and methods of risk stratification in patients with nonobstructive coronary artery disease in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Data were pooled from 3 Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) trials (TIMI 11B, TIMI 16, and TIMI 22). Angiographic data were available on 7656 patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. The primary end point of this analysis was the composite of the rates of death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring rehospitalization, revascularization, and stroke at 1-year follow-up. Outcomes were evaluated by mean of the TIMI risk score for developing at least 1 component of the primary end point. Angiographic findings showed that 710 (9.1%) of 7656 patients had nonobstructive coronary artery disease; 48.7% of these had normal coronary arteries (0% stenosis), and 51.3% had mild coronary artery disease (>0% to <50% stenosis). A primary end-point event occurred in 101 patients (12.1%). It is noteworthy that a 2% event rate of deaths and myocardial infarctions had occurred in these patients at the 1-year follow-up. Event rates of death and myocardial infarction increased significantly as the TIMI risk score increased from 0.6% for a score of 1 to 4.0% for a score greater than 4. Patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes with nonobstructive coronary artery disease detected by angiography have a substantial risk of subsequent coronary events within 1 year. The risk is not univariately high, and the TIMI risk score helps to reveal patients at high risk.

  4. Risk stratification using SpO2/FiO2 and PEEP at initial ARDS diagnosis and after 24 h in patients with moderate or severe ARDS.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Luigi; Roozeman, Jan-Paul; Simonis, Fabienne D; Giangregorio, Antonio; van der Hoeven, Sophia M; Schouten, Laura R; Horn, Janneke; Neto, Ary Serpa; Festic, Emir; Dondorp, Arjen M; Grasso, Salvatore; Bos, Lieuwe D; Schultz, Marcus J

    2017-10-25

    We assessed the potential of risk stratification of ARDS patients using SpO 2 /FiO 2 and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at ARDS onset and after 24 h. We used data from a prospective observational study in patients admitted to a mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in the Netherlands. Risk stratification was by cutoffs for SpO 2 /FiO 2 and PEEP. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Patients with moderate or severe ARDS with a length of stay of > 24 h were included in this study. Patients were assigned to four predefined risk groups: group I (SpO 2 /FiO 2  ≥ 190 and PEEP < 10 cm H 2 O), group II (SpO 2 /FiO 2  ≥ 190 and PEEP ≥ 10 cm), group III (SpO 2 /FiO 2  < 190 and PEEP < 10 cm H 2 O) and group IV (SpO 2 /FiO 2  < 190 and PEEP ≥ 10 cm H 2 O). The analysis included 456 patients. SpO 2 /FiO 2 and PaO 2 /FiO 2 had a strong relationship (P < 0.001, R 2  = 0.676) that could be described in a linear regression equation (SpO 2 /FiO 2  = 42.6 + 1.0 * PaO 2 /FiO 2 ). Risk stratification at initial ARDS diagnosis resulted in groups that had no differences in in-hospital mortality. Risk stratification at 24 h resulted in groups with increasing mortality rates. The association between group assignment at 24 h and outcome was confounded by several factors, including APACHE IV scores, arterial pH and plasma lactate levels, and vasopressor therapy. In this cohort of patients with moderate or severe ARDS, SpO 2 /FiO 2 and PaO 2 /FiO 2 have a strong linear relationship. In contrast to risk stratification at initial ARDS diagnosis, risk stratification using SpO 2 /FiO 2 and PEEP after 24 h resulted in groups with worsening outcomes. Risk stratification using SpO 2 /FiO 2 and PEEP could be practical, especially in resource-limited settings.

  5. Health risks of early swimming pool attendance.

    PubMed

    Schoefer, Yvonne; Zutavern, Anne; Brockow, Inken; Schäfer, Torsten; Krämer, Ursula; Schaaf, Beate; Herbarth, Olf; von Berg, Andrea; Wichmann, H-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Swimming pool attendance and exposure to chlorination by-products showed adverse health effects on children. We assessed whether early swimming pool attendance, especially baby swimming, is related to higher rates of early infections and to the development of allergic diseases. In 2003-2005, 2192 children were analysed for the 6-year follow-up of a prospective birth cohort study. Data on early swimming pool attendance, other lifestyle factors and medical history were collected by parental-administered questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate associations. Babies who did not participate in baby swimming had lower rates of infection in the 1st year of life (i) diarrhoea: OR 0.68 CI 95% 0.54-0.85; (ii) otitis media: OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.62-1.05; (iii) airway infections: OR 0.85 CI 95% 0.67-1.09. No clear association could be found between late or non-swimmers and atopic dermatitis or hay fever until the age of 6 years, while higher rates of asthma were found (OR 2.15 95% CI 1.16-3.99), however, potentially due to reverse causation. The study indicates that, in terms of infections, baby swimming might not be as harmless as commonly thought. Further evidence is needed to make conclusions if the current regulations on chlorine in Germany might not protect swimming pool attendees from an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections. In terms of developing atopic diseases there is no verifiable detrimental effect of early swimming.

  6. Association of the Female Athlete Triad Risk Assessment Stratification to the Development of Bone Stress Injuries in Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Tenforde, Adam S; Carlson, Jennifer L; Chang, Audrey; Sainani, Kristin L; Shultz, Rebecca; Kim, Jae Hyung; Cutti, Phil; Golden, Neville H; Fredericson, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The female athlete triad (referred to as the triad) contributes to adverse health outcomes, including bone stress injuries (BSIs), in female athletes. Guidelines were published in 2014 for clinical management of athletes affected by the triad. This study aimed to (1) classify athletes from a collegiate population of 16 sports into low-, moderate-, and high-risk categories using the Female Athlete Triad Cumulative Risk Assessment score and (2) evaluate the predictive value of the risk categories for subsequent BSIs. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 323 athletes completed both electronic preparticipation physical examination and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. Of these, 239 athletes with known oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea status were assigned to a low-, moderate-, or high-risk category. Chart review was used to identify athletes who sustained a subsequent BSI during collegiate sports participation; the injury required a physician diagnosis and imaging confirmation. Of 239 athletes, 61 (25.5%) were classified into moderate-risk and 9 (3.8%) into high-risk categories. Sports with the highest proportion of athletes assigned to the moderate- and high-risk categories included gymnastics (56.3%), lacrosse (50%), cross-country (48.9%), swimming/diving (42.9%), sailing (33%), and volleyball (33%). Twenty-five athletes (10.5%) assigned to risk categories sustained ≥1 BSI. Cross-country runners contributed the majority of BSIs (16; 64%). After adjusting for age and participation in cross-country, we found that moderate-risk athletes were twice as likely as low-risk athletes to sustain a BSI (risk ratio [RR], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.3-5.5) and high-risk athletes were nearly 4 times as likely (RR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.8-8.0). When examining the 6 individual components of the triad risk assessment score, both the oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea score ( P = .0069) and the prior stress fracture/reaction score ( P = .0315) were identified as independent

  7. The effect of cost construction based on either DRG or ICD-9 codes or risk group stratification on the resulting cost-effectiveness ratios.

    PubMed

    Chumney, Elinor C G; Biddle, Andrea K; Simpson, Kit N; Weinberger, Morris; Magruder, Kathryn M; Zelman, William N

    2004-01-01

    As cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are increasingly used to inform policy decisions, there is a need for more information on how different cost determination methods affect cost estimates and the degree to which the resulting cost-effectiveness ratios (CERs) may be affected. The lack of specificity of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) could mean that they are ill-suited for costing applications in CEAs. Yet, the implications of using International Classification of Diseases-9th edition (ICD-9) codes or a form of disease-specific risk group stratification instead of DRGs has yet to be clearly documented. To demonstrate the implications of different disease coding mechanisms on costs and the magnitude of error that could be introduced in head-to-head comparisons of resulting CERs. We based our analyses on a previously published Markov model for HIV/AIDS therapies. We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilisation Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS) data release 6, which contains all-payer data on hospital inpatient stays from selected states. We added costs for the mean number of hospitalisations, derived from analyses based on either DRG or ICD-9 codes or risk group stratification cost weights, to the standard outpatient and prescription drug costs to yield an estimate of total charges for each AIDS-defining illness (ADI). Finally, we estimated the Markov model three times with the appropriate ADI cost weights to obtain CERs specific to the use of either DRG or ICD-9 codes or risk group. Contrary to expectations, we found that the choice of coding/grouping assumptions that are disease-specific by either DRG codes, ICD-9 codes or risk group resulted in very similar CER estimates for highly active antiretroviral therapy. The large variations in the specific ADI cost weights across the three different coding approaches was especially interesting. However, because no one approach produced consistently higher estimates than the others, the Markov model's weighted

  8. Nonobstructive Coronary Artery Disease by Coronary CT Angiography Improves Risk Stratification and Allocation of Statin Therapy.

    PubMed

    Emami, Hamed; Takx, Richard A P; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Janjua, Sumbal; Park, Jakob; Pursnani, Amit; Tawakol, Ahmed; Lu, Michael T; Ferencik, Maros; Hoffmann, Udo

    2017-09-01

    This study sought to determine prognostic value of nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events and to determine whether incorporation of this information into the pooled cohort equation reclassifies recommendations for statin therapy as defined by the 2013 guidelines for cholesterol management of the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA). Detection of nonobstructive CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography may improve risk stratification and permit individualized and more appropriate allocation of statin therapy. This study determined the pooled hazard ratio of nonobstructive CAD for ASCVD events from published studies and incorporated this information into the ACC/AHA pooled cohort equation. The study calculated revised sex- and ethnicity-based 10-year ASCVD risk and determined boundaries corresponding to the original 7.5% risk for ASCVD events. It also assessed reclassification for statin eligibility by incorporating the results from meta-analysis to individual patients from a separate cohort. This study included 2 studies (2,295 subjects; 66% male; prevalence of nonobstructive CAD, 47%; median follow-up, 49 months; 67 ASCVD events). The hazard ratio of nonobstructive CAD for ASCVD events was 3.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 6.7). Incorporation of this information into the pooled cohort equation resulted in reclassification toward statin eligibility in individuals with nonobstructive CAD, with an original ASCVD score of 3.0% and 5.9% or higher in African-American women and men and a score of 4.4% and 4.6% or higher in Caucasian women and men, respectively. The absence of nonobstructive CAD resulted in reclassification toward statin ineligibility if the original ASCVD score was as 10.0% and 17.9% or lower in African-American women and men and 13.7% and 14.3% or lower in Caucasian women and men, respectively. Reclassification is observed in 14% of patients

  9. Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology new guidelines have a greater ability of risk stratification for pancreatic endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration specimens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Zhao, Yu; Gu, Jiangang; Wu, Huanwen; Liang, Zhiyong; Meng, Zhilan

    2017-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has recently proposed a standardized terminology and nomenclature guidelines for pancreatic cytology. However the risk of malignancy associated with the new guidelines has been scarcely studied. In this study, a series of pancreatic cytology cases obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration from 294 Chinese patients were retrospectively re-categorized into six categories according the new guidelines. The risks of malignancy were 18.1% for “negative,” 20.0% for “neoplastic,” 57.1% for “nondiagnostic,” 69.2% for “atypical,” 87.5% for “suspicious,” and 100.0% for “positive” respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93 (95% Confidence Interval, 0.90-0.96), which was significantly higher than that associated with old classification system (0.82; 95% Confidence Interval, 0.77-0.87) conventionally used in China. Our investigation demonstrated that the new guidelines have a greater ability of risk stratification than the old classification system conventionally used in China. This may be helpful in giving better predictions of malignancy, thus leading to more personalized treatment strategies. PMID:28042957

  10. Integrated e-Health approach based on vascular ultrasound and pulse wave analysis for asymptomatic atherosclerosis detection and cardiovascular risk stratification in the community.

    PubMed

    Santana, Daniel Bia; Zócalo, Yanina A; Armentano, Ricardo L

    2012-03-01

    New strategies are urgently needed to identify subjects at increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) development or complications. A National Public University Center (CUiiDARTE) was created in Uruguay, based on six main pillars: 1) integration of experts in different disciplines and creation of multidisciplinary teams, 2) incidence in public and professional education programs to give training in the use of new technologies and to shift the focus from ACVD treatment to disease prevention, 3) implementation of free vascular studies in the community (distributed rather than centralized healthcare), 4) innovation and application of e-Health and noninvasive technology and approaches, 5) design and development of a biomedical approach to determine the target population and patient workflow, and 6) improvement in individual risk estimation and differentiation between aging and ACVD-related arterial changes using population-based epidemiological and statistical patient-specific models. This work describes main features of CUiiDARTE project implementation, the scientific and technological steps and innovations done for individual risk stratification, and sub-clinical ACVD diagnosis. © 2012 IEEE

  11. Risk stratification for large artery or chronic coronary artery disease-related ischemic stroke in octogenarians undergoing exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Katsikis, Athanasios; Theodorakos, Athanasios; Drosatos, Alexandros; Konstantinou, Konstantinos; Papaioannou, Spyridon; Koutelou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    To test, if in octogenarians, treadmill exercise with myocardial perfusion imaging (exercise-MPI) can risk stratify for large artery or chronic CAD-related ischemic stroke (LACCIS). Exercise-MPI-related data of 237 octogenarians (55% prior MI or revascularization) without previous stroke were registered and prospective follow-up was performed to document LACCIS. LACCIS was defined as acute onset of neurological symptoms with CT/MRI findings of non-lacunar-type infarcts in the absence of atrial fibrillation or intracardiac embolic sources. After 7.3 years, 10 LACCIS were documented. SSS [HR 1.08 (1.02-1.13 95% CIs), SDS [HR 1.1 (1.04-1.16 95% CIs)], and non-sustained VT or transient AV block during exercise [HR 3.9 (1.7-9.0 95% CIs)] were predictors of LACCIS (P < .01 for all). A SSS threshold of 16 had 81% specificity for identification of future LACCIS and risk groups formed according to this cut-off had significantly different LACCIS-free survival (P = .015). Exercise-MPI in octogenarians can provide risk stratification markers for LACCIS.

  12. The Usefulness of the MEESSI Score for Risk Stratification of Patients With Acute Heart Failure at the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Miró, Òscar; Rosselló, Xavier; Gil, Víctor; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Pere; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; López-Grima, María Luisa; Gil, Cristina; Lucas Imbernón, Francisco Javier; Garrido, José Manuel; Pérez-Durá, María José; López-Díez, María Pilar; Richard, Fernando; Bueno, Héctor; Pocock, Stuart J

    2018-06-11

    The MEESSI scale stratifies acute heart failure (AHF) patients at the emergency department (ED) according to the 30-day mortality risk. We validated the MEESSI risk score in a new cohort of Spanish patients to assess its accuracy in stratifying patients by risk and to compare its performance in different settings. We included consecutive patients diagnosed with AHF in 30 EDs during January and February 2016. The MEESSI score was calculated for each patient. The c-statistic measured the discriminatory capacity to predict 30-day mortality of the full MEESSI model and secondary models. Further comparisons were made among subgroups of patients from university and community hospitals, EDs with high-, medium- or low-activity and EDs that recruited or not patients in the original MEESSI derivation cohort. We analyzed 4711 patients (university/community hospitals: 3811/900; high-/medium-/low-activity EDs: 2695/1479/537; EDs participating/not participating in the previous MEESSI derivation study: 3892/819). The distribution of patients according to the MEESSI risk categories was: 1673 (35.5%) low risk, 2023 (42.9%) intermediate risk, 530 (11.3%) high risk and 485 (10.3%) very high risk, with 30-day mortality of 2.0%, 7.8%, 17.9%, and 41.4%, respectively. The c-statistic for the full model was 0.810 (95%CI, 0.790-0.830), ranging from 0.731 to 0.785 for the subsequent secondary models. The discriminatory capacity of the MEESSI risk score was similar among subgroups of hospital type, ED activity, and original recruiter EDs. The MEESSI risk score successfully stratifies AHF patients at the ED according to the 30-day mortality risk, potentially helping clinicians in the decision-making process for hospitalizing patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Combined use of endometrial sample and magnetic resonance imaging in the preoperative risk-stratification of endometrial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Luomaranta, Anna; Bützow, Ralf; Pauna, Arja-Riitta; Leminen, Arto; Loukovaara, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    To compare two treatment strategies in women undergoing surgery for endometrial carcinoma. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care center. 1166 patients. Uterine biopsy/curettage was obtained in 1140 women, of whom 229 also had pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We compared two strategies: (i) routine pelvic lymphadenectomy and (ii) selective pelvic lymphadenectomy for women with high-risk carcinomas as determined from preoperative histology and MRI. High-risk carcinomas included grade 1-2 endometrioid carcinomas with ≥50% myometrial invasion, grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas, and nonendometrioid carcinomas. Others were considered low-risk carcinomas. Diagnostic indices, treatment algorithms. Of the women who underwent lymphadenectomy, positive pelvic nodes were found in 2.3% of low-risk carcinomas and 18.3% of high-risk carcinomas. The combination of preoperative histology and MRI detected high-risk carcinomas with a sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 75.0%, a positive predictive value of 74.4%, and a negative predictive value of 86.1%. Area under curve was 0.804. In the routine lymphadenectomy algorithm, 54.1% of lymphadenectomies were performed for low-risk carcinomas. In the selective lymphadenectomy algorithm, 14.3% of women with high-risk carcinomas did not receive lymphadenectomy. Missed positive pelvic nodes were estimated to occur in 2.1% of patients in the selective strategy. Similarly, the estimated risk for isolated para-aortic metastasis was 2.1%, regardless of treatment strategy. The combination of preoperative histology and MRI is moderately sensitive and specific in detecting high-risk endometrial carcinomas. The clinical utility of the method is hampered by the relatively high proportion of high-risk cases that remain unrecognized preoperatively. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Utility of both Carotid Intima-media Thickness and Endothelial Function for Cardiovascular Risk Stratification in Patients with Angina-like Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Svedlund, Sara; Aoki, Tatsuo; Guddeti, Raviteja R.; Kwon, Taek-Geun; Cilluffo, Rebecca; Widmer, R.Jay.; Nelson, Rebecca E.; Lennon, Ryan J.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Gao, Sinsia; Ganz, Peter; Gan, Li-Ming; Lerman, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is used widely to assess cardiovascular risk in patients with chest pain. The utility of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and endothelial function as assessed by reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry index (RHI) in risk stratifying patients with angina-like symptom needs to be defined. We investigated whether addition of CIMT and RHI to Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCVRS) and MPS improves comprehensive cardiovascular risk prediction in patients presenting with angina-like symptom. Methods We enrolled 343 consecutive patients with angina-like symptom suspected of having stable angina. MPS, CIMT, and RHI were performed and patients were followed for cardiovascular events for a median of 5.3 years (range 4.4-6.2). Patients were stratified by FCVRS and MPS. Results During the follow-up, 57 patients (16.6%) had cardiovascular events. Among patients without perfusion defect, low RHI was significantly associated with cardiovascular events in the intermediate and high FCVRS groups (Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of RHI≤2.11 was 6.99 [1.34-128] in the intermediate FCVRS group and 6.08 [1.08-114] in the high FCVRS group). Furthermore, although MPS did not predict, only RHI predicted hard cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) independent from FCVRS, and adding RHI to FCVRS improved net reclassification index (20.9%, 95% CI 0.8-41.1, p=0.04). Especially, RHI was significantly associated with hard cardiovascular events in the high FCVRS group (HR [95% CI] of RHI≤1.93 was 5.66 [1.54-36.4], p=0.007). Conclusions Peripheral endothelial function may improve discrimination in identifying at-risk patients for future cardiovascular events when added to FCVRS-MPS-based risk stratification. PMID:25918056

  15. Inhibitor Risk Stratification and Individualized Treatment in Patients With Nonsevere Hemophilia A: A Single-Institution Practice Audit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haowei Linda; Chan, Stella; Yenson, Paul; Jackson, Shannon

    2018-03-01

    Inhibitor risk in nonsevere hemophilia A increases with cumulative factor VIII (FVIII) exposure days and high-risk mutations. A standardized approach to minimize inhibitor risk is warranted. Following establishment of a systematic approach to reduce inhibitor risk in nonsevere hemophilia, we evaluated the uptake of these strategies into clinical practice. All adult males with nonsevere hemophilia A followed by British Columbia Adult Hemophilia Program from 2004 to 2016 were included in this retrospective audit. Quality-of-care indicators on inhibitor prevention were examined. Of 108 patients, 18 patients had high-risk FVIII mutations for inhibitor development. Rates of FVIII genotyping and 1-deamino-8-d-arginine-vasopressin (DDAVP) testing in mild patients without contraindications were both over 90%, although DDAVP was used for surgical prophylaxis in only 70% of procedures. Inhibitor testing and clinic visits occurred at a median interval of 22 months. Over 80% of patients with high-risk mutations had documentation and education on their inhibitor risk. Our practice audit demonstrated a high level of recognition and patient education of individual inhibitor risk. Impact of our standardized approach on the incidence of inhibitor development is yet to be determined.

  16. Risk stratification in cervical cancer screening by complete screening history: Applying bioinformatics to a general screening population.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Nicholas; Sundström, Karin; Nygård, Jan F; Dillner, Joakim; Komorowski, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Women screened for cervical cancer in Sweden are currently treated under a one-size-fits-all programme, which has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer but does not use all of the participants' available medical information. This study aimed to use women's complete cervical screening histories to identify diagnostic patterns that may indicate an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. A nationwide case-control study was performed where cervical cancer screening data from 125,476 women with a maximum follow-up of 10 years were evaluated for patterns of SNOMED diagnoses. The cancer development risk was estimated for a number of different screening history patterns and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR), with a history of 4 benign cervical tests as reference, using logistic regression. The overall performance of the model was moderate (64% accuracy, 71% area under curve) with 61-62% of the study population showing no specific patterns associated with risk. However, predictions for high-risk groups as defined by screening history patterns were highly discriminatory with ORs ranging from 8 to 36. The model for computing risk performed consistently across different screening history lengths, and several patterns predicted cancer outcomes. The results show the presence of risk-increasing and risk-decreasing factors in the screening history. Thus it is feasible to identify subgroups based on their complete screening histories. Several high-risk subgroups identified might benefit from an increased screening density. Some low-risk subgroups identified could likely have a moderately reduced screening density without additional risk. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Prognostic factors for risk stratification of adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yee Mei; Lang, Dora; Lockwood, Craig

    Increasing numbers of studies identify new prognostic factors for categorising chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients into high- or low-risk groups for adverse outcomes. These groupings are used to tailor therapy according to level of risk. However many emerging factors with prognostic significance remain controversial, being based on single studies only. A systematic review was conducted to determine the strength of association of all identified factors associated with the outcomes of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia patients. The participants included were adults of 15 years old and above, with a cancer diagnosis and who underwent cancer treatment.The review focused on clinical factors and their association with the outcomes of cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia at presentation of fever.All quantitative studies published in English which investigated clinical factors for risk stratification of adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia were considered.The primary outcome of interest was to identify the clinical factors for risk stratification of adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia. Electronic databases searched from their respective inception date up to December 2011 include MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, Science-Direct, Scopus and Mednar. The quality of the included studies was subjected to assessment by two independent reviewers. The standardised critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) was used to assess the following criteria: representativeness of study population; clearly defined prognostic factors and outcomes; whether potential confounders were addressed and appropriate statistical analysis was undertaken for the study design. Data extraction was performed using a modified version of

  18. Performance of the 2015 International Task Force Consensus Statement Risk Stratification Algorithm for Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Orgeron, Gabriela M; Te Riele, Anneline; Tichnell, Crystal; Wang, Weijia; Murray, Brittney; Bhonsale, Aditya; Judge, Daniel P; Kamel, Ihab R; Zimmerman, Stephan L; Tandri, Harikrishna; Calkins, Hugh; James, Cynthia A

    2018-02-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias are a feared complication of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. In 2015, an International Task Force Consensus Statement proposed a risk stratification algorithm for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. To evaluate performance of the algorithm, 365 arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy patients were classified as having a Class I, IIa, IIb, or III indication per the algorithm at baseline. Survival free from sustained ventricular arrhythmia (VT/VF) in follow-up was the primary outcome. Incidence of ventricular fibrillation/flutter cycle length <240 ms was also assessed. Two hundred twenty-four (61%) patients had a Class I implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indication; 80 (22%), Class IIa; 54 (15%), Class IIb; and 7 (2%), Class III. During a median 4.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-8.4)-year follow-up, 190 (52%) patients had VT/VF and 60 (16%) had ventricular fibrillation/flutter. Although the algorithm appropriately differentiated risk of VT/VF, incidence of VT/VF was underestimated (observed versus expected: 29.6 [95% confidence interval, 25.2-34.0] versus >10%/year Class I; 15.5 [confidence interval 11.1-21.6] versus 1% to 10%/year Class IIa). In addition, the algorithm did not differentiate survival free from ventricular fibrillation/flutter between Class I and IIa patients ( P =0.97) or for VT/VF in Class I and IIa primary prevention patients ( P =0.22). Adding Holter results (<1000 premature ventricular contractions/24 hours) to International Task Force Consensus classification differentiated risks. While the algorithm differentiates arrhythmic risk well overall, it did not distinguish ventricular fibrillation/flutter risks of patients with Class I and IIa implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indications. Limited differentiation was seen for primary prevention cases. As these are vital uncertainties in clinical decision

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification and Statin Eligibility Based on the Brazilian vs. North American Guidelines on Blood Cholesterol Management

    PubMed Central

    Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Laurinavicius, Antonio Gabriele; Valente, Viviane A.; Conceição, Raquel D.; Santos, Raul D.; Bittencourt, Marcio S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The best way to select individuals for lipid-lowering treatment in the population is controversial. Objective: In healthy individuals in primary prevention: to assess the relationship between cardiovascular risk categorized according to the V Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and the risk calculated by the pooled cohort equations (PCE); to compare the proportion of individuals eligible for statins, according to different criteria. Methods: In individuals aged 40-75 years consecutively submitted to routine health assessment at one single center, four criteria of eligibility for statin were defined: BR-1, BR-2 (LDL-c above or at least 30 mg/dL above the goal recommended by the Brazilian Guideline, respectively), USA-1 and USA-2 (10-year risk estimated by the PCE ≥ 5.0% or ≥ 7.5%, respectively). Results: The final sample consisted of 13,947 individuals (48 ± 6 years, 71% men). Most individuals at intermediate or high risk based on the V Brazilian Guideline had a low risk calculated by the PCE, and more than 70% of those who were considered at high risk had this categorization because of the presence of aggravating factors. Among women, 24%, 17%, 4% and 2% were eligible for statin use according to the BR-1, BR-2, USA-1 and USA-2 criteria, respectively (p < 0.01). The respective figures for men were 75%, 58%, 31% and 17% (p < 0.01). Eighty-five percent of women and 60% of men who were eligible for statin based on the BR-1 criterion would not be candidates for statin based on the USA-1 criterion. Conclusions: As compared to the North American Guideline, the V Brazilian Guideline considers a substantially higher proportion of the population as eligible for statin use in primary prevention. This results from discrepancies between the risk stratified by the Brazilian Guideline and that calculated by the PCE, particularly because of the risk reclassification based on aggravating factors. PMID:28699974

  20. Risk Stratification of Patients With Current Generation Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices Being Bridged to Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guha, Ashrith; Nguyen, Duc; Cruz-Solbes, Ana S; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Schutt, Robert C; Bhimaraj, Arvind; Trachtenberg, Barry H; Park, Myung H; Graviss, Edward A; Gaber, Osama; Suarez, Erik; Montane, Eva; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; Estep, Jerry D

    Patients bridged to transplant (BTT) with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) have increased in the past decade. Decision support tools for these patients are limited. We developed a risk score to estimate prognosis and guide decision-making. We included heart transplant recipients bridged with CF-LVADs from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database and divided them into development (2,522 patients) and validation cohorts (1,681 patients). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were performed. Variables that independently predicted outcomes (age, African American race, recipient body mass index [BMI], intravenous [IV] antibiotic use, pretransplant dialysis, and total bilirubin) were assigned weight using linear transformation, and risk scores were derived. Patients were grouped by predicted posttransplant mortality: low risk (≤ 38 points), medium risk (38-41 points), and high risk (≥ 42 points). We performed Cox proportional hazards analysis on wait-listed CF-LVAD patients who were not transplanted. Score significantly discriminated survival among the groups in the development cohort (6.7, 12.9, 20.7; p = 0.001), validation cohort (6.4, 10.1, 13.6; p < 0.001), and ambulatory cohort (6.4, 11.5, 17.2; p < 0.001). We derived a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) BTT risk score that effectively identifies CF-LVAD patients who are at higher risk for worse outcomes after heart transplant. This score may help physicians weigh the risks of transplantation in patients with CF-LVAD.

  1. The use of adenosine and adenosine triphosphate testing in the diagnosis, risk stratification and management of patients with syncope: current evidence and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Fragakis, Nikolaos; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Saviano, Massimo; Vassilikos, Vassilios; Pappone, Carlo

    2015-03-15

    Syncope is a significant source of cardiovascular-related morbidity yet the etiology is frequently obscure and the identification of patients at highest risk is challenging. Adenosine (AD) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) administrations have been suggested as potentially useful non-invasive tools in the diagnostic workup of patients with neurally-mediated or bradycardia-related syncope. It has been postulated that both compounds by modulating the autonomic innervation in the heart and exerting negative chronotropic and dromotropic effects in the conduction system, may unmask the mechanism of syncope. However, the clinical implications derived from the efficacy of both tests in the investigation of syncope remain unclear mainly due to inconclusive and occasionally contradictory results of published studies. This review article summarizes recent and past information in the use of ATP and AD in the investigation of syncope with emphasis on clinical trials. We present the current level of evidence for the use of these agents in clinical practice, identify areas where further research is warranted and highlight the future perspectives of these agents as complements to an accurate risk-stratification of patients with syncope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep apnea in total joint arthroplasty patients and the role for cardiac biomarkers for risk stratification: an exploration of feasibility

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, M Melanie; Bhatt, Nitin Y; Kneeland-Szanto, Elizabeth; Keenan, Brendan T; Pechar, Joanne; Stearns, Branden; Elkassabany, Nabil M; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Pack, Allan I; Gurubhagavatula, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and is a major risk factor for postoperative cardiovascular complications and death. Recognizing this, the American Society of Anesthesiologists urges clinicians to implement special considerations in the perioperative care of OSA patients. However, as the volume of patients presenting for TJA increases, resources to implement these recommendations are limited. This necessitates mechanisms to efficiently risk stratify patients having OSA who may be susceptible to post-TJA cardiovascular complications. We explore the role of perioperative measurement of cardiac troponins (cTns) and brain natriuretic peptides (BNPs) in helping determine which OSA patients are at increased risk for post-TJA cardiovascular-related morbidity. PMID:26925513

  3. Transient ischemic attack: reviewing the evolution of the definition, diagnosis, risk stratification, and management for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Siket, Matthew S; Edlow, Jonathan A

    2012-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an episode of reversible neurologic deficit caused by temporary focal central nervous system hypoperfusion. TIA is a medical emergency. Because patients with TIA in the emergency department (ED) have a high risk for stroke within the next 48 hours, it is imperative for the clinician to recognize this golden opportunity to prevent a disabling stroke. This article reviews our conceptual understanding of TIA, its definition, diagnosis, ways to stratify stroke risk, the acute management and disposition in the ED, and the potential future role of diagnostic biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Risk Stratification to Predict Local-Regional Failures in Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder After Radical Cystectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LF) following radical cystectomy (RC) plus pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) with or without chemotherapy for invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma are more common than previously reported. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LF but currently has no defined role because of previously reported morbidity. Modern techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest in RT. We assessed the risk of LF and determined those factors that predict recurrence to facilitate patient selection for future adjuvant RT trials. Methods and Materials: From 1990-2008, 442 patients with urothelial bladder carcinoma at University of Pennsylvania were prospectively followed aftermore » RC plus PLND with or without chemotherapy with routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). One hundred thirty (29%) patients received chemotherapy. LF was any pelvic failure detected before or within 3 months of distant failure. Competing risk analyses identified factors predicting increased LF risk. Results: On univariate analysis, pathologic stage {>=}pT3, <10 nodes removed, positive margins, positive nodes, hydronephrosis, lymphovascular invasion, and mixed histology significantly predicted LF; node density was marginally predictive, but use of chemotherapy, number of positive nodes, type of surgical diversion, age, gender, race, smoking history, and body mass index were not. On multivariate analysis, only stage {>=}pT3 and <10 nodes removed were significant independent LF predictors with hazard ratios of 3.17 and 2.37, respectively (P<.01). Analysis identified 3 patient subgroups with significantly different LF risks: low-risk ({<=}pT2), intermediate-risk ({>=}pT3 and {>=}10 nodes removed), and high-risk ({>=}pT3 and <10 nodes) with 5-year LF rates of 8%, 23%, and 42%, respectively (P<.01). Conclusions: This series using routine CT and MRI surveillance to detect LF confirms that such failures are relatively

  5. Risk stratification with cervical length and fetal fibronectin in women with threatened preterm labor before 34 weeks and not delivering within 7 days.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Frederik J R; Bruijn, Merel M C; Vis, Jolande Y; Wilms, Femke F; Oudijk, Martijn A; Porath, Martina M; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Bax, Caroline J; Cornette, Jérôme M J; Nij Bijvanck, Bas W A; Franssen, Maureen T M; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A; Kok, Marjolein; Grobman, William A; Van Der Post, Joris A M; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Opmeer, Brent C; Mol, Ben Willem J; Schuit, Ewoud; Van Baaren, Gert-Jan

    2015-07-01

    To stratify the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery using cervical length (CL) and fetal fibronectin (fFN) in women with threatened preterm labor who remained pregnant after 7 days. Prospective observational study. Nationwide cohort of women with threatened preterm labor from the Netherlands. Women with threatened preterm labor between 24 and 34 weeks with a valid CL and fFN measurement and remaining pregnant 7 days after admission. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate cumulative percentages and hazard ratios (HR) for spontaneous delivery. Spontaneous delivery between 7 and 14 days after initial presentation and spontaneous preterm delivery before 34 weeks. The risk of delivery between 7 and 14 days was significantly increased for women with a CL < 15 mm or a CL ≥15 to <30 mm and a positive fFN, compared with women with a CL ≥30 mm: HR 22.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6-191] and 14 (95% CI 1.8-118), respectively. For spontaneous preterm delivery before 34 weeks the risk was increased for women with a CL < 15 mm [HR 6.3 (95% CI 2.6-15)] or with a CL ≥15 to <30 mm with either positive fFN [HR 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.7)] or negative fFN [HR 3.0 (95% CI 1.2-7.1)] compared with women with a CL ≥ 30 mm. In women remaining pregnant 7 days after threatened preterm labor, CL and fFN results can be used in risk stratification for spontaneous delivery. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: Approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities

    PubMed Central

    Kones, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the

  7. Recent advances in the management of chronic stable angina I: approach to the patient, diagnosis, pathophysiology, risk stratification, and gender disparities.

    PubMed

    Kones, Richard

    2010-08-09

    The potential importance of both prevention and personal responsibility in controlling heart disease, the leading cause of death in the USA and elsewhere, has attracted renewed attention. Coronary artery disease is preventable, using relatively simple and inexpensive lifestyle changes. The inexorable rise in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, often in the risk cluster known as the metabolic syndrome, drives the ever-increasing incidence of heart disease. Population-wide improvements in personal health habits appear to be a fundamental, evidence based public health measure, yet numerous barriers prevent implementation. A common symptom in patients with coronary artery disease, classical angina refers to the typical chest pressure or discomfort that results when myocardial oxygen demand rises and coronary blood flow is reduced by fixed, atherosclerotic, obstructive lesions. Different forms of angina and diagnosis, with a short description of the significance of pain and silent ischemia, are discussed in this review. The well accepted concept of myocardial oxygen imbalance in the genesis of angina is presented with new data about clinical pathology of stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. The roles of stress electrocardiography and stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic imaging are reviewed, along with the information these tests provide about risk and prognosis. Finally, the current status of gender disparities in heart disease is summarized. Enhanced risk stratification and identification of patients in whom procedures will meaningfully change management is an ongoing quest. Current guidelines emphasize efficient triage of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Many experts believe the predictive value of current decision protocols for coronary artery disease still needs improvement in order to optimize outcomes, yet avoid unnecessary coronary angiograms and radiation exposure. Coronary angiography remains the

  8. A Clinical Framework to Facilitate Risk Stratification When Considering an Active Surveillance Alternative to Immediate Biopsy and Surgery in Papillary Microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brito, Juan P; Ito, Yasuhiro; Miyauchi, Akira; Tuttle, R Michael

    2016-01-01

    The 2015 American Thyroid Association thyroid cancer management guidelines endorse an active surveillance management approach as an alternative to immediate biopsy and surgery in subcentimeter thyroid nodules with highly suspicious ultrasonographic characteristics and in cytologically confirmed very low risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the guidelines provide no specific recommendations with regard to the optimal selection of patients for an active surveillance management approach. This article describes a risk-stratified clinical decision-making framework that was developed by the thyroid cancer disease management team at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center as the lessons learned from Kuma Hospital in Japan were applied to a cohort of patients with probable or proven papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) who were being evaluated for an active surveillance management approach in the United States. A risk-stratified approach to the evaluation of patients with probable or proven PMC being considered for an active surveillance management approach requires an evaluation of three interrelated but distinct domains: (i) tumor/neck ultrasound characteristics (e.g., size of the primary tumor, the location of the tumor within the thyroid gland); (ii) patient characteristics (e.g., age, comorbidities, willingness to accept observation); and (iii) medical team characteristics (e.g., availability and experience of the multidisciplinary team). Based on an analysis of the critical factors within each of these domains, patients with probable or proven PTC can then be classified as ideal, appropriate, or inappropriate candidates for active surveillance. Risk stratification utilizing the proposed decision-making framework will improve the ability of clinicians to recognize individual patients with proven or probable PMC who are most likely to benefit from an active surveillance management option while at the same time identifying patients with proven or probable PMC that

  9. Comparison of EHR-based diagnosis documentation locations to a gold standard for risk stratification in patients with multiple chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shelby; Wagner, Jesse; Lupulescu-Mann, Nicoleta; Ramsey, Katrina; Cohen, Aaron; Graven, Peter; Weiskopf, Nicole G; Dorr, David A

    2017-08-02

    To measure variation among four different Electronic Health Record (EHR) system documentation locations versus 'gold standard' manual chart review for risk stratification in patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Adults seen in primary care with EHR evidence of at least one of 13 conditions were included. EHRs were manually reviewed to determine presence of active diagnoses, and risk scores were calculated using three different methodologies and five EHR documentation locations. Claims data were used to assess cost and utilization for the following year. Descriptive and diagnostic statistics were calculated for each EHR location. Criterion validity testing compared the gold standard verified diagnoses versus other EHR locations and risk scores in predicting future cost and utilization. Nine hundred patients had 2,179 probable diagnoses. About 70% of the diagnoses from the EHR were verified by gold standard. For a subset of patients having baseline and prediction year data (n=750), modeling showed that the gold standard was the best predictor of outcomes on average for a subset of patients that had these data. However, combining all data sources together had nearly equivalent performance for prediction as the gold standard. EHR data locations were inaccurate 30% of the time, leading to improvement in overall modeling from a gold standard from chart review for individual diagnoses. However, the impact on identification of the highest risk patients was minor, and combining data from different EHR locations was equivalent to gold standard performance. The reviewer's ability to identify a diagnosis as correct was influenced by a variety of factors, including completeness, temporality, and perceived accuracy of chart data.

  10. Risk stratification for malignant progression in Barrett’s esophagus: Gender, age, duration and year of surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Gatenby, Piers; Bhattacharjee, Santanu; Wall, Christine; Caygill, Christine; Watson, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify risk based upon segment length, diagnostic histological findings, patient age and year of surveillance, duration of surveillance and gender. METHODS Patients registered with the United Kingdom Barrett’s Oesophagus Registry from 9 United Kingdom centers were included. The outcome measures were (1) development of all grades of dysplasia; (2) development of high-grade of dysplasia or adenocarcinoma; and (3) development of adenocarcinoma. Prevalent cases and subjects with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. The covariates examined were segment length, previous biopsy findings, age at surveillance, duration of surveillance, year of surveillance and gender. RESULTS One thousand and one hundred thirty six patients were included (total 6474 patient-years). Fifty-four patients developed adenocarcinoma (0.83% per annum), 70 developed high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma (1.1% per annum) and 190 developed any grade of dysplasia (3.5% per annum). High grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma increased with age and duration of surveillance. The risk of low-grade dysplasia development was not dependent on age at surveillance. Segment length and previous biopsy findings were also significant factors for development of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION The risk of development of low-grade dysplasia is independent of age at surveillance, but high-grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma were more commonly found at older age. Segment length and previous biopsy findings are also markers of risk. This study did not demonstrate stabilisation of the metaplastic segment with prolonged surveillance. PMID:28082811

  11. Which is the optimal risk stratification system for surgically treated localized primary GIST? Comparison of three contemporary prognostic criteria in 171 tumors and a proposal for a modified Armed Forces Institute of Pathology risk criteria.

    PubMed

    Goh, Brian K P; Chow, Pierce K H; Yap, Wai-Ming; Kesavan, Sittampalam M; Song, In-Chin; Paul, Pradeep G; Ooi, Boon-Swee; Chung, Yaw-Fui A; Wong, Wai-Keong

    2008-08-01

    This study aims to validate and compare the performance of the National Institute of Health (NIH) criteria, Huang modified NIH criteria, and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) risk criteria for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in a large series of localized primary GISTs surgically treated at a single institution to determine the ideal risk stratification system for GIST. The clinicopathological features of 171 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection for GISTs were retrospectively reviewed. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the prognostic value of the three risk criteria by analyzing the discriminatory ability linear trend, homogeneity, monotonicity of gradients, and Akaike information criteria. The median actuarial recurrence-free survival (RFS) for all 171 patients was 70%. On multivariate analyses, size >10 cm, mitotic count >5/50 high-power field, tumor necrosis, and serosal involvement were independent prognostic factors of RFS. All three risk criteria demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the recurrence rate, median actuarial RFS, actuarial 5-year RFS, and tumor-specific death across the different stages. Comparison of the various risk-stratification systems demonstrated that our proposed modified AFIP criteria had the best independent predictive value of RFS when compared with the other systems. The NIH, modified NIH, and AFIP criteria are useful in the prognostication of GIST, and the AFIP risk criteria provided the best prognostication among the three systems for primary localized GIST. However, remarkable prognostic heterogeneity exists in the AFIP high-risk category, and with our proposed modification, this system provides the most accurate prognostic information.

  12. Risk stratification in patients with advanced heart failure requiring biventricular assist device support as a bridge to cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Richard K; Deng, Mario C; Tseng, Chi-hong; Shemin, Richard J; Kubak, Bernard M; MacLellan, W Robb

    2012-08-01

    Prior studies have identified risk factors for survival in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) requiring left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. However, patients with biventricular HF may represent a unique cohort. We retrospectively evaluated a consecutive cohort of 113 adult, end-stage HF patients at University of California Los Angeles Medical Center who required BIVAD support between 2000 and 2009. Survival to transplant was 66.4%, with 1-year actuarial survival of 62.8%. All patients were Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) Level 1 or 2 and received Thoratec (Pleasanton, CA) paracorporeal BIVAD as a bridge to transplant. Univariate analyses showed dialysis use, ventilator use, extracorporal membrane oxygenation use, low cardiac output, preserved LV ejection fraction (restrictive physiology), normal-to-high sodium, low platelet count, low total cholesterol, low high-density and high-density lipoprotein, low albumin, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase were associated with increased risk of death. We generated a scoring system for survival to transplant. Our final model, with age, sex, dialysis, cholesterol, ventilator, and albumin, gave a C-statistic of 0.870. A simplified system preserved a C-statistic of 0.844. Patients were divided into high-risk or highest-risk groups (median respective survival, 367 and 17 days), with strong discrimination between groups for death. We have generated a scoring system that offers high prognostic ability for patients requiring BIVAD support and hope that it may assist in clinical decision making. Further studies are needed to prospectively validate our scoring system. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  14. The Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System: risk stratification based on wound, ischemia, and foot infection (WIfI).

    PubMed

    Mills, Joseph L; Conte, Michael S; Armstrong, David G; Pomposelli, Frank B; Schanzer, Andres; Sidawy, Anton N; Andros, George

    2014-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia, first defined in 1982, was intended to delineate a subgroup of patients with a threatened lower extremity primarily because of chronic ischemia. It was the intent of the original authors that patients with diabetes be excluded or analyzed separately. The Fontaine and Rutherford Systems have been used to classify risk of amputation and likelihood of benefit from revascularization by subcategorizing patients into two groups: ischemic rest pain and tissue loss. Due to demographic shifts over the last 40 years, especially a dramatic rise in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and rapidly expanding techniques of revascularization, it has become increasingly difficult to perform meaningful outcomes analysis for patients with threatened limbs using these existing classification systems. Particularly in patients with diabetes, limb threat is part of a broad disease spectrum. Perfusion is only one determinant of outcome; wound extent and the presence and severity of infection also greatly impact the threat to a limb. Therefore, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Guidelines Committee undertook the task of creating a new classification of the threatened lower extremity that reflects these important considerations. We term this new framework, the Society for Vascular Surgery Lower Extremity Threatened Limb Classification System. Risk stratification is based on three major factors that impact amputation risk and clinical management: Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI). The implementation of this classification system is intended to permit more meaningful analysis of outcomes for various forms of therapy in this challenging, but heterogeneous population. Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. ANMCO/SIC/SICI-GISE/SICCH Executive Summary of Consensus Document on Risk Stratification in elderly patients with aortic stenosis before surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Gulizia, Michele Massimo; Baldasseroni, Samuele; Bedogni, Francesco; Cioffi, Giovanni; Indolfi, Ciro; Romeo, Francesco; Murrone, Adriano; Musumeci, Francesco; Parolari, Alessandro; Patanè, Leonardo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Mongiardo, Annalisa; Spaccarotella, Carmen; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aortic stenosis is one of the most frequent valvular diseases in developed countries, and its impact on public health resources and assistance is increasing. A substantial proportion of elderly people with severe aortic stenosis is not eligible to surgery because of the advanced age, frailty, and multiple co-morbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) enables the treatment of very elderly patients at high or prohibitive surgical risk considered ineligible for surgery and with an acceptable life expectancy. However, a significant percentage of patients die or show no improvement in quality of life (QOL) in the follow-up. In the decision-making process, it is important to determine: (i) whether and how much frailty of the patient influences the risk of procedures; (ii) how the QOL and the individual patient’s survival are influenced by aortic valve disease or from other associated conditions; and (iii) whether a geriatric specialist intervention to evaluate and correct frailty or other diseases with their potential or already manifest disabilities can improve the outcome of surgery or TAVI. Consequently, in addition to risk stratification with conventional tools, a number of factors including multi-morbidity, disability, frailty, and cognitive function should be considered, in order to assess the expected benefit of both surgery and TAVI. The pre-operative optimization through a multidisciplinary approach with a Heart Team can counteract the multiple damage (cardiac, neurological, muscular, respiratory, and kidney) that can potentially aggravate the reduced physiological reserves characteristic of frailty. The systematic application in clinical practice of multidimensional assessment instruments of frailty and cognitive function in the screening and the adoption of specific care pathways should facilitate this task. PMID:28751850

  16. Distant Metastasis Risk Stratification for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyubo; Chie, Eui Kyu, E-mail: ekchie93@snu.ac.kr; Jang, Jin-Young

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors predicting distant metastasis in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1995 and August 2006, 166 patients with EHBD cancer underwent resection with curative intent, followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. There were 120 males and 46 females, and median age was 61 years (range, 34-86). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose, 40 Gy; range, 34-56 Gy). A total of 157 patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and fluoropyrimidine-based maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 127 patients. Median follow-up durationmore » was 29 months. Results: The treatment failed for 97 patients, and the major pattern of failure was distant metastasis (76 patients, 78.4%). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate was 49.4%. The most common site of distant failure was the liver (n = 36). On multivariate analysis, hilar tumor, tumor size {>=}2 cm, involved lymph node, and poorly differentiated tumor were associated with inferior distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0348, 0.0754, 0.0009, and 0.0078, respectively), whereas T stage was not (p = 0.8081). When patients were divided into four groups based on these risk factors, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors were 86.4%, 59.9%, 32.5%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Despite maintenance chemotherapy, distant metastasis was the major pattern of failure in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for EHBD cancer after resection with curative intent. Intensified chemotherapy is warranted to improve the treatment outcome, especially in those with multiple risk factors.« less

  17. Risk Stratification by Self-Measured Home Blood Pressure across Categories of Conventional Blood Pressure: A Participant-Level Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Hozawa, Atsushi; Boggia, José; Aparicio, Lucas S.; Hara, Azusa; Johansson, Jouni K.; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tzourio, Christophe; Stergiou, George S.; Sandoya, Edgardo; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M.; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 reported that hypertension is worldwide the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, causing 9.4 million deaths annually. We examined to what extent self-measurement of home blood pressure (HBP) refines risk stratification across increasing categories of conventional blood pressure (CBP). Methods and Findings This meta-analysis included 5,008 individuals randomly recruited from five populations (56.6% women; mean age, 57.1 y). All were not treated with antihypertensive drugs. In multivariable analyses, hazard ratios (HRs) associated with 10-mm Hg increases in systolic HBP were computed across CBP categories, using the following systolic/diastolic CBP thresholds (in mm Hg): optimal, <120/<80; normal, 120–129/80–84; high-normal, 130–139/85–89; mild hypertension, 140–159/90–99; and severe hypertension, ≥160/≥100. Over 8.3 y, 522 participants died, and 414, 225, and 194 had cardiovascular, cardiac, and cerebrovascular events, respectively. In participants with optimal or normal CBP, HRs for a composite cardiovascular end point associated with a 10-mm Hg higher systolic HBP were 1.28 (1.01–1.62) and 1.22 (1.00–1.49), respectively. At high-normal CBP and in mild hypertension, the HRs were 1.24 (1.03–1.49) and 1.20 (1.06–1.37), respectively, for all cardiovascular events and 1.33 (1.07–1.65) and 1.30 (1.09–1.56), respectively, for stroke. In severe hypertension, the HRs were not significant (p≥0.20). Among people with optimal, normal, and high-normal CBP, 67 (5.0%), 187 (18.4%), and 315 (30.3%), respectively, had masked hypertension (HBP≥130 mm Hg systolic or ≥85 mm Hg diastolic). Compared to true optimal CBP, masked hypertension was associated with a 2.3-fold (1.5–3.5) higher cardiovascular risk. A limitation was few data from low- and middle-income countries. Conclusions HBP substantially refines risk stratification at CBP levels assumed to carry no or only mildly increased

  18. The incremental value of troponin biomarkers in risk stratification of acute coronary syndromes: is the relationship multiplicative?

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Nathan, Sandeep; Vassallo, Patricia; Calvin, James E

    2009-05-20

    To emphasize the importance of troponin in the context of a new score for risk stratifying acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients. Although troponins have powerful prognostic value, current ACS scores do not fully capitalize this prognostic ability. Here, we weigh troponin status in a multiplicative manner to develop the TRACS score from previously published Rush score risk factors (RRF). 2,866 ACS patients (46.7% troponin positive) from 9 centers comprising the TRACS registry, were randomly split into derivation (n=1,422) and validation (n=1,444) cohorts. In the derivation sample, RRF sum was multiplied by 3 if troponins were positive to yield the TRACS score, which was grouped into five categories of 0-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-15 (multiples of 3). Predictive performance of this score to predict hospital death was ascertained in the validation sample. The TRACS score had ROC AUC of 0.71 in the validation cohort. Logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, likelihood-ratio and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) test indicated that weighing troponin status with 3 in the TRACS score improved the prediction of mortality. Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated sound model fit. We demonstrate that weighing troponin as a multiple of 3 yields robust prognostication of hospital mortality in ACS patients, when used in the context of the TRACS score.

  19. The Incremental Value of Troponin Biomarkers in Risk Stratification of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Is the Relationship Multiplicative?

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Amit P; Nathan, Sandeep; Vassallo, Patricia; Calvin, James E

    2009-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective: To emphasize the importance of troponin in the context of a new score for risk stratifying acute coronary syndromes (ACS) patients. Although troponins have powerful prognostic value, current ACS scores do not fully capitalize this prognostic ability. Here, we weigh troponin status in a multiplicative manner to develop the TRACS score from previously published Rush score risk factors (RRF). Methods: 2,866 ACS patients (46.7% troponin positive) from 9 centers comprising the TRACS registry, were randomly split into derivation (n=1,422) and validation (n=1,444) cohorts. In the derivation sample, RRF sum was multiplied by 3 if troponins were positive to yield the TRACS score, which was grouped into five categories of 0-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-15 (multiples of 3). Predictive performance of this score to predict hospital death was ascertained in the validation sample. Results: The TRACS score had ROC AUC of 0.71 in the validation cohort. Logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, likelihood-ratio and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) test indicated that weighing troponin status with 3 in the TRACS score improved the prediction of mortality. Hosmer-Lemeshow test indicated sound model fit. Conclusions: We demonstrate that weighing troponin as a multiple of 3 yields robust prognostication of hospital mortality in ACS patients, when used in the context of the TRACS score. PMID:19557150

  20. Dobutamine stress MRI. Part II. Risk stratification with dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Dirkjan; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Janssen, Caroline H C; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zijlstra, Felix; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of dobutamine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients suspected of myocardial ischemia. Clinical data and dobutamine-CMR results were analyzed in 299 consecutive patients. Follow-up data were analyzed in categories of risk levels defined by the history of coronary artery disease and presence of rest wall motion abnormalities (RWMA). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as evaluated end points included cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and clinically indicated coronary revascularization. Follow-up was completed in 214 (99%) patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study (no signs of inducible myocardial ischemia) with an average of 24 months. The patients with a negative dobutamine-CMR study and RWMA showed a significantly higher annual MACE rate (18%) than the patients without RWMA (0.56%) ( P<0.001). Patients without RWMA showed an annual MACE rate of 2% when they had a history of coronary artery disease and <0.1% without a previous coronary event ( P<0.001). Dobutamine-CMR showed a positive and negative predictive value of 95 and 93%, respectively. The cardiovascular occurrence-free survival rate was 96.2%. In patients suspected of myocardial ischemia, dobutamine-CMR is able to assess risk levels for coronary events with high accuracy.

  1. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction using the new universal definition: is it enough for risk stratification and guiding decision for revascularization?

    PubMed

    Calé, Rita; Ferreira, Jorge; Aguiar, Carlos; Santos, Nuno; Carmo, Pedro; Figueira, João; Raposo, Luis; Gonçalves, Pedro; Silva, José Aniceto

    2010-12-01

    Abstract Objectives: Evaluate the new ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) in relation to its prognostic implications and the role for guiding decision for revascularization. It was also compared with the multivariable based GRACE Risk Score (GRS). Single centre registry of 389 consecutive patients admitted with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) ACS. We calculated the adjusted HR & 95%CI for death/MI at 30-days and one-year follow-up, between the presence or absence of MI using: (1) universal definition: > 99th URL for cTnI (> 0.06 ng/ml) or MBm (> 3.2 ng/ml); (2) MBm > 2 × URL (> 12.2 ng/ml); 3) old WHO: MBact > 2 × URL (> 32U/l). Logistic analysis was performed to test the interaction between tertiles of biomarkers or GRS and the effect of revascularization on the outcome. The universal definition increased the incidence of MI in 3.5-fold for cTnI, but was not an independent predictor of outcome. The GRS was the only independent predictor of prognosis at 30-days and one-year. The interaction with the prognostic impact of revascularization was only present for the GRS categorized by tertiles. In a contemporary unselected population with NSTE-ACS, the universal definition of MI alone was not adequate for risk assessment and revascularization decision making. These purposes were fully addressed with the GRS.

  2. Stratification of risk to the surgical team in removal of small arms ammunition implanted in the craniofacial region: case report.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Jonathan A; Laughlin, Ian; Newberry, Shane; Ryhn, Michael; Pasley, Jason; Newberry, Travis

    2016-09-01

    In cases of penetrating injury with implantation of small arms ammunition, it can often be difficult to tell the difference between simple ballistics and ballistics associated with unexploded ordnances (UXOs). In the operative environment, where highly flammable substances are often close to the surgical site, detonation of UXOs could have catastrophic consequences for both the patient and surgical team. There is a paucity of information in the literature regarding how to evaluate whether an implanted munition contains explosive material. This report describes a patient who presented during Operation Enduring Freedom with an implanted munition suspicious for a UXO and the subsequent workup organized by Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) Company prior to surgical removal. Clinical risk factors for UXOs include assassination attempts and/or wartime settings. Specific radiological features suggestive of a UXO include projectile size greater than 7.62-mm caliber, alterations in density of the tip, as well as radiological evidence of a hollowed-out core. If an implanted UXO is suspected, risks to the surgical and anesthesia teams can be minimized by notifying the nearest military installation with EOD capabilities and following clinical practice guidelines set forth by the Joint Theater Trauma System.

  3. Risk stratification of chronic heart failure patients by multiple biomarkers: implications of BNP, H-FABP, and PTX3.

    PubMed

    Ishino, Mitsunori; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Niizeki, Takeshi; Watanabe, Tetsu; Nitobe, Joji; Miyamoto, Takuya; Miyashita, Takehiko; Kitahara, Tatsuro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Sasaki, Toshiki; Bilim, Olga; Kubota, Isao

    2008-11-01

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) each predict adverse cardiac events in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. For prognostic evaluation from different aspects, the utility of combined measurement of the 3 biomarkers in patients with CHF was examined in the present study. Levels of BNP (associated with left ventricular dysfunction, positive if >200 pg/ml), H-FABP (marker of myocardial damage, positive if >4.1 ng/ml), and PTX3 (marker of inflammation, positive if >4.0 ng/ml) were measured in 164 consecutive CHF patients, and patients were prospectively followed with endpoints of cardiac death or rehospitalization. When patients were categorized on the basis of the number of elevated biomarkers, patients with 1, 2, and 3 elevated biomarkers had a 5.4-fold (not significant), 11.2-old (p<0.05), and 34.6-fold increase (p<0.01), respectively, in the risk of adverse cardiac events compared with those without elevated biomarkers. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with 3 elevated biomarkers had a significantly higher cardiac event rate than patients with a lower number of elevated biomarkers. The combination of these 3 biomarkers could reliably risk-stratify CHF patients for prediction of cardiac events.

  4. Cardiovascular Risk Stratification and Statin Eligibility Based on the Brazilian vs. North American Guidelines on Blood Cholesterol Management.

    PubMed

    Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Laurinavicius, Antonio Gabriele; Valente, Viviane A; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Bittencourt, Marcio S

    2017-06-01

    The best way to select individuals for lipid-lowering treatment in the population is controversial. In healthy individuals in primary prevention: to assess the relationship between cardiovascular risk categorized according to the V Brazilian Guideline on Dyslipidemia and the risk calculated by the pooled cohort equations (PCE); to compare the proportion of individuals eligible for statins, according to different criteria. In individuals aged 40-75 years consecutively submitted to routine health assessment at one single center, four criteria of eligibility for statin were defined: BR-1, BR-2 (LDL-c above or at least 30 mg/dL above the goal recommended by the Brazilian Guideline, respectively), USA-1 and USA-2 (10-year risk estimated by the PCE ≥ 5.0% or ≥ 7.5%, respectively). The final sample consisted of 13,947 individuals (48 ± 6 years, 71% men). Most individuals at intermediate or high risk based on the V Brazilian Guideline had a low risk calculated by the PCE, and more than 70% of those who were considered at high risk had this categorization because of the presence of aggravating factors. Among women, 24%, 17%, 4% and 2% were eligible for statin use according to the BR-1, BR-2, USA-1 and USA-2 criteria, respectively (p < 0.01). The respective figures for men were 75%, 58%, 31% and 17% (p < 0.01). Eighty-five percent of women and 60% of men who were eligible for statin based on the BR-1 criterion would not be candidates for statin based on the USA-1 criterion. As compared to the North American Guideline, the V Brazilian Guideline considers a substantially higher proportion of the population as eligible for statin use in primary prevention. This results from discrepancies between the risk stratified by the Brazilian Guideline and that calculated by the PCE, particularly because of the risk reclassification based on aggravating factors. Existe controvérsia sobre a melhor forma de selecionar indivíduos para tratamento hipolipemiante na população. Em indiv

  5. Major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage risk prediction in patients with atrial fibrillation: Attention to modifiable bleeding risk factors or use of a bleeding risk stratification score? A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tze-Fan; Lip, Gregory Y H; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Liao, Jo-Nan; Chung, Fa-Po; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2018-03-01

    While modifiable bleeding risks should be addressed in all patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), use of a bleeding risk score enables clinicians to 'flag up' those at risk of bleeding for more regular patient contact reviews. We compared a risk assessment strategy for major bleeding and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) based on modifiable bleeding risk factors (referred to as a 'MBR factors' score) against established bleeding risk stratification scores (HEMORR 2 HAGES, HAS-BLED, ATRIA, ORBIT). A nationwide cohort study of 40,450 AF patients who received warfarin for stroke prevention was performed. The clinical endpoints included ICH and major bleeding. Bleeding scores were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (areas under the ROC curves [AUCs], or c-index) and the net reclassification index (NRI). During a follow up of 4.60±3.62years, 1581 (3.91%) patients sustained ICH and 6889 (17.03%) patients sustained major bleeding events. All tested bleeding risk scores at baseline were higher in those sustaining major bleeds. When compared to no ICH, patients sustaining ICH had higher baseline HEMORR 2 HAGES (p=0.003), HAS-BLED (p<0.001) and MBR factors score (p=0.013) but not ATRIA and ORBIT scores. When HAS-BLED was compared to other bleeding scores, c-indexes were significantly higher compared to MBR factors (p<0.001) and ORBIT (p=0.05) scores for major bleeding. C-indexes for the MBR factors score was significantly lower compared to all other scores (De long test, all p<0.001). When NRI was performed, HAS-BLED outperformed all other bleeding risk scores for major bleeding (all p<0.001). C-indexes for ATRIA and ORBIT scores suggested no significant prediction for ICH. All contemporary bleeding risk scores had modest predictive value for predicting major bleeding but the best predictive value and NRI was found for the HAS-BLED score. Simply depending on modifiable bleeding risk factors had suboptimal predictive value for the prediction of major

  6. The Burden of Hard Atherosclerotic Plaques Does Not Promote Endoleak Development After Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Risk Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.petersen@i-med.ac.at; Glodny, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.glodny@i-med.ac.at

    Purpose: To objectify the influence of the atherosclerotic burden in the proximal landing zone on the development of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) using objective aortic calcium scoring (ACS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective observation study included 267 patients who received an aortic endograft between 1997 and 2010 and for whom preoperative computed tomography (CT) was available to perform ACS using the CT-based V600 method. The mean follow-up period was 2 {+-} 2.3 years. Results: Type I endoleaks persisted in 45 patients (16.9%), type II in 34 (12.7%), type III inmore » 8 (3%), and type IV or V in 3 patients, respectively (1.1% each). ACS in patients with type I endoleaks was not increased: 0.029 {+-} 0.061 ml compared with 0.075 {+-} 0.1349 ml in the rest of the patients, (p > 0.05; Whitney-Mann U-Test). There were significantly better results for the indication 'traumatic aortic rupture' than for the other indications (p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor for the development of type I endoleaks in the thoracic aorta (Wald 9.5; p = 0.002), whereas ACS score was an independent protective factor (Wald 6.9; p = 0.009). In the abdominal aorta, neither age nor ACS influenced the development of endoleaks. Conclusion: Contrary to previous assumptions, TEVAR and EVAR can be carried out without increasing the risk of an endoleak of any type, even if there is a high atherosclerotic 'hard-plaque' burden of the aorta. The results are significantly better for traumatic aortic.« less

  7. Anaemia as a risk stratification tool for symptomatic patients referred via the two-week wait pathway for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mashlab, S; Large, P; Laing, W; Ng, O; D'Auria, M; Thurston, D; Thomson, S; Acheson, A G; Humes, D J; Banerjea, A

    2018-05-01

    Introduction Anaemia is associated with cancer. In 2014 a new form was introduced in our department requesting a haemoglobin (Hb) result on every two-week wait referral for suspected colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to review the impact of this intervention. In particular, the significance of any evidence of anaemia (without additional indices) was investigated. Methods A review was conducted of 1,500 consecutive suspected CRC referrals recorded prospectively over a 10-month period. Data on demographics, referral Hb, referral criteria and outcomes were analysed. Anaemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria (Hb <120g/l for women, Hb <130g/l for men). Results Overall, 1,015 patients were eligible for inclusion in the study. Over a third (38.2%) were documented as anaemic on referral. These patients were three times more likely to be diagnosed with CRC than non-anaemic patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.87-5.57). Using a more stringent threshold (Hb <100g/l for women and <110g/l for men), they were four times more likely to have CRC (OR: 4.27, 95% CI: 2.35-7.75). Almost a quarter (23.7%) were actually anaemic at the time of referral but not referred with anaemia. In this subgroup, there was a 2.8-fold increase in risk of CRC diagnosis compared with non-anaemic patients (adjusted OR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.55-4.95). Conclusions Nearly a quarter of patients not referred with iron deficiency anaemia had evidence of anaemia and this was still associated with a higher rate of CRC detection. A full blood count alone might help to risk stratify symptoms such as change in bowel habit in patients on urgent pathways and identify those cases most likely to benefit from invasive investigation.

  8. Highly Sensitive Troponin I Followed by Advanced Coronary Artery Disease Assessment Using Computed Tomography Angiography Improves Acute Coronary Syndrome Risk Stratification Accuracy and Work-up in Acute Chest Pain Patients: Results from ROMICAT II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mayrhofer, Thomas; Puchner, Stefan B.; Lu, Michael T.; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Pope, J. Hector; Truong, Quynh A.; Udelson, James E.; Peacock, W. Frank; White, Charles S.; Woodard, Pamela K.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Nagurney, John T.; Januzzi, James L.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We compared diagnostic accuracy of conventional troponin/traditional coronary artery disease (CAD) assessment and highly sensitive troponin (hsTn) I/advanced CAD assessment for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during the index hospitalization. Background HsTn I and advanced assessment of CAD using coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) are promising candidates to improve the accuracy of emergency department (ED) evaluation of patients with suspected ACS. Methods We performed an observational cohort study in patients with suspected ACS enrolled in the ROMICAT II trial and randomized to coronary CTA who also had hsTn I measurement at the time of the ED presentation. We assessed coronary CTA for traditional (no CAD, non-obstructive CAD, ≥50% stenosis) and advanced features of CAD (≥50% stenosis, high-risk plaque features: positive remodeling, low <30 Hounsfield Units plaque, napkin ring sign, spotty calcium). Results Of 160 patients (mean age: 53±8 years, 40% women) 10.6% were diagnosed with ACS. The ACS rate in patients with HsTn I below the limit of detection (n=9, 5.6%), intermediate (n=139, 86.9%), and above the 99th percentile (n=12, 7.5%) was 0%, 8.6%, and 58.3%, respectively. Absence of ≥50% stenosis and high-risk plaque ruled out ACS in patients with intermediate hsTn I (n=87, 54.4%; ACS rate 0%), while patients with both ≥50% stenosis and high-risk plaque were at high risk (n=13, 8.1%; ACS rate 69.2%) and patients with either ≥50% stenosis or high-risk plaque were at intermediate risk for ACS (n=39, 24.4%; ACS rate 7.7%). HsTn I/advanced coronary CTA assessment significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy for ACS as compared to conventional troponin/traditional coronary CTA (AUC 0.84, 95%CI 0.80-0.88 vs. 0.74, 95%CI 0.70-0.78; p<0.001). Conclusions HsTn I at the time of presentation followed by early advanced coronary CTA assessment improves the risk stratification and diagnostic accuracy for ACS as compared to conventional

  9. Integrating Tenascin-C protein expression and 1q25 copy number status in pediatric intracranial ependymoma prognostication: A new model for risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Andreiuolo, Felipe; Le Teuff, Gwénaël; Bayar, Mohamed Amine; Kilday, John-Paul; Pietsch, Torsten; von Bueren, André O; Witt, Hendrik; Korshunov, Andrey; Modena, Piergiorgio; Pfister, Stefan M; Pagès, Mélanie; Castel, David; Giangaspero, Felice; Chimelli, Leila; Varlet, Pascale; Rutkowski, Stefan; Frappaz, Didier; Massimino, Maura; Grundy, Richard; Grill, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Despite multimodal therapy, prognosis of pediatric intracranial ependymomas remains poor with a 5-year survival rate below 70% and frequent late deaths. This multicentric European study evaluated putative prognostic biomarkers. Tenascin-C (TNC) immunohistochemical expression and copy number status of 1q25 were retained for a pooled analysis of 5 independent cohorts. The prognostic value of TNC and 1q25 on the overall survival (OS) was assessed using a Cox model adjusted to age at diagnosis, tumor location, WHO grade, extent of resection, radiotherapy and stratified by cohort. Stratification on a predictor that did not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption was considered. Model performance was evaluated and an internal-external cross validation was performed. Among complete cases with 5-year median follow-up (n = 470; 131 deaths), TNC and 1q25 gain were significantly associated with age at diagnosis and posterior fossa tumor location. 1q25 status added independent prognostic value for death beyond the classical variables with a hazard ratio (HR) = 2.19 95%CI = [1.29; 3.76] (p = 0.004), while TNC prognostic relation was tumor location-dependent with HR = 2.19 95%CI = [1.29; 3.76] (p = 0.004) in posterior fossa and HR = 0.64 [0.28; 1.48] (p = 0.295) in supratentorial (interaction p value = 0.015). The derived prognostic score identified 3 different robust risk groups. The omission of upfront RT was not associated with OS for good and intermediate prognostic groups while the absence of upfront RT was negatively associated with OS in the poor risk group. Integrated TNC expression and 1q25 status are useful to better stratify patients and to eventually adapt treatment regimens in pediatric intracranial ependymoma.

  10. Efficient and sparse feature selection for biomedical text classification via the elastic net: Application to ICU risk stratification from nursing notes.

    PubMed

    Marafino, Ben J; Boscardin, W John; Dudley, R Adams

    2015-04-01

    Sparsity is often a desirable property of statistical models, and various feature selection methods exist so as to yield sparser and interpretable models. However, their application to biomedical text classification, particularly to mortality risk stratification among intensive care unit (ICU) patients, has not been thoroughly studied. To develop and characterize sparse classifiers based on the free text of nursing notes in order to predict ICU mortality risk and to discover text features most strongly associated with mortality. We selected nursing notes from the first 24h of ICU admission for 25,826 adult ICU patients from the MIMIC-II database. We then developed a pair of stochastic gradient descent-based classifiers with elastic-net regularization. We also studied the performance-sparsity tradeoffs of both classifiers as their regularization parameters were varied. The best-performing classifier achieved a 10-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.897 under the log loss function and full L2 regularization, while full L1 regularization used just 0.00025% of candidate input features and resulted in an AUC of 0.889. Using the log loss (range of AUCs 0.889-0.897) yielded better performance compared to the hinge loss (0.850-0.876), but the latter yielded even sparser models. Most features selected by both classifiers appear clinically relevant and correspond to predictors already present in existing ICU mortality models. The sparser classifiers were also able to discover a number of informative - albeit nonclinical - features. The elastic-net-regularized classifiers perform reasonably well and are capable of reducing the number of features required by over a thousandfold, with only a modest impact on performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural History of Wild-Type Transthyretin Cardiac Amyloidosis and Risk Stratification Using a Novel Staging System.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Martha; Scott, Christopher G; Kyle, Robert A; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Gertz, Morie A; Lin, Grace; Klarich, Kyle W; Miller, Wayne L; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2016-09-06

    Wild-type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is increasingly recognized as an important cause of heart failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of ATTRwt and the predictors of survival. We retrospectively reviewed patients diagnosed with ATTRwt at the Mayo Clinic through 2013 and recorded clinical data and survival data. Factors affecting overall survival (OS) were identified, and a prognostic staging system was developed. The median age of the 360 patients diagnosed before death was 75 years (range: 47 to 94 years), and 91% were male. Presenting signs and symptoms included dyspnea or heart failure in 67% and atrial arrhythmias in 62%. Median OS from diagnosis was 3.6 years and did not change over time. Multivariate predictors of mortality included age, ejection fraction, pericardial effusion, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and troponin T. A staging system was developed that used thresholds of troponin T (0.05 ng/ml) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (3,000 pg/ml). The respective 4-year OS estimates were 57%, 42%, and 18% for stage I (both values below cutoff), stage II (one above), and stage III (both above), respectively. Stage III patients were at an increased risk of mortality after adjustment for age and sex compared with stage I patients (hazard ratio: 3.6; p < 0.001). The natural history of ATTRwt is poor. We report a novel cardiac biomarker staging system that enables risk stratification in an era of emerging treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Refractory Anemia with Ring Sideroblasts (RARS) and RARS with Thrombocytosis (RARS-T) – “2017 Update on Diagnosis, Risk-stratification, and Management”

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Mrinal M.; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2017-01-01

    Disease Overview Ring sideroblasts (RS) are erythroid precursors with abnormal perinuclear mitochondrial iron accumulation. Two myeloid neoplasms defined by the presence of RS, include refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS), now classified under myelodysplastic syndromes with RS (MDS-RS) and RARS with thrombocytosis (RARS-T); now called myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm with RS and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T). Diagnosis MDS-RS is a lower risk MDS, with single or multilineage dysplasia (SLD/MLD), <5% bone marrow (BM) blasts and ≥15% BM RS (≥5% in the presence of SF3B1 mutations). MDS/MPN-RS-T, now a formal entity in the MDS/MPN overlap syndromes, has diagnostic features of MDS-RS-SLD, along with a platelet count ≥ 450 × 10(9)/L and large atypical megakaryocytes (similar to BCR-ABL1 negative MPN). Mutations and Karyotype Mutations in SF3B1 are seen in ≥80% of patients with MDS-RS-SLD and MDS/MPN-RS-T, and strongly correlate with the presence of BM RS; MDS/MPN-RS-T patients also demonstrate JAK2V617F, ASXL1, DNMT3A, SETBP1, and TET2 mutations; with ASXL1/SETBP1 mutations adversely impacting survival. Cytogenetic abnormalities are uncommon in both diseases. Risk stratification Most patients with MDS-RS-SLD are stratified into lower risk groups by the revised-International Prognostic Scoring System (R-IPSS). Disease outcome in MDS/MPN-RS-T is better than that of MDS-RS-SLD, but worse than that of essential thrombocythemia. Both diseases have a low risk of leukemic transformation. Treatment Anemia and iron overload are complications seen in both and are managed similar to lower risk MDS and MPN. Aspirin therapy is reasonable in MDS/MPN-RS-T, especially in the presence of JAK2V617F, but the value of platelet-lowering drugs is uncertain. PMID:28188970

  13. Solid Lymph Nodes as an Imaging Biomarker for Risk Stratification in Human Papillomavirus-Related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rath, T J; Narayanan, S; Hughes, M A; Ferris, R L; Chiosea, S I; Branstetter, B F

    2017-07-01

    Human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated with cystic lymph nodes on CT and has a favorable prognosis. A subset of patients with aggressive disease experience treatment failure. Our aim was to determine whether the extent of cystic lymph node burden on staging CT can serve as an imaging biomarker to predict treatment failure in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. We identified patients with human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and staging neck CTs. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. We retrospectively classified the metastatic lymph node burden on CT as cystic or solid and assessed radiologic extracapsular spread. Biopsy, subsequent imaging, or clinical follow-up was the reference standard for treatment failure. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses of clinical, demographic, and anatomic variables for treatment failure were performed. One hundred eighty-three patients were included with a mean follow-up of 38 months. In univariate analysis, the following variables had a statistically significant association with treatment failure: solid-versus-cystic lymph nodes, clinical T-stage, clinical N-stage, and radiologic evidence of extracapsular spread. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard model resulted in a model that included solid-versus-cystic lymph nodes, T-stage, and radiologic evidence of extracapsular spread as independent predictors of treatment failure. Patients with cystic nodal metastasis at staging had significantly better disease-free survival than patients with solid lymph nodes. In human papilloma virus-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, patients with solid lymph node metastases are at higher risk for treatment failure with worse disease-free survival. Solid lymph nodes may serve as an imaging biomarker to tailor individual treatment regimens. © 2017 by American Journal

  14. Early Adolescent Risk Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Externalizing Behavioral Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…

  15. Conventional Risk Stratification Fails to Predict Progression of Succinate Dehydrogenase-deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Clinicopathologic Study of 76 Cases.

    PubMed

    Mason, Emily F; Hornick, Jason L

    2016-12-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) that lack kinase mutations often show loss of function of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, due to germline mutation or promoter hypermethylation. SDH-deficient GISTs are exclusive to the stomach and have a multinodular architecture. It has been suggested that conventional risk stratification criteria may not predict outcome for this group of tumors, although data are limited. Here, we report the clinical, histologic, and genetic findings from a large cohort of 76 SDH-deficient GISTs diagnosed from 2005 to 2015, identified on the basis of histologic features or family history (45 female/31 male; mean age at diagnosis 32 y; range 11 to 71 y; 10 patients 50 y of age or above). Immunohistochemistry for SDHB and SDHA showed loss of SDHB in all cases and loss of SDHA in 28 (37%) tumors. Tumor size ranged from 1.9 to 22.5 cm; the primary tumor was multifocal in 29%. Mitotic rate ranged from 1 to 80 per 5 mm (median 5.5). Lymph node metastases were found at primary resection in 14 (18%) patients. Twenty-four patients (32%) had distant metastases at presentation, and 52 of 70 patients (74%) with follow-up developed distant metastases, most often to the liver, but also bone, lungs, breast, and brain. Applying conventional criteria (size and mitotic rate), 60% to 82% of patients with tumors ranging from very low risk to high risk for progressive disease developed distant metastases, regardless of the category. Carney-Stratakis syndrome and Carney triad were diagnosed in 6 and 8 patients, respectively. Of 35 patients tested, 26 harbored SDH mutations (11 SDHA, 8 SDHB, 6 SDHC, 1 SDHD). Follow-up data available for 70 patients ranged from 1 month to 39.3 years: 20 patients had no evidence of disease (mean 6.1 y), 32 were alive with metastases (mean 10.9 y), and 18 died of disease (mean 7.0 y after diagnosis). In summary, SDH-deficient GISTs account for approximately 8% of gastric GISTs and are associated with a high rate of

  16. Risk stratification using stress echocardiography: incremental prognostic value over historic, clinical, and stress electrocardiographic variables across a wide spectrum of bayesian pretest probabilities for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Gopinath, Devi; Yao, Siu-Sun; Chaudhry, Farooq A

    2007-03-01

    We sought to evaluate the risk stratification ability and incremental prognostic value of stress echocardiography over historic, clinical, and stress electrocardiographic (ECG) variables, over a wide spectrum of bayesian pretest probabilities of coronary artery disease (CAD). Stress echocardiography is an established technique for the diagnosis of CAD. However, data on incremental prognostic value of stress echocardiography over historic, clinical, and stress ECG variables in patients with known or suggested CAD is limited. We evaluated 3259 patients (60 +/- 13 years, 48% men) undergoing stress echocardiography. Patients were grouped into low (<15%), intermediate (15-85%), and high (>85%) pretest CAD likelihood subgroups using standard software. The historical, clinical, stress ECG, and stress echocardiographic variables were recorded for the entire cohort. Follow-up (2.7 +/- 1.1 years) for confirmed myocardial infarction (n = 66) and cardiac death (n = 105) was obtained. For the entire cohort, an ischemic stress echocardiography study confers a 5.0 times higher cardiac event rate than the normal stress echocardiography group (4.0% vs 0.8%/y, P < .0001). Furthermore, Cox proportional hazard regression model showed incremental prognostic value of stress echocardiography variables over historic, clinical, and stress ECG variables across all pretest probability subgroups (global chi2 increased from 5.1 to 8.5 to 20.1 in the low pretest group, P = .44 and P = .01; from 20.9 to 28.2 to 116 in the intermediate pretest group, P = .47 and P < .0001; and from 17.5 to 36.6 to 61.4 in the high pretest group, P < .0001 for both groups). A normal stress echocardiography portends a benign prognosis (<1% event rate/y) in all pretest probability subgroups and even in patients with high pretest probability and yields incremental prognostic value over historic, clinical, and stress ECG variables across all pretest probability subgroups. The best incremental value is, however, in the

  17. Natural history of definitive diverticular hemorrhage based upon stigmata of recent hemorrhage and colonoscopic Doppler blood flow monitoring for risk stratification and definitive hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas O.G.; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin; Dulai, Gareth S.; Machicado, Gustavo A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Few prospective reports describe the short term natural history of colon diverticular hemorrhage based upon stigmata of recent hemorrhage and none include blood flow detection for risk stratification or as a guide to definitive hemostasis. Our purposes are to report the 30 day natural history of definitive diverticular hemorrhage based upon stigmata and to describe Doppler probe blood flow detection and as a guide to definitive hemostasis. METHODS Different cohorts of patients with severe diverticular bleeding and stigmata on urgent colonoscopy are reported. For 30 day natural history, patients were treated medically. If severe rebleeding occurred, they had surgical or angiographic treatment. Natural history with major stigmata (active bleeding, visible vessel, or adherent clot) and no stigmata or flat spots after washing away clots are reported. Doppler probe detection of arterial blood flow underneath stigmata before and after hemostasis is also reported in a recent cohort. RESULTS For natural history patients with major stigmata treated medically had 65.8% (25/38) rebleeding rates and 44.7% (17/38) had intervention for hemostasis. Patients with spots or clean bases had no rebleeding. Doppler probe detected arterial blood flow in 92% of major stigmata, none after hemostasis and no one rebled. CONCLUSIONS 1. Patients with major stigmata treated medically had high rates of rebleeding and intervention for hemostasis. 2. Patients with clean diverticula or only flat spots had no rebleeding. 3. High rates of arterial blood flow were detected under major stigmata with Doppler probe but with obliteration by hemostasis no rebleeding occurred. PMID:26227931

  18. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A and risk of allergic diseases in early life.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aifen; Chang, Huailong; Huo, Wenqian; Zhang, Bin; Hu, Jie; Xia, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Xu, Shunqing; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-06-01

    Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) affects immune system and promotes allergy and asthma in mice, but findings in human studies are limited. We investigated whether prenatal exposure to BPA is associated with increased risk of allergic diseases in infants. We measured BPA concentrations in maternal urine samples collected at delivery from 412 women in Wuhan, China. The occurrence of allergic diseases including eczema and wheeze were assessed at age 6 mo through questionnaires. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between urinary BPA levels and the risk of allergic diseases. Mothers of infants with allergic diseases had significantly higher urinary BPA levels than those of infants without allergic diseases (median: 2.35 vs. 4.55 µg/l, P = 0.03). Increased risk of infant allergic diseases was associated with creatinine-adjusted maternal urinary BPA concentrations. And this association was limited to females (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.79) rather than males. After stratification by maternal age, the association was only significant in infants of mothers who were younger than 25 y old (OR = 1.90; 95% CI: 1.09-3.29). Prenatal exposure to BPA may potentially increase the risk of allergic diseases at very early life in female infants.

  19. N-terminal fraction of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide versus clinical risk scores for prognostic stratification in chronic systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Arzilli, Chiara; Aimo, Alberto; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Ripoli, Andrea; Senni, Michele; Emdin, Michele; Passino, Claudio

    2018-05-01

    Background The Seattle heart failure model or the cardiac and comorbid conditions (3C-HF) scores may help define patient risk in heart failure. Direct comparisons between them or versus N-terminal fraction of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) have never been performed. Methods Data from consecutive patients with stable systolic heart failure and 3C-HF data were examined. A subgroup of patients had the Seattle heart failure model data available. The endpoints were one year all-cause or cardiovascular death. Results The population included 2023 patients, aged 68 ± 12 years, 75% were men. At the one year time-point, 198 deaths were recorded (10%), 124 of them (63%) from cardiovascular causes. While areas under the curve were not significantly different, NT-proBNP displayed better reclassification capability than the 3C-HF score for the prediction of one year all-cause and cardiovascular death. Adding NT-proBNP to the 3C-HF score resulted in a significant improvement in risk prediction. Among patients with Seattle heart failure model data available ( n = 798), the area under the curve values for all-cause and cardiovascular death were similar for the Seattle heart failure model score (0.790 and 0.820), NT-proBNP (0.783 and 0.803), and the 3C-HF score (0.770 and 0.800). The combination of the 3C-HF score and NT-proBNP displayed a similar prognostic performance to the Seattle heart failure model score for both endpoints. Adding NT-proBNP to the Seattle heart failure model score performed better than the Seattle heart failure model alone in terms of reclassification, but not discrimination. Conclusions Among systolic heart failure patients, NT-proBNP levels had better reclassification capability for all-cause and cardiovascular death than the 3C-HF score. The inclusion of NT-proBNP to the 3C-HF and Seattle heart failure model score resulted in significantly better risk stratification.

  20. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein and myocardial creatine kinase enable rapid risk stratification in normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Langer, Martin; Forkmann, Mathias; Richter, Utz; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Sveric, Krunoslav; Christoph, Marian; Ibrahim, Karim; Günther, Michael; Kolschmann, Steffen; Boscheri, Alessandra; Barthel, Peggy; Strasser, Ruth H; Wunderlich, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Risk assessments of hemodynamically stable patients with pulmonary embolisms (PE) remain challenging. In this context heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB), and troponin I (TnI) may hold prognostic utility for patients with pulmonary embolism. We included 161 consecutive normotensive (systolic blood pressure above 90 mm Hg) patients with confirmed PE to study the combined utility of echocardiographic signs of right ventricular dysfunction and several biomarkers (TnI, CK-MB, H-FABP). The primary endpoint was defined as death within 30 days after admission to the hospital. Elevated biomarkers were measured in 26 patients (16.1%) for HFABP, in 66 (41%) for TnI and in 41 (25.5%) for CK-MB. Echocardiography revealed right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in 99 (61.5%) patients. Overall, 16 patients (9.9%) died within the study period. In the H-FABP positive group 15 (57.7%) patients died compared to 13 (19.7%) patients in the TnI positive group and 15 (37.5%) patients in the CK-MB positive group (H-FABP positive vs TnI positive patients, P< .001; H-FABP positive vs CK-MB positive patients P= .13; CK-MB positive vs TnI positive patients P= .07). All elevated biomarkers correlated with the primary endpoint with H-FABP being strongly, CK-MB intermediately and TnI weakly associated with short term death (H-FABP r= 0.701, P< .001; CK-MB r= 0.486, P< .001; TnI r= 0.272, P= .001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a positive H-FABP test (OR 27.1, 95% CI 2.1-352.3, P= .001), elevated CK-MB levels (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.3-23.3, P= .002) and a low systolic blood pressure on admission (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.8-0.9, P< .001) emerged as independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Both H-FABP and CK-MB are associated with short term mortality in normotensive PE patients and could be advantageous for risk stratification in this intermediate risk group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Migration and stratification

    PubMed Central

    Jasso, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    Migration and stratification are increasingly intertwined. One day soon it will be impossible to understand one without the other. Both focus on life chances. Stratification is about differential life chances - who gets what and why - and migration is about improving life chances - getting more of the good things of life. To examine the interconnections of migration and stratification, we address a mix of old and new questions, carrying out analyses newly enabled by a unique new data set on recent legal immigrants to the United States (the New Immigrant Survey). We look at immigrant processing and lost documents, depression due to the visa process, presentation of self, the race-ethnic composition of an immigrant cohort (made possible by the data for the first time since 1961), black immigration from Africa and the Americas, skin-color diversity among couples formed by U.S. citizen sponsors and immigrant spouses, and English fluency among children age 8–12 and their immigrant parents. We find, inter alia, that children of previously illegal parents are especially more likely to be fluent in English, that native-born U.S. citizen women tend to marry darker, that immigrant applicants who go through the visa process while already in the United States are more likely to have their documents lost and to suffer visa depression, and that immigration, by introducing accomplished black immigrants from Africa (notably via the visa lottery), threatens to overturn racial and skin color associations with skill. Our analyses show the mutual embeddedness of migration and stratification in the unfolding of the immigrants' and their children's life chances and the impacts on the stratification structure of the United States. PMID:26321771

  2. Prognostic risk stratification derived from individual patient level data for men with advanced penile squamous cell carcinoma receiving first-line systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Pond, Gregory R; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Necchi, Andrea; Eigl, Bernhard J; Kolinsky, Michael P; Chacko, Raju T; Dorff, Tanya B; Harshman, Lauren C; Milowsky, Matthew I; Lee, Richard J; Galsky, Matthew D; Federico, Piera; Bolger, Graeme; DeShazo, Mollie; Mehta, Amitkumar; Goyal, Jatinder; Sonpavde, Guru

    2014-05-01

    Prognostic factors in men with penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) receiving systemic therapy are unknown. A prognostic classification system in this disease may facilitate interpretation of outcomes and guide rational drug development. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify prognostic factors in men with PSCC receiving first-line systemic therapy for advanced disease. Individual patient level data were obtained from 13 institutions to study prognostic factors in the context of first-line systemic therapy for advanced PSCC. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to examine the prognostic effect of these candidate factors on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): age, stage, hemoglobin, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, albumin, site of metastasis (visceral or nonvisceral), smoking, circumcision, regimen, ECOG performance status (PS), lymphovascular invasion, precancerous lesion, and surgery following chemotherapy. The effect of different treatments was then evaluated adjusting for factors in the prognostic model. The study included 140 eligible men. Mean age across all men was 57.0 years. Among them, 8.6%, 21.4%, and 70.0% of patients had stage 2, 3, and 4 diseases, respectively; 40.7% had ECOG PS ≥ 1, 47.4% had visceral metastases, and 73.6% received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The multivariate model of poor prognostic factors included visceral metastases (P<0.001) and ECOG PS ≥ 1 (P<0.001) for both PFS and OS. A risk stratification model constructed with 0, 1, and both poor prognostic factors was internally validated and demonstrated moderate discriminatory ability (c-statistic of 0.657 and 0.677 for OS and PFS, respectively). The median OS for the entire population was 9 months. Median OS was not reached, 8, and 7 months for those with 0, 1, and both risk factors, respectively. Cisplatin-based regimens were associated with better OS (P = 0.017) but not PFS (P = 0.37) compared with noncisplatin

  3. National survey of emergency physicians for transient ischemic attack (TIA) risk stratification consensus and appropriate treatment for a given level of risk.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jeffrey J; Losier, Justin H; Stiell, Ian G; Sharma, Mukul; Abdulaziz, Kasim

    2016-01-01

    Five percent of transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients have a subsequent stroke within 7 days. The Canadian TIA Score uses clinical findings to calculate the subsequent stroke risk within 7 days. Our objectives were to assess 1) anticipated use; 2) component face validity; 3) risk strata for stroke within 7 days; and 4) actions required, for a given risk for subsequent stroke. After a rigorous development process, a survey questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 300 emergency physicians selected from those registered in a national medical directory. The surveys were distributed using a modified Dillman technique. From a total of 271 eligible surveys, we received 131 (48.3%) completed surveys; 96.2% of emergency physicians would use a validated Canadian TIA Score; 8 of 13 components comprising the Canadian TIA Score were rated as Very Important or Important by survey respondents. Risk categories for subsequent stroke were defined as minimal-risk: 10% risk of subsequent stroke within 7 days. A validated Canadian TIA Score will likely be used by emergency physicians. Most components of the TIA Score have high face validity. Risk strata are definable, which may allow physicians to determine immediate actions, based on subsequent stroke risk, in the emergency department.

  4. An Ecological Risk Model for Early Childhood Anxiety: The Importance of Early Child Symptoms and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…

  5. The utility of T-wave alternans during the morning in the summer for the risk stratification of patients with Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shogo; Takagi, Masahiko; Kakihara, Jun; Hayashi, Yusuke; Doi, Atsushi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-03-01

    The prognostic value of the seasonal variations of T-wave alternans (TWA) and heart rate variability (HRV), and the seasonal distribution of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in Brugada syndrome (Br-S) is unknown. We assessed the utility of seasonal variations in TWA and HRV for risk stratification in Br-S using a 24-h multichannel Holter electrocardiogram (24-M-ECG). We enrolled 81 patients with Br-S (grouped according to their history of VF, n = 12; syncope, n = 8; no symptoms, n = 61) who underwent 24-M-ECG in all four seasons. Precordial electrodes were attached to the third (3L-V2) and fourth (4L-V2, 4L-V5) intercostal spaces. We determined the maximum TWA (max-TWA) values and calculated HRV during night and morning time periods for all seasons. During a follow-up period of 5.8 ± 2.8 years, 11 patients experienced new VF episodes and there was a peak in new VF episodes in the summer. The VF group had the greatest 3L-V2 max-TWA value during morning time in the summer among the three groups and showed higher 3L-V2 max-TWA value than in the other seasons. The cutoff value for the 3L-V2 max-TWA during morning time in the summer was determined to be 42 µV using ROC analysis (82 % sensitivity, 74 % specificity; p = 0.0006). Multivariate analysis revealed that a 3L-V2 max-TWA value ≥42 µV during morning time in the summer and previous VF episodes were predictors of future VF episodes. The 3L-V2 max-TWA value during morning time in the summer may be a useful predictor of future VF episodes in Br-S.

  6. Early Interventions for At-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxman, Frankie; Klassen, Eydie; Koontz, Barbara; Nottingham, Cheryl; Vierthaler, Charlene

    This is a report on a school-wide ethnographic study of intervention strategies for at-risk students in kindergarten through second grade. A group of 5 teachers from an elementary school of approximately 250 students in a Midwest community of about 18,000 people (2 first-grade teachers, 2 second-grade teachers, and 1 music teacher) comprised the…

  7. Temporal trends in the use of invasive cardiac procedures for non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes according to initial risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzkiewicz, Sean; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Raymond T; Welsh, Robert C; Kornder, Jan; DeYoung, J Paul; Wong, Graham C; Rose, Barry; Grondin, François R; Gallo, Richard; Huang, Wei; Gore, Joel M; Yan, Andrew T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines support an early invasive strategy in the management of high-risk non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Although studies in the 1990s suggested that high-risk patients received less aggressive treatment, there are limited data on the contemporary management patterns of NSTE-ACS in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To examine the in-hospital use of coronary angiography and revascularization in relation to risk among less selected patients with NSTE-ACS. METHODS: Data from the prospective, multicentre Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (main GRACE and expanded GRACE2) were used. Between June 1999 and September 2007, 7131 patients from across Canada with a final diagnosis of NSTE-ACS were included the study. The study population was stratified into low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, based on their calculated GRACE risk score (a validated predictor of in-hospital mortality) and according to time of enrollment. RESULTS: While rates of in-hospital death and reinfarction were significantly (P<0.001) greater in higher-risk patients, the in-hospital use of cardiac catheterization in low- (64.7%), intermediate- (60.3%) and high-risk (42.3%) patients showed an inverse relationship (P<0.001). This trend persisted despite the increase in the overall rates of cardiac catheterization over time (47.9% in 1999 to 2003 versus 51.6% in 2004 to 2005 versus 63.8% in 2006 to 2007; P<0.001). After adjusting for confounders, intermediate-risk (adjusted OR 0.80 [95% CI 0.70 to 0.92], P=0.002) and high-risk (adjusted OR 0.38 [95% CI 0.29 to 0.48], P<0.001) patients remained less likely to undergo in-hospital cardiac catheterization. CONCLUSION: Despite the temporal increase in the use of invasive cardiac procedures, they remain paradoxically targeted toward low-risk patients with NSTE-ACS in contemporary practice. This treatment-risk paradox needs to be further addressed to maximize the benefits of invasive therapies in Canada. PMID:19898699

  8. Early childhood caries: risk-based disease prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai; Chase, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC), common in preschoolers, can lead to pain and infection if left untreated. Yet, ECC is largely preventable, and if it is identified early and the responsible risk factors are addressed, its progression can be halted or slowed. This article reviews the rationale for a first dental visit by age 1 year, caries risk assessment, and risk-based prevention and management of ECC and discusses strategies for providers to implement these contemporary evidence-based concepts into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The At Risk Child: Early Identification, Intervention, and Evaluation of Early Childhood Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Joan M.

    A review of literature was conducted in order to: (1) determine whether factors placing the young child at risk for school failure can be identified; (2) determine whether early family interventions and early childhood programs are effective; and (3) identify policy implications. Findings are summarized, and recommendations are offered. Research…

  10. Application and comparison of the FADES, MADIT, and SHFM-D risk models for risk stratification of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, Aafke C.; van Rees, Johannes B.; Levy, Wayne C.; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; de Bie, Mihàly K.; van Erven, Lieselot; Schalij, Martin J.; Borleffs, C. Jan  Willem

    2017-01-01

    Aims Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment is beneficial in selected patients. However, it remains difficult to accurately predict which patients benefit most from ICD implantation. For this purpose, different risk models have been developed. The aim was to validate and compare the FADES, MADIT, and SHFM-D models. Methods and results All patients receiving a prophylactic ICD at the Leiden University Medical Center were evaluated. Individual model performance was evaluated by C-statistics. Model performances were compared using net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated differentiation improvement (IDI). The primary endpoint was non-benefit of ICD treatment, defined as mortality without prior ventricular arrhythmias requiring ICD intervention. A total of 1969 patients were included (age 63 ± 11 years; 79% male). During a median follow-up of 4.5 ± 3.9 years, 318 (16%) patients died without prior ICD intervention. All three risk models were predictive for event-free mortality (all: P < 0.001). The C-statistics were 0.66, 0.69, and 0.75, respectively, for FADES, MADIT, and SHFM-D (all: P < 0.001). Application of the SHFM-D resulted in an improved IDI of 4% and NRI of 26% compared with MADIT; IDI improved 11% with the use of SHFM-D instead of FADES (all: P < 0.001), but NRI remained unchanged (P = 0.71). Patients in the highest-risk category of the MADIT and SHFM-D models had 1.7 times higher risk to experience ICD non-benefit than receive appropriate ICD interventions [MADIT: mean difference (MD) 20% (95% CI: 7–33%), P = 0.001; SHFM-D: MD 16% (95% CI: 5–27%), P = 0.005]. Patients in the highest-risk category of FADES were as likely to experience ICD intervention as ICD non-benefit [MD 3% (95% CI: –8 to 14%), P = 0.60]. Conclusion The predictive and discriminatory value of SHFM-D to predict non-benefit of ICD treatment is superior to FADES and MADIT in patients receiving prophylactic ICD treatment. PMID:28130376

  11. Comprehensive schoolteachers at