Science.gov

Sample records for early school years

  1. High School Biology: The Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Dorothy B.; Bybee, Rodger W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of the biology curriculum which replaced physiology, zoology, and botany in high school science courses and supplanted an early form of general science known as natural history. (RT)

  2. Early Years Swimming: A Way of Supporting School Transitions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Informal learning contexts may provide opportunities for adding capital to young children in their years prior to schooling. This paper explores the potential of the early-years swim context to add capital to young children that may position them favourably for the transition to school. Using Bourdieu's notion of capital, the paper discusses the…

  3. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  4. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa-contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development.

  5. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  6. The Early Years: Embracing the Challenges. 1997 Early Years of Schooling Conference Proceedings (Melbourne, Australia, July 20-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoria Education Dept. (Australia).

    These conference proceedings comprise 19 papers and the plenary session presented at the Early Years Schooling Conference held in Melbourne, Australia. The plenary session was "A Developmental Approach to Teaching Young Children" conducted by Lilian Katz. The keynote addresses and breakout sessions were: (1) "Developmental Learning:…

  7. Early College High School Initiative. Evaluation Year End Report: 2003?2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika

    2005-01-01

    This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…

  8. Early Transition and Adjustment and Children's Adjustment after Six Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margetts, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have made convincing arguments for the benefits of a smooth transition to school. The passage through this significant social change may have a lasting influence on children's progress. For example, social, emotional and academic difficulties in the early years of schooling have been shown to persist through school and into…

  9. The Potential Impact of Undiagnosed Vision Impairment on Reading Development in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the literature surrounding the potential impact of undiagnosed and untreated vision impairment on reading development in the early years of primary school. Despite pre-school screening programmes, it is still possible for children to enter school with undiagnosed, uncorrected vision impairments. This can…

  10. Absenteeism in DC Public Schools Early Education Program: An Update for School Year 2013-14. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubay, Lisa; Holla, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. This report examines the extent of absenteeism in the District of Columbia Public Schools' (DCPS) school-based Head Start program in the 2013-2014 school year (SY). Absence rates and the share…

  11. Teaching Children with down Syndrome in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Amanda; Tangen, Donna; Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Mergler, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We explored 3 general classroom teachers' experiences of including a child with Down syndrome in their early years classrooms. Located at 3 different Australian school settings, 1 teacher was the head of a Preparatory class, 1 was a Year 3 teacher, and the third was a teacher of a split Preparatory/Year 1 class. Interview data were drawn from a…

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP OF CHILD PERCEPTIONS TO ACHIEVEMENT AND BEHAVIOR IN THE EARLY SCHOOL YEARS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COMBS, ARTHUR W.; SOPER, DANIEL W.

    THIS RESEARCH EXPLORED CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE PERCEPTIONS OF CHILDREN AND THEIR BEHAVIOR DURING EARLY SCHOOL YEARS. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE--(1) TO DETERMINE IF CHANGING PERCEPTIONS OF SELF AND THE WORLD ARE ACCOMPANIED FROM YEAR TO YEAR BY CHANGES IN BEHAVIOR AND ACHIEVEMENT AND (2) TO SEE IF A KNOWLEDGE OF A CHILD'S PERCEPTIONS CAN…

  13. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  14. Early College High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  15. Gender and Schooling in the Early Years. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Janice, Ed.; Irby, Beverly, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In this volume, gender and schooling in the early years addresses a broad range of issues including, but not limited, to gender equity in education. We explore, for example, the complex world of play in Fromberg's chapter and are reminded that for young children, play involves issues of power and hierarchy in ways that parallel the role of gender…

  16. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  17. Gender in the Early Years: Boys and Girls in an African Working Class Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia; Nzimakwe, Thokozani; Nzimakwe, Phumzile

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which young boys and girls give meaning to gender and sexuality is vital, and is especially significant in the light of South Africa's commitment to gender equality. Yet the, gendered cultures of young children in the early years of South African primary schools remains a, marginal concern in debate, research and…

  18. Extending the Research on the Tests of Early Numeracy: Longitudinal Analyses over Two School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baglici, Stephanie Petreshock; Codding, Robin; Tryon, Georgiana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the research on the "Tests of Early Numeracy" (TEN) by following a cohort of 61 students from kindergarten through first grade. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between kindergarten and first-grade TEN measures built within and across school years and their predictive validity of a math…

  19. The Genetic and Environmental Origins of Learning Abilities and Disabilities in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning abilities and disabilities in education and child development, little is known about their genetic and environmental origins in the early school years. We report results for English (which includes reading, writing, and speaking), mathematics, and science as well as general cognitive ability in a large and…

  20. The Early College High School Initiative: An Overview of Five Evaluation Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Adelman, Nancy; Cole, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). Through this initiative, more than 200 Early College Schools (ECSs) opened by fall 2009. All of the schools aim to provide underserved students access to college classes while in high school. This article will provide an overview of the first 6…

  1. Typologies of family functioning and children's adjustment during the early school years.

    PubMed

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cummings, E Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, it charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children's developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across the early school years. Two-hundred thirty-four kindergarten children (129 girls and 105 boys; mean age = 6.0 years, SD = 0.50 at Wave 1) and their parents participated in this multimethod, 3-year longitudinal investigation. As expected, latent class analyses extracted 3 primary typologies of functioning including: (a) cohesive, (b) enmeshed, and (c) disengaged families. Furthermore, family patterns were differentially associated with children's maladaptive adjustment trajectories in the school context. The findings highlight the developmental utility of incorporating pattern-based approaches to family functioning.

  2. Creating an Ofsted Story: The Role of Early Years Assessment Data in Schools' Narratives of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, Alice; Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the growing importance of measures of progress in judgements of schools' effectiveness in England, with a focus on the role of the early years (settings for children aged 2-5) in providing data for these measures. Qualitative data from a research project involving three diverse school-based and pre-compulsory early years…

  3. Where Are the Early Years of School in Contemporary Early Childhood Education Reforms? An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieg, Susan; Whitehead, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Although international definitions of early childhood repeatedly refer to a birth-8 age span, there are complex, institutional divides within this age range. This paper explores the divide between pre-compulsory and compulsory early childhood institutions. In countries such as Finland this divide is not such an issue because children do not begin…

  4. Investigating teacher and student effects of the Incredible Years Classroom Management Program in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Murray, Desiree W; Rabiner, David L; Kuhn, Laura; Pan, Yi; Sabet, Raha Forooz

    2018-04-01

    The present paper reports on the results of a cluster randomized trial of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY-TCM) and its effects on early elementary teachers' management strategies, classroom climate, and students' emotion regulation, attention, and academic competence. IY-TCM was implemented in 11 rural and semi-rural schools with K-2 teachers and a diverse student sample. Outcomes were compared for 45 teachers who participated in five full day training workshops and brief classroom consultation and 46 control teachers; these 91 teachers had a total of 1192 students. A high level of teacher satisfaction was found and specific aspects of the training considered most valuable for early elementary teachers were identified. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated a statistically significant intervention effect on Positive Climate in the classroom (d=0.45) that did not sustain into the next school year. No main effects on student outcomes were observed, although a priori moderator analyses indicated that students with elevated social-behavioral difficulties benefitted with regard to prosocial behavior (d=0.54) and inattention (d=-0.34). Results highlight potential benefits and limitations of a universal teacher training program for elementary students, and suggest strategies for future delivery of the IY-TCM program and areas for future research. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship of otitis media in early childhood to attention dimensions during the early elementary school years.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Stephen R; Ashley, Timothy A; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A; Poe, Michele D

    2006-08-01

    This study examined the impact of otitis media with effusion (OME) and associated hearing loss between 6 and 48 months of age on attention dimensions (i.e., selective/focus, sustained) during the elementary school years. A prospective cohort design in which 74 African American infants were recruited between ages 6 and 12 months. Ear examinations were done repeatedly using both otoscopy and tympanometry, and hearing was assessed using standard audiometric procedures between 6 and 48 months. Multiple measures of attention (i.e., direct assessment, behavioral observations, parent/teacher ratings) were administered from kindergarten through second grade to assess two theoretical dimensions of attention: selective/focused and sustained. The home environment was assessed annually. Results indicated that neither early childhood OME nor hearing loss showed significant correlations with any of the longitudinal or cross-sectional measures of selective/focused attention and sustained attention. In contrast, children with mothers who had fewer years of education and who lived in less responsive and supportive home environments scored higher on both parent and teacher ratings of sustained attention (i.e., hyperactivity) through the second grade of elementary school. For NEPSY Auditory Attention in second grade, a significant interaction between the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment and hearing loss was uncovered. This interaction showed that children with hearing loss from poor home environments experienced greater difficulties on the NEPSY Auditory Attention task than those with hearing loss from good home environments. These findings do not support a direct linkage of a history of OME and associated hearing loss to difficulties in selective/focused attention or sustained attention in early elementary school children. Relationships between sociodemographic variables and attention-related functions appear stronger and should be considered as mediators in any

  6. School Readiness and Pedagogies of Competence and Performance: Theorising the Troubled Relationship between Early Years and Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neaum, Sally

    2016-01-01

    School readiness is currently a strong focus for education policy in England. However, understanding what it means to be ready for school, and how this is reflected in policy and enacted in practice, are sites of contention. This paper explores the genesis of the current disparity in understandings in the context of the English education system. A…

  7. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  8. (Re)Affirming Identities: Implementing a Play-Based Approach to Learning in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…

  9. The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years.

    PubMed

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2016-02-01

    The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated whether these skills independently predict children's attention/behaviour skills. Data are presented from 243 children at four time points. Children were selected for being at risk of reading difficulties either because of a family history of dyslexia (FR; N = 90) or because of concerns regarding their language development (LI; N = 79) or as typically developing controls (TD; N = 74). The children completed tasks to assess their executive function and language skills at ages 4, 5 and 6 years. At 6 (T4) and 7 years (T5) parents and teachers rated the children's attention/behaviour skills. There was a strong concurrent relationship between language and EF at each assessment. Longitudinal analyses indicated a considerable degree of stability in children's language and EF skills: the influence of language on later EF skills (and vice versa) was weak and not significant in the current sample. Children's EF, but not language, skills at T3 predicted attention/behaviour ratings at T4/T5. There is a strong concurrent association between language and EF skills during the preschool and early school years, when children with language impairment show persistent EF deficits. Latent variables measuring language and EF show high longitudinal stability with little evidence of significant or strong reciprocal influences between these constructs. EF, but not language, skills predict later ratings of children's attention and behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  11. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Marina; Tiemeier, Henning; Veenstra, René; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Pauline W

    2014-02-12

    High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled "low", "mid-low", "mid-high" and "high". Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n=3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n=1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR=3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics.

  12. Supporting Language in Schools: Evaluating an Intervention for Children with Delayed Language in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wendy; Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists that many children who experience early socio-economic disadvantage have delayed language development. These delays have been shown to exist when children start school and appear to persist through their education. Interventions that can help these children are desirable to ease the difficulties they have in school and to…

  13. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2016-10-13

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation RESULTS: 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2017-02-01

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling. Diagnostic test studies conducted on a sample of children of medium-high socioeconomic level were evaluated using ASQ at least once at 8, 18 and/or 30 months old, and later, between 6 and 9 years old, reevaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-third edition (WISC-III). Each ASQ evaluation was recorded independently. WISC-III was standardized, considering underperformance when the total score were under -1 standard deviation. 123 children, corresponding to 174 ASQ assessments (42 of them were 8 months old, 55 were 18 months and 77 were 30 months of age) were included. An area under the ROC curve of 80.7% was obtained, showing higher values at 8 months (98.0%) compared to 18 and 30 months old (78.1 and 79.3%, respectively). Considering different ASQ scoring criteria, a low sensitivity (27.8 to 50.0%), but a high specificity (78.8 to 96.2%) were obtained; the positive predictive value ranged between 21 and 46%, while the negative value was 92.0-93.2%. Conclusion ASQ has low sensitivity but excellent specificity to predict a low cognitive performance during the first years of schooling, being a good alternative to monitor psychomotor development in children who attend the private sector healthcare in our country.

  15. Early social behaviors and the trajectory of peer victimization across the school years.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Niwako; Berry, Daniel; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D

    2017-08-01

    Research has established that long-term exposure to peer victimization is associated with higher levels of emotional and behavioral maladjustment. Yet, relatively little is known regarding predictors of stable versus declining victimization across extended periods of time. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study used latent growth curve modeling to examine the separate and unique contributions of 3 early social behaviors in 2nd grade (aggression, anxious solitude, and prosocial behavior) to victimization across 2nd to 8th grade. Five hundred and 76 youth (M = 7.96 years, SD = .34) reported their level of exposure to victimization once a year from 2nd to 8th grade, and their teachers rated each youth on the 3 social behaviors in 2nd grade. When examined separately, the analyses revealed that (a) all 3 social behaviors contributed to 2nd-grade victimization; (b) anxious solitude and prosocial behavior contributed to the trajectory of victimization differently for boys and girls; and (c) aggression and anxious solitude contributed to significantly different levels of 8th-grade victimization in girls. Of interest, some effects were stronger in boys during elementary school and others were stronger in girls after the transition to middle school. When examined simultaneously, aggression remained the only significant predictor of 2nd-grade victimization; both anxious solitude and prosocial behavior uniquely predicted the trajectory of victimization, and aggression and anxious solitude uniquely predicted 8th-grade victimization in girls. Results are discussed with regard to prevention of prolonged victimization, with attention to gender differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. How Can the Skills of Early Years Leaders Support Other Leaders in a Primary School Setting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the leadership skills Early Years leaders demonstrated through their daily practice of teaching, assessing and teamwork within their setting. It explored how revealing the potential of Early Years leaders could have a positive impact on the leadership practice of other leaders in the same setting to improve pupil outcomes.…

  17. Quality in Early Years Settings and Children's School Achievement. CEP Discussion Paper No. 1468

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Hansen, Kirstine; McNally, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Childcare quality is often thought to be important for influencing children's subsequent attainment at school. The English Government regulates the quality of early education by setting minimum levels of qualifications for workers and grading settings based on a national Inspectorate (OfSTED). This paper uses administrative data on over two…

  18. They Still Can't Count: Assessing and Supporting Children's Counting Difficulties in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Klinken, Eduarda; Juleff, Emma

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe their efforts to teach counting skills to their class of 5- to 7-year-olds at the Glenleighden School, located in a a suburb of Brisbane. As Glenleighden early childhood teachers, they work in collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team that supports children with speech and language difficulties.…

  19. Astronomy in the early years of elementary education: a partnership between university and school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barai, A.; Carvalho Neto, J. T.; Garrido, D.; Ityanagui, G.; Navi, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the interaction and partnership experience between a school and one of the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)campi, both located in Araras, SP, aiming to teach and promote astronomy and astronautics knowledge among students of the first five years of Elementary Education. This initiative made use of Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics as a motivating event for the theme exploration. The actions were divided into two fronts: an improvement course for the school teachers conducted by university professors and lectures for students by UFSCar students under the guidance of university teachers and the school coordinators. By the observed results, we noticed the importance of narrowing the distance school-university, promoting learning for both institutions and helping to raise the level of education from elementary school to college.

  20. Language Development in the Early School Years: The Importance of Close Relationships with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilt, Jantine L.; Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Harrison, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their…

  1. Playful Structure: A Novel Image of Early Years Pedagogy for Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Sproule, Liz; McGuinness, Carol; Trew, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Playful structure is a new pedagogic image representing a more balanced and integrated perspective on early years pedagogy, aiming to blend apparent dichotomies and contradictions and to sustain and evolve play-based practice beyond Year 1. Playful structure invites teachers and children to initiate and maintain a degree of playfulness in the…

  2. Dual Language Learners in the Early Years: Getting Ready to Succeed in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Keira Gebbie; Sanderman, Alicia R.; McLaughlin, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge facing the prekindergarten-12 education system in the United States is the fact that as the population changes, the particular needs of children change with it. One of the largest demographic shifts over the last ten years is the sharp increase in the number of students in public schools who speak English as their second language…

  3. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  4. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  5. Early Years Literacy in Indian Urban Schools: Structural, Social and Pedagogical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Literacy has been a crucial aspect of education as a human right for over 50 years, but this basic right remains unassured for at least 700 million adults worldwide. In 1999, UNESCO acknowledged that schools are not making the expected contribution to increasing national literacy rates or providing individuals with the literacy skills they need.…

  6. Do Schools Begin Too Early?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Finley

    2012-01-01

    School start times vary considerably, both across the nation and within individual communities, with some schools beginning earlier than 7:30 a.m. and others after 9:00 a.m. Proponents of later start times, who have received considerable media attention in recent years, argue that many students who have to wake up early for school do not get…

  7. Family, school, peer and individual influences on early adolescent alcohol use: first-year impact of the Resilient Families programme.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Alison L; Hutchinson, Delyse M; Chapman, Rianna; Toumbourou, John W

    2007-11-01

    This study aimed to examine: (a) the influence of family factors relative to school, peer and individual influences on the development of adolescent alcohol use during the first year of secondary school; and (b) the feasibility of preventing adolescent alcohol use by modifying family factors. Twenty-four schools in Melbourne, Australia were randomly assigned to either the 'Resilient Families' intervention or a control condition. A baseline cohort of 2315 grade 7 students (mean age 12.3 years) were followed-up one year later (n=2128 for longitudinal analyses). A sub-set of parents (n=1166) also returned baseline surveys. The prevalence of lifetime alcohol use in year 7 was 33% and rose to 47% by year 8. Student-reported predictors of year 8 alcohol use included baseline alcohol [Odds Ratio (OR) 3.64] and tobacco use (2.68), and school friend's alcohol (1.41) and tobacco use (1.64). After adjusting for other influences, student-reported family factors were not maintained as significant predictors of year 8 alcohol use. Parent-report predictors of student-reported alcohol use included allowing alcohol use in the home (2.55), parental alcohol use (1.88) and child hyperactivity (1.85). Protective factors included attendance at brief parent education (0.60) and parent involvement in school education (0.65). The intervention appeared to benefit education-related outcomes, but no overall effect in reducing student alcohol use was found in year 8. Intervention effects on alcohol misuse may become significant in later secondary school once the entire program has been implemented. Considerable alcohol use was detected in early secondary school, suggesting that interventions to reduce alcohol use may be usefully implemented prior to this period.

  8. A Healthy Start: Promoting Mental Health and Well-Being in the Early Primary School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cefai, Carmel; Camilleri, Liberato

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems in children represent a significant international health concern, with up to one in five children using mental health services during the course of any given year. Identifying the processes of what prevents social, emotional and behaviour difficulties (SEBD) and promotes healthy development from an early age can make a…

  9. Early term and late preterm birth are associated with poorer school performance at age 5 years: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Maria A; Poulsen, Gry; Boyle, Elaine; Wolke, Dieter; Field, David; Alfirevic, Zarko; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J

    2012-05-01

    To compare school performance at age 5 years in children born at full term (39-41 weeks gestation) with those born at early term (37-38 weeks gestation), late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks gestation) and very preterm (<32 weeks gestation). Population-based cohort (UK Millennium Cohort Study). Seven thousand six hundred and fifty children born in 2000-2001 and attending school in England in 2006. School performance was measured using the foundation stage profile (FSP), a statutory assessment by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. The FSP comprises 13 assessment scales (scored from 1 to 9). Children who achieve an average of 6 points per scale and at least 6 in certain scales are classified as 'reaching a good level of overall achievement'. Fifty-one per cent of full term children had not reached a good level of overall achievement; this proportion increased with prematurity (55% in early term, 59% in late preterm, 63% in moderately preterm and 66% in very preterm children). Compared with full term children, an elevated risk remained after adjustment, even in early term (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% 1.00 to 1.11) and late preterm children (adjusted RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.22). Similar effects were noted for 'not working securely' in mathematical development, physical development and creative development. The effects of late preterm and early term birth were small in comparison with other risk factors. Late preterm and early term birth are associated with an increased risk of poorer educational achievement at age 5 years.

  10. Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and 1-Year Prediction of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts in Early Norwegian School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-01-01

    In this survey of early Norwegian school adolescents, the prevalence, course, and incidence of self-harm behavior with or without suicide intent were examined, in addition to predictors of self-harm for a 1-year follow-up period. Lifetime prevalence rates of self-harm without suicide intent and suicide attempts were 2.9% and 3.0%, respectively,…

  11. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  12. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  13. Predicting change in early adolescent problem behavior in the middle school years: a mesosystemic perspective on parenting and peer experiences.

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Dishion, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the middle school years. A longitudinal sample (580 boys, 698 girls) was assessed in Grades 6 and 8. Peer acceptance, peer rejection, and their interaction predicted increases in problem behavior. Having high-achieving friends predicted less problem behavior. Parental monitoring predicted less problem behavior in general, but also acted as a buffer for students who were most vulnerable to developing problem behavior on the basis of being well liked by some peers, and also disliked by several others. These findings highlight the importance of studying the family-peer mesosystem when considering risk and resilience in early adolescence, and when considering implications for intervention.

  14. Prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in 5-10-year-old school children in Chidambaram town.

    PubMed

    Ahamed, S Syed Shaheed; Reddy, Venugopal N; Krishnakumar, R; Mohan, Muthu G; Sugumaran, Durai K; Rao, Arun P

    2012-01-01

    The premature loss of primary teeth may reduce arch length required for the succeeding tooth and, hence, predisposes crowding, rotation and impaction of the permanent teeth. There are only limited studies carried out about the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth. The present study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of early loss of primary teeth in school children in Chidambaram town in Tamilnadu, India. A total of 1121 school children (561 boys and 560 girls) between 5 and 10 years of age were selected for the study. An experienced examiner performed all clinical examinations under natural light. Data including age and missing tooth was collected. Microsoft Excel/2000 (Microsoft Office XP) data spreadsheet was used and later exported to the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows (version 10.0). Descriptive statistics was applied and, from the results, chi-square tests were applied at a level of significance of 5% (P < 0.05). The results showed that 16.5% of the sample had early loss of primary teeth, but no differences were observed between genders (P > 0.05). The greatest prevalence was found among the 8-year olds (5.08%), and the most commonly missing teeth were the right lower primary first molars (16.82%). It can be concluded that the prevalence of early loss was high and that the lower primary molars were the most commonly missing teeth in the present study.

  15. Language development in the early school years: the importance of close relationships with teachers.

    PubMed

    Spilt, Jantine L; Koomen, Helma M Y; Harrison, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined developmental links between closeness in teacher-child relationships and children's receptive language ability from the end of the preschool years into the early elementary years, while controlling for changes in peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. The sample included children and their parents and teachers (N = 4,983) participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) at ages 4-5, 6-7, and 8-9 years (3 waves). Teachers reported on levels of closeness in relationships with individual children. Independent assessments of receptive language were employed. Parents and teachers reported on peer interaction problems and child conduct problems. Results indicated reciprocal associations between close teacher-child relationships and receptive language development above and beyond associations with peer interaction quality and child behavioral functioning. However, the effects were only modest. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. The Dynamics of Internalizing and Externalizing Comorbidity Across the Early School Years

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Cynthia J.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Bray, Bethany C.

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidity are observed between internalizing and externalizing problems, yet the developmental dynamics of comorbid symptom presentations are not yet well understood. This study explored the developmental course of latent profiles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms across kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grade. The sample consisted of 336 children from an urban, low-income community, selected based on relatively high (61%) or low (39%) aggressive/oppositional behavior problems at school entry (64% male; 70% African American, 20% Hispanic). Teachers reported on children’s symptoms in each year. An exploratory latent profile analysis of children’s scores on aggression/oppositionality, hyperactivity/inattention, anxiety, and social withdrawal symptom factors revealed 4 latent symptom profiles: comorbid (48% of the sample in each year), internalizing (19–23%), externalizing (21–22%), and well-adjusted (7–11%). The developmental course of these symptom profiles was examined using a latent transition analysis, which revealed remarkably high continuity in the comorbid symptom profile (89% from one year to the next) and moderately high continuity in both the internalizing and externalizing profiles (80% and 71%, respectively). Internalizing children had a 20% probability of remitting to the well-adjusted profile by the following year, whereas externalizing children had a 25% probability of transitioning to the comorbid profile. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a common vulnerability factor contributes to developmentally stable internalizing-externalizing comorbidity, while also suggesting that some children with externalizing symptoms are at risk for subsequently accumulating internalizing symptoms. PMID:27739391

  17. Teacher Perceptions and Self-Reported Practices of Education for Sustainability in the Early Years of Primary School: An Australian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasen, Michelle; Skamp, Keith; Simoncini, Kym

    2017-01-01

    This Australian case study provides a snapshot of Education for Sustainability (EfS) practice of early years teachers in the school sector (Preparatory to Year 3), during the first phase of implementation of the Australian national curriculum. Interviews with teachers, located in government, Catholic and independent schools, were conducted by…

  18. Permeating the Social Justice Ideals of Equality and Equity within the Context of Early Years: Challenges for Leadership in Multi-Cultural and Mono-Cultural Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ideology of social justice through links between equality and equity within Early Years and what remain the challenges for leadership. Questionnaires and interviews in English multi-cultural and mono-cultural schools with Early Years age phases were conducted. The findings showed that the ideology of social justice,…

  19. Children's thinking about diversity of belief in the early school years: judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons.

    PubMed

    Wainryb, Cecilia; Shaw, Leigh A; Langley, Marcie; Cottam, Kim; Lewis, Renee

    2004-01-01

    Children's thinking about diversity of belief in 4 realms--morality, taste, facts, and ambiguous facts--was examined. Ninety-six participants (ages 5, 7, and 9) were interviewed about beliefs different from their own that were endorsed by characters with different status; their judgments of relativism, tolerance, and disagreeing persons were assessed. Five-year-olds made fewer relative and tolerant judgments than 7- and 9-year-olds. Nevertheless, participants of all ages organized their judgments according to the realm of diversity, thought that some beliefs are relative and some are nonrelative, and made tolerant judgments of some divergent beliefs (and their proponents) but not of others. The findings suggest that, in the early school years, children have multiple and well-differentiated perspectives on belief diversity.

  20. Internationally adopted children in the early school years: relative strengths and weaknesses in language abilities.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition (CELF-P2) and the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition (CELF-4) at age 5 and ages 6-7. Language composites and subtests were compared across time. All CELF-P2 and CELF-4 mean scores fell in the average range. Receptive composites were 102.74 and 103.86, and expressive composites were 100.58 and 98.42, at age 5 and ages 6-7, respectively. Age of adoption did not correlate to test scores. At ages 6-7, receptive language, sentence formulation, and vocabulary were areas of strength, with subtest scores significantly better than test norms. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar subtest scores were within the average range but significantly worse than test norms. A high percentage of children scored 1 standard deviation below the mean on these 2 subtests (27.3%-34.1%). Eastern European adoptees had average scores on a variety of language tests. Vocabulary was a relative strength; enriching the environment substantially improved this language area. Verbal short-term memory and expressive grammar were relative weaknesses. Children learning a language later in life may have difficulty with verbal short-term memory, which leads to weaknesses in expressive syntax and grammar.

  1. The Development of Executive Function and Language Skills in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated…

  2. Building Blocks: Making Children Successful in the Early Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeroff, Gene I.

    2006-01-01

    A student's entire journey along the educational spectrum is affected by what occurs--and, crucially, by what does not occur--before the age of eight or nine. Yet early learning has never received the attention it deserves and needs. In his latest book, education expert Gene Maeroff takes a hard look at early learning and the primary grades of…

  3. Views and Experiences of Third-Year, Early Childhood Education, University Students about Science Education in Junior and Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Liana; Plakitsi, Katerina; Papantoniou, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Research on Junior and Senior high school students' attitude toward SE (Science Education) courses focuses on students' attitudes, views, interests and perceptions stemming from their school experiences related to the courses. This study examines the way third-year students of the Early Childhood Education Department in Ioannina have viewed and…

  4. Typologies of Family Functioning and Children's Adjustment during the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent-child, and triadic contexts. In addition, it charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children's developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across…

  5. Associations among Maternal Behavior, Delay of Gratification, and School Readiness across the Early Childhood Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razza, Rachel A.; Raymond, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental pathways from maternal behavior to school readiness within a sample of 1007 children, with a specific focus on the mediating role of delay of gratification (DoG). Maternal behavior across the first 36 months of age was explored as a predictor of children's DoG at 54 months as well as their behavioral and…

  6. Crafting Miniature Students in the Early Years: Schooling for Desirable Childhoods in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, I.-Fang; Yelland, Nicola J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of miniature students to interrogate the ways in which early childhood care and education systems in East Asian countries are being constructed. Experiences drawn from working in the Hong Kong education system and observations of teaching and researching in Hong Kong have enabled an analysis about the ways in which…

  7. Dual language profiles of Latino children of immigrants: Stability and change over the early school years

    PubMed Central

    COLLINS, BRIAN A.; O'CONNOR, ERIN E.; SUÁREZ-OROZCO, CAROLA; NIETO-CASTAÑON, ALFONSO; TOPPELBERG, CLAUDIO O.

    2013-01-01

    Dual language children enter school with varying levels of proficiencies in their first and second language. This study of Latino children of immigrants (N = 163) analyzes their dual language profiles at kindergarten and second grade, derived from the direct assessment of Spanish and English proficiencies (Woodcock Language Proficiency Batteries–Revised). Children were grouped based on the similarity of language profiles (competent profiles, such as dual proficient, Spanish proficient, and English proficient; and low-performing profiles, including borderline proficient and limited proficient). At kindergarten, the majority of children (63%) demonstrated a low-performing profile; by second grade, however, the majority of children (64%) had competent profiles. Change and stability of language profiles over time of individual children were then analyzed. Of concern, are children who continued to demonstrate a low-performing, high-risk profile. Factors in the linguistic environments at school and home, as well as other family and child factors associated with dual language profiles and change/stability over time were examined, with a particular focus on the persistently low-performing profile groups. PMID:24825925

  8. Language Abilities of Internationally Adopted Children from China during the Early School Years: Evidence for Early Age Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred; Gauthier, Karine

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the language, cognitive, and socioemotional abilities of 27 internationally adopted children from China, adopted by French-speaking parents, 12 of whom had been assessed previously by Gauthier and Genesee. The children were on average 7 years, 10 months old and were matched to nonadopted monolingual French-speaking children on age,…

  9. Creativity: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  10. Addressing Gender Violence among Children in the Early Years of Schooling: Insights from Teachers in a South African Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayeza, Emmanuel; Bhana, Deevia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how teachers in a poor township primary school in South Africa construct meaning regarding gender violence among children, and how they talk about addressing that violence. The paper argues that major influences on the endemic violence include complex societal structures that are inscribed with cultures of violent…

  11. Spelling and Meaning of Compounds in the Early School Years through Classroom Games: An Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Tsesmeli, Styliani N

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention ( N = 29 children) and a control group ( N = 31 children). Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families ( N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions) and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms.

  12. Spelling and Meaning of Compounds in the Early School Years through Classroom Games: An Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsesmeli, Styliani N.

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects on spelling and meaning of compounds by Greek students via group board games in classroom settings. The sample consisted of 60 pupils, who were attending the first and second grade of two primary schools in Greece. Each grade-class was divided into an intervention (N = 29 children) and a control group (N = 31 children). Before intervention, groups were evaluated by standardized tests of reading words/pseudowords, spelling words, and vocabulary. Students were also assessed on compound knowledge by a word analogy task, a meaning task and a spelling task. The experimental design of the intervention included a pre-test, a training program, and a post-test. The pre- and post-assessments consisted of the spelling and the meaning tasks entailing equally morphologically transparent and opaque compounds. The training program was based on word families (N = 10 word families, 56 trained items, 5 sessions) and aimed to offer instruction of morphological decomposition and meaning of words. The findings showed that training was effective in enhancing the spelling and most notably the meaning of compounds. A closer inspection of intervention data in terms of morphological transparency, revealed that training group of first graders improved significantly both on transparent and opaque compounds, while the degree of gains was larger on opaque items for the second graders. These findings are consistent with the experimental literature and particularly optimistic for the literacy enhancement of typically developing children in regular classrooms. PMID:29238316

  13. Clowne Science Scheme--A Method Based Course for the Early Years in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burden, I. J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a two-year course sequence that is team taught and theme centered. Themes include the earth, the senses, time, and rate of change. The teaching method is the discovery approach and the role of the teacher is outlined. Explains student assessment and outlines problems and observations related to the program. (GS)

  14. Maternal state of mind regarding attachment, maternal depression and children's family drawings in the early school years.

    PubMed

    Fihrer, Irene; McMahon, Cathy

    2009-11-01

    The current study explored how children's family drawings in the early school years might be related to their exposure to recurrent episodes of maternal depression. We also examined prospectively relations among maternal state of mind regarding attachment derived from the Adult Attachment Interview and earlier mother-child attachment from the Strange Situation Procedure (both measured when the child was 12-15 months old) and later family drawings. Seventy-five mothers were assessed for symptoms of depression periodically between birth and child age 6-8 years. At this age, children completed a family drawing rated using an attachment-based scoring system. Both mothers' state of mind regarding attachment and their overall depression were modestly, but significantly, correlated with a global rating of the child's drawings. When both predictors were considered together, however, neither was significant, reflecting collinearity between the two variables. In this study, women with a non-autonomous state of mind regarding attachment were significantly more likely to experience recurrent depression. The earlier classification of the child's attachment to the mother from the Strange Situation Procedure was not related to the family drawing.

  15. Do Rural and Regional Students in Queensland Experience an ICT "Turn-Off" in the Early High School Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Lyn; Anderson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Students learning in regional, rural and remote locations in Queensland are currently experiencing a "turn-off" in relation to school-based ICT in the first three years of high school. At the same time, students are experiencing increasing levels of interest and motivation from their use of ICT at home. Given the importance of ICT as an…

  16. Predicting Change in Early Adolescent Problem Behavior in the Middle School Years: A Mesosystemic Perspective on Parenting and Peer Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into middle school may be a risky period in early adolescence. In particular, friendships, peer status, and parental monitoring during this developmental period can influence the development of problem behavior. This study examined interrelationships among peer and parenting factors that predict changes in problem behavior over the…

  17. Early Years Students' Relationships with Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki; Towers, Jo; Plosz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early years mathematics experiences have been shown to be a significant predictor for students' school readiness and future mathematics achievement. Previous research also indicates an important connection between emotion and mathematics learning. How do students in early years education in Alberta describe their emotional relationship with…

  18. Protecting the Development of 5-11-Year-Olds from the Impacts of Early Disadvantage: The Role of Primary School Academic Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Hall, James; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not more effective schools can successfully mitigate the impacts of early disadvantage upon educational attainment remains uncertain. We investigated 2,664 children aged 6-11 years and measured their academic skills in English and maths along with self-regulation at 6, 7, and 11. Experiencing multiple disadvantages before age 5 strongly…

  19. Dangerous Activities within an Invisible Playground: A Study of Emergent Male Football Play and Teachers' Perspectives of Outdoor Free Play in the Early Years of Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Pam

    2007-01-01

    This research was carried out during a study which focused upon the rough and tumble play of children in the early years department of a suburban primary school in northern England. The child sample's playtime activities were ethnographically observed over a period of 18 calendar months, during which time interviews were also carried out with the…

  20. Visual Motor Integration as a Screener for Responders and Non-Responders in Preschool and Early School Years: Implications for Inclusive Assessment in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Kazem, Ali Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Visual motor integration (VMI) is the ability of the eyes and hands to work together in smooth, efficient patterns. In Oman, there are few effective methods to assess VMI skills in children in inclusive settings. The current study investigated the performance of preschool and early school years responders and non-responders on a VMI test. The full…

  1. Distinct Trajectories of Separation Anxiety in the Preschool Years: Persistence at School Entry and Early-Life Associated Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglia, Marco; Touchette, Évelyne; Garon-Carrier, Gabrielle; Dionne, Ginette; Côté, Sylvana M.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how children differ in the onset and evolution of separation anxiety (SA) symptoms during the preschool years, and how SA develops into separation anxiety disorder. In a large, representative population-based sample, we investigated the developmental trajectories of SA symptoms from infancy to school entry, their…

  2. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation.

    PubMed

    Orava, Taryn; Manske, Steve; Hanning, Rhona

    2017-09-01

    Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH) framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services) has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150). We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13) and Time II (2014). Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES), which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school's support for healthy eating was classified as either "initiation," "action" or "maintenance" along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as "high/increased," "moderate" or "low/decreased" within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary) participated. Most schools remained in the "action" category (n = 20) across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support) and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support). Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance) in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy eating in Ontario school food environments.

  3. Support for healthy eating at schools according to the comprehensive school health framework: evaluation during the early years of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy implementation

    PubMed Central

    Taryn, Orava; Steve, Manske; Rhona, Hanning

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Provincial, national and international public health agencies recognize the importance of school nutrition policies that help create healthful environments aligned with healthy eating recommendations for youth. School-wide support for healthy living within the pillars of the comprehensive school health (CSH) framework (social and physical environments; teaching and learning; healthy school policy; and partnerships and services) has been positively associated with fostering improvements to student health behaviours. This study used the CSH framework to classify, compare and describe school support for healthy eating during the implementation of the Ontario School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150). Methods: We collected data from consenting elementary and secondary schools in a populous region of Ontario in Time I (2012/13) and Time II (2014). Representatives from the schools completed the Healthy School Planner survey and a food environmental scan (FES), which underwent scoring and content analyses. Each school’s support for healthy eating was classified as either “initiation,” “action” or “maintenance” along the Healthy School Continuum in both time periods, and as “high/increased,” “moderate” or “low/decreased” within individual CSH pillars from Time I to Time II. Results: Twenty-five school representatives (8 elementary, 17 secondary) participated. Most schools remained in the “action” category (n = 20) across both time periods, with varying levels of support in the CSH pillars. The physical environment was best supported (100% high/increased support) and the social environment was the least (68% low/decreased support). Only two schools achieved the highest rating (maintenance) in Time II. Supports aligned with P/PM 150 were reportedly influenced by administration buy-in, stakeholder support and relevancy to local context. Conclusion: Further assistance is required to sustain comprehensive support for healthy

  4. Getting Ready for School: The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Program Implementation and Early Outcomes: Year 3 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn; Mayers, Leifa

    2009-01-01

    Chapin Hall has been conducting an implementation and evaluability study of the ECCI (Early Childhood Cluster Initiative) project since the midway point of its first year. As described in the authors' first report (Spielberger & Goyette, 2006), the initiative made considerable progress in its initial year, particularly in implementing the…

  5. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  6. Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Teaching Practices for Moral Learning in the Early Years of School: Relationships and Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn Brownlee, Jo; Johansson, Eva; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Ailwood, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    While investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society, little is known about early years teaching practices that promote learning of moral values. This paper reports on observations and interviews with 11 Australian teachers, focusing on their epistemic beliefs and beliefs about…

  7. Continued Education. A Study of the Education of Young European School Leavers During Their Last Years at School and Early Years at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudale, E. W.

    The educational needs and aspirations of a large proportion of Europe's teenagers (13 to 18 years of age) and the provision that is or should be made for them are the subject for this study. Part I of the study describes the pace and magnitude of some of the main socioeconomic changes that are transforming the face of Europe in the second half of…

  8. PHOBOS, the Early Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephans, George S. F.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michalowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2002-06-01

    The PHOBOS detector, one of the two small experiments at RHIC, focuses on measurements of charged particle multiplicity over almost the full phase space and identified particles near mid-rapidity. Results will be presented from the early RHIC gold--gold runs at nucleon--nucleon center of mass energies of 56 and 130 GeV as well as the recently concluded run at the full RHIC energy of 200 GeV.

  9. Funding Early College High School: Hold Harmless or Shared Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Early college high schools are a promising but expensive pathway to college readiness. Most such schools are supported with state funds and/or grants. This descriptive case study presents an early college program, now in its fourth year in a traditional high school, in which the families, high school and local community college shared the entire…

  10. Educational Achievement and Early School Behavior as Predictors of Alcohol-Use Disorders: 35-Year Follow-Up of the Woodlawn Study*

    PubMed Central

    CRUM, ROSA M.; JUON, HEE-SOON; GREEN, KERRY M.; ROBERTSON, JUDITH; FOTHERGILL, KATE; ENSMINGER, MARGARET

    2018-01-01

    Objective Using prospectively gathered data across a 35-year follow-up interval, we assessed the association of educational achievement and school behaviors with risk for the development of an alcohol-use disorder in adulthood. Method The baseline population consisted of 1,242 first-grade students in 1966–1967 residing in the Woodlawn community of Chicago, Illinois. Follow-up interviews were completed for adolescents and their mothers (1975–1976), during young adulthood (1992–1993), and midlife (2002–2003). A total of 1,052 individuals completed the young adult and/or midlife interviews and provided information to assess the presence of a lifetime alcohol-use disorder. Logistic regression with multiple imputation to account for missing information was used to assess the relationships between early-educational and school-behavior characteristics with onset of a DSM-III-R/DSM-IV alcohol-use disorder (defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview). Results Relatively few of the hypothesized educational predictors were associated with risk for alcohol-use disorders in adulthood. The measures found to be predictive of a subsequent alcohol-use disorder included the following: (1) math achievement among first-grade boys, (2) mothers’ report of skipping school among adolescent males, (3) self-report of skipping school among adolescent girls, and (4) school dropout. Early shyness among first-grade boys was protective for later alcohol-use disorders. Conclusions The current report supplies data on the association of educational characteristics and school behaviors with the development of an alcohol-use disorder in a population-based sample with an extended interval of follow-up. Gender-specific differences are discussed. PMID:16536131

  11. Geometry in the Early Years: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to provide a commentary on the teaching and learning of geometry in the early years of schooling with the set of papers in this issue as a guiding factor. It is structured around issues about geometry education of young learners, such as: what should we teach in geometry and why; representation of geometrical…

  12. Early Lessons in Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann; And Others

    Restructuring schools has become a rallying cry among educators. It aims to create schools that are more centered on learner's needs for active, experiential, cooperative, and culturally connected learning opportunities supportive of individual talents and learning styles. This report is based on an early evaluation of the process of restructuring…

  13. Early School Transfer: Teacher Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maun, Ian; Trend, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This empirical research involves the investigation of teachers' perceptions of a school transfer scheme whereby children aged 11+ years transfer permanently from primary to secondary school four weeks before the end of the summer term, in mid-June, in a small English town. Expressed perceptions of the secondary school staff concerning the…

  14. Risk factors for low receptive vocabulary abilities in the preschool and early school years in the longitudinal study of Australian children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Daniel; Zubrick, Stephen R; Lawrence, David; Mitrou, Francis; Taylor, Catherine L

    2014-01-01

    Receptive vocabulary development is a component of the human language system that emerges in the first year of life and is characterised by onward expansion throughout life. Beginning in infancy, children's receptive vocabulary knowledge builds the foundation for oral language and reading skills. The foundations for success at school are built early, hence the public health policy focus on reducing developmental inequalities before children start formal school. The underlying assumption is that children's development is stable, and therefore predictable, over time. This study investigated this assumption in relation to children's receptive vocabulary ability. We investigated the extent to which low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years was associated with low receptive vocabulary ability at 8 years, and the predictive utility of a multivariate model that included child, maternal and family risk factors measured at 4 years. The study sample comprised 3,847 children from the first nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate risks for low receptive vocabulary ability from 4-8 years and sensitivity-specificity analysis was used to examine the predictive utility of the multivariate model. In the multivariate model, substantial risk factors for receptive vocabulary delay from 4-8 years, in order of descending magnitude, were low receptive vocabulary ability at 4 years, low maternal education, and low school readiness. Moderate risk factors, in order of descending magnitude, were low maternal parenting consistency, socio-economic area disadvantage, low temperamental persistence, and NESB status. The following risk factors were not significant: One or more siblings, low family income, not reading to the child, high maternal work hours, and Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ethnicity. The results of the sensitivity-specificity analysis showed that a well-fitted multivariate model

  15. Measuring Students' Emotions in the Early Years: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School (AEQ-ES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Reiss, Kristina; Murayama, Kou

    2012-01-01

    This article reports about the development and validation of a measurement instrument assessing elementary school students' achievement emotions (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School, AEQ-ES). Specifically, the instrument assesses students' enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom pertaining to three types of academic settings (i.e.,…

  16. EARLY SCHOOL ADMISSION PROJECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JONES, EDGAR L.

    CHILDREN FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN SUBSTANDARD OR OVERCROWDED INNER CITY DWELLINGS IN BALTIMORE WERE SELECTED FOR AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM BECAUSE THEY TYPIFIED THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED YOUNGSTERS WHO COULD BE EXPECTED TO SUFFER FAILURE OR FRUSTRATION UPON PUBLIC SCHOOL ENTRY AT THE AGES OF FIVE OR SIX. CENTERS WERE OPENED IN 1963.…

  17. Are trajectories of self-regulation abilities from ages 2-3 to 6-7 associated with academic achievement in the early school years?

    PubMed

    Sawyer, A C P; Chittleborough, C R; Mittinty, M N; Miller-Lewis, L R; Sawyer, M G; Sullivan, T; Lynch, J W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between two key aspects of self-regulation, 'task attentiveness' and 'emotional regulation' assessed from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years, and academic achievement when children were aged 6-7 years. Participants (n = 3410) were children in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Parents rated children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation abilities when children were aged 2-3, 4-5 and 6-7. Academic achievement was assessed using the Academic Rating Scale completed by teachers. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between developmental trajectories (i.e. rate of change per year) of task attentiveness and emotional regulation, and academic achievement at 6-7 years. Improvements in task attentiveness between 2-3 and 6-7 years, adjusted for baseline levels of task attentiveness, child and family confounders, and children's receptive vocabulary and non-verbal reasoning skills at age 6-7 were associated with greater teacher-rated literacy [B = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04-0.06] and maths achievement (B = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.03-0.06) at 6-7 years. Improvements in emotional regulation, adjusting for baseline levels and covariates, were also associated with better teacher-rated literacy (B = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) but not with maths achievement (B = 0.01, 95% CI = -0.01-0.02) at 6-7 years. For literacy, improvements in task attentiveness had a stronger association with achievement at 6-7 years than improvements in emotional regulation. Our study shows that improved trajectories of task attentiveness from ages 2-3 to 6-7 years are associated with improved literacy and maths achievement during the early school years. Trajectories of improving emotional regulation showed smaller effects on academic outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that improve task attentiveness when children are aged 2-3 to 6-7 years have the potential to improve literacy and maths achievement during

  18. Early introduction and cumulative consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages during the pre-school period and risk of obesity at 8-14 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cantoral, A; Téllez-Rojo, M M; Ettinger, A S; Hu, H; Hernández-Ávila, M; Peterson, K

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with risk of obesity, but little evidence exists to evaluate if age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption increases risk in children. The objective of the study was to estimate the relationship between age of introduction and cumulative SSB consumption with risk of obesity in 227 Mexican children. SSB intake was measured every 6 months; age of introduction and cumulative consumption during the pre-school period were calculated. Height, weight, waist circumference, SSB intake and other relevant variables were measured at age 8-14 years and obesity defined using standard criteria. All participants were introduced to SSB before age 24 months and most (73%) before 12 months. Early SSB introduction (≤12 months) was not significantly associated with increased odds of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 4.59). However, children in the highest tertile of cumulative SSB consumption, compared with the lowest, had almost three times the odds of general (OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.27, 7.00) and abdominal (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 1.03, 7.03) obesity at age 8-14 years. High SSB consumption increased the likelihood of obesity in 8-14-year-old children. Our results suggest that SSB intake should be delayed and excessive SSB consumption in pre-school period should be avoided. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Literacy in the Early Years and English as an Additional Language: The Case of a British International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englezou, Eliana; Fragkouli, Elpiniki

    2014-01-01

    The study upon which this article is based investigates teachers' literacy development methods used in nursery and reception classrooms of a British international school, and focuses specifically on children having English as an additional language (EAL). Findings from teaching observations and from interviews with teachers present the techniques…

  20. Does It Matter Who Your Schoolmates Are? An Investigation of the Association between School Composition, School Processes and Mathematics Achievement in the Early Years of Primary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonen, Tinneke; Speybroeck, Sara; de Bilde, Jerissa; Lamote, Carl; Van Damme, Jan; Onghena, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Although many studies have focused on the importance of school composition for student achievement, there is still no consensus on "whether" school composition matters to student achievement, and, if so, "why". Therefore, the present study investigates the association between school composition and mathematics achievement at…

  1. Meta-Analysis of Theory of Mind and Peer Popularity in the Preschool and Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Imuta, Kana; Peterson, Candida C.; Henry, Julie D.

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that children who possess an advanced theory of mind (ToM) are viewed positively by their peers, but the empirical findings are mixed. This meta-analysis of 20 studies including 2,096 children (aged from 2 years, 8 months to 10 years) revealed a significant overall association (r = 0.19) indicating that children with higher ToM…

  2. Preschool and Primary School Influences on the Development of Children's Early Numeracy Skills between the Ages of 3 and 7 Years in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Yvonne; Grosse, Christiane; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Ebert, Susanne; Weinert, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how preschool and primary school interact to influence children's cognitive development. The present investigation explores German children's numeracy skills between age 3 (1st year of preschool) and age 7 (1st year of primary school). We first identified the influence of preschool experience on development while…

  3. Friendship conflict and the development of generalized physical aggression in the early school years: a genetically informed study of potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Salvas, Marie-Claude; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Several authors consider high and frequent conflicts between friends during childhood as a serious risk for subsequent conduct problems such as generalized physical aggression toward others (e.g., Kupersmidt, Burchinal, & Patterson, 1995; Sebanc, 2003). Although it seems logical to assume that friendship conflict could have some negative consequences on children's behaviors, some scholars have suggested that a certain amount of conflict between friends may actually promote social adjustment (e.g., Laursen & Pursell, 2009). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of friendship conflict in regard to the development of generalized physical aggression toward others in the early school years (i.e., from kindergarten to Grade 1), as well as the moderating role of relational (i.e., shared positive affect and dyadic conflict resolution skills) and personal (i.e., children's sex and genetic liability for aggression) characteristics in this context. The sample included 745 twins assessed through teacher, peer, child, and friend ratings in kindergarten and Grade 1. Friendship conflict in kindergarten was linearly related to an increase in boys' but not girls' generalized physical aggression. However, shared positive affect and conflict resolution skills mitigated the prospective associations between friendship conflict and generalized physical aggression. These results were independent of children's sex, genetic risk for physical aggression, and initial levels of generalized physical aggression in kindergarten. Fostering a positive relationship between friends at school entry may buffer against the risk associated with experiencing friendship conflict. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Student-Teacher Relationship Stability across Early School Years for Children with Intellectual Disability or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.

    2009-01-01

    Student-teacher relationships of 37 children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability and 61 with typical cognitive development were assessed from child ages 6-8 years. Student-teacher relationship quality was moderately stable for the typical development group, but less so for the intellectual disability group. At each assessment these…

  5. Student–Teacher Relationship Stability Across Early School Years for Children With Intellectual Disability or Typical Development

    PubMed Central

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.

    2009-01-01

    Student–teacher relationships of 37 children with moderate to borderline intellectual disability and 61 with typical cognitive development were assessed from child ages 6–8 years. Student–teacher relationship quality was moderately stable for the typical development group, but less so for the intellectual disability group. At each assessment these relationships were poorer for children with intellectual disability. Child behavior problems consistently predicted more conflict, whereas social skills predicted more closeness. Accounting for these child characteristics reduced the status group difference to nonsignificance. Earlier student–teacher relationships predicted subsequent changes in child behavior problems and social skills. Student–teacher relationships in the intellectual disability group were significantly lower for children in regular than special classes by age 8. PMID:19928015

  6. Can Touch Screen Tablets be Used to Assess Cognitive and Motor Skills in Early Years Primary School Children? A Cross-Cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Outhwaite, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of cognitive and motor functions is fundamental for developmental and neuropsychological profiling. Assessments are usually conducted on an individual basis, with a trained examiner, using standardized paper and pencil tests, and can take up to an hour or more to complete, depending on the nature of the test. This makes traditional standardized assessments of child development largely unsuitable for use in low-income countries. Touch screen tablets afford the opportunity to assess cognitive functions in groups of participants, with untrained administrators, with precision recording of responses, thus automating the assessment process. In turn, this enables cognitive profiling to be conducted in contexts where access to qualified examiners and standardized assessments are rarely available. As such, touch screen assessments could provide a means of assessing child development in both low- and high-income countries, which would afford cross-cultural comparisons to be made with the same assessment tool. However, before touch screen tablet assessments can be used for cognitive profiling in low-to-high-income countries they need to be shown to provide reliable and valid measures of performance. We report the development of a new touch screen tablet assessment of basic cognitive and motor functions for use with early years primary school children in low- and high-income countries. Measures of spatial intelligence, visual attention, short-term memory, working memory, manual processing speed, and manual coordination are included as well as mathematical knowledge. To investigate if this new touch screen assessment tool can be used for cross-cultural comparisons we administered it to a sample of children ( N = 283) spanning standards 1-3 in a low-income country, Malawi, and a smaller sample of children ( N = 70) from first year of formal schooling from a high-income country, the UK. Split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, face validity, convergent

  7. Migrant Preschool Children's School Readiness and Early Elementary School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassolie, Tanya; López, Claudia; De Feyter, Jessica; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Winsler, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the early educational performance of children in migrant farmworker families. The authors examined the school readiness and early school success of 289 four-year-old preschool children of migrant families attending Redlands Christian Migrant Association centers. Children's school readiness was assessed and public school…

  8. Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: An Early Look at Applicants and Participating Schools under the SOAR Act. Year 1 Report. NCEE 2015-4000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jill; Lucas-McLean, Juanita; Gutmann, Babette; Dynarski, Mark; Betts, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This report explores implementation of the District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP) in the first two years after Congress reauthorized it with some changes under the SOAR Act of 2011. Key findings include the following: (1) Just over half of all DC private schools participated in the OSP, with current schools more likely to have…

  9. Evaluation of the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program: An Early Look at Applicants and Participating Schools under the SOAR Act. Year 1 Report, Executive Summary. NCEE 2015-4000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Jill; Lucas-McLean, Juanita; Gutmann, Babette; Dynarski, Mark; Betts, Julian

    2014-01-01

    This report explores implementation of the District of Columbia Opportunity Scholarship Program (OSP) in the first two years after Congress reauthorized it with some changes under the SOAR Act of 2011. Key findings include the following: (1) Just over half of all DC private schools participated in the OSP, with current schools more likely to have…

  10. To Separate or Not to Separate? Parental Decision-Making regarding the Separation of Twins in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, Sally; Thorpe, Karen; Thompson, Catherine; Danby, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In recent times concerns about possible adverse effects of early separation and advocacy for individual rights have resulted in a movement away from organizational level policies about the separation of twin children as they enter school. Instead, individualized approaches that focus on the twin children's characteristics and family perspectives…

  11. The Needs of Four Year Old Children in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Audrey

    England's trend toward encouraging 4-year-old children to begin infant school at the beginning of the year in which they become 5 years of age led the British Association for Early Childhood Education to investigate the needs of 4-year-olds in school. At the end of a year's discussion, 56 working groups completed a questionnaire which has raised…

  12. Towards a More Telling Way of Understanding Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research into early school leaving. A narrative interview approach was used to document and analyse the experiences, processes and decisions that a small sample of boys made prior to leaving school, in this case, before completing year 10 and 11. Data collected in 2004 indicate that schools along with students…

  13. Early Years Centres for Pre-School Children with Primary Language Difficulties: What Do They Cost, and are They Cost-Effective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, J.; Dockrell, J. E.; Castelnuovo, E.; Williams, K.; Seeff, B.; Normand, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: High levels of early language difficulties raise practical issues about the efficient and effective means of meeting children's needs. Persistent language difficulties place significant financial pressures on health and education services. This has led to large investment in intervention in the early years; yet, little is known about…

  14. Year-Round Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1996-01-01

    One avenue being explored as a way to cut costs while maintaining the quality of programs and services is year-round education (YRE). In most cases, the known benefits and drawbacks of an existing component of traditional scheduling must be weighed against the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of YRE. The five articles reviewed in this…

  15. Efficacy of Language Intervention in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Silke; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Haley, Allyson J.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral language skills in the preschool and early school years are critical to educational success and provide the foundations for the later development of reading comprehension. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 180 children from 15 UK nursery schools ("n" = 12 from each setting; M[subscript age] = 4;0) were randomly…

  16. Early Identification System: Year Two. Research Report 80-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stennett, R. G.; Earl, L. M.

    During the academic year 1978-79, school teams implemented a newly developed early identification system in all kindergarten and grade one classes in London, Ontario schools. After analysis and revision of the system, the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the process and a test of its short-term predictive validity were investigated.…

  17. Association Between Early Menarche and School Bullying.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiru; Chen, Zhengyang; Li, Ruili; Elgar, Frank J; Liu, Zhihao; Lian, Qiguo

    2018-04-25

    Early pubertal onset may relate to more involvement in bullying in adolescent girls, both as a target and as a perpetrator. However, the few studies of the association between early menarche and school bullying have shown mixed findings. The present study examined whether early menarche is associated with bullying victimization and perpetration. We obtained survey data on adolescent girls from the 2001-2002, 2005-2006, and 2009-2010 cycles of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study in 35 European and North American countries. We identified school bullying in the past 2 months using the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. We defined early menarche as a reported onset of menarche before 11 years and tested the associations between early menarche and bullying victimization and perpetration using three-level logistic regression models. The sample included 227,443 adolescent girls with a mean age of 13.64 (standard deviation [SD] 1.63) years, of which 10,172 (4.47%) were early matured; 62,528 (28.33%) and 56,582 (25.67%) were occasional victims and perpetrators, respectively; and 21,985 (9.96%) and 14,115 (6.40%) were frequent victims and perpetrators, respectively. Early menarche related to occasional victimization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21 [1.12-1.31]) and perpetration (aOR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.11-1.27]) and to frequent victimization (aOR [95% CI] = 1.35 [1.22-1.50]) and perpetration (aOR [95% CI] = 1.46 [1.31-1.63]). Early menarche in European and North American adolescent girls positively relates to bullying victimization and perpetration. Early-maturing girls should not be neglected in antibullying programs. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Indigenous Students' Increasing Risk of Grade Repetition in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of school, Preparatory (Prep) to Year 3, in Queensland state schools, of which there is a significant gap in the Australian research literature. Data accessed from the Queensland Government's Department of Education and Training (DET), shows that particular groups of students…

  19. 9+ The Year-Round School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC.

    The 9-month school year with a 3-month summer vacation had its origin in our earlier agrarian life. Today's teacher shortages, overcrowded schools, and pressures to learn demand extensions of the school year. This publication analyzes five programs: (1) a staggered-vacation school year for all, (2) a full 48-week school year for all, (3) a…

  20. Incentives for Early Graduation: How Can State Policies Encourage Students to Complete High School in Less than Four Years? Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Diane; Vargas, Joel

    2011-01-01

    In many states, high-achieving high school students have long had the ability to skip their senior year. Such policies enable motivated young people who fulfill graduation requirements to move on to college or a career--saving time and money for their families and society. A growing number of states are going further, with financial rewards for…

  1. Bilingual Readiness in Earliest School Years; A Curriculum Demonstration Project. Bilingual Readiness in Primary Grades; An Early Childhood Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finocchiaro, Mary; King, Paul F.

    These two curriculum demonstration projects on bilingual readiness in the earliest school years contain many similarities. Both were formed on the thesis that young children can and will learn a second language readily and that the urban classroom mixture of Spanish-speaking, English-speaking, and Negro-dialect speaking children can be capitalized…

  2. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  3. Why Are There Still so Few Men within Early Years in Primary Schools: Views from Male Trainee Teachers and Male Leaders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges facing the Early Years (EY) sector is how to encourage more male practitioners to counterbalance a largely feminised workforce. Using case studies of male trainees at different stages of their primary undergraduate Initial Teacher Training course at one university, we attempt to consider data why there is under-representation…

  4. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  5. The Early Years: Integrating Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy; Nellor, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is such a common part of children's work in early childhood programs that teachers can simply look around the room to identify examples where students have engaged in engineering practices. This article presents a classroom activity that integrates engineering design by building on the everyday problems that young children encounter in…

  6. The Early Years: Mixing Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    Engaging children's interest, inspiring active exploration of materials, and fostering cooperation between children and adults is the best way to promote the construction of knowledge. Some popular early childhood activities can be expanded to provide experiences and time for children to build on their prior knowledge. This column discusses…

  7. Early School Leavers in the Community. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Melville, Bernice

    The experiences of early school leavers in a New South Wales Central Coast community during the year after they left school were examined to identify ways of easing their transition into the community and the work force. Data were collected through interviews with community service providers, representatives of educational agencies, refuge…

  8. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  9. Middle Grades' School Models and Their Impact on Early Adolescent Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Sheehan, Heather Chase; Earley, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the world, school grade structures are most variable during the early adolescent years when students can find themselves in a variety of school models. This paper investigates the impact of two popular school models in the United States (middle school and K-8) on the self-esteem and self-concept of early adolescents. Based on mixed…

  10. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  11. Sowing the Seeds of Science Understanding in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    For practitioners in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) in English schools (ages 3-5), the ethos of learning by "investigating and doing" is a major component of the pleasure of teaching very young children. The "Knowledge and understanding of the world" area of the EYFS (where scientific learning is mainly anchored)…

  12. Building Language Throughout the Year: The Preschool Early Literacy Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lybolt, John; Armstrong, Jennifer; Techmanski, Kristin Evans; Gottfred, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    For children from low-resource backgrounds, a literacy-rich preschool experience with a skilled and engaged teacher can offset risk factors and lay the groundwork for lifelong academic success. Now schools can ensure effective early literacy instruction with this field-tested, research-based curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. These 41…

  13. Eliciting Systematic Rule Use in Covariation Judgment [the Early Years].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Harriet; Paszek, Donald

    Related research suggests that children may show some simple understanding of event covariations by the early elementary school years. The present experiments use a rule analysis methodology to investigate covariation judgments of children in this age range. In Experiment 1, children in second, third and fourth grade judged covariations on 12…

  14. Early Adolescents' Social Goals and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Molly

    2017-01-01

    What are the common types of social goals endorsed by early adolescents and how are they related to their school adjustment? This article discusses the importance of assessing students' social goals during the early adolescent developmental period when peers become increasingly important and youth experience tremendous changes to the school…

  15. Building as We Go: Secondary Schools, Community Colleges, and Universities in Partnership--The Early College High School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, V. Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of key informants about the processes of institutional change and collaboration involved in the development of three early college high schools (ECHS)s over a 4-year period. The 15 study participants were members of early college high school councils and included high school principals,…

  16. Inequality in the First Year of Primary School. CES Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxford, Linda

    In Scotland, the Early Intervention Programme (EIP) aims to raise standards of literacy and numeracy in the first 2 years of primary school with an emphasis on overcoming disadvantage and inequality. As part of this initiative, one local authority, Aberdeen City, has introduced Baseline Assessment on entry to primary school with a follow-up…

  17. Early Maternal Depression and Children's Adjustment to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cheryl A.; George, Thomas P.; Burke, Renee; Gelfand, Donna M.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the relationship between mother's history of depression when their children were 0-3 years old and the child's subsequent early school adaptation, using teacher ratings of problem behaviors, peer relations, and academic performance of 5- to 8-year-olds. Found that maternal depression was related to more adjustment and behavior problems,…

  18. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Passmore, Anne; Parsons, Richard; Black, Melissa; Cuomo, Belinda; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school's tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students' belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change.

  19. Year-Round versus Traditional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

  20. Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…

  1. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  2. Missouri School Superintendent Perceptions of Year-Round School Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Becca Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize perceptions of Missouri superintendents with regards to year-round school calendars and correlate them to the four themes of Time, Student Learning and Achievement, District Cost, and Family Cost and Support. The idea behind year-round school calendars is that by going to school throughout the year with…

  3. Teaching Early College High School at LaGuardia Community College. Early College High School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, along with Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation, and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, is funding the Early College High School Initiative. The 13 partner organizations are creating or redesigning more than 250 pioneering small high schools. Jobs for the Future coordinates the Early College High…

  4. Belongingness in Early Secondary School: Key Factors that Primary and Secondary Schools Need to Consider

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Sharmila; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Passmore, Anne; Parsons, Richard; Black, Melissa; Cuomo, Belinda; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown if, and how, students redefine their sense of school belongingness after negotiating the transition to secondary school. The current study used longitudinal data from 266 students with, and without, disabilities who negotiated the transition from 52 primary schools to 152 secondary schools. The study presents the 13 most significant personal student and contextual factors associated with belongingness in the first year of secondary school. Student perception of school belongingness was found to be stable across the transition. No variability in school belongingness due to gender, disability or household-socio-economic status (SES) was noted. Primary school belongingness accounted for 22% of the variability in secondary school belongingness. Several personal student factors (competence, coping skills) and school factors (low-level classroom task-goal orientation), which influenced belongingness in primary school, continued to influence belongingness in secondary school. In secondary school, effort-goal orientation of the student and perception of their school’s tolerance to disability were each associated with perception of school belongingness. Family factors did not influence belongingness in secondary school. Findings of the current study highlight the need for primary schools to foster belongingness among their students at an early age, and transfer students’ belongingness profiles as part of the hand-over documentation. Most of the factors that influenced school belongingness before and after the transition to secondary are amenable to change. PMID:26372554

  5. The Datafication of Early Years Education and Its Impact upon Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy; Bradbury, Alice

    2016-01-01

    This article raises important questions about whether the increasing control of early years education through performance data is genuinely a means for school improvement. This composite article, examines the pervasiveness of attainment data in early years education professional activity, its impact on early years teachers' consciousness and…

  6. Missouri Public School Accountability Report. 2009-10 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education publishes an online "school accountability report card" for each public school district, each building and each charter school. This document provides a statewide report card on key accountability measures about Missouri public schools, including information…

  7. Transition to High School: School "Choice" & Freshman Year in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Evans, Shani Adia; Haxton, Clarisse; Maluk, Holly; Mitchell, Cecily; Simon, Elaine; Good, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The School District of Philadelphia's tiered system of selective, nonselective, and charter high schools, and the process for high school choice, has created real variation in the degree to which high schools can successfully meet the needs of ninth graders. Research has shown that the ninth grade year is critical in determining a student's…

  8. Early Years Education Resource Guide. Early Education Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy, Comp.

    The aim of this resource guide is to provide practitioners in preschool settings with information to help them plan, implement, augment with resources, and review practice based on the "Curriculum Framework for Children in Their Pre-School Year" issued by the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department. The guide presents a…

  9. A preliminary study of EAT and BITE scores for one school year in Bermuda: increased early anorexic measures related to socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Karl

    2005-03-01

    Bermuda is a unique heterogeneous ethnic population in which it is possible to study the interaction of ethnicity, culture, gender and economic factors that influence abnormal eating attitudes. A cross-sectional survey of 836 adolescents, one total school year in Bermuda. The BITE and EAT self-report questionnaires were administered in a classroom setting. The analysis was for caseness and for total scores. Caseness represents possible developing anorexic or bulimic eating disorder pathology for this non-adult population. 7.3% fulfilled EAT caseness, 0.24% fulfilled BITE caseness. There was no gender or ethnic difference for caseness. Multivariate analysis for EAT caseness found Odds Ratios of 2.89 (95% CI 1.37, 6.11) for Manual maternal job status. Despite the limitation of a questionnaire analysis, lower socioeconomic status increases the risk of possible eating disorder pathology in this adolescent population. Developing anorexic eating attitudes were more prevalent compared to bulimic attitudes for schoolchildren in this unique cultural setting.

  10. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  11. Early Childhood Care and Education and School Readiness in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Fink, Günther

    2017-01-01

    Despite increased investment in early childhood care and education (ECCE) globally, little is known about its effectiveness in low-income countries. Using kernel exact matching within a national sample of 1,623 Zambian 6-year-olds, we test the associations between ECCE participation and seven domains of children's school readiness. We find ECCE…

  12. Public School Early Childhood Music Education: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Brittany Nixon

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of preK programs in public schools, music educators are increasingly more involved in teaching 3- and 4-year-old students. Many music educators find this difficult, as teaching young children requires different--and often unfamiliar--training and experience in child development and appropriate early childhood methodologies. This…

  13. Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg J.; Lee, Kenneth T. H.; Metzger, Molly W.

    2016-01-01

    Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle-childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal data set, this study estimates the association between children's…

  14. EARLY SCHOOL ADMISSIONS PROJECT, PROMISING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER EARLY ADMISSION TO SCHOOL CAN OVERCOME BARRIERS TO LEARNING WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SEEM TO IMPOSE. A DEPRIVED CHILD OFTEN DOES NOT RECEIVE ATTENTION, AFFECTION, OR GUIDANCE WITHIN HIS HOME. THE YOUNG CHILD SHOULD BE HELPED TO DEVELOP A WHOLESOME SELF-CONCEPT, TO ACQUIRE THE DRIVE TO…

  15. Year One of School Improvement: Examples from Nine Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Stiegelbauer, Suzanne; Diehl. Julie

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on the process and outcomes of schoolwide action research by nine schools in their first year as Network members. The participants were a blend of urban, suburban, small town, and rural schools in Central Texas. Focal points of the case studies and cross-case comparison included: (1) how the schools organized for action…

  16. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  17. Early school leaving among immigrants in Toronto secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Anisef, Paul; Brown, Robert S; Phythian, Kelli; Sweet, Robert; Walters, David

    2010-05-01

    While education statistics confirm that there is little difference in the dropout rates of native-born and immigrant youth, analyses of Toronto District School Board (TDSB) data have revealed significant variation in school persistence within immigrant groups. Among newcomer youth, the decision to leave school early has been reported to be strongly influenced by socioeconomic status as well as such factors as country of origin, age at arrival, generational status, family structure, and academic performance. While living in low-income conditions is thought to place both foreign- and Canadian-born youth at risk of poor school performance and early school withdrawal, their substantially higher incidence of poverty suggests that today's immigrant youth are likely to face greater obstacles to academic success that may in turn have detrimental, long-term consequences. This paper uses TDSB data to investigate the extent to which living below the low-income cutoff affects the likelihood of dropping out of secondary school, while taking into account generational status as well as a variety risk factors, noted above. Policy implications are discussed.

  18. Ready, Steady, Learn: School Readiness and Children's Voices in English Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Elspeth; Murray, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Internationally, school readiness is increasingly the rationale for early childhood education and care (ECEC). This is the case in England, yet the statutory English Early Years Foundation Stage framework for children 0-5 years also requires practitioners to listen to children's voices: discourse indicates dissonance between school readiness and…

  19. Changes in Children's Reasoning about the Social Inclusion of Aggressive Children over the Early Years of Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Lunn Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Susan; Johansson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    While there is growing understanding about children's moral reasoning for social inclusion and exclusion, we know little about how children reason specifically about the inclusion of aggressive children in school settings. To investigate children's decisions about such inclusion and how they justified those decisions, this study reports data from…

  20. Principal Connection/New School Year Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Hoerr suggests that as a new school year begins, why not set some goals? Just as with the resolutions made every January 1, the new school year resolutions should focus on areas needing improvement. This article offers three key areas for review: (1) Communication. Hoerr notes, if administrators want faculty to work as colleagues,…

  1. Year-Round School. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the numerous advantages of a year-round schedule, there are significant political hurdles to its implementation. The most successful year-round schools are those where leaders worked closely with staff and families to maximize the benefits, minimize the costs, and build support for modifying the traditional school calendar. The research on…

  2. Young Children's Engagement with Digital Texts and Literacies in the Home: Pressing Matters for the Teaching of English in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Research has established young children's increasing use of computers and other new technologies in the home. Yet, teaching about digital texts and digital practices most often appears as an addition to early literacy instruction in classrooms where "business-as-usual" maintains an emphasis on print and print-based texts. This article…

  3. Getting the Balance Right: The Challenge of Balancing Praise and Correction for Early School Years Children Who Exhibit Oppositional and Defiant Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, early childhood practitioners are faced with children who present with significant levels of oppositional and defiant behaviour. The management of this behaviour is often difficult and stressful. Efforts to minimise disruptive behaviour and to encourage more prosocial behaviour have very much revolved around the teaching of…

  4. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction arithmetic in middle school, controlling for whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade and the other control variables. In contrast, neither type of early whole number knowledge uniquely predicted middle school reading achievement. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of numerical development and for improving mathematics learning. PMID:24576209

  5. School Age Outcomes of Children Diagnosed Early and Later with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Megan Louise Erin; Vinen, Zoe; Barbaro, Josephine; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder is considered best practice, increasing access to early intervention. Yet, many children are diagnosed after 3-years. The current study investigated the school age outcomes of children who received an early and later diagnosis of ASD. The cognitive and behavioural outcomes of children diagnosed early (n…

  6. Celebrating 65 Years of a Dynamic Organization for School Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolls, Blanche

    2016-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) as an American Library Association division is sixty-five years young in 2016. This article describes the AASL as a division of the American Library Association (ALA). The author presents: (1) Early Days in ALA; (2) AASL as a Division; (3) AASL's Future; and (4) Commemorating the Past by Paying…

  7. Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Garet, Michael; Song, Mengli; Knudson, Joel; Haxton, Clarisse; Zeiser, Kristina; Hoshen, Gur; Ford, Jennifer; Stephan, Jennifer; Keating, Kaeli; Cassidy, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in…

  8. Science and Technology in the Early Years. An Equal Opportunities Approach. Gender and Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Naima, Ed.

    During the early 1980s there was a lack of research regarding gender issues for early childhood and elementary education. This document attempts to fill this chasm by addressing gender issues in science and technology for primary education schooling and early-years education. The following chapters are included: (1) "Science and Technology in the…

  9. Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use, mental health, and academic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bond, Lyndal; Butler, Helen; Thomas, Lyndal; Carlin, John; Glover, Sara; Bowes, Glenn; Patton, George

    2007-04-01

    To examine associations between social relationships and school engagement in early secondary school and mental health, substance use, and educational achievement 2-4 years later. School-based longitudinal study of secondary school students, surveyed at school in Year 8 (13-14-years-old) and Year 10 (16-years-old), and 1-year post-secondary school. A total of 2678 Year 8 students (74%) participated in the first wave of data collection. For the school-based surveys, attrition was <10%. Seventy-one percent of the participating Year 8 students completed the post-secondary school survey. Having both good school and social connectedness in Year 8 was associated with the best outcomes in later years. In contrast, participants with low school connectedness but good social connectedness were at elevated risk of anxiety/depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0, 1.76), regular smoking (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4, 2.9), drinking (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.2), and using marijuana (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5) in later years. The likelihood of completing school was reduced for those with either poor social connectedness, low school connectedness, or both. Overall, young people's experiences of early secondary school and their relationships with others may continue to affect their moods, their substance use in later years, and their likelihood of completing secondary school. Having both good school connectedness and good social connectedness is associated with the best outcomes. The challenge is how to promote both school and social connectedness to best achieve these health and learning outcomes.

  10. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation.

  11. "It's the Bread and Butter of Our Practice": Experiencing the Early Years Foundation Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts-Holmes, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of nursery and primary head teachers (n = 12) on the English Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) after its first year of implementation in 2010. Findings are drawn from a subset of data (head teachers of primary and nursery schools) which forms part of a larger Department for Children, Schools and Families…

  12. Introducing an Elementary Design Challenge into a TECA Regional Competition: There Is a Place in the Early Years of School for Teaching about Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    Each year the TECA (Technology Education Collegiate Association) Eastern Regional conference is held in Virginia Beach, Virginia. TECA is made up of four regions of the United States. The eastern TECA region has the largest membership. From up and down the eastern U.S., students and faculty from colleges' and universities' technology education…

  13. Presence and Quality of Kindergarten Children’s Friendships: Concurrent and Longitudinal Associations with Child Adjustment in the Early School Years

    PubMed Central

    Engle, Jennifer M.; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    The presence and quality of friendships are posited to have developmental significance, yet little is known about the extent to which children without friends versus low-quality friendships compare on socioemotional adjustment. The current study utilized data from a subsample of 567 children (289 boys) participating in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Based on maternal reports at kindergarten, four friendship groups were formed: no friends, low quality, average quality, and high quality, and these groups were used to predict teacher-reported behavior problems and social skills concurrently (in kindergarten) and longitudinally (in first and third grade). Concurrently, low-quality friendships were associated with greater externalizing behavior, whereas high-quality friendships were associated with greater social skills. Longitudinally, having no friends in kindergarten was associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior for boys, but lower levels for girls. Children without friends also showed more internalizing problems at first grade. Lastly, having a high-quality friendship in kindergarten was associated with greater social skills in first and third grades, but only for boys. Results underscore high-quality friendship as a context for the development of social skills and indicate different trajectories of problem behavior for kindergarten children with no friends versus low-quality friendships. PMID:21822401

  14. Evaluation of Academic Policy Formulation and Implementation Transmountain Early College High School, El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Virginia Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Transmountain Early College High School (TMECHS) opened in August 2008, created by a partnership between the El Paso Community College (EPCC) and the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD), and supported in its conceptualization, start-up, and first few years operation by grant funding and guidance from the Texas High School Project (THSP)…

  15. Can Alternative Education Increase Children's Early School Engagement? A Longitudinal Study from Kindergarten to Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bilde, Jerissa; Van Damme, Jan; Lamote, Carl; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the impact of alternative education on children's early school engagement in terms of school enjoyment and independent participation. A sample of 2,776 children from traditional (e.g., mainstream) and alternative (Freinet and Waldorf) Flemish schools was followed from their 3rd year of kindergarten until 3rd grade. The…

  16. Early School-Leavers' Microtransitions: Towards a Competent Self

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonica, Laura; Sappa, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to discuss conditions in support of a Competent Self in the broader process of the school-work transition, particularly regarding early school-leavers. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 233 early school-leavers were followed in innovative and successful vocational training courses. Using a…

  17. Early Career Leadership Opportunities in Australian Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Lorraine; Miller, Judith; Paterson, David

    2009-01-01

    Due to the difficulties inherent in staffing rural schools in Australia, it is increasingly common for beginning teachers to fill school leadership roles early in their careers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the accelerated progression of some early career teachers who have been offered leadership opportunities in rural schools. Results…

  18. School finance: fifty years of expansion.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, J W

    1997-01-01

    Since 1949-50, per-pupil expenditures in public elementary and secondary schools have more than quadrupled, even after adjusting for inflation. This article discusses some of the reasons. A significant share of the increase is the result of an 86% inflation-adjusted increase in teachers' salaries between 1949-50 and 1971-72, although teachers' salaries have changed little in the following 25 years. The ratio of students to school employees has dropped by half since 1949-50 as a result of declining class sizes and the hiring of more nonteaching school employees, which significantly affects costs. Even maintaining class size at a constant level will cause school budgets to grow at a rate greater than that of inflation because schools must compete in a labor market against other employers who are able to produce more with fewer employees. A substantial part of the increase in per-pupil spending is a result of expansions in services provided by the schools. More expensive, specialized classes for high school students, compensatory education for students from disadvantaged backgrounds, special education and related services for students with disabilities, and desegregation efforts all contribute to higher costs. Efforts to improve funding equity have led to increased expenditures: rather than take funding from wealthier districts, most states prefer to raise the funding available to schools at the bottom and the middle of the scale, increasing total spending. Finally, a share of the total increase must be attributed to the workings of the political system governing schools.

  19. Speech articulation performance of francophone children in the early school years: norming of the Test de Dépistage Francophone de Phonologie.

    PubMed

    Rvachew, Susan; Marquis, Alexandra; Brosseau-Lapré, Françoise; Paul, Marianne; Royle, Phaedra; Gonnerman, Laura M

    2013-12-01

    Good quality normative data are essential for clinical practice in speech-language pathology but are largely lacking for French-speaking children. We investigated speech production accuracy by French-speaking children attending kindergarten (maternelle) and first grade (première année). The study aimed to provide normative data for a new screening test - the Test de Dépistage Francophone de Phonologie. Sixty-one children named 30 pictures depicting words selected to be representative of the distribution of phonemes, syllable shapes and word lengths characteristic of Québec French. Percent consonants' correct was approximately 90% and did not change significantly with age although younger children produced significantly more syllable structure errors than older children. Given that the word set reflects the segmental and prosodic characteristics of spoken Québec French, and that ceiling effects were not observed, these results further indicate that phonological development is not complete by the age of seven years in French-speaking children.

  20. Improving Early Reading: A Resource Guide for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Edward P.; Loescher, Siri Ann

    Indiana's Early Intervention Grant Program (EIGP) provides funding for Reading Recovery and other early interventions focused on improvement in early reading programs (Grades 1-5). This resource guide provides information that schools in Indiana can use to plan for proposals for EIGP and other grant programs, such as comprehensive school reform…

  1. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. The Early Years and the Nation's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    Not all of America's public schools have benefited from recent efforts to improve education, because the problems of schools and of their communities are deep and complex. By 2000, when one of every three pupils in the public schools will be nonwhite, America's major cities could become an educational Third World. To avoid a deepening crisis,…

  3. Ill health and early retirement among school principals in Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Weltle, D; Lederer, P

    2005-05-01

    School principals play an important role in maintaining the performance and health of teachers but often feel over-burdened themselves and suffer illnesses, which not only impairs their health-promoting function but also leads to limitations in their fitness for the occupation. The aim of our study was, therefore, using objective parameters and larger numbers of cases, to obtain a differentiated insight into the morbidity and the health-related early retirement of school principals. In a prospective total assessment (the whole of Bavaria, a state in southern Germany) in the period from 1997 to 1999 all medical examinations of school principals performed to decide the question of early retirement were evaluated. The analysis included, e.g., socio-demographic/occupational factors, diagnoses, assessment of performance and rehabilitation. The data were sampled in a standardised, anonymous questionnaire, which provided the database. Evaluation was carried out by means of descriptive statistics. The median age of the 408 school principals included in the evaluation (heads and vice-heads, 30% of whom were women) was 58 years (minimum 41 years, maximum 64 years). The most frequent workplaces were primary schools (63%). A total of 84% (n=342) of the headmasters was assessed to be unfit for work. The main reasons for early retirement were psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders (F-ICD 10) which made up 45% of the cases. The relative frequency was higher in women than in men. Depressive disorders and exhaustion syndromes (burnout) dominated among the psychiatric diagnoses (proportion 57%). The most frequent somatic illnesses were cardiovascular diseases (I-ICD10) in 19% of cases, then muscular/skeletal diseases (M-ICD10) in 10% and malignant tumours (C-ICD 10) in 9% of cases. Cardiovascular diseases, in particular arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, were found in headmasters significantly more frequently than in teachers without a headship function (P

  4. Showing up Matters: Newark Chronic Absenteeism in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peter; Rice, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Based on a 180-day school year, any student who misses 18 days or more per year--or about two days per month--is considered chronically absent. An alarming 4,328 Newark students in grades kindergarten through 3rd grade were chronically absent during the 2013-14 school year. When young students miss too much school, they will likely struggle…

  5. Early Childhood Housing Instability and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; McKenna, Claire C.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the consequences of housing instability during the first 5 years of a child's life for a host of school readiness outcomes. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2,810), this study examines the relation between multiple moves and children's language and literacy and behavior problems at…

  6. Financial Implications of the Extended School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Unified School District, CA. Administrative Research Dept.

    This report considers the costs of three types of extended school year programs--all modifications of the quarter system--and compares these costs to the regular program. Compared against the traditional approach are: (1) a quarter system in which students attend three quarters a year and are off one quarter, meaning that 75% of all students are…

  7. Year-Round School: Here's What's Happening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, George M.

    The National Council on Year-round Education was formed in 1972 to aid professional schoolmen and supportive board members who feel that our traditional school attendance pattern is unsound from an educational, financial, and societal standpoint. The Council's president-elect cites here the past year's activities of the Council and presents…

  8. The Small, Stand-Alone Early College: Impact on High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Early College model is the subject of an IES-funded eleven-year longitudinal experimental study that utilized a lottery process to assign early college applicants to either treatment or control groups. This paper presents findings related to high school outcomes. The primary goal of the early college model is to increase the…

  9. Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

  10. Mathematical Modelling in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.; Watters, James J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we explore young children's development of mathematical knowledge and reasoning processes as they worked two modelling problems (the "Butter Beans Problem" and the "Airplane Problem"). The problems involve authentic situations that need to be interpreted and described in mathematical ways. Both problems include tables of data,…

  11. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  12. Geometry in Early Years: Sowing Seeds for a Mathematical Definition of Squares and Rectangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini Bussi, Maria G.; Baccaglini-Frank, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In early years schooling it is becoming common to propose activities that involve moving along paths, or programming robots to do so. In order to promote continuity towards the introduction of geometry in primary school, we developed a long-term teaching experiment (with 15 sessions) carried out over 4 months in a first grade classroom in northern…

  13. Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) through a professional development programme for early childhood educators to improve professional practice and child outcomes in the year before formal schooling: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Melhuish, Edward; Howard, Steven J; Siraj, Iram; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine; Kingston, Denise; de Rosnay, Marc; Duursma, Elisabeth; Luu, Betty

    2016-12-19

    A substantial research base documents the benefits of attendance at high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for positive behavioural and learning outcomes. Research has also found that the quality of many young children's experiences and opportunities in ECEC depends on the skills, dispositions and understandings of the early childhood adult educators. Increasingly, research has shown that the quality of children's interactions with educators and their peers, more than any other programme feature, influence what children learn and how they feel about learning. Hence, we sought to investigate the extent to which evidence-based professional development (PD) - focussed on promoting sustained shared thinking through quality interactions - could improve the quality of ECEC and, as a consequence, child outcomes. The Fostering Effective Early Learning (FEEL) study is a cluster randomised controlled trial for evaluating the benefits of a professional development (PD) programme for early childhood educators, compared with no extra PD. Ninety long-day care and preschool centres in New South Wales, Australia, will be selected to ensure representation across National Quality Standards (NQS) ratings, location, centre type and socioeconomic areas. Participating centres will be randomly allocated to one of two groups, stratified by centre type and NQS rating: (1) an intervention group (45 centres) receiving a PD intervention or (2) a control group (45 centres) that continues engaging in typical classroom practice. Randomisation to these groups will occur after the collection of baseline environmental quality ratings. Primary outcomes, at the child level, will be two measures of language development: verbal comprehension and expressive vocabulary. Secondary outcomes at the child level will be measures of early numeracy, social development and self-regulation. Secondary outcomes at the ECEC room level will be measures of environmental quality derived from full

  14. Promoting Good Mental Health from Primary to Early Secondary Grades--Preventive Interventions in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Ferone, Louise

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a four-year research effort aimed at developing preventive educational interventions for children with behavior problems in inner city schools. The implications of switching the emphasis from early secondary to primary preventive programs are discussed. (Author)

  15. International students' experience of a western medical school: a mixed methods study exploring the early years in the context of cultural and social adjustment compared to students from the host country.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, A; Brugha, R; Conroy, R M; Clarke, E; Byrne, E

    2015-07-02

    Few studies have addressed the challenges associated with international students as they adapt to studying medicine in a new host country. Higher level institutions have increasing numbers of international students commencing programmes. This paper explores the experiences of a cohort of students in the early years of medical school in Ireland, where a considerable cohort are from an international background. A mixed exploratory sequential study design was carried out with medical students in the preclinical component of a five year undergraduate programme. Data for the qualitative phase was collected through 29 semi-structured interviews using the peer interview method. Thematic analysis from this phase was incorporated to develop an online questionnaire combined with components of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire and Student Integration Questionnaire. First year students were anonymously surveyed online. The Mokken Scaling procedure was used to investigate the students' experiences, both positive and negative. Three main themes are identified; social adjustment, social alienation and cultural alienation. The response rate for the survey was 49% (467 Respondents). The Mokken Scaling method identified the following scales (i) Positive experience of student life; (ii) Social alienation, which comprised of negative items about feeling lonely, not fitting in, being homesick and (iii) Cultural alienation, which included the items of being uncomfortable around cultural norms of dress and contact between the sexes. With the threshold set to H = 0.4. Subscales of the positive experiences of student life scale are explored further. Overall student adjustment to a western third level college was good. Students from regions where cultural distance is greatest reported more difficulties in adjusting. Students from these regions also demonstrate very good adaptation. Some students from the host country and more similar cultural backgrounds were also

  16. The Continuous School Year. The Cranston Quadricycle Plan for a Continuous School Year. Project Pacesetter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston School Dept., RI.

    Acting on instructions from the Cranston School Committee, a committee comprised of educational professional staff, community leaders, citizens, and students was organized to consider the methods and feasibility of year-round schools. The year round concept and its application in various plans throughout the country was the subject of…

  17. Lessons from the Lone Star State: Designing a Sustainable Financial Model to Expand Early College High School in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan; Santos, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Texas is a national leader in creating early college high schools, an innovative small school model that blends secondary and postsecondary education with intensive supports to increase college readiness and success for underachieving students. The state has 29 early college schools, with more opening in the 2008-2009 academic year, thanks largely…

  18. Estimating Impacts on Program-Related Subgroups Using Propensity Score Matching: Evidence from the Early College High School Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unlu, Fatih; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Bernstein, Larry; Edmunds, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses methodological issues arising from an experimental study of North Carolina's Early College High School Initiative, a four-year longitudinal experimental study funded by Institute for Education Sciences. North Carolina implemented the Early College High School (ECHS) Initiative in response to low high school graduation rates.…

  19. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of…

  20. Evolution of cystic fibrosis lung function in the early years.

    PubMed

    Bush, Andrew; Sly, Peter D

    2015-11-01

    Most treatment of newborn screening-diagnosed cystic fibrosis is not evidence-based; there are very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, the advent of novel molecular therapies, which could be started at diagnosis, mandates performing RCTs in very young children. However, unless the natural history of early cystic fibrosis lung disease is known, RCTs are impossible. Here, we review the results of two large prospective cohorts of these infants - London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) (London, UK) and Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST-CF) (Australia). Nutritional status remained excellent in both the cohorts. Both cohorts reported abnormal lung function aged at 3 months. AREST-CF, which previously reported rapidly declining preschool lung function, now report good conventional school-age spirometry. LCFC reported improvement between 3 months and 1 year, and stability in the second year. AREST-CF also reported a high prevalence of high resolution computed tomographic abnormalities related to free neutrophil elastase in bronchoalveolar lavage; LCFC reported high resolution computed tomographic changes at 1 year, which were too mild to be scored reproducibly. At least in the first 2 years of life, lung function is not a good end-point for RCTs; routine bronchoalveolar lavage and HRCT cannot be justified. Newborn screening has greatly improved outcomes, but we need better point-of-care biomarkers.

  1. A Proposal: The Circular School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Robert L.

    A proposed plan outlined in this speech divides the school year into three instructional units of 12 weeks each during which time student attendance is required. Three interim units of 15 work days and five vacation days are scheduled in April, August, and December. These interim units are designed to be used by students for remedial work,…

  2. Is Year-Round Schooling on Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For administrators, teachers, students and their families in some districts, summer isn't what it used to be. Trying to stem a "summer slide" of learning loss by students and also to avoid having to build more schools to cope with overcrowding, districts are operating on year-round schedules that shorten the traditional summer vacation…

  3. The Business Schools: 50 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to offer a critique of the development of university business schools over the last 50 years and provide a perspective on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the publication of the journal Education + Training. Design/methodology/approach: The approach is critical and reflexive, reviewing the historical growth of…

  4. Informing Transitions in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Aline-Wendy; Fabian, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    An increased emphasis on an early start in group day care and educational settings for young children means that by the time children enter statutory education, they may already have had several transitional experiences: each will have an impact. This book explores early transitions from a variety of international perspectives. Each chapter is…

  5. Tribal vs. Public Schools: Perceived Discrimination and School Adjustment among Indigenous Children from Early to Mid-Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Devan M; Cheadle, Jacob E; Whitbeck, Les B

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the differential effects of perceived discrimination by type of school on positive school adjustment among Indigenous children during late elementary and early middle school years. The analysis utilizes a sample of 654 Indigenous children from four reservations in the Northern Midwest and four Canadian First Nation reserves. Multiple group linear growth modeling within a structural equation framework is employed to investigate the moderating effects of school type on the relationship between discrimination and positive school adjustment. Results show that students in all school types score relatively high on positive school adjustment at time one (ages 10-12). However, in contrast to students in tribal schools for whom positive school adjustment remains stable, those attending public schools and those moving between school types show a decline in school adjustment over time. Furthermore, the negative effects of discrimination on positive school adjustment are greater for those attending public schools and those moving between schools. Possible reasons for this finding and potential explanations for why tribal schools may provide protection from the negative effects of discrimination are discussed.

  6. Engaging Young Early School Leavers in Vocational Training. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dommers, Eric; Myconos, George; Swain, Luke; Yung, Stephanie; Clarke, Kira

    2017-01-01

    With almost one-third of young people unemployed or underemployed, it is important for early school leavers to gain skills that improve their employment opportunities. The role that vocational education and training (VET) plays is critical, particularly for young early school leavers. Through interviews and focus groups with young people and those…

  7. Some States Encouraging Students to Graduate Early from High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Caralee J.

    2012-01-01

    To give students an incentive to work hard--and save education dollars along the way--some states are encouraging early high school graduation by ramping up curricula or giving college scholarships. As a money-saving measure for families and states, lawmakers are allowing early high school exits and providing tuition aid. The policies emphasize…

  8. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  9. Which behavioral, emotional and school problems in middle-childhood predict early sexual behavior?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John

    2014-04-01

    Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.

  10. A Second Chance at Education for Early School Leavers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polidano, Cain; Tabasso, Domenico; Tseng, Yi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to better understand the factors that affect the chances of re-engaging early school leavers in education, with a particular focus on the importance of time out from school (duration dependence) and school-related factors. Using data from three cohorts of the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth and duration…

  11. "I've Never Seen People Work So Hard!" Teachers' Working Conditions in the Early Stages of School Turnaround

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cucchiara, Maia Bloomfield; Rooney, Erin; Robertson-Kraft, Claire

    2015-01-01

    School turnaround--a reform strategy that strives for quick and dramatic transformation of low-performing schools--has gained prominence in recent years. This study uses interviews and focus groups conducted with 86 teachers in 13 schools during the early stages of school turnaround in a large urban district to examine teachers' perceptions of the…

  12. The Importance of Effective Behaviour Screening in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Church, John

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention for children with behavioural difficulties can be effective in terms of outcomes for both the children and their families. Early intervention can save a child from long-term outcomes such as school failure, peer rejection and later offending. However, in terms of accurate assessment of young children's behavioural difficulties,…

  13. School-Community Links: Supporting Learning in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Debra; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on research into how schools, parents and local communities work together to support students' learning during the transition from primary to secondary schools in what is referred to as the middle years of schooling. The research was conducted in four Australian schools within one urban school district. These schools were…

  14. Early maternal employment and children's school readiness in contemporary families.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among children generalized to modern families. Using a representative sample of children born in the United States in 2001 (N = 10,100), ordinary least squares regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between maternal employment in the 2 years after childbearing and children's school readiness skills at kindergarten. There were neutral associations between maternal employment and children's school readiness, which were not differentiated by maternal time, stress, or wages. However, as nonmaternal household income decreased, maternal employment begun prior to 9 months was linked with higher cognitive skills, while employment begun between 9 and 24 months was linked with lower conduct problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Assessing the Mathematical Thinking of Young Children in New Zealand: The Initial School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young-Loveridge, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of assessment policy and practice in mathematics for early years classrooms in New Zealand between 1993 and the present day. It describes the introduction of school entry assessment for children starting school at age five. A numeracy initiative, the Numeracy Development Projects (NDP), for students in Years 1-10…

  16. New Mexico Public Education Department K-3 Plus Annual Report for School Year 2015-2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Public Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    K-3 Plus was established in 2007 as a six-year pilot project that permitted schools with high numbers of at-risk students to begin the school year 25 days earlier for kindergarten through third grade. The purpose of the K-3 Plus program is to demonstrate that increased instructional time in kindergarten and the early grades narrows the achievement…

  17. Building a Model of Early Years Professionalism from Practitioners’ Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Avril

    2013-01-01

    Practitioner voice has been absent from debates regarding what constitutes professional behaviour and practice in the early years. This research identifies and uses the professional knowledge of a group of early years educators to create a typology of professionalism. The typology comprises seven inter-related dimensions of early years…

  18. Age and Schooling Effects on Early Literacy and Phoneme Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna; Carroll, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on age and schooling effects is largely restricted to studies of children who begin formal schooling at 6 years of age, and the measures of phoneme awareness used have typically lacked sensitivity for beginning readers. Our study addresses these issues by testing 4 to 6 year-olds (first 2 years of formal schooling in the United…

  19. The Early Years: Food for Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Children may not be aware of the origin of much of their food, especially if they eat mostly processed foods. Schools that operate a garden are able to teach children how common foods are parts of plants. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. In this month's issue students focus on…

  20. East Timor: Building on the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyland, Berenice

    2004-01-01

    When the East Timorese voted for Independence in 1999 they at least expected to have infrastructure, such as school buildings, available as they started the task of building a new nation. The post-Independence destruction also meant that unexpected priority decisions about what should be built, or rebuilt, first had to be made. In a country…

  1. Thinking Skills in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayley, Ros

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the High/Scope Cognitively Oriented Pre-School Curriculum that recognizes that the power to learn resides in the child and focuses on active learning practices. It discusses child-initiated learning, key skills for thinking, key concepts involved in teaching thinking skills, and activities that support the development of…

  2. The Impact of Structural Barriers and Facilitators on Early Childhood Literacy Programs in Elementary Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Denise; Pinder, Glen; Coles-White, D'Jaris

    2015-01-01

    Elementary charter schools increasingly serve students who are at-risk for reading challenges, giving them a critical role in establishing literacy for young children. This article examines the complexities of starting early childhood literacy programs in charter schools. Specifically, the first year of K-3 literacy programs in a new and a…

  3. The Developmental Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: An Examination of School-Related Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the heterogeneity of depressive symptom trajectories and the roles of school-related factors in predicting the membership of different trajectories in a sample of early adolescents in Taiwan. In all, 870 junior high school students were followed for 3 years. Using growth mixture modeling, the study identified four distinct…

  4. Aerobic Capacities of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loflin, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…

  5. Self-Esteem Changes in the Middle School Years: A Study of Ethnic and Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sue K.; Kuhn, Jennifer; Rhodes, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated how ethnicity and gender affect changes in the self-esteem of early adolescents during the middle school years. Self-report data were collected from more than 4,000 early adolescents from three ethnic groups: European American, African American, and Hispanic and analyzed using a consecutive three-year cross-sectional…

  6. Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    School districts nationwide are experimenting with a range of reform options, one of which is private management of public schools. This General Accounting Office (GAO) report describes the early experiences of four school districts that contracted with private companies for management of their public schools. Specifically, the report describes:…

  7. J. Norman Lockyer: The Early Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, M. A.

    2005-12-01

    Joseph Norman Lockyer was born in 1836 in Rugby, where his father was a surgeon-apothecary and a leading member of the Literary and Scientific Institution. In the 1840s the family moved to Leicester, where his father became a manufacturer of matches. After his mother's death, he lived with an uncle and attended school in Kenilworth. His main interests then were classical and modern languages, which he taught in a Somerset school before going to Switzerland in 1856-57. On his return, the patronage of Lord Leigh of Stoneleigh helped him to become a clerk in the War Office. He developed an interest in astronomy that led to his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society, and to the editorship of the science journal Nature.

  8. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  9. The Early Years: Integrating Digital Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2017-01-01

    This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue discusses how digital media and robotics fit into the early childhood curriculum, and how time on devices supports learning goals and developmentally appropriate practice.

  10. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  11. Closing the Gap Early: Implementing a Literacy Intervention for At-Risk Kindergartners in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Colleen; Figueredo, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    A history of poverty and low academic achievement in four urban schools pointed to the need to implement an early intervention focused on oral language and emergent literacy. The Kindergarten Early Literacy Tutoring (KELT) Program was designed to target senior (5 year old) kindergarten students most at-risk. The intervention consisted of an extra…

  12. Mothers' and Fathers' Support for Child Autonomy and Early School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Developmental Psychology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Data were analyzed from 641 children and their families in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test the hypotheses that in the early school years, mothers' and fathers' sensitive support for autonomy in observed parent-child interactions would each make unique predictions…

  13. Career Education--The Early Years. [and] Let's Get Serious about Career Education for Elementary Students. AACE Bonus Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woal, S. Theodore; DuVall, Patricia S.

    This document consists of two brief articles on career education in elementary school. The first article, "Career Education--The Early Years" by S. Theodore Woal, suggests that elementary school is the time to begin to infuse career education concepts and to correlate and integrate career guidance in the school curriculum. Three activities are…

  14. Children's Understanding of Lies in Elementary School Years.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Hajimu

    2017-01-01

    The author examined whether children's understanding of lies exhibits developmental trends in the elementary school years. Four story contexts were presented to 51 first-grade students, 44 fourth-grade students, and 58 adults. These stories represented combinations of a protagonist's intention (truthful or deceptive) and the truth of the protagonist's message (true or false). The results showed that adults judged whether these messages were lies by considering the protagonist's intentions. By contrast, approximately 30% of first-grade students and some fourth-grade students did not consider intentions in making judgments, although they appropriately predicted the outcomes of the messages. These results suggest that children in the early elementary school years have a conception of lies different from that of adults, and their conception of lies becomes more sophisticated after middle childhood.

  15. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  16. Does contact by a family nurse practitioner decrease early school absence?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in nursing literature. This article describes a nursing intervention to decrease early school absence in two elementary schools K-3 (N = 449) and a Head Start program (N = 130). The Head Start Family Nurse Practitioner (FNP) contacted families of chronically and excessively absent students by telephone, clinic visit at school, or home visit. The aggregate percentage attendance was evaluated by grades (preschool to third grade), schools (Head Start, Elementary Schools 1 and 2), and grades and schools and compared with publicly available school district aggregate data. There were statistically significant increases in attendance from Year 1 to Year 2 at p < .05 at the elementary level but not at the Head Start level. Student demographics, types of contacts, absence reasons (including sick child), and medical diagnoses are described.

  17. Genetic and environmental influences on early literacy skills across school grade contexts.

    PubMed

    Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette

    2017-09-01

    Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. 'A', 'B') often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school grades. Participants included twins drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading (n = 1313 pairs) aged 4 to 10 years during the 2006-07 school year. Early literacy skills were assessed with DIBELS subtests: Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), Initial Sound Fluency (ISF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF). School grade data were retrieved from the Florida Department of Education. Multi-group analyses were conducted separately for subsamples defined by 'A' or 'non-A' schools, controlling for school-level socioeconomic status. Results indicated significant etiological differences on pre-reading skills (ISF, LNF, and PSF), but not word-level reading skills (ORF and NWF). There was a consistent trend of greater environmental influences on pre-reading skills in non-A schools, arguably representing 'poorer' environmental contexts than the A schools. Importantly, this is the case outside of resources linked with school-level SES, indicating that something about the direct environment on pre-reading skills in the non-A school context is more variable than for A schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effective Leadership and Management in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyles, Janet

    2006-01-01

    There has recently been an unprecedented focus on early years care and education, particularly on the impact of the various adults who work and play with children in the birth to five/six-years age range. Staff in early years settings have had to adapt to many changes and demands, locally and nationally, from local authorities and national…

  19. Reaching Year 12 in Victoria, Australia: Student and School Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and school influences on reaching Year 12, the final year of schooling in Victoria, Australia. It analyses data from the population of students who were in Year 9 in 2008. Male, English-speaking background, government school, and especially Indigenous students were less likely to reach Year 12 than comparison groups.…

  20. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratos, Kati; Wolford, Tonya; Reitano, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2011, the School District of Philadelphia (the District) launched its Renaissance Schools Initiative, a program designed to dramatically improve student achievement in the District's lowest performing schools. Some schools became Promise Academies, based on the federal turnaround model, and remained District-operated neighborhood schools.…

  1. Early Schooling: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entwisle, Doris R.; Hayduk, Leslie Alec

    This book presents the results of research on sociopsychological factors that affect the schooling process and academic achievement among young children. The first chapter of the report provides a background on schooling, and reviews what is known and what remains to be discovered about academic achievement. Chapters 2 and 3 review research on…

  2. Prospective Elementary School Teachers' Professional Noticing of Children's Early Numeracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schack, Edna O.; Fisher, Molly H.; Thomas, Jonathan N.; Eisenhardt, Sara; Tassell, Janet; Yoder, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop the professional noticing abilities of prospective elementary school teachers in the context of the Stages of Early Arithmetic Learning. In their mathematics methods course, ninety-four prospective elementary school teachers from three institutions participated in a researcher-developed five-session module that…

  3. Early Career Challenges in Secondary School Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, G.; Purves, R.; Hargreaves, D.; Marshall, N.

    2011-01-01

    The article reports an Economic and Social Research Council-funded study of the early career experiences of secondary school music teachers in England, set within a wider national picture of decreasing age-related pupil engagement with school music, career perceptions of music teaching, variable patterns of teacher recruitment and possible…

  4. Computer-Based Assessment of School Readiness and Early Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapó, Beno; Molnár, Gyöngyvér; Nagy, József

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the potential of using online tests for the assessment of school readiness and for monitoring early reasoning. Four tests of a face-to-face-administered school readiness test battery (speech sound discrimination, relational reasoning, counting and basic numeracy, and deductive reasoning) and a paper-and-pencil inductive…

  5. Is Earlier Better? Mastery of Reading Fluency in Early Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yonghan; Chaparro, Erin A.; Preciado, Jorge; Cummings, Kelli D.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of the present study was to provide empirical evidence for the importance of mastering reading fluency in early schooling. Study participants were 1,322 students in 3rd grade in 42 schools in a northwestern state. These students were assessed using a battery of reading skill tests as well as comprehensive tests of more…

  6. Predictors of Success with Writing in the First Year of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Noella; Hemmings, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Language and literacy skills are instrumental to success at school and early success with writing is a key factor in literacy development. By eight years of age, children spend up to half of their school day engaged in writing tasks suggesting that those who find learning to write difficult may be disadvantaged. The ability to hear and record…

  7. Minnesota School Readiness Year Two Study: Developmental Assessment at Kindergarten Entrance, Fall 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A large and growing body of research supports the critical relationship between early childhood experiences and successful life-long outcomes. Assessing the readiness of children as they enter school is a high priority. This report describes findings from Year Two of the assessment of school readiness with a larger random sample of children…

  8. Early Intervention and AAC: What a Difference 30 Years Makes.

    PubMed

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.

  9. Early Environmental Support and Elementary School Adjustment as Predictors of School Adjustment in Middle Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elizabeth A.; Sroufe, L. Alan; Collins, W. Andres; Jimerson, Shane; Weinfield, Nancy; Henninghausen, Katherine; Egeland, Byron; Hyson, Daniel M.; Anderson, Fione; Meyer, Stephanie E.

    1999-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined socioemotional antecedents of adolescent school adjustment. Findings indicated that early and later parental problem-solving support accounted for 13 percent of variance in high school adjustment. Early and later parental problem-solving support, peer competence, externalizing behavior, and emotional…

  10. Lessons Learned: How Early College High Schools Offer a Pathway for High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaniuka, Theodore Stefan; Vickers, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, Early College High Schools Initiative became a reality across the United States for students and educators looking for ways to improve student graduation rates, college attendance, and overall student achievement. This mixed method case study found that (a) the early college high school environment supported the academic success of…

  11. Computer Use within a Play-Based Early Years Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Justine; Miles, Gareth E.; Rees-Davies, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Early years curricula promote learning through play and in addition emphasise the development of computer literacy. Previous research, however, has described that teachers feel unprepared to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and play. Also, whereas research has suggested that effective computer use in the early years is…

  12. Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaise, Mindy; Nuttal, Joce

    2011-01-01

    "Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom" helps teacher education students understand the complexities of teaching in early years' classrooms. It integrates research and theory with practice through vignettes, based on authentic classroom case studies, in order to show students how educators make decisions and achieve expected outcomes.…

  13. Positioning in Relationships between Parents and Early Years Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims-Schouten, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Early years care and education have been high on British political agendas. This includes partnership working between early years practitioners and parents. Yet, more research is needed to examine how childcare staff engage with parents and vice versa. This study addresses the role of position and positioning in parent-practitioner relationships,…

  14. Early Years Education and the Value for Money Folklore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Barr, Verity

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended as a contribution to the debate on the role of human capital in determining value for money in early years education. The article explores how the idea that early years education offers value for money has become folklore amongst policymakers and more widely. However, drawing on both interview data and existing literature…

  15. Parent Partnership and "Quality" Early Years Services: Practitioners' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Michelle; Alexander, Elise

    2014-01-01

    This article begins by outlining the historical and political context of "parent partnership" within the UK. It locates the perspectives of early years' practitioners within this context, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded study of eighteen English early years settings, including interviews and…

  16. Perceptions of Teachers in Their First Year of School Restructuring: Failure to Make Adequate Yearly Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The 2007-2008 school year marked the first year Florida's Title I schools that did not made Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) for five consecutive years entered into restructuring as mandated by the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001. My study examines the perceptions of teacher entering into their first year of school restructuring due to…

  17. Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvao, Le'autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia; Podmore, Valerie N.

    Noting the need for additional information on the transition of children from Pacific Islands early childhood services to primary school, this exploratory study was designed to provide an account of the experiences of children, parents, and teachers, focusing on language and other aspects of children's move from Pacific Islands early childhood…

  18. Competent Children at 10: Families, Early Education, and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Thompson, Jean; Lythe, Cathy

    This report is the fourth from the Competent Children project that is following a sample of children in the Wellington region of New Zealand from their early education experience into adulthood. The main aim of the project is to chart the contributions to children's progress made by family resources, early childhood education, school experiences,…

  19. Othered Voices: Asylum-Seeking Mothers and Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening the home-school partnership is a strategy to raise achievement levels and to engage "hard-to-reach" parents with education in the UK, however this political ideal has been critiqued as exclusive and based on a white, middle class model. This article explores how six asylum-seeking mothers manage their children's early years…

  20. Early Career School Counselors' Training Perspectives: Implications for School Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaten, Christopher D.; Scalise, Dominick A.; Gutting, Krystle; Baskin, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined early career professional school counselors' experiences related to their work as mental health professionals in schools. Nine individuals participated in qualitative interviews that were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, 2012). All individuals were professional school counselors trained in…

  1. High School Accountability: Early Evidence from Florida's Broward County Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iatarola, Patrice; Gao, Niu

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, Florida adopted the Differentiated Accountability (DA) plan, making it among the first to specifically incorporate into its existing school grading scheme college readiness targets. In this paper we use a rich panel of data on high school students in Broward County (Ft. Lauderdale) Public Schools to present early evidence of the impact of…

  2. 34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.106 Extended school year services. (a) General. (1) Each public agency must ensure that extended school year services are available...

  3. 34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.106 Extended school year services. (a) General. (1) Each public agency must ensure that extended school year services are available...

  4. 34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.106 Extended school year services. (a) General. (1) Each public agency must ensure that extended school year services are available...

  5. 34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Other Fape Requirements § 300.106 Extended school year services. (a) General. (1) Each public agency must ensure that extended school year services are available...

  6. Comprehensive Education Plan, School Year 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Research Information Center.

    The Board of Education and the administration of the District of Columbia Public Schools cooperated to compose a five-year plan for the 1983-87 school years. Long range and intermediate objectives of the plan are described and the offices accountable for them are indicated. The program for the 1986-87 school year is extracted from those…

  7. Impact of North Carolina's Early Childhood Programs and Policies on Educational Outcomes in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bai, Yu; Ladd, Helen F.; Muschkin, Clara G.

    2017-01-01

    North Carolina's Smart Start and More at Four (MAF) early childhood programs were evaluated through the end of elementary school (age 11) by estimating the impact of state funding allocations to programs in each of 100 counties across 13 consecutive years on outcomes for all children in each county-year group (n = 1,004,571; 49% female; 61%…

  8. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2009-10 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Jennifer; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) aims to improve the school-readiness of Saint Paul children and help close the achievement gap through offering high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This report comes at the conclusion of the sixth year of PEK. Following an initial planning year (2004-05), PEK has served children through the…

  9. The Preparatory Year in a Queensland Non-Government School: Exploring Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Lyndal

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project investigating parents' conceptions of an early childhood program in Queensland. During 2007, early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Queensland underwent significant reform associated with the introduction of a full-time Preparatory Year program in all schools throughout the state. The…

  10. Making and Being Made: Wise Humanising Creativity in Interdisciplinary Early Years Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Kerry Anne; Pender, Tamsin; Swinford, Elizabeth; Ford, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on how wise humanising creativity (WHC) is manifested within early years interdisciplinary arts education. It draws on Arts Council-funded participatory research by Devon Carousel Project and University of Exeter's Graduate School of Education. It is grounded in previous AHRC-funded research, which conceptualised WHC in the face…

  11. Aistear vis-à-vis the Primary Curriculum: The Experiences of Early Years Teachers in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette; Ryan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Launched in 2009, the Aistear early years curriculum framework sought to complement and extend the primary school curriculum (PSC) at infant class level in the Republic of Ireland. While Aistear focuses on the development of attitudes, values and learning dispositions and is neither statutory nor inspected, the PSC centres on the acquisition of…

  12. The "Brave" Man in the Early Years (0-8): Defining the "Role Model"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownhill, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The call for more "brave" male early years practitioners and primary classroom teachers remains prevalent as boys' underachievement continues to dominate education agendas. There is a recognised need, backed by government policy and public discourse in England, for more men to work in settings and schools (0-11) and act as "role…

  13. Kindergarten Program for Four-Year-OIds: An Early intervention Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klentschy, Michael P.; Hoge, Suzi

    The Pasadena Unified School District, in northwest Los Angeles County, recognized that an early intervention program for economically disadvantaged children should be part of its comprehensive district revitalizing and restructuring plan. Consequently, staff developed the Kindergarten Program for Four-Year-Olds, which was designed to provide: (1)…

  14. How Silent Is the "Silent Period" for Young Bilinguals in Early Years Settings in England?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Rose

    2013-01-01

    During the first decade of the twenty-first century there have been increasing numbers of bilingual children entering early years settings, many of whom are new to English. Twelve percent of school children in the UK are identified as having a mother tongue other than English and this number rises to 50% in urban areas such as inner London. In…

  15. Making the best of the early years: the Tambellup way.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kim D; Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beerenfels, Susan; Rowell, Anne-Marie C

    2010-01-01

    -knit community, where adults looked out for and supported both their own and others' children. The primary school played a key role in supporting children's development even before children started school. Good relations generally existed between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal residents, contributing to the stability of the population and providing many role models in successful cross-cultural relationships. Aboriginal people in Tambellup played significant but often under-recognised roles in promoting child and youth wellbeing in the community. The community had the capacity to respond to local needs and challenges. Communication channels were effective and there was a sense of belonging, pride and 'connectedness' in the community that promoted and supported a safe environment for children. High quality services and staff (eg school and community health centre) reinforced children's developmental opportunities. The results suggest that small rural communities offer significant and untapped resources for enhancing the health and wellbeing of children in the critical early years of life.

  16. Lessons Learned: Five Years in the Urban Schools Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Erika Nielsen; Dornsife, Carolyn; Flack, Maggie; Hallinan, Mayo Tsuzuki; Jackson, Lola; Raby, Marilyn; Steadman, Mimi Harris

    The 10 chapters in this book provide an overview of 5 years of work by member schools and colleges in the Urban Schools Network, which provides technical assistance to schools in 31 urban areas. "Overview of the Urban Schools Network" (Lola Jackson) is a history, defining purposes, participants, and priorities. "Integrating Academic…

  17. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  18. School-Based Early Childhood Centers: Secrets of Success from Early Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Janet L.; Katzev, Aphra

    School-based early childhood centers have the potential for responding effectively to a broad range of child and family needs and to society's demands for more effective schools. They have four defining features: (1) implementation of quality programs and developmentally appropriate practices for young children through age eight; (2) families as…

  19. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  20. Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert S.; Duncan, Greg J.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Meichu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics…

  1. Poor, Rural Neighborhoods and Early School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Robert; Smith, Cynthia; Eagle, Teresa Hardman

    A study sought to identify the existence of neighborhood effects on school achievement that are independent of social class and family background among students from poor, rural neighborhoods. Ethnographic material yielded a concept of rural West Virginia neighborhoods in which residents expect their encounters to be friendly, informal, almost…

  2. Early Learning: Readiness for School. Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Current research seeks to determine if today's pre-K programs provide strong returns on investment similar to the returns from the classic 1960's High/Scope Perry Preschool Program and 1970's North Carolina Abecedarian Project. These were known for the positive academic effects that children experienced as they moved through school. Policy-makers…

  3. School Building in Early Development. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Development is characterized by urbanization. New settlements grow either as enlargements of existing ones or as new population concentrations. Three periods may be distinguished in the growth of a settlement: (1) the wild period of first settling, (2) the consolidation period, and (3) the stabilized society. The number of school-aged children per…

  4. Early Warning Systems Assure Safe Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, John

    1973-01-01

    Fairfield, Connecticut, public schools are protected by an automatic fire detection system covering every area of every building through an electric monitor. An intrusion alarm system that relies primarily on pulsed infra-red beams protects the plant investment. (Author/MF)

  5. Early Predictors of Middle School Fraction Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Drew H.; Siegler, Robert S.; Geary, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic…

  6. Measuring Charter School Efficiency: An Early Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Noller, Scott L.

    2010-01-01

    In an era of increased accountability and challenging times for public finance, charter schools built on decentralization, grassroots accountability, and market forces may provide, in the spirit of "educational laboratories," lessons for increasing student achievement more efficiently through diverse and innovative management,…

  7. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  8. From Early Starters to Late Finishers? A Longitudinal Study of Early Foreign Language Learning in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Nils; Schurig, Michael; Florian, Merle; Ritter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Foreign language education has now been implemented at the elementary school level across Europe, and early foreign language education has gained traction following language policies set by the European Commission. The long-term effects of an early start, however, have not received ample scientific scrutiny. The present study assessed early…

  9. Dyslexia in the Early Years: A Handbook for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that early identification and intervention is crucial and can in fact minimise, and may even prevent, the challenges of dyslexia from becoming too detrimental at later stages of education. This book offers both research insights and practical guidance for teachers working in Early Years settings on how to create resource…

  10. Segments and Stutters: Early Years Teachers and Becoming-Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Nikki

    2017-01-01

    There has been extensive research and analysis of the professionalization of early childhood educators/teachers. The recent promotion of a teacher-led workforce in England has further focused discussions on the modelling of early years teachers as professionals. In this article, the author develops an alternative analysis using the concepts of…

  11. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  12. The Littlest Historians: Early Years Programming in History Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leftwich, Mariruth; Haywood, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Working with children under five years old and the adults that accompany them is a rapidly growing area within the museum and wider cultural sector, with important emphasis being placed on early learning in both the United Kingdom and United States. For history museums in particular, early learning offers a unique set of questions and challenges,…

  13. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  14. The First Three Years: Experiences of Early Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…

  15. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    PubMed

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  16. Couples as Partners and Parents over Children's Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marcia J.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how couple relationship quality and parental engagement are linked over children's early years--when they are infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Our sample included 1,630 couples who were coresident over Years 1-3 and 1,376 couples who were coresident over Years 3-5…

  17. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  18. Early Puberty, School Context, and Delinquency Among South Korean Girls.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Sook; Yun, Ilhong; Walsh, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Compared with chronological age, criminologists have paid less attention to the biological sense of age typically expressed by pubertal development. Studies that have examined pubertal timing's effects on delinquency have almost exclusively been conducted in Western countries using mostly White samples. To our knowledge, no study has ever examined this issue in the Asian context. The current study is the first attempt to bridge this research gap by examining the association among menarcheal timing, the sex composition of schools, and delinquency in a representative sample of 1,108 ninth-grade girls in South Korea. The results show that significant association between early menarche and delinquency exists only in mixed-sex schools but not in all-girls schools. In addition, the significant linkage between early menarche and delinquency in mixed-sex schools is mediated by delinquent peer associations.

  19. Bacterial Chemotaxis: The Early Years of Molecular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hazelbauer, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the early years of molecular studies of bacterial chemotaxis and motility, beginning in the 1960s with Julius Adler's pioneering work. It describes key observations that established the field and made bacterial chemotaxis a paradigm for the molecular understanding of biological signaling. Consideration of those early years includes aspects of science seldom described in journals: the accidental findings, personal interactions, and scientific culture that often drive scientific progress. PMID:22994495

  20. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  1. Shedding Light: Private "For Profit" Training Providers and Young Early School Leavers. NCVER Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myconos, George; Clarke, Kira; te Riele, Kitty

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the oft-criticised segment of the vocational education and training (VET) sector in Australia--private, for-profit registered training organisations (RTOs)--with the aim of gaining a clearer understanding of the approaches they adopt in training 15 to 19-year-olds who have left school early. Through a nationwide survey…

  2. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  3. Early Elementary Performance and Attendance in Baltimore City Schools' Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Faith; Olson, Linda S.

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at attendance in the early grades of elementary school. In particular, the authors focus on students enrolled in Pre-Kindergarten (PreK) and Kindergarten (K). They follow these young students over several years to determine their pattern of chronic absence (CA), defined as missing more than one-ninth of days enrolled, and their…

  4. Getting Ready for School: Palm Beach County's Early Childhood Cluster Initiative. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  5. Getting Ready for School: Palm Beach County's Early Childhood Cluster Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This publication reports findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  6. Does School Connectedness Buffer the Impact of Peer Victimization on Early Adolescents' Subsequent Adjustment Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Pasch, Keryn E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the role of school connectedness as a moderator of the associations between overt and relational forms of peer victimization and early adolescents' subsequent adjustment problems. Data were collected from 490 adolescents when they were initially in the sixth and seventh grades and again 1 year later. Regression analyses…

  7. Changes in America's Public School Facilities: From School Year 1998-99 to School Year 2012-13. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-074

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Steven; Sparks, Dinah

    2016-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief summarizes the changes from the 1998-99 to the 2012-13 school years in the average age of public schools, ratings of satisfaction of the environmental quality of school facilities, the cost to put school buildings in good overall condition, and short-range plans to improve school facilities. In addition to providing…

  8. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  9. K-12 Postsecondary Alignment and School Accountability: Investigating High School Responses to California's Early Assessment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jacob; Kurlaender, Michal

    2016-01-01

    State K-12 assessments may soon include measures for college readiness, as California's already do. We seek to understand how California's Early Assessment Program (EAP, designed to assess high school juniors' college readiness in English and math) may have influenced overall school-level college readiness and state accountability outcomes. Using…

  10. Autism and Early Years Practice: A Guide for Early Years Professionals, Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Kate

    2004-01-01

    In this book the author discusses the field of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) as one in which practitioners are highly committed, dedicated and willing to learn. Generally, they try to do their very best for the children with whom they work. However, the author also shows that the field has hitherto been neglected in the areas of…

  11. Practitioner Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…

  12. The Roller-Coaster Years: Raising Your Child through the Maddening yet Magical Middle School Years. A Comprehensive Guide for Parents of 10- to 15-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret

    Intended for parents of 10- to 15-year-olds, this book is a guide to mastering the ups and downs of early adolescence. The book draws together the latest information from experts, supported and advised by the National Middle School Association, and insights from surveys of parents, teachers, and the children themselves to cover every facet of the…

  13. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools: Start up and Early Implementation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, Superintendent Arlene Ackerman announced her reform plan for the School District of Philadelphia (the District)--"Imagine 2014". Among other major initiatives, "Imagine 2014" laid the groundwork for Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative. The Renaissance Initiative, set to enter its second year in 2011-12, is an effort to…

  14. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  15. Early School Admissions Program: Staff Handbook. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Mabel; And Others

    The descriptions and procedures in this handbook were developed and compiled at the request of staff members of the Early School Admissions Program. It was felt that specific information relating to the suggested use of classroom materials and equipment would assist in upgrading teaching techniques, planning cognitively based learning experiences,…

  16. Predicting School Performance with the Early Screening Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Proposes criteria for defining and selecting preschool developmental screening instruments and describes the Early Screening Inventory (ESI), a developmental screening instrument designed to satisfy these criteria. Presents results of several studies demonstrating that the ESI predicts school performance with moderate to excellent accuracy through…

  17. Early College High School: Closing the Latino Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Kristen Ann

    2016-01-01

    The population of United States Latino students is growing at a rapid rate but their academic achievement lags behind white and Asian students. This issue has significant consequences for the nation's economy, as the job market continues to demand more education and better skills. Early College High School programs have the potential to improve…

  18. Early Identification Guidelines: Suburban Model (Lucas County School District).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Educational Services.

    Developed by a suburban school district, this manual provides guidelines for the early identification of gifted preschool children and describes Project Unicorn, a project to conceptualize, plan, and implement a classroom curriculum model for gifted young children. Project activities were based on Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development and…

  19. Social Network Profiles of Children in Early Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Jennifer A.; Locke, Jill J.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterized the social network roles and peer relationship features of early elementary school-age children from kindergarten to 2nd grade. Children were asked to identify who they liked and did not like to play with and peer groups who played together from their classroom. Consistent with the literature, we found similar patterns for…

  20. Beyond Early Intervention: Providing Support to Public School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    At age 3, children with hearing loss transition from Part C early intervention to Part B public school services. These children represent a heterogeneous population when considering factors such as communication approaches; speech, language, auditory and cognitive skills; social-emotional and motor development; parental involvement; hearing…

  1. Literacy Development in the First Year of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Susan; Louden, William

    Drawing on the research study, "100 Children Go to School: Connections between Literacy Development in the Prior to School Period and the First Year of Schooling," conducted from 1996-1998 by a team made up of Susan Hill, Barbara Comber, William Louden, Judith Rivalland, and Jo-Anne Reid, this paper discusses the findings of the study,…

  2. Children's Experiences of the First Year of Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a study with first grade children and their views on the primary school curriculum, as well as their influence on decision-making in school. The study was conducted with 20 six- and seven-year-old children in one primary school in Reykjavik, Iceland. The data gathered includes varied research methods such as group…

  3. Thirty Years of School Based Curriculum Development: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peretz, Miriam; Dor, Ben Zion

    A study of one school's involvement in school-based curriculum development (SBCD) for nearly 30 years provided researchers with information on the factors affecting the success of SBCD programs. The school studied serves 3,500 students in 12 grades at several sites in an Israeli city. Following interviews with faculty members, the researchers…

  4. National Data on Participation in VET in Schools Programs & School-Based New Apprenticeships for the 2004 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Early in 2005, the Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) Taskforce on Transition from School collected data on vocational education and training (VET) in Schools from all States and Territories in the following areas: (1) number of students enrolled in VET in Schools programs; (2) industry coverage by…

  5. International High School: Six Years New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Terrill H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes New York City's International High School, in which all students are limited English proficient, focusing on faculty language resources, cooperative education, interdisciplinary presentation of English as a Second Language, and shared faculty and staff leadership. (CB)

  6. Funding of Schools, 2000-2001 School Year = Financement des ecoles, Annee scolaire 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    Available in English or French, this reference guide summarizes the funding of Manitoba public schools for the 2000-2001 school year. School funding for operating and capital expenses is administered by the provincial government. Following a list of 2000-2001 revisions to the Schools Finance Program, the first section describes base support. The…

  7. Can a School Change Its Spots? The First Year of Transforming to an Innovative School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubin, Dorit; Ofek-Regev, Noa

    2010-01-01

    Transforming into an innovative school is one of the strategies schools apply when facing changes in a turbulent environment. In the first year of such a transformation these schools face an essential dilemma: how to facilitate changes without jeopardizing their environmental legitimacy. Examining an Israeli elementary school as an instrumental…

  8. 25 CFR 39.207 - How does OIEP determine a school's funding for the school year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 5. Add together the total WSUs for all Bureau-funded schools. (f) Step 6. Calculate the value of a... for the previous 3 years. (g) Step 7. Multiply each school's WSU total by the base value of one WSU to... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does OIEP determine a school's funding for the school...

  9. 25 CFR 39.207 - How does OIEP determine a school's funding for the school year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 5. Add together the total WSUs for all Bureau-funded schools. (f) Step 6. Calculate the value of a... for the previous 3 years. (g) Step 7. Multiply each school's WSU total by the base value of one WSU to... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How does OIEP determine a school's funding for the school...

  10. School-Based Decision Making: Linking Decisions to Learning. Third-Year Report to the Prichard Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Jane L.

    Under the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA), School-Based Decision Making (SBDM) is the provision that creates school councils and delegates to them the authority to make important educational decisions to improve student performance. This paper describes findings from the third year of a 5-year study of SBDM that focused on early examples of…

  11. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps evident in persistently low-performing schools, in many instances, manifest prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality early learning programs have proven to demonstrate positive effects on closing academic gaps both for individual children and in the aggregate for the school.…

  12. School Integration Efforts Three Years after "Parents Involved"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tefera, Adai; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Frankenberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesizes major themes in local policymaking during the last year, as local school districts continue to grapple with legal and economic constraints on policies that are aimed at creating diverse schools. The report last year on the second anniversary of "Parents Involved" began to uncover some of the consequences of the difficult…

  13. Simulation Activity for Initiating Thinking about Year Around School Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagness, Richard L.

    This document presents a three-step model for providing teachers with basic information on year-round or extended school plans. As a first step, descriptions of basic plans are given. The four used in this paper are Staggered Quarter for All, Full 48-week School Year for All, Voluntary Summer Program, and A Summer Program for Professional…

  14. Moving House for Education in the Pre-School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine house moves that take place in the pre-school years, focusing on families who move for the education of their children. We present results showing that education- related house moves do indeed occur in the pre-school years with particular types of parents making these…

  15. School-Year Employment and Academic Performance of Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the relationship between school-year employment and academic performance of young adolescents under age 16. Ordinary least squares estimates show a significant positive relationship between modest hours of school-year employment and grade point average.…

  16. Three Years of Collaboration in the Development of Portal Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankratz, Roger; Williams, John

    In 1971 six rural, eastern Kansas School Districts collaborated with Kansas State Teachers College in the development of portal schools. Four-year goals and first-year objectives were established and a steering committee comprised of representatives of each significant role group was organized to transact business associated with the development…

  17. Ten Recommendations for a Safer School Year. Safety Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken R.

    2017-01-01

    The beginning of a new school year can be hectic, but it is an opportune and critical time for teachers, supervisors, administrators, and school systems to establish proper safety procedures and practices. It can be more difficult to correct inappropriate behaviors or unsafe habits later in the year. This is especially true if a safety accident…

  18. The English proficiency and academic language skills of Australian bilingual children during the primary school years.

    PubMed

    Dennaoui, Kamelia; Nicholls, Ruth Jane; O'Connor, Meredith; Tarasuik, Joanne; Kvalsvig, Amanda; Goldfeld, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that early proficiency in the language of school instruction is an important predictor of academic success for bilingual children. This study investigated whether English-proficiency at 4-5 years of age predicts academic language and literacy skills among Australian bilingual children at 10-11 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children ( LSAC, 2012 ). The LSAC comprises a nationally representative clustered cross-sequential sample of Australian children. Data were analysed from a sub-sample of 129 bilingual children from the LSAC Kindergarten cohort (n = 4983), for whom teachers completed the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) checklist (a population measure of early childhood development) and the Academic Rating Scale (ARS) language and literacy subscale. Linear regression analyses revealed that bilingual children who commenced school with stronger English proficiency had higher academic language and literacy scores at the end of primary school (β = 0.45). English proficiency remained a significant predictor, even when accounting for gender and socio-economic disadvantage (β = 0.38). The findings indicate that bilingual children who begin school without English proficiency are at risk of difficulties with academic language and literacy, even after 6 years of schooling. Risk factors need to be identified so early support can be targeted towards the most vulnerable children.

  19. Grade-Level Differences in Future-Oriented Self-Concept during Early Adolescence: Potential Relevance to School Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Pierce, Jennifer; Schmidt, Carissa J.

    2016-01-01

    The middle school and early high school years are a time of significant development, including an increasing ability to envision oneself in the future. Little is known about how adolescents' future-oriented self-concept (i.e., possible selves) differs across grade levels, although this knowledge may aid in establishing rapport with students and…

  20. SCHOOL DESEGREGATION--THE FIRST SIX YEARS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, GA.

    THE ATTEMPT IS MADE TO PUT INTO PERSPECTIVE THE MORAL, LEGAL, AND POLITICAL ISSUES OF SCHOOL DESEGREGATION FOR THE PRIVATE CITIZEN OF THE SOUTH WHO IS STILL IN SEARCH OF THE MORAL AND SOCIAL VALUES DEMANDED BY THE RACIAL PROBLEM. THIRTY QUESTIONS ARE RAISED AND DISCUSSED. SOME OF THE TOPICS INCLUDED WERE--THE SUPREME COURT RULINGS AND THEIR…

  1. Computing Education in Children's Early Years: A Call for Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manches, Andrew; Plowman, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    International changes in policy and curricula (notably recent developments in England) have led to a focus on the role of computing education in the early years. As interest in the potential of computing education has increased, there has been a proliferation of programming tools designed for young children. While these changes are broadly to be…

  2. Multimodal Transcription of Video: Examining Interaction in Early Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Video is an increasingly popular data collection tool for those undertaking social research, offering a temporal, sequential, fine-grained record which is durable, malleable and sharable. These characteristics make video a valuable resource for researching Early Years classrooms, particularly with regard to the study of children's interaction in…

  3. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…

  4. Mathematics in Early Years Education. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague-Smith, Ann; Price, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This third edition of the best-selling "Mathematics in Nursery Education" provides an accessible introduction to the teaching of mathematics in the early years. Covering all areas of mathematics learning--number and counting, calculation, pattern, shape, measures and data handling--it summarises the research findings and underlying key concepts…

  5. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  6. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  7. The Third Year of the Brookline Early Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Donald E.

    This is the third progress report of the Brookline Early Education Project (BEEP) which is a program designed to provide diagnostic and educational services to the family through their child's preschool years. This document provides information on (1) the BEEP center, (2) playgroups: transition phase of the education program, (3) dental screening…

  8. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  9. Barriers and Solutions to HE Progression for Early Years' Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Alexandra; Carey, Danielle; Cramp, Andy; Perkins, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Shifts in UK social and economic policy have focused on education and care in the Early Years as key to improving social inclusion, skills acquisition and longer term social and economic prosperity. The implications for practitioners in the sector have been significant as roles, functions and foci have been renegotiated through the processes of…

  10. Monsters under the Bed: Critically Investigating Early Years Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    "Monsters Under the Bed" is an essential text focussing on critical and contemporary issues surrounding writing for "early years" children. Containing a critically creative and a creatively critical investigation of the cult and culture of the child and childhood in fiction and non-fictional writing, it also contains a wealth of ideas and critical…

  11. Child Participation in the Early Years: Challenges for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Maryanne; Danby, Susan; Ailwood, Jo

    2011-01-01

    The view that children should have a say in and participate in the decision making of matters that affect them is now an accepted position when considering research and policy in the early years. This paper reviews the field of child participation in the Australian context to show that, despite growing evidence of support within policy and…

  12. Being a Manager in the English Early Years Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on interviews with 29 managers and deputy managers within 15 nurseries in the private sector in England. The author argues that, whilst there is a growing literature on management and professionalism within the Early Years (EY) sector, there is less known about the actual experiences of being a manager in this context. Many of…

  13. 34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. THE CROW'S NEST. IN THE EARLY YEARS OF THE INN MUSICIANS SAT AND PLAYED FOR THE GUESTS IN THE LOBBY BELOW. THE EARTHQUAKE IN 1959 CAUSED SOME STRUCTURAL DAMAGE AND NOW THE CROW'S NEST IS NOT ACCESSIBLE TO THE PUBLIC. - Old Faithful Inn, 900' northeast of Snowlodge & 1050' west of Old Faithful Lodge, Lake, Teton County, WY

  14. Investigating Early Years Teachers' Understanding and Response to Children's Preconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambouri, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on young children's scientific preconceptions and discusses teachers' identification of these preconceptions when teaching science in the early years, on which research is still limited. This paper is based on the theoretical framework of constructivism and it defines preconceptions as children's erroneous concepts prior to…

  15. Accountability and Virginia Public Schools, 2016-2017 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This document offers a brief guide to understanding Virginia's system for holding schools accountable for raising student achievement. Virginia's accountability system supports teaching and learning by setting rigorous academic standards--known as the Standards of Learning (SOL)--and through annual statewide assessments of student achievement.…

  16. Vignettes of scholars: A case study of black male students at a STEM early college high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Tempestt Richardson

    Ensuring students graduate high school ready to enter college or the workforce has become a prime focus within secondary education. High school graduates are often ill-prepared for college-level work and often have to register for remedial courses before they can take standard college level courses (Southern Regional Education Board, 2010). Serving as both a solution to this concern and an alternative to traditional high schools, early college high schools were created to focus on increasing the number of students graduating from high school and enrolling in college. Early college high schools seek to serve students who have traditionally underperformed in school and those who are underrepresented in higher education including students of color, first-generation college students, students from low socioeconomic backgrounds, and English language learners (Barnett, Bucceri, Hindo, Kim, 2013; "Overview & FAQS," 2013). In efforts to learn more about how early colleges are meeting the needs of students, this dissertation examines the experiences, identity construction, and perceptions of Black male students at a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) based early college high school. Using a qualitative case study design, participants were eight Black male upperclassmen enrolled in a STEM early college high school, located on the campus of a four-year university. Data was collected through focus groups and individual interviews and data was analyzed thematically. Findings suggest students in this study have largely positive experiences at their early college high school. Despite some challenges, the early college high school environment helps facilitate scholar identities, and the STEM focus of the school helps students learn more about their strengths and weaknesses. The implications of the research, recommendations for educational stakeholders, and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  17. Early Identification of High School Graduation Outcomes in Oregon Leadership Network Schools. REL 2015-079

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student characteristics related to completing high school within four years, with particular emphasis on graduation outcomes for male and English language learner students. The authors looked at a cohort of students who began grade 9 in the 2007/08 school year in four Oregon districts. Factors related to…

  18. The Inside Story. Counseling for Tolerance in the Early Years Means Paying Attention to the Way Children Think and Feel about the World--and Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, David

    1995-01-01

    School counselors have developed effective approaches to reducing prejudice in the crucial early school years. Successful early intervention is based on the premise that hatred and prejudice are tools of the subconscious to ease feelings of inferiority through the illusion of superiority. (SLD)

  19. WWC Review of the Report "Early College, Early Success: Early College High School Initiative Impact Study." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Early College High Schools partner with colleges and universities to provide students with an opportunity to earn an Associate's degree or college credits toward a Bachelor's degree at no or low cost to students. In a recent study, researchers found that attending Early College High Schools improved some high school and postsecondary outcomes for…

  20. Early language mediates the relations between preschool inattention and school-age reading achievement.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Sarah; Thornton, Veronica; Marks, David J; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-01

    Early inattention is associated with later reading problems in children, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We investigated whether the negative relation between preschoolers' ADHD symptoms and 8-year-old reading achievement is directly related to the severity of inattention or is mediated by early language skills. Children (n = 150; 76% boys) were evaluated at 3 time points: preschool (T1), mean (SD) age = 4.24 (.49) years; 1 year later (T2), mean (SD) age = 5.28 (.50) years; and during school age (T3), mean (SD) age = 8.61 (.31) years. At T1, parents' Kiddie-SADS responses were dimensionalized to reflect ADHD severity. Children completed the Language domain of the NEPSY (i.e., A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment) at T1 and again at T2. At T3, children completed the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Second Edition Word Reading, Pseudoword Decoding, Reading Comprehension, and Spelling subtests, and their teachers completed ratings of Reading and Written Expression performance in school. The mediating effect of T2 Language on the relation between preschool Inattention and age 8 Reading was examined using the nonparametric bootstrapping procedure, while controlling for T1 Language. Language ability at T2 mediated the path from preschool inattention (but not hyperactivity/impulsivity) to 8-year-old reading achievement (both test scores and ratings) after controlling for preschoolers' language ability. Early attentional deficits may negatively impact school-age reading outcomes by compromising the development of language skills, which in turn imperils later reading achievement. Screening children with attentional problems for language impairment, as well as implementing early intervention for both attentional and language problems may be critical to promote reading achievement during school years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Oral language supports early literacy: a pilot cluster randomized trial in disadvantaged schools.

    PubMed

    Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.

  2. The Influence of Family and Teacher Factors on Early Disruptive School Behaviors: A Latent Profile Transition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racz, Sarah J.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The kindergarten year plays an important role in establishing children's academic, social, and behavioral adjustment. Early identification of children who experience difficulties with the kindergarten transition is crucial to prevent continued behavioral and emotional problems. Family and school predictors of these early behavioral patterns can…

  3. Families' Goals, School Involvement, and Children's Academic Achievement: A Follow-Up Study Thirteen Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    A study conducted from 1996-2000 focused on the academic development of children within a statewide educational reform effort, including changing the organizational structure of the early years of schooling into nongraded primary programs (formerly age-based classrooms for kindergarteners through third grade). The multisite study involved children…

  4. The Northcote Network of Schools and the Middle Years of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Darryn

    Recognizing the necessity of examining the needs of early adolescents and changing the focus of middle grades education in Australia, this report describes the findings from the Northcote Network of Schools, 8 primary and 2 secondary schools collaborating to develop continuity and coherence across grades 5 through 8. The paper outlines activities…

  5. Losing All Interest in School: Social Participation as a Predictor of the Intention to Leave Upper Secondary School Early

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan; Mjaavatn, Per Egil

    2015-01-01

    Early school leaving in upper secondary education is a serious problem for both students and society. Several reviews have shown that there is no simple cause of early school leaving, but it seems to relate to demographic variables, social factors, academic achievement, and school factors. In this study, data from 2,045 students aged 16 from upper…

  6. Getting Students on Track for Graduation: Impacts of the Early Warning Intervention and Monitoring System after One Year. REL 2017-272

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faria, Ann-Marie; Sorensen, Nicholas; Heppen, Jessica; Bowdon, Jill; Taylor, Suzanne; Eisner, Ryan; Foster, Shandu

    2017-01-01

    Although high school graduation rates are rising--the national rate was 82 percent during the 2013/14 school year (U.S. Department of Education, 2015)--dropping out remains a persistent problem in the Midwest and nationally. Many schools now use early warning systems to identify students who are at risk of not graduating, with the goal of…

  7. Snoring during early childhood and academic performance at ages thirteen to fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Gozal, D; Pope, D W

    2001-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in young children is associated with an adverse effect on learning. However, the long-term impact of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during early childhood on learning remains unknown. Questionnaires were mailed to seventh and eighth graders attending public schools whose class ranking was either in the top 25% (high performance [HP]) or bottom 25% of their class (low performance [LP]), and who were matched for age, gender, race, school, and street of residence. Snoring frequency and loudness at 2 to 6 years of age, tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A) for snoring or recurrent infection, school grades, and parental smoking and snoring were assessed. The questionnaire response rate was 82.8%. Because of ongoing ring, 13 responders were excluded, such that 1588 questionnaires could be analyzed (797 in LP and 791 in HP group). Frequent and loud snoring during early childhood was reported in 103 LP children (12.9%) compared with 40 HP children (5.1%; odds ratio: 2.79; confidence interval: 1.88-4.15). Furthermore, 24 LP and 7 HP children underwent T&A for snoring (odds ratio: 3.40; confidence interval: 1.47-7.84), while 21 LP and 19 HP children required surgery for recurrent tonsillitis. Children with lower academic performance in middle school are more likely to have snored during early childhood and to require T&A for snoring compared with better performing schoolmates. These findings support the concept that SDB-associated neurocognitive morbidity may be only partially reversible or that a "learning debt" may develop with SDB during early childhood and hamper subsequent school performance.

  8. EHLS at School: school-age follow-up of the Early Home Learning Study cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Clair; Cullinane, Meabh; Hackworth, Naomi J; Berthelsen, Donna; Reilly, Sheena; Mensah, Fiona K; Gold, Lisa; Bennetts, Shannon K; Levickis, Penny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2018-05-02

    Targeted interventions during early childhood can assist families in providing strong foundations that promote children's health and wellbeing across the life course. There is growing recognition that longer follow-up times are necessary to assess intervention outcomes, as effects may change as children develop. The Early Home Learning Study, or 'EHLS', comprised two cluster randomized controlled superiority trials of a brief parenting intervention, smalltalk, aimed at supporting parents to strengthen the early childhood home learning environment of infants (6-12 months) or toddlers (12-36 months). Results showed sustained improvements in parent-child interactions and the home environment at the 32 week follow-up for the toddler but not the infant trial. The current study will therefore follow up the EHLS toddler cohort to primary school age, with the aim of addressing a gap in literature concerning long-term effects of early childhood interventions focused on improving school readiness and later developmental outcomes. 'EHLS at School' is a school-aged follow-up study of the toddler cluster randomized controlled trial (n = 1226). Data will be collected by parent-, child- and teacher-report questionnaires, recorded observations of parent-child interactions, and direct child assessment when children are aged 7.5 years old. Data linkage will provide additional data on child health and academic functioning at ages 5, 8 and 10 years. Child outcomes will be compared for families allocated to standard/usual care (control) versus those allocated to the smalltalk program (group program only or group program with additional home coaching). Findings from The Early Home Learning Study provided evidence of the benefits of the smalltalk intervention delivered via facilitated playgroups for parents of toddlers. The EHLS at School Study aims to examine the long-term outcomes of this initiative to determine whether improvements in the quality of the parent

  9. Early Childhood Lead Exposure and Academic Achievement: Evidence From Detroit Public Schools, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Harolyn W.; Tufts, Margaret; Raymond, Randall E.; Salihu, Hamisu; Elliott, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the long-term effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement in mathematics, science, and reading among elementary and junior high school children. Methods. We linked early childhood blood lead testing surveillance data from the Detroit Department of Health and Wellness Promotion to educational testing data from the Detroit, Michigan, public schools. We used the linked data to investigate the effect of early childhood lead exposure on academic achievement among school-aged children, both marginally and adjusted for grade level, gender, race, language, maternal education, and socioeconomic status. Results. High blood lead levels before age 6 years were strongly associated with poor academic achievement in grades 3, 5, and 8. The odds of scoring less than proficient for those whose blood lead levels were greater than 10 micrograms per deciliter were more than twice the odds for those whose blood lead levels were less than 1 micrograms per deciliter after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions. Early childhood lead exposure was negatively associated with academic achievement in elementary and junior high school, after adjusting for key potential confounders. The control of lead poisoning should focus on primary prevention of lead exposure in children and development of special education programs for students with lead poisoning. PMID:23327265

  10. Implementing Year-Round School--Monroe Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, John

    Planning for conversion to a year-round school in James Monroe School, Madera, California, began in 1984 as educators and community faced the fact that continued enrollment increases had reached a critical point. This report describes program development and implementation; an appendix with program worksheets comprises over one-half of the…

  11. Concept Six Year-Round School Plan. A Simulation Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, William

    Concept 6, a new program designed to cope with burgeoning enrollments and a shortage of classroom space in Jefferson County, Colorado, keeps school buildings in use 250 days and divides the school year into six terms of instruction. Individual students attend classes four terms and choose their vacations during the other two. An option for a fifth…

  12. Districts Face Painful Cuts as School Year Begins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    As students around the country begin the 2011-2012 school year, many of them will be returning to districts that have been forced to restructure their operations in the face of budget cuts. Leaders of those school systems have sought to avoid cuts that they believe would weaken instruction. But they also believe the reductions will put a strain on…

  13. Longer School Years: Reform or Illusion? Policy Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward C.

    The advantages and disadvantages of the year-round school fall into three major categories: financial, educational, and professional. Financial advantages are based on the postponement of construction costs and the use of existing school facilities and equipment to serve a larger number of students. Financial disadvantages include a rise in…

  14. T V Classroom. Report of 1968-1969 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Unified School District, CA.

    The activities of TV Classroom, one of the largest programs designed to educate adults at the high school level through television, in the 1968-1969 school year are reported. In addition, the history of the program since its inception in 1952 is given, together with an historical chart. Course requirements, publicity, registrations, expenses, and…

  15. Mathematics Programs in High Schools and Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ross

    Reviewing current conditions and projecting future directions, this paper explores trends in high school mathematics and discusses their implications for two-year college education. The first section examines the secondary school mathematics program, indicating that until now this two-track curriculum has focused on precalculus mathematics for…

  16. ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS TWO YEARS AFTER ABATEMENT IN SEVENTEEN SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne asbestos concentrations were measured at 17 schools that underwent an asbestos abatement 2 years before in 1988. These 17 schools, which involved 20 abatement sites, were part of a study conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the New Jersey Depar...

  17. Ornamental Horticulture Technology; Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    Developed by a technical education specialist, this guide is designed to aid school administrators in planning and developing 2-year post-high school programs or evaluating existing programs in ornamental horticulture technology. In addition to general information on the program, contents include course outlines with examples of tests and…

  18. My Experience as NASN School Nurse of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Dorothy J.

    2004-01-01

    This article shares the author's experience as the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) School Nurse of the Year. Recognition by one's peers for excellence in the profession is indeed an honor and a humbling experience. She states that it was a wonderful opportunity to reconnect with many NASN friends. Special recognition and awards from…

  19. The American Citizen: 11 Years after High School. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise,.Lauress L.; And Others

    A third follow-up survey of ninth and tenth grade Project Talent participants (1962 and 1963 high school classes) was done approximately eleven years after their expected graduation from high school to gather additional data on the educational, career, personal, and family experiences of these individuals and their reflections on the value of…

  20. The Experience of 50 Years of Comprehensive Schooling in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howieson, Cathy; Croxford, Linda; Murphy, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The year 2015 was the 50th anniversary of the introduction of comprehensive schooling in Scotland. This article outlines the two models of comprehensive schooling pursued over this period: the first which aimed to promote a universal, common system, and the second, from around 2000, which has prioritised diversity and choice. Equality (in its…

  1. America's Middle Schools: Practices and Progress. A 25 Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwin, C. Kenneth; And Others

    The 1990s will likely be a watershed period for middle level education, as the real challenges surrounding making "second level" changes replace the euphoria that accompanied early growth of the middle school movement. Yet, zealousness still characterizes reform efforts at the middle level. This study, the most comprehensive ever…

  2. Feasibility of Rescheduled School Year Plans for Delaware Public Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    A study team for the Delaware Department of Public Instruction sought to discover a rescheduled school year design that could be adopted and used to increase the efficiency of staff and school facilities in Delaware. Through a search of the literature, visits to three school districts, and a conference with a nationally recognized consultant,…

  3. Local School Council Meetings during the First Year of Chicago School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, John Q.; And Others

    This study analyzes local school council (LSC) meetings in Chicago (Illinois) during their first year of operation. The Chicago School Reform Act of 1988 created a radical shift in authority from the central bureaucracy to the LSCs, empowering the LSCs to set educational policy and govern schools. The councils hire and evaluate the principal,…

  4. Processes and Dynamics behind Whole-School Reform: Nine-Year Journeys of Four Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuk Yung

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research, little is known about the dynamics of sustaining change in school reform and how the process of change unfolds. By tracing the nine-year reform journeys of four primary schools in Hong Kong (using multiyear interview, observational, and archival data), this study uncovers the micro-processes the schools experienced…

  5. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  6. Art School Consequential: Teaching and Learning in the First Year of Art School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Stacey Redford

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand better the dimensions of education in the foundation year of contemporary art school, this study explores teaching and learning through the lenses of art school freshmen and foundation studio art professors. Since scholarly study of art school education is limited, the author begins with a survey of related fields of…

  7. Early Childhood Mental Health and the School Psychologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Keri; Garro, Adrienne; Rosen, Gabrielle; Gubi, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood, defined as infancy through age 5 years, is a critical period and serves as the foundation for development throughout the life span. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in July 2015, there were almost 20 million children ages birth to 5 years. The physical health of infants and young children is addressed and monitored through…

  8. Examination of physical activity in adolescents over the school year.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Mark W; Chad, Karen E; Beattie-Flath, Jodie A; Humbert, M Louise; Verrall, Tanya C; Vu, Lan; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2009-11-01

    This study monitored the physical activity behavior of adolescent students over a ten month school year. Physical activity was assessed at two month intervals using self-report and objective (Actical accelerometers) measures. Self-report results (n = 547) indicated a decline in physical activity throughout the school year for all grades and genders. The decline was attributed largely to a decrease in organized activity participation. Objective physical activity results (n = 40) revealed a significant decline in activity in the latter half of the school year (February to June). Declining physical activity was attributed to a decrease in vigorous activity which was consistent across grade and gender. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of promoting consistent opportunities for adolescents to be active throughout the school year.

  9. Teacher Job Satisfaction in a Year-Round School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haser, Shelly Gismondi; Nasser, Ilham

    2003-01-01

    Describes reasons for teacher job satisfaction at a year-round elementary school (Timber Lane) in Fairfax County, Virginia, such as flexible work schedules, reduced stress, and time for professional planning. (PKP)

  10. The Concerns and Attitudes of Early Adolescent Middle School Students in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierer, Timothy M.; Winfield, Linda F.

    Junior high schools have been blamed for failing to meet the needs of early adolescents. Proponents of the new middle school structure favored moving grade nine to the high school and moving grade five and or six from the elementary school to the new structural organization. The uniqueness of the middle school is in how the philosophy behind this…

  11. Predicting Early School Achievement with the EDI: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    School readiness tests are significant predictors of early school achievement. Measuring school readiness on a large scale would be necessary for the implementation of intervention programs at the community level. However, assessment of school readiness is costly and time consuming. This study assesses the predictive value of a school readiness…

  12. Does Contact by a Family Nurse Practitioner Decrease Early School Absence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Jill; Price, Marva; Kotch, Jonathan; Willis, Stephanie; Fisher, Michael; Silva, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic early school absence (preschool through third grade) is associated with school failure. The presence of school nurses may lead to fewer absences, and nurse practitioners in school-based health centers (SBHCs) can facilitate a healthier population resulting in improved attendance. Efforts to get students back to school are unexplored in…

  13. Degrees of Separation? Early Women Principals in New Zealand State Schools 1876-1926

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kay Morris

    2009-01-01

    As a British colony, New Zealand had early to grapple with how best to implement a state system of schooling. Inspectors of primary schools and governing boards of secondary schools were responsible for appointing school principals. This paper examines the ways in which they dealt with new situations: in the case of the primary schools where there…

  14. Preschool is School: Early Childhood Educators Need Relevant, Collaborative, and Aligned Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alejandro, Zeke; Garland, Sarah; Kennedy, Suzanne; Van Soelen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood centers and classrooms perpetually dance between being a "center" or a "school." To many educators, the word "school" usually presumes K-12 students. It often means the school is part of a larger entity, like a district or a school board. To parents, school might connote importance or deference to a…

  15. Growing Readers: A Hierarchical Linear Model of Children's Reading Growth During the First 2 Years of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoach, D. Betsy; O'Connell, Ann A.; Reis, Sally M.; Levitt, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the first 4 waves of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K), this piecewise 3-level (time-student-school) growth-curve model provides a portrait of students' reading growth over the first 2 years of school. On average, students make much greater reading gains in 1st grade than they do in kindergarten.…

  16. School Jailhouse: Discipline, Space and the Materiality of School Morale in Early-Modern Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Björn

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses a specific phenomenon of early-modern education in Sweden, the school jail, as a point of departure for a broader analysis of educational policy in the areas of discipline and moral instruction. The paper demonstrates how the jail evolved as a part of a wider network of objects, pedagogical technologies and social routines in this…

  17. Improving the School Context of Early Adolescence through Teacher Attunement to Victimization: Effects on School Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwalk, Kate E.; Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Barnes, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of teacher attunement to victimization on student perceptions of the bullying culture of their schools as a means of fostering a sense of belonging among early adolescents. Participants (n = 1,264) in sixth grade reported on the frequency that they had been bullied, and teachers were asked to report students…

  18. Early school attainment in late-preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Philip J; Henderson, John; Odd, David; Emond, Alan

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether infants born late-preterm have poorer school attainment compared to those born at term. This study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Key stage one (KS1) school assessment results were obtained from local education authorities. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of gestation, that is, late-preterm (32-36 weeks) versus term (37-41 weeks), on success in KS1 teacher assessments. Regression models were adjusted for potential confounders, including maternal education and markers of socioeconomic status. There were 12 089 term infants and 734 late-preterm infants. 71% of late-preterm children were successful in KS1 assessments compared to 79% of those born at term (OR 0.64 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.78); p<0.001). This difference persisted on adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.92); p=0.007). Children born late-preterm are less likely to be successful in early school assessments than those born at term. This group of vulnerable children warrants closer surveillance for early identification of potential educational failure.

  19. Four-Quarter School Year. Results of an Exploratory Study of the Four-Quarter School Year in Metropolitan Atlanta.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Ernest L; And Others

    Six Atlanta, Georgia, school systems initiated a four-quarter school year program in 1968-69. An exploratory study was conducted to develop procedures and instruments for a comprehensive examination of the plan. Strong support exists in all groups interviewed -- superintendents and steering committee members, students, parents, teachers,…

  20. Early Childhood Development in the Montreal Study Area (Quebec). Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  1. Early Childhood Development in Abbotsford, British Columbia. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  2. Early Childhood Development in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilms, Douglas J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  3. Early Childhood Development in the Dixie Bloor Community of Mississauga, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  4. Early Childhood Development in Hampton/Sussex, New Brunswick. Understanding the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  5. Turkish Early Childhood Teachers' Emotional Problems in Early Years of Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotaman, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elaborate on the emotional problems faced by Turkish early childhood teachers in their interaction with students, parents, administrators and colleagues in the first three years of their professional lives. Data for this research consists of in-depth interviews with Turkish kindergarten teachers, where these…

  6. Early Tracking or Finally Leaving? Determinants of Early Study Success in First-Year University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwer, Jasperina; Jansen, Ellen; Hofman, Adriaan; Flache, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Two theoretical approaches underlie this investigation of the determinants of early study success among first-year university students. Specifically, to extend Walberg's educational productivity model, this study draws on the expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation in a contemporary university context. The survey data came from 407…

  7. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by…

  8. 78 FR 55121 - Submission for Review: Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14 and Information; and Instructions for Completing the Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance for the School Year, RI 25-14A AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel...-0032, Self-Certification of Full-Time School Attendance For The School Year, RI 25-14; and Information...

  9. Changes in the Relation Between Competence Beliefs and Achievement in Math Across Elementary School Years.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Anne F; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-03-01

    Math competence beliefs and achievement are important outcomes of school-based learning. Previous studies yielded inconsistent results on whether skill development, self-enhancement, or reciprocal effects account for the interplay among them. A development-related change in the direction of their relation in the early school years might explain the inconsistency. To test this, 542 German elementary school students (M = 7.95 years, SD = 0.58) were repeatedly investigated over 24 months from Grade 2 to Grade 4. Math competence beliefs declined and had a growing influence on subsequent math grades. This suggests changes in the dominant direction of the relation from a skill development to a reciprocal effects model during elementary school. Findings are discussed with regard to their theoretical and practical implications. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Predicting early adolescent gang involvement from middle school adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Nelson, Sarah E; Yasui, Miwa

    2005-03-01

    This study examined the role of adaptation in the first year of middle school (Grade 6, age 11) to affiliation with gangs by the last year of middle school (Grade 8, age 13). The sample consisted of 714 European American (EA) and African American (AA) boys and girls. Specifically, academic grades, reports of antisocial behavior, and peer relations in 6th grade were used to predict multiple measures of gang involvement by 8th grade. The multiple measures of gang involvement included self-, peer, teacher, and counselor reports. Unexpectedly, self-report measures of gang involvement did not correlate highly with peer and school staff reports. The results, however, were similar for other and self-report measures of gang involvement. Mean level analyses revealed statistically reliable differences in 8th-grade gang involvement as a function of the youth gender and ethnicity. Structural equation prediction models revealed that peer nominations of rejection, acceptance, academic failure, and antisocial behavior were predictive of gang involvement for most youth. These findings suggest that the youth level of problem behavior and the school ecology (e.g., peer rejection, school failure) require attention in the design of interventions to prevent the formation of gangs among high-risk young adolescents.

  11. Causal Effect of Parental Schooling on Early Childhood Undernutrition: Quasi-Experimental Evidence From Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Subramanian, S V

    2018-01-01

    An estimated 3.1 million children die each year because of undernutrition. Although cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have found a protective association between greater parental education and undernutrition in their children, no randomized trial has identified a causal effect, to our knowledge. Using the 1980 education reform in Zimbabwe as a natural experiment, we estimated the causal effect of additional parental schooling on the probability of anthropometric failure in their children under 5 years of age (ages 3 through 59 months). Analyzing data on 8,243 children from the 1988, 1999, 2005-2006, and 2010-2011 Demographic and Health Surveys, we found no effect of parental schooling on early childhood undernutrition at the national level in Zimbabwe. Among households in the urban and high-wealth-index subsamples, each additional year of maternal schooling led to absolute reductions in the probability of a child's being wasted of 5.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): -9.3, -1.2) and 3.6 percentage points (95% CI: -6.9, -0.4), respectively. In the subsample of children between the ages of 3 and 23 months, each additional year of paternal schooling increased the probability of a child's being stunted by 9.6 percentage points (95% CI: 1.4, 17.9). Secondary schooling alone may not be enough to improve early childhood nutrition in low-resource settings. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. School Attachment Theory and Restitution Processes: Promoting Positive Behaviors in Middle Years Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penner, Christine; Wallin, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study that examined school attachment and restitution strategies used in a middle years school to determine if the program had provided a viable means of promoting and sustaining positive behaviors among middle years students. Data were gathered by interviewing five teachers who had Restitution I training…

  13. [Relevant factors of early puberty timing in urban primary schools in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin; Wen, Yi; Liu, Shudan; Lei, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the status of puberty timing and relevant factors of early puberty timing in children from grade one to four in urban primary schools of Chongqing. According to the purposive sample method, four urban primary schools in Chongqing were selected and of which 1471 children from grade one to four who have obtained informed consent were recruited. Questionnaire survey on social-demographic characteristics and family environment (e.g., age, parents' relationship, diet and lifestyle, etc), and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) survey and physical examination (measurements of height, weight, pubertal development status, etc) were conducted. P25, P50, P75 ages of each important pubertal event were calculated by probit regression. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to analyze relevant factors. The detection rate of early puberty timing was 17.7%, and the median ages of the onset of breast and testicular development were 10.77 and 11.48 years old, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed that early puberty timing occurred more likely in girls than in boys (OR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.406-0.774), and bad relationship between parents (OR = 1.320, 95% CI 1.007-1.729) and hair-products-use (OR = 1.685, 95%, CI 1.028-2.762) were risk factors of early puberty timing. Early onset of puberty in urban Chongqing is still exist. Gender, parents' relationship, and hair-products-use have an essential impact on early puberty timing.

  14. Elementary School Achievement Profiles, Portland Public Schools. A School-by-School Report of Basic Skills Test Results and School/Student/Staff Data. School Year 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This report contains Portland Achievement Levels Tests results for the 63 elementary schools, 16 middle schools, and 1 special program school in the Portland (Oregon) School District for the 1985-86 school year. Results in reading, language usage, and mathematics are reported for children in grades 3 to 8. Each school data page presents the…

  15. School Violence Prevention Demonstration Program: Report on Year One, 1999-2000 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Louis

    This report is the research component of the Center for Civic Education's School Violence Prevention Demonstration Program, a scheme for middle-school-aged students that develops intellectual and participatory skills essential to effective and responsible citizenship. The program is an attempt to draw attention to ways in which civic education can…

  16. Early Career Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences of Leadership Development: Balancing Structure and Agency in Contrasting School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Joan; Pedder, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the findings of a three-year, longitudinal study investigating early career teachers' (ECTs) experiences and perceptions of leadership development in English secondary schools, this paper highlights, from the perspectives of ECTs, some of the factors that support and facilitate leadership development during the first few years of the…

  17. Parenting and Temperament Influence on School Success in 9-13 Year Olds.

    PubMed

    Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9-13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance.

  18. Parenting and Temperament Influence on School Success in 9–13 Year Olds

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Purificación; Abundis-Gutierrez, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time with their parents who are the first agents that educate them. The parenting style implemented in the family influences other contexts outside home such as the school. There is evidence that a positive parenting style has an influence on school success. However, there are other variables related to school success, for example, temperament. The influence of parenting decreases with age as children develop abilities to self-regulate without parents' external control. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of parenting style and temperament in 9–13 years old children on both academic performance and school adjustment skills. Our hypothesis was that not only parenting style is crucial to academic performance and school adjustment, but also temperament plays an important role in them. We used a Parenting Guide line questionnaire to evaluate parenting style, Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire-R to evaluate temperament; Health Resources Inventory to assess children's school adjustment, and academic grades, as indicator of academic performance. We were interested in testing whether or not the effect of parenting style on academic performance and school adjustment was mediated by temperament. We found that emotional and behavioral regulation mediates the relation between parenting and academic performance. These findings inform of the relevance of child's temperament on school success. Implications for education are discussed with emphasis on the importance of understanding students' temperament to promote school adjustment and good academic performance. PMID:28446886

  19. Language Outcomes at 7 Years: Early Predictors and Co-Occurring Difficulties.

    PubMed

    McKean, Cristina; Reilly, Sheena; Bavin, Edith L; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen; Conway, Laura; Cook, Fallon; Eadie, Patricia; Prior, Margot; Wake, Melissa; Mensah, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    To examine at 7 years the language abilities of children, the salience of early life factors and language scores as predictors of language outcome, and co-occurring difficulties METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of 1910 infants recruited at age 8 to 10 months. Exposures included early life factors (sex, prematurity, birth weight/order, twin birth, socioeconomic status, non-English speaking background,family history of speech/language difficulties); maternal factors (mental health, vocabulary, education, and age); and child language ability at 2 and 4 years. Outcomes were 7-year standardized receptive or expressive language scores (low language: ≥1.25 SD below the mean), and co-occurring difficulties (autism, literacy, social, emotional, and behavioral adjustment, and health-related quality of life). Almost 19% of children (22/1204;18.9%) met criteria for low language at 7 years. Early life factors explained 9-13% of variation in language scores, increasing to 39-58% when child language scores at ages 2 and 4 were included. Early life factors moderately discriminated between children with and without low language (area under the curve: 0.68-0.72), strengthening to good discrimination with language scores at ages 2 and 4 (area under the curve: 0.85-0.94). Low language at age 7 was associated with concurrent difficulties in literacy, social-emotional and behavioral difficulties, and limitations in school and psychosocial functioning. Child language ability at 4 years more accurately predicted low language at 7 than a range of early child, family, and environmental factors. Low language at 7 years was associated with a higher prevalence of co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. The Timing of School Transitions and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Powers, Christopher J.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates whether rural adolescents who transition to a new school in sixth grade have higher levels of risky behavior than adolescents who transition in seventh grade. Our findings indicate that later school transitions had little effect on problem behavior between sixth and ninth grades. Cross-sectional analyses found a small number of temporary effects of transition timing on problem behavior: Spending an additional year in elementary school was associated with higher levels of deviant behavior in the Fall of Grade 6 and higher levels of antisocial peer associations in Grade 8. However, transition effects were not consistent across waves and latent growth curve models found no effects of transition timing on the trajectory of problem behavior. We discuss policy implications and compare our findings with other research on transition timing. PMID:24089584

  1. Unconventional Wisdom: A Profile of the Graduates of Early College High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michael; Mayka, Lia

    2011-01-01

    For many young people, early college high schools are opening the door to higher education and better-paying careers. The 230 early college schools serve more than 50,000 students in 28 states, targeting groups that are underrepresented in higher education. These students and the schools they attend are refuting the conventional wisdom that such…

  2. Sociocultural Perspectives on Transition to School from Pacific Islands Early Childhood Centres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, Valerie N.; Sauvao, Le'Autuli'ilagi M.; Mapa, Lia

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research investigating children's transition to primary school from Pacific early childhood centers in New Zealand. Key issues emerging from the review include continuity of Pacific Islands languages and culture between home, early childhood center, and school; home-school partnership; teachers' and parents' expectations regarding…

  3. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) and the Center on School Turnaround (CST) collaborated to develop case studies of three selected schools receiving SIG funds that have, with the support of their districts, promoted the use of early childhood programming (PK-3) as a key strategy in their schools' turnaround models. The goal…

  4. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted in…

  5. The Intention to Leave Education Early among Irish Junior Certificate Students: Variation by School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Michael; Freeney, Yseult

    2011-01-01

    Early school-leaving imposes costs on the individual and society, and is linked to factors including gender, family income and parental education, community deprivation, and academic history. In Ireland, the role of the school in shaping patterns of early school-leaving is unclear. Employing the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) from social…

  6. Longitudinal Findings from the Early College High School Initiative Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxton, Clarisse; Song, Mengli; Zeiser, Kristina; Berger, Andrea; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Garet, Michael S.; Knudson, Joel; Hoshen, Gur

    2016-01-01

    This study is a randomized controlled trial that assessed the impact of Early College High Schools on students' high school graduation, college enrollment, and college degree attainment, as well as students' high school experiences using extant data and survey data. The study included 10 Early Colleges that enrolled students in Grades 9 to 12 in…

  7. A Multidimensional Model of School Dropout from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study in a General High School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortin, Laurier; Marcotte, Diane; Diallo, Thierno; Potvin, Pierre; Royer, Egide

    2013-01-01

    This study tests an empirical multidimensional model of school dropout, using data collected in the first year of an 8-year longitudinal study, with first year high school students aged 12-13 years. Structural equation modeling analyses show that five personal, family, and school latent factors together contribute to school dropout identified at…

  8. Maternal Employment and Child Cognitive Outcomes in the First Three Years of Life: The NICHD Study of Early Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Examined data on 900 European American children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care to explore links between maternal employment during the child's first year and child cognitive outcomes. Found that maternal employment by the child's ninth month related to lower school readiness scores at 36 months, with more pronounced effects for certain…

  9. Read Today, Lead Tomorrow: How Corporate Grants, Volunteers, and Community Leadership Can Bring About Student Success. The Story of the GE Early Years Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burr, Tim; Tatarian, Lois

    The General Electric (GE) Early Years Initiative, a grant-funded GE Fund, GE's corporate Foundation and GE Elfun, GE's international program created by volunteer organization, has helped elementary school students improve their reading skills through the use of volunteers since 1994. This publication describes Early Years projects, provides…

  10. Early and Late Language Start at Private Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepik, Saban; Sarandi, Hedayat

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the interaction effect of age in L2 attainment. It explores whether success in foreign language learning at early childhood grades varies depending on age. It also addresses the beliefs of foreign language teachers regarding the variables under review. Eighty-three 11 year-old language learners who started learning English at…

  11. Early sexual debut and associated factors among in-school adolescents in eight African countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl

    2010-08-01

    This report examines early sexual debut (year-old in-school adolescents in eight African countries. The total sample included 10 070 school children aged 15 years from nationally representative samples from eight African countries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between early sexual debut and alcohol, tobacco and other drug use, mental distress, physical activity, protective factors and socioeconomic status variables. A total of 27.3% had experienced sexual debut before age 15, 38.1% among boys and 15.8% among girls. Boys and girls with sexual debut at less than age 15 were more likely to report alcohol, tobacco and drug use, truancy, poor parental or guardian connectedness, sedentary behaviour, having been in a physical fight and seriously injured, while for girls, mental distress and poor economic status and for boys, bullied and poor parental or guardian supervision were associated with early coital debut. In multivariable analysis, early sexual debut was among boys associated with currently smoking (OR = 4.45, p = 0.002) and truancy (OR = 2.02, p = 0.007) and, among girls, associated with lower education (OR = 0.22, p = 0.004), ever drunk (OR = 3.94, p = 0.016), having no close friends (OR = 3.36, p = 0.014) and poor parental connectedness (OR = 2.43, p = 0.037). The study found a high prevalence of early sexual debut among 15-year-olds in eight African countries. Risk factors identified were consistent with problem behaviour theory in which early onset of adolescent sexual behaviour is shared with other problem behaviours. Prevention programmes should broaden sexual health promotion including problem behaviour such as substance use and mental distress for boys and girls in the preteen years, before sexual debut.

  12. Overview of Public Elementary and Secondary Schools and Districts: School Year 1996-97. Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    In the 1996-97 school year, 86,058 public schools provided instruction to 45.6 million students in the United States. A statistical overview offers a profile of these schools and students. The majority of public school students, 98.2 percent, were enrolled in regular schools; 0.05 percent were in special education schools; 0.04 percent in…

  13. Student Perceptions of the First Year of Veterinary Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    A brief survey was conducted of nearly 900 first-year students in 14 U.S. veterinary medical schools in order to gather impressions of the first year of veterinary medical education. Although some students reported that conditions were stressful, the majority did not feel that they were inordinately so. Overall, most students were quite positive…

  14. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  15. The Early Elementary Attendance Project. Final Report on First Two Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Marilyn; MacPherson, Douglas

    The purpose of the Early Elementary Attendance Project was to improve school attendance in the early grades (kindergarten and first grade) in order to develop good attendance habits that would continue through the post elementary grades. A home/school worker approached families of students (N=77) with poor attendance records with a helping…

  16. Height gain during early childhood is an important predictor of schooling and mathematics ability outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Mihir; Ashorn, Per; Maleta, Kenneth; Teivaanmäki, Tiina; Duan, Xiaolian; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2011-08-01

    To examine the association between height gain at different stages of early childhood and schooling and cognitive outcomes in 12-year-old Malawian children. A prospective cohort study looking at the growth and development of 325 rural Malawian children. Main outcome measures were highest school grade completed, number of times repeating grades and percentage of correctly answered mathematical questions at 12 years of age. Height-for-age at 1 month and conditional height gain for 6, 18 and 60 months were used as predictors. Ordinal logistic and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the association and adjust for confounder. The conditional height gain during 18-60 months was positively associated with mathematics test results (p=0.003) and negatively associated with number of times repeating grades (p=0.011). It was not significantly associated with highest grade completed (p=0.194) if those who never attended school were included as having completed zero grade, but was positively (p=0.049) associated with this outcome among those who ever attended school. Height gain during the 18-60 months period of age was related to schooling and mathematics ability at age 12 years. The importance of promoting catch-up growth after the period when stunting is common should receive attention. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  17. How Important Is Where You Start? Early Mathematics Knowledge and Later School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's early skills are essential for their later success in school. Recent evidence highlights the importance of early mathematics, relative to reading and socioemotional skills, for elementary school achievement. Key advocacy groups for both early childhood and mathematics education have issued position statements on the…

  18. Neuromotor outcomes at school age after extremely low birth weight: early detection of subtle signs.

    PubMed

    Gidley Larson, Jennifer C; Baron, Ida Sue; Erickson, Kristine; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Litman, Fern R

    2011-01-01

    Motor impairments are prevalent in children born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g). Rarely studied are subtle motor deficits that indicate dysfunction or delay in neural systems critical for optimal cognitive, academic, and behavioral function. We aimed to examine quantifiable signs of subtle neuromotor dysfunction in an early school-aged ELBW cohort that coincidentally had age-appropriate cognition and design copying. We studied 97 participants born between 1998 and 2001; 74 ELBW (6.7 years ± 0.75) compared with 23 term-born (6.6 years ± 0.29). Neuromotor outcomes were assessed using the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs-Revised, and measures of dexterity/coordination and visual-motor integration. ELBW participants performed worse than term-born on design-copying and dexterity, were age-appropriate compared to normative data, and had slower timed movements and more subtle overflow movements. Those ELBW born <26 weeks performed most poorly compared with those born 26-34 weeks and term-born. Subtle motor dysfunctions are detectable and quantifiable in ELBW children by school age, even in the presence of average cognition. Early age assessment of incoordination, motor speed, and overflow movements should aid initiation of timely therapies to prepare at-risk ELBW children for subsequent school entry and facilitate design of optimal early treatment strategies. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Case Studies of Schools Receiving School Improvement Grants: Findings after the First Year of Implementation. NCEE 2014-4015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Floch, Kerstin Carlson; Birman, Beatrice; O'Day, Jennifer; Hurlburt, Steven; Mercado-Garcia, Diana; Goff, Rose; Manship, Karen; Brown, Seth; Therriault, Susan Bowles; Rosenberg, Linda; Angus, Megan Hague; Hulsey, Lara

    2014-01-01

    The Study of School Turnaround examines the improvement process in a purposive sample of 35 case study schools receiving federal School Improvement Grants (SIG) over a three-year period (2010-11 to 2012-13 school years). Using site visit, teacher survey, and fiscal data, the case studies describe the school contexts, the principals' leadership…

  20. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

  1. Students' Reports of Severe Violence in School as a Tool for Early Detection and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Yaacov B

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of severe violence is a significant challenge for many schools. Three studies were conducted on samples of 6th, 8th, and 10th graders (12-16 years old). The first study, based on paired reports of teachers and students (n = 130), showed that a high percentage of both victims and perpetrators of severe violence are not identified by teachers but are known to students. The second and third studies were based on qualitative (n = 30) and quantitative methods (n = 524) and revealed the factors that explain students' willingness to report or seek help from their teachers. The findings highlight the role of victims as a source of information regarding perpetrators and suggest a new perspective for early identification of severe violence in schools. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. The Impact of the Norton High School Early College Program on the Academic Performance of Students at Norton High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Eric Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Norton High School Early College Early College Program on academic measures for students at Norton High School. Measures of achievement include the results of the English Language Arts (ELA), Mathematics, Social Science, and Science portions of the California Standards Test (CST), Student…

  3. Residents' perspectives on the final year of medical school

    PubMed Central

    Obrien, Bridget; Niehaus, Brian; Teherani, Arianne; Young, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To characterize junior residents’ perspectives on the purpose, value, and potential improvement of the final year of medical school. Methods Eighteen interviews were conducted with junior residents who graduated from nine different medical schools and who were in internal medicine, surgery, and psychiatry programs at one institution in the United States. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed inductively for themes. Results Participants’ descriptions of the purpose of their recently completed final year of medical school contained three primary themes: residency-related purposes, interest- or need-based purposes, and transitional purposes. Participants commented on the most valued aspects of the final year. Themes included opportunities to: prepare for residency; assume a higher level of responsibility in patient care; pursue experiences of interest that added breadth of knowledge, skills and perspective; develop and/or clarify career plans; and enjoy a period of respite. Suggestions for improvement included enhancing the learning value of clinical electives, augmenting specific curricular content, and making the final year more purposeful and better aligned with career goals. Conclusions The final year of medical school is a critical part of medical education for most learners, but careful attention is needed to ensure that the year is developmentally robust. Medical educators can facilitate this by creating structures to help students define personal and professional goals, identify opportunities to work toward these goals, and monitor progress so that the value of the final year is optimized and not exclusively focused on residency preparation. PMID:28029642

  4. Influence of school support on early marriage experiences and health services utilization among young orphaned women in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Luseno, Winnie K.; Zhang, Lei; Iritani, Bonita J.; Hartman, Shane; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2017-01-01

    School support programs reduce school dropout, early marriage and early pregnancy for a majority of young orphaned women. We used a mixed methods approach to examine why these programs are less effective for a significant minority by exploring their influence on marriage and health services utilization. Participants were from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) testing school support as HIV prevention. Half as many intervention as control participants had been married; married intervention participants had one more year of education compared to married control participants. Receiving school support did not appear to improve health-related factors. Pregnancy was among the most common reasons for marriage across both groups. The greatest benefit of school support appears to be in delaying marriage and pregnancy while increasing educational attainment. PMID:27211856

  5. Influence of school support on early marriage experiences and health services utilization among young orphaned women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Luseno, Winnie Kavulani; Zhang, Lei; Iritani, Bonita J; Hartman, Shane; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2017-03-01

    School support programs reduce school dropout, early marriage, and early pregnancy for a majority of young orphaned women. We used a mixed-methods approach to examine why these programs are less effective for a significant minority by exploring their influence on marriage and health services utilization. Participants were from a randomized controlled trial testing school support as HIV prevention. Half as many intervention as control participants had been married; married intervention participants had 1 more year of education compared with married control participants. Receiving school support did not appear to improve health-related factors. Pregnancy was among the most common reasons for marriage across both groups. The greatest benefit of school support appears to be in delaying marriage and pregnancy while increasing educational attainment.

  6. Children’s Early Child Care and their Mothers’ Later Involvement with Schools

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children’s care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers’ school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children’s social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children’s schools when children had prior histories of high quality non-parental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children’s academic skills and home environments. PMID:22313134

  7. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    PubMed

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  9. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    PubMed

    Jansen, Pauline W; Verlinden, Marina; Dommisse-van Berkel, Anke; Mieloo, Cathelijne; van der Ende, Jan; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Jansen, Wilma; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-07-02

    Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5-6 years. One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs.

  10. Learning through English Language in Early Childhood Education: A Case of English Medium Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…

  11. Does Aggregate School-Wide Achievement Mediate Fifth Grade Outcomes for Former Early Childhood Education Participants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Dong, Nianbo; Shen, Xiangjin

    2015-01-01

    This study used a multilevel mediation model to test the theory that former early childhood education (ECE) attendees' 5th grade achievement is mediated by the aggregate school-wide achievement of their elementary school. Aggregate school-wide achievement was defined as the percentage of 5th graders in a school who were at/above academic…

  12. Early College Expansion: Propelling Students to Postsecondary Success, at a School near You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Early college schools are succeeding at our nation's most daunting educational challenge--propelling students from underserved backgrounds to graduate high school and earn postsecondary degrees. These schools combine high school and college in rigorous, yet supportive environments that embrace acceleration over remediation. Their "college for…

  13. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  14. School Mental Health Early Interventions and Academic Outcomes for At-Risk High School Students: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Brown, Elizabeth Levine; Ball, Annahita; Gibson, Jennifer E.; Lize, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The current educational policy context in the United States necessitates that school-based programs prioritize students' academic outcomes. This review examined the quantitative research on school mental health (SMH) early interventions and academic outcomes for at-risk high school students. Seven articles met the inclusion criteria for this…

  15. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  16. High School Transfer Students and the Transition to College: Timing and the Structure of the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, April; Muller, Chandra; Langenkamp, Amy G.

    2013-01-01

    The timing of a high school transfer may shape students' transitions to college through its (mis)alignment with the structure of the school year. A transfer that occurs during the summer interrupts the four-year high school career, whereas a transfer that occurs midyear disrupts both the four-year high school career and the structure of the school…

  17. Analysis of the Impacts of City Year's Whole School Whole Child Model on Partner Schools' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Julie; Anderson, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    City Year is a learning organization committed to the rigorous evaluation of its "Whole School Whole Child" model, which trains and deploys teams of AmeriCorps members to low-performing, urban schools to empower more students to reach their full potential. A third-party study by Policy Studies Associates (PSA) examined the impact of…

  18. Do Schools Make a Difference? A Study of High School Effects and First Year College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wade; Droddy, Jason; Guarino, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Schools across America are being ranked for their effectiveness on a number of student criteria, among them preparation of students for a successful college experience. This study investigates the relationship between graduating seniors, their successful first year retention in college and several personal and school related factors. The study…

  19. Reaching All Families: Creating Family-Friendly Schools. Beginning of the School Year Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moles, Oliver C., Ed.

    Noting that the beginning of the school year is a key time to communicate with parents, this booklet presents accumulated knowledge and fresh ideas on school outreach strategies for this important time period. The suggestions for action within each strategy are based on broad experience, which can help even seasoned teachers, principals, and…

  20. Impact of School Desegregation in Milwaukee Public Schools on Quality Education for Minorities... 15 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    This publication reports on the effects of school desegregation in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public Schools 15 years after desegregation was introduced and focuses on the quality of education available for minorities. In particular, the report looks at desegregation and educational outcomes, interracial and human relations, the effect of housing…

  1. Epidemiology of school accidents during a six school-year period in one region in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sosnowska, Stefania; Kostka, Tomasz

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of school accidents in relation to school size, urban/rural environment and conditions of physical education classes. 202 primary schools with nearly 50,000 students aged 7-15 years were studied during a 6-year period in the Włocławek region in Poland. There were in total 3274 school accidents per 293,000 student-years. Accidents during breaks (36.6%) and physical education (33.2%) were most common. Most frequently accidents took place at schoolyard (29.7%), gymnasium (20.2%), and in the corridor and stairs (25.2%). After adjustment for students' age and sex, student-staff ratio and duration of school hours, urban environment increased the probability of accident (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.14-1.38). Middle-size schools (8-23 classes) had similar accident rate as small schools (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83-1.04), while schools with 24-32 classes (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.10-1.43) and with > or = 33 classes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.17-1.58) had increased accident rate. Presence of a gymnasium was also associated with increased probability of accident (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.61). Urban environment, larger school-size and equipment with full-size gymnasium are important and independent risk factors for school accidents. These findings provide some new insights into the epidemiology of school-related accidents and may be useful information for the planning of strategies to reduce accident incidence in schools.

  2. Early years of Radio Astronomy in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, B. F.

    Radio Astronomy in the U.S. went through two distinct phases, the pioneering phase before the Second World War, when Karl Jansky and Grote Reber were the only two radio astronomers in the world, and the post-WWII era, when the subject blossomed throughout the world, especially in England and Australia, while U.S. radio astronomy languished at a relatively low level, until its resurgence a decade later. Here in Budapest we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of Jansky's discovery, and I shall start with a review of his work, and the subsequent work of Grote Reber, who died, regrettably, in December 2002. Two historical references will be cited frequently: Serendipitous Discoveries in Radio Astronomy (Kellermann & Sheets, eds. 1983, referred to as Paper 1) and the two historical collections edited by W.T. Sullivan, Classics in Radio Astronomy (1982, referred to as Paper 2) and The Early Years of Radio Astronomy (1984, Paper 3).

  3. Early American sunspot drawings from the "year without a summer"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denig, W. F.; McVaugh, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    A set of sunspot drawings from the early nineteenth century were discovered in the journals of the Reverend Jonathan Fisher. These drawings were made during a time when abnormally cold weather caused crops in New England to fail due to intermittent frost throughout the summer months of 1816, normally referred to as the "year without a summer." Global changes in weather patterns were the result of the Mount Tambora volcano eruption. Since this association was unknown at the time, there was speculation that the Sun was the cause inspiring the Reverend Fisher to monitor changes in sunspots during the summer of 1816 and continuing into 1817. These sunspot drawings for the summer of 1816 overlap the solar observations of Sir William Hershel.

  4. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2015-01-01

    Background To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. Methods In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18–23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. Results One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43–0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38–0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53–5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18–14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. Conclusion To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care

  5. Why Wait? Early Determinants of School Dropout in Preventive Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Marie-José; Bosma, Hans; Verdonk, Petra; Feron, Frans

    2015-01-01

    To answer the question of what bio-psychosocial determinants in infancy, early and middle childhood, and adolescence predict school drop-out in young adulthood, we approached the complex process towards school dropout as a multidimensional, life-course phenomenon. The aim is to find signs of heightened risks of school dropout as early as possible which will eventually help public health workers in reducing these risks. In a case-control design, we used data from both the Preventive Pediatric Primary Care (PPPC) files (that contain information from birth onwards) and additional questionnaires filled out by 529 youngsters, aged 18-23 years, and living in the South-east of the Netherlands. We first conducted univariate logistic regression analyses with school-dropout as the dependent variable. Backward and forward stepwise analyses with the significant variables were done with variables pertaining to the 0 to 4 year period. Remaining significant variables were forced into the next model and subsequently variables pertaining to respectively the 4 to 8, 8 to 12 and 12 to 16 year period were introduced in a stepwise analysis. All analyses were cross-validated in an exploratory and confirmatory random half of the sample. One parent families and families with a non-Western background less often attended the health examinations of the PPPC and such less attendance was related to school dropout. The birth of a sibling (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.93) in infancy and self-efficacy (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.74) in adolescence decreased the odds of school dropout; externalizing behavior (OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.53-5.14) in middle childhood and (sickness) absence (OR 5.62, 95% CI 2.18-14.52) in adolescence increased the risks. To prevent school dropout, PPPC professionals should not wait until imminent dropout, but should identify and tackle risk factors as early as possible and actively approach youngsters who withdraw from public health care.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of two primary school intervention strategies to prevent early onset tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Kellam, Sheppard G; Anthony, James C

    2002-03-01

    In this article, we examine the impact of two universal, grade 1 preventive interventions on the onset of tobacco smoking as assessed in early adolescence. The classroom-centered (CC) intervention was designed to reduce the risk for tobacco smoking by enhancing teachers' behavior management skills in first grade and, thereby, reducing child attention problems and aggressive and shy behavior-known risk behaviors for later substance use. The family-school partnership (FSP) intervention targeted these early risk behaviors via improvements in parent-teacher communication and parents' child behavior management strategies. A cohort of 678 urban, predominately African-American, public school students were randomly assigned to one of three Grade 1 classrooms at entrance to primary school (age 6). One classroom featured the CC intervention, a second the FSP intervention, and the third served as a control classroom. Six years later, 81% of the students completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Relative to controls, a modest attenuation in the risk of smoking initiation was found for students who had been assigned to either the CC or FSP intervention classrooms (26% versus 33%) (adjusted relative risk for CC/control contrast=0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34-0.96; adjusted relative risk for FSP/control contrast=0.69, 95% CI, 0.50-0.97). Results lend support to targeting the early antecedent risk behaviors for tobacco smoking.

  7. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Campo, John V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide in elementary school–aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school–aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. METHODS: We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5–11 years and 12–14 years) were conducted by using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school–aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. PMID:27647716

  8. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT) component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural) (OR=1.80, P<0.001). However, it was not significantly associated with gender and ethnicity. The incidence density of caries, affected persons (IDp) observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt) in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70%) were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30%) of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was

  9. Association of postural balance and isometric muscle strength in early- and middle-school-age boys.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Alaa I; Muaidi, Qassim I; Abdelsalam, Mohammed S; Hawamdeh, Ziad M; Alhusaini, Adel A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the isometric muscle strength (IMS) and dynamic balance in early- and middle-school-age boys and to assess the strength of association between the dynamic balance scores and 6 different IMS indexes. This is a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 94 boys who were 6 to 10 years of age and classified into an early school age (6-8 years) group (n = 50) and a middle school age (8-10 years) group (n = 44). Balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Anteroposterior Stability Index, Mediolateral Stability Index, and Overall Stability Index were recorded. IMS of 11 muscle groups was measured with a handheld dynamometer and categorized into 6 different muscle strength indices. The mean (SD) values of anteroposterior, mediolateral, and overall stability indexes observed for all study boys were 1.9 ± 1.0, 1.2 ± 0.7, and 2.5 ± 1.2 respectively. In the middle school age group, strong positive relationships were detected between the overall stability index and trunk, lower limb, anti-gravity, pro-gravity, and total strength indexes (r = -0.86/P < .001, r = -0.91/P < .001, r = -0.88/P < .001, r = -0.83/P < .001, and r = -0.84/P < .001 respectively), while no significant relationship was detected with the upper limb strength index (r = 0.159/P = .303). In the early school age group, moderate positive relationships were detected between the overall stability index and anti-gravity, lower limb, and total strength indexes (r = -0.404/P = .004, r = -0.356/P = .011, and r = -0.350/P = .013 respectively). Dynamic balance did not appear to be mature by the age of 10 years. Better balance skills were recorded in the mediolateral direction than in the anteroposterior direction. In the middle school age group, the overall stability index had positive relationships with almost all examined muscle strength indexes excepting the upper limb strength index. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights

  10. Parent-School Ties Should Shift in Teen Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Many educators and parents would agree that it's important for parents to spend time in their children's classrooms, to closely monitor homework, or to read to children at home. Try telling that, though, to a 13-year-old, argues Nancy E. Hill, an education professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the university's Radcliffe…

  11. Number of Instructional Days/Hours in the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    While state requirements vary on the number of instructional days and/or hours in the school year, the majority of states require 180 days of student instruction. Most also specify the minimum length of time that constitutes an instructional day. Some states set instructional time in terms of days, some specify hours, and some provide…

  12. Extended School Year: Legal and Practical Considerations for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Meghan M.; Decker, Janet R.

    2017-01-01

    This article clarifies what extended school year (ESY) is and who is eligible for it. It also describes, how it looks different for individual students, where and when it can be provided, and how to determine whether students are eligible. To illustrate common challenges in determining ESY, vignettes are provided based on four students' cases.…

  13. 34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services means special education and related services that— (1) Are provided to a child with a disability... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extended school year services. 300.106 Section 300.106 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  14. High School Physics, Two-Year Colleges, and Physics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    We have just completed the data collection for our 2012-13 Nationwide Survey of High School Physics and expect to have results to report in the spring. In the interim, we will take a look at physics in two-year colleges (TYCs). In 2007, we surveyed undergraduate seniors in degree-granting physics departments, and we asked these students if they…

  15. A Year in Review: The "High School Journal" in 1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Job, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    In 1920, the "High School Journal" had been up and running for a year and cost 15 cents an issue. Robert Goddard was ridiculed by the "New York Times" for predicting space travel (a retraction was printed in 1969), small countries like Ireland and Romania were fighting for their own governments, and American women voted for the…

  16. Portland Public Schools Project Chrysalis: Year 2 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Gabriel, Roy M.; Hahn, Karen J.; Laws, Katherine E.

    In 1994, the Chrysalis Project in Portland Public Schools received funding to prevent or delay the onset of substance abuse among a special target population: high-risk, female adolescents with a history of childhood abuse. Findings from the evaluation of the project's second year of providing assistance to these students are reported here. During…

  17. Tackling Illiteracy in Year 7 of the Comprehensive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Reading standards are regarded by many as the true yardstick by which to measure school effectiveness, and the relative standards achieved by different generations are often debated by adults. Some young people do not perceive reading to be of anything like such importance, however, using digital communication habitually and easily. Each year a…

  18. Five Ways to Organize for a New School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsley, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Educators may start off a school year with the best of intentions for staying organized, but by about November, they quickly find their systems, energy and motivation starts to dwindle. By March, they can't even see their desk, and have hundreds of e-mails in their inboxes. Incorporating a few organizational strategies at the beginning of the…

  19. Sexual Coercion of Year 11-12 High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashlooty, Ashraf; Eklund, Robert C.; Randall, Nick; Heard, N. Paul; Blanksby, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Sexual coercion in peer dating relationships was studied among 341 Year 11-12 high school students via the Adolescent Dating and Relationship Survey. Nearly 50% of females and 70% of males had relationships with similar aged partners. However, more females dated older partners and more males dated younger partners. Females also reported longer…

  20. Effective Classroom Management at the Beginning of the School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The major goals of the project reported here were to learn how teachers who are effective managers handle beginning-of-the-year activities and to determine what basic principles of management underlie their teaching. Twenty-seven third-grade teachers in eight elementary schools served as subjects. (MP)

  1. Effects of Cyberbullying Experience and Cyberbullying Tendency on School Violence in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country. PMID:29081871

  2. "Smart" Technologies in Early Years Literacy Education: A Meta-Narrative of Paradigmatic Tensions in iPad Use in an Australian Preparatory Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Julianne; Redpath, Terri

    2014-01-01

    With the revolution that has taken place in the functionality and uptake of portable networked "smart" technologies, educators are looking to see what potential applications such technologies might have for school education. This article reports on a study on the use of portable personal computing devices in the early years of schooling.…

  3. Reading Recovery Program Implementation Year Six, School Year 1995-96. Report of Results and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schotanus, Helen; And Others

    A study examined the results and effectiveness of the sixth year of the Reading Recovery program in New Hampshire. With the 95 Reading Recovery teachers from previous classes, 38 teachers in the new class, and 4 teacher leaders, a total of 137 teachers taught Reading Recovery during the 1995-96 school year. A total of 693 first-grade children…

  4. Reading Recovery Program Implementation Year Five, School Year 1994-95. Report of Results and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schotanus, Helen; And Others

    A study examined the results and effectiveness of the fifth year of the Reading Recovery program in New Hampshire. With the 78 Reading Recovery teachers from previous classes, 23 teachers in the new class, and 3 teacher leaders, a total of 104 teachers taught Reading Recovery during the 1994-95 school year. A total of 530 first-grade children…

  5. Academic Performance of Subsequent Schools and Impacts of Early Interventions: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Head Start Settings

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of subsequent school contexts in the long-term effects of early childhood interventions has received increasing attention, but has been understudied in the literature. Using data from the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Head Start programs, we investigate whether the intervention had differential effects on academic and behavioral outcomes in kindergarten if children attended high- or low-performing schools subsequent to the preschool intervention year. To address the issue of selection bias, we adopt an innovative method, principal score matching, and control for a set of child, mother, and classroom covariates. We find that exposure to the CSRP intervention in the Head Start year had significant effects on academic and behavioral outcomes in kindergarten for children who subsequently attended high-performing schools, but no significant effects on children attending low-performing schools. Policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22773872

  6. Early College STEM-focused High Schools: A Natural and Overlooked Recruitment Pool for the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, R.; Bathon, J.; Fryar, A. E.; Lyon, E.; McGlue, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    As national awareness of the importance of STEM education has grown, so too has the number of high schools that specifically emphasize STEM education. Students at these schools outperform their peers and these institutions send students into the college STEM pipeline at twice the rate of the average high school or more. Another trend in secondary education is the "early college high school" (ECHS) model, which encourages students to prepare for and attend college while in high school. These high schools, particularly ECHS's that focus on STEM, represent a natural pool for recruitment into the geosciences, yet most efforts at linking high school STEM education to future careers focus on health sciences or engineering. Through the NSF GEOPATHS-IMPACT program, the University of Kentucky (UK) Department of Earth and Environmental Science and the STEAM Academy, a STEM-focused ECHS located in Lexington, KY, have partnered to expose students to geoscience content. This public ECHS admits students using a lottery system to ensure that the demographics of the high school match those of the surrounding community. The perennial problem for recruiting students into geosciences is the lack of awareness of it as a potential career, due to lack of exposure to the subject in high school. Although the STEAM Academy does not offer an explicitly-named geoscience course, students begin their first semester in 9th grade Integrated Science. This course aligns to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which include a variety of geoscience content. We are working with the teachers to build a project-based learning curriculum to include explicit mention and awareness of careers in geosciences. The second phase of our project involves taking advantage of the school's existing internship program, in which students develop professional skills and career awareness by spending either one day/week or one hour/day off campus. We hosted our second round of interns this year. Eventually we

  7. Early Returns on District of Columbia Charter Schools. Capital Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Sara

    2005-01-01

    In this report for the Progressive Policy Institute's 21st Century Schools Project, the author examines charter schooling in Washington, D.C., including the region's unique history of charter schooling and the challenges these schools face. She is optimistic about the future of the District's charter school movement, but argues that District and…

  8. Impact of a Play-Based Curriculum in the First Two Years of Primary School: Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes over Seven Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Carol; Sproule, Liz; Bojke, Chris; Trew, Karen; Walsh, Glenda

    2014-01-01

    In 2000-2002 an innovative early years curriculum, the Enriched Curriculum (EC), was introduced into 120 volunteer schools across Northern Ireland, replacing a traditional curriculum similar to others across the UK at that time. It was intended by the designers to be developmentally appropriate and play-based with the primary goal of preventing…

  9. Trajectories of Change and Relationship between Parent-Adolescent School-Related Conflict and Academic Achievement in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brkovic, Irma; Keresteš, Gordana; Puklek Levpušc?ek, Melita

    2014-01-01

    The study explored changes in parent-adolescent school-related conflict rate and academic performance over a 5-year period among Croatian early adolescents and gender differences in these changes. Furthermore, it examined the relationship between conflict and achievement. The study was performed by applying an accelerated approach to overlapping…

  10. The Development of Self-Representations during the Transition to Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender, Puberty, and School Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhuser, Kathrin; Allemand, Mathias; Schwarz, Beate

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of global and domain-specific self-representations in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence and tested whether gender, puberty, and school transition help explain individual differences in change. The study was based on three measurement occasions over 2 years and included 248…

  11. Interactions between Maternal Parenting and Children's Early Disruptive Behavior: Bidirectional Associations across the Transition from Preschool to School Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs-Ronto, Lindsey A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Lunkenheimer, Erika S.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2009-01-01

    This study was a prospective 2-year longitudinal investigation of associations between negative maternal parenting and disruptive child behavior across the preschool to school transition. Our main goals were to 1) determine the direction of association between early maternal negativity and child disruptive behaviors across this important…

  12. School Connectedness Buffers the Effects of Negative Family Relations and Poor Effortful Control on Early Adolescent Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Roalson, Lori A.; Herrera, Denise E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and interactive contributions of school connectedness, negative family relations, and effortful control to subsequent early adolescent conduct problems. Data were collected from 476 adolescents when they were initially in the 6th and 7th grades and again 1 year later. Results from hierarchical regression analyses…

  13. Educational Characteristics of Adolescents with Gifted Academic Intrinsic Motivation: A Longitudinal Investigation from School Entry through Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Allen W.; Clayton R. Cook; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Morris, Phillip E.

    2005-01-01

    The construct of gifted motivation was examined in a contemporary, long-term, longitudinal investigation. Adolescents with extremely high academic intrinsic motivation (i.e., gifted motivation) were compared to their cohort peer comparison on a variety of educationally relevant measures from elementary school through the early adulthood years.…

  14. Early Antecedents of Social Competence in Elementary School of Later Peer Reputation and Sociometric Status in Dutch Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Haselager, Gerbert J. T.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; van Lieshout, Cornelis F. M.

    Noting that a child's peer competence and sociometric status not only are important indices of the child's current social functioning, but may also predict adolescent adaptation, this study examined the antecedents in peer competence and sociometric status in early and late elementary school years of five peer reputation dimensions. These five…

  15. Invisible to Visible: Mapping the Continuum of Literacy Learning Experiences in an Early Years Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…

  16. Does Attendance in Early Education Predict Attendance in Elementary School? An Analysis of DCPS's Early Education Program. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubay, Lisa; Holla, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Enrollment in early childhood education programs can be an important stepping stone to higher educational achievement, particularly for low-income children. However, children cannot succeed in these programs unless they are present. The Early Childhood Education Division (ECED) in the District of Columbia Public Schools (DCPS) has identified…

  17. School disengagement as a predictor of dropout, delinquency, and problem substance use during adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Henry, Kimberly L; Knight, Kelly E; Thornberry, Terence P

    2012-02-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of early warning systems for dropout prevention. These warning systems use a set of indicators based on official school records to identify youth at risk for dropout and then appropriately target intervention. The current study builds on this work by assessing the extent to which a school disengagement warning index predicts not only dropout but also other problem behaviors during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (N = 911, 73% male, 68% African American, and 17% Latino) were used to examine the effects of a school disengagement warning index based on official 8th and 9th grade school records on subsequent dropout, as well as serious delinquency, official offending, and problem substance use during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Results indicate that the school disengagement warning index is robustly related to dropout as well as serious problem behaviors across the three developmental stages, even after controlling for important potential confounders. High school dropout mediates the effect of the warning index on serious problem behaviors in early adulthood.

  18. School Disengagement as a Predictor of Dropout, Delinquency, and Problem Substance Use during Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Knight, Kelly E.; Thornberry, Terence P.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five years, a great deal of attention has been paid to the development of early warning systems for dropout prevention. These warning systems use a set of indicators based on official school records to identify youth at risk for dropout and then appropriately target intervention. The current study builds on this work by assessing the extent to which a school disengagement warning index predicts not only dropout but also other problem behaviors during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Data from the Rochester Youth Development Study (n=911, 73% male, 68% African American, and 17% Latino) were used to examine the effects of a school disengagement warning index based on official 8th and 9th grade school records on subsequent dropout, as well as serious delinquency, official offending, and problem substance use during middle adolescence, late adolescence, and early adulthood. Results indicate that the school disengagement warning index is robustly related to dropout as well as serious problem behaviors across the three developmental stages, even after controlling for important potential confounders. High school dropout mediates the effect of the warning index on serious problem behaviors in early adulthood. PMID:21523389

  19. Developmental trajectories of compensatory exercise and fasting behavior across the middle school years.

    PubMed

    Davis, Heather A; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T

    2016-12-01

    Compensatory exercise and fasting behavior, in the absence of binge eating and purging, appear to be important eating disorder behaviors that are associated with dysfunction, but little is known about these behaviors in youth. We studied the trajectories of their development in non-binge eating and non-purging girls during early adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, we assessed 564 girls six times over the three years of middle school (grades 6 through 8) and developed trajectories specifying different developmental patterns in relation to the behaviors. Prior to this period, when the girls were in 5th grade (elementary school), we assessed risk factors to predict girls' subsequent trajectory group membership. Compensatory exercise trajectory groups included a non-engagement group, a group that increased in the behavior, and a group that decreased in the behavior. There were two fasting trajectory groups, one consistently engaging in the behavior and the other consistently not. Elementary school levels of depression, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies predicted subsequent trajectory group membership. Risk for compensatory exercise and fasting should be evaluated as early as in 5th grade. Targeted interventions should focus on girls in late elementary school or middle school, as this appears to be a critical developmental and maintenance period for compensatory exercise and fasting behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Compensatory Exercise and Fasting Behavior across the Middle School Years

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Heather A.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Compensatory exercise and fasting behavior, in the absence of binge eating and purging, appear to be important eating disorder behaviors that are associated with dysfunction, but little is known about these behaviors in youth. We studied the trajectories of their development in non-binge eating and non-purging girls during early adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, we assessed 564 girls six times over the three years of middle school (grades 6 through 8) and developed trajectories specifying different developmental patterns in relation to the behaviors. Prior to this period, when the girls were in 5th grade (elementary school), we assessed risk factors to predict girls’ subsequent trajectory group membership. Compensatory exercise trajectory groups included a non-engagement group, a group that increased in the behavior, and a group that decreased in the behavior. There were two fasting trajectory groups, one consistently engaging in the behavior and the other consistently not. Elementary school levels of depression, eating expectancies, and thinness expectancies predicted subsequent trajectory group membership. Risk for compensatory exercise and fasting should be evaluated as early as in 5th grade. Targeted interventions should focus on girls in late elementary school or middle school, as this appears to be a critical developmental and maintenance period for compensatory exercise and fasting behavior. PMID:27544806