Science.gov

Sample records for early scientific results

  1. Early Scientific Results and Future Prospects for the Rejuvenated Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedner, Malcolm B.

    2010-01-01

    Following the extraordinarily successful Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May of 2009, the Observatory is now fully equipped with a broad array of powerful science instruments that put it at the pinnacle of its scientific power. Relevant to the subject matter of the Beyond 2010 Conference, HST will be well-placed over the next five-plus years to advance our knowledge of the formation of high-redshift galaxies and their growth with cosmic time; the emergence of structure in the early universe via Dark Matter-driven gravitational instability; and the universe's expansion history and any resulting implications for the temporal character of Dark Energy. These are fitting projects for the iconic facility now celebrating its 20th anniversary in orbit.

  2. Scientific results from COBE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Cheng, E. S.; Hauser, M. G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Murdock, T. L.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) carries three scientific instruments to make precise measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation on angular scales greater than 7 deg and to conduct a search for a diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation with 0.7 deg angular resolution. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the CMB is that of a blackbody of temperature T = 2.73 +/- 0.06 K, with no deviation from a blackbody spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The first year of data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant CMB anisotropy. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Infrared sky brightness measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservative upper limits to the CIB. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the CIB limits.

  3. A-3 scientific results - extragalactic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the HEAO A-3 experiment are summarized. Specific contributions of the experiment to extragalactic astronomy are emphasized. The discovery of relatively condensed X-ray emission in the cores of those clusters of galaxies which are dominated by a giant elliptical or cD galaxy, the discovery of extended X-ray emitting plasma in groups of galaxies, and the demonstration that BL Lac objects are a class of X-ray sources are among the topics discussed.

  4. Planck 2015 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Akrami, Y.; Alves, M. I. R.; Argüeso, F.; Arnaud, M.; Arroja, F.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaglia, P.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carvalho, P.; Casaponsa, B.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, H. C.; Chluba, J.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Contreras, D.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Di Valentino, E.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Fantaye, Y.; Farhang, M.; Feeney, S.; Fergusson, J.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Feroz, F.; Finelli, F.; Florido, E.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Frolov, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Gerbino, M.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Giusarma, E.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hamann, J.; Handley, W.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huang, Z.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jin, T.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Krachmalnicoff, N.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leahy, J. P.; Lellouch, E.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Lilley, M.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; Liu, H.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Ma, Y.-Z.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mak, D. S. Y.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marchini, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martinelli, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Moreno, R.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Mottet, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Narimani, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nastasi, A.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Olamaie, M.; Oppermann, N.; Orlando, E.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrott, Y. C.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Romelli, E.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Rotti, A.; Roudier, G.; Rouillé d'Orfeuil, B.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rumsey, C.; Rusholme, B.; Said, N.; Salvatelli, V.; Salvati, L.; Sandri, M.; Sanghera, H. S.; Santos, D.; Saunders, R. D. E.; Sauvé, A.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schammel, M. P.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Shimwell, T. W.; Shiraishi, M.; Smith, K.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Spinelli, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Strong, A. W.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tornikoski, M.; Tramonte, D.; Tristram, M.; Troja, A.; Trombetti, T.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, F.; Vassallo, T.; Vibert, L.; Vidal, M.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Walter, B.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, which is dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013. In February 2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release, as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy, and modified gravity, and new results on low-frequency Galactic foregrounds.

  5. Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which is dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013. In February 2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This study gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release,more » as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Finally, scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy, and modified gravity, and new results on low-frequency Galactic foregrounds.« less

  6. Planck 2015 results: I. Overview of products and scientific results

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; ...

    2016-09-20

    The European Space Agency’s Planck satellite, which is dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched on 14 May 2009. It scanned the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously between 12 August 2009 and 23 October 2013. In February 2015, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the second set of cosmology products based ondata from the entire Planck mission, including both temperature and polarization, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This study gives an overview of the main characteristics of the data and the data products in the release,more » as well as the associated cosmological and astrophysical science results and papers. The data products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, diffuse foregrounds in temperature and polarization, catalogues of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources (including separate catalogues of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters and Galactic cold clumps), and extensive simulations of signals and noise used in assessing uncertainties and the performance of the analysis methods. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data is described, along with a CMB lensing likelihood. Finally, scientific results include cosmological parameters derived from CMB power spectra, gravitational lensing, and cluster counts, as well as constraints on inflation, non-Gaussianity, primordial magnetic fields, dark energy, and modified gravity, and new results on low-frequency Galactic foregrounds.« less

  7. Early physics results.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Peter

    2012-02-28

    For the past year, experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have started exploring physics at the high-energy frontier. Thanks to the superb turn-on of the LHC, a rich harvest of initial physics results have already been obtained by the two general-purpose experiments A Toroidal LHC Apparatus (ATLAS) and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), which are the subject of this report. The initial data have allowed a test, at the highest collision energies ever reached in a laboratory, of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles, and to make early searches Beyond the Standard Model (BSM). Significant results have already been obtained in the search for the Higgs boson, which would establish the postulated electro-weak symmetry breaking mechanism in the SM, as well as for BSM physics such as Supersymmetry (SUSY), heavy new particles, quark compositeness and others. The important, and successful, SM physics measurements are giving confidence that the experiments are in good shape for their journey into the uncharted territory of new physics anticipated at the LHC.

  8. Planck 2013 results. I. Overview of products and scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Aussel, H.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Barrena, R.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Battye, R.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bertincourt, B.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bikmaev, I.; Blanchard, A.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Böhringer, H.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bourdin, H.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Brown, M. L.; Bucher, M.; Burenin, R.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cappellini, B.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Carr, R.; Carvalho, P.; Casale, M.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chon, G.; Christensen, P. R.; Churazov, E.; Church, S.; Clemens, M.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Comis, B.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cruz, M.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Da Silva, A.; Dahle, H.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Déchelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Démoclès, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dick, J.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fabre, O.; Falgarone, E.; Falvella, M. C.; Fantaye, Y.; Fergusson, J.; Filliard, C.; Finelli, F.; Flores-Cacho, I.; Foley, S.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Freschi, M.; Fromenteau, S.; Frommert, M.; Gaier, T. C.; Galeotta, S.; Gallegos, J.; Galli, S.; Gandolfo, B.; Ganga, K.; Gauthier, C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Gilfanov, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Haissinski, J.; Hamann, J.; Hansen, F. K.; Hansen, M.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Heavens, A.; Helou, G.; Hempel, A.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huey, G.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Ilić, S.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jasche, J.; Jewell, J.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Khamitov, I.; Kiiveri, K.; Kim, J.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Li, C.; Liddle, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lowe, S.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Marcos-Caballero, A.; Marinucci, D.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matsumura, T.; Matthai, F.; Maurin, L.; Mazzotta, P.; McDonald, A.; McEwen, J. D.; McGehee, P.; Mei, S.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Menegoni, E.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mikkelsen, K.; Millea, M.; Miniscalco, R.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, D.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Morisset, N.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pandolfi, S.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Paykari, P.; Pearson, D.; Pearson, T. J.; Peel, M.; Peiris, H. V.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Platania, P.; Pogosyan, D.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Pullen, A. R.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Rahlin, A.; Räth, C.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Riazuelo, A.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ringeval, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Ruiz-Granados, B.; Rusholme, B.; Salerno, E.; Sandri, M.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Schiavon, F.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Smith, K.; Smoot, G. F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutter, P.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Taylor, D.; Terenzi, L.; Texier, D.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Tuttlebee, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Varis, J.; Vibert, L.; Viel, M.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Watson, C.; Watson, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Weller, J.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Wilkinson, A.; Winkel, B.; Xia, J.-Q.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zibin, J. P.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    The European Space Agency's Planck satellite, dedicated to studying the early Universe and its subsequent evolution, was launched 14 May 2009 and has been scanning the microwave and submillimetre sky continuously since 12 August 2009. In March 2013, ESA and the Planck Collaboration released the initial cosmology products based on the first 15.5 months of Planck data, along with a set of scientific and technical papers and a web-based explanatory supplement. This paper gives an overview of the mission and its performance, the processing, analysis, and characteristics of the data, the scientific results, and the science data products and papers in the release. The science products include maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and diffuse extragalactic foregrounds, a catalogue of compact Galactic and extragalactic sources, and a list of sources detected through the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect. The likelihood code used to assess cosmological models against the Planck data and a lensing likelihood are described. Scientific results include robust support for the standard six-parameter ΛCDM model of cosmology and improved measurements of its parameters, including a highly significant deviation from scale invariance of the primordial power spectrum. The Planck values for these parameters and others derived from them are significantly different from those previously determined. Several large-scale anomalies in the temperature distribution of the CMB, first detected by WMAP, are confirmed with higher confidence. Planck sets new limits on the number and mass of neutrinos, and has measured gravitational lensing of CMB anisotropies at greater than 25σ. Planck finds no evidence for non-Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's results agree well with results from the measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations. Planck finds a lower Hubble constant than found in some more local measures. Some tension is also present between the amplitude of matter fluctuations (σ8) derived from

  9. Early Results from SOLIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Giampapa, M.; Henney, C.; Keller, C.; Jones, H.

    2004-05-01

    SOLIS (Synoptic Optical Long-Term Investigations of the Sun) is a project that is replacing antiquated synoptic observing equipment at the National Solar Observatory. SOLIS consists of a suite of three instruments on an equatorial mount that will be installed on Kitt Peak in April 2004. The major SOLIS instrument is a vector spectromagnetograph (VSM) that maps magnetic fields across the full solar disk using a slit spectrograph and one arc sec pixels. Limited daily observations started at a temporary site in August, 2003 and include line-of-sight component magnetograms in the photosphere and chromosphere and, for the first time, full-disk vector magnetograms. At a medium scan speed ( ˜ 10 minutes for the full disk) noise is less than 1 Mx/cm2. This low noise, combined with negligible instrumental polarization and well resolved spectral line profiles, yields moderate resolution magnetograms of unprecedented quality. Observations show magnetic flux nearly everywhere in the photosphere from the disk center to the solar limb. Weak, intranetwork fields are now routinely observed and show a tendency to be of opposite polarity to the stronger surrounding fields. Diffuse fields surround decaying active regions and appear to be distinct from canopy fields. Vector magnetograms easily show the radial orientation of network fields, and the diffuse component surrounding decaying active regions. Near the disk center, the transverse magnetic fields of network elements change on a time scale of minutes. Detailed quantitative calibration of the observations is in progress. Good results have been obtained from the other SOLIS instruments: a full-disk filter imager at several narrow wavelengths and a double-pass grating spectrograph that provides high-accuracy line spectra of integrated sunlight. SOLIS data are freely available via the Internet and users are invited to submit observing time requests for special observations. The National Solar Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc

  10. Orbiting astronomical observatory-Copernicus. [scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    Of the three observatories planned in NASA's OAO program, one, OAO-3, is still in orbit and producing scientifically useful data. The prime experiment is the Princeton telescope spectrometer. Following a brief history of the OAO program, a description is given of the Princeton telescope with its 80-cm primary mirror, and of the spectrometer, which yields a resolution of up to 0.05 A. The spacecraft guidance system is also described. This system initially points the observatory to within a few arc minutes of the target, places the 0.3-arc sec slit on the star in less than 3 minutes, and holds on the star for up to 50 minutes with errors less than 0.05 arc sec. The main scientific results are described under the following categories: (1) the widespread presence of molecular hydrogen; (2) the search for other molecules, including detection of CO; (3) the nature of the interstellar medium as inferred from the detection of various atomic lines; (4) the study of chromospheres in late type stars; and (5) the study of mass loss in binaries and single stars.

  11. LANDSAT-4 Scientific Characterization: Early Results Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiometric calibration, geometric accuracy, spatial and spectral resolution, and image quality are examined for the thematic mapper and the multispectral band scanner on LANDSAT 4. Sensor performance is evaluated.

  12. The Historical 'Science Driver': Early Telescopes and Scientific Incentive.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The term 'science driver' was first used in the 1980s. The modern meaning of 'science' is far removed from its meaning in the first centuries of the telescope. It is anachronistic to refer to the 'science driver' of a historic telescope. However, there were scientific motivations behind many early telescopes, large reflectors in particular. The chronology of larger and improved telescopes will be placed in the context of the rationale for their creation. The evolution of scientific purpose of these instruments will be extracted and examined for patterns and significance.

  13. CALIPSO Overview and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.

    2008-05-01

    The CALIPSO spacecraft was co-manifested with the CloudSat spacecraft and launched by a Boeing Delta~II rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California on April~28,~2006. CALIPSO is the acronym for Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) is a three-channel lidar on board that uses a Nd:YAG laser emitting pulses at 1064 and 532~nm. The receiver uses a 1-meter diameter telescope and photomultipliers in the two 532~nm channels; one for parallel-polarized backscatter, and the other for perpendicular-polarized backscatter. The 1064~nm channel uses an APD for measuring the total backscatter at this wavelength. CALIPSO is in a near-circular sunsynchronous polar 705-km orbit with a 1:30~PM ascending node, and is flying in formation with CloudSat, Aura, Aqua and PARASOL. CALIPSO and CloudSat are flying 15~seconds apart in the formation. This talk will present an overview of the CALIPSO mission and details of CALIOP and the rest of the payload. It will show typical results from measurements of clouds, details on cirrus cloud statistics for the first year of data, a characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds over the Artic and Antarctic during local winters and early springs, and some general atmospheric events like hurricanes and aerosols from minor volcanic eruptions, desert dust events, and smoke from fires and their transport. The presentation will end with a look toward the future of spaceborne lidars.

  14. Hippocrates' complaint and the scientific ethos in early modern England.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Among the elements of the modern scientific ethos, as identified by R.K. Merton and others, is the commitment of individual effort to a long-term inquiry that may not bring substantial results in a lifetime. The challenge this presents was encapsulated in the aphorism of the ancient Greek physician, Hippocrates of Kos: vita brevis, ars longa (life is short, art is long). This article explores how this complaint was answered in the early modern period by Francis Bacon's call for the inauguration of the sciences over several generations, thereby imagining a succession of lives added together over time. However, Bacon also explored another response to Hippocrates: the devotion of a 'whole life', whether brief or long, to science. The endorsement of long-term inquiry in combination with intensive lifetime involvement was embraced by some leading Fellows of the Royal Society, such as Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke. The problem for individuals, however, was to find satisfaction in science despite concerns, in some fields, that current observations and experiments would not yield material able to be extended by future investigations.

  15. Components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-07-20

    AS11-37-5551 (20 July 1969) --- Two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) are seen deployed on the lunar surface in this view photographed from inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the far background is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); and to the right and closer to the camera is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3). The footprints of Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. are very distinct in the lunar soil.

  16. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  17. The ESA scientific exploitation element results and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Donlon, Craig; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Fernandez, Diego; Gascon, Ferran; Zehner, Claus; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Koetz, Benjamin; Pinnock, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) element of ESA's fourth Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP4) prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community built up over the last 25 years exploiting ESA's EO missions. SEOM enables the science community to address new scientific research areas that are opened by the free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, key research studies have been launched over the last years to further exploit data from the Sentinels (http://seom.esa.int/). During 2016 several Science users consultation workshops have been organized, new results from scientific studies have been published and open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been distributed (SNAP 80000 users from 190 countries). In addition the first ESA Massive Open Online Courses on Climate from space have been deployed (20000 participants) and the second EO Open Science conference was organized at ESA in September 2016 bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. The new EOEP5 Exploitation element approved in 2016 and starting in 2017 is taking stock of all precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation and in particular a workplan for ESA scientific exploitation activities has been presented to Member States taking full benefit of the latest information and communication technology. The results and highlights from current scientific exploitation activities will be presented and an outlook on the upcoming activities under the new EOEP5 exploitation element will be given.

  18. Preliminary scientific results from the first six months of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Beichman, C. A.; Houck, J. R.; Neugebauer, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-04-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was successfully launched on January 25, 1983. This paper presents results based on analysis of early scientific data returned from IRAS. Among the early results of IRAS are the discovery of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock, evidence for a shell of large particles around the nearby bright star Vega, detection of stars in the process of formation, and detection of many infrared bright galaxies. These early results demonstrate that the IRAS data will be a treasure chest for astronomers for years to come.

  19. Preliminary scientific results from the first six months of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Houck, J. R.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was successfully launched on January 25, 1983. This paper presents results based on analysis of early scientific data returned from IRAS. Among the early results of IRAS are the discovery of comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock, evidence for a shell of large particles around the nearby bright star Vega, detection of stars in the process of formation, and detection of many infrared bright galaxies. These early results demonstrate that the IRAS data will be a treasure chest for astronomers for years to come.

  20. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  1. Technical editing and the effective communication of scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, G.W.; Picologlou, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    Communication of scientific results--whether for professional journals, poster sessions, oral presentations, or the popular press--is an essential part of any scientific investigation. The technical editor plays an important rolein ensuring that scientists express their results correctly and effectively. Technical editing comprises far more than simple proofreading. The editor`s tasks may range from restructuring whole parpagrphs and suggesting improved graphical aids to writing abstracts and preparing first drafts of proposals. The technical editor works closely with scientists to present complex ideas to differentaudiences, including fellow scentists, funding agencies, and the general public. New computer technologyhas also involved the technical editor notmore » only with on-line editing but also with preparing CD ROMs and World Wide Web pages.« less

  2. Scientific results from the Pioneer Saturn encounter - Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opp, A. G.

    1980-01-01

    The scientific results of the Pioneer Saturn encounter with Saturn are summarized. The Pioneer mission was designed to image the planet, its satellites and rings, and measure its particulate environment and the magnetic field and photon and charged particle radiation by means of 11 operational scientific instruments and its 2.293-GHz telemetry carrier signal. Principle results of the mission include the discovery of an additional ring and a previously unidentified satellite, the further characterization of the physical properties of Saturn and its magnetic field, and the description of the planetary magnetosphere. The successful completion of the mission demonstrated the ability of spacecraft such as Voyager 1 and 2 to survive the particle environments of Saturn's rings and trapped radiation environments, and Pioneer Saturn is expected to continue transmitting information on the interplanetary medium and the solar wind interaction with the interstellar medium until the mid-1980's.

  3. Scientific Writing Seminar for Early-stage Investigators in Substance Abuse Research

    PubMed Central

    Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. Methods In 14 years there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Results Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. Conclusions A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model to other existing models. PMID:25893689

  4. Plan to increase public access to the results of Federally-funded scientific research results.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-12-16

    This plan is issued in response to the February 22, 2013 Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies entitled Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Researc...

  5. Prepublication disclosure of scientific results: Norms, competition, and commercial orientation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of a survey of 7103 active faculty researchers in nine fields, we examine the extent to which scientists disclose prepublication results, and when they do, why? Except in two fields, more scientists disclose results before publication than not, but there is significant variation in their reasons to disclose, in the frequency of such disclosure, and in withholding crucial results when making public presentations. They disclose results for feedback and credit and to attract collaborators. Particularly in formulaic fields, scientists disclose to attract new researchers to the field independent of collaboration and to deter others from working on their exact problem. A probability model shows that 70% of field variation in disclosure is related to differences in respondent beliefs about norms, competition, and commercialization. Our results suggest new research directions—for example, do the problems addressed or the methods of scientific production themselves shape norms and competition? Are the levels we observe optimal or simply path-dependent? What is the interplay of norms, competition, and commercialization in disclosure and the progress of science? PMID:29774233

  6. Some Preliminary Scientific Results of Chang'E-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y.; Li, W.; Zheng, Y.; Li, H.

    2015-12-01

    Chang'E-3 mission is the main task of Phase two of China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP), and also is Chinese first probe of landing, working and roving on the moon. Chang'E-3 craft composed of a lander and a rover, and each of them carry four scientific payloads respectively. The landing site of Chang'E-3 was located at 44.12 degrees north latitude and 19.51 degrees west longitude, where is in the northern part of Imbrium Which the distance in its west direction from the landing site of former Soviet probe Luna-17 is about 400 km, and about 780km far from the landing site of Appolo-17 in its southeast direction. Unfortunately, after a series of scientific tests and exploration on the surface of the moon, the motor controller communication of the rover emerged a breakdown on January 16, 2014, which leaded the four payloads onboard the rover can't obtain data anymore. However, we have received some interesting scientific data which have been studied by Chinese scientists. During the landing process of Chang'E-3, the Landing camera got total 4673 images with the Resolution in millimeters to meters, and the lander and rover took pictures for each other at different point with Topography camera and Panoramic camera. We can find characteristic changes in celestial brightness with time by analyzing image data from Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT) and an unprecedented constraint on water content in the sunlit lunar exosphere seen by LUT). The figure observed by EUV camera (EUVC) shows that there is a transient weak area of the Earth's plasma sphere; This event took place about three hours. The scientists think that it might be related to the change of the particle density of mid-latitude ionosphere. The preliminary spectral and mineralogical results from the landing site are derived according to the data of Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS). Seven major elements including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe have been identified by the Active Particle

  7. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Katie A. McLaughlin.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Katie A. McLaughlin, who has "has articulated important distinctions among the effects of early neglect and abuse and has uncovered specific processes that are disrupted by early adverse environmental experiences." McLaughlin's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Results of an early hearing detection program.

    PubMed

    Borkoski Barreiro, Silvia A; Falcón González, Juan C; Bueno Yanes, Jorge; Pérez Bermúdez, José L; López Cano, Zoraida; Ramos Macías, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal hearing loss is a public health problem that meets the requirements for submission to universal screening. Our objective was to analyse the results of the early hearing detection and intervention program implemented at our centre between January 2007 and December 2010. We studied 26,717 newborns during the period mentioned, using transient otoacoustic emissions (TOAEs) for the screening. The diagnostic phase was carried out at the hearing loss department. In our area, there were 27,935 births between January 2007 and December 2010. The screening was performed on 26,717 children. Of these, 24,173 had positive TOAEs, 1,040 had no TOAEs and 1,504 presented TOAEs in 1 ear with absence of TOAEs in the contralateral ear. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were found in 4,674 infants. In a second phase of the program, TOAEs were given to 5,156 children, of whom 4,626 had positive otoacoustic emissions in both ears, 323 had no TOAEs in 1 ear and 207 failed this second phase. Of all children studied, 3.8% were referred to auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing and 26 children entered the cochlear implant program. The program reached coverage of 95.64%. The early hearing detection and intervention program at our hospital is suitable for our environment, reaching 95.64% of coverage. We consider the relationship between effectiveness and efficiency to be positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Tania Lombrozo.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Tania Lombrozo, whose "groundbreaking studies have shown just how, and why, explanations are so important to people." Lombrozo's award citation, biography, and bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The origins of scientific cinematography and early medical applications.

    PubMed

    Barboi, Alexandru C; Goetz, Christopher G; Musetoiu, Radu

    2004-06-08

    To examine the neurologic cinematographic contributions of Gheorghe Marinescu. Near the end of the 19th century, cinematography developed and was immediately recognized as a new technique applicable to medical documentation. After studying with several prominent European neurologists and deeply influenced by Jean-Martin Charcot, Marinescu returned to Bucharest in 1897 and applied moving picture techniques to the study of neurologic patients. The Romanian State Archives were researched for original Marinescu films, and related publications were translated from Romanian and French. Between 1899 and 1902, Marinescu perfected the use of cinematography as a research method in neurosciences and published five articles based on cinematographic documents. He focused his studies particularly on organic gait disorders, locomotor ataxia, and hysteria. He adapted Charcot's method of lining up several patients with the same disorder and showing them together to permit appreciation of archetypes and formes frustes. He decomposed the moving pictures into sequential tracings for publication. He documented treatment results with cases filmed before and after therapy. Processed and digitized excerpts of these films accompany this manuscript. Marinescu's cinematographic studies led to several original contributions in clinical neurology. Remaining film archives include examples of many neurologic diseases, his examination techniques, and the working medical environment of the young founder of the Romanian school of neurology.

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Fabian A. Soto.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers. One of the 2016 award winners is Fabian A. Soto, whose work "has shed fresh light on a broad range of fundamental psychological issues, including basic associative conditioning, causal judgment, categorization, visual object recognition, and face processing." Soto's award citation, biography, and selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Knowledge as an Aspect of Scientific Competence for Citizenship: Results of a Delphi Study in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    España-Ramos, Enrique; González-García, Francisco José; Blanco-López, Ángel; Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on scientific knowledge as one aspect of the scientific competencies that citizens should ideally possess. The analysis is based on a Delphi study we conducted with Spanish experts from different science-related fields. The results showed that although the experts proposed several examples of scientific knowledge, the degree…

  13. Scientific Results of Yoga for Health and Well-Being

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... What Is Complementary, Alternative or Integrative Health? Safety Information Know the Science For Health Care Professionals Clinical Practice Guidelines Literature Reviews All Health Information Research Research Results Results by Date Sponsored by ...

  14. Early Science Education: Exploring Familiar Contexts To Improve the Understanding of Some Basic Scientific Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Isabel P.; Veiga, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Argues that science education is a fundamental tool for global education and that it must be introduced in early years as a first step to a scientific culture for all. Describes testing validity of a didactic strategy for developing the learning of concepts, which was based upon an experimental work approach using everyday life contexts. (Author)

  15. Angela J. Grippo: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Angela J. Grippo for her creative contributions in investigating the association between depression and cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models.…

  16. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  17. Thomas L. Griffiths: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…

  18. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Adam K. Anderson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Adam K. Anderson, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for his outstanding contribution to understanding the representation of emotion and its influence on cognition. By combining psychological and neuroscience techniques with rigorous and creative experimental designs, Anderson has…

  19. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Robert E. Ployhart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Robert E. Ployhart, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for innovative work in examining reactions to staffing practices and efforts to enhance the acceptability of recruitment and staffing practices; for exemplary use of applied statistical models in examining multilevel effects…

  20. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

  1. Bethany Ann Teachman: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bethany Ann Teachman for transformative, translational research integrating social cognition, life-span, and perceptual approaches to investigating clinical…

  2. Friederike Range: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Friederike Range for outstanding contributions to the understanding of the complex social minds of nonhuman animals. Through ingenious experimental approaches,…

  3. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Ahmad R. Hariri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ahmad R. Hariri, recipient of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for pioneering contributions to understanding the neurobiological mechanisms driving individual differences in complex behavior traits. Hariri has integrated molecular genetics, neuropharmacology, neuroimaging, and psychology in…

  4. Spacelab 1 - Mission overview and summary of scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, K.; Chappell, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper recalls the reasons which led NASA to build the Space Shuttle and ESA to manufacture Spacelab and presents the most important features of the mission where these two elements were combined for the first time. An overview on the objectives of the seven science disciplines participating in this mission is given and selected results as far as known in June 1984 are presented.

  5. Hawaii scientific drilling protect: Summary of preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DePaolo, D.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D.; Albarede, F.; Chadwick, O.; Clague, D.; Feigenson, M.; Frey, F.; Garcia, M.; Hofmann, A.; Ingram, B.L.; Kennedy, B.M.; Kirschvink, J.; Kurz, M.; Laj, Carlo; Lockwood, J.; Ludwig, K.; McEvilly, T.; Moberly, R.; Moore, G.; Moore, J.; Morin, R.; Paillet, F.; Renne, P.; Rhodes, M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Taylor, H.; Walker, G.; Wilkins, R.

    1996-01-01

    Petrological, geochemical, geomagnetic, and volcanological characterization of the recovered core from a 1056-m-deep well into the flank of the Mauna Kea volcano in Hilo, Hawaii, and downhole logging and fluid sampling have provided a unique view of the evolution and internal structure of a major oceanic volcano unavailable from surface exposures. Core recovery was ~90%, yielding a time series of fresh, subaerial lavas extending back to ~400 ka. Results of this 1993 project provide a basis for a more ambitious project to core drill a well 4.5 km deep in a nearby location with the goal of recovering an extended, high-density stratigraphic sequence of lavas.

  6. Scientific and technological results from the Consort rocket program.

    PubMed

    Naumann, R J

    1995-12-01

    The Consort suborbital rocket program was initiated to allow industrial researchers working through the various NASA Centers for Commercial Development of Space to have ready access to 6 to 7 min of microgravity environment for the purpose of trying out new ideas and for testing apparatus being developed for longer duration Shuttle flights. The 6 Consort flights have provided a wealth of experimental data, some of which has not been published in the open literature. The purpose of this paper is to document the experiments that have been flown and what has been learned. A fairly extensive bibliography of the published results has been included, and the investigator team responsible for the various experiments has been included so that interested parties may contact the various investigators directly for more details.

  7. Scientific writing seminar for early-stage investigators in substance abuse research.

    PubMed

    Guydish, Joseph; Masson, Carmen; Flentje, Annesa; Shopshire, Michael; Sorensen, James L

    2016-01-01

    There is little information on how to increase the scientific writing productivity of early-stage investigators in the addictions field. A scientific writing seminar is presented in this article, aiming to encourage manuscript writing and dissemination of addiction research, and outcomes are reported for 14 years of the seminar. In 14 years, there were 113 postdoctoral fellow enrollments in a 6-month writing seminar. Records of submission and publication rates of manuscripts were collected for 14 cohorts. Of the 113 participant enrollments, 97 (86%) submitted a manuscript for publication, and 87 participants (77%) published their manuscript. A scientific writing seminar may benefit writing productivity, but more research is needed to compare this training model with other existing models.

  8. J. David Creswell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2014 award winners is J. David Creswell, for "outstanding and innovative research on mechanisms linking stress management strategies to disease." Creswell's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Theodore P. Beauchaine: award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation for Theodore P. Beauchaine, who received the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (psychopathology) "for core contributions in developmental psychopathology, especially related to the biological underpinnings of various mental disorders among children, sophisticated and elegant quantitative approaches to these issues, and exemplary work on the prevention of such conditions." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finn, J. M.; Forest, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hoskins, J. R.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.; McHugh, M. J.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Myers, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roche, J.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Young, R. D.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e{{p}} scattering to provide the first determination of the proton's weak charge Q_w^p. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e{{p}} to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(θw) at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world's highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment's data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  11. Landsat-7 Mission and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, S. Kenneth; Sabelhaus, Phillip A.; Williams, Darrel L.; Irons, James R.; Barker, John L.; Markham, Brian L.; Bolek, Joseph T.; Scott, Steven S.; Thompson, R. J.; Rapp, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    The Landsat-7 mission has the goal of acquiring annual data sets of reflective band digital imagery of the landmass of the Earth at a spatial resolution of 30 meters for a period of five years using the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imager on the Landsat-7 satellite. The satellite was launched on April 15, 1999. The mission builds on the 27-year continuous archive of thematic images of the Earth from previous Landsat satellites. This paper will describe the ETM+ instrument, the spacecraft, and the ground processing system in place to accomplish the mission. Results from the first few months in orbit will be given, with emphasis on performance parameters that affect image quality, quantity, and availability. There will also be a discussion of the Landsat Data Policy and the user interface designed to make contents of the archive readily available, expedite ordering, and distribute the data quickly. Landsat-7, established by a Presidential Directive and a Public Law, is a joint program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Enterprise and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observing System (EROS) Data Center.

  12. Early Calibration Results of CYGNSS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Ruf, C. S.; McKague, D. S.; Clarizia, M. P.; Gleason, S.

    2017-12-01

    The first of its kind, GNSS-R complete orbital mission, CYGNSS was successfully launched on Dec 15 2016. The goal of this mission is to accurately forecast the intensification of tropical cyclones by modelling its inner core. The 8 micro observatories of CYGNSS carry a passive instrument called Delay Doppler Mapping Instrument (DDMI). The DDMIs form a 2D representation called the Delay-Doppler Map (DDM) of the forward scattered power signal. Each DDMI outputs 4 DDMs per second which are compressed and sent to the ground resulting in a total of 32 sea-surface measurements produced by the CYGNSS constellation per second. These are subsequently used in the Level-2 wind retrieval algorithm to extract wind speed information. In this paper, we perform calibration and validation of CYGNSS measurements for accurate extraction of wind speed information. The calibration stage involves identification and correction for dependence of the CYGNSS observables namely Normalised Bistatic Radar Cross Section and Leading Edge Slope of the Integrated Delay Waveform over instrument parameters, geometry etc. The validation stage involves training of the Geophysical Model Function over a multitude of ground truth sources during the Atlantic hurricane season and also refined validation of high wind speed data products.

  13. HST Observations of the Uranian Ring Plane Crossing: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Lissauer, J. J.; French, R. G.; Hamilton, D. P.; Nicholson, P. D.; de Pater, I.

    2007-10-01

    Between early May and mid-August 2007, Earth was on the north side of the Uranian ring plane while the Sun was still shining on the rings’ southern face. This has provided an exceedingly rare opportunity to view the ring system via transmitted light. The ɛ ring, which typically out-shines every other component of the inner ring-moon system, has been rendered essentially invisible. We have been conducting regular imaging of the Uranian system throughout this period with the Wide Field/Planetary Camera on HST to address numerous scientific goals. (1) To search the inner Uranian system for the "shepherding” moons long believed to confine the narrow rings; (2) to study the packing density of the main rings via direct observations of their vertical thickness; (3) to search for the inner dust rings that appeared in a few Voyager images; (4) to determine the vertical thickness of the faint outer rings μ and ν (5) to obtain the most sensitive determinations of the outer rings’ colors and try to understand why ring ν is red but ring μ is blue; (6) to search for additional outer dust rings under optimal viewing geometry; and (7) to continue monitoring the seemingly chaotic orbital variations of the inner Uranian moons, particularly Mab. HST observations span mid-May to mid-September. We will present our initial results from this observing program.

  14. Early Results from the RAIDS Experiment on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) is a suite of three photometers, three spectrometers, and two spectrographs which span the wavelength range 55-874 nm and remotely sense the thermosphere and ionosphere by scanning and imaging the limb. RAIDS was scheduled to fly to the Japanese Experiment Module—Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. RAIDS along with a companion hyperspectral imaging experiment will serve as the first US payload on the JEM-EF. The scientific objectives of the new RAIDS experiment are to study the temperature of the lower thermosphere (100-200 km), to measure composition and chemistry of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere, and to measure the initial source of OII 83.4 nm emission. RAIDS will provide valuable data useful for exploring tidal effects in the thermosphere and ionosphere system, validating dayside ionospheric remote sensing methods, and studying local time variations in important chemical and thermal processes. Early observational results from the RAIDS experiment will be presented. The RAIDS sensor suite performs multispectral limb scanning from the open end of the HICO-RAIDS Experiment Payload aboard the ISS.

  15. Visiting Old Libraries: Scientific Books in the Religious Institutions of Early Modem Portugal.

    PubMed

    Giurgevich, Luana

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of libraries and book collecting is a preliminary task for the characterisation of scientific culture and practice. In the case of Iberia, and especially Portugal, this is still a desideratum. This paper provides a first global look at this issue. In early modem Portugal religious institutions organised impressive collections of books, by far the largest in the country These libraries not only served the religious institutions themselves, but also supplied books to lesser libraries, such as the University Library of Coimbra and the Royal Library. The Portuguese book market mirrored the purchase and selection of books made by religious congregations. This was also true for the circulation of scientific books, which depended above all on the interests, choices and cultural relations of these most peculiar book collectors.

  16. From the EEL to the EGO: psychoanalysis and the remnants of Freud's early scientific practice.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Martin

    2013-01-01

    While numerous historiographical works have been written to shed light on Freud's early theoretical education in biology, physiology, and medicine and on the influence of that education on psychoanalysis, this paper approaches Freud's basic comprehension of science and methodology by focusing on his early research practice in physiology and neuranatomy. This practice, taking place in the specific context of Ernst Brücke's physiological laboratory in Vienna, was deeply concerned with problems of visuality and the revelation of hidden organic structures by use of proper preparation techniques and optical instruments. The paper explores the connection between such visualizing practices, shaped by a physiological context as they were, and Freud's later convictions of the scientific status of psychoanalysis and the function of its method as means to unveil the concealed structure of the "psychical apparatus". © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Early Childhood Teacher Research: From Questions to Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    What is early childhood teacher research and why is it important? How does a teacher researcher formulate a research question and a plan for doing research? How do teachers apply research results to effect change? "Early Childhood Teacher Research" is an exciting new resource that will address the sorts of questions and concerns that pre- and…

  18. The Early Scientific Contributions of J. Robert Oppenheimer: Why Did the Scientific Community Miss the Black Hole Opportunity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Rodríguez, M.; Solís-Sánchez, H.; Boza-Oviedo, E.; Chaves-Cruz, K.; Guevara-Bertsch, M.; Quirós-Rojas, M.; Vargas-Hernández, S.; Venegas-Li, A.

    2017-04-01

    We assess the scientific value of Oppenheimer's research on black holes in order to explain its neglect by the scientific community, and even by Oppenheimer himself. Looking closely at the scientific culture and conceptual belief system of the 1930s, the present article seeks to supplement the existing literature by enriching the explanations and complicating the guiding questions. We suggest a rereading of Oppenheimer as a figure both more intriguing for the history of astrophysics and further ahead of his time than is commonly supposed.

  19. Does the public communication of science influence scientific vocation? Results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Stekolschik, Gabriel; Draghi, Cecilia; Adaszko, Dan; Gallardo, Susana

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine if public communication of science and technology (PCST) has any influence on people's decision to become dedicated to scientific research. For this reason, a national survey involving 852 researchers from all disciplines was conducted in Argentina. The results showed that the factors affecting scientific vocation are many, and that, regardless of differences in gender, age or discipline, the greatest influence on the decision to go into scientific research is exerted by teachers. The analysis also demonstrated that different manifestations of PCST (science books, press articles, audiovisual material, and activities such as visits to science museums) play a significant role in awakening the vocation for science. From these results it may be stated that PCST--in addition to its function of informing and forming citizens--exerts a significant influence in fostering scientific vocation.

  20. The Interplay between Scientific Overlap and Cooperation and the Resulting Gain in Co-Authorship Interactions.

    PubMed

    Mayrose, Itay; Freilich, Shiri

    2015-01-01

    Considering the importance of scientific interactions, understanding the principles that govern fruitful scientific research is crucial to policy makers and scientists alike. The outcome of an interaction is to a large extent dependent on the balancing of contradicting motivations accompanying the establishment of collaborations. Here, we assembled a dataset of nearly 20,000 publications authored by researchers affiliated with ten top universities. Based on this data collection, we estimated the extent of different interaction types between pairwise combinations of researchers. We explored the interplay between the overlap in scientific interests and the tendency to collaborate, and associated these estimates with measures of scientific quality and social accessibility aiming at studying the typical resulting gain of different interaction patterns. Our results show that scientists tend to collaborate more often with colleagues with whom they share moderate to high levels of mutual interests and knowledge while cooperative tendency declines at higher levels of research-interest overlap, suggesting fierce competition, and at the lower levels, suggesting communication gaps. Whereas the relative number of alliances dramatically differs across a gradient of research overlap, the scientific impact of the resulting articles remains similar. When considering social accessibility, we find that though collaborations between remote researchers are relatively rare, their quality is significantly higher than studies produced by close-circle scientists. Since current collaboration patterns do not necessarily overlap with gaining optimal scientific quality, these findings should encourage scientists to reconsider current collaboration strategies.

  1. [The scientific revolution in medicine of second half of XX - early XXI centuries: occurrence of new conceptions about human organism and essence of diseases].

    PubMed

    Stepin, V S; Zatravkin, S N

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of works of supreme Russian physiologists and pathologists of XX-XXI centuries. The analysis was applied on the basis concept of structure and dynamics of scientific cognition developed by one o the authors of the present article. The applied analysis permits affirming that during second half of XX-early XXI centuries in medicine occurred and continues to occurring transformations whose character and scope totally corresponds to scientific revolution and occurring and establishing in medicine new conceptions have all signs permitting referring them to post-neoclassic type of scientific rationality.

  2. Early scientific advice obtained simultaneously from regulators and payers: findings from a pilot study in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wonder, Michael; Backhouse, Martin E; Hornby, Edward

    2013-01-01

    There is scope for better interaction between regulators, payers/HTA agencies, and medicines developers in their common objective of getting new medicines to patients. This paper reports on a tripartite early scientific advice pilot conducted by a pharmaceutical company (developer), the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA: regulator) and the Pharmaceutical Benefit Advisory Committee (PBAC) Secretariat (HTA agency) in Australia. The objective was to explore the practicality, feasibility, and sustainability of means of obtaining simultaneous scientific advice from both a regulatory and reimbursement perspective. Advice was sought for two development compounds in different disease areas. The focus was on matters of common interest to the TGA and the PBAC (i.e. the clinical evidence). Briefing books were prepared by the developer and supplied eight weeks prior to the meeting and only verbal advice was provided. The pilot meeting took place in 2009. Each session lasted for approximately two hours and was structured around the questions in the briefing books. The representatives from the TGA and PBAC Secretariat provided well-informed, considered and careful advice for both compounds, which was predominantly actionable and practical. The sessions proved highly informative and permitted better alignment of the possible positioning of new medicines with the clinical evidence that regulators and HTA agencies might subsequently require for favorable assessment. The process provided early and clear signals to inform major development investments and the probability of successful market access. A number of challenges need to be addressed before tripartite scientific advice can be provided on continual basis. Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. [Involvement of scientific societies in early benefit assessment: Simulated participation or valuable additional input?

    PubMed

    Bleß, Hans-Holger; Seidlitz, Cornelia; Ohlmeier, Christoph; de Millas, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    The German framework of early benefit assessment (EBA) of drugs also provides for the participation of scientific medical societies. The aim of their inclusion is to assure that care providers can critically assess all aspects of the EBA and provide insights into relevant aspects regarding the provision of care. This study systematically reviews the frequency of participation of the scientific medical societies (FGs) and the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (AkdÄ) within the scope of the EBA. In addition, the positioning of AkdÄ/FG is compared to the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) with a focus on antidiabetic drugs and cancer drugs. A literature analysis was performed based on the comprehensive documentation of benefit assessments published by G-BA. All proceedings of antidiabetic drugs and cancer drugs were included, for which a decision was published by August 6, 2015. In addition, statements of FGs or AkdÄ were identified by an exploratory literature review and included in the analysis. The statements considered were assessed with regard to three categories: (1) additional benefit, (2) appropriate comparator (ZVT) and (3) suitability of the endpoints. For each procedure and category, it was assessed whether there was agreement or disagreement between IGWiG/G-BA and AkdÄ/FGs statements. Regarding the additional benefit, a deviating position was further differentiated according to the level of additional benefit (higher/lower). Afterwards, the proportion of favorable and unfavorable positions was calculated, stratified by FGs and AkdÄ and, separately, for proceedings of antidiabetics and cancer drugs. The literature review revealed 41 proceedings of cancer drugs and 21 proceedings of antidiabetic drugs which were included in the analyses. Statements by AkdÄ/FGs were identified in 90 % of the proceedings for antidiabetic drugs and in 98 % of the proceedings for cancer drugs

  4. Adam M. Grant: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Adam M. Grant, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For extensive, elegant, and programmatic research on the power of relational job design in enhancing employee motivation, productivity, and satisfaction; for creative and rigorous studies documenting the profound and surprising effects of connecting employees to their impact on others; for highlighting prosocial motivation, not only extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, as a key force behind employee behavior; and for demonstrating by example the feasibility and benefits of conducting field experiments, yielding studies rich in internal validity, external validity, and practical impact. In addition to his accomplishments, Adam M. Grant is known for his generosity as a scholar, teacher, and colleague." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Nicholas Epley: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-11-01

    Presents Nicholas Epley, the 2011 winner of the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. "For brilliant empirical and theoretical contributions to social cognition in general and for creative insights into how people understand the minds of others in particular. Nicholas Epley's empirical work demonstrates how basic mechanisms of social cognition can lead to interpersonal conflict and misunderstanding. His theoretical work expands social cognition beyond its traditional focus on human beings as targets of judgment, showing how basic mechanisms explain people's understanding of minds of all kinds, from pets to gadgets to gods. His work shows how social psychology, at its best, increases understanding of everyday life and inspires others to understand more." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Assessing and Adapting Scientific Results for Space Weather Research to Operations (R2O)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Friedl, L.; Halford, A. J.; Mays, M. L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Singer, H. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Why doesn't a solid scientific paper necessarily result in a tangible improvement in space weather capability? A well-known challenge in space weather forecasting is investing effort to turn the results of basic scientific research into operational knowledge. This process is commonly known as "Research to Operations," abbreviated R2O. There are several aspects of this process: 1) How relevant is the scientific result to a particular space weather process? 2) If fully utilized, how much will that result improve the reliability of the forecast for the associated process? 3) How much effort will this transition require? Is it already in a relatively usable form, or will it require a great deal of adaptation? 4) How much burden will be placed on forecasters? Is it "plug-and-play" or will it require effort to operate? 5) How can robust space weather forecasting identify challenges for new research? This presentation will cover several approaches that have potential utility in assessing scientific results for use in space weather research. The demonstration of utility is the first step, relating to the establishment of metrics to ensure that there will be a clear benefit to the end user. The presentation will then move to means of determining cost vs. benefit, (where cost involves the full effort required to transition the science to forecasting, and benefit concerns the improvement of forecast reliability), and conclude with a discussion of the role of end users and forecasters in driving further innovation via "O2R."

  7. Eight Years of Specialist Training of Dutch Intellectual Disability Physicians: Results of Scientific Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2009-01-01

    Training in scientific research methods and skills is a vital part of Dutch specialist training in intellectual disability medicine. The authors evaluated results of such training at one Dutch university medical facility that had an obligatory research program involving projects conducted by the physicians-in-training (topics, teamwork, acquired…

  8. 76 FR 80417 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data... public access to unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The... Technology Council's Interagency Working Group on Digital Data. Release Date: November 3, 2011. Response Date...

  9. Early Results from NASA's Assessment of Satellite Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Reed, Benjamin B.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Whipple, Arthur O.; Oegerle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Following recommendations by the NRC, NASA's FY 2008 Authorization Act and the FY 2009 and 2010 Appropriations bills directed NASA to assess the use of the human spaceflight architecture to service existing/future observatory-class scientific spacecraft. This interest in satellite servicing, with astronauts and/or with robots, reflects the success that NASA achieved with the Shuttle program and HST on behalf of the astronomical community as well as the successful construction of ISS. This study, led by NASA GSFC, will last about a year, leading to a final report to NASA and Congress in autumn 2010. We will report on its status, results from our March satellite servicing workshop, and recent concepts for serviceable scientific missions.

  10. Scientific biography, cognitive deficits, and laboratory practice. James McKeen Cattell and early American experimental psychology, 1880-1904.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.

  11. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  12. Early meteorological results from the viking 2 lander.

    PubMed

    Hess, S L; Henry, R M; Leovy, C B; Mitchell, J L; Ryan, J A; Tillman, J E

    1976-12-11

    Early results from the meteorological instruments on the Viking 2 lander are presented. As on lander 1, the daily patterns of temperature, wind, and pressure have been highly repetitive during the early summer period. The average daily maximum temperature was 241 degrees K and the diurnal minimum was 191 degrees K. The wind has a vector mean of 0.7 meter per second from the southeast with a diurnal amplitude of 3 meters per second. Pressure exhibits both diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations, although of substantially smaller amplitude than those of lander 1. Departures from the repetitive diurnal patterns begin to appear on sol 37.

  13. Scientific citations favor positive results: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Duyx, Bram; Urlings, Miriam J E; Swaen, Gerard M H; Bouter, Lex M; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-08-01

    Citation bias concerns the selective citation of scientific articles based on their results. We brought together all available evidence on citation bias across scientific disciplines and quantified its impact. An extensive search strategy was applied to the Web of Science Core Collection and Medline, yielding 52 studies in total. We classified these studies on scientific discipline, selection method, and other variables. We also performed random-effects meta-analyses to pool the effect of positive vs. negative results on subsequent citations. Finally, we checked for other determinants of citation as reported in the citation bias literature. Evidence for the occurrence of citation bias was most prominent in the biomedical sciences and least in the natural sciences. Articles with statistically significant results were cited 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.8) times more often than articles with nonsignificant results. Articles in which the authors explicitly conclude to have found support for their hypothesis were cited 2.7 (CI 2.0-3.7) times as often. Article results and journal impact factor were associated with citation more often than any other reported determinant. Similar to what we already know on publication bias, also citation bias can lead to an overrepresentation of positive results and unfounded beliefs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Science and Theatre Education: A Cross-disciplinary Approach of Scientific Ideas Addressed to Student Teachers of Early Childhood Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselfes, Vasilis; Paroussi, Antigoni

    2009-09-01

    There is, in Greece, an ongoing attempt to breach the boundaries established between the different teaching-learning subjects of compulsory education. In this context, we are interested in exploring to what degree the teaching and learning of ideas from the sciences’ “internal life” (Hacking, in: Pickering (ed) Science as practice and culture, 1992) benefits from creatively coming into contact with theatrical education as part of the corresponding curriculum subject. To this end, 57 students of the Early Childhood Education Department of the University of Athens were called to study extracts from Galileo’s Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican, to focus on a subject that the Dialogue’s “interlocutors” forcefully disagree about and to theatrically represent (using shadow theatre techniques) what they considered as being the central idea of this clash of opinions. The results indicate that this attempt leads to a satisfactory understanding of ideas relating to the content and methodology of the natural sciences. At the same time, theatrical education avails itself of the representation of scientific ideas and avoids the clichés and hackneyed techniques that the (often) simplistic choices available in the educational context of early childhood education tend towards. The basic reasons for both facets of this success are: (a) Genuine scientific texts force the students to approach them with seriousness, and all the more so if these recount the manner in which scientific ideas are produced and are embedded in the historical and social context of the age that created them; (b) The theatrical framework, which essentially guides the students’ activities, allows (if not obliges) them to approach scientific issues creatively; in other words, it allows them to create something related to science and recognize it as theirs; and, (c) Both the narrative texts describing processes of “science making” (Bruner, J Sci Educ

  15. On Overview of the Performance and Scientific Results from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Brinkman, B.; Canizares, C.; Garmire, G.; Murray, S.; VanSpeybroeck, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) was launched on 1999 July 23 by the Columbia Space Shuttle. The first X-rays focused by the telescope were seen on 1999 August 12 after the satellite systems were activated. Beginning with the first observation, it was clear that the telescope was not damaged by the launch environment and was operating as planned. After the early surprise due to the discovery that the telescope concentrated CCD-damaging low-energy protons far more efficiently than had been expected, the observatory is performing optimally and is returning excellent scientific data. Together with other space observatories, especially XMM-Newton, it is obvious that we have entered a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  16. The Case for Scientific Drilling of Precambrian Sedimentary Sequences: A Mission to Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Kaufman, A. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Lyons, T. W.; Humayun, M.

    2001-12-01

    Research into the emergence and early evolution of life, particularly in relation to environmental conditions, has intensified in the past decade. The field is energized by controversy (e.g., over the history of atmospheric composition, ocean redox, climate and biochemical pathways) and by the application of new biogeochemical tools (e.g., ion probe in situ stable isotope studies; improved geochronological techniques; non-mass-dependent stable isotope effects; stable metal isotope systematics; advances in organic geochemistry/biomarkers). The past decade has also seen improved understanding of old tools (notably, S isotopes), and new perspectives on evolution and on microbial interaction with the environment borne of the genomics revolution. Recent papers demonstrate the potential for innovative research when such developments are integrated, as well as the limitations of present knowledge. The chief limiting factor is not lack of scientists or advanced techniques, but availability of fresh samples from suitable successions. Where classic Precambrian stratigraphy exists, suitable rocks are rarely exposed due to interaction with the oxidizing atmosphere, occurrence of flat-lying strata or sedimentary cover. Available drill-cores are concentrated around ore bodies, and hence are inherently altered or not environmentally representative. Stratigraphic drilling using clean diamond drilling techniques, targeted in accord with scientific priorities, could provide samples of unmatched quality across the most interesting stratigraphic intervals. Diamond drilling is a proven, inexpensive technology for accessing subsurface material. The time is ripe to use this technology to secure the materials needed for further advances. The Mission to Early Earth (MtEE) Focus Group of the NASA Astrobiology Institute is developing a case for the acquisition, curation and distribution of suitable samples, with a special focus on diamond drilling. A communal activity is envisioned, modeled

  17. Improving the trust in results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Cappello, Franck; Constantinescu, Emil; Hovland, Paul

    This white paper investigates several key aspects of the trust that a user can give to the results of numerical simulations and scientific data analytics. In this document, the notion of trust is related to the integrity of numerical simulations and data analytics applications. This white paper complements the DOE ASCR report on Cybersecurity for Scientific Computing Integrity by (1) exploring the sources of trust loss; (2) reviewing the definitions of trust in several areas; (3) providing numerous cases of result alteration, some of them leading to catastrophic failures; (4) examining the current notion of trust in numerical simulation andmore » scientific data analytics; (5) providing a gap analysis; and (6) suggesting two important research directions and their respective research topics. To simplify the presentation without loss of generality, we consider that trust in results can be lost (or the results’ integrity impaired) because of any form of corruption happening during the execution of the numerical simulation or the data analytics application. In general, the sources of such corruption are threefold: errors, bugs, and attacks. Current applications are already using techniques to deal with different types of corruption. However, not all potential corruptions are covered by these techniques. We firmly believe that the current level of trust that a user has in the results is at least partially founded on ignorance of this issue or the hope that no undetected corruptions will occur during the execution. This white paper explores the notion of trust and suggests recommendations for developing a more scientifically grounded notion of trust in numerical simulation and scientific data analytics. We first formulate the problem and show that it goes beyond previous questions regarding the quality of results such as V&V, uncertainly quantification, and data assimilation. We then explore the complexity of this difficult problem, and we sketch complementary

  18. Impact cratering calculations. Part 1: Early time results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, J. M.; Sauer, F. N.; Austin, M. G.; Ruhl, S. F.; Shultz, P. H.; Orphal, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Early time two dimensional finite difference calculations of laboratory scale hypervelocity impact of 0.3 g spherical 2024 aluminum projectiles into homogeneous plasticene clay targets were performed. Analysis of resulting material motions showed that energy and momentum were coupled quickly from the aluminum projectile to the target material. In the process of coupling, some of the plasticene clay target was vaporized while the projectile become severely deformed. The velocity flow field developed within the target was shown to have features similar to those found in calculations of near surface explosion cratering. Specific application of Maxwell's analytic Z-Model showed that this model can be used to describe the early time flow fields resulting from the impact cratering calculations as well, provided the flow field centers are located beneath the target surface and most of the projectile momentum is dissipated before the model is applied.

  19. DoSSiER: Database of scientific simulation and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, Hans; Yarba, Julia; Genser, Krzystof

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this paper, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  20. DoSSiER: Database of scientific simulation and experimental results

    DOE PAGES

    Wenzel, Hans; Yarba, Julia; Genser, Krzystof; ...

    2016-08-01

    The Geant4, GeantV and GENIE collaborations regularly perform validation and regression tests for simulation results. DoSSiER (Database of Scientific Simulation and Experimental Results) is being developed as a central repository to store the simulation results as well as the experimental data used for validation. DoSSiER can be easily accessed via a web application. In addition, a web service allows for programmatic access to the repository to extract records in json or xml exchange formats. In this paper, we describe the functionality and the current status of various components of DoSSiER as well as the technology choices we made.

  1. SMAP Impact Analysis of Early Adopter Research-Two Case studies on the scientific and societal benefits of SMAP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, V. M.; Wu, H. T.; Moran, S.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    To document and evaluate the use of SMAP science products in applications, the SMAP Phase E Applications Plan proposes to "conduct case studies to address a basic question: How are SMAP science products used in decision support systems and how does the new data stream affect the system performance?" The objective is to determine the value of SMAP data to the six categories of applications based on Early Adopters' experiences, where value is defined as the scientific and/or societal benefit. Since SMAP is the first mission with a pre-launch Early Adopter Program, the post-launch case study is also unprecedented. In this talk, we will show some results of the SMAP Early Adopters, with focus on the two case studies in the applications of agriculture and weather forecasting, respectively. For agriculture, we will show the work of USDA/NASS (National Agriculture Statistics Service) scientists (Zhengwei Yang and Rick Mueller). Using SMAP soil moisture products, they have been working on the establishment of a visualization, analytics, and dissemination tool to support and improve US national crop condition monitoring. Scientifically, this study will improve our understanding on the impact of crop canopy on the SMAP SM retrieval and on the mapping relation between SMAP SM and NASS soil moisture survey results. Socio-economically, the use of SMAP data and web-based tool will improve the consistency, reliability, objectivity, and efficiency of cropland soil moisture monitoring and assessment, which will benefit the current end users of the NASS weekly report including farmers, insurance companies, and financial institutes. For weather, we will show the work of NOAA scientists (Xiwu Zhan, Weizhong Zheng, and Mike Ek) on the transition of NASA SMAP research products to NOAA operational numerical weather and seasonal climate predictions and research hydrological forecasts. Results of initial analyses and validation of the assimilation of SMAP soil moisture in NOAA's Global

  2. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  3. Preliminary results of the scientific experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The scientific equipment and experiments on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite are described, including various ground controls and the lab unit for studies at the descent vehicle landing site. Preliminary results are presented of the physiological experiment with rats, biological experiments with drosophila and higher and lower plants, and radiation physics and radiobiology studies for the planning of biological protection on future space flights. The most significant conclusion from the preliminary data is that rats tolerate space flight better with an artificial force of gravity.

  4. The Eole experiment - Early results and current objectives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Eole experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon, floating freely at approximately the 200-mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an rms uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the Eole wind data are given for describing the mean 200-mb zonal and meridional circulations.

  5. Early Results from NICER Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Ozel, Feryal; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bult, Peter; Cackett, Ed; Chenevez, Jerome; Fabian, Andy; Guillot, Sebastien; Guver, Tolga; Homan, Jeroen; Keek, Laurens; Lamb, Frederick; Ludlam, Renee; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Markwardt, Craig B.; Miller, Jon M.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael T.

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) offers significant new capabilities for the study of accreting neuton stars relative to previous X-ray missions including large effective area, low background, and greatly improved low-energy response. The NICER Burst and Accretion Working Group has designed a 2 Ms observation program to study a number of phenomena in accreting neutron stars including type-I X-ray bursts, superbursts, accretion-powered pulsations, quasi-periodic oscillations, and accretion disk reflection spectra. We present some early results from the first six months of the NICER mission.

  6. NASA Plan for Increasing Access to the Results of Scientific Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    This plan is issued in response to the Executive Office of the President's February 22, 2013, Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies, "Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research." Through this memorandum, OSTP directed all agencies with more than $100 million in annual research and development expenditures to prepare a plan for improving the public's access to the results of federally funded research. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) invests on the order of $3 billion annually in fundamental and applied research and technology development1 across a broad range of topics, including space and Earth sciences, life and physical sciences, human health, aeronautics, and technology. Promoting the full and open sharing of data with research communities, private industry, academia, and the general public is one of NASA's longstanding core values. For example, NASA's space and suborbital mission personnel routinely process, archive, and distribute their data to researchers around the globe. This plan expands the breadth of NASA's open-access culture to include data and publications for all of the scientific research that the Agency sponsors.

  7. Obligatory course unit! Trainee astronomers learn to communicate their future scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    2008-06-01

    A scientist must not only do science, but must also know how to communicate it. It is possible that he or she even ends up becoming devoted professionally either to outreach or to teaching. Therefore, the Master's Degree Course in Astrophysics, created by the University of La Laguna (ULL) with the collaboration of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), includes in its programme the four-month core course unit Communicating Astronomy: Professional Results and Educational Practice (in Spanish, Comunicación de Resultados Cientificos y Didactica de la Astronomia), that is worth three ECTs. In this poster, I present the results of our experience from the academic year 2006-2007, in which seventeen Master's students, in addition to learning the skills necessary to communicating their results within the scientific community, have also studied the language of popularisation in a practical and fun way through role-playing as science writers and schoolteachers in the classroom.

  8. Early Science Results from the Williams College Eclipse Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Dantowitz, Ron; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Tim; Meadors, Erin N.; Perez, Cielo C.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Daly, Declan M.; Ide, Charles A.; Davis, Allen B.; Lu, Muzhou; Sliski, David; Seiradakis, John; Voulgaris, Aris; Rusin, Vojtech; Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Roman, Michael; Seaton, Daniel B.; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane M.; Freeman, Marcus J.

    2018-01-01

    We describe our first cut of data reduction on a wide variety of observations of the solar corona and of the effect of the penumbra and umbra on the terrestrial atmosphere, carried out from our eclipse site on the campus of Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. Our team of faculty, undergraduate students, graduate students, and other colleagues observed the eclipse, taking images and spectra with a variety of sensors and telescopes. Equipment included frame-transfer cameras observing at 3 Hz in 0.3 nm filters at the coronal green and red lines to measure the power spectrum of oscillations in coronal loops or elsewhere in the lower corona; 3 spectrographs; a variety of telescopes and telephotos for white-light imaging; a double Lyot system tuned at Fe XIV 530.3 nm (FWHM 0.4 nm) and Fe X 637.4 nm (FWHM 0.5 nm); and a weather station to record changes in the terrestrial atmosphere. We are comparing our observations with predictions based on the previous mapping of the photospheric magnetic field, and preparing wide-field complete coronal imaging incorporating NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI and NRL/NASA/LASCO for the corona outside our own images (which extend, given the completely clear skies we had, at least 4 solar radii), and NASA SDO/AIA and NOAA/NASA GOES-16 SUVI for the solar disk. One of our early composites appeared as Astronomy Picture of the Day for September 27: https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap170927.htmlOur expedition was supported in large part by grants from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation, with additional student support from the STP/AGS of NSF, the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation studentship and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary Fund at Williams College, other Williams College funds, and U. Pennsylvania funds.

  9. Using Rubrics as a Scientific Writing Instructional Method in Early Stage Undergraduate Neuroscience Study

    PubMed Central

    Clabough, Erin B.D.; Clabough, Seth W.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific writing is an important communication and learning tool in neuroscience, yet it is a skill not adequately cultivated in introductory undergraduate science courses. Proficient, confident scientific writers are produced by providing specific knowledge about the writing process, combined with a clear student understanding about how to think about writing (also known as metacognition). We developed a rubric for evaluating scientific papers and assessed different methods of using the rubric in inquiry-based introductory biology classrooms. Students were either 1) given the rubric alone, 2) given the rubric, but also required to visit a biology subject tutor for paper assistance, or 3) asked to self-grade paper components using the rubric. Students who were required to use a peer tutor had more negative attitudes towards scientific writing, while students who used the rubric alone reported more confidence in their science writing skills by the conclusion of the semester. Overall, students rated the use of an example paper or grading rubric as the most effective ways of teaching scientific writing, while rating peer review as ineffective. Our paper describes a concrete, simple method of infusing scientific writing into inquiry-based science classes, and provides clear avenues to enhance communication and scientific writing skills in entry-level classes through the use of a rubric or example paper, with the goal of producing students capable of performing at a higher level in upper level neuroscience classes and independent research. PMID:27980476

  10. Using Rubrics as a Scientific Writing Instructional Method in Early Stage Undergraduate Neuroscience Study.

    PubMed

    Clabough, Erin B D; Clabough, Seth W

    2016-01-01

    Scientific writing is an important communication and learning tool in neuroscience, yet it is a skill not adequately cultivated in introductory undergraduate science courses. Proficient, confident scientific writers are produced by providing specific knowledge about the writing process, combined with a clear student understanding about how to think about writing (also known as metacognition). We developed a rubric for evaluating scientific papers and assessed different methods of using the rubric in inquiry-based introductory biology classrooms. Students were either 1) given the rubric alone, 2) given the rubric, but also required to visit a biology subject tutor for paper assistance, or 3) asked to self-grade paper components using the rubric. Students who were required to use a peer tutor had more negative attitudes towards scientific writing, while students who used the rubric alone reported more confidence in their science writing skills by the conclusion of the semester. Overall, students rated the use of an example paper or grading rubric as the most effective ways of teaching scientific writing, while rating peer review as ineffective. Our paper describes a concrete, simple method of infusing scientific writing into inquiry-based science classes, and provides clear avenues to enhance communication and scientific writing skills in entry-level classes through the use of a rubric or example paper, with the goal of producing students capable of performing at a higher level in upper level neuroscience classes and independent research.

  11. Lunar scout missions: Galileo encounter results and application to scientific problems and exploration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W.; Belton, M.; Greeley, R.; Pieters, C.; Mcewen, A.; Neukum, G.; Mccord, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Lunar Scout Missions (payload: x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, high-resolution stereocamera, neutron spectrometer, gamma-ray spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, gravity experiment) will provide a global data set for the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, topography, and gravity of the Moon. These data will in turn provide an important baseline for the further scientific exploration of the Moon by all-purpose landers and micro-rovers, and sample return missions from sites shown to be of primary interest from the global orbital data. These data would clearly provide the basis for intelligent selection of sites for the establishment of lunar base sites for long-term scientific and resource exploration and engineering studies. The two recent Galileo encounters with the Moon (December, 1990 and December, 1992) illustrate how modern technology can be applied to significant lunar problems. We emphasize the regional results of the Galileo SSI to show the promise of geologic unit definition and characterization as an example of what can be done with the global coverage to be obtained by the Lunar Scout Missions.

  12. Bias neglect: a blind spot in the evaluation of scientific results.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Brent; Mercier, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Experimenter bias occurs when scientists' hypotheses influence their results, even if involuntarily. Meta-analyses have suggested that in some domains, such as psychology, up to a third of the studies could be unreliable due to such biases. A series of experiments demonstrates that while people are aware of the possibility that scientists can be more biased when the conclusions of their experiments fit their initial hypotheses, they robustly fail to appreciate that they should also be more sceptical of such results. This is true even when participants read descriptions of studies that have been shown to be biased. Moreover, participants take other sources of bias-such as financial incentives-into account, showing that this bias neglect may be specific to theory-driven hypothesis testing. In combination with a common style of scientific reporting, bias neglect could lead the public to accept premature conclusions.

  13. Early on-orbit calibration results from Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Barnes, William L.

    2003-04-01

    Aqua MODIS, also known as the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1), was launched on May 4, 2002. It opened its nadir aperture door (NAD) on June 24, 2002, beginning its Earth observing mission. In this paper, we present early results from Aqua MODIS on-orbit calibration and characterization and assess the instrument's overall performance. MODIS has 36 spectral bands located on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs). Bands 1-19, and 26 with wavelengths from 0.412 to 2.1 microns are the reflective solar bands (RSB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD). The degradation of the SD is tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The bands 20-25, and 27-36 with wavelengths from 3.75 to 14.5 microns are the thermal emissive bands (TEB) that are calibrated on-orbit by a blackbody (BB). Early results indicate that the on-orbit performance has been in good agreement with the predications determined from pre-launch measurements. Except for band 21, the low gain fire band, band 6, known to have some inoperable detectors from pre-launch characterization, and one noisy detector in band 36, all of the detectors' noise characterizations are within their specifications. Examples of the sensor's short-term and limited long-term responses in both TEB and RSB will be provided to illustrate the sensor's on-orbit stability. In addition, we will show some of the improvements that Aqua MODIS made over its predecessor, Terra MODIS (Protoflight Model - PFM), such as removal of the optical leak into the long-wave infrared (LWIR) photoconductive (PC) bands and reduction of electronic crosstalk and out-of-band (OOB) thermal leak into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) bands.

  14. Methods of Science Investigation Part 2: Results of Implementation of a Curriculum Fostering Original Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Originally designed to allow secondary students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Methods of Science Curriculum was piloted in 2008. Students participating included those with special needs, English language learners, and the general population. Students were incrementally graduated from traditional inquiry activities towards authentic student-generated research projects. Students were evaluated via class work grades, an in-school symposium and a pre/post test. 100 percent of participants successfully completed and presented their original research. The pre/post evaluation demonstrated improvement for 91 percent of participants. An unanticipated result was the performance and growth of English language learners, possibly because of the emphasis on the creative and active process of science rather than vocabulary. A teacher-training program is being developed for expansion of the curriculum to additional schools in 2009.

  15. The Academic Tree of Howard V. Malmstadt: From Early Scientific Exploration to Modern Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Storey, Andrew P; Hieftje, Gary M

    2016-12-01

    Over the last several decades, science has benefited tremendously by the implementation of digital electronic components for analytical instrumentation. A pioneer in this area of scientific inquiry was Howard Malmstadt. Frequently, such revolutions in scientific history can be viewed as a series of discoveries without a great deal of attention as to how mentorship shapes the careers and methodologies of those who made great strides forward for science. This paper focuses on the verifiable relationships of those who are connected through the academic tree of Malmstadt and how their experiences and the context of world events influenced their scientific pursuits. Particular attention is dedicated to the development of American chemistry departments and the critical role played by many of the individuals in the tree in this process. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Flow of Scientific and Technical Information: The Results of a Recent Major Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, A. F.

    Characterized were the scientific and technical information needs of 1,500 scientists and engineers from 73 companies, 8 research institutes, and 2 universities; and the flow of scientific and technical information (flow process) inherent in satisfying these needs. Interviewers asked 63 questions in the subject areas of (1) the user of scientific…

  17. Using the Scientific Method to Guide Learning: An Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerde, Hope K.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have become increasingly interested in how early childhood programs prepare young children for science. Due to a number of factors, including educators' low self-efficacy for teaching science and lack of educational resources, many early childhood classrooms do not offer high-quality science experiences for young…

  18. [Controversies about instrumented surgery and pain relief in degenerative lumbar spine pain. Results of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Robaina-Padrón, F J

    2007-10-01

    Investigation and development of new techniques for intrumented surgery of the spine is not free of conflicts of interest. The influence of financial forces in the development of new technologies an its immediately application to spine surgery, shows the relationship between the published results and the industry support. Even authors who have defend eagerly fusion techniques, it have been demonstrated that them are very much involved in the revision of new articles to be published and in the approval process of new spinal technologies. When we analyze the published results of spine surgery, we must bear in mind what have been call in the "American Stock and Exchange" as "the bubble of spine surgery". The scientific literature doesn't show clear evidence in the cost-benefit studies of most instrumented surgical interventions of the spine compare with the conservative treatments. It has not been yet demonstrated that fusion surgery and disc replacement are better options than the conservative treatment. It's necessary to point out that at present "there are relationships between the industry and back pain, and there is also an industry of the back pain". Nonetheless, the "market of the spine surgery" is growing up because patients are demanding solutions for their back problems. The tide of scientific evidence seams to go against the spinal fusions in the degenerative disc disease, discogenic pain and inespecific back pain. After decades of advances in this field, the results of spinal fusions are mediocre. New epidemiological studies show that "spinal fusion must be accepted as a non proved or experimental method for the treatment of back pain". The surgical literature on spinal fusion published in the last 20 years following the Cochrane's method establish that: 1- this is at least incomplete, not reliable and careless; 2- the instrumentation seems to slightly increase the fusion rate; 3- the instrumentation doesn't improve the clinical results in general, lacking

  19. Mechanisms Underlying Latent Disease Risk Associated with Early-Life Arsenic Exposure: Current Research Trends and Scientific Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kathryn A.; Smith, Allan H.; Tokar, Erik J.; Graziano, Joseph H.; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Navasumrit, Panida; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Suk, William A.; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Millions of individuals worldwide, particularly those living in rural and developing areas, are exposed to harmful levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in their drinking water. Inorganic As exposure during key developmental periods is associated with a variety of adverse health effects, including those that are evident in adulthood. There is considerable interest in identifying the molecular mechanisms that relate early-life iAs exposure to the development of these latent diseases, particularly in relationship to cancer. Objectives This work summarizes research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie the increased risk of cancer development in adulthood that is associated with early-life iAs exposure. Discussion Epigenetic reprogramming that imparts functional changes in gene expression, the development of cancer stem cells, and immunomodulation are plausible underlying mechanisms by which early-life iAs exposure elicits latent carcinogenic effects. Conclusions Evidence is mounting that relates early-life iAs exposure and cancer development later in life. Future research should include animal studies that address mechanistic hypotheses and studies of human populations that integrate early-life exposure, molecular alterations, and latent disease outcomes. Citation Bailey KA, Smith AH, Tokar EJ, Graziano JH, Kim KW, Navasumrit P, Ruchirawat M, Thiantanawat A, Suk WA, Fry RC. 2016. Mechanisms underlying latent disease risk associated with early-life arsenic exposure: current research trends and scientific gaps. Environ Health Perspect 124:170–175; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409360 PMID:26115410

  20. "A Scientific Library of Some Value": An Early History of the Australian Museum Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Museum, Sydney, is Australia's oldest museum, internationally recognised for its longstanding scientific contributions. Less well-known is the Museum's fine collection of monographs and journals relating to natural history and anthropology, which has been used to support the work of Museum staff and external enquirers since the late…

  1. The EOLE experiment: Early results and current objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The EOLE experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon floating freely at approximately the 200 mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an RMS uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the EOLE wind data are given for describing the mean 200 mb zonal and meridional circulations. The effect of the small scale eddies of two-dimensional turbulence has been studied with respect to the relative eddy diffusion of pairs of balloons and the relative dispersion of triangular clusters. New estimates of the RMS divergence of the 200 mb flow are given, together with their scale dependence which was found to be a logarithmic law.

  2. Overview of the Liulin type instruments for space radiation measurement and their scientific results.

    PubMed

    Dachev, T P; Semkova, J V; Tomov, B T; Matviichuk, Yu N; Dimitrov, P G; Koleva, R T; Malchev, St; Bankov, N G; Shurshakov, V A; Benghin, V V; Yarmanova, E N; Ivanova, O A; Häder, D-P; Lebert, M; Schuster, M T; Reitz, G; Horneck, G; Uchihori, Y; Kitamura, H; Ploc, O; Cubancak, J; Nikolaev, I

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is recognized to be one of the main health concerns for humans in the space radiation environment. Estimation of space radiation effects on health requires the accurate knowledge of the accumulated absorbed dose, which depends on the global space radiation distribution, solar cycle and local shielding generated by the 3D mass distribution of the space vehicle. This paper presents an overview of the spectrometer-dosimeters of the Liulin type, which were developed in the late 1980s and have been in use since then. Two major measurement systems have been developed by our team. The first one is based on one silicon detector and is known as a Liulin-type deposited energy spectrometer (DES) (Dachev et al., 2002, 2003), while the second one is a dosimetric telescope (DT) with two or three silicon detectors. The Liulin-type instruments were calibrated using a number of radioactive sources and particle accelerators. The main results of the calibrations are presented in the paper. In the last section of the paper some of the most significant scientific results obtained in space and on aircraft, balloon and rocket flights since 1989 are presented. Copyright © 2015 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary results of the first scientific Drilling on Lake Baikal, Buguldeika site, southeastern Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Douglas F.; Colman, S.; Grachev, M.; Hearn, P.; Horie, Shoji; Kawai, T.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Logachov, N.; Antipin, V.; Bardardinov, A.; Bucharov, A.; Fialkov, V.; Gorigljad, A.; Tomilov, B.; Khakhaev, B.N.; Kochikov, S.; Logachev, N.; Pevzner, L.A.; Karabanov, E.B.; Mats, V.; Baranova, E.; Khlystov, O.; Khrachenko, E.; Shimaraeva, M.; Stolbova, E.; Efremova, S.; Gvozdkov, A.; Kravchinski, A.; Peck, J.; Fileva, T.; Kashik, S.; Khramtsova, T.; Kalashnikova, I.; Rasskazova, T.; Tatarnikova, V.; Yuretich, Richard; Mazilov, V.; Takemura, K.; Bobrov, V.; Gunicheva, T.; Haraguchi, H.; Ito, S.; Kocho, T.; Markova, M.; Pampura, V.; Proidakova, O.; Ishiwatari, R.; Sawatari, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Toyoda, K.; Vorobieva, S.; Ikeda, A.; Marui, A.; Nakamura, T.; Ogura, K.; Ohta, Takeshi; King, J.; Sakai, H.; Yokoyama, T.; Hayashida, A.; Bezrukova, E.; Fowell, S.; Fujii, N.; Letunova, P.; Misharina, V.; Miyoshi, N.; Chernyaeva, G.; Ignatova, I.; Likhoshvai, E.; Granina, L.; Levina, O.; Dolgikh, P.; Lazo, F.; Lutskaia, N.; Orem, W.; Wada, E.; Yamada, K.; Yamada, S.; Callander, E.; Golobokoval, L.; Shanks, W. C. Pat; Dorofeeva, R.; Duchkov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Baikal Drilling Project (BDP) is a multinational effort to investigate the paleoclimatic history and tectonic evolution of the Baikal sedimentary basin during the Late Neogene. In March 1993 the Baikal drilling system was successfuly deployed from a barge frozen into position over a topographic high, termed the Buguldeika saddle, in the southern basin of Lake Baikal. The BDP-93 scientific team, made up of Russian, American and Japanese scientists, successfully recovered the first long (>100 m) hydraulic piston cores from two holes in 354 m of water. High quality cores of 98 m (Hole 1) and 102 m (Hole 2), representing sedimentation over the last 500,000 years, were collected in 78 mm diameter plastic liners with an average recovery of 72% and 90%, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility logging reveals an excellent hole-to-hole correlation. In this report the scientific team describes the preliminary analytical results from BDP-93 hole 1 cores. Radiocarbon dating by accelerator mass spectrometry provides an accurate chronology for the upper portion of Hole 1. Detailed lithologic characteristics, rock magnetic properties and inorganic element distributions show a significant change to the depositional environment occuring at 50 m subbottom depth, approximately 250,000 BP. This change may be due to uplift and rotation of the horst block in the Buguldeika saddle. The sedimentary section above 50 m is pelitic with varve-like laminae, whereas the section below 50 m contains a high proportion of sand and gravel horizons often organized into turbidite sequences. Accordingly, high resolution seismic records reveal a change in sonic velocity at this depth. It is inferred that sedimentation prior to 250 ka BP was from the west via the Buguldeika river system. After 250 ka BP the Buguldeika saddle reflects an increase in hemipelagic sediments admixed with fine-grained material from the Selenga River drainage basin, east of Lake Baikal. Variations in the spore

  4. The magnetic field investigation on the ARASE (ERG) mission: Data characteristics and initial scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Teramoto, M.; Nomura, R.; Nose, M.; Fujimoto, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Shinohara, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Shiokawa, K.; Obana, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Takashima, T.; Shinohara, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ARASE (ERG) satellite was successfully launched on December 20 2016. A fluxgate magnetometer (MGF) was built for the ARASE satellite to measure DC and low-frequency magnetic field. The requirements to the magnetic field measurements by ARASE was defined as (1) accuracy of the absolute field intensity is within 5 nT (2) angular accuracy of the field direction is within 1 degree (3) measurement frequency range is from DC to 60Hz or wider. MGF measures the vector magnetic field with the original sampling frequency of 256 Hz. The dynamic range is switched between +/-8000nT and +/- 60000nT according to the background field intensity. The MGF initial checkout was carried on January 10th 2017, when the MGF normal performance and downlinked data were confirmed. The 5-m length MAST for the sensor was deployed on 17th January. The nominal operation of MGF started in March 2017. The MGF data are calibrated based on the results from the ground experiments and in-orbit data analysis. The MGF CDF files are distributed by the ARASE Science Center and available by Space Physics Environment Data Analysis Software (SPEDAS). The acceleration process of the charged particles in the inner magnetosphere is considered to be closely related to the deformation and perturbation of the magnetic field. Accurate measurement of the magnetic field is required to understand the acceleration mechanism of the charged particles, which is one of the major scientific objectives of the ARASE mission. We designed a fluxgate magnetometer which is optimized to investigate following topics; (1) accurate measurement of the background magnetic field - the deformation of the magnetic field and its relationship with the particle acceleration. (2) MHD waves - measurement of the ULF electromagnetic waves of frequencies about 1mHz (Pc4-5), and investigation of the radiation-belt electrons radially diffused by the resonance with the ULF waves. (3) EMIC waves - measurement of the electromagnetic ion

  5. How scientific concepts come to matter in early childhood curriculum: rethinking the concept of force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Palmer, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how new materialist philosophies of matter can help us study the emergence of scientific thought in young children's activities. We draw extensively on the work of Gilles Deleuze to help us understand scientific concepts as concrete universals. In particular, we show how the concept of force is re-animated through this approach, becoming less deterministic, and more inflected with chance and indeterminism. We show how this approach to concepts moves beyond constructivist socio-cultural theories of learning, and reveals how concepts are `material articulations of the world' intra-acting with all other matter and meaning. Finally, we discuss video data and artifacts from an ongoing ethnographic project in Stockholm entitled `Children's relations to the city'. Our analysis of the classroom video data from this project shows how concepts are not timeless transcendent abstractions, but part of an unfolding event and learning assemblage. Thus the article contributes to research on conceptual change in children, with particular focus on scientific concepts.

  6. Inquiry in early years science teaching and learning: Curriculum design and the scientific story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Barbara Alexander

    2001-07-01

    Inquiry in school science, as conceived by the authors of the Common Framework of Science Learning Outcomes K--12, is dependent upon four areas of skills. These are the skills of initiating and planning, performing and recording, analysing and interpreting, and communication and teamwork that map onto what Hodson calls the five phases of scientific inquiry in school science: initiation, design and planning, performance, interpretation, and reporting and communicating. This study looked at initiation in a multiage (Grades 1--3) classroom, and the curriculum, design tools, and inquiry acts believed to be necessary precursors of design and planning phases whether the inquiry in which young children engage is archival or laboratory investigation. The curriculum was designed to build upon children's everyday biological knowledge and through a series of carefully organized lessons to help them to begin to build scientifically valid conceptual models in the area of animal life cycles. The lessons began with what is called benchmark-invention after the historical work of Robert Karplus and the contemporary work of Earl Hunt and Jim Minstrell. The introduction of a biological concept was followed by a series of exploration activities in which children were encouraged to apply the concept invented in the benchmark lesson. Enlargement followed. This was the instructional phase in which children were helped to establish scientifically valid relationships between the invented concept and other biological concepts. The pre-instruction and post-instruction interview data suggest that the enacted curriculum and sequence in which the biological knowledge was presented helped the nineteen children in the study to recognize the connections and regularities within the life cycles of the major groupings of animals, and to begin to build scientific biological conceptual models. It is, however, argued that everyday biology, in the form of the person analogy, acts as an obstacle to

  7. Viking 1: early results. [Mars atmosphere and surface examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A brief outline of the Viking 1 mission to Mars is followed by descriptions of the Martian landing site and the scientific instrumentation aboard Viking 1 orbiter and lander. Measurements of the Martian atmosphere provided data on its molecular composition, temperature and pressure. The detection of nitrogen in the Martian atmosphere indicates the existence of life. Panoramic photographs of the Martian surface were also obtained and are shown. Preliminary chemical and biological investigations on samples of Martian soil indicated the presence of the elements iron, calcium, silicon, titanium and aluminum as major constituents. Observed biochemical reactions were judged conducive of biological activity.

  8. Western gulf culture-density study-early results

    Treesearch

    Mohd S. Rahman; Michael G. Messina; Richard F. Fisher; Alan B. Wilson; Nick Chappell; Conner Fristoe; Larry Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The Western Gulf Culture-Density Study is a collaborative research effort between Texas A&M University and five forest products companies to examine the effects of early silvicultural treatment intensity and a wide range of both densities and soil types on performance of loblolly pine. The study tests 2 silvicultural intensities, 5 planting densities (200 to 1,200...

  9. Shaping the Reading Field: The Impact of Early Reading Pioneers, Scientific Research, and Progressive Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Susan E., Ed.; Monaghan, E. Jennifer, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Only by exploring the past of the reading field can the literacy leaders of today make informed decisions about reading education in the future. This indispensable resource offers new insight into the development of reading education by examining the groundbreaking contributions of the "early reading pioneers"--16 reading researchers, reading…

  10. Teaching about the Influence of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment on Early American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Randy K.; Woods, John C.

    1996-01-01

    Utilizes selections from 17th century philosophical writing as instructional material for a series of learning activities that reveal the influence of the material on early American democratic thought. Activities involve selections from Isaac Newton, John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, The Declaration of Independence, and Bishop Bossuet. (MJP)

  11. Scientific - Educational Micro-satellite "kolibri-2000": First Results of Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, S. I.; Nozdrachev, M. N.; Tamkovich, G. M.; Grushin, V. A.; Grachov, Ye. A.; Grigoryan, O. R.; Afanasyev, Yu. V.; Zaitzev, A. N.; Farnakeev, I. V.; Parrot, M.

    Space today is an environment with intensive practical activity of mankind. The results of mastering of space are used in many ways, including education. School is a natural way to inform a broad public about space research. In this paper we will present the Program of Scientific - Educational Micro-satellite http://www.iki.rssi.ru/kollibri/mission1_e.htm. The space science and technologies that can be used as teaching tools in Program are: 1) The space systems of teleme- try, television, operational meteorological observations, remote exploration of the ground, and high-precision navigational systems which have become necessary and economically feasible parts of our life. 2) The space environment also attracts at- tention, as actively influencing many highly technological systems and the biosphere of the Earth, including the health of man. Space weather is becoming as well- known as (meteorological) weather. The first project of the Program is the Russian- Australian micro-satellite "Kolibri-2000" (total mass 22 kg) which start the oper- ation at the end of February 2002. In the project, several schools participate, in- cluding Russian schools sponsored by the Institute of Atomic Energy and Tech- nology (IAET, Obninsk www.obninsk.org) and two Australian schools in Sydney, Knox Grammar School www.knox.nsw.edu.au and Ravenswood School for Girls www.ravenswood.nsw.edu.au. "Kolibri-2000" is equipped with instruments to mea- sure and study the magnetic and electric field, and the radiation belts of the Earth. In this paper we will present the first measurements on the orbit near International Space Station.

  12. Scientific results of the Second Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition in the Ulleung Basin (UBGH2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryu, Byong-Jae; Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, Michael; Kim, Gil-Young; Chun, Jong-Hwa; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yoo, Dong-Geun

    2013-01-01

    As a part of Korean National Gas Hydrate Program, the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) was conducted from 9 July to 30 September, 2010 in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea using the D/V Fugro Synergy. The UBGH2 was performed to understand the distribution of gas hydrates as required for a resource assessment and to find potential candidate sites suitable for a future offshore production test, especially targeting gas hydrate-bearing sand bodies in the basin. The UBGH2 sites were distributed across most of the basin and were selected to target mainly sand-rich turbidite deposits. The 84-day long expedition consisted of two phases. The first phase included logging-while-drilling/measurements-while-drilling (LWD/MWD) operations at 13 sites. During the second phase, sediment cores were collected from 18 holes at 10 of the 13 LWD/MWD sites. Wireline logging (WL) and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were also acquired after coring operations at two of these 10 sites. In addition, seafloor visual observation, methane sensing, as well as push-coring and sampling using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) were conducted during both phases of the expedition. Recovered gas hydrates occurred either as pore-filling medium associated with discrete turbidite sand layers, or as fracture-filling veins and nodules in muddy sediments. Gas analyses indicated that the methane within the sampled gas hydrates is primarily of biogenic origin. This paper provides a summary of the operational and scientific results of the UBGH2 expedition as described in 24 papers that make up this special issue of the Journal of Marine and Petroleum Geology.

  13. Re/Production of science process skills and a scientific ethos in an early childhood classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirch, Susan A.

    2007-10-01

    Many educators and researchers are convinced that age limits what students can learn and achieve in science. Elementary school curricula focus on isolated process skills under the faulty assumption that young students are not capable of combining the process skills and content knowledge necessary for reasoning scientifically. In the present study, I demonstrate that many process skills are produced in conversations between second grade students and between these students and their teachers, including: questioning, hypothesis formation, experimental design, identifying relevant evidence, critical analysis of hypotheses and predictions, hypothesis reconstruction, and variable identification. Through conversation analysis I show that most classroom community members adopted the role of skeptic at some time, but there was a strong tendency to defer to authoritative sources when resolving debates. This latter observation led to further investigation of when and how authoritative sources were consulted and used, and when and how a skeptical stance was taken. I show that, as students used science process skills and interacted with each other and teacher-mediators, community practices, values, and mores were shaped and an ethos of science began to emerge. It is my contention that this ethos often emerges unconsciously as part of the community's dynamic set of rules and schema. Teachers who are attuned to the tension between open-mindedness and skepticism, and how they and their students cope with this dialectic, however, can actively shape the scientific ethos of their classroom community.

  14. SMART-1 technology, scientific results and heritage for future space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G.; Marini, A.; Koschny, D.; Frew, D.; Grieger, B.; Camino-Ramos, O.; Josset, J. L.; Grande, M.; Smart-1 Science; Technology Working Team

    2018-02-01

    ESA's SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 L of Xenon) and longest travel (13 months) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang' E1 and future international lunar exploration. We review SMART-1 highlights and new results that are relevant to the preparation for future lunar exploration. The technology and methods had impact on space research and applications. Recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) radio observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to future missions, 6) identifying and characterising sites for exploration and exploitation. On these respective topics, we discuss recent SMART-1 results and challenges. We also discuss the use of SMART-1 publications library. The SMART-1 archive

  15. Using Literacy Integration for Communicating Scientifically: Research Results on Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortino, Carol; Gerretson, Helen; Button, Linda J.; Johnson, Sharon

    The professional development program Using Literacy Integration for Communicating Scientifically (ULINCS) is a joint program of the University of Northern Colorado and Adams Twelve Five Star School District. It had been noted that the increased emphasis on literacy skills was leading educators to place less emphasis on science. The ULINCS project…

  16. A framework to build scientific confidence in read across results. (SOT CE course presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Read-across acceptance is remains a major hurdle primarily due to the lack of objectivity and clarity on how to practically address uncertainties. One avenue that can be exploited to build scientific confidence in the development and evaluation of read-across is by taking advant...

  17. An Evaluation of Selected NASA Scientific and Technical Information Products: Results of a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose--to gather baseline data on the use and perceived usefulness of selected…

  18. The scientific foundations and associated injury risks of early soccer specialisation.

    PubMed

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-12-01

    Early specialisation is characterised by formal participation in a single sport at the exclusion of others. Limited data are available to support this approach in the development of soccer players who attain elite status later in life. Of growing concern is the associated increased risk of injury and suggestions that single sport specialisation is a risk factor independent of age, growth, biological maturation and training volumes. In the United Kingdom, elite soccer organisations have recently adopted an early sport specialisation approach following the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan. A key tenet of this programme is increased opportunities for training through a marked rise in the specified on-pitch hours per week. The accumulation of high training hours may be less of a relevant marker for success, and the impact of such a significant increase in training volume for young athletes who are experiencing a range of growth and maturational processes is currently unknown. This critical commentary includes an evidence-based discussion of the effectiveness of early sport specialisation and the potential injury risks associated with such programmes placing a specific focus on elite male youth soccer players. Available data indicate that modifications to the existing Elite Player Performance Plan framework could enhance players' development and reduce injury risk. Proposed alterations include reduced volume of soccer-specific training at key stages of growth and maturation and guidelines for the provision of a greater variety of physical activities that are integrated within other programme components.

  19. The scientific foundations and associated injury risks of early soccer specialisation

    PubMed Central

    Read, Paul J.; Oliver, Jon L.; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Lloyd, Rhodri S.

    2017-01-01

    Early specialisation is characterised by formal participation in a single sport at the exclusion of others. Limited data are available to support this approach in the development of soccer players who attain elite status later in life. Of growing concern is the associated increased risk of injury and suggestions that single sport specialisation is a risk factor independent of age, growth, biological maturation and training volumes. In the United Kingdom, elite soccer organisations have recently adopted an early sport specialisation approach following the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan. A key tenet of this programme is increased opportunities for training through a marked rise in the specified on-pitch hours per week. The accumulation of high training hours may be less of a relevant marker for success, and the impact of such a significant increase in training volume for young athletes who are experiencing a range of growth and maturational processes is currently unknown. This critical commentary includes an evidence-based discussion of the effectiveness of early sport specialisation and the potential injury risks associated with such programmes placing a specific focus on elite male youth soccer players. Available data indicate that modifications to the existing Elite Player Performance Plan framework could enhance players’ development and reduce injury risk. Proposed alterations include reduced volume of soccer-specific training at key stages of growth and maturation and guidelines for the provision of a greater variety of physical activities that are integrated within other programme components. PMID:27120711

  20. Lessons Learned about Best Practices for Communicating Earthquake Forecasting and Early Warning to Non-Scientific Publics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellnow, D. D.; Sellnow, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquake scientists are without doubt experts in understanding earthquake probabilities, magnitudes, and intensities, as well as the potential consequences of them to community infrastructures and inhabitants. One critical challenge these scientific experts face, however, rests with communicating what they know to the people they want to help. Helping scientists translate scientific information to non-scientists is something Drs. Tim and Deanna Sellnow have been committed to for decades. As such, they have compiled a host of data-driven best practices for communicating effectively to non-scientific publics about earthquake forecasting, probabilities, and warnings. In this session, they will summarize what they have learned as it may help earthquake scientists, emergency managers, and other key spokespersons share these important messages to disparate publics in ways that result in positive outcomes, the most important of which is saving lives.

  1. Early results from NASA's SnowEx campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Gatebe, Charles; Hall, Dorothy; Misakonis, Amy; Elder, Kelly; Marshall, Hans Peter; Hiemstra, Chris; Brucker, Ludovic; Crawford, Chris; Kang, Do Hyuk; De Marco, Eugenia; Beckley, Matt; Entin, Jared

    2017-04-01

    SnowEx is a multi-year airborne snow campaign with the primary goal of addressing the question: How much water is stored in Earth's terrestrial snow-covered regions? Year 1 (2016-17) focuses on the distribution of snow-water equivalent (SWE) and the snow energy balance in a forested environment. The year 1 primary site is Grand Mesa and the secondary site is the Senator Beck Basin, both in western, Colorado, USA. Ten core sensors on four core aircraft will make observations using a broad suite of airborne sensors including active and passive microwave, and active and passive optical/infrared sensing techniques to determine the sensitivity and accuracy of these potential satellite remote sensing techniques, along with models, to measure snow under a range of forest conditions. SnowEx also includes an extensive range of ground truth measurements—in-situ samples, snow pits, ground based remote sensing measurements, and sophisticated new techniques. A detailed description of the data collected will be given and some early results will be presented. Seasonal snow cover is the largest single component of the cryosphere in areal extent (covering an average of 46M km2 of Earth's surface (31 % of land areas) each year). This seasonal snow has major societal impacts in the areas of water resources, natural hazards (floods and droughts), water security, and weather and climate. The only practical way to estimate the quantity of snow on a consistent global basis is through satellites. Yet, current space-based techniques underestimate storage of snow water equivalent (SWE) by as much as 50%, and model-based estimates can differ greatly vs. estimates based on remotely-sensed observations. At peak coverage, as much as half of snow-covered terrestrial areas involve forested areas, so quantifying the challenge represented by forests is important to plan any future snow mission. Single-sensor approaches may work for certain snow types and certain conditions, but not for others

  2. Aquarius Radiometer Performance: Early On-Orbit Calibration and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Wentz, Frank; Ruf, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius/SAC-D observatory was launched into a 657-km altitude, 6-PM ascending node, sun-synchronous polar orbit from Vandenberg, California, USA on June 10, 2011. The Aquarius instrument was commissioned two months after launch and began operating in mission mode August 25. The Aquarius radiometer meets all engineering requirements, exhibited initial calibration biases within expected error bars, and continues to operate well. A review of the instrument design, discussion of early on-orbit performance and calibration assessment, and investigation of an on-going calibration drift are summarized in this abstract.

  3. My Sky Tonight: Nurturing a Scientific Frame of Mind in Early Childhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Manning, J.; Schultz, G. R.; Gurton, S.; Plummer, J.; Callanan, M.; Jipson, J.; Palmquist, S.

    2013-06-01

    The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP), in collaboration with a team of researchers, evaluators, and informal education institutions, has embarked on an NSF-funded project designed to build capacity in informal science education (ISE) practitioners by supporting development of their understanding of early childhood astronomy knowledge and the building of pedagogical skills and tools supportive of early childhood learning in informal settings. While preschool-aged children have long been considered too young and too cognitively immature to benefit from science learning, a growing body of recent research shows that children’s curiosity about science topics begins in the years prior to school, and that a child’s early years lay a powerful foundation for subsequent learning. Further, informal science educator and learning researchers argue that more effectively building on young children’s inherent curiosity about the natural world could lead to stronger science learning outcomes than waiting to introduce science in classroom settings. Consequently, using the domain of astronomy as a basis, the ASP and its partners are embarking on a project to: 1) advance the knowledge base concerning astronomy conceptions and curiosities of young children and how they can be built upon to position children for later learning, 2) develop interactive learning experiences to be used by ISE practitioners and families with small children to nurture children’s science curiosity and reasoning, 3) increase participation in astronomy by families in general and underserved families in particular, and 4) improve practice by engaging ISE practitioners in the research and development of effective practices, providing implementation tools and methods. The presenter will share project status as it gets underway.

  4. Operational Earthquake Forecasting and Earthquake Early Warning: The Challenges of Introducing Scientific Innovations for Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goltz, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Although variants of both earthquake early warning and short-term operational earthquake forecasting systems have been implemented or are now being implemented in some regions and nations, they have been slow to gain acceptance within the disciplines that produced them as well as among those for whom they were intended to assist. To accelerate the development and implementation of these technologies will require the cooperation and collaboration of multiple disciplines, some inside and others outside of academia. Seismologists, social scientists, emergency managers, elected officials and key opinion leaders from the media and public must be the participants in this process. Representatives of these groups come from both inside and outside of academia and represent very different organizational cultures, backgrounds and expectations for these systems, sometimes leading to serious disagreements and impediments to further development and implementation. This presentation will focus on examples of the emergence of earthquake early warning and operational earthquake forecasting systems in California, Japan and other regions and document the challenges confronted in the ongoing effort to improve seismic safety.

  5. Scientific reasoning in early and middle childhood: the development of domain-general evidence evaluation, experimentation, and hypothesis generation skills.

    PubMed

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation, and non-covariation evidence emerges, (b) when experimentation emerges, (c) when hypothesis generation skills emerge, and (d), whether these abilities develop synchronously during childhood. We administered three scientific reasoning tasks referring to the three components to 223 children of five age groups (from age 4.0 to 13.5 years). Our results show that the three cognitive components of domain-general scientific reasoning emerge asynchronously. The development of domain-general scientific reasoning begins with the ability to handle unambiguous data, progresses to the interpretation of ambiguous data, and leads to a flexible adaptation of hypotheses according to the sufficiency of evidence. When children understand the relation between the level of ambiguity of evidence and the level of confidence in hypotheses, the ability to differentiate conclusive from inconclusive experiments accompanies this development. Implications of these results for designing science education concepts for young children are briefly discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  6. From classicism and idealism to scientific naturalism: Titchener's Oxford years and their impact upon his early intellectual development.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Marcellos, Cintia Fernandes

    2017-05-01

    Edward Titchener (1867-1927) is one of the most prominent figures in the history of American psychology from the early 20th century. Accordingly, his psychological system-structuralism-has received due attention in the secondary literature. However, a closer look at traditional interpretations of the development of Titchener's ideas reveals a series of missing elements, such as his early studies before going to Leipzig. The central goal of this article is to present the main elements of Titchener's intellectual education in Oxford, thereby showing the influence of the British tradition of the 19th century upon his early intellectual development. On the basis of hitherto unexplored primary sources, we discuss Titchener's relationship with British idealism and scientific naturalism, two movements that shaped a significant part of British psychological thinking in the 19th century. We conclude that Titchener's Oxford years are much more relevant to understanding his intellectual development than the literature has so far assumed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Early surgical management for giant omphalocele: Results and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Roux, Nathalie; Jakubowicz, Déborah; Salomon, Laurent; Grangé, Gilles; Giuseppi, Agnès; Rousseau, Véronique; Khen-Dunlop, Naziha; Beaudoin, Sylvie

    2018-05-23

    Giant omphalocele often represents a major surgical challenge and is reported with high mortality and morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of neonates with giant omphalocele managed with early operative surgical treatment, and subsequently to identify possible factors that could alter the prognosis. We reviewed the medical records of 29 consecutive newborns with prenatally diagnosed giant omphalocele. In these cases one of two procedures had been performed: either staged closure after silo, or immediate closure with a synthetic patch. The cases were separated into 2 groups: Isolated giant omphalocele (IO group) and giant omphalocele associated with malformation (NIO group). Infants in the IO group had a lower size of the omphalocele (p<0,001), a shorter hospital stay (95 days [45-915] vs. 41.5 days [10-110] p= 0, 02), and a shorter median ventilation length (10 days [1-33] vs. 27, 5 [6-65] p = 0, 05). In the NIO group, 5 cases displayed a significantly more difficult course than the others. They were compared to the remaining cases for prenatal and anatomic features. Four factors associated with greater morbidity were identified: CONCLUSIONS: Isolated omphalocele, even containing the whole liver, has a very good prognosis with early surgical treatment. Without associated anomalies, 95% of giant omphaloceles can be discharged with a median of 41.5 days in hospital. However, associated anomalies (especially cardiopathies) may burden the prognosis and should be both carefully assessed during pregnancy and taken into account in parental information. Retrospective Study LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early Results from TROPOMI on the Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veefkind, J. P.; Kleipool, Q.; Ludewig, A.; Stein-Zweers, D.; Aben, I.; De Vries, J.; Loyola, D. G.; Nett, H.; Richter, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; Siddans, R.; Wagner, T.; Dehn, A.; Zehner, C.; Levelt, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Copernicus Sentinel 5 Precursor (S5P) is the first of the European Sentinels satellites dedicated to monitoring of the atmospheric composition. S5P is planned for launch in the 3rd quarter of 2017. The mission objectives of S5P are to monitor air quality, climate and the ozone layer, in the time period between 2017 and 2023. S5P will fly in a Sun-synchronized polar orbit with a 13:30 hr local equator crossing time. The single payload of the S5P mission is TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), which is developed by The Netherlands in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA). TROPOMI is a nadir viewing shortwave spectrometer that measures in the UV-visible wavelength range (267-499 nm), the near infrared (661-775 nm) and the shortwave infrared (2300-2389 nm). With a spatial resolution of better than 7x7 km2 at nadir and almost 20 million measurements per day, TROPOMI will be a major step forward compared to its predecessors OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography). The spatial resolution is combined with a wide swath to allow for daily global coverage. The TROPOMI/S5P geophysical (Level 2) operational data products include nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone (total column, tropospheric column & profile), methane, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosol and cloud parameters. The S5P will fly in a so-called loose formation with the U.S. Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite. The primary objective for this formation flying is to use the cloud clearing capabilities of the VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite). The temporal separation between TROPOMI and VIIRS will be less than 5 minutes. Once this formation has been established, it will enable synergistic data products and scientific research potentials.

  9. Designing Interventions Informed by Scientific Knowledge About Effects of Early Adversity: A Translational Neuroscience Agenda for Next Generation Addictions Research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of extensive scientific knowledge about the neurobiological systems and neural pathways underlying addictions, only limited progress has been made to reduce the population-level incidence of addictions by using prevention and treatment programs. In this area of research the translation of basic neuroscience of causal mechanisms to effective interventions has not been fully realized. In this article we describe how an understanding of the effects of early adverse experiences on brain and biological development may provide new opportunities to achieve impact at scale with respect to reduction of addictions. We propose four categories of new knowledge that translational neuroscience investigations of addictions should incorporate to be successful. We then describe a translational neuroscience-informed smoking cessation intervention based on this model. PMID:26985399

  10. An evaluation of selected NASA scientific and technical information products: Results of a pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron

    1989-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to evaluate selected NASA scientific and technical information (STI) products. The study, which utilized survey research in the form of a self-administered mail questionnaire, had a two-fold purpose -- to gather baseline data regarding the use and perceived usefulness of selected NASA STI products and to develop/validate questions that could be used in a future study concerned with the role of the U.S. government technical report in aeronautics. The sample frame consisted of 25,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in the U.S. with academic, government or industrial affiliation. Simple random sampling was used to select 2000 individuals to participate in the study. Three hundred fifty-three usable questionnaires (17 percent response rate) were received by the established cutoff date. The findings indicate that: (1) NASA STI is used and is generally perceived as being important; (2) the use rate for NASA-authored conference/meeting papers, journal articles, and technical reports is fairly uniform; (3) a considerable number of respondents are unfamiliar with STAR (Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports), IAA (International Aerospace Abstracts), SCAN (Selected Current Aerospace Notices), and the RECON on-line retrieval system; (4) a considerable number of respondents who are familiar with these media do not use them; and (5) the perceived quality of NASA-authored journal articles and technical reports is very good.

  11. The birth of the subspecialty of medical oncology and examples of its early scientific foundations.

    PubMed

    Band, Pierre R

    2010-08-01

    "Passion is not accepting defeat."--Emil Frei III. In the early 1950s, an experimental and clinical program characterized by unique cross-fertilization was developed. The clinical importance of experimental animal models in drug screening and in establishing key chemotherapy concepts and the role of the pioneers of medical oncology in the design of the various phases of drug trials, using childhood acute leukemia and breast cancer as models, are discussed. Over a short time and with only a few drugs, principles of chemotherapy were laid out, which led to cures in such diseases as childhood acute leukemia and Hodgkin's disease and to improved disease-free survival in breast cancer. It is these and other achievements that paved the way to medical oncology. At the instigation of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Board of Internal Medicine made inquiries about a subspecialty in oncology. ASCO and B. J. Kennedy, MD, played key roles in the events leading to the official recognition of medical oncology as a new subspecialty of internal medicine in 1972.

  12. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan - Result of recent two years -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, T.; Doi, K.; Kiyomoto, M.; Hoshiba, M.

    2009-12-01

    Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) to the general public in October 2007. It was followed by provision of EEW to a limited number of users who understand the technical limit of EEW and can utilize it for automatic control from August 2006. Earthquake Early Warning in Japan definitely means information of estimated amplitude and arrival time of a strong ground motion after fault rupture occurred. In other words, the EEW provided by JMA is defined as a forecast of a strong ground motion before the strong motion arrival. EEW of JMA is to enable advance countermeasures to disasters caused by strong ground motions with providing a warning message of anticipating strong ground motion before the S wave arrival. However, due to its very short available time period, there should need some measures and ideas to provide rapidly EEW and utilize it properly. - EEW is issued to general public when the maximum seismic intensity 5 lower (JMA scale) or greater is expected. - EEW message contains origin time, epicentral region name, and names of areas (unit is about 1/3 to 1/4 of one prefecture) where seismic intensity 4 or greater is expected. Expected arrival time is not included because it differs substantially even in one unit area. - EEW is to be broadcast through the broadcasting media(TV, radio and City Administrative Disaster Management Radio), and is delivered to cellular phones through cell broadcast system. For those who would like to know the more precise estimation and smaller earthquake information at their point of their properties, JMA allows designated private companies to provide forecast of strong ground motion, in which the estimation of a seismic intensity as well as arrival time of S-wave are contained, at arbitrary places under the JMA’s technical assurance. From October, 2007 to August, 2009, JMA issued 11 warnings to general public expecting seismic intensity “5 lower” or greater, including M=7.2 inland

  13. The WHAM Hα Magellanic Stream Survey: Progress and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Brianna; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kat; Krishnarao, Dhanesh

    2017-01-01

    We present early analysis of the Hα survey of the Magellanic Stream using the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM). The neutral component of the Stream extends some 200° across the sky (Nidever et al. 2010). However, the full extent of the ionized gas has not been mapped in detail. Previous studies (e.g., Putman et al. 2003; Weiner & Williams 1996) suggest that ionized gas is likely to be found all along the length of the Stream, and may extend beyond the current neutral boundaries as traced by 21 cm. Barger et al. (2013) used WHAM to map ionized gas throughout the Magellanic Bridge between the Magellanic Clouds. Although ionized emission tracks the neutral emission for the most part, it often spans a few degrees away from the H I at slightly offset velocities. Additionally, Fox et al. (2014) find evidence in an absorption line study that the tidal debris in the Magellanic System contains twice as much ionized gas as neutral material and may extend 30° away from 21-cm sensitivity boundaries. We are now compiling the first comprehensive picture of the ionized component of the Magellanic Stream using WHAM's unprecedented sensitivity to trace diffuse emission (~tens of mR), its velocity resolution (12 km/s) to separate the Stream from the Milky Way, and its multiwavelength capabilities (e.g., [S II] and [N II]) to examine the physical conditions of the gas. Much of the data along the primary axis of the Stream has been collected for the first phase of this extensive study, a complete kinematic Hα survey of the Stream. We present survey progress, challenges in extracting Stream emission, and first-look kinematic maps at select positions along the Stream.

  14. FRONTIER FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT PREDICTIONS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Zitrin, Adi, E-mail: DCoe@STScI.edu

    2015-02-20

    The Frontier Fields program is obtaining deep Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescope images of new ''blank'' fields and nearby fields gravitationally lensed by massive galaxy clusters. The Hubble images of the lensed fields are revealing nJy sources (AB mag > 31), the faintest galaxies yet observed. The full program will transform our understanding of galaxy evolution in the first 600 million years (z > 9). Previous programs have yielded a dozen or so z > 9 candidates, including perhaps fewer than expected in the Ultra Deep Field and more than expected in shallower Hubble images. In this paper, we present high-redshift (z >more » 6) number count predictions for the Frontier Fields and candidates in three of the first Hubble images. We show the full Frontier Fields program may yield up to ∼70 z > 9 candidates (∼6 per field). We base this estimate on an extrapolation of luminosity functions observed between 4 < z < 8 and gravitational lensing models submitted by the community. However, in the first two deep infrared Hubble images obtained to date, we find z ∼ 8 candidates but no strong candidates at z > 9. We defer quantitative analysis of the z > 9 deficit (including detection completeness estimates) to future work including additional data. At these redshifts, cosmic variance (field-to-field variation) is expected to be significant (greater than ±50%) and include clustering of early galaxies formed in overdensities. The full Frontier Fields program will significantly mitigate this uncertainty by observing six independent sightlines each with a lensing cluster and nearby blank field.« less

  15. Planck early results. XXV. Thermal dust in nearby molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Dobashi, K.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, A.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    Planck allows unbiased mapping of Galactic sub-millimetre and millimetre emission from the most diffuse regions to the densest parts of molecular clouds. We present an early analysis of the Taurus molecular complex, on line-of-sight-averaged data and without component separation. The emission spectrum measured by Planck and IRAS can be fitted pixel by pixel using a single modified blackbody. Some systematic residuals are detected at 353 GHz and 143 GHz, with amplitudes around -7% and +13%, respectively, indicating that the measured spectra are likely more complex than a simple modified blackbody. Significant positive residuals are also detected in the molecular regions and in the 217 GHz and 100 GHz bands, mainly caused by the contribution of the J = 2 → 1 and J = 1 → 0 12CO and 13CO emission lines. We derive maps of the dust temperature T, the dust spectral emissivity index β, and the dust optical depth at 250 μm τ250. The temperature map illustrates the cooling of the dust particles in thermal equilibrium with the incident radiation field, from 16 - 17 K in the diffuse regions to 13 - 14 K in the dense parts. The distribution of spectral indices is centred at 1.78, with a standard deviation of 0.08 and a systematic error of 0.07. We detect a significant T - β anti-correlation. The dust optical depth map reveals the spatial distribution of the column density of the molecular complex from the densest molecular regions to the faint diffuse regions. We use near-infrared extinction and Hi data at 21-cm to perform a quantitative analysis of the spatial variations of the measured dust optical depth at 250 μm per hydrogen atom τ250/NH. We report an increase of τ250/NH by a factor of about 2 between the atomic phase and the molecular phase, which has a strong impact on the equilibrium temperature of the dust particles. Corresponding author: A. Abergel, e-mail: alain.abergel@ias.u-psud.fr

  16. An Overview of the Performance and Scientific Results From the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Brinkman, B.; Canizares, C.; Garmine, G.; Murray, S.; VanSpeybroeck, L. P.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), the x-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched on 1999, July 23 by the Space Shuttle Columbia. After satellite systems activation, the first x-rays focused by the telescope were observed on 1999, August 12. Beginning with the initial observation it was clear that the telescope had survived the launch environment and was operating as expected. Despite an initial surprise due to the discovery that the telescope was far more efficient for concentrating CCD-damaging low-energy protons than had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Together with other space observatories, most notably XMM-Newton, it is clear that we have entered a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  17. Estimating increases in outpatient dialysis costs resulting from scientific and technological advancement.

    PubMed

    Ozminkowski, R J; Hassol, A; Firkusny, I; Noether, M; Miles, M A; Newmann, J; Sharda, C; Guterman, S; Schmitz, R

    1995-04-01

    The Medicare program's base payment rate for outpatient dialysis services has never been adjusted for the effects of inflation, productivity changes, or scientific and technological advancement on the costs of treating patients with end-stage renal disease. In recognition of this, Congress asked the Prospective Payment Assessment Commission to annually recommend an adjustment to Medicare's base payment rate to dialysis facilities. One component of this adjustment addresses the cost-increasing effects of technological change--the scientific and technological advances (S&TA) component. The S&TA component is intended to encourage dialysis facilities to adopt technologies that, when applied appropriately, enhance the quality of patient care, even though they may also increase costs. We found the appropriate increase to the composite payment rate for Medicare outpatient dialysis services in fiscal year 1995 to vary from 0.18% to 2.18%. These estimates depend on whether one accounts for the lack of previous adjustments to the composite rate. Mathematically, the S&TA adjustment also depends on whether one considers the likelihood of missing some dialysis sessions because of illness or hospitalization. The S&TA estimates also allow for differences in the incremental costs of technological change that are based on the varying advice of experts in the dialysis industry. The major contributors to the cost of technological change in dialysis services are the use of twin-bag disconnect peritoneal dialysis systems, automated peritoneal dialysis cyclers, and the new generation of hemodialysis machines currently on the market. Factors beyond the control of dialysis facility personnel that influence the cost of patient care should be considered when payment rates are set, and those rates should be updated as market conditions change. The S&TA adjustment is one example of how the composite rate payment system for outpatient dialysis services can be modified to provide appropriate

  18. Mathematical Rigor vs. Conceptual Change: Some Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, W. R.

    2003-05-01

    Results from two different pedagogical approaches to teaching introductory astronomy at the college level will be presented. The first of these approaches is a descriptive, conceptually based approach that emphasizes conceptual change. This descriptive class is typically an elective for non-science majors. The other approach is a mathematically rigorous treatment that emphasizes problem solving and is designed to prepare students for further study in astronomy. The mathematically rigorous class is typically taken by science majors. It also fulfills an elective science requirement for these science majors. The Astronomy Diagnostic Test version 2 (ADT 2.0) was used as an assessment instrument since the validity and reliability have been investigated by previous researchers. The ADT 2.0 was administered as both a pre-test and post-test to both groups. Initial results show no significant difference between the two groups in the post-test. However, there is a slightly greater improvement for the descriptive class between the pre and post testing compared to the mathematically rigorous course. There was great care to account for variables. These variables included: selection of text, class format as well as instructor differences. Results indicate that the mathematically rigorous model, doesn't improve conceptual understanding any better than the conceptual change model. Additional results indicate that there is a similar gender bias in favor of males that has been measured by previous investigators. This research has been funded by the College of Science and Mathematics at James Madison University.

  19. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  20. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.; Gravity Probe B Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  1. Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program - Science without Borders - Preliminary Results and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Nobre, Carlos A

    2017-05-01

    The Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program - Science without Borders (SwB) - saw the concession of over 101 thousand scholarships for Brazilian STEM students and education professionals to attend universities worldwide. As the first phase of this program ends, it is time to take a first look at its impacts, mainly on the undergraduate student body (79% of total scholarships implemented). Benefits included a 6-month language course (optional), a one year undergraduate course and optional 2 month internship in a university, government laboratory or technology company. Positive impacts have been seen on entrance into post-graduate programs (>20% of SwB students compared to <5% of the overall student body of similar fields), as well as high representation of lower income families (>50% from families with less than 6 minimum wages per month). The impact of the program will need to be evaluated over the next years, but innovation on the part of the students is already apparent. Any new SwB program needs to take into account the lessons learned from this first experience and therefore recommendations are presented.

  2. Lidar In-space Technology Experiment: Overview and early results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The September 1994 Shuttle flight of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) brought to fruition 10 years of effort at NASA's Langley Research Center where it was built. Being the first flight of a spaceborne lidar to measure atmospheric constituents and parameters and surface properties, it culminates the efforts of many worldwide over the last 20 years to usher in this new remote sensing technique from space. This paper will describe the LITE instrument, the in-orbit performance, and initial results. In addition, the global correlative measurements program will be outlined which involved 60 groups in 20 countries who made various simultaneous ground-based or aircraft measurements as LITE flew overhead.

  3. Early results from the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Shafer, R. A.; Eplee, R. E.; Isaacman, R. B.; Fixsen, D. J.; Read, S. M.; Meyer, S. S.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mapped 98 percent of the sky, 60 percent of it twice, before the liquid helium coolant was exhausted. The FIRAS covers the frequency region from 1 to 100/cm with a 7 deg angular resolution. The spectral resolution is 0.2/cm for frequencies less than 20/cm and 0.8/cm for higher frequencies. Preliminary results include: a limit on the deviations from a Planck curve of 1 percent of the peak brightness from 1 to 20/cm, a temperature of 2.735 +/- 0.06 K, a limit on the Comptonization parameter y of 0.001, on the chemical potential parameter mu of 0.01, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy spectrum is that of a Doppler shifted blackbody.

  4. The Whole Heliosphere Interval: Campaign Summaries and Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kozyra, Janet U.

    2008-01-01

    The Whole Heliosphere Interval (WHI) is an internationally coordinated observing and modeling effort to characterize the 3-dimensional interconnected solar-heliospheric-planetary system - a.k.a. the "heliophysical" system. The heart of the WHI campaign is the study of the interconnected 3-D heliophysical domain, from the interior of the Sun, to the Earth, outer planets, and into interstellar space. WHI observing campaigns began with the 3-0 solar structure from solar Carrington Rotation 2068, which ran from March 20 - April 16, 2008. Observations and models of the outer heliosphere and planetary impacts extended beyond those dates as necessary; for example, the solar wind transit time to outer planets can take months. WHI occurs during solar minimum, which optimizes our ability to characterize the 3-D heliosphere and trace the structure to the outer limits of the heliosphere. A summary of some of the key results from the WHI first workshop in August 2008 will be given.

  5. LSNR Airborne LIDAR Mapping System Design and Early Results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, K.; Carter, W. E.; Slatton, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    Low signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR) detection techniques allow for implementation of airborne light detection and range (LIDAR) instrumentation aboard platforms with prohibitive power, size, and weight restrictions. The University of Florida has developed the Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS), a prototype LSNR LIDAR system capable of single photon laser ranging. CATS is designed to operate in a fixed-wing aircraft flying 600 m above ground level, producing 532 nm, 480 ps, 3 μJ output pulses at 8 kHz. To achieve continuous coverage of the terrain with 20 cm spatial resolution in a single pass, a 10x10 array of laser beamlets is scanned. A Risley prism scanner (two rotating V-coated optical wedges) allows the array of laser beamlets to be deflected in a variety of patterns, including conical, spiral, and lines at selected angles to the direction of flight. Backscattered laser photons are imaged onto a 100 channel (10x10 segmented-anode) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a micro-channel plate (MCP) amplifier. Each channel of the PMT is connected to a multi-stop 2 GHz event timer. Here we report on tests in which ranges for known targets were accumulated for repeated laser shots and statistical analyses were applied to evaluate range accuracy, minimum separation distance, bathymetric mapping depth, and atmospheric scattering. Ground-based field test results have yielded 10 cm range accuracy and sub-meter feature identification at variable scan settings. These experiments also show that a secondary surface can be detected at a distance of 15 cm from the first. Range errors in secondary surface identification for six separate trials were within 7.5 cm, or within the timing resolution limit of the system. Operating at multi-photon sensitivity may have value for situations in which high ambient noise precludes single-photon sensitivity. Low reflectivity targets submerged in highly turbid waters can cause detection issues. CATS offers the capability to adjust the

  6. Early Science Results from SOFIA, the Worlds Largest Airborne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buizer, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the largest flying observatory ever built, consisting of a 2.7-meter diameter telescope embedded in a modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft. SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und-Raumfahrt. By flying at altitudes up to 45000 feet, the observatory gets above 99.9% of the infrared-absorbing water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere. This opens up an almost uninterrupted wavelength range from 0.3-1600 microns that is in large part obscured from ground based observatories. Since its 'Initial Science Flight' in December 2010, SOFIA has flown several dozen science flights, and has observed a wide array of objects from Solar System bodies, to stellar nurseries, to distant galaxies. This talk will review some of the exciting new science results from these first flights which were made by three instruments: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the optical occultation photometer HIPO.

  7. HUNTING THE COOLEST DWARFS: METHODS AND EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.; Song, Inseok; Melis, Carl

    2011-12-20

    We present the methods and first results of a survey of nearby high proper motion main-sequence stars to probe for cool companions with the Gemini camera at Lick Observatory. This survey uses a sample of old (age > 2 Gyr) stars as targets to probe for companions down to temperatures of 500 K. Multi-epoch observations allow us to discriminate comoving companions from background objects. So far, our survey has successfully rediscovered the wide T8.5 companion to GJ 1263 and has discovered a companion to the nearby M0V star GJ 660.1. The companion to GJ 660.1 (GJ 660.1B) is {approx}4 magmore » fainter than its host star in the J-band and is located at a projected separation of {approx}120 AU. Known trigonometric parallax and Two Micron All Sky Survey magnitudes for the GJ 660.1 system indicate a spectral type for the companion of M9 {+-} 2.« less

  8. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  9. Early Results from Swift AGN and Cluster Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xinyu; Griffin, Rhiannon; Nugent, Jenna; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2016-04-01

    The Swift AGN and Cluster Survey (SACS) uses 125 deg^2 of Swift X-ray Telescope serendipitous fields with variable depths surrounding gamma-ray bursts to provide a medium depth (4 × 10^-15 erg cm^-2 s^-1) and area survey filling the gap between deep, narrow Chandra/XMM-Newton surveys and wide, shallow ROSAT surveys. Here, we present the first two papers in a series of publications for SACS. In the first paper, we introduce our method and catalog of 22,563 point sources and 442 extended sources. SACS provides excellent constraints on the AGN and cluster number counts at the bright end with negligible uncertainties due to cosmic variance, and these constraints are consistent with previous measurements. The depth and areal coverage of SACS is well suited for galaxy cluster surveys outside the local universe, reaching z > 1 for massive clusters. In the second paper, we use SDSS DR8 data to study the 203 extended SACS sources that are located within the SDSS footprint. We search for galaxy over-densities in 3-D space using SDSS galaxies and their photometric redshifts near the Swift galaxy cluster candidates. We find 103 Swift clusters with a > 3σ over-density. The remaining targets are potentially located at higher redshifts and require deeper optical follow-up observations for confirmations as galaxy clusters. We present a series of cluster properties including the redshift, BCG magnitude, BCG-to-X-ray center offset, optical richness, X-ray luminosity and red sequences. We compare the observed redshift distribution of the sample with a theoretical model, and find that our sample is complete for z ≤ 0.3 and 80% complete for z ≤ 0.4, consistent with the survey depth of SDSS. These analysis results suggest that our Swift cluster selection algorithm presented in our first paper has yielded a statistically well-defined cluster sample for further studying cluster evolution and cosmology. In the end, we will discuss our ongoing optical identification of z>0.5 cluster

  10. Early Results from the First Year of Observations by the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sara M.; ABS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) instrument, which began observation in February of 2012, is a crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5100 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile. The primary scientific goal of ABS is to measure the B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from multipole moments of about l=50 to l=500, a range that includes the primordial B-mode peak. Unlike most current polarization experiments, ABS features a cryogenic telescope and a warm half-wave plate used to modulate the polarization of the incoming light. The ABS focal plane array consists of 240 pixels designed for observation at 150 GHz by the TRUCE collaboration. Each pixel has its own individual, single-moded feedhorn and contains two transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers sensitive to orthogonal polarizations. The detectors are read out using time domain multiplexing so that the thermal loading of the readout electronics does not heat the focal plane. I will present early results from the first year of ABS data.

  11. Adaptive multi-sensor biomimetics for unsupervised submarine hunt (AMBUSH): Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Underwater surveillance is inherently difficult because acoustic wave propagation and transmission are limited and unpredictable when targets and sensors move around in the communication-opaque undersea environment. Today's Navy underwater sensors enable the collection of a massive amount of data, often analyzed offtine. The Navy of tomorrow will dominate by making sense of that data in real-time. DRDC's AMBUSH project proposes a new undersea-surveillance network paradigm that will enable such a real-time operation. Nature abounds with examples of collaborative tasks taking place despite limited communication and computational capabilities. This publication describes a year's worth of research efforts finding inspiration in Nature's collaborative tasks such as wolves hunting in packs. This project proposes the utilization of a heterogeneous network combining both static and mobile network nodes. The military objective is to enable an unsupervised surveillance capability while maximizing target localization performance and endurance. The scientific objective is to develop the necessary technology to acoustically and passively localize a noise-source of interest in shallow waters. The project fulfills these objectives via distributed computing and adaptation to changing undersea conditions. Specific research interests discussed here relate to approaches for performing: (a) network self-discovery, (b) network connectivity self-assessment, (c) opportunistic network routing, (d) distributed data-aggregation, and (e) simulation of underwater acoustic propagation. We present early results then followed by a discussion about future work.

  12. CARMENES: Commissioning and first scientific results at the telescope. A precursor for HIRES@E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, P. J.; The Carmenes Consortium

    2017-03-01

    CARMENES is the next generation instrument built for the CAHA 3.5m telescope by a large international consortium of 11 institutes in Spain and Germany. It consists of two separate highly-stabilized, high-resolution echelle spectrographs covering both the visible, from 550 to 950 nm, and the near-IR, from 950 to 1700 nm, wavelength ranges with spectral resolution of R=82,000. They are fed by fibres from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope and were designed and built to achieve high-accuracy radial velocities of nearby M-dwarf stars. This contribution overviews the main and unique design characteristics of CARMENES. The instrument MAIV phase was achieved in the last two years (2014-2015) and started commissioning in November 2015. The commissioning phases, both technical and scientific, took six full weeks in the last two months of 2015. They have shown that the instrument is well within requirements and performing to be able to achieve its objective, not proven before in the near-infrared, of providing radial velocities precisions of 5 ms^{-1}, with a goal of 1 ms^{-1}. The Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO) program has started in January 1st, 2016. CARMENES is, therefore, currently conducting a radial-velocity survey of 300 M dwarfs with a precision sufficient for detecting Earth-like planets in their habitable zones. It is also being offered in open time by the CAHA. Its modular design is the idea in which HIRES, the next very high-resolution, high-fidelity spectrograph with wide wavelength coverage at the E-ELT, is based on. This E-ELT instrument might consist of four different high-resolution spectrographs covering the blue, the visible, the near-infrared (Y, J and H bands) and the K band. A proposal to the ESO call for Phase-A studies for a HIRES at the E-ELT was submitted by the HIRES consortium last December. This proposal was accepted by ESO and the Phase-A kick-off meeting between ESO and the consortium took place in March 22, 2016.

  13. OGO program summary, supplement 1. [updated bibliography for all OGO missions and scientific results from OGO 5 and 6 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Scientific results from OGO-5 and OGO-6 experiments are summarized and approximately 200 citations are included to update the 1975 OGO bibliography. Personal author, subject, and corporate source indexes are included. The supplement follows the same format as that of the OGO Program Summary; it does not repeat the finalized information in the original publication, which should be consulted for indexes of experiments, experimenters, institutions, and the glossary of abbreviations and acronyms.

  14. [Scientific research results commercialization as an opportunity for the physiotherapy development].

    PubMed

    Pietras, Piotr; Łyp, Marek; Nowicka, Katarzyna; Soliwoda, Marcin; Kruszyński, Mateusz; Malczewski, Daniel

    Physiotherapy is under the very intensive development. The research carried out around the world result in implementing new forms of therapy. For several years higher education institutions are trying to support scientists in an attempt to commercialize the results of research, although the process is complex. The practice in the world shows that the cooperation of science and business is possible and results in the implementation of modern solutions as real applications. It is important to scientists and people planning a career in science knew the rules and limitations of the above process.

  15. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  16. Science Camps in Europe--Collaboration with Companies and School, Implications and Results on Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindner, M.; Kubat, C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper informs on the characteristics of a Comenius Network of seven organizations, who are collaborating in exchanging best practice on science camps. This exchange includes evaluation results on more science camps of European organizations, which will deliver information on organization, collaboration with companies, pedagogical aspects, as…

  17. "Amazing Space": Creating Educational Resources from Current Scientific Research Results from the Hubble Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, C. A.; Eisenhamer, B.; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Teays, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the Amazing Space program which is designed to enhance student mathematics, science, and technology skills using recent data and results from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Hubble Space Telescope mission. Explains the process of designing multi-media resources in a five-week summer workshop that partners…

  18. 76 FR 70176 - Request For Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting from Federally Funded Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Request For Information: Public Access to Digital Data... stewardship and encouraging broad public access to unclassified digital data that result from federally funded... Science and Technology Council's Interagency Working Group on Digital Data. Release Date: November 3, 2011...

  19. Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel. Executive Summary. A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Shanahan, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress reveals that 37 percent of U.S. fourth graders fail to achieve basic levels of reading achievement. In 1997, the U.S. Congress asked that a review of research be conducted to determine what could be done to improve reading and writing achievement. The resulting "Report of the National Reading…

  20. Lunar and Artificial Satellite Laser Ranging: The Use of Queue Scheduling and Worth Functions to Maximize Scientific Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelus, P. J.; Ricklefs, R. L.; Wiant, J. R.; Ries, J. G.

    2003-08-01

    The lunar and artificial satellite laser ranging network, part of the International Laser Ranging Service, monitors a large number of targets. Many scientific disciplines are investigated using these data. These include the realization and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame; the 3-dimensional deformation of the solid Earth; Earth orientation; variations in the topography and volume of the liquid Earth, including ocean circulation, mean sea level, ice sheet thickness, and wave heights; tidally generated variations in atmospheric mass distribution; calibration of microwave tracking techniques; picosecond global time transfer; determination of the dynamic equinox, the obliquity of the ecliptic, the precession constant and theories of nutation; gravitational and general relativistic studies, including Einstein's Equivalence Principle, the Robertson-Walker b parameter and time rate of change of the gravitational constant; lunar physics, including the dissipation of rotational energy, shape of the core-mantle boundary (Love Number k2), and free librations and their stimulating mechanisms; Solar System ties to the International Celestial Reference Frame. With shrinking resources, we must not only assess specific data requirements for each target, but also maximize the efficiency of the observing network. Several factors must be considered. First, not only does a result depend critically upon the quality and quantity of the data, it also depends upon the data distribution. Second, as technology improves, the cost of obtaining data can increase. Both require that scientific endeavor pay close attention to the manner in which the data is gathered. We examine the evolution of the laser network, using data analysis requirements and efficient network scheduling to maximize the scientific return. This requires an understanding of the observing equipment, as well as the scientific principles being studied. Queue scheduling and worth functions become

  1. Analytical 3D views and virtual globes — scientific results in a familiar spatial context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiede, Dirk; Lang, Stefan

    In this paper we introduce analytical three-dimensional (3D) views as a means for effective and comprehensible information delivery, using virtual globes and the third dimension as an additional information carrier. Four case studies are presented, in which information extraction results from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) satellite images were conditioned and aggregated or disaggregated to regular spatial units. The case studies were embedded in the context of: (1) urban life quality assessment (Salzburg/Austria); (2) post-disaster assessment (Harare/Zimbabwe); (3) emergency response (Lukole/Tanzania); and (4) contingency planning (faked crisis scenario/Germany). The results are made available in different virtual globe environments, using the implemented contextual data (such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and auxiliary geodata) as valuable additional context information. Both day-to-day users and high-level decision makers are addressees of this tailored information product. The degree of abstraction required for understanding a complex analytical content is balanced with the ease and appeal by which the context is conveyed.

  2. Early Pregnancy Diabetes Screening and Diagnosis: Prevalence, Rates of Abnormal Test Results, and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.

  3. Scientific Growth and Identity Development during a Postbaccalaureate Program: Results from a Multisite Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E.; Gazley, J. Lynn; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report builds upon our previous study, which described five patterns of why college graduates join National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded diversity-focused Postbaccalaureate Research Education Programs (PREP). A 2015 report from the NIH showed that a high fraction of PREP participants matriculate into PhD and MD/PhD programs. This current study reveals how participants change during PREP, the program elements that facilitate change, and how identity as a graduate student and future scientist develops. Data come from in-depth interviews done at the beginning and end of PREP with 48 individuals from seven PREP programs. Results reveal three domains of development: academics, research, and presentation of oneself; each domain contains a developmental continuum. Key attributes of PREP enabling development include opportunities to attend graduate-level classes and seminars; time to practice reading literature; extended lab time with one’s own project; high and explicit expectations from mentors; and multiple opportunities to talk about science and improve communication skills. PREP enabled participants to develop their identities as graduate students and to anticipate being seen by others as highly prepared for PhD training. After PREP, 85% (n = 41) started the PhD or MD/PhD, making PREP an intervention approach with great potential to broaden participation in biomedical PhD programs. PMID:27496357

  4. The TSS-1R Electrodynamic Tether Experiment: Scientific and Technological Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Nobie H.; Raitt, John

    1998-01-01

    The bi-national, US-Italian, Tethered Satellite System (TSS) program was designed to provide a unique opportunity to explore certain space plasma- electrodynamic processes and the orbital mechanics of a gravity-gradient stabilized system of two satellites linked by a long conducting tether. The second flight, TSS-LR, was launched February 22, 1996 on STS-75 and satellite deployment began at MET 3/00:27. A unique data set was obtained over the next five hours, as the tether was deployed to a length of 19695 meters, which has allowed significant science to be accomplished. This presentation will focus on electrodynamic processes generated by the tether--in particular, the collection of electrical current from the ionospheric plasma. Of particular significance is an apparent transition of the physics of current collection when the potential of the collecting body becomes greater than the ram energy of the ionospheric atomic oxygen ions. Previous theoretical models of current collection were electrostatic--assuming that the orbital motion of the system, which is highly subsonic with respect to electron thermal motion, was un- important. This may still be acceptable for the case of relatively slow-moving sounding rockets. However, the TSS-LR results show that motion relative to the plasma must be accounted for in orbiting systems.

  5. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B <= 1200G. The main focus is to understand the neutral particle dynamics and ionization mechanism with helicon waves to establish a high-density plasma (10 ∧ 20/m ∧ 3) at substantial electron (Te ~5-15eV) and ion (Ti ~1-3eV) temperature. To achieve this, installation of higher RF Power <= 15kW is planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  6. Scientific Growth and Identity Development during a Postbaccalaureate Program: Results from a Multisite Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Remich, Robin; Naffziger-Hirsch, Michelle E; Gazley, J Lynn; McGee, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This report builds upon our previous study, which described five patterns of why college graduates join National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded diversity-focused Postbaccalaureate Research Education Programs (PREP). A 2015 report from the NIH showed that a high fraction of PREP participants matriculate into PhD and MD/PhD programs. This current study reveals how participants change during PREP, the program elements that facilitate change, and how identity as a graduate student and future scientist develops. Data come from in-depth interviews done at the beginning and end of PREP with 48 individuals from seven PREP programs. Results reveal three domains of development: academics, research, and presentation of oneself; each domain contains a developmental continuum. Key attributes of PREP enabling development include opportunities to attend graduate-level classes and seminars; time to practice reading literature; extended lab time with one's own project; high and explicit expectations from mentors; and multiple opportunities to talk about science and improve communication skills. PREP enabled participants to develop their identities as graduate students and to anticipate being seen by others as highly prepared for PhD training. After PREP, 85% (n = 41) started the PhD or MD/PhD, making PREP an intervention approach with great potential to broaden participation in biomedical PhD programs. © 2016 R. Remich et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Results of the 4th scientific workshop of the ECCO (Group II): markers of intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Florian; de Bruyn, Jessica R; Pham, Bao Tung; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Annese, Vito; Higgins, Peter D R; Magro, Fernando; Dotan, Iris

    2014-10-01

    The fourth scientific workshop of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) focused on intestinal fibrosis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective was to better understand basic mechanisms and markers of intestinal fibrosis as well as to suggest new therapeutic targets to prevent or treat fibrosis. The results of this workshop are presented in three separate manuscripts. This section describes markers of fibrosis in IBD, identifies unanswered questions in the field and provides a framework for future studies addressing the unmet needs in the field of intestinal fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring Of The Middle Atmosphere: Grille Spectrometer Experiment Results On Board SPACELAB 1 And Scientific Program Of ATLAS 1 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papineau, N.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Ackerman, Marcel E.

    1989-10-01

    Measurements of atmospheric trace gases have been performed during the first Spacelab mission on board the Space Shuttle. The principle of the observations is infrared absorption spectroscopy using the solar occultation technique. Infrared absorption spectra of NO, CO, CO2, NO2, N20, CH4 and H2O have been recorded using the Grille spectrometer developped by ONERA and IASB. From the observed spectra, vertical profiles for these molecules have been derived. The present paper summarizes the main results and compares them with computed vertical profiles from a zonally averaged model of the middle atmosphere. The scientific objectives of the second mission, Atlas 1, planned for 1990 are also presented.

  9. Geology of the Terra Cimmeria-Utopia Planitia Highland Lowland Transitional Zone: Final Technical Approach and Scientific Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Tanaka, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    The southern Utopia highland-lowland transitional zone extends from northern Terra Cimmeria to southern Utopia Planitia and contains broad, bench-like platforms with depressions, pitted cones, tholi, and lobate flows. The locally occurring geologic units and landforms contrast other transitional regions and record a spatially partitioned geologic history. We systematically delineated and described the geologic units and landforms of the southern Utopia-Cimmeria highland-lowland transitional zone for the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale geologic map (MTMs 10237, 15237, 20237, 10242, 15242, 20242, 10247, 15247, and 20247). Herein, we present technical and scientific results of this mapping project.

  10. Improved Oceanographic Measurements from SAR Altimetry: Results and Scientific Roadmap from ESA CryoSat Plus for Oceans Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. D.; Andersen, O.; Stenseng, L.; Boy, F.; Cancet, M.; Cipollini, P.; Gommenginger, C.; Dinardo, S.; Egido, A.; Fernandes, M. J.; Garcia, P. N.; Moreau, T.; Naeije, M.; Scharroo, R.; Lucas, B.; Benveniste, J.

    2016-08-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the CryoSat mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the CryoSat SIRAL altimeter also presents significant potential benefits for ocean applications including improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution.The "Cryosat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project, supported by the ESA Support to Science Element (STSE) Programme and by CNES, was dedicated to the exploitation of Cryosat-2 data over the open and coastal ocean. The general objectives of the CP4O project were: To build a sound scientific basis for new oceanographic applications of Cryosat-2 data; to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter, and to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised.This task was addressed within four specific themes: Open Ocean Altimetry; High Resolution Coastal Zone Altimetry; High Resolution Polar Ocean Altimetry; High Resolution Sea-Floor Bathymetry, with further work in developing improved geophysical corrections. The Cryosat Plus 4 Oceans (CP4O) consortium brought together a uniquely strong team of key European experts to develop and validate new algorithms and products to enable users to fully exploit the novel capabilities of the Cryosat-2 mission for observations over ocean. The consortium was led by SatOC (UK), and included CLS (France), Delft University of Technology (The Netherlands), DTU Space (Denmark), isardSat (Spain), National Oceanography Centre (UK), Noveltis (France), Starlab (Spain) and the University of Porto (Portugal).This paper presents an overview of the major results and outlines a proposed roadmap for the further development and exploitation of these results in operational and scientific applications.

  11. A-4 scientific results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matteson, J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of galactic sources, extragalactic sources and gamma bursts with the A-4 instrument at energy 1 energies of between 0.1 to 10 MeV are discussed. Aximuthal scans are presented. The Crab Nebula and its spectrum and the spectrum of Cygnus Z-1 are described.

  12. Anatomy of scientific evolution.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making.

  13. Anatomy of Scientific Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jinhyuk; Kim, Pan-Jun; Jeong, Hawoong

    2015-01-01

    The quest for historically impactful science and technology provides invaluable insight into the innovation dynamics of human society, yet many studies are limited to qualitative and small-scale approaches. Here, we investigate scientific evolution through systematic analysis of a massive corpus of digitized English texts between 1800 and 2008. Our analysis reveals great predictability for long-prevailing scientific concepts based on the levels of their prior usage. Interestingly, once a threshold of early adoption rates is passed even slightly, scientific concepts can exhibit sudden leaps in their eventual lifetimes. We developed a mechanistic model to account for such results, indicating that slowly-but-commonly adopted science and technology surprisingly tend to have higher innate strength than fast-and-commonly adopted ones. The model prediction for disciplines other than science was also well verified. Our approach sheds light on unbiased and quantitative analysis of scientific evolution in society, and may provide a useful basis for policy-making. PMID:25671617

  14. On the use of Empirical Data to Downscale Non-scientific Scepticism About Results From Complex Physical Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, S.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2008-12-01

    The scepticism of non-scientific local stakeholders about results from complex physical based models is a major problem concerning the development and implementation of local climate change adaptation measures. This scepticism originates from the high complexity of such models. Local stakeholders perceive complex models as black-box models, as it is impossible to gasp all underlying assumptions and mathematically formulated processes at a glance. The use of physical based models is, however, indispensible to study complex underlying processes and to predict future environmental changes. The increase of climate change adaptation efforts following the release of the latest IPCC report indicates that the communication of facts about what has already changed is an appropriate tool to trigger climate change adaptation. Therefore we suggest increasing the practice of empirical data analysis in addition to modelling efforts. The analysis of time series can generate results that are easier to comprehend for non-scientific stakeholders. Temporal trends and seasonal patterns of selected hydrological parameters (precipitation, evapotranspiration, groundwater levels and river discharge) can be identified and the dependence of trends and seasonal patters to land use, topography and soil type can be highlighted. A discussion about lag times between the hydrological parameters can increase the awareness of local stakeholders for delayed environment responses.

  15. PAL-XFEL soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics: First commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Han; Kim, Minseok; Min, Changi-Ki; Eom, Intae; Nam, Inhyuk; Lee, Heung-Soo; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seonghan; Hwang, Sun-min; Park, Gi-Soo; Park, Jaehun; Koo, Tae-Yeong; Kwon, Soonnam

    2018-05-01

    We report an overview of soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics at the free electron laser (FEL) of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, with selected first-commissioning results. The FEL exhibited a pulse energy of 200 μJ/pulse, a pulse width of <50 fs full width at half maximum, and an energy bandwidth of 0.44% at a photon energy of 850 eV. Monochromator resolving power of 10 500 was achieved. The estimated total time resolution between optical laser and X-ray pulses was <270 fs. A resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer was set up; its commissioning results are also reported.

  16. Improved Oceanographic Measurements from SAR Altimetry: Results and Scientific Roadmap from the ESA Cryosat Plus for Oceans Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Andersen, O. B.; Boy, F.; Cancet, M.; Dinardo, S.; Gommenginger, C.; Egido, A.; Fernandes, J.; Garcia, P. N.; Lucas, B.; Moreau, T.; Naeije, M.; Scharroo, R.; Stenseng, L.

    2014-12-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. It thus provides the first opportunity to test and evaluate, using real data, the significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications. The objective of the CryoSat Plus for Oceans (CP4O) project is to develop and evaluate new ocean products from CryoSat data and so maximize the scientific return of CryoSat over oceans. The main focus of CP4O has been on the additional measurement capabilities that are offered by the SAR mode of the SIRAL altimeter, with further work in developing improved geophysical corrections. CP4O has developed SAR based ocean products for application in four themes: Open Oceans, Coastal Oceans, Polar Oceans and Sea Floor Topography. The team has developed a number of new processing schemes and compared and evaluated the resultant data products. This work has clearly demonstrated the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry and has also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. The project finishes in the summer of 2014, so this paper presents an overview of the major results and outlines a proposed roadmap for the further development and exploitation of these results in operational and scientific applications. The results are of course also highly relevant to support the planning for future missions, including Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS. The "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) project has been supported by ESA (Support To Science Element) and CNES.

  17. Developing a Framework of Scientific Enquiry in Early Childhood: An Action Research Project to Support Staff Development and Improve Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNerney, Karen; Hall, Nichola

    2017-01-01

    Research in science in early childhood is an area that has not received much attention (Fleer, M., & Robbins, J. (2003). "Hit and run research" with "hit and miss" results in early childhood science education. "Research in Science Education," 33, 405-431.) and it has been reported that early children teachers lack…

  18. Deficiencies in the publication and reporting of the results of systematic reviews presented at scientific medical conferences.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Sally; Boutron, Isabelle; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the publication and quality of reporting of abstracts of systematic reviews presented at scientific medical conferences. We included all abstracts of systematic reviews published in the proceedings of nine leading international conferences in 2010. For each conference abstract, we searched PubMed (January 1, 2010, to June 2013) to identify their corresponding full publication. We assessed the extent to which conference abstracts and their corresponding journal abstract reported items included in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis for Abstracts checklist and recorded any important discrepancies between sources. We identified 197 abstracts of systematic reviews, representing <1% of the total number of conference abstracts presented. Of these 53% were published in full, the median time to publication was 14 months (interquartile range, 6.6-20.1 months). Although most conference and journal abstracts reported details of included studies (conference n = 83 of 103; 81% vs. journal n = 81 of 103; 79%), size and direction of effect (76% vs. 75%), and conclusions (79% vs. 81%), many failed to report the date of search (27% vs. 25%), assessment of risk of bias (18% vs. 12%), and the result for the main efficacy outcome(s) including the number of studies (37% vs. 31%) and participants (30% vs. 20%), harms(s) (17% vs. 17%), strengths (17% vs. 13%) and limitations (36% vs. 30%) of the evidence, or funding source (1% vs. 0%). There were discrepancies between journal and corresponding conference abstracts including deletion of studies (13%), changes in reported efficacy (11%), and harm (10%) outcome(s) and changes in the nature or direction of conclusions (24%). Despite the importance of systematic reviews in the delivery of evidence-based health care, very few are presented at scientific conferences and only half of those presented are published in full. Serious deficiencies in the reporting of abstracts of systematic reviews make

  19. The Integration of Science and Education as Assessed by the Scientific Community: (Based on the Results of a Sociological Survey)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubova, Larisa; Arzhanykh, Elena

    2009-01-01

    One of the main tasks of a survey by the Center for Science Research and Statistics was to assess the interaction between science and higher education from the standpoint of collaboration between scientific organizations and university science, as well as participation in the educational process by scientific organizations. This article presents a…

  20. Scientifically Based Reading Research Strategies in the Preschool Classroom: An Investigation into Quality Early Childhood Reading Practices and Literacy Acquisition in One Northern Michigan Early Reading First Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Yvonne Donohoe

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research has emerged to support the concept of providing early childhood education as a quality investment for our children, unlocking early potential and creating lasting impacts related to school success and beyond. Several landmark studies indicated that a quality education targeted at our youngest learners has the ability to…

  1. Scientific Eschatology

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H

    2005-03-18

    The future evolution of the universe suggested by the cosmological model proposed earlier at this meeting by the authors is explored. The fundamental role played by the positive ''cosmological constant'' is emphasized. Dyson's 1979 paper entitled ''Time Without End'' is briefly reviewed. His most optimistic scenario requires that the universe be geometrically open and that biology is structural in the sense that the current complexity of human society can be reproduced by scaling up its (quantum mechanical) structure to arbitrary size. If the recently measured ''cosmological constant'' is indeed a fundamental constant of nature, then Dyson's scenario is, for variousmore » reasons, ruled out by the finite (De Sitter) horizon due to exponential expansion of the resulting space. However, the finite temperature of that horizon does open other interesting options. If, as is suggested by the cosmology under consideration, the current exponential expansion of the universe is due to a phase transition which fixes a physical boundary condition during the early radiation dominated era, the behavior of the universe after the relevant scale factor crosses the De Sitter radius opens up still other possibilities. The relevance of Martin Rees' apocalyptic eschatology recently presented in his book ''Our Final Hour'' is mentioned. It is concluded that even for the far future, whether or not cultural and scientific descendants of the current epoch will play a role in it, an understanding (sadly, currently lacking) of community and political evolution and control is essential for a preliminary treatment of what could be even vaguely called scientific eschatology.« less

  2. Final visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Good, William V; Hardy, Robert J; Dobson, Velma; Palmer, Earl A; Phelps, Dale L; Tung, Betty; Redford, Maryann

    2010-06-01

    To compare visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with conventionally managed eyes. Infants with symmetrical, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye randomized to earlier treatment at high-risk prethreshold disease and the other eye managed conventionally, treated if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to either early treatment or conventional management. The main outcome measure was ETDRS visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers. Retinal structure was assessed as a secondary outcome. Analysis of all subjects with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant benefit for early treatment (24.3% vs 28.6% [corrected] unfavorable outcome; P = .15). Analysis of 6-year visual acuity results according to the Type 1 and 2 clinical algorithm showed a benefit for Type 1 eyes (25.1% vs 32.8%; P = .02) treated early but not Type 2 eyes (23.6% vs 19.4%; P = .37). Early-treated eyes showed a significantly better structural outcome compared with conventionally managed eyes (8.9% vs 15.2% unfavorable outcome; P < .001), with no greater risk of ocular complications. Early treatment for Type 1 high-risk prethreshold eyes improved visual acuity outcomes at 6 years of age. Early treatment for Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes did not. Application to Clinical Practice Type 1 eyes, not Type 2 eyes, should be treated early. These results are particularly important considering that 52% of Type 2 high-risk prethreshold eyes underwent regression of ROP without requiring treatment. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  3. ICESat Laser Altimeter Pointing, Ranging and Timing Calibration from Integrated Residual Analysis: A Summary of Early Mission Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutchke, Scott B.; Rowlands, David D.; Harding, David J.; Bufton, Jack L.; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Williams, Teresa A.

    2003-01-01

    On January 12, 2003 the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was successfUlly placed into orbit. The ICESat mission carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), which consists of three near-infrared lasers that operate at 40 short pulses per second. The instrument has collected precise elevation measurements of the ice sheets, sea ice roughness and thickness, ocean and land surface elevations and surface reflectivity. The accurate geolocation of GLAS's surface returns, the spots from which the laser energy reflects on the Earth's surface, is a critical issue in the scientific application of these data Pointing, ranging, timing and orbit errors must be compensated to accurately geolocate the laser altimeter surface returns. Towards this end, the laser range observations can be fully exploited in an integrated residual analysis to accurately calibrate these geolocation/instrument parameters. Early mission ICESat data have been simultaneously processed as direct altimetry from ocean sweeps along with dynamic crossovers resulting in a preliminary calibration of laser pointing, ranging and timing. The calibration methodology and early mission analysis results are summarized in this paper along with future calibration activities

  4. Early loosening of a press-fit cup with ceramic-on-ceramic articulation: our early results.

    PubMed

    Haverkamp, Daniël; Westerbos, Stijn; Campo, Martin M; Boonstra, Ritsert H; Rob Albers, G H; van der Vis, Harm M

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we present the short-term results of the Selexys TH+ cup with the Ceramys inlay which is a press-fit cup with a ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. (Mathys, Bettlach, Switzerland). We compared the results with a retrospective-matched control group with a Delta PF cup (Lima, Udine, Italy), which is also a press-fit cup with a ceramic-on-ceramic articulation. 257 elective hip arthroplasties with the Selexys TH+ cup in 250 patients placed in 2009 and 2010 were analyzed and compared with a control group retrospective analysis of the uncemented Delta PF cup (Lima, Udine, Italy) placed in 2007 and 2008 in 208 patients (222 hips). Surgical technique and surgeons were identical in both groups. During a follow-up period of 3-21 months, 19 aseptic loosenings (7.4 %) were found for the Selexys TH+ cup. The survival plotted by a Kaplan-Meier curve shows a 1-year survival of 87.4 %. The Lima Delta PF cup showed a 1-year survival of 99.5 %. Failure analysis showed no clear explanation for this early loosening. The Selexys TH+ cup combined with the Ceramys ceramic-on-ceramic inlay coupling show an unacceptable high early revision rate. Therefore, we advice against using this combination.

  5. Scientific Misconduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  6. A Classroom-Based Distributed Workflow Initiative for the Early Involvement of Undergraduate Students in Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging freshman and sophomore students in meaningful scientific research is challenging because of their developing skill set and their necessary time commitments to regular classwork. A project called the Chondrule Analysis Project was initiated to engage first- and second-year students in an initial research experience and also accomplish…

  7. Scientific Reasoning in Early and Middle Childhood: The Development of Domain-General Evidence Evaluation, Experimentation, and Hypothesis Generation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation,…

  8. The Scientific Enlightenment System in Russia in the Early Twentieth Century as a Model for Popularizing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balashova, Yuliya B.

    2016-01-01

    This research reconstructs the traditions of scientific enlightenment in Russia. The turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was chosen as the most representative period. The modern age saw the establishment of the optimal model for advancing science in the global context and its crucial segment--Russian science. This period was…

  9. Scientific results from Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Joint Industry Project Leg 1 drilling: Introduction and overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, C.; Boswell, R.; Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    at the Keathley Canyon site. This paper provides an overview of the results of the initial phases of the JIP work and introduces the 15 papers that make up this special volume on the scientific results related to the 2005 logging and drilling expedition.

  10. Early Blindness Results in Developmental Plasticity for Auditory Motion Processing within Auditory and Occipital Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fang; Stecker, G. Christopher; Boynton, Geoffrey M.; Fine, Ione

    2016-01-01

    Early blind subjects exhibit superior abilities for processing auditory motion, which are accompanied by enhanced BOLD responses to auditory motion within hMT+ and reduced responses within right planum temporale (rPT). Here, by comparing BOLD responses to auditory motion in hMT+ and rPT within sighted controls, early blind, late blind, and sight-recovery individuals, we were able to separately examine the effects of developmental and adult visual deprivation on cortical plasticity within these two areas. We find that both the enhanced auditory motion responses in hMT+ and the reduced functionality in rPT are driven by the absence of visual experience early in life; neither loss nor recovery of vision later in life had a discernable influence on plasticity within these areas. Cortical plasticity as a result of blindness has generally be presumed to be mediated by competition across modalities within a given cortical region. The reduced functionality within rPT as a result of early visual loss implicates an additional mechanism for cross modal plasticity as a result of early blindness—competition across different cortical areas for functional role. PMID:27458357

  11. Scientific Results of the Nasa-sponsored Study Project on Mars: Evolution of Its Climate and Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Greeley, Ronald; Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific highlights of the Mars: Evolution of its Climate and Atmosphere (MECA) study project are reviewed and some of the important issues in Martian climate research that remain unresolved are discussed.

  12. Results of paleomagnetic study of Early Proterozoic rocks in the Baikal Range of the Siberian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodovozov, V. Yu.; Didenko, A. N.; Gladkochub, D. P.; Mazukabzov, A. M.; Donskaya, T. V.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents paleomagnetic results obtained from the study of Early Proterozoic rocks in the Baikal Range of the Siberian craton, namely, the 1850 1880-Ma volcanicalstic rocks of the Akitkanskian series of the North Baikal volcanic-plutonic belt) and 1674-Ma basic dikes of the Chaya complex within the massif. The data of this work are used to reconstruct the development of the Siberian craton structure in the Early Precambrian. The projections of the inferred paleomagnetic directions onto a sphere form S (southern) and W (western) groups of vectors of characteristic magnetization components. The S group consists of three clusters representing primary magnetization components belonging to different time levels of the end of the Early Proterozoic. The W group is represented by directions associated with a metachronous magnetization probably acquired during the Riphean. Four paleomagnetic poles are obtained. Two of them that can be regarded as key poles correspond to time levels of 1875 and 1670 Ma (the Early Proterozoic). The two other poles can be used for a detailed reconstruction of the Proterozoic segment of the Siberian apparent polar wander path. The data presented in the paper indicate that the formation of the southern Siberian craton structure was accomplished at the end of the Early Proterozoic, which resulted in a synchronous motion of different blocks composing the southern flank of the craton (in particular, the Sharyzhalgai and Baikal Ranges).

  13. Simple Messages Help Set the Record Straight about Scientific Agreement on Human-Caused Climate Change: The Results of Two Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Teresa A.; Maibach, Edward; Peters, Ellen; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Human-caused climate change is happening; nearly all climate scientists are convinced of this basic fact according to surveys of experts and reviews of the peer-reviewed literature. Yet, among the American public, there is widespread misunderstanding of this scientific consensus. In this paper, we report results from two experiments, conducted with national samples of American adults, that tested messages designed to convey the high level of agreement in the climate science community about human-caused climate change. The first experiment tested hypotheses about providing numeric versus non-numeric assertions concerning the level of scientific agreement. We found that numeric statements resulted in higher estimates of the scientific agreement. The second experiment tested the effect of eliciting respondents’ estimates of scientific agreement prior to presenting them with a statement about the level of scientific agreement. Participants who estimated the level of agreement prior to being shown the corrective statement gave higher estimates of the scientific consensus than respondents who were not asked to estimate in advance, indicating that incorporating an “estimation and reveal” technique into public communication about scientific consensus may be effective. The interaction of messages with political ideology was also tested, and demonstrated that messages were approximately equally effective among liberals and conservatives. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:25812121

  14. Simple messages help set the record straight about scientific agreement on human-caused climate change: the results of two experiments.

    PubMed

    Myers, Teresa A; Maibach, Edward; Peters, Ellen; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Human-caused climate change is happening; nearly all climate scientists are convinced of this basic fact according to surveys of experts and reviews of the peer-reviewed literature. Yet, among the American public, there is widespread misunderstanding of this scientific consensus. In this paper, we report results from two experiments, conducted with national samples of American adults, that tested messages designed to convey the high level of agreement in the climate science community about human-caused climate change. The first experiment tested hypotheses about providing numeric versus non-numeric assertions concerning the level of scientific agreement. We found that numeric statements resulted in higher estimates of the scientific agreement. The second experiment tested the effect of eliciting respondents' estimates of scientific agreement prior to presenting them with a statement about the level of scientific agreement. Participants who estimated the level of agreement prior to being shown the corrective statement gave higher estimates of the scientific consensus than respondents who were not asked to estimate in advance, indicating that incorporating an "estimation and reveal" technique into public communication about scientific consensus may be effective. The interaction of messages with political ideology was also tested, and demonstrated that messages were approximately equally effective among liberals and conservatives. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  15. The optimisation approach of ALARA in nuclear practice: an early application of the precautionary principle. Scientific uncertainty versus legal uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Lierman, S; Veuchelen, L

    2005-01-01

    The late health effects of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation are subject to scientific controversy: one view finds threats of high cancer incidence exaggerated, while the other view thinks the effects are underestimated. Both views have good scientific arguments in favour of them. Since the nuclear field, both industry and medicine have had to deal with this controversy for many decades. One can argue that the optimisation approach to keep the effective doses as low as reasonably achievable, taking economic and social factors into account (ALARA), is a precautionary approach. However, because of these stochastic effects, no scientific proof can be provided. This paper explores how ALARA and the Precautionary Principle are influential in the legal field and in particular in tort law, because liability should be a strong incentive for safer behaviour. This so-called "deterrence effect" of liability seems to evaporate in today's technical and highly complex society, in particular when dealing with the late health effects of low doses of ionising radiation. Two main issues will be dealt with in the paper: 1. How are the health risks attributable to "low doses" of radiation regulated in nuclear law and what lessons can be learned from the field of radiation protection? 2. What does ALARA have to inform the discussion of the Precautionary Principle and vice-versa, in particular, as far as legal sanctions and liability are concerned? It will be shown that the Precautionary Principle has not yet been sufficiently implemented into nuclear law.

  16. NOSE laparoscopic gastrectomies for early gastric cancer may reduce morbidity and hospital stay: early results from a prospective nonrandomized study.

    PubMed

    Hüscher, Cristiano G S; Lirici, Marco Maria; Ponzano, Cecilia

    2017-04-01

    Natural orifice specimen extraction - NOSE laparoscopy is a promising technique that avoids mini-laparotomy, possibly reducing postoperative pain, wound infections and hospital stay. Recent systematic reviews have shown that postoperative morbidity associated with laparoscopically assisted gastrectomies is similar to that after open gastrectomies. More specifically, there is no difference in wound infection rate. The study objective was to evaluate whether postoperative morbidity and hospital stay may be reduced by transoral specimen extraction after laparoscopically assisted gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (EGC). A prospective, nonrandomized study was carried out starting in August 2012. Data from all patients operated on during the first year, with minimum 18 months follow-up, were collected to assess feasibility, oncologic results, postoperative morbidity, hospital stay and functional results. Overall, 14 patients were included and followed-up. After gastric resection, a 3 cm opening was created on the gastric stump, and the specimen, divided into three segments stitched one to each other, was sutured to the gastric tube and retrieved through the mouth. Postoperative morbidity was 7.14% (1/14): one case of pneumonia. No wound infection occurred. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.7 ± 1.0 days. NOSE laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy is feasible and safe, with similar oncologic results as LAG, but decreased morbidity and hospital stay.

  17. The Opening of Borders and Scientific Mobility: The Impact of EU Enlargement on the Movement of Early Career Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guth, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This paper, based on extensive empirical work with Polish and Bulgarian scientists in Germany and the UK, examines the impact of the EU enlargement including the free movement of persons provisions on the mobility of scientists from Eastern to Western Europe. It focuses on early career researchers and particularly PhD candidates and begins by…

  18. Early results from Magsat. [studies of near-earth magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.; Mayhew, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented at the May 27, 1981 meeting of the American Geophysical Union concerning early results from the Magsat satellite program, which was designed to study the near-earth magnetic fields originating in the core and lithosphere, are discussed. The satellite was launched on October 30, 1979 into a sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit, and re-entered the atmosphere on June 11, 1980. Instruments carried included a cesium vapor magnetometer to measure field magnitudes, a fluxgate magnetometer to measure field components and an optical system to measure fluxgate magnetometer orientation. Early results concerned spherical harmonic models, fields due to ionospheric and magnetospheric currents, the identification and interpretation of fields from lithospheric sources. The preliminary results confirm the possibility of separating the measured field into core, crustal and external components, and represent significant developments in analytical techniques in main-field modelling and the physics of the field sources.

  19. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count! Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scientific results and lessons learned from an integrated crewed Mars exploration simulation at the Rio Tinto Mars analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; Váczi, Tamás; Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Between 15 and 25 April 2011 in the framework of the PolAres programme of the Austrian Space Forum, a five-day field test of the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator was conducted at the Rio Tinto Mars-analogue site in southern Spain. The field crew was supported by a full-scale Mission Control Center (MCC) in Innsbruck, Austria. The field telemetry data were relayed to the MCC, enabling a Remote Science Support (RSS) team to study field data in near-real-time and adjust the flight planning in a flexible manner. We report on the experiences in the field of robotics, geophysics (Ground Penetrating Radar) and geology as well as life sciences in a simulated spaceflight operational environment. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maps had been prepared using Google Earth and aerial images. The Rio Tinto mining area offers an excellent location for Mars analogue simulations. It is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue site because of the presence of jarosite and related sulphates, which have been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. The acidic, high ferric-sulphate content water of Rio Tinto is also considered as a possible analogue in astrobiology regarding the analysis of ferric sulphate related biochemical pathways and produced biomarkers. During our Mars simulation, 18 different types of soil and rock samples were collected by the spacesuit tester. The Raman results confirm the presence of minerals expected, such as jarosite, different Fe oxides and oxi-hydroxides, pyrite and complex Mg and Ca sulphates. Eight science experiments were conducted in the field. In this contribution first we list the important findings during the management and realisation of tests, and also a first summary of the scientific results. Based on these experiences suggestions for future analogue work are also summarised. We finish with recommendations for future field missions, including the preparation of the experiments

  1. POSNA Quality Safety Value Initiative: From Vision to Implementation to Early Results.

    PubMed

    Waters, Peter M; Flynn, John M

    2015-01-01

    The POSNA Quality, Safety and Value Initiative (QSVI) formally started with POSNA board approval in early 2011. The initial vision statement was: "To lead in defining our members' value based clinical care. To partner with hospital based and orthopedic organizational efforts to guarantee safe, high quality outcomes for our patients. To communicate our initiatives and results cooperatively with payer, credentialing, and compliance organizations to improve pediatric orthopedic care in North America."

  2. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  3. [Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin American in the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marta de

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fundamental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

  4. The impact of osteoarthritis on early exit from work: results from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Laires, Pedro A; Canhão, Helena; Rodrigues, Ana M; Eusébio, Mónica; Gouveia, Miguel; Branco, Jaime C

    2018-04-11

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of pain and disability, which may be a source of productivity losses. The objectives of this study were to describe the impact of OA, namely through pain and physical disability, on early exit from work and to calculate its economic burden. We analysed data from the national, cross-sectional, population-based EpiReumaPt study (Sep2011-Dec2013) in which 10,661 individuals were randomly surveyed in order to capture all cases of rheumatic diseases. We used all participants aged 50-64, near the official retirement age, who were clinically validated by experienced rheumatologists (n = 1286), including OA cases. A national database was used to calculate productivity values by gender, age and region, using the human capital approach. The impact of OA on the likelihood of early exit from work and the population attributable fractions used to calculate due economic burden (indirect costs) were obtained at the individual level by logistic regression. All results were based on weighted data. Almost one third of the Portuguese population aged 50-64 had OA (29.7%; men: 16.2% and women: 43.5%) and more than half were out of paid work (51.8%). Only knee OA is associated with early exit from work (OR: 2.25; 95%CI: 1.42-3.59; p = 0.001), whereas other OA locations did not reach any statistical difference. Furthermore, we observed an association between self-reported longstanding musculoskeletal pain (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.07-2.23; p = 0.02) and pain interference (OR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.13-1.62; p = 0.001) with early exit from work. We also detected a clear relationship between levels of disability, measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the probability of work withdrawal. The estimated annual cost of early exit from work attributable to OA was €656 million (€384 per capita; €1294 per OA patient and €2095 per OA patient out-of-work). In this study, we observed an association between OA and early exit from

  5. Scientific activity and working hours of physicians in university hospitals: results from the Innsbruck and Salzburg physician lifestyle assessment (TISPLA).

    PubMed

    Steger, Bernhard; Colvin, Hans Peter; Rieder, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Controllable lifestyle has become an important factor influencing career decision-making among physicians. In academic medicine, doctors are required to combine both patient care and research in their daily routine. Insufficient release of clinicians for research during contracted work hours may lead to increased weekly working hours in academic medical centers and deter medical graduates from academia. We tested for an association between numbers of scientific publications and an increased hourly workload among physicians. This was a cross-sectional online survey among all salaried physicians working in the university hospitals of Innsbruck and Salzburg, Austria. The main outcome measures were the self-reported total number of scientific papers published in peer-reviewed medical journals over the past two years and self-reported working hours. Of 590 returned surveys, 393 were fully completed and included in the study. The sample was stratified into three groups according to scientific output in the past two years: Group A, >/= 6 publications; Group B, 1-5 publications; Group C, no publications. Men were more likely than women to have a scientific publication: in Group A there was a male predominance of 75%, whereas in Group C only 48% were men (P = 0.0034). A total of 59% (n = 232) of all participants had not published a scientific article in the past two years (Group C) and worked a mean of 58.3 +/- 12 h/week. Physicians in Group B (n = 113) had published 2.4 +/- 1.4 papers and worked 62.8 +/- 12.9 h/week; those in Group A (n = 48) had published 11.5 +/- 6.6 papers and worked 73 +/- 13.1 h/week (P < 0.0001). In Group A, research accounted for only 13.3% of total work time but for 60% of overtime hours, reflecting the fact that research was mainly performed during overtime. Research activity among clinicians in academic medical centers is associated with significantly increased overtime hours. Measures need to be taken to allow medical graduates an academic

  6. Early Results from the NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, David; Eldering, Annmarie

    2015-04-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is NASA's first satellite designed to collect the measurements needed to estimate the column-averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction, XCO2, with the sensitivity, accuracy, and resolution needed to characterize the CO2 sources and sinks on regional scales over the globe. OCO-2 was successfully launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on July 2, 2014 and joined the 705-km Afternoon Constellation (A-Train) on August 3, 2014. The three-channel imaging grating spectrometer was then cooled to its operating temperatures and a comprehensive series of characterization and calibration activities were initiated. Since early October 2014, the observatory has been routinely collecting almost 1 million soundings over the sunlit hemisphere each day. Early cloud screening results indicate that 15-30% of these measurements may be sufficiently cloud free to yield precise estimates of XCO2. Initial deliveries of calibrated, geo-located OCO-2 spectra to the NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) began on December 30, 2014. Preliminary estimates of XCO2 retrieved from these data are currently being validated against observations from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and other standards. Routine deliveries XCO2 and other products, including surface pressure and chlorophyll fluorescence, to the GES DISC are expected to begin before the end of March, 2015. This presentation will summarize the status of the OCO-2 mission and the coverage, resolution, and accuracy of its early results.

  7. Study design and early result of a phase I study of SABR for early-stage glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tosol; Wee, Chan Woo; Choi, Noorie; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Jin Ho; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Chung, Eun-Jae

    2018-05-14

    Avoidance of organs at risk has become possible with advances in image-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early stage glottic cancer. This report presents the preliminary result of the first and second dose level. Fraction size was increased from 3.5 gray (Gy) (total dose 59.5 Gy) to 9 Gy (total dose 45 Gy). Dose-limiting toxicities were defined as grade 3 or higher treatment-related toxicities. Voice outcome was assessed with electroglottography, and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI). Seven patients received 59.5 Gy at 3.5 Gy per fraction as the first dose level, and five patients received 55 Gy at 5 Gy per fraction as the second dose level. None of the patients developed grade 3+ toxicity throughout a median follow-up of 17.5 months (range, 1.7-30.6 months). One patient in the second dose level recurred in the primary site at 4 months after radiotherapy (RT) and received total laryngectomy. The rest of participants were disease-free at locoregional and distant sites. Jitter, shimmer, mean phonation time, and noise-to-harmony ratio did not change significantly at 6 months after RT. HNCI scores between pretreatment and posttreatment were not significantly different (P = 0.221). This study revealed acceptable toxicity, voice outcome, and QoL in patients treated with hypofractionated VMAT of 3.5 Gy and 5 Gy per fraction. This phase I study is currently ongoing with a dose of 55 Gy in 11 fractions and 45 Gy in five fractions. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. [Quality and integrity in the production and publication of scientific results: data trimming, manipulation and (self) plagiarism].

    PubMed

    Lüscher, T F

    2014-08-01

    The publication of scientific manuscripts is an essential part in the research process and in the attempt to produce novel knowledge: only what is published exists. It is the aim of research to produce reproducible and sustainable knowledge. Reproducible knowledge is based on precise observation, the use of modern methodologies and an appropriate statistical analysis. As a consequence, it must be the intention of any scientist to report the truth and nothing but the truth. This principle requires precision and honesty. Deviation from such a behavior may lead to scientific misconduct: It encompasses the use of inappropriate methods and/or statistics, double publication of data, sloppy data presentation and processing, up to data massaging, manipulation, data theft or fabrication. Famous examples can be found throughout the history of research but it appears that such behavior has recently become more common possibly due to excessive competition, the crucial role of grants for scientific productivity and funding as well as promotion. Accordingly, in the training of researchers it seems essential to emphasize the importance of precise data acquisition and analysis to ascertain reproducible data. Similarly, it must be assured that data sets are only published once, that authors have contributed technically and/or intellectually in an important manner and that the work of other scientists is cited appropriately. Editors and reviewers should carefully assess the quality of submitted manuscripts. In fact, it is the aim of the peer review process to assure as much as possible that the quality of submitted manuscripts meets current methodological as well as ethical standards.

  9. James Gregory, the University observatory and the early acquisition of scientific instruments at the University of St Andrews

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Helen C.

    2015-01-01

    James Gregory, inventor of the reflecting telescope and Fellow of the Royal Society, was the first Regius Professor of Mathematics of the University of St Andrews, 1668–74. He attempted to establish in St Andrews what would, if completed, have been the first purpose-built observatory in the British Isles. He travelled to London in 1673 to purchase instruments for equipping the observatory and improving the teaching and study of natural philosophy and mathematics in the university, seeking the advice of John Flamsteed, later the first Astronomer Royal. This paper considers the observatory initiative and the early acquisition of instruments at the University of St Andrews, with reference to Gregory's correspondence, inventories made ca. 1699–ca. 1718 and extant instruments themselves, some of which predate Gregory's time. It examines the structure and fate of the university observatory, the legacy of Gregory's teaching and endeavours, and the meridian line laid down in 1748 in the University Library.

  10. Botany on a plate. Pleasure and the power of pictures in promoting early nineteenth-century scientific knowledge.

    PubMed

    Secord, Anne

    2002-03-01

    In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.

  11. Comparative Results of AIRS AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version 6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRSAMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrISATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRSAMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of a long term CrISATMS level-3 data using a finalized retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRSAMSU Version-7.

  12. Comparative Results of AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS Retrievals Using a Scientifically Equivalent Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm is currently producing high quality level-3 Climate Data Records (CDRs) from AIRS/AMSU which are critical for understanding climate processes. The AIRS Science Team is finalizing an improved Version-7 retrieval algorithm to reprocess all old and future AIRS data. AIRS CDRs should eventually cover the period September 2002 through at least 2020. CrIS/ATMS is the only scheduled follow on to AIRS/AMSU. The objective of this research is to prepare for generation of long term CrIS/ATMS CDRs using a retrieval algorithm that is scientifically equivalent to AIRS/AMSU Version-7.

  13. Early Flood Warning in Africa: Results of a Feasibility study in the JUBA, SHABELLE and ZAMBEZI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappenberger, F. P.; de Roo, A. D.; Buizza, Roberto; Bodis, Katalin; Thiemig, Vera

    2009-04-01

    Building on the experiences gained with the European Flood Alert System (EFAS), pilot studies are carried out in three river basins in Africa. The European Flood Alert System, pre-operational since 2003, provides early flood alerts for European rivers. At present, the experiences with the European EFAS system are used to evaluate the feasibility of flood early warning for Africa. Three case studies are carried in the Juba and Shabelle rivers (Somalia and Ethiopia), and in the Zambesi river (Southern Africa). Predictions in these data scarce regions are extremely difficult to make as records of observations are scarce and often unreliable. Meteorological and Discharge observations are used to calibrate and test the model, as well as soils, landuse and topographic data available within the JRC African Observatory. ECMWF ERA-40, ERA-Interim data and re-forecasts of flood events from January to March 1978, and in March 2001 are evaluated to examine the feasibility for early flood warning. First results will be presented.

  14. Grating visual acuity results in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty; Good, William V

    2011-07-01

    To compare grating (resolution) visual acuity at 6 years of age in eyes that received early treatment (ET) for high-risk prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with that in eyes that underwent conventional management (CM). In a randomized clinical trial, infants with bilateral, high-risk prethreshold ROP (n = 317) had one eye undergo ET and the other eye undergo CM, with treatment only if ROP progressed to threshold severity. For asymmetric cases (n = 84), the high-risk prethreshold eye was randomized to ET or CM. Grating visual acuity measured at 6 years of age by masked testers using Teller acuity cards. Monocular grating acuity results were obtained from 317 of 370 surviving children (85.6%). Analysis of grating acuity results for all study participants with high-risk prethreshold ROP showed no statistically significant overall benefit of ET (18.1% vs 22.8% unfavorable outcomes; P = .08). When the 6-year grating acuity results were analyzed according to a clinical algorithm (high-risk types 1 and 2 prethreshold ROP), a benefit was seen in type 1 eyes (16.4% vs 25.2%; P = .004) undergoing ET, but not in type 2 eyes (21.3% vs 15.9%; P = .29). Early treatment of eyes with type 1 ROP improves grating acuity outcomes, but ET for eyes with type 2 ROP does not. APPLICATION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE: Type 1 eyes should be treated early; however, based on acuity results at 6 years of age, type 2 eyes should be cautiously monitored for progression to type 1 ROP. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00027222.

  15. Assessment of renal perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound: Preliminary results in early diabetic nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Lin, Pan; Fan, Peili; Mao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    We performed a prospective study to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in quantitative evaluation of renal cortex perfusion in patients suspected of early diabetic nephropathies (DN), with the estimated GFR (MDRD equation) as the gold standard. The study protocol was approved by the hospital review board; each patient gave written informed consent. Our study included 46 cases (21 males and 25 females, mean age 55.6 ± 4.14 years) of clinical confirmed early DN patients. After intravenous bolus injection of 1 ml sulfur hexafluoride microbubbles of ultrasound contrast agent, real time CEUS of renal cortex was performed successively using a 2-5 MHz convex probe. Time-intensity curves (TICs) and quantitative indexes were created with Qlab software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to predict the diagnostic criteria of CEUS quantitative indexes, and their diagnostic efficiencies were compared with resistance index (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV) of renal segmental arteries by chi square test. Our control group included forty-five healthy volunteers. Difference was considered statistically significant with P <  0.05. Changes of area under curve (AUC), derived peak intensity (DPI) were statistically significant (P <  0.05). DPI less than 12 and AUC greater than 1400 had high utility in DN, with 71.7% and 67.3% sensitivity, 77.8% and 80.0% specificity. These results were significantly better than those obtained with RI and PSV which had no significant difference in early stage of DN (P > 0.05). CEUS might be helpful to improve early diagnosis of DN by quantitative analyses. AUC and DPI might be valuable quantitative indexes.

  16. The Use of Cryotherapy for Papilloma and Early Laryngeal Cancers: Long-term Results.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Michael S; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Milstein, Claudio F

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective chart review. To determine the efficacy of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer and laryngeal papillomatosis. The use of cryotherapy in conjunction with traditional modalities has recently been proposed to improve voice outcomes in patients with early laryngeal cancer as compared to pretreatment conditions. This study investigates its utility in improving oncological outcomes and decreasing recurrences of laryngeal papillomatosis. Patients with either early glottic cancer or laryngeal papillomatosis that received cryotherapy as part of their surgical regimen were investigated. All patients were seen at a large tertiary care center within a 10-year window. Demographic data were collected and all postoperative notes were reviewed. Recurrences of the laryngeal cancer were noted, as was the duration of time between successive papillomatosis operations. The charts of 54 glottic cancer and 29 papillomatosis patients that received cryotherapy were reviewed. One patient from the papillomatosis cohort was excluded from statistical analysis due to lack of follow-up. Overall, 16 (30%) of the laryngeal cancer patient experienced a malignant recurrence. The overall 5-year survival of these patients was 98% and the 5-year disease-free survival was 74%. The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis extended the duration of time between surgeries by an average of 79 days (P=.23). The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer does not improve the rate of carcinoma recurrences. Additionally, cryotherapy does not result in a statistically significant increase in the duration of disease-free period for laryngeal papillomatosis patients, although the observed increase may be clinically important. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Effective treatment of haemorrhoids: early complication and late results after 150 consecutive stapled haemorrhoidectomies.

    PubMed

    Bove, Aldo; Bongarzoni, Giuseppe; Palone, Gino; Chiarini, Stella; Calisesi, Enrico Maria; Corbellini, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Haemorrhoidectomy according to Longo potentially reduces post-operative pain and allows an early return to work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the technique, the early and especially late complications, and recurrences, in 150 patients. Between January 2005 and December 2006, we performed 150 consecutive haemorrhoidectomies with the Longo technique: 82 for third degree haemorrhoids and 68 for fourth degree haemorrhoids. The mean age of patients was 42 years. Every patient had a pre-operative proctoscopy and endoscopy KIT PPH01 (Ethicon Endo Surgery) was used. We evaluated the length of the operation, the post-operative pain, the early and late complications, and the recurrence of the disease. The mean follow up was 52 months (range 36-72). There was no mortality. The mean length of the operation was 25 minutes with a range of 15 to 45 minutes. Pain, evaluated using the V.A.S. scale, was very light in 114 patients (V.A.S. 2,1) and light in 36 (V.A.S. 3.2). Only 11 (7.5%) patients took painkillers, on demand, for a week after discharge from hospital and 2 patients (1,3%) for more than one month. Early complications (6.6%) were: 5 bleeding (2 after seven days), 4 acute urinary retentions, 1 external haemorrhoid thrombosis and 1 haematoma of the rectus wall. Mean Hospital stay was 2.1 days. Late complications (10%) were: 5 "faecal urgency" which disappeared after six months, 6 moderate asymptomatic strictures, and 4 persistent skin tags. There were 8 recurrences (5.1%), 2 for haemorrhoids of grade 3 e 6 for haemorrhoids of grade 4. All the recurrences appeared within the first 24 months. The stapled procedure according to Longo is an effective treatment for haemorrhoids. The results for postoperative pain and early return to work are very good. However, special care for haemostasis is essential in order to avoid bleeding. An effective surgical technique prevents late complications, but results after long term follow up show a not insignificant

  18. The BRITE-Constellation Nanosatellite Space Mission And Its First Scientific Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.; Pigulski, A.; Weiss, W. W.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Kuschnig, R.; Wade, G. A.; Orleański, G.; Ruciński, S. M.; Koudelka, O.; Smolec, R.; Zwintz, K.; Matthews, J. M.; Popowicz, A.; Baade, D.; Neiner, C.; Pamyatnykh, A. A.; Rowe, J.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2017-10-01

    The BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE) Constellation is the first nanosatellite mission applied to astrophysical research. Five satellites in low-Earth orbits perform precise optical two-colour photometry of the brightest stars in the night sky. BRITE is naturally well suited for variability studies of hot stars. This contribution describes the basic outline of the mission and some initial problems that needed to be overcome. Some information on BRITE data products, how to access them, and how to join their scientific exploration is provided. Finally, a brief summary of the first scientific results obtained by BRITE is given.

  19. Targeted deletion of p97 (VCP/CDC48) in mouse results in early embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Müller, J M M; Deinhardt, K; Rosewell, I; Warren, G; Shima, D T

    2007-03-09

    The highly conserved AAA ATPase p97 (VCP/CDC48) has well-established roles in cell cycle progression, proteasome degradation and membrane dynamics. Gene disruption in Saccromyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Trypanosoma brucei demonstrated that p97 is essential in unicellular and multicellular organisms. To explore the requirement for p97 in mammalian cell function and embryogenesis, we disrupted the p97 locus by gene targeting. Heterozygous p97+/- mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates, whereas homozygous mutants did not survive to birth and died at a peri-implantation stage. These results show that p97 is an essential gene for early mouse development.

  20. The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere Mission: Overview and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; Bailey, S. M.; Thomas, G.; Rusch, D.; Gordley, L. L.; Hervig, M.; Horanyi, M.; Randall, C.; McClintock, W.; Siskind, D. E.; Stevens, M.; Englert, C.; Taylor, M.; Summeers, M.; Merkel, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 1:26:03 PDT on April 25, 2007 becoming the first satellite mission dedicated to the study of noctilucent clouds. A Pegasus XL rocket launched the satellite into a near perfect 600 km sun synchronous circular orbit. AIM carries three instruments - a nadir imager, a solar occultation instrument and in-situ cosmic dust detectors - that were specifically selected because of their ability to provide key measurements needed to address the six AIM science objectives. Brief descriptions of the science, instruments and observation scenario will be presented along with early science results.

  1. A Review and Evaluation of the Langley Research Center's Scientific and Technical Information Program. Results of Phase VI-The Technical Report: A Survey and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Robert A.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a review and evaluation of the Langley Research Center's scientific and technical information program, which examined technical reports from various institutions and organizations to determine the organization of reports, the language used to convey information, and the methods used to present information.…

  2. A brief history of the American radium industry and its ties to the scientific community of its early twentieth century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Federally funded remedial action projects are presently underway in New Jersey and Colorado at sites containing 226Ra and other radionuclides from radium-uranium ore extraction plants that operated during the early twentieth century. They are but the latest chapter in the story of an American industry that emerged and perished in the span of three decades. Major extraction plants were established in or near Denver (CO), Pittsburgh (PA), and New York City (NY) to process radium from ore that came largely from the carnotite deposits of western Colorado and eastern Utah. The staffs of these plants included some of the finest chemists and physicists in the nation, and the highly-refined radium products found a variety of uses in medicine and industry. The discovery of high-grade pitchblende ores in the Belgian Congo and the subsequent opening of an extraction plant near Antwerp, Belgium, in 1992, however, created an economic climate that put an end to the American radium industry. The geologic, chemical, and engineering information gathered during this era formed the basis of the uranium industry of the later part of the century, while the tailings and residues came to be viewed as environmental problems during the same period.

  3. Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening

    PubMed Central

    DeBruler, Danielle M.; Zbinden, Jacob C.; Baumann, Molly E.; Blackstone, Britani N.; Malara, Megan M.; Bailey, J. Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1–2 years), though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar properties. Full-thickness burn injuries were created along the dorsum of red Duroc pigs. The burn eschar was excised and wound sites autografted with split-thickness skin. Scars were treated with pressure garments within 1 week of injury and pressure was maintained for either 29 weeks (continuous pressure) or for 17 weeks followed by cessation of pressure for an additional 12 weeks (pressure released); scars receiving no treatment served as controls. Scars that underwent pressure garment therapy were significantly smoother and less contracted with decreased scar height compared to control scars at 17 weeks. These benefits were maintained in the continuous pressure group until week 29. In the pressure released group, grafts significantly contracted and became more raised, harder and rougher after the therapy was discontinued. Pressure cessation also resulted in large changes in collagen fiber orientation and increases in collagen fiber thickness. The results suggest that pressure garment therapy effectively improves scar properties following severe burn injury; however, early cessation of the therapy results in substantial loss of these improvements. PMID:29897933

  4. Early cessation of pressure garment therapy results in scar contraction and thickening.

    PubMed

    DeBruler, Danielle M; Zbinden, Jacob C; Baumann, Molly E; Blackstone, Britani N; Malara, Megan M; Bailey, J Kevin; Supp, Dorothy M; Powell, Heather M

    2018-01-01

    Pressure garment therapy is often prescribed to improve scar properties following full-thickness burn injuries. Pressure garment therapy is generally recommended for long periods of time following injury (1-2 years), though it is plagued by extremely low patient compliance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early cessation of pressure garment therapy on scar properties. Full-thickness burn injuries were created along the dorsum of red Duroc pigs. The burn eschar was excised and wound sites autografted with split-thickness skin. Scars were treated with pressure garments within 1 week of injury and pressure was maintained for either 29 weeks (continuous pressure) or for 17 weeks followed by cessation of pressure for an additional 12 weeks (pressure released); scars receiving no treatment served as controls. Scars that underwent pressure garment therapy were significantly smoother and less contracted with decreased scar height compared to control scars at 17 weeks. These benefits were maintained in the continuous pressure group until week 29. In the pressure released group, grafts significantly contracted and became more raised, harder and rougher after the therapy was discontinued. Pressure cessation also resulted in large changes in collagen fiber orientation and increases in collagen fiber thickness. The results suggest that pressure garment therapy effectively improves scar properties following severe burn injury; however, early cessation of the therapy results in substantial loss of these improvements.

  5. [Reading behavior and preferences regarding subscriptions to scientific journals : Results of a survey of members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery].

    PubMed

    Ronellenfitsch, U; Klinger, C; Buhr, H J; Post, S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of surgical literature is to publish the latest study results and to provide continuing medical education to readers. For optimal allocation of resources, institutional subscribers, professional societies and scientific publishers require structured data on reading and subscription preferences of potential readers of surgical literature. To obtain representative data on the preferences of German general and visceral surgeons regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. All members of the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery (DGAV) were invited to participate in a web-based survey. Questions were asked on the affiliation and position of the member, individual journal subscriptions, institutional access to scientific journals, preferences regarding electronic or print articles and special subscriptions for society members. Answers were descriptively analyzed. A total of 630 out of 4091 (15 %) members participated in the survey and 73 % of the respondents had at least 1 individual subscription to a scientific journal. The most frequently subscribed journal was Der Chirurg (47 % of respondents). The institutional access to journals was deemed insufficient by 48 % of respondents, predominantly in primary care hospitals and outpatient clinics. Almost half of the respondents gave sufficient importance to reading printed versions of articles for which they would pay extra fees. A group subscription for society members was perceived as advantageous as long as no relevant extra costs were incurred. This structured survey among members of the DGAV provides data on preferences regarding reading of and subscription to scientific journals. Individual subscriptions to journals are still common, possibly due to suboptimal institutional access particularly at smaller non-academic institutions. In an age of online publications it seems surprising that many respondents place a high value on printed versions. The results are relevant for

  6. Early results of patellofemoral inlay resurfacing arthroplasty using the HemiCap Wave prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Akash; Haider, Zakir; Anand, Amarjit; Spicer, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Common surgical treatment options for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis include arthroscopic procedures, total knee replacement and patellofemoral replacement. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis is a novel inlay design introduced in 2009 with scarce published data on its functional outcomes. We aim to prospectively evaluate early functional outcomes and complications, for patients undergoing a novel inlay resurfacing arthroplasty for isolated patellofemoral arthrosis in an independent centre. From 2010 to 2013, 16 consecutive patients underwent patellofemoral resurfacing procedures using HemiCap Wave (Arthrosurface Inc., Franklin, Massachusetts, USA) for anterior knee pain with confirmed radiologically and/or arthroscopically isolated severe patellofemoral arthrosis. Standardized surgical technique, as recommended by the implant manufacturer, was followed. Outcome measures included range of movement, functional knee scores (Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36)), radiographic disease progression, revision rates and complications. Eight men and eight women underwent patellofemoral HemiCap Wave resurfacing, with an average age of 63 years (range: 46-83). Average follow-up was 24.1 months (6-34). Overall, post-operative scores were excellent. There was a statistically significant improvement in the post-operative OKS, KOOS and SF-36 scores ( p < 0.01). One patient had radiological disease progression. One patient underwent revision for deep infection. Two other minor complications were observed and treated conservatively. The HemiCap Wave patellofemoral resurfacing prosthesis has excellent early results in terms of functional outcomes, radiological outcomes and low complication rates. At the very least, early results show that the HemiCap Wave is comparable to more established onlay prostheses. The HemiCap Wave thus provides a safe and effective surgical option in the treatment

  7. Migration characteristics and early clinical results of the NANOS® short-stem hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kaipel, Martin; Grabowiecki, Phillip; Sinz, Katrina; Farr, Sebastian; Sinz, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Femoral short stems promise essential advantages in total hip arthroplasty. Up to now, only short- and midterm clinical studies exist. Data on early stem migration that could predict later aseptic loosening at an early stage are rare. The purpose of this study was to assess migration patterns and clinical outcome 2 years after hip replacement by a metaphyseal anchored cementless short stem. Migration data and clinical results were prospectively assessed in 49 patients. Clinical outcome was measured using the Harris Hip Score (HHS). Migration analyses were performed using the computer-assisted Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse (EBRA) system. At 2 years after surgery, none of the implants needed revision, and HHS increased from 47.9 up to 98.1. Of 49 patients, 5 (10%) showed increased vertical stem migration (1.5 mm/2a) that might predict late aseptic loosening. Of 49 stems, 44 (90%) showed stable migration patterns indicating a beneficial long-term outcome. Results of this study confirm the excellent clinical data of previous works. Migration patterns strongly suggest that short-stem arthroplasty is not only an innovative but also a reliable strategy in total hip replacement.

  8. Surgical management of anomalous pulmonary venous connection to the superior vena cava - early results

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dinesh; Gupta, Anubhav; Nath, Ranjit K.; kazmi, Aamir; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The anatomical variability in patients with anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava presents a surgical challenge. The problem is further compounded by the common occurrence of postoperative complications like arrhythmias and obstruction of the superior vena cava or pulmonary veins. We present our experience of managing this subset using the two patch and Warden's techniques. Patients and methods Between June 2011 and September 2012, 7 patients with APVC to the SVC were operated in our institute. After delineating the anatomy, five of them had a two patch repair and two were managed with Warden's technique. Results There was no in-hospital mortality or early mortality over a mean follow-up of 9.66 ± 3.88 months (range 6–15 months). All the patients on follow-up had unobstructed pulmonary venous and SVC drainage on echocardiography and all of them were in normal sinus rhythm. Conclusions Anomalous pulmonary venous connection to superior vena cava is a challenging subset of patients in whom the surgical management needs to be individualized. The detailed anatomy must be delineated using echocardiography with or without CT angiography before deciding the surgical plan. This entity can be repaired with excellent immediate and early results. However, these patients must be closely followed up for complications like systemic and pulmonary venous obstruction and sinus node dysfunction. PMID:24206880

  9. Early allograft dysfunction in liver transplantation with donation after cardiac death donors results in inferior survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, David D; Singh, Amandeep; Burns, Justin M; Perry, Dana K; Nguyen, Justin H; Taner, C Burcin

    2014-12-01

    Donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver allografts have been associated with increased morbidity from primary nonfunction, biliary complications, early allograft failure, cost, and mortality. Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation has been found to be associated with inferior patient and graft survival. In a cohort of 205 consecutive liver-only transplant patients with allografts from DCD donors at a single center, the incidence of EAD was found to be 39.5%. The patient survival rates for those with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 97% and 89%, 79% and 79%, and 61% and 54%, respectively (P = 0.009). Allograft survival rates for recipients with no EAD and those with EAD at 1, 3, and 5 years were 90% and 75%, 72% and 64%, and 53% and 43%, respectively (P = 0.003). A multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant association between the development of EAD and the cold ischemia time [odds ratio (OR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.56, P = 0.037] and hepatocellular cancer as a secondary diagnosis in recipients (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.11-4.58, P = 0.025). There was no correlation between EAD and the development of ischemic cholangiopathy. In conclusion, EAD results in inferior patient and graft survival in recipients of DCD liver allografts. Understanding the events that cause EAD and developing preventive or early therapeutic approaches should be the focus of future investigations. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  10. Regression model estimation of early season crop proportions: North Dakota, some preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    To estimate crop proportions early in the season, an approach is proposed based on: use of a regression-based prediction equation to obtain an a priori estimate for specific major crop groups; modification of this estimate using current-year LANDSAT and weather data; and a breakdown of the major crop groups into specific crops by regression models. Results from the development and evaluation of appropriate regression models for the first portion of the proposed approach are presented. The results show that the model predicts 1980 crop proportions very well at both county and crop reporting district levels. In terms of planted acreage, the model underpredicted 9.1 percent of the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the county level. It predicted almost exactly the 1980 published data on planted acreage at the crop reporting district level and overpredicted the planted acreage by just 0.92 percent.

  11. Review of early clinical results and complications associated with oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF).

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Maharaj, Monish; Assem, Yusuf; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-09-01

    Lumbar interbody fusion represents an effective surgical intervention for patients with lumbar degenerative diseases, spondylolisthesis, disc herniation, pseudoarthrosis and spinal deformities. Traditionally, conventional open anterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion techniques have been employed with excellent results, but each with their own advantages and caveats. Most recently, the antero-oblique trajectory has been introduced, providing yet another corridor to access the lumbar spine. Termed the oblique lumbar interbody fusion, this approach accesses the spine between the anterior vessels and psoas muscles, avoiding both sets of structures to allow efficient clearance of the disc space and application of a large interbody device to afford distraction for foraminal decompression and endplate preparation for rapid and thorough fusion. This review aims to summarize the early clinical results and complications of this new technique and discusses potential future directions of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthroscopic coracoid transfer in the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability: a systematic review of early results.

    PubMed

    Butt, Usman; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2013-04-01

    Systematic review of the literature to characterize safety profile and complication rates associated with arthroscopic coracoid transfer procedures. We conducted a combined search of Medline, EMBASE, and the CINAHL databases from 1985 to November 2012. Articles were selected and data extracted according to standard criteria. Only 3 studies met the inclusion criteria, and these originated from the pioneers of this technique. These studies described the results of 172 arthroscopic coracoid transfer procedures with an overall complication rate of 19.8% ± 5.6%. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 6/172 (3.5%) patients. Repeated surgery was described in 5/172 (2.9% ± 2.5%) cases, all for screw removal. The overall rate of recurrent instability was 3/172 cases (1.7% ± 2%). Hardware-related complications occurred in 4/172 patients (2.3% ± 2.3%). Coracoid grafts failed to unite in 14/172 patients (8.1% ± 4.1%); graft osteolysis was seen in 7/172 patients (4.1% ± 2.6%). The coracoid graft fractured in 2/172 cases (1.2% ± 1.6%); one of these occurred intraoperatively and one occurred early postoperatively. There was one transient nerve palsy (0.6% ± 1.1%). Results of arthroscopic coracoid transfer surgery for anterior shoulder instability are sparse, with the available studies originating from the pioneers of this technique. Early results suggest that arthroscopic coracoid transfer is a technically feasible procedure that is able to restore shoulder stability. However, this technique seems to be associated with a high complication rate and a steep learning curve. Results from the wider orthopaedic shoulder arthroscopic community are awaited. Extensive cadaveric training and experience with the open technique is recommended before performing the arthroscopic procedure. Systematic review of Level IV studies. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder Predispose Youth to Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Early Cardiovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Matthews, Karen A; McIntyre, Roger S; Miller, Gregory E; Raghuveer, Geetha; Stoney, Catherine M; Wasiak, Hank; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-09-08

    In the 2011 "Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents," several medical conditions among youth were identified that predispose to accelerated atherosclerosis and early cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk stratification and management strategies for youth with these conditions were elaborated. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) among youth satisfy the criteria set for, and therefore merit inclusion among, Expert Panel tier II moderate-risk conditions. The combined prevalence of MDD and BD among adolescents in the United States is ≈10%, at least 10 times greater than the prevalence of the existing moderate-risk conditions combined. The high prevalence of MDD and BD underscores the importance of positioning these diseases alongside other pediatric diseases previously identified as moderate risk for CVD. The overall objective of this statement is to increase awareness and recognition of MDD and BD among youth as moderate-risk conditions for early CVD. To achieve this objective, the primary specific aims of this statement are to (1) summarize evidence that MDD and BD are tier II moderate-risk conditions associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and early CVD and (2) position MDD and BD as tier II moderate-risk conditions that require the application of risk stratification and management strategies in accordance with Expert Panel recommendations. In this scientific statement, there is an integration of the various factors that putatively underlie the association of MDD and BD with CVD, including pathophysiological mechanisms, traditional CVD risk factors, behavioral and environmental factors, and psychiatric medications. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. An Overview of Scientific and Space Weather Results from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.; de la Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Strauss, P.; Bernhardt, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory is described. C/NOFS science objectives may be organized into three categories: (1) to understand physical processes active in the background ionosphere and thermosphere in which plasma instabilities grow; (2) to identify mechanisms that trigger or quench the plasma irregularities responsible for signal degradation; and (3) to determine how the plasma irregularities affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves. The satellite was launched in April, 2008 into a low inclination (13 deg), elliptical (400 x 850 km) orbit. The satellite sensors measure the following parameters in situ: ambient and fluctuating electron densities, AC and DC electric and magnetic fields, ion drifts and large scale ion composition, ion and electron temperatures, and neutral winds. C/NOFS is also equipped with a GPS occultation receiver and a radio beacon. In addition to the satellite sensors, complementary ground-based measurements, theory, and advanced modeling techniques are also important parts of the mission. We report scientific and space weather highlights of the mission after nearly four years in orbit

  15. Comparison of endoscopic and microscopic trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery: early results in a single centre.

    PubMed

    Razak, Adam A; Horridge, Michelle; Connolly, Daniel J; Warren, Daniel J; Mirza, Showkat; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Sinha, Saurabh

    2013-02-01

    Pituitary surgery has seen a recent shift from a microscopic to an endoscopic trans-sphenoidal approach. We present our early experience with endoscopic surgery and compare the outcome with our recent microscopic experience. From January 2008 until present time, 80 consecutive patients underwent trans-sphenoidal pituitary surgery in our institution. Until September 2009, all patients had a microscopic trans-septal approach. After this time, the patients underwent endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery. All patients underwent pre- and post-operative MRI and full endocrinological evaluation. Data was collected prospectively including tumour volume, endocrine function, visual function, length of stay and complications. There were 40 patients in each group. In the microscopic group, there were 26 non-functioning tumours and 14 functioning tumours. In the endoscopic group, there were 24 non-functioning and 16 functioning tumours. There were significantly better results in terms of tumour resection (p = 0.002) and remission (p = 0.018) in the endoscopic group. In this group there was also a lower incidence of CSF leaks and a shorter length of stay for secreting tumours (p = 0.005). 1 patient in the endoscopic group died at day 43 post-operatively, having initially presented in a poor clinical state with pituitary apoplexy. Microscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery remains the benchmark for future surgical techniques. Our early results suggest that endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery provides favourable results in both tumour resection and control of secreting tumours in comparison with microscopic surgery. Further longer-term evaluation is required to ensure the outcome of endoscopic surgery.

  16. Photodynamic therapy of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and bronchi: instrumentation and clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnières, G.

    1990-01-01

    A complete instrumentation has been developed for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and combined PDT- hyperthermia in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi. These instruments consist of several light distributors which permit optimal light dosage to "superficial" tumors, as well as an injector for laser beams into an optical fiber and a fiberoptic coupler for cw laser beam powers at least 100 Watts. PDT is carried out with HpD and Photofrin II at 630 nm, whereas occasional simultaneous hyperthermia is at 1.06 microns. PDT of 41 cases of "early" squamous cell carcinoma is reported with follow-up between 5 and 62 months. In the oesophagus and bronchi the results are good for cancers staged in situ or microinvasive at endoscopy (2 recurrences for 23 lesions treated). For more advanced cancers (submucosal in the oesopha- gus or invading the bronchial cartilage) the results are less satisfactory with 3 recurrences for 8 lesions treated. In the bronchi (1 case) and the oesophagus (1 case) the largest disease - free survival is now more than 5 years. We encountered 6 complications (3 cicatrical stenosis, 2 fistulae, 1 severe sunburn), most of them resulting from the lack of selectivity of PDT with these porphyrin mixtures at the applied conditions. These experiments show that PDT is efficient at destroying early squamous cell carcinomas in the pharynx, oesophagus and bronchi. Tumour selectivity of HpD and photofrin II is poor in the aerodigestive tract lined with squamous cell epithelium. The future lies in the synthesis of a more selective efficient photosensitizer.

  17. Recondensation of chondritic material in the early solar system: Results of thermodynamic simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorofeyeva, V. A.; Makalkin, A. B.; Mironenko, M. V.; Vityazev, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a thermodynamic simulation of the recondensation of evaporated meteoritic material. We suggest that evaporation and recondensation occurred in impact events during the intercollision of planetesimals during the early evolution of the solar system. The source materials adopted for our model are the chondrites CI Orgueil and H5 Richardton. These chondrites are representative examples of the two extremes regarding volatile content and oxidation state. We calculated equilibrium mineral compositions of the closed systems of the Orgueil's and Richardton's elemental composition at the P-T conditions characteristic of the explosion cloud formed at a planetesimal collision. The P-T conditions are as follows: 10(exp -4) bar, and 1500 and 2000 K. The results are presented.

  18. [Results after distraction arthroplasty according to Bufalini and Perugia in early stages of trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Fatzer, Lukas; Soleman, E; Sanchez, T

    2015-02-01

    A distraction arthroplasty of the trapeziometacarpal joint was introduced by Bufalini and Perugia for the treatment of the early stages of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis. Our retrospective study presents the results of this technique. Thereby, a tendon graft anchored to the distal second metacarpal is fixed at the base of the first metacarpal, keeping it in distraction. 10 distraction arthroplasties were performed in 9 patients with carpometacarpal osteoarthritis stage I and II of the thumb after unsuccessful conservative therapy. In 2 cases, which were excluded from our study, trapeziectomy had to be performed because of persisting pain. Patient satisfaction, pain measurement, range of motion, and tip, key and grip strength were evaluated at a follow-up of 46.5 (29-63) months in the remaining 7 patients (8 operations overall). Strengh measurement was taken in an absolute value and compared to the opposite side. Thumb range of motion was measured with the combined flexion-opposition of the thumb with the Kapandij index and also the angle of abduction of the metacarpal I to metacarpal II. Assessment included a DASH score evaluation and an X-ray control. All of the 7 evaluated patients were satisfied with the operation results. Compared to the opposite side, patients achieved 80.1% (5.9 kg±1.1 kg) of key pinch strength, 86.3% (4.8 kg±0.9 kg) of oppositional tip pinch strength, and 86.1% (23.1 kg±4.8 kg) of grip strength. In combined flexion and opposition a Kapandij index of 8.5 (94.4%) compared to 9 on the opposite side was achieved. Thumb radial abduction was 48.2°±2.8°, compared to 51.0°±2.9° on the contralateral hand. At follow-up, the mean DASH score was 17.8 (±10.0). Radiological control showed no progression of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the thumb. The collected data after distraction arthroplasty according to Bufalini and Perugia confirm the efficacy of the technique in the early stage of carpometacarpal osteoarthritis of the

  19. Results of early thyroidectomy for medullary thyroid carcinoma in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Telander, R L; Zimmerman, D; van Heerden, J A; Sizemore, G W

    1986-12-01

    Children with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) often develop medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MCT) or its precursor, C-cell hyperplasia. Survival results are improved if malignancy is diagnosed early from the results of plasma immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT) measurement. The effect of early detection and thyroidectomy in children with MEN2 syndrome was determined by reviewing the experience between 1975 and 1985. Seventeen children with MEN2 who were 12 years old or younger underwent a total thyroidectomy for MCT or C-cell hyperplasia. iCT was measured in all patients preoperatively and postoperatively. Of the 17 children, 14 (82%) had MEN2a and 3 (18%) had MEN2b. There were 14 (82%) female and three (18%) male patients; their mean age was 6.97 years (range 1.5 to 12 years). In all patients, the diagnosis of MCT was made from initial elevated levels of iCT after stimulation with pentagastrin. Three patients had clinical evidence of disease preoperatively. All patients underwent a total thyroidectomy and lymph nodes were removed from the central zone; a neck dissection was performed in the three with clinically obvious disease. MCT with C-cell hyperplasia was found in 11 children and C-cell hyperplasia alone in six. Of the 11 with carcinoma, eight had bilateral disease and three unilateral. Six children had bilateral C-cell hyperplasia. All 17 children were alive and feeling well at the time of this report; however, three had evidence of metastatic disease according to iCT measurements. None of the children had recurrent nerve injuries; one had evidence of hypoparathyroidism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [Personalized cell therapy for early postoperative bullous keratopathy (experimental proof and clinical results)].

    PubMed

    Kasparov, A A; Kasparova, Evg A; Fadeeva, L L; Subbot, A M; Borodina, N V; Kasparova, E A; Kobzova, M V; Musaeva, G M; Pavliuk, A S

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of a long-term research on development and clinical application of personalized cell therapy (PCT) for treatment of early postoperative (manifesting within the first 3 months after surgery) bullous keratopathy (BK). The method of intracameral PCT implies in vitro incubation of the patient's blood sample with poly(A:U) stimulator, separation of the serum with activated leukocytes, and injection of the final cell preparation into the anterior chamber. The fundamental part of the research was aimed at a detailed description of the cell preparation and investigation of its possible mechanisms of action. Cytokine and growth factor level in the cell preparation suggested that its high clinical efficacy might be due to its ability to improve regeneration of damaged corneal endothelium. The clinical study was conducted on a group of 52 patients with early BK. A significant effect (smoothing of the Descement's membrane folds, complete resorption of corneal edema, improvement of corneal transparency, reduction of corneal thickness and increase of visual acuity by 0.49 +/- 0.27) was achieved in 44.2% of patients, while partial effect was seen in 21.1% of patients. There was no clinical effect in 34.6% of patients. In those patients who developed significant or partial clinical effect after the PCT, many endotheliocytes appeared to have multiple nuclei (2 and more). In some patients polyploid nuclei persisted for 3-5 years after the treatment. Polyploidy results from incomplete mitosis which might be due to regenerative processes in the endothelium stimulated by the PCT. Obviously, high efficacy and relative simplicity of the method should promote its further clinical introduction.

  1. Riociguat in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: results from an early access study.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Jansa, Pavel; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E; Halank, Michael; Simonneau, Gérald; Grünig, Ekkehard; Ulrich, Silvia; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gómez Sánchez, Miguel A; Pulido, Tomás; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Barberá, Joan Albert; Hoeper, Marius M; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Lang, Irene; Carvalho, Francine; Meier, Christian; Mueller, Katharina; Nikkho, Sylvia; D'Armini, Andrea M

    2017-12-28

    Following positive results from the Phase III CHEST-1 study in patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the Phase IIIb CTEPH early access study (EAS) was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat in real-world clinical practice, as well as to provide patients with early access to riociguat before launch. Riociguat is approved for the treatment of inoperable and persistent/recurrent CTEPH. We performed an open-label, uncontrolled, single-arm, early access study in which 300 adult patients with inoperable or persistent/recurrent CTEPH received riociguat adjusted from 1 mg three times daily (tid) to a maximum of 2.5 mg tid. Patients switching from unsatisfactory prior pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-targeted therapy (n = 84) underwent a washout period of at least 3 days before initiating riociguat. The primary aim was to assess the safety and tolerability of riociguat, with World Health Organization functional class and 6-min walking distance (6MWD) as exploratory efficacy endpoints. In total, 262 patients (87%) completed study treatment and entered the safety follow-up (median treatment duration 47 weeks). Adverse events were reported in 273 patients (91%). The most frequently reported serious adverse events were syncope (6%), right ventricular failure (3%), and pneumonia (2%). There were five deaths, none of which was considered related to study medication. The safety and tolerability of riociguat was similar in patients switched from other PAH-targeted therapies and those who were treatment naïve. In patients with data available, mean ± standard deviation 6MWD had increased by 33 ± 42 m at Week 12 with no clinically relevant differences between the switched and treatment-naïve subgroups. Riociguat was well tolerated in patients with CTEPH who were treatment naïve, and in those who were switched from other PAH-targeted therapies. No new safety signals were

  2. Early Postoperative Results of Percutaneous Needle Fasciotomy in 451 Patients with Dupuytren Disease.

    PubMed

    Molenkamp, Sanne; Schouten, Tanneke A M; Broekstra, Dieuwke C; Werker, Paul M N; Moolenburgh, J Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Percutaneous needle fasciotomy is a minimally invasive treatment modality for Dupuytren disease. In this study, the authors analyzed the efficacy and complication rate of percutaneous needle fasciotomy using a statistical method that takes the multilevel structure of data, regarding multiple measurements from the same patient, into account. The data of 470 treated rays from 451 patients with Dupuytren disease that underwent percutaneous needle fasciotomy were analyzed retrospectively. The authors described the early postoperative results of percutaneous needle fasciotomy and applied linear mixed models to compare mean correction of passive extension deficit between joints and efficacy of primary versus secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Mean preoperative passive extension deficits at the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints were 37, 40, and 31 degrees, respectively. Mean preoperative total passive extension deficit was 54 degrees. Results were excellent, with a mean total passive extension deficit correction of 85 percent. Percutaneous needle fasciotomy was most effective for metacarpophalangeal joints and less effective for proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. Secondary percutaneous needle fasciotomy was as effective as primary percutaneous needle fasciotomy. Complications were rare and mostly minor. The results of this study confirm that percutaneous needle fasciotomy is an effective and safe treatment modality for patients with mild to moderate disease who prefer a minimally invasive procedure. Therapeutic, IV.

  3. [Assessment of results in the early diagnosis of breast cancer program in Asturias Community].

    PubMed

    Natal, Carmen; Suárez, María Teresa; Serrano, Susana; Díaz, Concepción; González, Cristina; Menéndez, Primitiva; Castañón, Rubén; García, María Luisa; Blázquez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate and disseminate the intermediate results of a breast cancer early detection program in the Asturias Community. We report the results of screening examinations performed between 2005 and 2009, using the indicators proposed in the European Guidelines on Quality Assurance in Mammography Screening. The information sources for breast cancer cases diagnosed were the pathology information system and the information on the characteristics of the tumour from the pathology report. The classification of the diagnostic features of the program was from its own information system. A total of 1,384 breast cancers were diagnosed in the program target population during the study period, of which 49% were diagnosed in the program, 13% were interval cancers, 17% were diagnosed in women who chose not to participate in the program, and 22% in women who for various reasons had not been invited to participate. The most advanced diagnoses were made in the group of interval cancers and the earliest diagnoses were made in the uninvited population. When the healthcare system is directed towards the asymptomatic population to provide a measure of prevention, it must ensure that there is a favourable balance. The results of this evaluation are consistent with accepted standards and with those found in other assessments. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Media consumption and sleep quality in early childhood: results from the Ulm SPATZ Health Study.

    PubMed

    Genuneit, Jon; Brockmann, Pablo E; Schlarb, Angelika A; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2018-05-01

    Media use is increasingly becoming common in preschoolers and starting before the age of three years. While several studies have documented the effects of screen time on sleep duration in this age group, investigations including sleep quality are scarce and mainly cross-sectional. Moreover, they are limited by investigating sleep across broader age ranges or in older preschoolers, which may blur early effects and the ideal time for intervention. The current study analyzed data from the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, a birth cohort study in which 1006 live newborns were recruited from the general population shortly after delivery at the University Medical Center Ulm, Southern Germany, from April 2012 to May 2013. Longitudinal data on child sleep were parent reported on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) at ages two and three years. Child media consumption was assessed at three years of age with different questions on electronic media and books. Statistical analyses included Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Electronic media consumption had a moderate prevalence and dose, and prevalence of never using books appeared to be high (39%). The preliminary results indicated strong statistically significant inverse cross-sectional associations between electronic media consumption and overall sleep quality and, using longitudinal data, with worsening indicators of bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, and daytime sleepiness. This was the first larger-scale study to comprehensively investigate the effects of electronic media consumption and book reading on all CSHQ items in three-year-olds. Considering the risk of chronification, preventive efforts (eg, by effective sleep-oriented training programs) already seem necessary in early life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The selection system of silviculture in spruce-fir stands - procedures, early results, and comparisons with unmanaged stands

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Frank; Barton M. Blum

    1978-01-01

    Early results after 20 years of record keeping indicate that spruce-fir stands will respond to the selection system of silviculture. Stand quality is improved, species composition can be altered, diameter-class distribution approaches a stated goal, stand density is controlled, and yields are increased. Selection silviculture in spruce-fir can now be compared to early...

  6. Feminizing genitoplasty in adult transsexuals: early and long-term surgical results.

    PubMed

    Goddard, Jonathan C; Vickery, Richard M; Qureshi, Assad; Summerton, Duncan J; Khoosal, Deenesh; Terry, Tim R

    2007-09-01

    To examine the early and late surgical outcomes of feminizing genitoplasty (FG) in adult transsexuals in a UK single surgeon practice over a 10-year period. Computerized and manual databases were searched over the period 1994-2004 to identify patients who had undergone male to female FG. Case-notes were retrieved and analysed to identify epidemiological data, the number and type of perioperative problems, early results at outpatient review, late occurring problems and patient satisfaction. A telephone questionnaire was then conducted targeting all FG patients in our series. The questions were directed at identifying surgical complications, outcome and patient satisfaction. In all, 233 case-notes were identified and 222 (95%) were retrieved. All patients had penectomy, urethroplasty and labiaplasty, 207 (93%) had formation of a neoclitoris, and 202 (91%) had a skin-lined neovagina. The median (range) age was 41 (19-76) years. The median hospital stay was 10 (6-21) days. A record of the first outpatient visit was available in 197 (84.5%) cases. The median time to follow up was 56 (8-351) days. Over all, 82.2% had an adequate vaginal depth, with a median depth of 13 (5-15) cm and 6.1% had developed vaginal stenosis. Three (1.7%) patients had had a vaginal prolapse, two (1.1%) had a degree of vaginal skin flap necrosis and one (0.6%) was troubled with vaginal hair growth. In 86.3% of the patients the neoclitorizes were sensitive. There was urethral stenosis in 18.3% of the patients and 5.6% complained of spraying of urine. Minor corrective urethral surgery was undertaken in 36 patients including 42 urethral dilatations, and eight meatotomies were performed. At the first clinic visit 174 (88.3%) patients were 'happy', 13 (6.6%) were 'unhappy' and 10 (5.1%) made no comment. Of the 233 patients, we successfully contacted 70 (30%). All had had penectomy and labioplasty, 64 (91%) had a clitoroplasty and 62 (89%) a neovagina. The median age was 43 (19-76) years and the

  7. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: Results from the initial phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lassiter, J.C.; DePaolo, D.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of Mauna Kea lavas recovered by the first drilling phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. These lavas, which range in age from ???200 to 400 ka, provide a detailed record of chemical and isotopic changes in basalt composition during the shied/postshield transition and extend our record of Mauna Kea volcanism to a late-shield period roughly equivalent to the last ???100 ka of Mauna Loa activity. Stratigraphic variations in isotopic composition reveal a gradual shift over time toward a more depleted source composition (e.g., higher 143Nd/144Nd, lower 87Sr/86Sr, and lower 3He/4He). This gradual evolution is in sharp contrast with the abrupt appearance of alkalic lavas at ???240 ka recorded by the upper 50 m of Mauna Kea lavas from the core. Intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the uppermost Mauna Kea section are isotopically indistinguishable. Combined with major element evidence (e.g., decreasing SiO2 and increasing FeO) that the depth of melt segregation increased during the transition from tholeiitic to alkalic volcanism, the isotopic similarity of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas argues against significant lithosphere involvement during melt generation. Instead, the depleted isotopic signatures found in late shield-stage lavas are best explained by increasing the proportion of melt generated from a depleted upper mantle component entrained and heated by the rising central plume. Direct comparison of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa lavas erupted at equivalent stages in these volcanoes' life cycles reveals persistent chemical and isotopic differences independent of the temporal evolution of each volcano. The oldest lavas recovered from the drillcore are similar to modern Kilauea lavas, but are distinct from Mauna Loa lavas. Mauna Kea lavas have higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb and lower 87Sr/86Sr. Higher concentrations of incompatible trace elements in primary magmas, lower SiO2, and higher FeO also

  8. Early life environmental and pharmacological stressors result in persistent dysregulations of the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Sze, Ying; Gray, Laura Jane; Chang, Cecilia Chin Roei; Cai, Shiwei; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulations in the brain serotonergic system and exposure to environmental stressors have been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder. Here, we investigate the interactions between the stress and serotonergic systems by characterizing the behavioral and biochemical effects of chronic stress applied during early-life or adulthood in wild type (WT) mice and mice with deficient tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) function. We showed that chronic mild stress applied in adulthood did not affect the behaviors and serotonin levels of WT and TPH2 knock-in (KI) mice. Whereas, maternal separation (MS) stress increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors of WT mice, with no detectable behavioral changes in TPH2 KI mice. Biochemically, we found that MS WT mice had reduced brain serotonin levels, which was attributed to increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A). The increased MAO A expression was detected in MS WT mice at 4 weeks old and adulthood. No change in TPH2 expression was detected. To determine whether a pharmacological stressor, dexamethasone (Dex), will result in similar biochemical results obtained from MS, we used an in vitro system, SH-SY5Y cells, and found that Dex treatment resulted in increased MAO A expression levels. We then treated WT mice with Dex for 5 days, either during postnatal days 7–11 or adulthood. Both groups of Dex treated WT mice had reduced basal corticosterone and glucocorticoid receptors expression levels. However, only Dex treatment during PND7–11 resulted in reduced serotonin levels and increased MAO A expression. Just as with MS WT mice, TPH2 expression in PND7–11 Dex-treated WT mice was unaffected. Taken together, our findings suggest that both environmental and pharmacological stressors affect the expression of MAO A, and not TPH2, when applied during the critical postnatal period. This leads to long-lasting perturbations in the serotonergic system, and results in anxiety- and depressive

  9. Scientific Misconduct

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  10. A new UKIDSS proper motion survey and key early results, including new benchmark systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L.; Lucas, P.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H.; Pinfield, D.; Smart, R.; Andrei, A.

    We present a proper motion catalogue for the 1500 deg2 of 2 epoch J-band UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) data, which includes 120,000 stellar sources with motions detected above the 5sigma level. Our upper limit on proper motion detection is 3\\farcs3 yr-1 and typical uncertainties are of order 10 mas yr-1 for bright sources from data with a modest 1.8-7.0 year epoch baseline. We developed a bespoke proper motion pipeline which applies a source-unique second order polynomial transformation to UKIDSS array coordinates to counter potential local non-uniformity in the focal plane. Our catalogue agrees well with the proper motion data supplied in the current WFCAM Science Archive (WSA) tenth data release (DR10) catalogue where there is overlap, and in various optical catalogues, but it benefits from some improvements, such as a larger matching radius and relative to absolute proper motion correction. We present proper motion results for 128 T dwarfs in the UKIDSS LAS and key early results of projects utilising our catalogue, in particular searches for brown dwarf benchmark systems through cross matches with existing proper motion catalogues. We report the discovery of two new T dwarf benchmark systems.

  11. Neuronal redox imbalance results in altered energy homeostasis and early postnatal lethality.

    PubMed

    Maity-Kumar, Gandhari; Thal, Dietmar R; Baumann, Bernd; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Wirth, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Redox imbalance is believed to contribute to the development and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. Our aim was to develop an animal model that exhibits neuron-specific oxidative stress in the CNS to study the consequences and eventually find clues regarding the pathomechanisms of oxidative insults in neuronal homeostasis. We therefore generated a novel neuron-specific superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2)-deficient mouse by deleting exon 3 of the SOD2 gene using CamKIIα promoter-driven Cre expression. These neuron-specific SOD2 knockout (SOD2(nko)) mice, although born at normal frequencies, died at the age of 4 weeks with critical growth retardation, severe energy failure, and several neurologic phenotypes. In addition, SOD2(nko) mice exhibited severe neuronal alterations such as reactive astrogliosis, neuronal cell cycle inhibition, and induction of apoptosis. JNK activation and stabilization of p53, as a result of reactive oxygen species accumulation, are most likely the inducers of neuronal apoptosis in SOD2(nko) mice. It is remarkable that hypothalamic regulation of glucose metabolism was affected, which in turn induced necrotic brain lesions in SOD2(nko) mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that exclusive deficiency of SOD2 in neurons results in an impaired central regulation of energy homeostasis that leads to persistent hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia-related neuropathology, and an early lethality of the mutant mice. © FASEB.

  12. Early versus delayed loading of mandibular implant-supported overdentures: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Tözüm, Tolga F; Tumer, Celal

    2010-05-01

    Because of poor retention of complete removable dentures for edentulous patients, implant-supported mandibular overdentures have lately become a popular alternative for them. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate treatment outcomes of mandibular overdentures supported by two unsplinted early-loaded implants and compare these results with those for delayed-loaded implants. A total of 26 edentulous patients were treated with two unsplinted implants supporting a mandibular overdenture. All implants were placed in the canine regions of each mandible according to the one-stage surgical protocol. There were two groups: test group, in which the overdenture was connected 1 week after surgery, and control group, in which the overdenture was connected 3 months after surgery. Standardized clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at surgery, and after 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. No implants were lost, and 0.93 +/- 0.3 mm marginal bone resorption was noted for all implants after 5 years. Clinical implant stability measurements, clinical peri-implant parameters, and marginal bone resorptions showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups over 5 years. The results of this prospective clinical study suggest that there is no significant difference in the clinical and radiographic state of patients treated with implant supported mandibular overdentures loaded either 1 week or 3 months after surgery.

  13. Scientific Results from the FIRST Instrument Deployment to Cerro Toco, Chile and from the Flight of the INFLAME Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Johnson, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Results from the FIRST and INFLAME infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometers are presented. These are comprehensive measurements of the far-IR spectrum (FIRST) and the net infrared fluxes within the atmosphere (INFLAME).

  14. Ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract: early results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abcarian, Ariane M; Estrada, Joaquin J; Park, John; Corning, Cybil; Chaudhry, Vivek; Cintron, Jose; Prasad, Leela; Abcarian, Herand

    2012-07-01

    needed to validate the early favorable results.

  15. Genomics-Driven Precision Medicine for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: Early Results from the COMPASS Trial.

    PubMed

    Aung, Kyaw L; Fischer, Sandra E; Denroche, Robert E; Jang, Gun-Ho; Dodd, Anna; Creighton, Sean; Southwood, Bernadette; Liang, Sheng-Ben; Chadwick, Dianne; Zhang, Amy; O'Kane, Grainne M; Albaba, Hamzeh; Moura, Shari; Grant, Robert C; Miller, Jessica K; Mbabaali, Faridah; Pasternack, Danielle; Lungu, Ilinca M; Bartlett, John M S; Ghai, Sangeet; Lemire, Mathieu; Holter, Spring; Connor, Ashton A; Moffitt, Richard A; Yeh, Jen Jen; Timms, Lee; Krzyzanowski, Paul M; Dhani, Neesha; Hedley, David; Notta, Faiyaz; Wilson, Julie M; Moore, Malcolm J; Gallinger, Steven; Knox, Jennifer J

    2018-03-15

    Purpose: To perform real-time whole genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA sequencing (RNASeq) of advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) to identify predictive mutational and transcriptional features for better treatment selection. Experimental Design: Patients with advanced PDAC were prospectively recruited prior to first-line combination chemotherapy. Fresh tumor tissue was acquired by image-guided percutaneous core biopsy for WGS and RNASeq. Laser capture microdissection was performed for all cases. Primary endpoint was feasibility to report WGS results prior to first disease assessment CT scan at 8 weeks. The main secondary endpoint was discovery of patient subsets with predictive mutational and transcriptional signatures. Results: Sixty-three patients underwent a tumor biopsy between December 2015 and June 2017. WGS and RNASeq were successful in 62 (98%) and 60 (95%), respectively. Genomic results were reported at a median of 35 days (range, 19-52 days) from biopsy, meeting the primary feasibility endpoint. Objective responses to first-line chemotherapy were significantly better in patients with the classical PDAC RNA subtype compared with those with the basal-like subtype ( P = 0.004). The best progression-free survival was observed in those with classical subtype treated with m-FOLFIRINOX. GATA6 expression in tumor measured by RNA in situ hybridization was found to be a robust surrogate biomarker for differentiating classical and basal-like PDAC subtypes. Potentially actionable genetic alterations were found in 30% of patients. Conclusions: Prospective genomic profiling of advanced PDAC is feasible, and our early data indicate that chemotherapy response differs among patients with different genomic/transcriptomic subtypes. Clin Cancer Res; 24(6); 1344-54. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Management strategies, early results, benefits, and risk factors of laparoscopic repair of perforated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Lunevicius, Raimundas; Morkevicius, Matas

    2005-10-01

    The primary goal of this study was to describe epidemiology and management strategies of the perforated duodenal ulcer, as well as the most common methods of laparoscopic perforated duodenal ulcer repair. The secondary goal was to demonstrate the value of prospective and retrospective studies regarding the early results of surgery and the risk factors. The tertiary goal was to emphasize the benefits of this operation, and the fourth goal was to clarify the possible risk factors associated with laparoscopic repair of the duodenal ulcer. The Medline/Pubmed database was used. Review was done after evaluation of 96 retrieved full-text articles. Thirteen prospective and twelve retrospective studies were selected, grouped, and summarized. The spectrum of the retrospective studies' results are as follows: median overall morbidity rate 10.5 %, median conversion rate 7%, median hospital stay 7 days, and median postoperative mortality rate 0%. The following is the spectrum of results of the prospective studies: median overall morbidity rate was slightly less (6%); the median conversion rate was higher (15%); the median hospital stay was shorter (5 days) and the postoperative mortality was higher (3%). The risk factors identified were the same. Shock, delayed presentation (> 24 hours), confounding medical condition, age > 70 years, poor laparoscopic expertise, ASA III-IV, and Boey score should be considered preoperative laparoscopic repair risk factors. Each of these factors independently should qualify as a criterion for open repair due to higher intraoperative risks as well as postoperative morbidity. Inadequate ulcer localization, large perforation size (defined by some as > 6 mm diameter, and by others as > 10 mm), and ulcers with friable edges are also considered as conversion risk factors.

  17. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A.

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergenmore » (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)« less

  18. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  19. Clinical and scientific results in perinatal care of pregnancy complicated by insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Djelmis, J

    1998-01-01

    At the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Perinatal Unit for Diabetes and Fetal Growth, School of Medicine, Zagreb, perinatal care of pregnancies complicated with insulin dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM), has been performed for more than 36 years. The intention of this review is to show our own results in the management of IDDM pregnancies and the latest clinical advances in perinatal care of such pregnancies. Pregnancy complicated with IDDM is at risk because of numerous maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. Recent advances in medicine, especially in diabetology and perinatology, helps clinician avoid or lessen antenatal or perinatal complications in IDDM pregnancies. The main result of improved perinatal care is that today fetal and neonatal mortality in IDDM pregnancy is almost equal to that of healthy pregnant population. Intensive preconceptual care and optimal regulation of IDDM have resulted not only in decreased perinatal mortality but also in a decreased rate of congenital malformation. Tight glycemia control during pregnancy has a beneficial effect on fetal growth. Intensive control of fetal growth, verification of lung maturation at term by amniocenthesis, and control of fetal oxygenation will result in delivery of a mature eutrophic newborn with the lowest rate of neonatal complications possible. Perinatal mortality of less than 2% in IDDM pregnancy can be obtained by planned delivery between 38 and 39 weeks of gestation by either vaginal route or cesarean section, depending on indications. After delivery, intensive care of the newborn is necessary.

  20. Migration characteristics and early clinical results of a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup.

    PubMed

    Kaipel, Martin; Prenner, Anton; Bachl, Sebastian; Farr, Sebastian; Sinz, Günter

    2014-04-01

    Ana Nova® is a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup which showed superior biomechanical characteristics in an experimental set-up. Using Einzel Bild Röntgen Analyse (EBRA) measurements should offer the opportunity to predict implant survival at an early stage. The purpose of this study was to assess migration and clinical outcome 2 years after total hip replacement by a novel-finned press-fit acetabular cup. In this study, migration and clinical results of the implant were prospectively assessed in 67 patients. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Harris hip score (HHS). Migration analyses were performed using the computer assisted EBRA system. Data were analyzed for normal distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Group comparisons were performed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. At 2 years after surgery, none of the implants needed revision and HHS increased from 39.7 up to 92.2. In contrast to the beneficial clinical outcome, 17 of 44 patients showed increased total migration ( 1 mm/2a). Adverse migration data in this study might predict aseptic loosening and decreased survival of the implant. According to previous studies, it is possible that this effect occurred because of limited accuracy of the EBRA system. In our opinion, migration analyses may not be recommended as a screening tool in a 2 year follow-up.

  1. VCE early acoustic test results of General Electric's high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, P. R.; Brausch, J. F.; Bhutiani, P. K.; Majjigi, R. K.; Doyle, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of variable cycle engine (VCE) early acoustic engine and model scale tests are presented. A summary of an extensive series of far field acoustic, advanced acoustic, and exhaust plume velocity measurements with a laser velocimeter of inverted velocity and temperature profile, high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles on a YJ101 VCE static engine test vehicle are reviewed. Select model scale simulated flight acoustic measurements for an unsuppressed and a mechanical suppressed coannular plug nozzle are also discussed. The engine acoustic nozzle tests verify previous model scale noise reduction measurements. The engine measurements show 4 to 6 PNdB aft quadrant jet noise reduction and up to 7 PNdB forward quadrant shock noise reduction relative to a fully mixed conical nozzle at the same specific thrust and mixed pressure ratio. The influences of outer nozzle radius ratio, inner stream velocity ratio, and area ratio are discussed. Also, laser velocimeter measurements of mean velocity and turbulent velocity of the YJ101 engine are illustrated. Select model scale static and simulated flight acoustic measurements are shown which corroborate that coannular suppression is maintained in forward speed.

  2. The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission: Overview and early science results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M., III; Bailey, Scott M.; Gordley, Larry L.; Rusch, David W.; Horányi, Mihály; Hervig, Mark E.; Thomas, Gary E.; Randall, Cora E.; Siskind, David E.; Stevens, Michael H.; Summers, Michael E.; Taylor, Michael J.; Englert, Christoph R.; Espy, Patrick J.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee W.

    2009-03-01

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 1:26:03 PDT on April 25, 2007 becoming the first satellite mission dedicated to the study of polar mesospheric clouds. A Pegasus XL rocket launched the satellite into a near perfectly circular 600 km sun synchronous orbit. AIM carries three instruments selected because of their ability to provide key measurements needed to address the AIM goal which is to determine why these clouds form and vary. The instrument payload includes a nadir imager, a solar occultation instrument and an in-situ cosmic dust detector. Detailed descriptions of the science, instruments and observation scenario are presented. Early science results from the first northern and southern hemisphere seasons show a highly variable cloud morphology, clouds that are ten times brighter than measured by previous space-based instruments, and complex features that are reminiscent of tropospheric weather phenomena. The observations also confirm a previously theorized but never before directly observed population of small ice particles in the altitude region above the main Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) layer that are widely believed to be the indirect cause of summertime radar echoes.

  3. Early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Lavoie, Dawn L.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2011-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region and its diverse ecosystems are threatened by population and development pressure and by the impacts of rising sea level and severe storms such as the series of hurricanes that has impacted the northern Gulf in recent years. In response to the complex management issues facing the region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) organized a multidisciplinary research program to coordinate the activities of USGS and other scientists working in the northern Gulf of Mexico region (fig. 1). The Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project aims to develop a thorough understanding of the dynamic coastal ecosystems on the northern Gulf coast, the impact of human activities on these ecosystems, and the vulnerability of ecosystems and human communities to more frequent and more intense hurricanes in the future. A special issue of Geo-Marine Letters published in December 2009 is devoted to early results of studies completed as part of this project. These studies, which have been conducted at sites throughout the northern Gulf region, from the Chandeleur Islands to Apalachicola Bay, have focused on three themes: (1) The underlying geologic framework that exerts controls over coastal processes (2) The impact of human activities on nearshore water quality (3) Hurricanes and associated effects

  4. Complications and early results after operative fixation of 68 pilon fractures of the distal tibia.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Adam; Singh, Anjani; N Jane, Madeley; C Senthil, Kumar

    2015-05-01

    In this cohort study, we present comprehensive injury specific and surgical outcome data from one of the largest reported series of pilon fractures of the distal tibia treated in a UK tertiary referral centre. A series of 68 closed pilon fractures were retrospectively reviewed from case notes, plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging. Patient demographics, injury and fracture patterns, methods and timing of fixation and clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed over a mean follow-up period of 7.7 months (1.5-30). Overall, deep infection occurred in 1.6% with superficial infection and wound breakdown occurring in 6.3% of cases. Rates of nonunion and malunion were 7.8%. Radiological posttraumatic arthritis was present in 26.6%, which was symptomatic and requiring orthopaedic management in 9.4%. Further surgery for all causes occurred in 26.6% of cases. Fixation of these complex fractures in subspecialist units can achieve overall low rates of wound complications, with definitive fixation of selected fractures within 48 h of initial presentation achieving comparable results to those fixed in a delayed fashion. However, this injury continues to have a significant overall complication rate with a high chance of developing early posttraumatic arthritis and of requiring further surgery. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  6. Ocriplasmin for treatment of stage 2 macular holes: early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Miller, John B; Kim, Leo A; Wu, David M; Vavvas, Demetrios G; Eliott, Dean; Husain, Deeba

    2014-01-01

    To review clinical and structural outcomes of ocriplasmin for treatment of stage 2 macular holes. A retrospective review of the first patients with stage 2 macular holes to be treated with ocriplasmin at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. All patients were imaged with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Eight patients with stage 2 macular holes received a single injection of 125 μg of ocriplasmin. One patient (12.5%) demonstrated macular hole closure. The posterior hyaloid separated from the macula in six eyes (75%). All seven holes that remained open showed enlargement in hole diameters (narrowest, apical, and basal) at 1 week and 1 month. All seven were successfully closed with surgery. Ellipsoid zone disruptions were observed by OCT in four eyes (50%) and persisted throughout follow-up (more than 6 months on average). In early clinical results, the authors found a lower macular hole closure rate with ocriplasmin than previously reported. Enlargement was observed in all holes that failed to close with ocriplasmin. The authors found ellipsoid zone disruptions that persisted through 6 months of follow-up after ocriplasmin injection. Further work is needed to investigate the cause for these ellipsoid zone changes. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Early and Late Retrieval of the ALN Removable Vena Cava Filter: Results from a Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, O., E-mail: olivier.pellerin@egp.aphp.f; Barral, F. G.; Lions, C.

    Retrieval of removable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in selected patients is widely practiced. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the feasibility and results of percutaneous removal of the ALN removable filter in a large patient cohort. Between November 2003 and June 2006, 123 consecutive patients were referred for percutaneous extraction of the ALN filter at three centers. The ALN filter is a removable filter that can be implanted through a femoral/jugular vein approach and extracted by the jugular vein approach. Filter removal was attempted after an implantation period of 93 {+-} 15 days (range, 6-722 days)more » through the right internal jugular vein approach using the dedicated extraction kit after control inferior vena cavography. Following filter removal, vena cavograms were obtained in all patients. Successful extraction was achieved in all but one case. Among these successful retrievals, additional manipulation using a femoral approach was needed when the apex of the filter was close to the IVC wall in two patients. No immediate IVC complications were observed according to the postimplantation cavography. Neither technical nor clinical differences between early and late filter retrieval were noticed. Our data confirm the safety of ALN filter retrieval up to 722 days after implantation. In infrequent cases, additional endovenous filter manipulation is needed to facilitate extraction.« less

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-10

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capturemore » elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data.« less

  9. [A system of introduction of the results of scientific research on hygiene into practical health care and national economics].

    PubMed

    Eksler, N D; Vishnevskaia, S S

    1989-01-01

    The country's socio-economic development necessitates further elaboration of new approaches to the introduction of hygienic research results into practice. The main criterion for choosing proper research techniques lies in their economy-type efficiency, both social, medical and economic. A new system of hygienic research introduction should be based on financial and economic stimuli, establishment of a network of inventive firms, as well as supported by an effective mechanisms of information feed-back with due account of health indices.

  10. Early Results of Endovascular Treatment of the Thoracic Aorta Using the Valiant Endograft

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Matt, E-mail: matt.thompson@stgeorges.nhs.uk; Ivaz, Stella; Cheshire, Nicholas

    Endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta has been adopted as the first-line therapy for much pathology. Initial results from the early-generation endografts have highlighted the potential of this technique. Newer-generation endografts have now been introduced into clinical practice and careful assessment of their performance should be mandatory. This study describes the initial experience with the Valiant endograft and makes comparisons with similar series documenting previous-generation endografts. Data were retrospectively collected on 180 patients treated with the Valiant endograft at seven European centers between March 2005 and October 2006. The patient cohort consisted of 66 patients with thoracic aneurysms, 22 withmore » thoracoabdominal aneurysms, 19 with an acute aortic syndrome, 52 with aneurysmal degeneration of a chronic dissection, and 21 patients with traumatic aortic transection. The overall 30-day mortality for the series was 7.2%, with a stroke rate of 3.8% and a paraplegia rate of 3.3%. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that mortality differed significantly between different indications; thoracic aneurysms (6.1%), thoracoabdominal aneurysms (27.3%), acute aortic syndrome (10.5%), chronic dissections (1.9%), and acute transections (0%). Adjunctive surgical procedures were required in 63 patients, and 51% of patients had grafts deployed proximal to the left subclavian artery. Comparison with a series of earlier-generation grafts demonstrated a significant increase in complexity of procedure as assessed by graft implantation site, number of grafts and patient comorbidity. The data demonstrate acceptable results for a new-generation endograft in series of patients with diverse thoracic aortic pathology. Comparison of clinical outcomes between different endografts poses considerable challenges due to differing case complexity.« less

  11. The JCMT Plane Survey: early results from the ℓ = 30° field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. J. T.; Plume, R.; Thompson, M. A.; Parsons, H.; Urquhart, J. S.; Eden, D. J.; Dempsey, J. T.; Morgan, L. K.; Thomas, H. S.; Buckle, J.; Brunt, C. M.; Butner, H.; Carretero, D.; Chrysostomou, A.; deVilliers, H. M.; Fich, M.; Hoare, M. G.; Manser, G.; Mottram, J. C.; Natario, C.; Olguin, F.; Peretto, N.; Polychroni, D.; Redman, R. O.; Rigby, A. J.; Salji, C.; Summers, L. J.; Berry, D.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Pestalozzi, M.; Traficante, A.; Bastien, P.; diFrancesco, J.; Davis, C. J.; Evans, A.; Friberg, P.; Fuller, G. A.; Gibb, A. G.; Gibson, S.; Hill, T.; Johnstone, D.; Joncas, G.; Longmore, S. N.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martin, P. G.; Nguyen Lu'o'ng, Q.; Pineda, J. E.; Purcell, C.; Richer, J. S.; Schieven, G. H.; Shipman, R.; Spaans, M.; Taylor, A. R.; Viti, S.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present early results from the JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Plane Survey (JPS), which has surveyed the northern inner Galactic plane between longitudes ℓ = 7° and ℓ = 63° in the 850-μm continuum with SCUBA-2 (Submm Common-User Bolometer Array 2), as part of the JCMT Legacy Survey programme. Data from the ℓ = 30° survey region, which contains the massive-star-forming regions W43 and G29.96, are analysed after approximately 40 per cent of the observations had been completed. The pixel-to-pixel noise is found to be 19 mJy beam-1 after a smooth over the beam area, and the projected equivalent noise levels in the final survey are expected to be around 10 mJy beam-1. An initial extraction of compact sources was performed using the FELLWALKER method, resulting in the detection of 1029 sources above a 5σ surface-brightness threshold. The completeness limits in these data are estimated to be around 0.2 Jy beam-1 (peak flux density) and 0.8 Jy (integrated flux density) and are therefore probably already dominated by source confusion in this relatively crowded section of the survey. The flux densities of extracted compact sources are consistent with those of matching detections in the shallower APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) survey. We analyse the virial and evolutionary state of the detected clumps in the W43 star-forming complex and find that they appear younger than the Galactic-plane average.

  12. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. Materials and Methods A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. Results The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. Conclusion The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved. PMID:26266220

  13. Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buratti, B.J.; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, R.H.; Hicks, M.D.; Clark, R.N.; Mosher, J.A.; McCord, T.B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D.P.; Sicardy, B.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early results of an endoscopic nipple-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Naomi; Fukuma, Eisuke; Higa, Kuniki; Ozaki, Shinji; Sakamoto, Masaaki; Abe, Satoko; Kurihara, Terumasa; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro

    2009-12-01

    Endoscopic mastectomy has been reportedly associated with smaller scars and greater patient satisfaction; however, few reports on this topic have been made. The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the early results of endoscopic nipple-sparing mastectomy (E-NSM) and to investigate the safety of this procedure. Between January 2002 and December 2005, a total of 87 patients with breast cancer but without skin and nipple involvement, including two cases of bilateral breast cancer, underwent E-NSM. In case of bloody nipple discharge and suspicious extension near the nipple as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, the major ducts within the nipple were cored (nipple coring). In other cases, nipple coring was not performed. Of the 89 breasts in 87 patients, 42 had tumors of >2 cm and 80 were diagnosed as having invasive carcinoma. Lymph node involvement was observed in 36 procedures. The overall rate of nipple necrosis was 18% (16 of 89). The rate of nipple necrosis among the procedures with nipple coring was statistically higher than that among those without nipple coring (7 of 17, 41%, vs. 9 of 72, 13%) (P = .01). Nipple involvement was observed in 2.2% (2 of 89). After a median follow-up period of 52 months, distant metastasis was observed in nine cases; no local recurrences occurred in this series. E-NSM is an oncologically safe procedure and an acceptable method in selected patients requiring a mastectomy. The higher rate of nipple necrosis may have been the result of a technical problem, indicating the need for continued improvement in nipple coring procedures.

  15. Single-Fraction Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Early Cosmetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, Kathryn; McCormick, Beryl; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic outcome of patients treated with wide local excision and intraoperative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 women were treated on a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy at wide local excision. The eligibility criteria included age >60, tumor size {<=}2.0 cm, clinically negative lymph nodes, and biopsy-established diagnosis. After wide local excision, a custom breast applicator was placed in the excision cavity, and a dose of 20 Gy was prescribed to a depth of 1 cm. After 18 patients were treated, the dose was constrained laterallymore » to 18 Gy. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated by photographs at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Four examiners graded the photographs for symmetry, edema, discoloration, contour, and scarring. The grades were evaluated in relationship to the volume of irradiated tissue, tumor location, and dose at the lateral aspects of the cavity. Results: The median volume of tissue receiving 100% of the prescription dose was 47 cm{sup 3} (range, 20-97 cm{sup 3}). Patients with {<=}47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue had better cosmetic outcomes than did the women who had >47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue. Women who had received 18 Gy at the lateral aspects of their cavities had better cosmetic outcomes than did women who had received 20 Gy at the lateral aspects. When comparing the 6- and 12-month results, the scores remained stable for 63%, improved for 17%, and worsened for 20%. Conclusion: Intraoperative radiotherapy appears feasible for selected patients. A favorable cosmetic outcome appears to be related to a smaller treatment volume. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable, although additional follow-up is necessary.« less

  16. Confocal microendoscopy: Characterization of imaging bundles, fluorescent contrast agents, and early clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udovich, Joshua Anthony

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Early detection improves the chances of survival following diagnosis, and new imaging modalities have the potential to reduce deaths due to this disease. The confocal microendoscope (CME) is a non-destructive in-vivo imaging device for visualization of the ovaries that operates in real-time. Two components of the CME system are evaluated in this paper, and initial results from an ongoing clinical trial are presented. Fiber-optic imaging bundles are used in the CME imaging catheter to relay images over distances of up to 20 feet. When detecting fluorescent signals from investigated tissue, any fluorescence in the system can potentially reduce contrast in images. The emission and transmission properties of three commercially available fiber optic imaging bundles were evaluated. Emission maps of fluorescence from bundles were generated at multiple excitation wavelengths to determine the profile and amount of fluorescence present in bundles manufactured by Sumitomo, Fujikura, and Schott. Results are also presented that show the variation of transmittance as a function of illumination angle in these bundles. Users of high-resolution fiber-optic imaging bundles should be aware of these properties and take them into account during system design. Contrast is improved in images obtained with the CME through the application of topical dyes. Acridine orange (AO) and SYTO 16 are two fluorescent stains that are used to show the size, shape, and distribution of cell nuclei. Unfortunately, little is known about the effects of these dyes on living tissues. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dye treatment on peritoneal tissues in mice. Seventy-five Balb/c mice were split into five groups of fifteen and given peritoneal injections of dye or saline. The proportions of negative outcomes for the control and test groups were compared using confidence intervals and the Fisher's exact test

  17. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum: The Subduction Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penniston-Dorland, S.; Stern, R. J.; Edwards, B. R.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate fundamental results from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. Three Subduction Factory (SubFac) mini-lessons were developed as part of this project. These include hands-on examinations of data sets representing 3 key components of the subduction zone system: 1) Heat transfer in the subducted slab; 2) Metamorphic processes happening at the plate interface; and 3) Typical magmatic products of arc systems above subduction zones. Module 1: "Slab Temperatures Control Melting in Subduction Zones, What Controls Slab Temperature?" allows students to work in groups using beads rolling down slopes as an analog for the mathematics of heat flow. Using this hands-on, exploration-based approach, students develop an intuition for the mathematics of heatflow and learn about heat conduction and advection in the subduction zone environment. Module 2: "Subduction zone metamorphism" introduces students to the metamorphic rocks that form as the subducted slab descends and the mineral reactions that characterize subduction-related metamorphism. This module includes a suite of metamorphic rocks available for instructors to use in a lab, and exercises in which students compare pressure-temperature estimates obtained from metamorphic rocks to predictions from thermal models. Module 3: "Central American Arc Volcanoes, Petrology and Geochemistry" introduces students to basic concepts in igneous petrology using the Central American volcanic arc, a MARGINS Subduction Factory focus site, as an example. The module relates data from two different volcanoes - basaltic Cerro Negro (Nicaragua) and andesitic Ilopango (El Salvador) including hand sample observations and major element geochemistry - to explore processes of mantle and crustal melting and differentiation in arc volcanism.

  18. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Nazish

    2015-06-01

    The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved.

  19. SADI-S WITH RIGHT GASTRIC ARTERY LIGATION: TECHNICAL SYSTEMATIZATION AND EARLY RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    GEBELLI, Jordi Pujol; de GORDEJUELA, Amador Garcia Ruiz; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso; NORA, Mario; PEREIRA, Ana Marta; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; BASTOS, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; MARCHESINI, João Batista

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Bariatric surgery is performed all over the world with close to 500.000 procedures per year. The most performed techniques are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Despite this data, the most effective procedure, biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch, represents only no more than 1.5% of the procedures. Technical complexity, morbidity, mortality, and severe nutritional adverse effects related to the procedure are the main fears that prevent most universal acceptance. Aim: To explain the technical aspects and the benefits of the SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation as an effective simplification from the original duodenal switch. Methods: Were included all patients undergoing this procedure from the November 2014 to May 2016, describing and analysing aspects of this technique, the systematization and early complications associated with the procedure. Results: A series of 67 patients were operated; 46 were women (68.7%); mean age of the group was 44 years old (33-56); and an average BMI of 53.5 kg/m2 (50-63.5). Surgical time was 115 min (80-180). A total of five patients (7.5%) had any complication and two (2.9%) had to be reoperated. There were two patients with leak, one at the duodenal stump and other at the esophagogastric angle. There was no mortality. Patients stayed at the hospital a median of 2.5 days (1-25). Conclusions: SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation is a safe procedure with few preliminary complications. The technical variations introduced to the classical duodenal switch are reproducible and may allow this procedure to be more popular. All the complications in this series were not related to the ligation of the right gastric artery. PMID:27683784

  20. [Cholecystectomy in the elderly: early results of open versus laparoscopic approach].

    PubMed

    Régo, Ronaldo Elias Carnut; de Campos, Tércio; de Moricz, André; Silva, Rodrigo Altenfelder; Pacheco Júnior, Adhemar Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    The rise of elderly population is due to the improvement of life expectancy. The biliary lithiasis is the most common condition requiring intra-abdominal surgery. Half of these patients sustain associated diseases and frequently develops acute and complicated forms of cholelithiasis. Therefore, cholecystectomy is indicated for patients with chronic symptomatic disease. During a long period open cholecystectomy has been practiced, with low complications and mortality rates. Videolaparoscopy has been recently proposed as an option in these cases, however, few studies compared its advantages over open cholecystectomy for elderly patients. To access the early results of the surgical treatment for cholelithiasis in the elderly submitted to an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. retrospective study with 246 patients > 65 years old, who underwent elective cholecystectomy through a subcostal incision (group I) or laparoscopic approach (group II). We employed Student's t test and Spearman's correlation for statistical analysis, considering p < 0,05 as significant. A hundred and twenty patients were arranged in group I and 126 in group II. Associated diseases were present in 155 cases (63). There were no differences between the groups regarding both the distribution of comorbid conditions. Conversion was evaluated in 10 patients (8.3%). The mean operative time was 133 minutes in group I and 112 minutes in group II (p=0.001). The mean hospital stay in group I was 3,3 days and in group II was 3.2 days p=0.698. Thirteen patients in each group developed complications: group I (10.8%) and group II (10.3%) p=0,896. There was no statistis significance in complication rate related to gender, age, associated diseases and ASA when the both groups were compared. There were two deaths, both in group II, although the mortality rate was not statiscally significant between the groups (p=0.158). Both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be practiced in the elderly with low and

  1. Early results of percutaneous arteriovenous fistula creation with the Ellipsys Vascular Access System.

    PubMed

    Mallios, Alexandros; Jennings, William C; Boura, Benoit; Costanzo, Alessandro; Bourquelot, Pierre; Combes, Myriam

    2018-04-18

    We reviewed our initial experience creating a percutaneous arteriovenous fistula (pAVF) using a thermal resistance anastomosis device with proximal radial artery inflow. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent a pAVF creation procedure between May 2017 and October 2017. Primary end points of the study were technical success, patency by Doppler ultrasound examination or angiography, flow levels achieved, time to first use, and pAVF-related complications. A pAVF was attempted in 34 patients with technical success in 33 individuals (97%). Patency of the pAVF was 94%. Mean access flow was 946 mL/min (brachial artery measurement) at the latest follow-up visit (53-229 days; average, 141 days). At 6 weeks, all fistulas have been used or were ready for dialysis by clinical examination or ultrasound examination. Only one patient required superficialization of the upper arm cephalic vein by lipectomy. There were no adverse events related to the pAVF creation or use, nor was there need for further interventions. Successful pAVFs with proximal radial artery inflow were created with excellent initial results regarding technical success, patency, and safety. Advantages include avoidance of a surgical incision, short procedure times, good acceptance by patients, prompt access maturation, moderate flow, and low-pressure access, with possible reduction of risk for ischemic complications. Avoidance of vessel manipulation and side branch ligation might reduce risk of thrombosis and improve long-term patency and reduce need for further interventions. These early findings need to be confirmed in larger and longer follow-up studies. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of gender on early and intermediate results of endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Nordness, Paul J; Carter, Glen; Tonnessen, Britt; Charles Sternbergh, W; Money, Samuel R

    2003-11-01

    Results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) may be gender dependent. Between September 1997 and September 2001, 118 AneuRx aortic grafts were placed for aneurysmal disease. During this period, 17 females and 101 males were treated with this device. A prospective database was maintained and supplemented with retrospectively gathered information to evaluate early and mid-term end points. A total of 113 devices were deployed in 118 attempts. Length of procedure was greater for females (3.3 +/- 1.75 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.8 hr, p = 0.05) and they were more likely to have significant arterial dissections (12% vs. 1%, p = 0.05). The mortality rates at 1 month were 12% for females and 0% for males ( p = 0.02); the complication rates at 1 month were 41% for females and 15% for males ( p = 0.02). Although technical success was not significantly different between the sexes, assisted primary technical success (requiring endovascular assistance) and assisted secondary technical success (requiring open surgical assistance) were significantly different (71% vs. 96%, p = 0.003; and 76% vs. 98%, p = 0.004, respectively). Clinical success at 1 month was 59% for females and 84% for males ( p = 0.02). This difference was also significant when assessing 1-month assisted primary clinical success (59% vs. 90%, p = 0.003) and assisted secondary clinical success as well (71% vs. 96%, p = 0.003). Clinical success and assisted primary clinical success were not different at 6- or 12-month intervals, however, assisted secondary clinical successes differed at both time intervals (56% vs. 83%, p = 0.02; and 56% vs. 81%, p = 0.05, respectively). As-yet undetermined factors appear to predispose females to complications and technical difficulties in the short term. Endovascular and open procedures required to achieve ongoing clinical success in the following months appear to favor males to a greater degree than females.

  3. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. Methods We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. Results All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. Conclusions The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to

  4. Direct anterior versus miniposterior THA with the same advanced perioperative protocols: surprising early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Poehling-Monaghan, Kirsten L; Kamath, Atul F; Taunton, Michael J; Pagnano, Mark W

    2015-02-01

    Although some surgeons strongly advocate for one approach over the other, there are few data directly comparing the direct anterior approach with a miniposterior approach for total hip arthroplasty (THA). Using the same advanced pain and rapid rehabilitation protocols for both groups, we compared the direct anterior and miniposterior approaches with respect to (1) return to activities of daily living at 2 days, 2 weeks, or 2 months; (2) risk of intraoperative or early postoperative complications; and (3) component position. Over a 1-year period we identified all consecutive, primary direct anterior and miniposterior THAs performed by two surgeons at our institution, totaling 242 patients. Of those, 20 did not meet inclusion criteria as a result of prior trauma or surgery about the hip. A total of 222 patients, 126 direct anterior and 96 miniposterior, were retrospectively evaluated. All cases were done by one of two surgeons, one of whom performs THA exclusively through the direct anterior approach and the other who only uses the miniposterior approach. Groups did not differ demographically with mean±SD age 64±12 years, mean body mass index 30±5.7 kg/m2, and 50% female. The same rapid rehabilitation protocols were used with no postoperative hip positioning precautions. No differences were seen between the two groups in mean length of stay (2.2 days; range, 1-9 days), operative or in-hospital complications, intravenous breakthrough analgesia, stairs, maximum feet walked in-hospital, or percent discharged to home (80% [177 of 222]; all p>0.2). The direct anterior patients had longer mean operative times (114 minutes; range, 60-251 minutes) than the miniposterior patients (mean, 60 minutes; range, 41-113 minutes; p<0.001). The direct anterior group had a higher maximum visual analog scale pain score (5.3 direct anterior; ±2, versus 3.8 MP; ±2; p<0.0001). At 2 weeks, more direct anterior patients required gait aids (92% [116 of 126]) than miniposterior (68% [62 of

  5. Massage therapy decreases cancer-related fatigue: Results from a randomized early phase trial.

    PubMed

    Kinkead, Becky; Schettler, Pamela J; Larson, Erika R; Carroll, Dedric; Sharenko, Margaret; Nettles, James; Edwards, Sherry A; Miller, Andrew H; Torres, Mylin A; Dunlop, Boadie W; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2018-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a prevalent and debilitating symptom experienced by cancer survivors, yet treatment options for CRF are limited. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of weekly Swedish massage therapy (SMT) versus an active control condition (light touch [LT]) and waitlist control (WLC) on persistent CRF in breast cancer survivors. This early phase, randomized, single-masked, 6-week investigation of SMT, LT, and WLC enrolled 66 female stage 0-III breast cancer survivors (age range, 32-72 years) who had received surgery plus radiation and/or chemotherapy/chemoprevention with CRF (Brief Fatigue Inventory > 25). The primary outcome was the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), with the National Institutes of Health PROMIS Fatigue scale secondary. Mean baseline MFI scores for 57 evaluable subjects were 62.95 for SMT, 55.00 for LT, and 60.41 for WLC. SMT resulted in a mean (standard deviation) 6-week reduction in MFI total scores of -16.50 (6.37) (n = 20) versus -8.06 (6.50) for LT (n = 20) and an increase of 5.88 (6.48) points for WLC (n = 17) (treatment-by-time P < .0001). The mean baseline PROMIS Fatigue scores were SMT, 22.25; LT, 22.05; and WLC, 23.24. The mean (standard deviation) reduction in PROMIS Fatigue scores was -5.49 (2.53) points for SMT versus -3.24 (2.57) points for LT and -0.06 (1.88) points for WLC (treatment-by-time P = .0008). Higher credibility, expectancy, and preference for SMT than for LT did not account for these results. SMT produced clinically significant relief of CRF. This finding suggests that 6 weeks of a safe, widely accepted manual intervention causes a significant reduction in fatigue, a debilitating sequela for cancer survivors. Cancer 2018;124:546-54. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Jacob; Codlin, Andrew J; Andre, Emmanuel; Micek, Mark A; Bedru, Ahmed; Carter, E Jane; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Mosneaga, Andrei; Rai, Bishwa; Banu, Sayera; Brouwer, Miranda; Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-02

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to detect. The study demonstrates the

  7. Early and Long-Term Results of Subclavian Angioplasty in Aortoarteritis (Takayasu Disease): Comparison with Atherosclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, Sanjay; Verma, Puneet K.; Gambhir, Daljeet S.

    1998-05-15

    Purpose: To compare the early andlong-term outcomes of subclavian artery angioplasty in patients with aortoarteritis and atherosclerosis. Methods: Sixty-one subclavian artery angioplasties were performed in 55 consecutive patients with aortoarteritis (n= 32) and atherosclerosis (n= 23) between 1986 and 1995. An arch aortogram followed by a selective subclavian artery angiogram was done to profile the site and extent of the lesion, its relation to the vertebral artery, and the distal circulation. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) was performed via the femoral route for 56 stenotic lesions and 5 total occlusions. Results: PTA was successful in 52 (92.8%) stenotic lesions and 3more » (60%) total occlusions. Three patients (5.4%) had complications, that could be effectively managed nonsurgically. Compared with atherosclerosis, patients with aortoarteritis were younger (27.4 {+-} 9.3 years vs 54.5 {+-} 10.5 years; p < 0.001), more often female (75% vs 17.4%; p < 0.001), gangrene was uncommon (0% vs 17.4%; p < 0.05), and diffuse involvement was seen more often (43.8% vs 4.4%; p < 0.001). The luminal diameter stenoses were similar before PTA (88.6 {+-} 9.7% vs 89.0 {+-} 9.1%; p= NS). Higher balloon inflation pressure was required to dilate the lesions of aortoarteritis (9.9 {+-} 4.6 ATM vs 5.5 {+-} 1.0 ATM; p < 0.001). This group had more residual stenosis (15.5 {+-} 12.4% vs 8.3 {+-} 9.4%; p < 0.05) after PTA. There were no neurological sequelae, even in PTA of prevertebral lesions. On 3-120 months (mean 43.3 {+-} 28.9 months) follow-up of 40 patients, restenosis was more often observed in patients with aortoarteritis, particularly in those with diffuse arterial narrowing. These lesions could be effectively redilated. Clinical symptoms showed marked improvement after successful angioplasty. Conclusion: Subclavian PTA is safe and can be performed as effectively in aortoarteritis as in atherosclerosis, with good long-term results. Long-term follow-up shows that

  8. Early results after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: effect of the learning curve

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Christopher G.; Hanna, Wael; Look, Didier; McLean, Alexander P.H.; Christou, Nicolas V.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This study was performed to evaluate the safety and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for morbid obesity and to describe the relation between learning curve and short-term outcomes. Methods We collected a prospective database on the first 201 consecutive patients who underwent LRYGB by a single university-based, experienced bariatric surgeon over 24 months. We divided patients into 3 consecutive groups of 67 patients for analysis (Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3). Results The mean patient age was 37 (standard deviation [SD] 9) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 49.2 (SD 8.3) kg/m2. BMI was similar in Groups 1 and 2 (mean 47.1, SD 5.9 and mean 48.7, SD 8.9 kg/m2) but increased in Group 3 (mean 52, SD 9.7 kg/m2, p < 0.01). Operative time decreased from 145 (SD 30) minutes in Group 1 to 114 (SD 24) minutes in Group 2 (p < 0.01) and was maintained at 119 (SD 23) minutes in Group 3. Early and late complication rates were 14.9% and 12.4%, respectively. Leak rates decreased from 6.0% in the first group to 1.5% in Groups 2 and 3, but they did not reach statistical significance. Anastomotic stricture rates decreased from 11.9% in Group 1 to 3.0% in Group 2 (p < 0.01). Overall excess weight loss for the entire series was 31.5% (SD 11.9%), 54.5% (SD 14.1%), 77.1% (SD 18.5%) and 82.1% (SD 17.5%) at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. Conclusion LRYGB can be performed with acceptable morbidity and short-term results during the learning curve. In our series, operative time and anastomotic stricture rates decreased with experience, despite an increase in mean BMI. PMID:17234071

  9. Early Results from TUS, the First Orbital Detector of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, Mikhail

    TUS is the world's first orbital detector of extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs), which operates as a part of the scientific payload of the Lomonosov satellite since May 19, 2016. TUS employs the nocturnal atmosphere of the Earth to register ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers generated by EECRs as well as UV radiation from lightning strikes and transient luminous events, micro-meteors and space debris. The first months of its operation in orbit have demonstrated an unexpectedly rich variety of UV radiation in the atmosphere. We briefly review the design of TUS and present a few examples of events recorded in a mode dedicated to registering EECRs.

  10. Long term results of early density management of a third growth redwood stand

    Treesearch

    Lynn A. Webb; John-Pascal Berrill; James L. Lindquist

    2017-01-01

    Precommercial or early thinning of regenerating redwood forests can support management objectives including maximizing yield, forest structure restoration, and promoting carbon sequestration. We present data collected over 30 years following a precommercial thinning (PCT) in a 19 year-old naturally regenerated and planted coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens ...

  11. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  12. Early generation selection results from a two year, six location study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In potato breeding programs, early generation selections are rarely evaluated in multiple environments because of limited seed quantities. By the time seed quantities are available, few clones remain from the original population. The purpose of this study was to allow multiple locations to select ...

  13. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    Treesearch

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  14. The Employment Retention and Advancement Project Early Results from Four Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Dan; Hendra, Richard; Martinson, Karin; Scrivener, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Millions of welfare recipients have entered the labor force in the past decade, but surveys show that many remain in unstable, low-paying jobs that offer few opportunities for advancement. This report presents early evidence on the effectiveness of four diverse programs designed to help current or former welfare recipients work more steadily and…

  15. Effect of Formative and Ability Test Results on Early Learning of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Abdul; Ardi, Muhammad; Nurhayati, B.; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of formative tests to early learning ability of students in the science learning style. This research used an experimental method with a 2 x 2 factorial design. The participants comprised all the students in class VII of the Islamic Junior High School State of Kolaka, a total of 343…

  16. Exercise Effects on Fitness and Bone Mineral Density in Early Postmenopausal Women: 1-Year EFOPS Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; Lauber, Dirk; Weineck, Juergen; Hensen, Johannes; Kalender, Willi A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effect of intense exercise training on physical fitness, coronary heart disease, bone mineral density (BMD), and parameters related to quality of life in early postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Data on woman in control and exercise training groups indicated that the intense exercise training program was effective in improving…

  17. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2009-10 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Jennifer; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) aims to improve the school-readiness of Saint Paul children and help close the achievement gap through offering high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This report comes at the conclusion of the sixth year of PEK. Following an initial planning year (2004-05), PEK has served children through the…

  18. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chen; Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zonemore » 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.« less

  19. [Factors associated with reported vaccination coverage in early infancy: results of a telephone survey].

    PubMed

    Nebot, M; Muñoz, E; Figueres, M; Rovira, G; Robert, M; Minguell, D

    2001-01-01

    Barcelona's Continuing Immunization Plan affords the possibility Of monitoring the immunization coverage of the population by means of the voluntary family postal notification system. Prior studies have revealed that some families fail to provide notification while being correctly vaccinated, which can lead to actual coverage being underestimated. The objectives of this study are to estimate the early childhood immunization coverage of the population and to ascertain the factors associated with failure to provide notification of immunization. A phone survey was conducted on a sample of 500 children regarding whom there was no record of any notification of the first three childhood vaccine doses (diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough and oral polio), in addition to a sample of 500 children who were on record as having been immunized. To estimate the actual immunization coverage, all children were considered to have been properly immunized when their family members did provide notification. As regards those who failed to reply, it was considered in the worst of cases that these were cases of children who had not be immunized. In the best of cases scenario, a coverage similar to those of the responses was assumed. The response to the questionnaire was higher among those who had previously provided notification of immunization by way of the postal notification system (79.1%) than among those who had failed to provide notification of immunization (67%). The leading factors associated with failure to report immunization status were the size of the families, the use of private health care services and the place of birth of the parents. Solely six (6) cases of those who had failed to report immunization admitted to not having immunized their children, totaling 1.9% of the responses. The immunization coverage of the population in question would total 99.7% in the best of cases and 93.7% in the worst of cases scenario. Immunization coverage of the population in question is

  20. Parotid gland sparing in patients undergoing bilateral head and neck irradiation: techniques and early results.

    PubMed

    Eisbruch, A; Ship, J A; Martel, M K; Ten Haken, R K; Marsh, L H; Wolf, G T; Esclamado, R M; Bradford, C R; Terrell, J E; Gebarski, S S; Lichter, A S

    1996-09-01

    To minimize xerostomia in patients receiving bilateral head and neck irradiation (RT) by using conformal RT planning to spare a significant volume of one parotid gland from radiation. The study involved 15 patients with head and neck tumors in whom bilateral neck radiation was indicated. The major salivary glands and the targets (tumor, surgical bed, metastases to lymph nodes, and the locations of lymph nodes at risk for metastases) were outlined on axial computed tomography images. Beam's-eye view (BEV) displays were used to construct conformal beams that delivered the prescribed doses to the targets while sparing from direct radiation most of one parotid gland. The gland that was planned to be spared resided in the neck side that was judged in each patient to be at a lesser risk of metastatic disease. Major salivary gland flow rates and the responses to a subjective xerostomia questionnaire were assessed before, during, and after radiation. Radiation planning for patients with central oropharyngeal tumors required the generation of multiple axial nonopposed beams. The resulting isodoses encompassed the targets, including the retropharyngeal nodes and the jugular nodes up to the base of skull bilaterally, while limiting the dose to the oral cavity, spinal cord, and one parotid gland. For patients with lateralized tumors, the ipsilateral neck side was treated up to the base of the skull; in the contralateral neck side, the treatment included the subdigastric nodes but excluded the jugular nodes at the base of the skull and most of the parotid gland. This was accomplished by a moderate gantry angle that was chosen using the BEV displays. Three months following the completion of radiation, the spared parotid glands retained on average 50% of their unstimulated and stimulated flows. In contrast, no saliva flow was measured from the unspared glands in any of the patients. Subjective xerostomia was absent, mild, or not different from that reported before radiation in 10

  1. Enceladus-Mimas paradox: a result of different early evolutions of satellites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechowski, Leszek; Witek, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    the coefficient of the heat conduction in the considered layer, i.e.: kconv =Nu k. This approach is used successfully in parameterized theory of convection for SSC in the Earth and other planets (e.g. [3], [4]). Parameterization of liquid state convection (LSC) is even simpler. Ra in molten region is very high (usually higher than 1016). The LSC could be very intensive resulting in almost adiabatic temperature gradient given by: dT-= gαmT-, dr cpm where αm and cpm are thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat in molten region, g is the local gravity. In Enceladus and Mimas the adiabatic gradient is low and therefore LSC region is almost isothermal. 2. Results: Comparison of thermal models of Mimas and Enceladus indicates that conditions favorable for starting tidal heating (interior hot enough) lasted for short time (~107yr) in Mimas and for ~108 yr in Enceladus. This could explain Mimas-Enceladus paradox. 3. Conclusions: The Mimas-Enceladus paradox is probably the result of short time when Mimas was hot enough to allow for substantial tidal heating. The Mimas-Tethys resonance formed later when Mimas was already cool. (see also [1, 4]) The full text of the paper will be published in Acta Geophysica [5]. Acknowledgements: The research is partly supported by National Science Centre (grant 2011/ 01/ B/ ST10/06653). References : [1] Czechowski, L. (2014) Some remarks on the early evolution of Enceladus. Planet. Sp. Sc. 104, 185-199. [2] Merk, R., Breuer, D., Spohn, T. (2002). Numerical modeling of 26Al induced radioactive melting of asteroids concerning accretion. Icarus 199, 183-191. [3] Sharpe, H.N., Peltier, W.R., (1978) Parameterized mantle convection and the Earth's thermal history. Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 737-740. [4] Czechowski, L. (2006) Parameterized model of convection driven by tidal and radiogenic heating. Adv. Space Res. 38, 788-793. [5] Czechowski, L., Witek, P. (2015) Comparisons of early evolutions of Mimas and Enceladus. Submitted to Acta

  2. Scientific Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Gross, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has been defined as fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. Scientific misconduct has occurred throughout the history of science. The US government began to take systematic interest in such misconduct in the 1980s. Since then, a number of studies have examined how frequently individual scientists have observed scientific misconduct or were involved in it. Although the studies vary considerably in their methodology and in the nature and size of their samples, in most studies at least 10% of the scientists sampled reported having observed scientific misconduct. In addition to studies of the incidence of scientific misconduct, this review considers the recent increase in paper retractions, the role of social media in scientific ethics, several instructional examples of egregious scientific misconduct, and potential methods to reduce research misconduct.

  3. Conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD powerplant. Report of task 2 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    The conceptual design of one of the potential early commercial MHD power plants was studied. The plant employs oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and preheating of this oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1200 F attainable with a tubular type recuperative heat exchanger. Conceptual designs of plant componets and equipment with performance, operational characteristics, and costs are reported. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. The projected performance and estimated cost of this early MHD plant are compared to conventional power plants, although it does not offer the same high efficiency and low costs as the mature MHD power plant. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen are reviewed.

  4. Conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD powerplant. Report of task 2 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual design of one of the potential early commercial MHD power plants was studied. The plant employs oxygen enrichment of the combustion air and preheating of this oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1200 F attainable with a tubular type recuperative heat exchanger. Conceptual designs of plant componets and equipment with performance, operational characteristics, and costs are reported. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. The projected performance and estimated cost of this early MHD plant are compared to conventional power plants, although it does not offer the same high efficiency and low costs as the mature MHD power plant. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen are reviewed.

  5. Results from a pediatric surgical centre justify early intervention in disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jennifer M; Warne, Garry; Grover, Sonia; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M

    2009-02-01

    Controversy persists surrounding early management of disorders of sex development. We assessed genital appearance, gender identity, and quality of life in prepubertal children who have had early surgical intervention. Children treated for disorders of sex development who were 5 to 10 years of age were eligible (n = 54). Children were scored (modified Creighton scale) for anatomical and cosmetic outcome, and both patients and parents completed PedsQL quality-of-life and gender identity questionnaires, with ethics approval. Of 54 patients, 41 presented for review. Treatment began at 13.2 (1.8-250.1) months (median; range) and were reviewed at 7.5 +/- 2.1 (mean +/- SD) years of age. Nineteen were raised as girls and 22 as boys. Girls had good (85%) or satisfactory (15%) anatomical/cosmetic outcome, whereas 52% boys had good, 38% satisfactory, and 10% poor cosmetic outcomes. On gender identity questionnaire, boys scored 3.9 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) and girls 3.6 +/- 0.5; 1 of 19 boys and 3 of 19 girls had lower scores, suggesting risk of gender identity disorder. Quality-of-life scores were 80+ for physical and 65 to 80 for psychosocial scores. Early intervention is generally associated with positive outcomes for patients and parents. Girls had better anatomical outcomes than boys, and gender dysphoria risks were low in both sexes.

  6. Early results of a prospective study on the pyrolytic carbon (pyrocarbon) Amandys® for osteoarthritis of the wrist

    PubMed Central

    Daruwalla, ZJ; Davies, KL; Shafighian, A; Gillham, NR

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The preliminary results of a pyrocarbon interpositional radiocarpal implant in a small cohort of patients were reviewed. As it is currently only a limited release product, we describe to potential users early complications and negative outcomes. METHODS Patients were assessed using pain levels, ranges of motion, grip strength, type of and time to return to work as well as pre-operative and post-operative DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) scores. Radiographs were taken and patient satisfaction was recorded. RESULTS All six patients were contacted. One was not satisfied. Three had reduced motion. None experienced squeaking. There were no immediate or late post-operative complications. There was one early volar displacement of an implant. CONCLUSIONS Although our early results are somewhat encouraging, further and longer studies are warranted before supporting the use of this particular pyrocarbon implant as a primary procedure. PMID:23031769

  7. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory energy-related history, research, managerial reorganization proposals, actions taken, and results. History report, 1945--1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, E.F.

    1997-03-01

    This report documents the development of major energy-related programs at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory between 1945 and 1979. Although the Laboratory`s primary mission during that era was the design and development of nuclear weapons and most of the Laboratory`s funding came from a single source, a number of factors were at work that led to the development of these other programs. Some of those factors were affected by the Laboratory`s internal management structure and organization; others were the result of increasing environmental awareness within the general population and the political consequences of that awareness; still others were related tomore » the increasing demand for energy and the increasing turmoil in the energy-rich Middle East. This report also describes the various activities in Los Alamos, in Washington, and in other areas of the world that contributed to the development of major energy-related programs at Los Alamos. The author has a unique historical perspective because of his involvement as a scientist and manager at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the time period described within the report. In addition, in numerous footnotes and references, he cites a large body of documents that include the opinions and perspectives of many others who were involved at one time or another in these programs. Finally the report includes a detailed chronology of geopolitical events that led to the development of energy-related programs at Los Alamos.« less

  8. Attitudes of the German General Population toward Early Diagnosis of Dementia – Results of a Representative Telephone Survey

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Tobias; Luppa, Melanie; Sieber, Jennifer; Schomerus, Georg; Werner, Perla; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Early detection of dementia has clearly improved. Even though none of the currently available treatments for the most common form of dementia, Alzheimer’s dementia, promises a cure, early diagnosis provides several benefits for patients, caregivers, and health care systems. This study aimed to describe attitudes toward early diagnosis of dementia in the German general population. Methods A representative telephone survey of the German population aged 18+ years (n = 1,002) was conducted in 2011. Results The majority of respondents (69%) would be willing to be examined for early diagnosis of dementia. Almost two thirds reported that they would prefer their general practitioner (GP) as the first source of professional help. More than half of the respondents (55%) stated their belief that dementia could be prevented. Respondents mostly indicated psychosocial prevention options. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the general population in Germany is very open to early diagnosis of dementia; however, this seems connected with large expectations on the effectiveness of prevention options. Dementia awareness campaigns may be employed to carefully inform the public about the prevention options currently available and their efficacy. To exploit GPs’ potential as a gatekeeper for early detection of dementia, their ability to identify patients with antecedent and mild stages of the disease must be improved. PMID:23209827

  9. Widespread Magmatism as a Result of Impact Related Decompression Melting on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Rogers, D.

    2012-12-01

    Flat-floored craters on Mars have been observed since early spacecraft viewed the surface. Early work characterized these craters as infilled by sedimentary materials [e.g. Christensen, 1983] but later work using THEMIS thermal inertia determined these craters contain some of the rockiest materials on the planet and not sedimentary materials [Edwards et al., 2009]. Here we investigate the distribution, physical properties (morphology and thermal inertia), and composition of these craters over the entire planet. We find the majority of rocky crater floors identified (~3300) are concentrated in the low albedo (0.1-0.17), cratered southern highlands. These craters are associated with the highest thermal inertia values (e.g. > 500 to 2000 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2), some of the most mafic materials on the planet (enriched in olivine/pyroxene vs. high-Si phases/plagioclase, often with >10-15% olivine areal abundance), and formed ~3.5 billion years ago. Based on the properties of the crater fill materials described, three mechanisms are considered for the formation of flat-floored, high thermal inertia crater floors on Mars including: 1) the lithification/induration of sediments, 2) the ponding of crustal melt material related to the heat generated during the impact process, and 3) infilling by volcanic materials. We find the only likely scenario is volcanic infilling through fractures created in the impact event. Furthermore, we find the generation of the primitive magma would be directly sourced from the decompression melting of the martian mantle due to the removal of several kilometers of overlying crustal material by the impactor. As the ancient martian crust was likely thin and the geothermal gradients were significantly higher than present day [e.g. Zuber, 2001], the decompression melting of the mantle [Bertka and Holloway, 1994] would be more likely to occur on early Mars then under present day conditions. This is borne out by the ancient ages (~3-4Ga) of the crater floors

  10. Lipid raft disarrangement as a result of neuropathological progresses: a novel strategy for early diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Marin, R; Rojo, J A; Fabelo, N; Fernandez, C E; Diaz, M

    2013-08-15

    Lipid rafts are the preferential site of numerous membrane signaling proteins which are involved in neuronal functioning and survival. These proteins are organized in multiprotein complexes, or signalosomes, in close contact with lipid classes particularly represented in lipid rafts (i.e. cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids), which may contribute to physiological responses leading to neuroprotection. Increasing evidence indicates that alteration of lipid composition in raft structures as a consequence of neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), causes a dramatic increase in lipid raft order. These phenomena may correlate with perturbation of signalosome activities, likely contributing to neurodegenerative progression. Interestingly, significant disruption of stable raft microenvironments has been already observed in the first stages of either AD or PD, suggesting that these alterations may represent early events in the neuropathological development. In this regard, the search for biochemical markers, such as specific metabolic products altered in the brain at the first steps of the disease, presently represents an important challenge for early diagnostic strategies. Alterations of these biomarkers may be reflected in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, thus representing a potential strategy to predict an accurate diagnosis. We propose that pathologically-linked lipid raft markers may be interesting candidates to be explored at this level, although it has not been studied so far to what extent alteration of different signalosome components may be reflected in peripheral fluids. In this mini-review, we will discuss on relevant aspects of lipid rafts that contribute to the modulation of neuropathological events related to AD and PD. An interesting hypothesis is that anomalies on raft biomarkers measured at peripheral fluids might mirror the lipid raft pathology observed in early stages of AD and PD. Copyright

  11. Outpatient follow-up after treatment for early breast cancer: updated results after 5 years.

    PubMed

    Churn, M; Kelly, V

    2001-01-01

    The value of frequent outpatient follow-up in the first few years after primary treatment for early breast cancer is a controversial issue. Schedules involving 3-4 monthly visits in the first 2-3 years and 6-monthly from years 3-5 are still commonplace. In this study we audited such a policy from a single cancer centre, identifying a cohort of all 612 patients with early breast cancer (pT(1-3)pN(0-1)NxM0) referred for adjuvant therapy in 1993. The hospital records were reviewed to ascertain patient and tumour characteristics, the surgical and adjuvant treatment received, the timing and sequencing of recurrences and their mode of detection. Five hundred and five patients had breast conservation surgery. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years in this group was 94.5%. Twenty-five of the 31 local recurrences that occurred were the first site of relapse. Eight (32%) of these were detected at routine clinic appointments, seven (28%) by routine mammography, and nine (36%) were interim referrals. Significant risk factors for local recurrence identified were lymph node status (P = 0.03) and tumour grade (P = 0.04). One hundred and four patients underwent mastectomy. The actuarial local recurrence-free survival at 5 years in this group was 85.4%. Nine of the 13 local recurrences were the first site of relapse. Six (66.7%) of these were detected at routine appointments. The significant risk factor for local recurrence identified was tumour grade (P = 0.03). Overall, 60.1% of metastases presented as interim referrals. Nodal status, tumour grade and tumour stage were confirmed as significant risk factors for metastasis (P < or = 0.001). Hazard rate analysis demonstrated a peak incidence of both local and metastatic recurrences in the second year, diminishing thereafter. This peak was largely confined to patients with tumours with poor prognostic features. We identified only eight patients out of a total of 612 followed up as outpatients for 5 years who had

  12. Early add-on lacosamide in a real-life setting: results of the REALLY study.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Vicente; Garcés, Mercedes; López-Gomáriz, Elena; Serratosa, José María; González-Giráldez, Beatriz; Parra, Jaime; Rodríguez-Uranga, Juan; Toledo, Manuel; López González, Francisco Javier; Bermejo, Pedro; Giner, Pau; Castillo, Ascensión; Molins, Albert; Campos, Dulce; Mauri, José Ángel; Muñoz, Rosario; Bonet, Macarena; Serrano-Castro, Pedro; del Villar, Ana; Saiz-Díaz, Rosa Ana

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with epilepsy are treated with antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy. Several factors influence the choice of early add-on therapy, and deciding on the most appropriate drug can be difficult. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide as early add-on therapy in patients with partial-onset seizures. REALLY (REtrospective study of lAcosamide as earLy add-on aLong one Year) was a multicenter, retrospective, 1-year, real-life study. Patients included were aged older than 16 years, had partial-onset seizures, and were treated with lacosamide as add-on therapy after one or two prior AEDs. Data were collected retrospectively from clinical records. The primary study objective was to assess the efficacy of lacosamide over 12 months (seizure-free and responder rates), and the secondary objective was to assess the tolerability of lacosamide at 3, 6, and 12 months [adverse events (AEs) and discontinuation]. One hundred and ninety-nine patients were enrolled in the study; 89 patients (44.7 %) had tried one AED and 110 patients (55.3 %) had tried two AEDs before lacosamide. At 12 months, the proportion of patients who were seizure free was 44.9 %, and 76 % of patients were responders. The seizure-free rate at 12 months for patients who had previously received one or two AEDs was 58 and 34.3 %, and the responder rate at 12 months was 83.0 and 70.4 %, respectively. The AE rate was 21.5 % at 3 months, 27.1 % at 6 months, and 31.2 % at 12 months, with 7.0 % of patients discontinuing treatment because of an AE. The most common AE reported was dizziness (11.6 %). Cryptogenic epilepsy, a higher number of prior AEDs, and the use of a sodium channel blocker at onset were associated with a worse outcome. The number of concomitant AEDs decreased over 1 year (Z = 5.89; p < 0.001). Twenty-two patients were converted to lacosamide monotherapy with at least one evaluation ≥6 months from the beginning of monotherapy conversion

  13. Results of a prospective randomized controlled trial of early ambulation for patients with lower extremity autografts.

    PubMed

    Lorello, David John; Peck, Michael; Albrecht, Marlene; Richey, Karen J; Pressman, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to keep those patients with lower extremity autografts immobile until post-operative day (POD) 5. There is however inherent risks associated with even short periods of immobility. As of now there are no randomized controlled trials looking at early ambulation of patients with lower extremity autografts in the burn community.The objective of this study was to show that patients who begin ambulation within 24 hours of lower extremity autografting will have no increased risk of graft failure than those patients who remain immobile until POD 5. Thirty-one subjects who received autografts to the lower extremity were randomized after surgery into either the early ambulation group (EAG;17 subjects) or the standard treatment group (STG;14 subjects). Those subjects randomized to the EAG began ambulating with physical therapy on POD 1. Subjects in the STG maintained bed rest until POD 5. There was no difference in the number of patients with graft loss in either the EAG or STG on POD 5, and during any of the follow-up visits. No subjects required regrafting. There was a significant difference in the mean minutes of ambulation, with the EAG ambulating longer than the STG (EAG 23.4 minutes [SD 12.03], STG 14.1 [SD 9.00], P=.0235) on POD 5. Burn patients with lower extremity autografts can safely ambulate on POD 1 without fear of graft failure compared with those patients that remain on bed rest for 5 days.

  14. Scientific workflows as productivity tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Shon, John; Ohkawa, Hitomi; Hammer, Juergen

    2008-05-01

    Large pharmaceutical companies annually invest tens to hundreds of millions of US dollars in research informatics to support their early drug discovery processes. Traditionally, most of these investments are designed to increase the efficiency of drug discovery. The introduction of do-it-yourself scientific workflow platforms has enabled research informatics organizations to shift their efforts toward scientific innovation, ultimately resulting in a possible increase in return on their investments. Unlike the handling of most scientific data and application integration approaches, researchers apply scientific workflows to in silico experimentation and exploration, leading to scientific discoveries that lie beyond automation and integration. This review highlights some key requirements for scientific workflow environments in the pharmaceutical industry that are necessary for increasing research productivity. Examples of the application of scientific workflows in research and a summary of recent platform advances are also provided.

  15. The Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study: rationale, design, and early results.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Bruce; Brueckner, Martina; Chung, Wendy; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Kaltman, Jonathan; Kaski, Juan Pablo; Kim, Richard; Kline, Jennie; Mercer-Rosa, Laura; Porter, George; Roberts, Amy; Rosenberg, Ellen; Seiden, Howard; Seidman, Christine; Sleeper, Lynn; Tennstedt, Sharon; Kaltman, Jonathan; Schramm, Charlene; Burns, Kristin; Pearson, Gail; Rosenberg, Ellen

    2013-02-15

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the leading cause of infant mortality among birth defects, and later morbidities and premature mortality remain problematic. Although genetic factors contribute significantly to cause CHD, specific genetic lesions are unknown for most patients. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium established the Congenital Heart Disease Genetic Network Study to investigate relationships between genetic factors, clinical features, and outcomes in CHD. The Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium comprises 6 main and 4 satellite sites at which subjects are recruited, and medical data and biospecimens (blood, saliva, cardiovascular tissue) are collected. Core infrastructure includes an administrative/data-coordinating center, biorepository, data hub, and core laboratories (genotyping, whole-exome sequencing, candidate gene evaluation, and variant confirmation). Eligibility includes all forms of CHD. Annual follow-up is obtained for probands <1-year-old. Parents are enrolled whenever available. Enrollment from December 2010 to June 2012 comprised 3772 probands. One or both parents were enrolled for 72% of probands. Proband median age is 5.5 years. The one third enrolled at age <1 year are contacted annually for follow-up information. The distribution of CHD favors more complex lesions. Approximately, 11% of probands have a genetic diagnosis. Adequate DNA is available from 97% and 91% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. Genomic analyses of probands with heterotaxy, atrial septal defects, conotruncal, and left ventricular outflow tract obstructive lesions are underway. The scientific community's use of Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium resources is welcome.

  16. Early predictors of occupational back reinjury: results from a prospective study of workers in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Benjamin J; Turner, Judith A; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M

    2013-01-15

    Prospective population-based cohort study. To identify early predictors of self-reported occupational back reinjury within 1 year after work-related back injury. Back injuries are the costliest and most prevalent disabling occupational injuries in the United States. A substantial proportion of workers with back injuries have reinjuries after returning to work, yet there are few studies of risk factors for occupational back reinjuries. We aimed to identify the incidence and early (in the claim) predictors of self-reported back reinjury by approximately 1 year after the index injury among Washington State workers with new work disability claims for back injuries. The Washington Workers' Compensation Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort provided a large, population-based sample with information on variables in 7 domains: sociodemographic, employment-related, pain and function, clinical status, health care, health behavior, and psychological. We conducted telephone interviews with workers 3 weeks and 1 year after submission of a time-loss claim for the injury. We first identified predictors (P < 0.10) of self-reported reinjury within 1 year in bivariate analyses. Those variables were then included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting occupational back reinjury. A total of 290 (25.8%) of 1123 (70.0% response rate) workers who completed the 1-year follow-up interview and had returned to work reported having reinjured their back at work. Baseline variables significantly associated with reinjury (P < 0.05) in the multivariate model included male sex, constant whole-body vibration at work, previous similar injury, 4 or more previous claims of any type, possessing health insurance, and high fear-avoidance scores. Baseline obesity was associated with reduced odds of reinjury. No other employment-related or psychological variables were significant. One-fourth of the workers who received work disability compensation for a back injury self

  17. Rewarding Progress, Reducing Debt: Early Results from Ohio's Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration for Low-Income Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Paulette; Patel, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    This report presents early results from a rigorous evaluation of a performance-based scholarship program that was implemented at three community colleges in Ohio during the 2008-2009 academic year. The program in Ohio that is the subject of this report is part of MDRC's national Performance-Based Scholarship (PBS) Demonstration, which was launched…

  18. Enhancing Student Services at Lorain County Community College: Early Results from the Opening Doors Demonstration in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrivener, Susan; Au, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, MDRC and a consortium of funders launched the Opening Doors demonstration to test reforms in six community colleges aimed at helping students stay in school and earn credentials. This report presents early results from the Opening Doors program at Lorain County Community College in Elyria, Ohio. The program provided intensive advising and…

  19. Creative reminiscence as an early intervention for depression: results of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Bohlmeijer, E; Valenkamp, M; Westerhof, G; Smit, F; Cuijpers, P

    2005-07-01

    Reminiscence may help in resolving conflicts from the past and making up the balance of one's life. Life-review may be further enhanced by the creative expression of memories in stories, poems or drawings. In this way people are encouraged to create and discover metaphors, images and stories that symbolically represent the subjective and inner meaning of their lives. In this article, a new intervention, which combines reminiscence and creative expression aimed at early treatment of depression, is described. A pilot project showed that the intervention Searching for the meaning in life may generate small-sized effects in reducing depression. Additionally, it appears to generate effects of medium size in enhancing mastery. Several possible ways to improve the effectiveness of the intervention are described.

  20. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  1. Early Results from the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper Southern Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Reynolds, R. J.; Madsen, G. J.; Hill, A. S.; Barger, K. A.; Jaehnig, K. P.; Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Percival, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    After a successful eleven-year campaign at Kitt Peak, we moved the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) to Cerro Tololo in early 2009. Here we present some of the early data after the first nine months under southern skies. These maps begin to complete the first all-sky, kinematic survey of the diffuse Hα emission from the Milky Way. Much of this emission arises from the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM), a significant component of the ISM that extends a few kiloparsecs above the Galactic disk. The WHAM instrument consists of a 0.6 m primary lens housed in a steerable siderostat coupled to a 15 cm dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The optical configuration delivers a spatially integrated spectrum from a one-degree beam on the sky covering 200 km/s with 12 km/s spectral resolution. Short, 30-second exposures allow us to cover the observable sky in about two years at sensitivity levels of about 0.1 R (EM 0.2 pc cm-6). While this first look at the data focuses on the Hα survey, WHAM is also capable of observing many other optical emission lines, revealing fascinating trends in the temperature and ionization state of the WIM. Our ongoing studies of the physical conditions of diffuse ionized gas will continue in the south following the Hα survey. In addition, future observations using our survey mode will cover the full velocity range of the Magellanic Stream, Bridge, and Clouds to trace the ionized gas associated with these neighboring systems. WHAM is supported by NSF award AST-0607512 and has made this smooth relocation south due to the excellent staff at KPNO and CTIO.

  2. Results of a Coordinated Specialty Care Program for Early Psychosis and Predictors of Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nossel, Ilana; Wall, Melanie M; Scodes, Jennifer; Marino, Leslie A; Zilkha, Sacha; Bello, Iruma; Malinovsky, Igor; Lee, Rufina; Radigan, Marleen; Smith, Thomas E; Sederer, Lloyd; Gu, Gyojeong; Dixon, Lisa

    2018-05-15

    This study prospectively evaluated outcomes of OnTrackNY, a statewide coordinated specialty care (CSC) program for treatment of early psychosis in community settings, as well as predictors of outcomes. The sample included 325 individuals ages 16-30 with recent-onset nonaffective psychosis who were enrolled in OnTrackNY and who had at least one three-month follow-up. Clinicians provided data at baseline and quarterly up to one year. Domains assessed included demographic and clinical characteristics, social and occupational functioning, medications, suicidality and violence, hospitalization, and time to intervention. Primary outcomes included the symptoms, occupational functioning, and social functioning scales of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), as adapted by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center; education and employment status; and psychiatric hospitalization rate. Education and employment rates increased from 40% to 80% by six months, hospitalization rates decreased from 70% to 10% by three months, and improvement in GAF scores continued for 12 months. Female gender, non-Hispanic white race-ethnicity, and more education at baseline predicted better education and employment status at follow-up. Individuals with early psychosis receiving CSC achieved significant improvements in education and employment and experienced a decrease in hospitalization rate. Demographic variables and baseline education predicted education and employment outcomes. CSC teams should make particular effort to support the occupational goals of individuals at increased risk of not engaging in work or school, including male participants and participants from racial and ethnic minority groups.

  3. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results From a Two-Year Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control and treated for two years. Comprehensive data on cognition and employment were collected annually. Results Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients. Mediator analyses revealed that improvements in both social and non-social cognition mediated the CET effects on employment. Conclusion CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia, by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia. PMID:23885163

  4. Planck Early Results. XV. Spectral Energy Distributions and Radio Continuum Spectra of Northern Extragalactic Radio Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aatrokoski, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Amaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources. based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multi frequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857 GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativistic jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper. physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.

  5. Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Shaowen; Chang, Edward F.; Teng, Ching-Ling; Heiser, Marc A.; Merzenich, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical sensory representations can be reorganized by sensory exposure in an epoch of early development. The adaptive role of this type of plasticity for natural sounds in sensory development is, however, unclear. We have reared rats in a naturalistic, complex acoustic environment and examined their auditory representations. We found that cortical neurons became more selective to spectrotemporal features in the experienced sounds. At the neuronal population level, more neurons were involved in representing the whole set of complex sounds, but fewer neurons actually responded to each individual sound, but with greater magnitudes. A comparison of population-temporal responses to the experienced complex sounds revealed that cortical responses to different renderings of the same song motif were more similar, indicating that the cortical neurons became less sensitive to natural acoustic variations associated with stimulus context and sound renderings. By contrast, cortical responses to sounds of different motifs became more distinctive, suggesting that cortical neurons were tuned to the defining features of the experienced sounds. These effects lead to emergent “categorical” representations of the experienced sounds, which presumably facilitate their recognition. PMID:23747304

  6. Linking parent perceptions of children's weight to early coronary risk factors: results from the CARDIAC Project.

    PubMed

    Stabler, M E; Cottrell, L; Lilly, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a public health threat because of the increasing prevalence in childhood and its causal relationship to the leading cause of death in America, heart disease. Detecting early signs of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children and appropriately intervening to reverse the unhealthy trajectory associated with childhood obesity is of great importance. The objective of this study is to observe parental perception of their child's body mass index (BMI) and find associations between inaccurately estimated children and CVD risk factors. This study analyzed the association between 147 rural fifth grade students' lipid profiles and parents' self-reported survey who participated in the 2008-2011 Coronary Artery Risk Detection in Appalachian Communities study. After controlling for covariates, underestimated children were more likely to have higher log-transformed triglyceride and systolic blood pressure values and overestimated children were more likely to have lower systolic blood pressure. Underestimating a child's BMI is associated with coronary risk-related factors, while overestimating a child's BMI is associate with a protective CVD marker. A follow-up study examining the development of CVD risk factors in children of parents who inaccurately estimate their BMI would help clarify this relationship. Knowledge of how parental perceptions directly influence higher lipid levels in children could have an impact on public health efforts in the fight against childhood obesity in rural environments.

  7. Controlled multicenter trial of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty vs Shouldice herniorrhaphy. Early results.

    PubMed

    Tschudi, J; Wagner, M; Klaiber, C; Brugger, J; Frei, E; Krähenbühl, L; Inderbitzi, R; Hüsler, J; Hsu Schmitz, S

    1996-08-01

    In February 1993 a prospective randomized multicenter trial was initiated to compare laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty to Shouldice herniorrhaphy as performed by surgeons of nonspecialized clinics. Until January 1994, 87 patients with 108 hernias took part in the trial (43 Shouldice and 44 laparoscopic repairs). The laparoscopic procedure took significantly longer than did the open operation but caused less pain as measured by pain analogue score and consumption of paracetamol and narcotics. The postoperative complication rate was 26% in the open and 16% in the laparoscopic group. The patients in the laparoscopic group were discharged earlier and their convalescence was shorter than after open hernia repair. There has been one early recurrence in the laparoscopic and two in the open group to date with a mean follow-up of 201 days. Laparoscopic hernia repair causes less pain than the conventional operation and enables the patient to return to full work and usual activities earlier. The recurrence rate will not be known for 5 years.

  8. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P < 0.001). PCT was more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of upper versus lower UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  9. Planck early results. XV. Spectral energy distributions and radio continuum spectra of northern extragalactic radio sources

    DOE PAGES

    Aatrokoski, J.

    2011-12-01

    Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and radio continuum spectra are presented for a northern sample of 104 extragalactic radio sources, based on the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) and simultaneous multifrequency data. The nine Planck frequencies, from 30 to 857GHz, are complemented by a set of simultaneous observations ranging from radio to gamma-rays. This is the first extensive frequency coverage in the radio and millimetre domains for an essentially complete sample of extragalactic radio sources, and it shows how the individual shocks, each in their own phase of development, shape the radio spectra as they move in the relativisticmore » jet. The SEDs presented in this paper were fitted with second and third degree polynomials to estimate the frequencies of the synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) peaks, and the spectral indices of low and high frequency radio data, including the Planck ERCSC data, were calculated. SED modelling methods are discussed, with an emphasis on proper, physical modelling of the synchrotron bump using multiple components. Planck ERCSC data also suggest that the original accelerated electron energy spectrum could be much harder than commonly thought, with power-law index around 1.5 instead of the canonical 2.5. The implications of this are discussed for the acceleration mechanisms effective in blazar shock. Furthermore in many cases the Planck data indicate that gamma-ray emission must originate in the same shocks that produce the radio emission.« less

  10. Disease management of early childhood caries: results of a pilot quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai; Torresyap, Gay; White, Alex; Melvin, Patrice; Graham, Dionne; Kane, Daniel; Scoville, Richard; Ohiomoba, Henry

    2012-08-01

    The purpose is to report findings of a quality improvement (QI) project implemented at two hospital-based dental clinics that care for children with early childhood caries (ECC). We tested a disease management (DM) approach in children younger than age 60 months with ECC. After 30 months, for the 403 and 234 DM patients at Children's Hospital Boston (CHB) and Saint Joseph Hospital (SJH) who returned for at least two visits, rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR were 26.1, 13.4 and 10.9% for CHB and 41.0, 7.3 and 14.9% for SJH. Rates of new cavitation, pain, and referrals to the OR for historical controls were 75.2, 21.7, and 20.9% for CHB and 71.3, 31.3, and 25.0% for SJH. A risk-based DM approach utilizing QI strategies to address ECC can be implemented into practice and has the potential to improve care and health outcomes.

  11. Early benefit assessment of new drugs in Germany - results from 2011 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Hörn, Helmut; Nink, Katrin; McGauran, Natalie; Wieseler, Beate

    2014-06-01

    Rising drug costs in Germany led to the Act on the Reform of the Market for Medicinal Products (AMNOG) in January 2011. For new drugs, pharmaceutical companies have to submit dossiers containing all available evidence to demonstrate an added benefit versus an appropriate comparator therapy. The Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), the main decision-making body of the statutory healthcare system, is responsible for the overall procedure of "early benefit assessment". The Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) largely conducts the dossier assessments, which inform decisions by the G-BA on added benefit and support price negotiations. Of the 25 dossiers (excluding orphan drugs) assessed until 31 December 2012, 14 contained sufficient data from randomized active-controlled trials investigating patient-relevant outcomes or at least acceptable surrogates; 11 contained insufficient data. The most common indications were oncology (6) and viral infections (4). For the 14 drugs assessed, the extent of added benefit was rated as minor, considerable, and non-quantifiable in 3, 8, and 2 cases; the remaining drug showed no added benefit. Despite some shortcomings, for the first time it has been possible in Germany to implement a systematic procedure for assessing new drugs at market entry, thus providing support for price negotiations and informed decision-making for patients, clinicians and policy makers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Results and survival after photodynamic therapy in early-stage esophageal carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Mancini, Andrea; Dal Fante, Marco; Meroni, Emmanuele; Jasinskas, Algirdas

    1996-01-01

    From January 1985 to December 1994, 23 early stage carcinomas of the esophagus were treated by photodynamic therapy in 21 patients. The stage of the tumors was assessed by esophagoscopy with multiple biopsies, CT scan and, from June 1991, also by endoscopic ultrasonography: 7 lesions were classified as carcinoma in situ (Tis) and 16 as invasive (T1). The photosensitizers used for PDT were hematoporphyrin derivative 3 mg/kg in 4 patients and dihematoporphyrin ether 2 mg/kg in 17. Light irradiation was performed using an Argon-dye laser system at a wavelength of 630 nm with an average energy of 50 J/cm2 and 70 J/cm2 for the treatment of Tis and T1, respectively. A complete response was achieved in 17/23 (74%) tumors, 15/21 (71%) patients. In the follow-up period from 6 to 78 months (median 36 months) 3 recurrences occurred 6, 12, and 14 months after PDT, respectively. Seven patients died due to concomitant diseases, not related to tumor progression. The actuarial survival rate was 95%, 75% and 37% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Complications included 1 case of sunburn and 2 cases of esophageal stenosis at the treatment site, that gradually responded to endoscopic bougienage.

  13. Very early predictors of conduct problems and crime: results from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A J

    2010-11-01

      Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born in 1970. Pregnancy, birth, child, parent, and socioeconomic characteristics were measured from medical records, parent interviews, and child assessments at birth and age 5. Conduct problems were reported by parents at age 10, and criminal convictions were self-reported by study members at ages 30-34.   Early (up to age 5) psychosocial risk factors were strong predictors of conduct problems and criminal conviction. Among pregnancy and birth measures, only prenatal maternal smoking was strongly predictive. Risk factors were similar for girls and boys. Additive risk scores predicted antisocial behaviour quite strongly.   Risk factors from pregnancy to age 5 are quite strong predictors of conduct problems and crime. New risk assessment tools could be developed to identify young children at high risk for later antisocial behaviour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Reumann, Marie K.; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Steven B.; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L.; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1−/− mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1−/− mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1−/− callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. PMID:21726677

  15. Complete major amputation of the upper extremity: Early results and initial treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Märdian, Sven; Krapohl, Björn D; Roffeis, Jana; Disch, Alexander C; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Schwabe, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic major amputations of the upper extremity are devastating injuries. These injuries have a profound impact on patient's quality of life and pose a burden on social economy. The aims of the current study were to report about the initial management of isolated traumatic major upper limb amputation from the time of admission to definitive soft tissue closure and to establish a distinct initial management algorithm. We recorded data concerning the initial management of the patient and the amputated body part in the emergency department (ED) (time from admission to the operation, Injury Severity Score [ISS], cold ischemia time from injury to ED, and total cold ischemia time). The duration, amount of surgical procedures, the time to definitive soft tissue coverage, and the choice of flap were part of the documentation. All intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. All patients were successfully replanted (time from injury to ED, 59 ± 4 minutes; ISS16; time from admission to operating room 57 ± 10 minutes; total cold ischemia time 203 ± 20 minutes; total number of procedures 7.3 ± 2.5); definitive soft tissue coverage could be achieved 23 ± 14 days after injury. Two thromboembolic complications occurred, which could be treated by embolectomy during revision surgery, and we saw one early infection, which could be successfully managed by serial debridements in our series. The management of complete major amputations of the upper extremity should be reserved for large trauma centers with enough resources concerning technical, structural, and personnel infrastructure to meet the demands of surgical reconstruction as well as the postoperative care. Following a distinct treatment algorithm is mandatory to increase the rate of successful major replantations, thus laying the foundation for promising secondary functional reconstructive efforts. Therapeutic study, level V.

  16. Common genetic variants are significant risk factors for early menopause: results from the Breakthrough Generations Study.

    PubMed

    Murray, Anna; Bennett, Claire E; Perry, John R B; Weedon, Michael N; Jacobs, Patricia A; Morris, Danielle H; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Women become infertile approximately 10 years before menopause, and as more women delay childbirth into their 30s, the number of women who experience infertility is likely to increase. Tests that predict the timing of menopause would allow women to make informed reproductive decisions. Current predictors are only effective just prior to menopause, and there are no long-range indicators. Age at menopause and early menopause (EM) are highly heritable, suggesting a genetic aetiology. Recent genome-wide scans have identified four loci associated with variation in the age of normal menopause (40-60 years). We aimed to determine whether theses loci are also risk factors for EM. We tested the four menopause-associated genetic variants in a cohort of approximately 2000 women with menopause≤45 years from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS). All four variants significantly increased the odds of having EM. Comparing the 4.5% of individuals with the lowest number of risk alleles (two or three) with the 3.0% with the highest number (eight risk alleles), the odds ratio was 4.1 (95% CI 2.4-7.1, P=4.0×10(-7)). In combination, the four variants discriminated EM cases with a receiver operator characteristic area under the curve of 0.6. Four common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies, had a significant impact on the odds of having EM in an independent cohort from the BGS. The discriminative power is still limited, but as more variants are discovered they may be useful for predicting reproductive lifespan.

  17. [Results of applying a paediatric early warning score system as a healthcare quality improvement plan].

    PubMed

    Rivero-Martín, M J; Prieto-Martínez, S; García-Solano, M; Montilla-Pérez, M; Tena-Martín, E; Ballesteros-García, M M

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to introduce a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) into our daily clinical practice, as well as to evaluate its ability to detect clinical deterioration in children admitted, and to train nursing staff to communicate the information and response effectively. An analysis was performed on the implementation of PEWS in the electronic health records of children (0-15 years) in our paediatric ward from February 2014 to September 2014. The maximum score was 6. Nursing staff reviewed scores >2, and if >3 medical and nursing staff reviewed it. Monitoring indicators: % of admissions with scoring; % of complete data capture; % of scores >3; % of scores >3 reviewed by medical staff, % of changes in treatment due to the warning system, and number of patients who needed Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) admission, or died without an increased warning score. The data were collected from all patients (931) admitted. The scale was measured 7,917 times, with 78.8% of them with complete data capture. Very few (1.9%) showed scores >3, and 14% of them with changes in clinical management (intensifying treatment or new diagnostic tests). One patient (scored 2) required PICU admission. There were no deaths. Parents or nursing staff concern was registered in 80% of cases. PEWS are useful to provide a standardised assessment of clinical status in the inpatient setting, using a unique scale and implementing data capture. Because of the lack of severe complications requiring PICU admission and deaths, we will have to use other data to evaluate these scales. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair.

    PubMed

    Reumann, Marie K; Strachna, Olga; Yagerman, Sarah; Torrecilla, Daniel; Kim, Jihye; Doty, Stephen B; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Mayer-Kuckuk, Philipp

    2011-10-01

    Transcription factors that play a role in ossification during development are expected to participate in postnatal fracture repair since the endochondral bone formation that occurs in embryos is recapitulated during fracture repair. However, inherent differences exist between bone development and fracture repair, including a sudden disruption of tissue integrity followed by an inflammatory response. This raises the possibility that repair-specific transcription factors participate in bone healing. Here, we assessed the consequence of loss of early growth response gene 1 (EGR-1) on endochondral bone healing because this transcription factor has been shown to modulate repair in vascularized tissues. Model fractures were created in ribs of wild type (wt) and EGR-1(-/-) mice. Differences in tissue morphology and composition between these two animal groups were followed over 28 post fracture days (PFDs). In wt mice, bone healing occurred in healing phases characteristic of endochondral bone repair. A similar healing sequence was observed in EGR-1(-/-) mice but was impaired by alterations. A persistent accumulation of fibrin between the disconnected bones was observed on PFD7 and remained pronounced in the callus on PFD14. Additionally, the PFD14 callus was abnormally enlarged and showed increased deposition of mineralized tissue. Cartilage ossification in the callus was associated with hyper-vascularity and -proliferation. Moreover, cell deposits located in proximity to the callus within skeletal muscle were detected on PFD14. Despite these impairments, repair in EGR-1(-/-) callus advanced on PFD28, suggesting EGR-1 is not essential for healing. Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing the Role of Impacts in Warming Early Mars: Comparisons Between 1-D and GCM Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steakley, K.; Kahre, M. A.; Murphy, J. R.; Haberle, R. M.; Kling, A.

    2017-12-01

    Comet and asteroid impacts have been explored as a potential mechanism for producing warmer and wetter conditions for early Mars and possibly contributing to valley network formation. However, criticisms have been made regarding the timing of large impacts compared to valley network activity and the ability of such impacts to induce long lasting climate changes and the appropriate amount of precipitation. We test the impact heating hypothesis for the late Noachian Mars atmosphere by revisiting the scenarios described in Segura et al. (2008, JGR Planets 113, E11007) with a 3D global climate model (GCM). Segura et al. (2008) showed with a 1-D model that impacts ranging 30-100 km in diameter could in certain cases induce months to years of above-freezing temperatures and tens of cm to meters of rainfall in atmospheres with 150-mbar, 1-bar, or 2-bar surface pressures. We impose the same initial conditions into the Ames Research Center Mars GCM with updated water cycle physics that includes bulk cloud formation, sedimentation, precipitation (liquid or snow), a Manabe moist convection scheme, and the radiative effects of both liquid and ice clouds. Initial conditions in the GCM match those described in Segura et al. (2008) as closely as possible and include a hot post-impact debris layer, a warm atmosphere, and water vapor profiles consistent with the water abundances mobilized by the impact. Scenarios with 30-, 50- and 100- km impactors in 150-mbar, 1-bar, and 2-bar surface pressure cases are explored both with and without radiatively active water clouds. Our goals are to determine how global rainfall totals and global surface temperatures from the GCM compare with the simpler 1-D Segura et al. (2008) model, to examine what rainfall patterns emerge in the GCM and how they compare to the observed valley network distribution, and to more carefully assess the role of cloud microphysics and radiative effects on the duration and intensity of post-impact climates.

  20. The current state of Bayesian methods in medical product development: survey results and recommendations from the DIA Bayesian Scientific Working Group.

    PubMed

    Natanegara, Fanni; Neuenschwander, Beat; Seaman, John W; Kinnersley, Nelson; Heilmann, Cory R; Ohlssen, David; Rochester, George

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian applications in medical product development have recently gained popularity. Despite many advances in Bayesian methodology and computations, increase in application across the various areas of medical product development has been modest. The DIA Bayesian Scientific Working Group (BSWG), which includes representatives from industry, regulatory agencies, and academia, has adopted the vision to ensure Bayesian methods are well understood, accepted more broadly, and appropriately utilized to improve decision making and enhance patient outcomes. As Bayesian applications in medical product development are wide ranging, several sub-teams were formed to focus on various topics such as patient safety, non-inferiority, prior specification, comparative effectiveness, joint modeling, program-wide decision making, analytical tools, and education. The focus of this paper is on the recent effort of the BSWG Education sub-team to administer a Bayesian survey to statisticians across 17 organizations involved in medical product development. We summarize results of this survey, from which we provide recommendations on how to accelerate progress in Bayesian applications throughout medical product development. The survey results support findings from the literature and provide additional insight on regulatory acceptance of Bayesian methods and information on the need for a Bayesian infrastructure within an organization. The survey findings support the claim that only modest progress in areas of education and implementation has been made recently, despite substantial progress in Bayesian statistical research and software availability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Scientific Diving

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Scientific diving plays an important role in helping EPA protect our oceans and waterways. EPA's divers set a high standard for safety and operational procedures in dangerous polluted water conditions.

  2. Early Results from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Kubota, Takuji; Masaki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Yuki; Kanemaru, Kaya; Oki, Riko; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2015-04-01

    of gauge-calibrated GSMaP algorithm (Ushio et al., 2013). In addition to those improvements in the algorithms number of passive microwave imagers and/or sounders used in the GPM-GSMaP was increased compared to the previous version. After the early calibration and validation of the products and evaluation that all products achieved the release criteria, all GPM standard products and the GPM-GSMaP product has been released to the public since September 2014. The GPM products can be downloaded via the internet through the JAXA G-Portal (https://www.gportal.jaxa.jp).

  3. Study of the mesosphere using wide-field twilight polarization measurements: Early results beyond the polar circle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolnikov, O. S.; Kozelov, B. V.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of early measurements of temperature and dust in the mesosphere on the basis of wide-field twilight sky polarimetry, which began in 2015 in Apatity (North of Russia, 67.6° N, 33.4° E) using the original entire-sky camera. These measurements have been performed for the first time beyond the Polar Circle in the winter and early spring period. The general polarization properties of the twilight sky and the procedure for identifying single scattering are described. The key results of the study include the Boltzmann temperature values at altitudes higher than 70 km and the conclusion on a weak effect of dust on scattering properties of the mesosphere during this period.

  4. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael

    2012-01-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of microgravity on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for th legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU's).

  5. Early Results from the Advanced Radiation Protection Thick GCR Shielding Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Clowdsley, Martha; Slaba, Tony; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Zeitlin, Cary; Kenny, Sean; Crespo, Luis; Giesy, Daniel; Warner, James; McGirl, Natalie; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Radiation Protection Thick Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Shielding Project leverages experimental and modeling approaches to validate a predicted minimum in the radiation exposure versus shielding depth curve. Preliminary results of space radiation models indicate that a minimum in the dose equivalent versus aluminum shielding thickness may exist in the 20-30 g/cm2 region. For greater shield thickness, dose equivalent increases due to secondary neutron and light particle production. This result goes against the long held belief in the space radiation shielding community that increasing shielding thickness will decrease risk to crew health. A comprehensive modeling effort was undertaken to verify the preliminary modeling results using multiple Monte Carlo and deterministic space radiation transport codes. These results verified the preliminary findings of a minimum and helped drive the design of the experimental component of the project. In first-of-their-kind experiments performed at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory, neutrons and light ions were measured between large thicknesses of aluminum shielding. Both an upstream and a downstream shield were incorporated into the experiment to represent the radiation environment inside a spacecraft. These measurements are used to validate the Monte Carlo codes and derive uncertainty distributions for exposure estimates behind thick shielding similar to that provided by spacecraft on a Mars mission. Preliminary results for all aspects of the project will be presented.

  6. Host resistance screening for balsam woolly adelgid: early results from 12 fir species

    Treesearch

    Leslie Newton; Fred Hain; John. Frampton

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) Christmas trees produced in North Carolina need to be treated one or more times during their 5- to 10-year rotation to prevent or lessen damage caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (BWA) (Adelges piceae Ratz.). These pesticide applications result in an annual cost to the industry...

  7. An early look at forest regeneration indicator results for the Midwest and Northeast United States

    Treesearch

    William H. McWilliams; James A. Westfall

    2015-01-01

    Interacting regeneration stressors create challenges for policy makers and managers who are tasked with making decisions for restoring forest following major disturbances, such as harvest or catastrophic mortality. Concern over an aging forest, dwindling young forest habitat, and restoration of native forests in the midwest and northeast United States has resulted in...

  8. Ponderosa pine seeding trials in west-side Sierra Nevada clearcuts: some early results

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Neal

    1975-01-01

    In direct-seeding trials on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Yuba County, California, 27 combinations of seeding rates, aspect, and site treatment were tested. The best results were obtained on northerly aspects on unburned mechanically disturbed seedbeds with a high proportion of exposed mineral soil when seed application rates were high. Sowing at least 1 pound of...

  9. The characteristic black hole mass resulting from direct collapse in the early Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Black holes of a billion solar masses are observed in the infant Universe a few hundred million years after the big bang. The direct collapse of protogalactic gas clouds in primordial haloes with Tvir ≥ 104 K provides the most promising way to assemble massive black holes. In this study, we aim to determine the characteristic mass scale of seed black holes and the time evolution of the accretion rates resulting from the direct collapse model. We explore the formation of supermassive black holes via cosmological large eddy simulations (LES) by employing sink particles and following their evolution for 20 000 yr after the formation of the first sink. As the resulting protostars were shown to have cool atmospheres in the presence of strong accretion, we assume here that UV feedback is negligible during this calculation. We confirm this result in a comparison run without sinks. Our findings show that black hole seeds with characteristic mass of 105 M⊙ are formed in the presence of strong Lyman-Werner flux which leads to an isothermal collapse. The characteristic mass is about two times higher in LES compared to the implicit large eddy simulations. The accretion rates increase with time and reach a maximum value of 10 M⊙ yr-1 after 104 yr. Our results show that the direct collapse model is clearly feasible as it provides the expected mass of the seed black holes.

  10. Early results of a chestnut planting in eastern Kentucky illustrate reintroduction challenges

    Treesearch

    Cornelia C. Pinchot; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Jennifer A. Franklin; David S. Buckley; Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer; Arnold M. Saxton; Frederick V. Hebard

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the first year results from a silvicultural study of American, hybrid (BC2F3) and Chinese chestnut seedlings (Castanea spp. Mill.) on the Daniel Boone National Forest in southeastern Kentucky. After one year, no significant differences in growth were found among the silvicultural...

  11. Competitive Employment for Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Early Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehman, Paul H.; Schall, Carol M.; McDonough, Jennifer; Kregel, John; Brooke, Valerie; Molinelli, Alissa; Ham, Whitney; Graham, Carolyn W.; Riehle, J. Erin; Collins, Holly T.; Thiss, Weston

    2014-01-01

    For most youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), employment upon graduation from high school or college is elusive. Employment rates are reported in many studies to be very low despite many years of intensive special education services. This paper presented the preliminary results of a randomized clinical trial of Project SEARCH plus ASD…

  12. Managing Herbicide Drift and Early Results of Simulated Glyphosate Drift to Potato Study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The off target movement of herbicides can injure sensitive crops. Off target movement of spray droplets results from displacement by wind, poor application techniques, or improper settings or operation of application equipment. Applicators should be aware of wind speed and direction, use nozzles and...

  13. The national fire and fire surrogate study: early results and future challenges

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Waldrop; James McIver

    2006-01-01

    Fire-adapted ecosystems today have dense plant cover and heavy fuel loads as a result of fire exclusion and other changes in land use practices. Mechanical fuel treatments and prescribed fire are powerful tools for reducing wildfire potential, but the ecological consequences of their use is unknown. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate Study examines the effects of...

  14. The GTC Scientific Data Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.

    2005-12-01

    Since the early stages of the GTC project, the need of a scientific archive was already identified as an important tool for the scientific exploitation of the data. In this work, the conceptual design and the main functionalities of the Scientific Data Archive of the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GSA) are described. The system will be developed, implemented and maintained at the Laboratorio de Astrofísica Espacial y Física Fundamental (LAEFF).

  15. SADI-S WITH RIGHT GASTRIC ARTERY LIGATION: TECHNICAL SYSTEMATIZATION AND EARLY RESULTS.

    PubMed

    Gebelli, Jordi Pujol; Gordejuela, Amador Garcia Ruiz de; Ramos, Almino Cardoso; Nora, Mario; Pereira, Ana Marta; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Bastos, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; Marchesini, João Batista

    Bariatric surgery is performed all over the world with close to 500.000 procedures per year. The most performed techniques are Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Despite this data, the most effective procedure, biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch, represents only no more than 1.5% of the procedures. Technical complexity, morbidity, mortality, and severe nutritional adverse effects related to the procedure are the main fears that prevent most universal acceptance. To explain the technical aspects and the benefits of the SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation as an effective simplification from the original duodenal switch. Were included all patients undergoing this procedure from the November 2014 to May 2016, describing and analysing aspects of this technique, the systematization and early complications associated with the procedure. A series of 67 patients were operated; 46 were women (68.7%); mean age of the group was 44 years old (33-56); and an average BMI of 53.5 kg/m2 (50-63.5). Surgical time was 115 min (80-180). A total of five patients (7.5%) had any complication and two (2.9%) had to be reoperated. There were two patients with leak, one at the duodenal stump and other at the esophagogastric angle. There was no mortality. Patients stayed at the hospital a median of 2.5 days (1-25). SADI-S with right gastric artery ligation is a safe procedure with few preliminary complications. The technical variations introduced to the classical duodenal switch are reproducible and may allow this procedure to be more popular. All the complications in this series were not related to the ligation of the right gastric artery. Cerca de 500.000 cirurgias bariátricas são realizadas a cada ano em todo o mundo. As técnicas mais realizadas são o bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux e a gastrectomia vertical. A derivação biliopancreática, com ou sem duodenal switch, é considerada técnica mais eficaz no tratamento cirúrgico do paciente obeso

  16. [Early results of proximal femoral fractures treated with FENIX modular hemiarthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Görski, Radosław; Górecki, Andrzej; Olszewski, Paweł; Biedrzycki, Jerzy; Skowronek, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses preliminary clinical results in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty using a FENIX implant. The study group comprised 41 subjects aged 69 to 97 (median age 82.3 year). The follow-up study provided data on 26 subjects (63.4%), among which 15 attended the check-up, 5 subjects refused to visit at the Department and 6 subjects were reported as deceased. Median follow-up period amounted to 6.8 month (1 to 22 months). General hospitalization-related complications occurred in 8 patients (19.5%). During hospitalization no deaths occurred, in the deceased group 3 patients died within 12 months after surgery, while another 3 died after the twelve-month postoperative period (median of 13.3%). According to Merle d'Aubigne-Postel score favorable long-term results were observed in 9 patients (59.9%), 13 patients regained the level of motor function similar to the functional ability prior to fracture. The need to postpone the surgery due to general health status and impaired pre-operative motor function are significant negative prognostic factors. The results obtained were compared with previous efficacy studies on femoral fracture treatment using an Austin-Moore implant. Functional ability and self-reliance was higher in the FENIX group. FENIX arthroplasty effectively helps patients regain self-reliance and motor function thanks to its modular characteristics and anatmoical construction.

  17. Single-incision (with multi-input single-port) laparoscopic colorectal procedures: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Ertem, Metin; Gök, Hakan; Özveri, Emel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a “scar-less” new surgical technique which has been gaining popularity over recent years. In comparison to conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery, SILS is introduced as a less invasive method. This technique has also been applied to colorectal surgery. The aim of the presenting study is to investigate the applicability of SILS and report short term results. Material and Methods: We evaluated prospectively collected data of 24 patients who had been operated with “Single Incision Laparoscopic Colon Resection (SILCR)” in our clinic between June 2011–June 2013. Informed consent was obtained from all patients before surgery. Patient data such as ASA and BMI values, need for additional surgery, tumors, number of lymph nodes resected, length of hospital stay, length of surgery, timing of flatus, time to start oral feeding and complications were recorded. Results: SILCR was performed in 24 patients. In 13 patients, SILCR was performed for cancer treatment. There was no need for extra ports, conversion to open surgery and stoma creation was also not necessary. Drain was placed in 4 patients. Overall complication rate was 12.5%. The mean number of lymph nodes in 13 patients who underwent SILCR for tumor was found to be 23 (14–33). The mean operative time and length of hospital stay was 177 minutes (110–363) and 5.35 days (4–11) respectively. Anastomotic leakage was not seen in any of the patients. In one patient, urinoma formation due to ureteral leakage was seen which resulted from thermal injury. Conclusion: When we compare other series with almost the same number of patients’ reported SILS results in the literature, we believe that we could draw conclusions from our data. SILS appears to have comparable results to conventional multiport laparoscopic surgery in the hands of experienced surgeons. It seems advantegous as it can be done with conventional laparoscopic instruments in a

  18. Total enbloc spondylectomy for metastatic high grade spinal tumors: Early results

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanganagouda S; Nene, Abhay M

    2016-01-01

    Background: High grade metastatic spinal tumors are most common and are invasive. These patients can succumb to disease progression if not treated timely. Although considered as invasive and morbid, total enbloc spondylectomy (TES) in selected cases has better survival rates. The authors describe the results of TES for high grade metastatic spinal tumors. Materials and Methods: Five patients (four females and one male) underwent TES for solitary metastatic vertebral lesion between November 2012 and January 2014. These patients presented to us with spinal instability, unrelenting severe spinal pain and/or with severe progressive radiculopathy. Average age was 46.2 years (range 39–62 years). After complete investigations, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging scan and positron emission tomography (PET) scan, it was confirmed that these patients had high grade solitary vertebral metastatic tumor. Results: Average duration of followup was 18 months (range 16–20 months). The average preoperative visual analog scale score of 9.4 (range 9–10) improved to 2 (range 1–4) at last followup. Average blood loss was 1440 mL (range 1000–2000 mL). Average duration of surgery was 198 min (range 180–240 min). Significant pain relief was noticed in each patient in the immediate postoperative period and during followups. These patients attained complete functional activities of daily living with in a month. The imaging showed implants in situ, no recurrence of tumor, and no activity on PET scan at the final followup. Conclusion: The present series shows favorable short term results of TES for solitary, metastatic, high grade vertebral body tumors by a team approach. PMID:27512215

  19. The effect of gender on the early results of coronary artery bypass surgery in the younger patients' group

    PubMed Central

    Uncu, Hasan; Acipayam, Mehmet; Altinay, Levent; Doğan, Pinar; Davarcı, Isil; Özsöyler, İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this retrospective study, we aimed to determine the risk factors for coronary artery bypass surgery in patients under 45 years of age, and evaluate the early postoperative results and the effect of gender. Methods A total of 324 patients under 45 years of age who undergone on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery between April 12, 2004 and January 10, 2012 were included to the study. Patients divided into groups as follows: Group 1 consisted of 269 males (mean age 41.3), Group 2 consisted of 55 females (mean age 41.6). Preoperative risk factors, intraoperative and postoperative data and early mortality rates of the groups were compared. Results Smoking rate was significantly higher in Group 1. Diabetes mellitus incidence and body mass index were significantly higher in Group 2 (P values P=0.01; P=0.0001; P=0.04 respectively). The aortic cross-clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass time and number of grafts per patient were significantly higher in Group 1 (P values P=0.04; P=0.04; P=0.002 respectively). There were no deaths in either group. Conclusion We found that gender has no effect on early mortality rates of the coronary bypass surgery patients under 45 years. PMID:25714211

  20. Early results of an in vivo trial of ESS in thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Jennifer E.; Goukassian, Ilona D.; A'Amar, Ousama M.; Bigio, Irving J.; Lee, Stephanie L.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The current gold standard for diagnosis, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy, yields 10-25% of indeterminate cytology results, leading to patients undergoing thyroidectomy for diagnosis. We assessed the technical potential of a miniaturized in vivo ESS (elastic light scattering spectroscopy) probe, built into an FNA needle assembly, to differentiate benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Under IRB approval, 15 patients in the endocrine clinic undergoing FNAB of a thyroid nodule had collection of ESS data using our novel miniaturized FNA probe. Using final surgical pathology as our gold standard, data post processing and visual inspection was completed. Results: 225 spectra were grouped and analyzed (120 benign, 30 malignant and 75 from indeterminate cytology). ESS probes demonstrated excellent reproducibility in use. Initial analysis of these preliminary data is promising, indicating distinction of spectral ESS features between malignant and benign conditions. Conclusion(s): An in vivo trial of an invasive miniaturized integrated ESS biopsy probe is acceptable to patients, and collection of ESS data is feasible and reliable. With development of a disease-specific algorithm, ESS could potentially be used as an in-situ real time intra-operative diagnostic tool or as a minimally invasive adjunct to conventional FNA cytology.

  1. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    PubMed

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p < .05); results for other tobacco-specific media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p < .05). Mixed results indicated that improvements in media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  2. Hearing taboo words can result in early talker effects in word recognition for female listeners.

    PubMed

    Tuft, Samantha E; MᶜLennan, Conor T; Krestar, Maura L

    2018-02-01

    Previous spoken word recognition research using the long-term repetition-priming paradigm found performance costs for stimuli mismatching in talker identity. That is, when words were repeated across the two blocks, and the identity of the talker changed reaction times (RTs) were slower than when the repeated words were spoken by the same talker. Such performance costs, or talker effects, followed a time course, occurring only when processing was relatively slow. More recent research suggests that increased explicit and implicit attention towards the talkers can result in talker effects even during relatively fast processing. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether word meaning would influence the pattern of talker effects in an easy lexical decision task and, if so, whether results would differ depending on whether the presentation of neutral and taboo words was mixed or blocked. Regardless of presentation, participants responded to taboo words faster than neutral words. Furthermore, talker effects for the female talker emerged when participants heard both taboo and neutral words (consistent with an attention-based hypothesis), but not for participants that heard only taboo or only neutral words (consistent with the time-course hypothesis). These findings have important implications for theoretical models of spoken word recognition.

  3. Ciprofloxacin and furagin in acute cystitis: comparison of early immune and microbiological results.

    PubMed

    Dybowski, Bartosz; Jabłońska, Olga; Radziszewski, Piotr; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-01

    Furagin (a nitrofurantoin analogue) has the same efficacy in treating acute cystitis as ciprofloxacin, however the duration of therapy is longer. We established a hypothesis that therapy with ciprofloxacin results in faster resolution of mucosal inflammation in comparison with furagin. Rates of urinary secretion of immunoglobulins class A, M and G and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were evaluated before and after initiation of therapy in adult women presenting with acute cystitis confirmed by urine culture. Women were randomised into two groups receiving either ciprofloxacin 250mg twice a day for 3 days (n=13) or furagin 100mg three times a day for 7 days (n=14). Median lengths of follow-up were 4 days and 5 days in the ciprofloxacin and furagin groups, respectively. Treatment with ciprofloxacin resulted in faster eradication of pathogens. No bacteria or nitrates were detected in the ciprofloxacin group, whilst leukocyte esterase was positive in only one case. In the furagin group there were four positive cultures, seven cases with positive nitrates and five cases with positive esterase. Secretion rates of all four substances dropped significantly, but the changes over time were similar in both groups.

  4. A summary of selected early results from the ERTS-1 menhaden experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, W. H. (Principal Investigator); Kemmerer, A. J.; Benigno, J. A.; Reese, G. B.; Minkler, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery from ERTS-1 satellite was used in conjunction with aerial photographically-sensed menhaden distribution information, sea truth oceanographic measurements, and commercial fishing information from a 8685 square kilometer study area in the north-central portion of the Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate relationships between selected oceanographic parameters and menhaden distribution, ERTS-1 imagery and menhaden distribution, and ERTS-1 imagery and oceanographic parameters. ERTS-1, MSS band 5 imagery density levels correlated with photographically detected menhaden distribution patterns and could be explained based on sea truth Secchi disc transparency and water depth measurements. These two parameters, together with surface salinity, Forel-Ule color, and chlorophyll-a also were found to correlate significantly with menhaden distribution. Eight empirical models were developed which provided menhaden distribution predictions for the study area on combinations of Secchi disc transparency, water depth, surface salinity, and Forel-Ule color measurements.

  5. Human amyloidogenic light chain proteins result in cardiac dysfunction, cell death, and early mortality in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shikha; Guan, Jian; Plovie, Eva; Seldin, David C; Connors, Lawreen H; Merlini, Giampaolo; Falk, Rodney H; MacRae, Calum A; Liao, Ronglih

    2013-07-01

    Systemic amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is associated with rapidly progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy resulting from the direct cardiotoxic effects of circulating AL light chain (AL-LC) proteins and the indirect effects of AL fibril tissue infiltration. Cardiac amyloidosis is resistant to standard heart failure therapies, and, to date, there are limited treatment options for these patients. The mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac amyloidosis and AL-LC cardiotoxicity are largely unknown, and their study has been limited by the lack of a suitable in vivo model system. Here, we establish an in vivo zebrafish model of human AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity. AL-LC isolated from AL cardiomyopathy patients or control nonamyloidogenic LC protein isolated from multiple myeloma patients (Con-LC) was directly injected into the circulation of zebrafish at 48 h postfertilization. AL-LC injection resulted in impaired cardiac function, pericardial edema, and increased cell death relative to Con-LC, culminating in compromised survival with 100% mortality within 2 wk, independent of AL fibril deposition. Prior work has implicated noncanonical p38 MAPK activation in the pathogenesis of AL-LC-induced cardiotoxicity, and p38 MAPK inhibition via SB-203580 rescued AL-LC-induced cardiac dysfunction and cell death and attenuated mortality in zebrafish. This in vivo zebrafish model of AL-LC cardiotoxicity demonstrates that antagonism of p38 MAPK within the AL-LC cardiotoxic signaling response may serve to improve cardiac function and mortality in AL cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this in vivo model system will allow for further study of the molecular underpinnings of AL cardiotoxicity and identification of novel therapeutic strategies.

  6. Optimal Geoid Modelling to determine the Mean Ocean Circulation - Project Overview and early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecher, Thomas; Knudsen, Per; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Gruber, Thomas; Maximenko, Nikolai; Pie, Nadege; Siegismund, Frank; Stammer, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    The ESA project GOCE-OGMOC (Optimal Geoid Modelling based on GOCE and GRACE third-party mission data and merging with altimetric sea surface data to optimally determine Ocean Circulation) examines the influence of the satellite missions GRACE and in particular GOCE in ocean modelling applications. The project goal is an improved processing of satellite and ground data for the preparation and combination of gravity and altimetry data on the way to an optimal MDT solution. Explicitly, the two main objectives are (i) to enhance the GRACE error modelling and optimally combine GOCE and GRACE [and optionally terrestrial/altimetric data] and (ii) to integrate the optimal Earth gravity field model with MSS and drifter information to derive a state-of-the art MDT including an error assessment. The main work packages referring to (i) are the characterization of geoid model errors, the identification of GRACE error sources, the revision of GRACE error models, the optimization of weighting schemes for the participating data sets and finally the estimation of an optimally combined gravity field model. In this context, also the leakage of terrestrial data into coastal regions shall be investigated, as leakage is not only a problem for the gravity field model itself, but is also mirrored in a derived MDT solution. Related to (ii) the tasks are the revision of MSS error covariances, the assessment of the mean circulation using drifter data sets and the computation of an optimal geodetic MDT as well as a so called state-of-the-art MDT, which combines the geodetic MDT with drifter mean circulation data. This paper presents an overview over the project results with focus on the geodetic results part.

  7. Early and mid-term results of lung transplantation with donors 60 years and older.

    PubMed

    López, Iker; Zapata, Ricardo; Solé, Juan; Jaúregui, Alberto; Deu, María; Romero, Laura; Pérez, Javier; Bello, Irene; Wong, Manuel; Ribas, Montse; Masnou, Nuria; Rello, Jordi; Roman, Antonio; Canela, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    There are doubts about the age limit for lung donors and the ideal donor has traditionally been considered to be one younger than 55 years. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes in lung transplantation between organs from donors older and younger than 60 years. We performed a retrospective observational study comparing the group of patients receiving organs from donors 60 years or older (Group A) or younger than 60 years (Group B) between January 2007 and December 2011. Postoperative evolution and mortality rates, short-term and mid-term postoperative complications, and global survival rate were evaluated. We analysed a total of 230 lung transplants, of which 53 (23%) involved lungs from donors 60 years of age or older (Group A), and 177 (77%) were from donors younger than 60 years (Group B). Three (5.7%) patients from Group A and 14 patients (7.9%) from Group B died within 30 days (P = 0.58). The percentage of patients free from chronic lung allograft dysfunction at 1-3 years was 95.5, 74.3 and 69.3% for Group A, and 94.5, 84.8 and 73.3% for Group B, respectively (P = 0.47). There were no statistically significant differences between Groups A and B in terms of survival at 3 years, (69.4 vs 68.8%; P = 0.28). Our results support the idea that lungs from donors aged 60-70 years can be used safely for lung transplantation with comparable results to lungs from younger donors in terms of postoperative mortality and mid-term survival. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. [Early prediction of the neurological result at 12 months in newborns at neurological risk].

    PubMed

    Herbón, F; Garibotti, G; Moguilevsky, J

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Amiel-Tison neurological examination (AT) and cranial ultrasound at term for predicting the neurological result at 12 months in newborns with neurological risk. The study included 89 newborns with high risk of neurological damage, who were discharged from the Neonatal Intensive Care of the Hospital Zonal Bariloche, Argentina. The assessment consisted of a neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term, and neurological examination and evaluation of development at 12 months. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictor value was calculated. The relationship between perinatal factors and neurodevelopment at 12 month of age was also calculated using logistic regression models. Seventy children completed the follow-up. At 12 months of age, 14% had an abnormal neurological examination, and 17% abnormal development. The neurological examination and the cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity to predict abnormal neurodevelopment. At 12 months, 93% of newborns with normal AT showed normal neurological results, and 86% normal development. Among newborns with normal cranial ultrasound the percentages were 90 and 81%, respectively. Among children with three or more perinatal risk factors, the frequency of abnormalities in the neurological response was 5.4 times higher than among those with fewer risk factors, and abnormal development was 3.5 times more frequent. The neurological examination and cranial ultrasound at term had low sensitivity but high negative predictive value for the neurodevelopment at 12 months. Three or more perinatal risk factors were associated with neurodevelopment abnormalities at 12 months of age. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory: Early results from the crowd sourcing competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, Nick; Hilkhuijsen, Tanja; Hut, Rolf; Andreini, Marc; Selker, John

    2013-04-01

    The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (www.tahmo.org) is an international initiative with the objective to develop, build, and operate 20,000 hydro-meteorological measurement stations in sub-Saharan Africa. TAHMO tries to integrate science with education. At the same time, we try to make the initiative financially sustainable by developing and rolling out viable business development. Estimated total costs for establishing the network will be in the order of US 20 million, whereas operational costs will be around US 2 million per year. The stations need to be designed in accordance to a set of rules that serves easy deployment and operation, such as absence of moving parts and cavities, self- and cross calibration of sensors, and low cost (€ 200-300 per station). There are some promising first results in this respect. The presentation will focus on recent activities, specifically concerning crowd sourcing activities at African universities. This competition (http://tahmo.info/sensor-design-competition) consists of two rounds. The first round is open to any academic or research group in Africa and asks for the design of an innovative robust sensor in line with the TAHMO design criteria. The top twenty teams with the best designs will receive a "Maker Package" that will allow them to build and test the sensors. The final top ten design teams will meet in Nairobi in August 2013 to tinker and collaborate for one week and to integrate the sensors into a standard weather station. The deadline for the first round is 1 March 2013 and the results from this round will be presented.

  10. New Early and Late Carboniferous paleomagnetic results from the Qaidam Block, NW China: Implications for the paleogeography of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yong; Sun, Zhiming; Li, Haibing; Pei, Junling; Xu, Wei; Pan, Jiawei; Zhang, Lei; Ye, Xiaozhou; Huang, Baochun; Wang, Zongxiu

    2017-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the paleogeographic evolution of the Qaidam Block (37.3 °N/96.4 °E) in northwest China during the late Paleozoic. To provide a reliable constraint on the paleogeographic reconstruction and to determine the relationship with the adjacent area, we performed a paleomagnetic investigation of Early and Late Carboniferous sediments from the Qaidam Block. Stepwise thermal demagnetization successfully isolated high unblocking-temperature characteristic directions from the samples. The tilt-corrected mean direction of the Early Carboniferous sediments is Ds/Is = 298.6°/- 46.4° with α95 = 4.7° and N = 15 sites, corresponding to a paleopole at - 3.2 °N, 147.5 °E with A95 = 4.8°. The Late Carboniferous paleomagnetic direction is Ds/Is = 320.1°/- 46.1° with α95 = 5.3° and N = 8 sites, corresponding to a paleopole at - 15.1 °N, 132.2 °E with A95 = 5.4°. A positive fold test for the Early Carboniferous paleomagnetic directions, and consistency with the Kiaman reversed superchron for the Late Carboniferous paleomagnetic directions, indicates the primary origin of the characteristic remanence of the studied section. The new paleomagnetic results suggest that the Qaidam Block was located at about 27 °N and did not undergo significant N-S movement during the Carboniferous. However, the Qaidam Block experienced a counter-clockwise rotation of about 21° during this period. Comparisons of the paleomagnetic results from the major blocks of Central Asia suggest that the Qaidam Block may have experienced a relatively rapid northward movement and collided with the Tarim Block after the Late Permian. Based on the paleomagnetic poles of the Qaidam Block and adjacent blocks, we present a tentative paleogeographic reconstruction for central Asia during the Early and Late Carboniferous.

  11. Cancer early detection program based on awareness and clinical breast examination: Interim results from an urban community in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, Anita; Sauvaget, Catherine; Roy, Nobhojit; Muwonge, Richard; Kantharia, Surita; Chakrabarty, Anuradha; Bantwal, Kanchan; Haldar, Indrani; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-02-01

    Indian women with breast cancer are usually diagnosed in advanced stages leading to poor survival. Improving breast awareness and increasing access to early diagnosis and adequate treatment has been advocated for breast cancer control. We implemented a program to increase awareness on breast cancer and access to its early detection in an occupational health care scheme in Mumbai, India. Breast awareness brochures were mailed annually between June 2013 and June 2016 to a cohort of 22,500 eligible women aged 30-69 years old receiving universal health care from an occupational health care scheme comprising of primary health centres and a referral secondary care hospital in Mumbai. Women with suspected breast cancers were provided with diagnostic investigations and treatment. Socio-demographic information and tumour characteristics were compared between the breast awareness pre-intervention period (Jan 2005-May 2013) and the breast awareness intervention period after four rounds of mailers (June 2013-June 2016). The proportion of women with early tumours and axillary lymph node negative cancers increased from 74% to 81% and 46% to 53% respectively, between the two periods. While the proportion of patients receiving breast conserving surgery increased from 39% to 51%, the proportion receiving chemotherapy decreased from 84% to 56%. Interim results following efforts to improve breast awareness and access to care in a cohort of women in an occupational health care scheme indicate early detection and more conservative treatment of breast cancers. Creating awareness and improving access to care may result in cancer down-staging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early experience with stretch polytetrafluoroethylene grafts for haemodialysis access surgery: results of a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Tordoir, J H; Hofstra, L; Leunissen, K M; Kitslaar, P J

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results and complications of standard ePTFE versus stretch ePTFE AV fistulas. Prospective randomised trial. University Hospital. During a 2-year period 37 patients received 17 stretch and 20 standard ePTFE graft AV fistulas. Patients were evaluated for the occurrence of complications and graft patency. Regular Duplex scans were performed to detect stenoses in the fistula circuit. Thrombotic events occurred in 40% of the standard ePTFE grafts, compared to 12% of the stretch ePTFE prostheses (p < 0.001). The incidence of puncture complications was similar in both groups. The cumulative primary patency rate in the stretch ePTFE group was significantly higher compared to the standard ePTFE group (1-year patency rates of 59% and 29%, respectively; p < 0.01). No differences in the duration of puncture site bleeding were observed. Duplex scanning showed a significantly greater number of stenoses in the standard ePTFE grafts. The new stretch ePTFE prosthesis has better primary patency rates and less stenoses due to intimal hyperplasia as compared to standard ePTFE grafts.

  13. Early Results of a Helmetless-Tackling Intervention to Decrease Head Impacts in Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E.; Broglio, Steven P.; Cook, Summer B.; Cantu, Robert C.; Ferrara, Michael S.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Myers, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a helmetless-tackling behavioral intervention for reducing head impacts in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Football field. Patients or Other Participants Fifty collegiate football players (intervention = 25, control = 25). Intervention(s) The intervention group participated in a 5-minute tackling drill without their helmets and shoulder pads twice per week in the preseason and once per week through the season. During this time, the control group performed noncontact football skills. Main Outcome Measure(s) Frequency of head impacts was recorded by an impact sensor for each athlete-exposure (AE). Data were tested with a 2 × 3 (group and time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Significant interactions and main effects (P < .05) were followed with t tests. Results Head impacts/AE decreased for the intervention group compared with the control group by the end of the season (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 13.84 ± 7.27, respectively). The intervention group had 30% fewer impacts/AE than the control group by season's end (9.99 ± 6.10 versus 14.32 ± 8.45, respectively). Conclusion A helmetless-tackling training intervention reduced head impacts in collegiate football players within 1 season. PMID:26651278

  14. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, W. H.; Daeschner, C. W.; Files, B. A.; McConnell, M. E.; Strandjord, S. E.

    2001-01-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated. PMID:11688916

  15. Oral citrulline as arginine precursor may be beneficial in sickle cell disease: early phase two results.

    PubMed

    Waugh, W H; Daeschner, C W; Files, B A; McConnell, M E; Strandjord, S E

    2001-10-01

    L-Arginine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease, particularly as required substrate in the arginine-nitric oxide pathway for endogenous nitrovasodilation and vasoprotection. Vasoprotection by arginine is mediated partly by nitric oxide-induced inhibition of endothelial damage and inhibition of adhesion and activation of leukocytes. Activated leukocytes may trigger many of the complications, including vasoocclusive events and intimal hyperplasias. High blood leukocyte counts during steady states in the absence of infection are significant laboratory risk factors for adverse complications. L-Citrulline as precursor amino acid was given orally twice daily in daily doses of approximately 0.1 g/kg in a pilot Phase II clinical trial during steady states in four homozygous sickle cell disease subjects and one sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease patient (ages 10-18). There soon resulted dramatic improvements in symptoms of well-being, raised plasma arginine levels, and reductions in high total leukocyte and high segmented neutrophil counts toward or to within normal limits. Continued L-citrulline supplementation in compliant subjects continued to lessen symptomatology, to maintain plasma arginine concentrations greater than control levels, and to maintain nearly normal total leukocyte and neutrophil counts. Side effects or toxicity from citrulline were not experienced. Oral L-citrulline may portend very useful for palliative therapy in sickle cell disease. Placebo-controlled, long-term trials are now indicated.

  16. Early results of sarcomeric gene screening from the Egyptian National BA-HCM Program.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Heba Sh; Azer, Remon S; Saber-Ayad, Maha; Ayad, Maha S; Moharem-Elgamal, Sarah; Magdy, Gehan; Elguindy, Ahmed; Cecchi, Franco; Olivotto, Iacopo; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2013-02-01

    The present study comprised sarcomeric genotyping of the three most commonly involved sarcomeric genes: MYBPC3, MYH7, and TNNT2 in 192 unrelated Egyptian hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) index patients. Mutations were detected in 40 % of cases. Presence of positive family history was significantly (p=0.002) associated with a higher genetic positive yield (49/78, 62.8 %). The majority of the detected mutations in the three sarcomeric genes were novel (40/62, 65 %) and mostly private (47/62, 77 %). Single nucleotide substitution was the most frequently detected mutation type (51/62, 82 %). Over three quarters of these substitutions (21/27, 78 %) involved CpG dinucleotide sites and resulted from C>T or G>A transition in the three analyzed genes, highlighting the significance of CpG high mutability within the sarcomeric genes examined. This study could aid in global comparative studies in different ethnic populations and constitutes an important step in the evolution of the integrated clinical, translational, and basic science HCM program.

  17. Initial Experience and Early Results of Mitral Valve Repair with Cardiocel Pericardial Patch.

    PubMed

    Tomšič, Anton; Bissessar, Daniella D; van Brakel, Thomas J; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Klautz, Robert J M; Palmen, Meindert

    2018-06-07

    To assess the performance of a tissue engineering process-treated bovine pericardium patch (CardioCel) in the setting of reconstructive mitral valve surgery. Between 3/2014 and 4/2016, 30 patients (57.2±14.3 years, 27% female) underwent mitral valve leaflet repair with a CardioCel patch. Perioperative mortality was 7% (2 patients, non-graft-related). In 28 remaining patients, pre-discharge echocardiography demonstrated good repaired valve function. At a mean follow-up of 1.7±0.9 years, 3 additional deaths occurred (2 due to infective endocarditis, 1 non-cardiac related). On follow-up echocardiography [follow-up time 1.7±0.8 years, available for 26/28 (93%) hospital survivors], recurrent regurgitation was seen in 2 patients (both infective endocarditis) and 1 underwent reoperation (no infection at the level of patch repair was observed). In the remaining patients, the most recent echocardiogram demonstrated ≤mild regurgitation and stable gradients. The thickness and echodensity of the implanted patch on follow-up echocardiograms were comparable with postoperative echocardiograms. Initial results of the CardioCel patch in mitral valve repair surgery are satisfactory. The resistance to infection and late degeneration will need to be assessed in the future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Biodegradable fixation of mandibular fractures in children: stability and early results.

    PubMed

    Yerit, Kaan C; Hainich, Sibylle; Enislidis, Georg; Turhani, Dritan; Klug, Clemens; Wittwer, Gert; Ockher, Michael; Undt, Gerhard; Kermer, Christian; Watzinger, Franz; Ewers, Rolf

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficiency of biodegradable self-reinforced (SR-PLDLA) bone plates and screws in open reduction and internal fixation of mandible fractures in children. Thirteen patients (5 female, 8 male; mean age 12 years, range 5-16 years) were operated on various fractures of the mandible (2 symphyseal, 6 parasymphyseal, 4 body, 3 angle, 1 ramus, 2 condylar fractures). The mean follow-up time was 26.4 months (range 10.9-43.4 months). Intermaxillary fixation was applied in cases with concomitant condylar fractures up to 3 weeks. Primary healing of the fractured mandible was observed in all patients. Postoperative complications were minor and transient. The outcome of the operations was not endangered. Adverse tissue reactions to the implants, malocclusion, and growth restrictions did not occur during the observation period. Pediatric patients benefit from the advantages of resorbable materials, especially from faster mobilization and the avoidance of secondary removal operations. Based on these preliminary results, self-reinforced fixation devices are safe and efficient in the treatment of pediatric mandible fractures. However, further clinical investigations are necessary to evaluate the long-term reliability.

  19. Deletion of Mecom in mouse results in early-onset spinal deformity and osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Subhash C; Vonica, Alin; Zeiss, Caroline; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Yatsula, Bogdan; Sell, David R; Monnier, Vincent M; Lin, Sharon; Ardito, Thomas; Eyre, David; Reynolds, David; Yao, Zhenqiang; Awad, Hani A; Yu, Hongbo; Wilson, Michael; Honnons, Sylvie; Boyce, Brendan F; Xing, Lianping; Zhang, Yi; Perkins, Archibald S

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have indicated a role for a MECOM allele in susceptibility to osteoporotic fractures in humans. We have generated a mutation in Mecom in mouse (termed ME(m1)) via lacZ knock-in into the upstream transcription start site for the gene, resulting in disruption of Mds1 and Mds1-Evi1 transcripts, but not of Evi1 transcripts. We demonstrate that ME(m1/m1) mice have severe kyphoscoliosis that is reminiscent of human congenital or primary kyphoscoliosis. ME(m1/m1) mice appear normal at birth, but by 2weeks, they exhibit a slight lumbar lordosis and narrowed intervertebral space. This progresses to severe lordosis with disc collapse and synostosis, together with kyphoscoliosis. Bone formation and strength testing show that ME(m1/m1) mice have normal bone formation and composition but are osteopenic. While endochondral bone development is normal, it is markedly dysplastic in its organization. Electron micrographs of the 1week postnatal intervertebral discs reveals marked disarray of collagen fibers, consistent with an inherent weakness in the non-osseous connective tissue associated with the spine. These findings indicate that lack of ME leads to a complex defect in both osseous and non-osseous musculoskeletal tissues, including a marked vertebral osteopenia, degeneration of the IVD, and disarray of connective tissues, which is likely due to an inherent inability to establish and/or maintain components of these tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early results of one-stage correction for hip instability in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hui Taek; Jang, Jae Hoon; Ahn, Jae Min; Lee, Jong Seo; Kang, Dong Joon

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiological results of one-stage correction for cerebral palsy patients. We reviewed clinical outcomes and radiologic indices of 32 dysplastic hips in 23 children with cerebral palsy (13 males, 10 females; mean age, 8.6 years). Ten hips had dislocation, while 22 had subluxation. Preoperative Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) scores of the patients were as follows; level V (13 patients), level IV (9), and level III (1). Acetabular deficiency was anterior in 5 hips, superolateral in 7, posterior in 11 and mixed in 9, according to 3 dimensional computed tomography. The combined surgery included open reduction of the femoral head, release of contracted muscles, femoral shortening varus derotation osteotomy and the modified Dega osteotomy. Hip range of motion, GMFCS level, acetabular index, center-edge angle and migration percentage were measured before and after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 28.1 months. Hip abduction (median, 40°), sitting comfort and GMFCS level were improved after surgery, and pain was decreased. There were two cases of femoral head avascular necrosis, but no infection, nonunion, resubluxation or redislocation. All radiologic indices showed improvement after surgery. A single event multilevel surgery including soft tissue, pelvic and femoral side correction is effective in treating spastic dislocation of the hip in cerebral palsy.

  1. Planck early results. XXIV. Dust in the diffuse interstellar medium and the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Balbi, A.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Blagrave, K.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cantalupo, C. M.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Cayón, L.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Chiang, C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Dörl, U.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hovest, W.; Hoyland, R. J.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Joncas, G.; Jones, A.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lockman, F. J.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Osborne, S.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Poutanen, T.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Reinecke, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Stivoli, F.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Torre, J.-P.; Tristram, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wilkinson, A.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the first results from a comparison of Planck dust maps at 353, 545 and 857GHz, along with IRAS data at 3000 (100 μm) and 5000GHz (60 μm), with Green Bank Telescope 21-cm observations of Hi in 14 fields covering more than 800 deg2 at high Galactic latitude. The main goal of this study is to estimate the far-infrared to sub-millimeter (submm) emissivity of dust in the diffuse local interstellar medium (ISM) and in the intermediate-velocity (IVC) and high-velocity clouds (HVC) of the Galactic halo. Galactic dust emission for fields with average Hi column density lower than 2 × 1020 cm-2 is well correlated with 21-cm emission because in such diffuse areas the hydrogen is predominantly in the neutral atomic phase. The residual emission in these fields, once the Hi-correlated emission is removed, is consistent with the expected statistical properties of the cosmic infrared background fluctuations. The brighter fields in our sample, with an average Hi column density greater than 2 × 1020 cm-2, show significant excess dust emission compared to the Hi column density. Regions of excess lie in organized structures that suggest the presence of hydrogen in molecular form, though they are not always correlated with CO emission. In the higher Hi column density fields the excess emission at 857 GHz is about 40% of that coming from the Hi, but over all the high latitude fields surveyed the molecular mass faction is about 10%. Dust emission from IVCs is detected with high significance by this correlation analysis. Its spectral properties are consistent with, compared to the local ISM values, significantly hotter dust (T ~ 20K), lower submm dust opacity normalized per H-atom, and a relative abundance of very small grains to large grains about four times higher. These results are compatible with expectations for clouds that are part of the Galactic fountain in which there is dust shattering and fragmentation. Correlated dust emission in HVCs is not detected

  2. Development and preliminary results of an in vivo Raman probe for early lung cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Michael A.; Lam, Stephen; McWilliams, Annette; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2008-02-01

    Our previous results from Raman spectroscopy studies on ex vivo lung tissue showed the technique had great potential to differentiate between samples with different pathologies. In this work, a fast dispersive-type near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy system was developed to collect real-time, noninvasive, in vivo human lung spectra. The 785 nm excitation, and the collection of tissue emission were accomplished by using a reusable fiber optic catheter which passed down the instrument channel of a bronchoscope. Filters in two stages blocked laser emission other than 785 nm from reaching the tissue surface, and reduced fiber fluorescence and elastically scattered excitation light from being passed to the spectrometer. The spectrometer itself consisted of one of two holographic gratings with usable frequency ranges of: 700 to 2000 cm -1 and 1500 to 3400 cm -1. The dispersed light was detected by a cooled CCD array consisting of 400 by 1340 pixels. To increase the resolution of the system, while maximizing the throughput, a second fiber bundle, consisting of 54×100 μm diameter fibers connected the catheter to the spectrometer. The fibers in this second bundle were spread out to form a parabolic arc which replaced the conventional entrance slit. This geometry corrected for image aberrations, permitting complete CCD vertical binning, thereby yielding up to a 20-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated spectral resolution of the system was 9 cm -1 for both gratings. So far we have measured spectra from 20 patients and have seen clear differences between spectra from tumor and normal tissue.

  3. Early cow's milk consumption among Brazilian children: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Gisele Ane; Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2013-01-01

    to assess the intake, frequency, and type of milk consumed by Brazilian children younger than 60 months of age. this was a cross-sectional study, which used secondary data from the National Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-2007. Data from 4,817 children under the age of 60 months were used. All analyses were performed with expanded samples. The dietetic survey assessed the previous day's consumption, and estimates were made through univariate analysis, presented as a percentage. on the day prior to the survey, breast milk was consumed by 91% of the children younger than six months of age, by 61.5% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by 34.8% of the children aged 13 to 24 months. Among the children who had received other types of milk, cow's milk was consumed by 62.4% of the children younger than six months, by 74.6% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by approximately 80% of the children older than 12 months. Infant formulas were consumed by 23% of the children younger than six months of age, by 9.8% of the children aged 6 to 12 months, and by less than 1% of the older children. Soy milk consumption varied from 14.6% to 20% among the investigated ages. Non-breast milk consumption before the age of six months was more frequent in children living in the Northeastern and Southern regions. the results of the present study demonstrated that most children received cow's milk prematurely as a substitute for breast milk, highlighting the importance of the development of public policies to promote, protect, and support breastfeeding in all regions of Brazil, aiming at reversing the observed scenario. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Early myocardial revascularization for postinfarction angina: results and long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Rivera, R; Cooper, G N; Karlson, K E

    1985-11-01

    Within 30 days of acute myocardial infarction, 108 consecutive patients underwent urgent surgical myocardial revascularization for postinfarction angina between July 1976 and March 1983. There were 84 men and 24 women whose mean age was 59.6 +/- 9.5 years (range 34 to 80). Group I (15 patients, 14%) underwent surgery within 48 hours, Group II (47 patients, 43%) between 3 and 7 days and Group III (46 patients, 43%) within 30 days. Fifty-nine patients (55%) had transmural infarction. The ejection fraction was less than 40% in 21 patients (19%). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 20 mm Hg or greater in 42 patients (39%). The incidence of single, double, triple vessel and 70% or greater left main coronary artery stenosis was 4, 20, 59 and 17%, respectively. There were two deaths (1.8%) within 30 days of operation. The incidence of intraaortic balloon pumping was higher in patients operated on earlier after myocardial infarction (53% of Group I versus 22% of Group III). Statistically, there were no differences in the use of inotropic agents or the occurrence of arrhythmias or postoperative myocardial infarction in the three groups. Late follow-up (mean 35 months, range 18 to 98) is complete for all patients (100%). There were four late myocardial infarctions and eight deaths. Actuarial survival was 87% at 5 years. Seventy-three percent of the 108 patients were free of angina and the condition of 14% improved. These results indicate that myocardial revascularization in the first 30 days after myocardial infarction can be accomplished with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of an elective operation for chronic angina refractory to medical management.

  5. Endoscopic management of traumatic posterior urethral stricture: early results and followup.

    PubMed

    Goel, M C; Kumar, M; Kapoor, R

    1997-01-01

    We assessed the outcome of core through internal urethrotomy for traumatic posterior urethral stricture, and reviewed the followup results of these patients. During the last 4 years 13 patients with a stricture up to 2 cm. long underwent core through internal urethrotomy with C-arm fluoroscopy guidance and an orientation in 2 planes. Retrograde urethrotomy was performed and an 18F Foley catheter was left indwelling for 4 weeks, after which urethrotomy was repeated. All patients were advised to perform clean intermittent self-catheterization for urethral calibration and dilation. Outcome was defined as class 1-3 patients who required 2 or fewer urethrotomies with clean intermittent self-catheterization discontinued after the primary procedure, class 2-5 who required 2 or fewer urethrotomies with clean intermittent self-catheterization and class 3-5 who required 3 or more urethrotomies. Of the 13 patients 8 (61%) did well after a mean followup of 17.7 months. The 3 patients with a class 1 outcome did well, while 2 of 5 with a class 2 outcome required repeat urethrotomy during followup. Of the 5 patients (39%) with a class 3 outcome in whom core through internal urethrotomy failed 3 required open surgery and 2 were lost to followup. Recurrence rate was 69% at 3 months and 25% at 12 months after the initial procedure. No patient was incontinent at last followup. Two patients had significant hematuria postoperatively, which resolved with conservative treatment. Endoscopic treatment should be considered the first line procedure for all post-traumatic posterior urethral strictures. The morbidity of open surgery can be avoided in 61% of patients. Hospital stay, loss of work, morbidity and related complications are also markedly decreased with endoscopic therapy.

  6. Manchester iStent study: early results from a prospective UK case series.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ilesh; de Klerk, Timothy A; Au, Leon

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the 6-month efficacy and safety of the iStent microtrabecular bypass stent in patients with open-angle glaucoma. A prospective, uncontrolled, interventional case series. Forty-four eyes with open-angle glaucoma were reported. All subjects underwent ab interno implantation of a single iStent together with (n = 40) or without (n = 4) cataract surgery. Patients were assessed at postoperative week 1, months 1 and 3, and quarterly, thereafter. Data collected included visual acuity, intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann tonometry, number of glaucoma medications, and number and type of complications. The mean age of the sample was 76.8 years. The mean duration since glaucoma diagnosis was 5.3 years (standard deviation 2.9 years). The mean visual acuity was 0.53 logMAR at baseline that improved to 0.23 at 6 months postoperatively. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 21.1 mmHg, and this decreased significantly to 16.7 mmHg at 6 months (P < 0.01). The mean number of drops prescribed preoperatively was 2.3, which decreased to 0.6 at 6 months (P < 0.01). Sixty-six per cent of patients were drop-free at 6 months. One patient developed an hyphaema following surgery; no other adverse events were recorded. The iStent proved to be a safe and effective treatment for patients with open-angle glaucoma over our 6-month follow up period. Insertion resulted in a significant decrease in intraocular pressure as well as the number of topical antiglaucoma medications required for adequate intraocular pressure control. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. The Design of a Remote Sensing Data Acquisition Campaign for Precision Agriculture and Some Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickmanl, D.; Luvall, J. C.; Wersinger, J. M.; Mask, P.; Kissel, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    harvest! Soil images show significant within field variation in clay, soil brightness and emissivity. Light wind has been found to effect the reflectance and temperature of broad leaf crops, including soybeans, cotton and peanuts. Clearly, this work has already demonstrated some very important results. With continued development of the remote sensing technology there is good reason to believe this research will soon be able to help the individual farmer.

  8. Early perioperative results and surgical recurrence after strictureplasty and miniresection for complicated Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, G M; Cristaldi, M; Porretta, T; Montecamozzo, G; Danelli, P; Taschieri, A M

    2000-01-01

    recurrence rate results support the efficacy and safety of SP and MR surgery in the treatment of complicated CD. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Early Spring in Europe: A Result of More Dominant North-Atlantic Southwesterlies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Atlas, R.; Chase, T. N.; Chou, S.-H.; Jusem, J. C.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Rogers, J.; Russell, G. L.; Schubert, S. D.; Sud, Y. C.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A 1999 study reports an advancement of spring in Europe by 0.2 days per year in the 30 years since 1960. Our analysis indicates that this trend results directly from a change in the late-winter surface winds over the eastern North Atlantic: the southwesterly direction became more dominant, and the speed of these southwesterlies increased slightly. Splitting the 52-year NCEP reanalysis dataset into the First Half, FH (1948-1973)), and the Second Half, SH (1974-1999), we analyze the wind direction for the February mean at three sites at 45N: site A at 30W, site B at 20W, and site C at 10W. The incidence (number of years) of the southwesterlies in SH Vs. (FH) at these sites respectively increased in SH as follows: 24(18), 19(12), 14(l 1); whereas the incidence of northeasterlies decreased: 0(2), 1(2), and 1(6). When the February mean wind is southwesterly, the monthly mean sensible heat flux from the ocean at these sites takes zero or slightly negative values, that is, the surface air is warmer than the ocean. Analyzing the scenario in the warm late winter 1990, we observe that the sensible heat flux from the ocean surface in February 1990 shows a "tongue" of negative values extending southwest from southern England to 7N. This indicates that the source of the maritime air advected into Europe lies to the south of the "tongue." Streamline analysis suggests that the Southwestern or southcentral North Atlantic is the source. For February 1990, we find strong, ascending motions over Europe at 700 mb, up to -0.4 Pa/s as monthly averages. Associated with the unstable low-levels of the troposphere are positive rain and cloud anomalies. Thus, positive in situ feedback over land in late winter (when shortwave absorption is not significant) apparently further enhances the surface temperature through an increase in the greenhouse effect due to increased water vapor and cloudiness.

  10. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data—A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Robert W.; Hayward, Andrew C.; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Background School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. Methods We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. Results 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5–14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. Interpretation This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies

  11. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP) aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95) years. 689(34.9%) are men and 1284(65.1%) are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20) kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003). The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952) had highest level gait disorders. 39.5% of 1964 subjects

  12. The effects of patient and physician characteristics on early outpatient satisfaction with substance dependence care: results of the SUBUSQOL study

    PubMed Central

    Bourion-Bédès, Stéphanie; Schwan, Raymund; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Vlamynck, Guillaume; Viennet, Sarah; Schvartz, Maxime; Gaunard, Anne; Bédès, Alex; Clerc-Urmès, Isabelle; Baumann, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Background Although patient perceptions of health care have increasingly been explored in the literature, little is known about care satisfaction among individuals with substance dependence. This exploratory study assessed the relationships between patient and physician characteristics and early outpatient satisfaction with care for alcohol and opioid dependence. Methods Satisfaction was assessed using a multidimensional, self-administered and validated questionnaire during the early care process among a prospective outpatient cohort. In addition to measuring satisfaction and obtaining sociodemographic and clinical data, this study collected data on the self-reported health status and physician characteristics at inclusion. Cross-sectional analysis with multiple linear regression was performed to identify the variables associated with satisfaction level. Results A total of 249 outpatients were included, and 63.8% completed the satisfaction questionnaire. Patients without a history of previous care for substance dependence were more satisfied with the appointment-making process (β=7.2; P=0.029) and with the doctor consultation (β=10.3; P=0.003) than those who had received care previously. Neither sociodemographic characteristics nor self-reported health status was associated with outpatient satisfaction. Conclusion The factors that affect patients’ ratings of early satisfaction with the care that they receive should be studied further because increased understanding of the factors that negatively affect these ratings might enable caregivers and outpatient management facilities to improve the patient experience during the early stages of care, which might in turn improve treatment adherence, continuity of care, and other health-related outcomes. PMID:28507432

  13. Early Child Care and Adolescent Functioning at the End of High School: Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Burchinal, Margaret; Pierce, Kim M.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between early child care and adolescent functioning at the end of high school (EOHS; M age = 18.3 years) were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 1,214 children. Controlling for extensive measures of family background, early child care was associated with academic standing and behavioral adjustment at the EOHS. More…

  14. The Problem of False Discovery: Many Scientific Results Can't Be Replicated, Leading to Serious Questions about What's True and False in the World of Research.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Skufca, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Is there a Cheshire Cat in science? One might believe so, given the many published scientific discoveries that cannot be independently reproduced. The ?replication crisis? in science has become a widely discussed issue among scientists and the lay media and even has its own entry in Wikipedia.

  15. Early Childhood Literacy: Programs & Strategies To Develop Cultural, Linguistic, Scientific and Healthcare Literacy for Very Young Children & their Families, 2001 Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack, Ed.; Garrett, Sherrye D., Ed.

    This yearbook recounts the work in 2001 at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the university, with an enrollment…

  16. Collective Interpretations of Early Science Learning about Earth and Space: A Cultural-Historical Study of Family Settings for Scientific Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Yijun; Fleer, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    Depending upon a cultural-historical perspective, where play is defined as the creation of an imaginary situation, this study seeks to examine whether and how family joint creation of imaginary situations can provide the conditions for a child's science learning in early childhood. The paper reported here forms part of a broader study, and the…

  17. Developing Distinct Mathematical and Scientific Pedagogical Content Knowledge in an Early Childhood Dual-Content Methods Course: An Alternative to Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalchman, Mindy; Kozoll, Richard H.

    2017-01-01

    Methods for teaching early childhood mathematics and science are often addressed in a single, dual-content course. Approaches to teaching this type of course include integrating the content and the pedagogy of both subjects, or keeping the subject areas distinct. In this article, the authors discuss and illustrate their approach to such a combined…

  18. Conventional early infant diagnosis in Lesotho from specimen collection to results usage to manage patients: Where are the bottlenecks?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Heather J.; Isavwa, Anthony; Mokone, Mafusi; Foso, Matokelo; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Early infant diagnosis is an important step in identifying children infected with HIV during the perinatal period or in utero. Multiple factors contribute to delayed antiretroviral treatment initiation for HIV-infected children, including delays in the early infant HIV diagnosis cascade. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate early infant diagnosis turnaround times in Lesotho. Trained staff reviewed records of HIV-exposed infants (aged-6-8 weeks) who received an HIV test during 2011. Study sites were drawn from Highlands, Foothills and Lowlands regions of Lesotho. Central laboratory database data were linked to facility and laboratory register information. Turnaround time geometric means (with 95% CI) were calculated and compared by region using linear mixed models. Results 1,187 individual infant records from 25 facilities were reviewed. Overall, early infant diagnosis turnaround time was 61.7 days (95%CI: 55.3–68.7). Mean time from specimen collection to district laboratory was 14 days (95%CI: 12.1–16.1); from district to central laboratory, 2 days (95%CI 0.8–5.2); results from central laboratory to district hospital, 23.3 days (95%CI: 18.7–29.0); from district hospital to health facility, 3.2 days (95%CI 1.9–5.5); and from health facility to caregiver, 10.4 days (95%CI, 7.9–13.5). Mean times from specimen transfer to the central laboratory and for result transfer from central laboratory to district hospital were significantly shorter in the Lowlands Region (0.9 and 16.2 days, respectively), compared to Highlands Region (6.0 [P = 0.030] and 34.3 days [P = 0.0099]. Turnaround time from blood draw to receipt of results was significantly shorter for HIV infected infants compared to HIV uninfected infants [p = 0.0036] at an average of 47.1 days (95%CI: 38.9–56.9) and 62 days (95%CI: 55.9–68.7) respectively. Of 47 HIV-infected infants, 36 were initiated on antiretroviral therapy at an average of 1.3 days (95%CI: 0.3, 5

  19. The Scientific Case against Astrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ivan

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the lack of a scientific foundation and scientific evidence favoring astrology. Included are several research studies conducted to examine astrological tenets which yield generally negative results. (Author/DS)

  20. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  1. Preoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Phase 2 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Elizabeth, E-mail: Enichols1@umm.edu; Kesmodel, Susan B.; Bellavance, Emily

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of utilizing 3-dimensional conformal accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) in the preoperative setting followed by standard breast-conserving therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective trial testing the feasibility of preoperative APBI followed by lumpectomy for patients with early-stage invasive ductal breast cancer. Eligible patients had T1-T2 (<3 cm), N0 tumors. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions delivered twice daily. Surgery was performed >21 days after radiation therapy. Adjuvant therapy was given as per standard of care. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed treatment. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 0.5-5 years), there have been no local or regional failures.more » A complete pathologic response according to hematoxylin and eosin stains was seen in 4 patients (15%). There were 4 grade 3 seromas. Patient-reported cosmetic outcome was rated as good to excellent in 79% of patients after treatment. Conclusions: Preoperative 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy−APBI is feasible and well tolerated in select patients with early-stage breast cancer, with no reported local recurrences and good to excellent cosmetic results. The pathologic response rates associated with this nonablative APBI dose regimen are particularly encouraging and support further exploration of this paradigm.« less

  2. Scientific millenarianism

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO{sub 2} warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are themore » questions addressed in this paper.« less

  3. Data processing for the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer and initial scientific results from Chang'e-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chun-Lai; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Zou, Yong-Liao; Liu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Xin; Tan, Xu; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Zuo, Wei; Wen, Wei-Bin; Peng, Wen-Xi; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-12-01

    The Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is an important payload mounted on the Yutu rover, which is part of the Chang'e-3 mission. The scientific objective of APXS is to perform in-situ analysis of the chemical composition of lunar soil and rock samples. The radioactive sources, 55Fe and 109Cd, decay and produce α-particles and X-rays. When X-rays and α-particles interact with atoms in the surface material, they knock electrons out of their orbits, which release energy by emitting X-rays that can be measured by a silicon drift detector (SDD). The elements and their concentrations can be determined by analyzing their peak energies and intensities. APXS has analyzed both the calibration target and lunar soil once during the first lunar day and again during the second lunar day. The total detection time lasted about 266 min and more than 2000 frames of data records have been acquired. APXS has three operating modes: calibration mode, distance sensing mode and detection mode. In detection mode, work distance can be calculated from the X-ray counting rate collected by SDD. Correction for the effect of temperature has been performed to convert the channel number for each spectrum to X-ray energy. Dead time correction is used to eliminate the systematic error in quantifying the activity of an X-ray pulse in a sample and derive the real count rate. We report APXS data and initial results during the first and second lunar days for the Yutu rover. In this study, we analyze the data from the calibration target and lunar soil on the first lunar day. Seven major elements, including Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti and Fe, have been identified. Comparing the peak areas and ratios of calibration basalt and lunar soil the landing site was found to be depleted in K, and have lower Mg and Al but higher Ca, Ti, and Fe. In the future, we will obtain the elemental concentrations of lunar soil at the Chang'e-3 landing site using APXS data.

  4. The Breast International Group 1-98 trial: big results for women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Alain M

    2007-05-01

    As there is a risk for relapse in early breast cancer, especially at 1-3 years post surgery, the need for adjuvant therapy is clear. In terms of disease-free survival, aromatase inhibitors have emerged as superior to tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in several Phase III clinical trials. Of these trials, the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial stands out as unique in design, as it is the only trial to address whether an aromatase inhibitor is more effective as initial adjuvant therapy or as sequential therapy with an aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen in either order and in rigor of end points and safety evaluations. When compared with tamoxifen, letrozole has been shown to significantly reduce recurrence risk in the overall population by 19% and also significantly reduced recurrence risk in the patient subgroups at increased risk: node-positive and previously chemotherapy-treated patients. Letrozole is the only aromatase inhibitor to demonstrate a significant 27% reduction in the risk of distant metastases (p = 0.001) in the clinically relevant, hormone receptor-positive population in the initial adjuvant setting. Recent results also suggest that letrozole in particular reduces the risk of distant metastases early on after initial surgery for breast cancer. This is important, as early distant metastatic events compose the majority of early recurrences and are a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer death. Letrozole has been found to be well tolerated in the initial adjuvant treatment setting, and these data have been confirmed by long-term safety data from the monotherapy analysis in the BIG 1-98 study. Thus far, the results from the BIG 1-98 trial provide clear support for the use of letrozole in the initial adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Future studies will provide the definitive answer to questions of which initial adjuvant therapy is superior (i.e., anastrozole or letrozole) and information as to the

  5. Lava heating and loading of ice sheets on early Mars: Predictions for meltwater generation, groundwater recharge, and resulting landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.

    2016-06-01

    Recent modeling studies of the early Mars climate predict a predominantly cold climate, characterized by the formation of regional ice sheets across the highland areas of Mars. Formation of the predicted "icy highlands" ice sheets is coincident with a peak in the volcanic flux of Mars involving the emplacement of the Late Noachian - Early Hesperian ridged plains unit. We explore the relationship between the predicted early Mars "icy highlands" ice sheets, and the extensive early flood volcanism to gain insight into the surface conditions prevalent during the Late Noachian to Early Hesperian transition period. Using Hesperia Planum as a type area, we develop an ice sheet lava heating and loading model. We quantitatively assess the thermal and melting processes involved in the lava heating and loading process following the chronological sequence of lava emplacement. We test a broad range of parameters to thoroughly constrain the lava heating and loading process and outline predictions for the formation of resulting geological features. We apply the theoretical model to a study area within the Hesperia Planum region and assess the observed geology against predictions derived from the ice sheet lava heating and loading model. Due to the highly cratered nature of the Noachian highlands terrain onto which the volcanic plains were emplaced, we predict highly asymmetrical lava loading conditions. Crater interiors are predicted to accumulate greater thicknesses of lava over more rapid timescales, while in the intercrater plains, lava accumulation occurs over longer timescales and does not reach great thicknesses. We find that top-down melting due to conductive heat transfer from supraglacial lava flows is generally limited when the emplaced lava flows are less than ∼10 m thick, but is very significant at lava flow thicknesses of ∼100 m or greater. We find that bottom-up cryosphere and ice sheet melting is most likely to occur within crater interiors where lavas

  6. Early bases of modern embryology in Spain: microscopical anatomy and the introduction of cell theory and histology in their scientific and social European context.

    PubMed

    Marco-Cuellar, Roberto; Aréchaga, Juan

    2009-01-01

    We present a survey of the introduction and evolution of microscopy techniques in Spain, and the concepts and lines of research developed around this instrument, particularly in the field of Biomedical research. We cover in our article the long period from the XVII Century to the arrival of the great figure of Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1853-1934). We particularly want to mention many of the previously neglected pioneers who certainly paved the route for his discoveries and, we believe that without them, he would never have arrived to his important position in the annals of Biology and Medicine. The historical, scientific and social framework of that period also helped the approach to important biological concepts such as the cell and tissue, which are previous and essential ideas for a correct understanding of Development.

  7. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  8. Do Diagnosis Delays Impact Receipt of Test Results? Evidence from the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis Program in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugambi, Melissa Latigo; Deo, Sarang; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata; Kiyaga, Charles; Singer, Mendel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is scant evidence on the association between diagnosis delays and the receipt of test results in HIV Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) programs. We determine the association between diagnosis delays and other health care system and patient factors on result receipt. Methods We reviewed 703 infant HIV test records for tests performed between January 2008 and February 2009 at a regional referral hospital and level four health center in Uganda. The main outcome was caregiver receipt of the test result. The primary study variable was turnaround time (time between sample collection and result availability at the health facility). Additional variables included clinic entry point, infant age at sample collection, reported HIV status and receipt of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We conducted a pooled analysis in addition to separate analyses for each facility. We estimated the relative risk of result receipt using modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Results Overall, the median result turnaround time, was 38 days. 59% of caregivers received infant test results. Caregivers were less likely to receive results at turnaround times greater than 49 days compared to 28 days or fewer (ARR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70–0.98). Caregivers were more likely to receive results at the PMTCT clinic (ARR = 1.81; 95% CI = 1.40–2.33) and less likely at the pediatric ward (ARR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.37–0.81) compared to the immunization clinic. At the level four health center, result receipt was half as likely among infants older than 9 months compared to 3 months and younger (ARR= 0.47; 95% CI = 0.25–0.93). Conclusion In this study setting, we find evidence that longer turnaround times, clinic entry point and age at sample collection may be associated with receipt of infant HIV test results. PMID:24282502

  9. Early Childhood Teachers' Perceived Competence during Transition from Teacher Education to Work: Results from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The transition from education to work is a challenge for early childhood teachers. In this study, competence self-ratings of 348 German early childhood teachers were investigated one year before, at the end of and four months after early childhood teacher education at universities and vocational schools. Perceived competence was assessed by means…

  10. Early life exposure to PCB126 results in delayed mortality and growth impairment in the zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Groh, Ksenia J; Zennegg, Markus; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Murk, Albertinka J; Eggen, Rik I L; Hollert, Henner; Werner, Inge; Schirmer, Kristin

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity resulting from the exposure to sublethal chemical concentrations is an increasing concern in environmental risk assessment. The Fish Embryo Toxicity (FET) test with zebrafish provides a reliable prediction of acute toxicity in adult fish, but it cannot yet be applied to predict the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity. Identification of sublethal FET endpoints that can assist in predicting the occurrence of chronic or delayed toxicity would be advantageous. The present study characterized the occurrence of delayed toxicity in zebrafish larvae following early exposure to PCB126, previously described to cause delayed effects in the common sole. The first aim was to investigate the occurrence and temporal profiles of delayed toxicity during zebrafish larval development and compare them to those previously described for sole to evaluate the suitability of zebrafish as a model fish species for delayed toxicity assessment. The second aim was to examine the correlation between the sublethal endpoints assessed during embryonal and early larval development and the delayed effects observed during later larval development. After exposure to PCB126 (3-3000ng/L) until 5 days post fertilization (dpf), larvae were reared in clean water until 14 or 28 dpf. Mortality and sublethal morphological and behavioural endpoints were recorded daily, and growth was assessed at 28 dpf. Early life exposure to PCB126 caused delayed mortality (300 ng/L and 3000 ng/L) as well as growth impairment and delayed development (100 ng/L) during the clean water period. Effects on swim bladder inflation and cartilaginous tissues within 5 dpf were the most promising for predicting delayed mortality and sublethal effects, such as decreased standard length, delayed metamorphosis, reduced inflation of swim bladder and column malformations. The EC50 value for swim bladder inflation at 5 dpf (169 ng/L) was similar to the LC50 value at 8 dpf (188 and 202 ng/L in

  11. Changes in bacterioplankton community structure during early lake ontogeny resulting from the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Hannes; Jeppesen, Erik; De Meester, Luc; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Retreating glaciers and ice sheets are among the clearest signs of global climate change. One consequence of glacier retreat is the formation of new meltwater-lakes in previously ice-covered terrain. These lakes provide unique opportunities to understand patterns in community organization during early lake ontogeny. Here, we analyzed the bacterial community structure and diversity in six lakes recently formed by the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The lakes represented a turbidity gradient depending on their past and present connectivity to the GrIS meltwaters. Bulk (16S rRNA genes) and putatively active (16S rRNA) fractions of the bacterioplankton communities were structured by changes in environmental conditions associated to the turbidity gradient. Differences in community structure among lakes were attributed to both, rare and abundant community members. Further, positive co-occurrence relationships among phylogenetically closely related community members dominate in these lakes. Our results show that environmental conditions along the turbidity gradient structure bacterial community composition, which shifts during lake ontogeny. Rare taxa contribute to these shifts, suggesting that the rare biosphere has an important ecological role during early lakes ontogeny. Members of the rare biosphere may be adapted to the transient niches in these nutrient poor lakes. The directionality and phylogenetic structure of co-occurrence relationships indicate that competitive interactions among closely related taxa may be important in the most turbid lakes. PMID:29087379

  12. Risk and protective factors in early child development: Results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sheila; Kehler, Heather; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Fraser-Lee, Nonie; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-11-01

    Understanding factors that protect against early developmental delay among children who are experiencing adversity can inform prevention and early intervention strategies. To identify risk factors for development delay at one year and protective factors for developmental delay in 'at risk' environments (poor maternal mental health and socio-demographic risk). Data was analyzed from 3360 mother-child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort. Participants completed four questionnaires spanning pregnancy to one year postpartum and provided access to medical records. Risk factors for developmental delay at age one were identified using bivariate methods and multivariable modeling. Protective factors for child development in 'at risk' family environments were identified using bivariate analyses. At one year, 17% of children were developmentally delayed, defined as scoring in the monitoring zone on at least 2 of the 5 developmental domains of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire. Prenatal depression, preterm birth, low community engagement, and non-daily parent-child interaction increased the risk of delay. Protective factors for children in 'at risk' environments included relationship happiness, parenting self-efficacy, community engagement, higher social support, and daily parent-child interaction. The study results suggest that maternal and infant outcomes would be improved, even for vulnerable women, through identification and intervention to address poor mental health and through normalizing engagement with low cost, accessible community resources that can also support parent-child interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Blastomere biopsy influences epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development, which impacts neural development and function in resulting mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yibo; Lv, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Dong, Guoying; Yu, Yang; Cui, Yiqiang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Zuomin; Zhu, Hui; Zhou, Qi; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-05-01

    Blastomere biopsy is used in preimplantation genetic diagnosis; however, the long-term implications on the offspring are poorly characterized. We previously reported a high risk of memory defects in adult biopsied mice. Here, we assessed nervous function of aged biopsied mice and further investigated the mechanism of neural impairment after biopsy. We found that aged biopsied mice had poorer spatial learning ability, increased neuron degeneration, and altered expression of proteins involved in neural degeneration or dysfunction in the brain compared to aged control mice. Furthermore, the MeDIP assay indicated a genome-wide low methylation in the brains of adult biopsied mice when compared to the controls, and most of the genes containing differentially methylated loci in promoter regions were associated with neural disorders. When we further compared the genomic DNA methylation profiles of 7.5-days postconception (dpc) embryos between the biopsy and control group, we found the whole genome low methylation in the biopsied group, suggesting that blastomere biopsy was an obstacle to de novo methylation during early embryo development. Further analysis on mRNA profiles of 4.5-dpc embryos indicated that reduced expression of de novo methylation genes in biopsied embryos may impact de novo methylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate an abnormal neural development and function in mice generated after blastomere biopsy. The impaired epigenetic reprogramming during early embryo development may be the latent mechanism contributing to the impairment of the nervous system in the biopsied mice, which results in a hypomethylation status in their brains.

  14. Changes in bacterioplankton community structure during early lake ontogeny resulting from the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Peter, Hannes; Jeppesen, Erik; De Meester, Luc; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2017-10-31

    Retreating glaciers and ice sheets are among the clearest signs of global climate change. One consequence of glacier retreat is the formation of new meltwater-lakes in previously ice-covered terrain. These lakes provide unique opportunities to understand patterns in community organization during early lake ontogeny. Here, we analyzed the bacterial community structure and diversity in six lakes recently formed by the retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The lakes represented a turbidity gradient depending on their past and present connectivity to the GrIS meltwaters. Bulk (16S rRNA genes) and putatively active (16S rRNA) fractions of the bacterioplankton communities were structured by changes in environmental conditions associated to the turbidity gradient. Differences in community structure among lakes were attributed to both, rare and abundant community members. Further, positive co-occurrence relationships among phylogenetically closely related community members dominate in these lakes. Our results show that environmental conditions along the turbidity gradient structure bacterial community composition, which shifts during lake ontogeny. Rare taxa contribute to these shifts, suggesting that the rare biosphere has an important ecological role during early lakes ontogeny. Members of the rare biosphere may be adapted to the transient niches in these nutrient poor lakes. The directionality and phylogenetic structure of co-occurrence relationships indicate that competitive interactions among closely related taxa may be important in the most turbid lakes.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 31 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.191.

  15. Scientific Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1967-01-01

    414 S E S PC 210 SCIENTIFIC SATELLITES W.~YI to W.l WI* W FIGuRE 7-5.- Effects of vacuum on space components and types of vacuum pumps used in...origin, 16-17 Vacuum, effects on satellites, 207- relation to satellite dynamics, 90 210 , 284, 365 satellite research, 4, 18, 411, 584 simulation, 209...18 decades (_3 km to _..3 10-s A). (See fig. 1-1.) The charged- particle shielding effectiveness of the Earth’s magnetic field is also reduced at

  16. An annotated checklist of the praying mantises (Mantodea) of Borneo, including the results of the 2008 scientific expedition to Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak .

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Christian J; Konopik, Oliver

    2014-05-21

    We present the first checklist of praying mantids (Mantodea) of Borneo, with special reference to the specimens collected during the Scientific Expedition to Lanjak Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary 2008. With 118 confirmed species in 56 genera (including subgenera), Borneo is the island with the highest mantodean diversity known to date. In Lanjak Entimau 38 specimens representing 17 genera and 18 species were collected around the station lights and in surrounding secondary and primary forest. A new synonymy in the genus Deroplatys is established. The observed diversity patterns among Bornean mantids are discussed with reference to the biogeographic history of the Sunda Shelf since the Miocene.

  17. A Multi-Institutional Study of Feasibility, Implementation, and Early Clinical Results With Noninvasive Breast Brachytherapy for Tumor Bed Boost

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Subarna, E-mail: shamid@tuftsmedicalcenter.org; Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; Rocchio, Kathy

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, implementation, and early results of noninvasive breast brachytherapy (NIBB) for tumor bed boost with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: NIBB is a commercially available (AccuBoost, Billerica, MA) mammography-based, brachytherapy system in which the treatment applicators are centered on the planning target volume (PTV) to direct {sup 192}Ir emissions along orthogonal axes. A privacy-encrypted online data registry collected information from 8 independent academic and community-based institutions. Data were from 146 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer after lumpectomy and WBRT receiving boost with NIBB between July 2007 and March 2010. Toxicity and cosmesismore » were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (v. 3.0) and the Harvard scale. Median follow-up was 6 months (1-39 months). Results: Grade 1-2 skin toxicity was observed in 64%, 48%, and 21% during the acute (1-3 weeks), intermediate (4-26 weeks), and late-intermediate (>26 weeks) periods. There was no Grade 4 toxicity. At 6 months, for the entire cohort, cosmesis was excellent/good in 62%/38%. The subset receiving NIBB before WBRT had cosmetic scores of 32% and 63%, whereas during WBRT, 58% and 37% were rated as excellent and good, respectively. Breast compression was scored as 'uncomfortable' in 12%, 29%, and 59% when NIBB was delivered before, during, or after WBRT. For each patient, the fraction-to-fraction variability in PTV was low. Skin flash was associated with a higher proportion of excellent cosmesis (58% vs. 42%) relative to having the applicator all within breast tissue. Conclusions: These data indicate that NIBB is feasible and can be consistently implemented in a broad array of practice settings. Preliminary evaluation suggests that NIBB is associated with acceptably mild normal tissue toxicity and favorable early cosmesis. The application of NIBB before WBRT may be associated with better patient tolerance at

  18. Early Integration of Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: Results of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Zagonel, Vittorina; Torta, Riccardo; Franciosi, Vittorio; Brunello, Antonella; Biasco, Guido; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cavanna, Luigi; Corsi, Domenico; Farina, Gabriella; Fioretto, Luisa; Gamucci, Teresa; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Magarotto, Roberto; Maltoni, Marco; Mastromauro, Cataldo; Melotti, Barbara; Meriggi, Fausto; Pavese, Ida; Piva, Erico; Sacco, Cosimo; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trentin, Leonardo; Ermacora, Paola; Varetto, Antonella; Merlin, Federica; Gori, Stefania; Cascinu, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early integration of palliative care in oncology practice (“simultaneous care”, SC) has been shown to provide better care resulting in improved quality-of-life and also survival. We evaluated the opinions of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) members. Patients and methods: A 37-item questionnaire was delivered to 1119 AIOM members. Main areas covered were: social, ethical, relational aspects of disease and communication, training, research, organizational and management models in SC. Three open questions explored the definition of Quality of Life, Medical Oncologist and Palliative Care. Results: Four hundred and forty-nine (40.1%) medical oncologists returned the questionnaires. Forty-nine percent stated they address non-curability when giving a diagnosis of metastatic tumor, and 43% give the information only to patients who clearly ask for it. Fifty-five percent say the main formative activity in palliative medicine came from attending meetings and 90% agree that specific palliative care training should be part of the core curriculum in oncology. Twenty-two percent stated they consulted guidelines for symptom management, 45% relied upon personal experience and 26% make a referral to a palliative care specialist. Seventy-four percent were in favor of more research in palliative medicine. An integration between Units of Oncology and Palliative Care Services early in the course of advanced disease was advocated by 86%. Diverse and multifaceted definitions were given for the concepts of Quality of Life, Palliative Care and Medical Oncologist. Conclusion: SC is felt as an important task, as well as training of medical oncologists in symptom management and research in this field. PMID:27877212

  19. Prospective Single-Arm, Multi-Center Trial of a Patient-Specific Interpositional Knee Implant: Early Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Koeck, F.X; Luring, C; Goetz, J; Handel, M; Tingart, M; Grifka, J; Beckmann, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The treatment of unicompartmental arthritis in younger patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to report final safety and efficacy analysis results for the iForma patient–specific interpositional device, which is designed for the treatment of isolated medial or lateral compartment arthritis of the knee. Methods: From June 2005 to June 2008 78 subjects (42 men, 36 women) received an iForma implant. The mean age was 53 years, the mean Body Mass Index 29.0. We surveyed the WOMAC scores, the visual analog pain scale and the Knee Society Scores. Results: The mean follow up was 16.4 months. The mean WOMAC knee scores increased from 48.3 before surgery to 71.3 after 24 months. A reduction in pain was achieved for all five pain measures using a standard visual analog scale (VAS). Knee Society Knee Score improved from 39.2 before to 61.9 24 month after surgery. The Knee Society Function Scores improved form preoperative 64.5 to 82.5 2 years postoperative. The preoperative range of motion could be restored. The overall revision rate was 24%. 15 implants were removed early, 4 knees were revised without implant removal. Conclusion: Within narrow indication of patients with unicompartmental disease, the iForma device can provide improvement in knee function and reduction in pain, however, with a significant higher risk of early revision compared to traditional arthroplasty. Respecting this limitation it may be an alternative option for arthritic patients with unicompartmental disease who have contraindications to High Tibial Osteotomy or are too young for knee replacement; the iForma device further has the distinct advantage of time and cost saving compared to those procedures. PMID:21552462

  20. Capturing Early Changes in the Marine Bacterial Community as a Result of Crude Oil Pollution in a Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Krolicka, Adriana; Boccadoro, Catherine; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Baussant, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The results of marine bacterial community succession from a short-term study of seawater incubations at 4°C to North Sea crude oil are presented herein. Oil was used alone (O) or in combination with a dispersant (OD). Marine bacterial communities resulting from these incubations were characterized by a fingerprinting analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with the aim of 1) revealing differences in bacterial communities between the control, O treatment, and OD treatment and 2) identifying the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of early responders in order to define the bacterial gene markers of oil pollution for in situ monitoring. After an incubation for 1 d, the distribution of the individual ribotypes of bacterial communities in control and oil-treated (O and OD) tanks differed. Differences related to the structures of bacterial communities were observed at later stages of the incubation. Among the early responders identified (Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Glaciecola, Neptunomonas, Methylophaga, and Pseudofulvibacter), genera that utilize a disintegrated biomass or hydrocarbons as well as biosurfactant producers were detected. None of these genera included obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB). After an incubation for 1 d, the abundances of Glaciecola and Pseudofulvibacter were approximately 30-fold higher in the OD and O tanks than in the control tank. OTUs assigned to the Glaciecola genus were represented more in the OD tank, while those of Pseudofulvibacter were represented more in the O tank. We also found that 2 to 3% of the structural community shift originated from the bacterial community in the oil itself, with Polaribacter being a dominant bacterium. PMID:29187706

  1. Capturing Early Changes in the Marine Bacterial Community as a Result of Crude Oil Pollution in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Krolicka, Adriana; Boccadoro, Catherine; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Baussant, Thierry

    2017-12-27

    The results of marine bacterial community succession from a short-term study of seawater incubations at 4°C to North Sea crude oil are presented herein. Oil was used alone (O) or in combination with a dispersant (OD). Marine bacterial communities resulting from these incubations were characterized by a fingerprinting analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with the aim of 1) revealing differences in bacterial communities between the control, O treatment, and OD treatment and 2) identifying the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of early responders in order to define the bacterial gene markers of oil pollution for in situ monitoring.After an incubation for 1 d, the distribution of the individual ribotypes of bacterial communities in control and oil-treated (O and OD) tanks differed. Differences related to the structures of bacterial communities were observed at later stages of the incubation. Among the early responders identified (Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Glaciecola, Neptunomonas, Methylophaga, and Pseudofulvibacter), genera that utilize a disintegrated biomass or hydrocarbons as well as biosurfactant producers were detected. None of these genera included obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB). After an incubation for 1 d, the abundances of Glaciecola and Pseudofulvibacter were approximately 30-fold higher in the OD and O tanks than in the control tank. OTUs assigned to the Glaciecola genus were represented more in the OD tank, while those of Pseudofulvibacter were represented more in the O tank. We also found that 2 to 3% of the structural community shift originated from the bacterial community in the oil itself, with Polaribacter being a dominant bacterium.

  2. Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M.; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Subjects: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Design; Intervention: Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Measurements and Results: Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. Conclusions: These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain. Citation: Seugnet L; Suzuki Y; Donlea JM; Gottschalk L; Shaw PJ. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in

  3. Forward progress of scientific inquiry into the early father-child relationship: introduction to the special issue on very young children and their fathers.

    PubMed

    Bocknek, Erika L; Hossain, Ziarat; Roggman, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Research on fathering and the father-child relationship has made substantial progress in the most recent 15 years since the last special issue of the Infant Mental Health Journal on fathers and young children. This special issue on fathers and young children contains a series of papers exemplifying this progress, including advances in methodology-more direct assessment and more observational measures-in addition to the increasing dynamic complexity of the conceptual models used to study fathers, the diversity of fathers studied, and the growth of programs to support early father involvement. In assessing the current state of the field, special attention is given to contributions made by the papers contained in this special issue, and two critical areas for continued progress are addressed: (1) methodological and measurement development that specifically address fathers and fathering relationships and (2) cross-cultural and ecologically valid research examining the diversity of models of fathering. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  4. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes from Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Belsky, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during…

  5. "Big Bang" as a result result of the curvature-driven first-order phase transition in the early cold Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashitskii, E. A.; Pentegov, V. I.

    We suggest that the "Big Bang" may be a result of the first-order phase transition driven by changing scalar curvature of the 4D space-time in the expanding cold Universe, filled with nonlinear scalar field φ and neutral matter with equation of state p = vɛ (where p and ɛ are pressure and energy density of matter). We consider a Lagrangian for scalar field in curved space-time with nonlinearity φ, which along with the quadratic term -ΣR|φ|2 (where Σ is interaction constant and R is scalar curvature) contains a term ΣR(φ +φ+) linear in φ. Due to this term the condition for the extrema of the potential energy of the scalar field is given by a cubic equation. Provided v > 1/3 the scalar curvature R = [κ(3v-1)ɛ - 4Γ (where κ and Γ are Einstein's gravitational and cosmological constants) decreases along with decreasing " in the process of the Universe's expansion, and at some critical value Rc < 0 a first-order phase transition occurs, driven by an "external field" parameter proportional to R. Given certain conditions the critical radius of the early Universe at the point of the first-order phase transition may reach arbitrary large values, so this scenario of unrestricted "inflation" of the Universe may be called "hyperinflation". Beyond the point of phase transition the system is rolling down into the potential minimum releasing the potential energy of scalar field with subsequent powerful heating of the Universe playing the role of "Big Bang".

  6. Early Feasibility Study of a Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Annuloplasty: SCOUT Trial 30-Day Results.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Rebecca T; Meduri, Christopher U; Davidson, Charles J; Lim, Scott; Nazif, Tamim M; Ricciardi, Mark J; Rajagopal, Vivek; Ailawadi, Gorav; Vannan, Mani A; Thomas, James D; Fowler, Dale; Rich, Stuart; Martin, Randy; Ong, Geraldine; Groothuis, Adam; Kodali, Susheel

    2017-04-11

    The SCOUT (Percutaneous Tricuspid Valve Annuloplasty System for Symptomatic Chronic Functional Tricuspid Regurgitation) trial is a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, early feasibility study of a novel transcatheter device to plicate the tricuspid annulus (TA) and reduce tricuspid regurgitation (TR). This study tested the feasibility and safety of a novel transcatheter device and assessed its early performance and functional outcomes. Between November 2015 and June 2016, 15 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class ≥II and moderate or greater functional TR were enrolled. Primary performance and safety endpoint outcomes were technically successful at 30 days with no reintervention. Echocardiographic measurements (TA diameter, effective regurgitant orifice area [EROA], left ventricular stroke volume [LVSV]) and quality-of-life (QoL) measurements (NYHA functional class, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire [MLHFQ], and 6-min walk test [6MWT]) were performed at baseline and 30 days. All patients (mean 73.2 ± 6.9 years of age, 87% female) underwent successful device implantation with no deaths, strokes, bleeding, tamponade, or valve reintervention. Technical success rate at 30 days was 80%, with 3 single-pledget annular detachments without reintervention. In the remaining 12 patients, there were significant reductions in TA (12.3 ± 3.1 cm 2 to 11.3 ± 2.7 cm 2 , respectively; p = 0.019) and EROA (0.51 ± 0.18 cm 2 vs. 0.32 ± 0.18 cm 2 , respectively; p = 0.020), with significant increase in LVSV (63.6 ± 17.9 ml vs. 71.5 ± 25.7 ml, respectively; p = 0.021). In the intention-to-treat cohort, there were significant improvements in NYHA functional class (≥1 class, p = 0.001), MLHFQ (47.4 ± 17.6 to 20.9 ± 14.8; p < 0.001), and 6MWT (245.2 ± 110.1 to 298.0 m ± 107.6 m; p = 0.008). The 30-day results of the SCOUT trial confirmed the safety of the novel transcatheter device, which reduced TA and EROA, increased LVSV

  7. Early Predictors of Occupational Back Re-Injury: Results from a Prospective Study of Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Benjamin J.; Turner, Judith A.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective population-based cohort study Objective To identify early predictors of self-reported occupational back re-injury within 1 year after work-related back injury Summary of Background Data Back injuries are the costliest and most prevalent disabling occupational injuries in the United States. A substantial proportion of workers with back injuries have re-injuries after returning to work, yet there are few studies of risk factors for occupational back re-injuries. Methods We aimed to identify the incidence and early (in the claim) predictors of self-reported back re-injury by approximately 1 year after the index injury among Washington State workers with new work disability claims for back injuries. The Washington Workers’ Compensation Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC) provided a large, population-based sample with information on variables in seven domains: sociodemographic, employment-related, pain and function, clinical status, health care, health behavior, and psychological. We conducted telephone interviews with workers 3 weeks and 1 year after submission of a time-loss claim for the injury. We first identified predictors (p-values < 0.10) of self-reported re-injury within 1 year in bivariate analyses. Those variables were then included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting occupational back re-injury. Results 290 (25.8%) of 1,123 (70.0% response rate) workers who completed the one-year follow-up interview and had returned to work reported having re-injured their back at work. Baseline variables significantly associated with re-injury (p-value < 0.05) in the multivariate model included male gender, constant whole body vibration at work, a history of previous similar injury, 4 or more previous claims of any type, possessing health insurance, and high fear-avoidance scores. Baseline obesity was associated with reduced odds of re-injury. No other employment-related or psychological variables were

  8. Management of Symphysis and Parasymphysis Mandibular Fractures in Children Treated with MacLennan Splint: Stability and Early Results

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohar; Sharma, Anupama; Sharma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficiency of MacLennan splint in symphysis and parasymphysis mandibular fractures in children. Study design: Six patients (four boys and two girls, mean age 3 years, range between 2 and 5 years) were operated on parasymphysis fractures of children. The mean follow-up time was 12 months. MacLennan splint was applied in these case upto 3 weeks. Results: Primary healing of the fractured mandible was observed in all patients. Postoperative complications were minor and transient. The outcome of the operation was not endangered. Adverse tissue reaction like infection, malocclusion, swelling and growth restrictions did not occur during observation period. Conclusion: MacLennan splint is having various advantages like faster mobilization and the avoidance of secondary removal operations. Based on this preliminary results MacLennan splints are safe and efficient in the treatment of pediatric mandible fracture. How to cite this article: Khairwa A, Bhat M, Sharma A, Sharma R. Management of Symphysis and Parasymphysis Mandibular Fractures in Children Treated with MacLennan Splint: Stability and Early Results. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):127-132. PMID:26379381

  9. Intraoperative radiotherapy given as a boost for early breast cancer: Long-term clinical and cosmetic results

    SciTech Connect

    Lemanski, Claire; Azria, David; Thezenas, Simon

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: The standard radiotherapy (RT) of breast cancer consists of 50 Gy external beam RT (EBRT) to the whole breast followed by an electron boost of 10-16 Gy to the tumor bed, but this has several cosmetic disadvantages. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) could be an alternative to overcome these. Methods and Materials: We evaluated 50 women with early breast cancer operated on in a dedicated IORT facility. Median dose of 10 Gy was delivered using 9-MeV electron beams. All patients received postoperative EBRT (50 Gy in 2 Gy fractions). Late toxicity and cosmetic results were assessed independently by two physicians accordingmore » to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event v3.0 grading system and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires. Results: After a median follow-up of 9.1 years (range, 5-15 years), two local recurrences were observed within the primary tumor bed. At the time of analysis, 45 patients are alive with (n = 1) or without disease. Among the 42 disease-free remaining patients, 6 experienced Grade 2 late subcutaneous fibrosis within the boost area. Overall, the scores indicated a very good quality of life and cosmesis was good to excellent in the evaluated patients. Conclusion: Our results confirm that IORT given as a boost after breast-conserving surgery is a reliable alternative to conventional postoperative fractionated boost radiation.« less

  10. Perioperative Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Keloids: Feasibility and Early Results

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ping, E-mail: ping.jiang@uksh.de; Baumann, René; Dunst, Juergen

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of therapy-resistant keloids and report first results, with emphasis on feasibility and early treatment outcome. Methods and Materials: From 2009 to 2014, 24 patients with 32 recurrent keloids were treated with immediate perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy; 3 patients had been previously treated with adjuvant external beam radiation therapy and presented with recurrences in the pretreated areas. Two or more different treatment modalities had been tried in all patients and had failed to achieve remission. After (re-)excision of the keloids, a single brachytherapy tube was placed subcutaneously before closing the wound. The target volumemore » covered the scar in total length. Brachytherapy was given in 3 fractions with a single dose of 6 Gy in 5 mm tissue depth. The first fraction was given within 6 hours after surgery, the other 2 fractions on the first postoperative day. Thus, a total dose of 18 Gy in 3 fractions was administered within 36 hours after the resection. Results: The treatment was feasible in all patients. No procedure-related complications (eg, secondary infections) occurred. Nineteen patients had keloid-related symptoms before treatment like pain and pruritus; disappearance of symptoms was noticed in all patients after treatment. After a median follow-up of 29.4 months (range, 7.9-72.4 months), 2 keloid recurrences and 2 mildly hypertrophied scars were observed. The local control rate was 94%. Pigmentary abnormalities were detected in 3 patients, and an additional 6 patients had a mild delay in the wound-healing process. Conclusions: The early results of this study prove the feasibility and the efficacy of brachytherapy for the prevention of keloids. The results also suggest that brachytherapy may be advantageous in the management of high-risk keloids or as salvage treatment for failure after external beam therapy.« less

  11. Early Integration of Palliative Care in Oncology Practice: Results of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) Survey.

    PubMed

    Zagonel, Vittorina; Torta, Riccardo; Franciosi, Vittorio; Brunello, Antonella; Biasco, Guido; Cattaneo, Daniela; Cavanna, Luigi; Corsi, Domenico; Farina, Gabriella; Fioretto, Luisa; Gamucci, Teresa; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Magarotto, Roberto; Maltoni, Marco; Mastromauro, Cataldo; Melotti, Barbara; Meriggi, Fausto; Pavese, Ida; Piva, Erico; Sacco, Cosimo; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trentin, Leonardo; Ermacora, Paola; Varetto, Antonella; Merlin, Federica; Gori, Stefania; Cascinu, Stefano; Pinto, Carmine

    2016-01-01

    Early integration of palliative care in oncology practice ("simultaneous care", SC) has been shown to provide better care resulting in improved quality-of-life and also survival. We evaluated the opinions of Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) members. A 37-item questionnaire was delivered to 1119 AIOM members. Main areas covered were: social, ethical, relational aspects of disease and communication, training, research, organizational and management models in SC. Three open questions explored the definition of Quality of Life, Medical Oncologist and Palliative Care. Four hundred and forty-nine (40.1%) medical oncologists returned the questionnaires. Forty-nine percent stated they address non-curability when giving a diagnosis of metastatic tumor, and 43% give the information only to patients who clearly ask for it. Fifty-five percent say the main formative activity in palliative medicine came from attending meetings and 90% agree that specific palliative care training should be part of the core curriculum in oncology. Twenty-two percent stated they consulted guidelines for symptom management, 45% relied upon personal experience and 26% make a referral to a palliative care specialist. Seventy-four percent were in favor of more research in palliative medicine. An integration between Units of Oncology and Palliative Care Services early in the course of advanced disease was advocated by 86%. Diverse and multifaceted definitions were given for the concepts of Quality of Life, Palliative Care and Medical Oncologist. SC is felt as an important task, as well as training of medical oncologists in symptom management and research in this field.

  12. Early results of Latitude primary total elbow replacement with a minimum follow-up of 2 years.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh S; Watts, Adam C; Talwalkar, Sumedh C; Birch, Ann; Nuttall, David; Trail, Ian A

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to present outcomes of primary Latitude total elbow replacement (TER) with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken with prospective outcome data collection for the latest outcome. Included were 63 consecutive primary Latitude TERs in 58 patients performed during a period of 5 years at a specialist orthopedic hospital. The mean age of the patients was 62 years (33-85 years). Five primary TERs (4 patients) were lost to follow-up. The primary diagnosis was rheumatoid arthritis in 49, osteoarthritis in 8, and trauma in 6 elbows. The mean flexion-extension arc was 75° preoperatively and 97° postoperatively. Mean postoperative Elbex pain score was 19/100, and function score was 37/100. Mean postoperative scores were 42/100 for the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and 38/50 for the elbow-specific American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons assessment. Four patients died of unrelated causes, and 8 of 63 underwent further surgical intervention, including explantation and conversion from unlinked to linked implant. On radiographic review of 41 surviving TERs, aseptic radiologic loosening was observed of the humeral component in 4 elbows and of the ulnar component in 9. Seven elbows had no radial component, and of the remaining 34 elbows, 16 (47%) had signs of loosening of the radial implant. Complications included 1 heterotopic ossification, 1 olecranon fracture, and 3 further procedures for ulnar nerve entrapment. The results indicate that the early outcome of Latitude TER is comparable to that of other prostheses. There is concern about early radiologic loosening of the radial component. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical and MRI responses to etanercept in early non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: 48-week results from the EMBARK study

    PubMed Central

    Maksymowych, Walter P; Dougados, Maxime; Sieper, Joachim; Braun, Jürgen; Citera, Gustavo; Van den Bosch, Filip; Logeart, Isabelle; Wajdula, Joseph; Jones, Heather; Marshall, Lisa; Bonin, Randi; Pedersen, Ron; Vlahos, Bonnie; Kotak, Sameer; Bukowski, Jack F

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of etanercept (ETN) after 48 weeks in patients with early active non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). Methods Patients meeting Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axSpA, but not modified New York radiographic criteria, received double-blind ETN 50 mg/week or placebo (PBO) for 12 weeks, then open-label ETN (ETN/ETN or PBO/ETN). Clinical, health, productivity, MRI and safety outcomes were assessed and the 48-week data are presented here. Results 208/225 patients (92%) entered the open-label phase at week 12 (ETN, n=102; PBO, n=106). The percentage of patients achieving ASAS40 increased from 33% to 52% between weeks 12 and 48 for ETN/ETN and from 15% to 53% for PBO/ETN (within-group p value <0.001 for both). For ETN/ETN and PBO/ETN, the EuroQol 5 Dimensions utility score improved by 0.14 and 0.08, respectively, between baseline and week 12 and by 0.23 and 0.22 between baseline and week 48. Between weeks 12 and 48, MRI Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada sacroiliac joint (SIJ) scores decreased by −1.1 for ETN/ETN and by −3.0 for PBO/ETN, p<0.001 for both. Decreases in MRI SIJ inflammation and C-reactive protein correlated with several clinical outcomes at weeks 12 and 48. Conclusions Patients with early active nr-axSpA demonstrated improvement from week 12 in clinical, health, productivity and MRI outcomes that was sustained to 48 weeks. Trial registration number NCT01258738. PMID:26269397

  14. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device is safe and results in proximal arteriovenous fistula enlargement.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sanjay; Mitra, Amit; Arkans, Ed; Singh, Tej M

    2018-05-01

    Delays in arteriovenous fistula maturation can cause care delays and increased costs. Increased distention pressure and intermittent wall shear stress may dilate veins based on prior research. Early use of non-invasive devices may help assist clinical arteriovenous fistula dilation. This was an Institutional Review Board approved study. After arteriovenous fistula creation, a novel, intermittent pneumatic compression device (Fist Assist ® ) was applied 15 cm proximal to arteriovenous fistula enabling 60 mmHg of cyclic compression for 6 h daily for 30 days. Among the patients who completed 1 month follow-up, 30 (n = 30) arteriovenous fistula patients were in the study arm to test vein dilation with Fist Assist. Controls (n = 16) used a sham device. Vein size was measured and recorded at baseline and after 30 days by duplex measurement. Clinical results (percentage increase) were recorded and tested for significance. No patients experienced thrombosis or adverse effects. Patient compliance and satisfaction was high. After 1 month, the mean percentage increase in vein diameter in the Fist Assist treatment group was significantly larger (p = 0.026) than controls in the first 5 mm segment of the fistula after the anastomosis. All fistulas treated with Fist Assist are still functional with no reported thrombosis or extravasations. Early application of an intermittent pneumatic compression device may assist in arteriovenous fistula dilation and are safe. Non-invasive devices like Fist Assist may have clinical utility to help fistulae development and decrease costs as they may eventually assist maturation.

  15. Joint scientific statement of the European Association for the Study of Obesity and the European Society of Hypertension: Obesity and early vascular ageing.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Nilsson, Peter M; Kotsis, Vasilios; Olsen, Michael H; Grassi, Guido; Yumuk, Volkan; Hauner, Hans; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Toplak, Hermann; Engeli, Stefan; Finer, Nick

    2015-03-01

    Current cardiovascular risk scores do not include obesity or fat distribution as independent factors, and may underestimate risk in obese individuals. Assessment of early vascular ageing (EVA) biomarkers including arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, carotid intima-media thickness and flow-mediated vasodilation may help to refine risk assessment in obese individuals in whom traditional cardiovascular risk scores and factors suggest no need for specific medical attention. A number of issues need to be addressed before this approach is ready for translation into routine clinical practice. Methodologies for measurements of vascular markers need to be further standardized and less operator-dependent. The utility of these nontraditional risk factors will also need to be proven in sufficiently large and properly designed interventional studies. Indeed, published studies on vascular markers in obesity and weight loss vary in quality and study design, are sometimes conducted in small populations, use a variety of differing methodologies and study differing vascular beds. Finally, current vascular measurements are still crude and may not be sufficient to cover the different aspects of EVA in obesity.

  16. Refining the Early and Middle Eocene Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale: new results from ODP Leg 208 (Walvis Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhold, T.; Roehl, U.; Frederichs, T.; Bohaty, S. M.; Florindo, F.; Zachos, J. C.; Raffi, I.; Agnini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Astronomical calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) for the Eocene (34-56 Ma) has advanced tremendously in recent years. Combining a cyclostratigraphic approach based on the recognition of the stable 405-kyr eccentricity cycle of Earth's orbit with high-resolution bio- and magnetostratigraphy from deep-sea sedimentary records (ODP Legs 171B, 189 and 207; IODP Exp. 320/321) resulted in a new calibration of the middle-to-late Eocene GPTS spanning Chrons C12r to C19n (30.9-41.3 Ma). A fully astronomically calibrated GPTS for the Eocene was established recently by integrating cyclo-bio-magnetostratigraphy from ODP Sites 702 and 1263 records spanning the middle Eocene with Site 1258 records covering the early Eocene. Comparison of this deep sea-derived GPTS with GTS2012 and GPTS calibration points from terrestrial successions show overall consistent results, but there are still major offsets for the duration of Chrons C20r, C22r and C23n.2n. Because of the relatively large uncertainty of the calibration point, a radioisotopic dated ash layer in DSDP 516F, at C21n.75 (46.24±0.5 Ma) the duration of C20r in GPTS2012 (2.292 myr) is uncertain. Offsets in durations of C22r and C23n.2n between GPTS2012 and the new astronomical GPTS (~400-kyr longer C22r; ~400-kyr shorter C23n.2n) could be due to uncertainties in the interpretation of Site 1258 magnetostratigraphic data. Here we present new results toward establishing a more accurate and complete bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy for South Atlantic Leg 208 sites encompassing magnetochrons C13 to C24 (33 to 56 Ma). Our study aims to integrate paleomagnetic records from multiple drilled sites with physical property data, stable isotope data and XRF core scanning data to construct an astronomically calibrated framework for refining GPTS age estimates. This effort will complete the Early-to-Middle Eocene GPTS and allow evaluation of the relative position of calcareous nannofossil events to magnetostratigraphy.

  17. Sherlock Holmes: scientific detective.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Sherlock Holmes was intended by his creator, Arthur Conan Doyle, to be a 'scientific detective'. Conan Doyle criticized his predecessor Edgar Allan Poe for giving his creation - Inspector Dupin - only the 'illusion' of scientific method. Conan Doyle believed that he had succeeded where Poe had failed; thus, he has Watson remark that Holmes has 'brought detection as near an exact science as it will ever be brought into the world.' By examining Holmes' methods, it becomes clear that Conan Doyle modelled them on certain images of science that were popular in mid- to late-19th century Britain. Contrary to a common view, it is also evident that rather than being responsible for the invention of forensic science, the creation of Holmes was influenced by the early development of it.

  18. Early Childhood Program Participation, Results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016. First Look. NCES 2017-101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Lisa; Steinley, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016 (NHES:2016). The Early Childhood Program Participation Survey collected data on children's participation in relative care, nonrelative care, and center-based care arrangements. It also collected…

  19. Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Employment Outcomes in Early Schizophrenia: Results from a 2-Year Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of psychosocial cognitive rehabilitation on employment outcomes in a randomized controlled trial for individuals with early course schizophrenia. Method: Early course schizophrenia outpatients (N = 58) were randomly assigned to cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control and…

  20. The Consequences of Early Childbearing: Research Summary. Results from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (Parnes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    The effects of early childbearing on a woman's later social and economic status are examined in this paper. Previous research has documented an association of early motherhood with lower educational attainment, marital instability, higher subsequent fertility, and later economic poverty. However, these associations have not been tested in…

  1. Early results of urothelial carcinoma screening in a risk population of coke workers: urothelial carcinoma among coke workers.

    PubMed

    Giberti, C; Gallo, F; Schenone, M; Genova, A

    2010-08-01

    To present the protocol and the early results of a urothelial carcinoma (UC) screening analysis performed in a risk population of coke workers. Between June 2006 and October 2008, 171 male workers (mean age 43 years), employed in a Ligurian coke plant (Italiana Coke S.r.l) and exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for a median period of 16 years, underwent screening for UC. Urological evaluation included medical history, physical examination, routine laboratory tests, urine analysis, urinary cytology and uCyt+ assay. In the event of signs and symptoms suggestive of UC or positive urinary tests, the workers were also subjected to urinary ultrasonography and cystoscopy with biopsy of any suspicious lesions. Regarding the laboratory tests, 19/171 (11%) uCyt+ samples were considered inadequate and were excluded from the outcomes assessment. Overall, urine analysis, cytology and uCyt+ were positive in 18/152 (12%) subjects who showed no evidence of UC at the scheduled check-ups. No significant association was identified between marker positivity and occupational activity. Our results fail to show an increased risk of UC among the coke workers evaluated. However, they will need to be confirmed in the future by a larger enrollment and a longer follow-up in order to assess the definitive risk for UC after exposure to coke. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microgravity Effects on the Early Events of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Medicago Truncatula: Results from the SyNRGE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    SyNRGE (Symbiotic Nodulation in a Reduced Gravity Environment) was a sortie mission on STS-135 in the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) hardware to study the effect of μg on a plant-microbe symbiosis resulting in biological nitrogen fixation. Medicago truncatula, a model species for the legume family, was inoculated with its bacterial symbiont, Sinorhizobium meliloti, to observe early biomolecular events associated with infection and nodulation in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFU’s). Two sets of experiments were conducted in orbit and in 24-hour delayed ground controls. Experiments were designed to determine if S. meliloti would infect M. truncatula and initiate biomolecular changes associated with nodule formation and if the μg environment altered the host plant and/or bacteria to induce nodule formation upon return to 1g. Initial analysis results demonstrate that the legumes and bacteria cultivated in μg have potential to develop a symbiotic interaction, but suggest that μg alters their ability to form nodules upon return to 1g. (Research supported by NASA ESMD/ Advance Capabilities Division grant NNX10AR09A)

  3. Interocular suppression in strabismic amblyopia results in an attenuated and delayed hemodynamic response function in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Farivar, Reza; Thompson, Benjamin; Mansouri, Behzad; Hess, Robert F

    2011-12-20

    Factors such as strabismus or anisometropia during infancy can disrupt normal visual development and result in amblyopia, characterized by reduced visual function in an otherwise healthy eye and often associated with persistent suppression of inputs from the amblyopic eye by those from the dominant eye. It has become evident from fMRI studies that the cortical response to stimulation of the amblyopic eye is also affected. We were interested to compare the hemodynamic response function (HRF) of early visual cortex to amblyopic vs. dominant eye stimulation. In the first experiment, we found that stimulation of the amblyopic eye resulted in a signal that was both attenuated and delayed in its time to peak. We postulated that this delay may be due to suppressive effects of the dominant eye and, in our second experiment, measured the cortical response of amblyopic eye stimulation under two conditions--where the dominant eye was open and seeing a static pattern (high suppression) or where the dominant eye was patched and closed (low suppression). We found that the HRF in response to amblyopic eye stimulation depended on whether the dominant eye was open. This effect was manifested as both a delayed HRF under the suppressed condition and an amplitude reduction.

  4. Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    PubMed Central

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ant behavior will be carried out. Abstract Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of

  5. Factors associated with a bad functional prognosis in early inflammatory back pain: results from the DESIR cohort.

    PubMed

    Lukas, C; Dougados, M; Combe, B

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a heterogeneous disease with hardly predictable potential courses. We aimed at determining prognostic factors of bad functional outcome at 2 years in patients with early inflammatory back pain (IBP). Data from patients included in the French multicentre devenir des spondylarthropathies indifférenciées récentes (DESIR) cohort, that is, suffering from IBP starting before 50 years of age and lasting for 3-36 months, were used. A bad functional outcome at 24 months was defined as an increase in bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), or BASFI at 2 years higher than the 75th centile in the cohort. Demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data collected at inclusion were compared in patients with bad functional outcome versus others, by χ(2) test, then by a multivariate logistic regression model with stepwise selection of relevant factors. 513 patients (54.4% females, 72.2% fulfilling ASAS criteria) were assessed. Of those, 130 (25.3%) fulfilled the aforementioned criteria of a bad functional outcome (BASFI increase ≥4 units or ≥36 at 2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that not fulfilling ASAS criteria, female sex, age >33 years, lower educational level, active smoking status and high disease activity according to bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) at baseline were independently associated with a bad functional outcome at 24 months. Sensitivity analyses restricted to patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA resulted in similar results. We observed, in a large prospective cohort of patients with early IBP, formerly described bad prognostic factors, especially a low educational level, an older age and a high disease activity at onset, and revealed that active smoking status and female sex were also independently associated with a poor outcome. Fulfilment of ASAS criteria, on the other hand, was predictive of a better outcome, most likely due to the more consensual

  6. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Objective Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, years 1999–2006. Participants 53 934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. Main outcome measure ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Results Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Conclusions Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. PMID

  7. Clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects and their relationships with nicotine metabolism: preliminary results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Peter S; Delucchi, Kevin L; Benowitz, Neal L; Hall, Sharon M

    2014-05-01

    Although the early time course of smoking withdrawal effects has been characterized, the clinical significance of early withdrawal symptoms and their predictors are unknown. This study evaluated the relationships of early smoking withdrawal effects with quit attempt outcomes and the rate of nicotine metabolism. Eleven treatment-seeking smokers abstained from smoking for 4 hr in the laboratory before a quit attempt. Withdrawal measures included heart rate, sustained attention, and self-report. Following baseline assessment, withdrawal measures were administered every 30 min. At the conclusion of the 4-hr early withdrawal session, participants received a brief smoking cessation intervention and then returned 1 week and 12 weeks later for outcome assessments that included biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence, cigarettes smoked in the past 24hr, and self-reported withdrawal symptoms. The rate of nicotine metabolism was estimated at intake with the nicotine metabolite ratio (trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine) measured in saliva. Greater self-reported negative affect and concentration difficulty during early withdrawal, most notably anxiety, were related with poorer quit attempt outcomes. There was some indication that although a faster increase in craving and greater hunger during early withdrawal were associated with more favorable outcomes, a greater decrease in heart rate during this time was associated with poorer outcomes. Faster nicotine metabolism was related to a faster increase in anxiety but a slower increase in craving during early withdrawal. These findings lend support to the clinical significance of early smoking withdrawal effects. The rate of nicotine metabolism may be a useful predictor of early withdrawal symptoms.

  8. Intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy for anorectal Crohn's disease results in early and severe proximal colonic recurrence.

    PubMed

    de Buck van Overstraeten, Anthony; Wolthuis, Albert M; Vermeire, Séverine; Van Assche, Gert; Rutgeerts, Paul; Penninckx, Freddy; D'Hoore, André

    2013-07-01

    Perianal Crohn's disease (CD) represents a more aggressive phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease and often coincides with proctocolitis. This study aims to assess the outcome of patients undergoing proctectomy with end-colostomy. A retrospective outcome analysis of 10 consecutive patients who underwent intersphincteric proctectomy with end-colostomy between February 2007 and May 2011 was performed. All patients suffered from refractory distal and perianal CD. The proximal colon was normal at endoscopy. All data were extracted from a prospectively maintained database. The main outcome parameter was disease recurrence and need for completion colectomy. Severe and early endoscopic recurrence in the proximal colon occurred in 9/10 patients at a median time interval of 9.5 months (range: 1.9-23.6 months). Despite protracted medical treatment, completion colectomy was necessary in 5 patients. One patient, who underwent a second segmental colectomy with a new end-colostomy, showed again endoscopic recurrence and is currently treated with anti-TNF agents. Intersphincteric proctectomy with colostomy seems to be an ineffective surgery for perianal CD with coexisting proctitis and results in a high risk of recurrence of the disease in the remaining colon. Therefore, despite a normal appearance of the proximal colon, a proctocolectomy with end-ileostomy seems to be the surgical approach of choice in these patients. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel percutaneous suture-mediated patent foramen ovale closure technique. Early results of the NobleStitch EL Italian Registry.

    PubMed

    Gaspardone, Achille; De Marco, Federico; Sgueglia, Gregory A; De Santis, Antonella; Iamele, Maria; D'Ascoli, Emanuela; Tusa, Maurizio; Corciu, Anca; Mullen, Michael; Nobles, Anthony; Carminati, Mario; Bedogni, Francesco

    2018-04-03

    To assess the efficacy of a novel percutaneous "device-less" suture mediated patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure system. Between June 2016 and October 2017, a prospective registry aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of the NobleStitch EL (HeartStitch, Fountain Valley, CA) suture-based PFO closure system was carried out at 12 sites in Italy. Among 200 consecutive evaluated patients, 192 were considered suitable for suture-mediated PFO closure (44±13 years, 114 women). Suture of the septum with the NobleStitch EL system was carried out successfully in 186 (96%) patients. Median fluoroscopy time was 16.1 (13.0-22.5) minutes and contrast volume 200 (150-270) ml. At 206±130 days follow-up, microbubbles transthoracic echocardiography with Valsalva maneuver revealed no RLS (grade 0) in 139 (75%) patients and RLS grade ≤1 in 166 (89%) patients. Significant RLS was present in 20 (11%) patients (grade 2 and 3 in 11 and 9 patients, respectively). There were no device-related complications. The early results of this first Italian Registry indicates that the suture mediated "deviceless" closure of PFO is feasible in the majority of septal anatomies, provides an effective closure of PFO comparable to traditional devices with an excellent safety profile at medium term follow-up.

  10. Early experience and results of bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel for recalcitrant nonunions of lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chao-Ching; Su, Chen-Yao; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chen, Wei-Ming; Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Tzeng, Yun-Hsuan

    2007-09-01

    Refractory nonunions of the tibia or femur are physically and mentally devastating conditions for the patients, and the treatment is challenging for orthopedic surgeons. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and outcome of surgical treatment in recalcitrant nonunions of a lower extremity with bone graft enriched with autologous platelet gel (APG). Twelve patients with four femoral and eight tibial atrophic nonunions after multiple prior procedures were included. All of them were treated with the bone grafting procedures with autograft complex enriched with APG. They were evaluated with radiographs, bone mineral density for bony healing process, and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey for functional outcome. Of the 12 patients, 11 healed at an average of 19.7 weeks after the first attempt and 1 healed after the second attempt at 21 weeks. The bone mineral density continued to increase steadily from early healing to the remodeling phase. Functional status was greatly improved at an average follow-up of 32.4 months. The results of this preliminary study implied the possible potential of bone graft enriched with APG in the treatment of recalcitrant nonunions of the lower extremity. More research is necessary to clarify its role in augmentation of bone graft to enhance healing of nonunion.

  11. Does otitis media in early childhood affect later behavioural development? Results from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, C; Eikelboom, R H; Jacques, A; Swanepoel, D W; Whitehouse, A J O; Jamieson, S E; Brennan-Jones, C G

    2018-03-01

    To examine the relationship between early life episodes of otitis media and later behavioural development with adjustment for confounders. Longitudinal cohort study. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 2900 pregnant women from King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) in Perth, Western Australia, between 1989 and 1991. Data from the children born were collected at both the Year 3 and Year 5 follow-up. At Year 3, n = 611 were diagnosed with recurrent otitis media through parent-report and clinical examination. At Year 5, n = 299 were considered exposed to otitis media based upon tympanometry results. Performance in the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire completed by the primary caregiver at Year 10. Significant associations were found between recurrent otitis media at Year 3 and internalising behaviours (P = .011), and the somatic (P = .011), withdrawn (P = .014), attention (P = .003) and thought problems domains (P = .021), and the total CBCL score (P = .010). A significant association was also found between exposure to otitis media at Year 5 and externalising behaviours (P = .026). A modest association was seen between recurrent otitis media at Year 3 and exposure to otitis media at Year 5 and a number of behaviour domains at Year 10. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS): Early results from X-ray and radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; David, Laurence P.; Giacintucci, Simona; Kolokythas, Konstantinos

    2017-08-01

    Although the group environment is the dominant locus of galaxy evolution (in contrast to rich clusters, which contain only a few percent of galaxies), there has been a lack of reliable, representative group samples in the local Universe. In particular, X-ray selected samples are strongly biased in favor of the X-ray bright, centrally-concentrated cool-core systems. In response, we have designed the Complete Local-Volume Groups Sample (CLoGS), an optically-selected statistically-complete sample of 53 groups within 80 Mpc which is intended to overcome the limitations of X-ray selected samples and serve as a representative survey of groups in the local Universe. We have supplemented X-ray data from Chandra and XMM (70% complete to date, using both archival and new observations, with a 26-group high richness subsample 100% complete) with GMRT radio continuum observations (at 235 and 610 MHz, complete for the entire sample). CLoGS includes groups with a wide variety of properties in terms of galaxy population, hot gas content, and AGN power. We here describe early results from the survey, including the range of AGN activity observed in the dominant galaxies, the relative fraction of cool-core and non-cool-core groups in our sample, and the degree of disturbance observed in the IGM.

  13. Sea surface temperature measurements by the along-track scanning radiometer on the ERS 1 satellite: Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlow, C. T.; ZáVody, A. M.; Barton, I. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1994-11-01

    The along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) was launched in July 1991 on the European Space Agency's first remote sensing satellite, ERS 1. An initial analysis of ATSR data demonstrates that the sea surface temperature (SST) can be measured from space with very high accuracy. Comparison of simultaneous measurements of SST made from ATSR and from a ship-borne radiometer show that they agree to within 0.3°C. To assess data consistency, a complementary analysis of SST data from ATSR was also carried out. The ATSR global SST field was compared on a daily basis with daily SST analysis of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). The ATSR global field is consistently within 1.0°C of the UKMO analysis. Also, to demonstrate the benefits of along-track scanning SST determination, the ATSR SST data were compared with high-quality bulk temperature observations from drifting buoys. The likely causes of the differences between ATSR and the bulk temperature data are briefly discussed. These results provide early confidence in the quantitative benefit of ATSR's two-angle view of the Earth and its high radiometric performance and show a significant advance on the data obtained from other spaceborne sensors. It should be noted that these measurements were made at a time when the atmosphere was severely contaminated with volcanic aerosol particles, which degrade infrared measurements of the Earth's surface made from space.

  14. Early Results of Medicare's Bundled Payment Initiative for a 90-Day Total Joint Arthroplasty Episode of Care.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Richard; Clair, Andrew J; Inneh, Ifeoma A; Slover, James D; Bosco, Joseph A; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2016-02-01

    In 2011 Medicare initiated a Bundled Payment for Care Improvement (BPCI) program with the goal of introducing a payment model that would "lead to higher quality, more coordinated care at a lower cost to Medicare." A Model 2 bundled payment initiative for Total Joint Replacement (TJR) was implemented at a large, tertiary, urban academic medical center. The episode of care includes all costs through 90 days following discharge. After one year, data on 721 Medicare primary TJR patients were available for analysis. Average length of stay (LOS) was decreased from 4.27 days to 3.58 days (Median LOS 3 days). Discharges to inpatient facilities decreased from 71% to 44%. Readmissions occurred in 80 patients (11%), which is slightly lower than before implementation. The hospital has seen cost reduction in the inpatient component over baseline. Early results from the implementation of a Medicare BPCI Model 2 primary TJR program at this medical center demonstrate cost-savings. IV economic and decision analyses-developing an economic or decision model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Juvenile Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Cognitive Deficits Associated with Impaired Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Early Tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Hylin, Michael J; Holden, Ryan C; Smith, Aidan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Qaiser, Rabia; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P

    2018-05-22

    The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly delineated. We investigated this important topic using a juvenile rat controlled cortical impact (CCI) model. We proposed that ER stress would be significantly increased in juvenile rats following TBI and that this would correlate with behavioral deficits using a juvenile rat model. A juvenile rat (postnatal day 28) CCI model was used. Binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) were measured at 4 h in the ipsilateral pericontusion cortex. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was measured at 48 h and tau kinase measured at 1 week and 30 days. At 4 h following injury, BiP and CHOP (markers of ER stress) were significantly elevated in rats exposed to TBI. We also found that HIF-1α was significantly upregulated 48 h following TBI showing delayed hypoxia. The early ER stress activation was additionally asso-ciated with the activation of a known tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), by 1 week. Tau oligomers measured by R23 were significantly increased by 30 days following TBI. The biochemical changes following TBI were associated with increased impulsive-like or anti-anxiety behavior measured with the elevated plus maze, deficits in short-term memory measured with novel object recognition, and deficits in spatial memory measured with the Morris water maze in juvenile rats exposed to TBI. These results show that ER stress was increased early in juvenile rats exposed to TBI, that these rats developed tau oligomers over the

  16. Past and recent abuse is associated with early cessation of breast feeding: results from a large prospective cohort in Norway.

    PubMed

    Sørbø, Marie Flem; Lukasse, Mirjam; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Grimstad, Hilde

    2015-12-18

    Breast feeding provides a wide range of health benefits for both infants and mothers. Few studies have examined the impact of past and recent abuse of women on breastfeeding behaviour. The aims of our study were to examine whether exposure to past and recent emotional, sexual or physical abuse was associated with early breastfeeding cessation, and to assess whether a potential association differed for known and unknown perpetrators. Prospective cohort study. Norway, years 1999-2006. 53,934 mothers participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. We included mothers with singleton pregnancy who had responded to three questionnaires (weeks 18 and 30 in pregnancy, and 6 months postpartum) and had answered minimum one of the abuse questions in week 30. ORs were estimated by binary logistic regression with cessation of any (all) breast feeding before 4 months as the outcome, and abuse including subcategories of abuse, as the exposure. Nearly all women initiated breast feeding, but 12.1% ceased any breast feeding before 4 months and 38.9% ceased full breast feeding before 4 months, but continued partial breast feeding. Overall, 19% of the women reported any adult abuse and 18% reported any child abuse. The highest risk of any breast feeding cessation before 4 months was seen in women exposed to three types of adult abuse (emotional, sexual or physical), with adjusted OR being 1.47 (95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) compared with no abuse. Recent abuse and exposure from known perpetrator resulted in nearly 40% and 30% increased risk, respectively. The OR of any breast feeding cessation for women exposed to any child abuse was 1.41 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.50) compared with no abuse in childhood. Past and recent abuse of women is strongly associated with early cessation of breast feeding. Abused mothers comprise a key group to target for extra support and breastfeeding assistance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  17. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detectionmore » of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  18. Early Predictors of Lumbar Spine Surgery after Occupational Back Injury: Results from a Prospective Study of Workers in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, Benjamin J.; Fulton-Kehoe, Deborah; Turner, Judith A.; Wickizer, Thomas M.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Franklin, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective population-based cohort study Objective To identify early predictors of lumbar spine surgery within 3 years after occupational back injury Summary of Background Data Back injuries are the most prevalent occupational injury in the United States. Little is known about predictors of lumbar spine surgery following occupational back injury. Methods Using Disability Risk Identification Study Cohort (D-RISC) data, we examined the early predictors of lumbar spine surgery within 3 years among Washington State workers with new worker’s compensation temporary total disability claims for back injuries. Baseline measures included worker-reported measures obtained approximately 3 weeks after claim submission. We used medical bill data to determine whether participants underwent surgery, covered by the claim, within 3 years. Baseline predictors (P < 0.10) of surgery in bivariate analyses were included in a multivariate logistic regression model predicting lumbar spine surgery. The model’s area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to determine the model’s ability to identify correctly workers who underwent surgery. Results In the D-RISC sample of 1,885 workers, 174 (9.2%) had a lumbar spine surgery within 3 years. Baseline variables associated with surgery (P < 0.05) in the multivariate model included higher Roland Disability Questionnaire scores, greater injury severity, and surgeon as first provider seen for the injury. Reduced odds of surgery were observed for those under age 35, women, Hispanics, and those whose first provider was a chiropractor. 42.7% of workers who first saw a surgeon had surgery, in contrast to only 1.5% of those who saw a chiropractor. The multivariate model’s AUC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.92–0.95), indicating excellent ability to discriminate between workers who would versus would not have surgery. Conclusion Baseline variables in multiple domains predicted lumbar spine surgery. There was a very

  19. Is the Prediction of Adolescent Outcomes From Early Child Care Moderated by Later Maternal Sensitivity? Results From the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Burchinal, Margaret R.; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data are used to examine whether effects of early child care are amplified and/or attenuated by later parenting. Analyses tested these interactions using parenting as both a categorical and continuous variable to balance power and flexibility in testing moderation. The most consistent finding was that maternal sensitivity during adolescence accentuated the association between child care quality and adolescent academic-cognitive skills at age 15 years when maternal sensitivity during adolescence was high. This interaction was obtained in analyses with maternal sensitivity as both a categorical and continuous variable. Relations between early child care hours and adolescent behavioral outcomes also were moderated by maternal sensitivity, with longer child care hours predicting more impulsivity and externalizing at age 15 when maternal sensitivity during middle childhood, scored as a categorical variable, was low to moderate and when maternal sensitivity during adolescence, scored as a continuous variable, was lower. These findings suggest that some child care effects are moderated by subsequent parenting and that this moderation may take both linear and nonlinear forms. PMID:23937381

  20. Design Approaches to Support Preservice Teachers in Scientific Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Lisa; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Hug, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Engaging children in scientific practices is hard for beginning teachers. One such scientific practice with which beginning teachers may have limited experience is scientific modeling. We have iteratively designed preservice teacher learning experiences and materials intended to help teachers achieve learning goals associated with scientific modeling. Our work has taken place across multiple years at three university sites, with preservice teachers focused on early childhood, elementary, and middle school teaching. Based on results from our empirical studies supporting these design decisions, we discuss design features of our modeling instruction in each iteration. Our results suggest some successes in supporting preservice teachers in engaging students in modeling practice. We propose design principles that can guide science teacher educators in incorporating modeling in teacher education.

  1. Results of Surgery for Low-Grade Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Resection by Early Career Neurosurgeons: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nirav J; Bervini, David; Eftekhar, Behzad; Davidson, Andrew Stewart; Walsh, Daniel C; Assaad, Nazih N; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2018-03-28

    For sustainability of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery, results from early career cerebrovascular neurosurgeons (ECCNs) must be acceptably safe. To determine whether ECCNs performance of Spetzler-Ponce Class A AVM (SPC A) resection can be acceptably safe. ECCNs completing a cerebrovascular fellowship (2004-2015) with the last author were included. Inclusion of the ECCN cases occurred if they: had a prospective database of all AVM cases since commencing independent practice; were the primary surgeon on SPC A; and had made the significant management decisions. All SPC A surgical cases from the beginning of the ECCN's independent surgical practice to a maximum of 8 yr were included. An adverse outcome was considered a complication of surgery leading to a new permanent neurological deficit with a last modified Rankin Scale score >1. A cumulative summation (Cusum) plot examined the performance of each surgery. The highest acceptable level of adverse outcomes for the Cusum was 3.3%, derived from the upper 95% confidence interval of the last author's reported series. Six ECCNs contributed 110 cases for analysis. The median number of SPC A cases operated by each ECCN was 16.5 (range 4-40). Preoperative embolization was performed in 5 (4.5%). The incidence of adverse outcomes was 1.8% (95% confidence interval: <0.01%-6.8%). At no point during the accumulated series did the combined cohort become unacceptable by the Cusum plot. ECCNs with appropriate training appointed to large-volume cerebrovascular centers can achieve results for surgery for SPC A that are not appreciably worse than those published from high-volume neurosurgeons.

  2. Migrant Background and Weight Gain in Early Infancy: Results from the German Study Sample of the IDEFICS Study

    PubMed Central

    Reeske, Anna; Spallek, Jacob; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kourides, Yiannis; Nagy, Peter; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine variations in infant weight gain between children of parents with and without migrant background and to investigate how these differences are explained by pre- and perinatal factors. Methods We used data on birth weight and weight at six months from well-child check-up books that were collected from a population-based German sample of children in the IDEFICS study (n = 1,287). We calculated unadjusted and adjusted means for weight z-scores at birth and six months later. We applied linear regression for change in weight z-score and we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for rapid weight gain by logistic regression, adjusted for biological, social and behavioural factors. Results Weight z-scores for migrants and Germans differed slightly at birth, but were markedly increased for Turkish and Eastern European infants at age six months. Turkish infants showed the highest change in weight z-score during the first 6 months (ß = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14–0.56) and an increased probability of rapid weight gain compared with German infants. Examination of the joint effect of migrant and socioeconomic status (SES) showed the greatest change in weight z-scores in Turkish infants from middle SES families (ß = 0.77; 95% CI 0.40–1.14) and infants of parents from Eastern European countries with high SES (ß = 0.72; 95% CI 0.13–1.32). Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that migrant background is an independent risk factor for infant weight gain and suggest that the onset of health inequalities in overweight starts in early infancy. PMID:23593270

  3. Low prevalence of work disability in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) and early rheumatoid arthritis at enrollment into a multi-site registry: results from the catch cohort.

    PubMed

    Mussen, Lauren; Boyd, Tristan; Bykerk, Vivian; de Leon, Faye; Li, Lihua; Boire, Gilles; Hitchon, Carol; Haraoui, Boulos; Thorne, J Carter; Pope, Janet

    2013-02-01

    We determined the prevalence of work disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and undifferentiated early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) patients at first enrollment into the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) who met the 2010 ACR criteria versus those not meeting criteria, to determine the impact of meeting new criteria on work disability status. Data at first visit into the cohort were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of other variables in our database with work disability. 1,487 patients were enrolled in the CATCH study, a multi-site observational, prospective cohort of patients with EIA. 934 patients were excluded (505 based on missing criteria for ACR 2010 classification, as anti-CCP was absent, and 429 were not working for other reasons). Of the 553 patients included, 71 % were female with mean disease duration of 6.4 months. 524 (94.8 %) were employed while 29 (5.2 %) reported work disability at first visit. There were no differences between those meeting 2010 ACR criteria versus those who did not. Baseline characteristics associated with work disability were male gender, age, education, income, HAQ, and positive RF status. The mean HAQ score in work disabled patients was 1.4 versus 0.9 in those who were working (p < 0.001). Disease activity score (DAS28) was not associated with work disability (p = 0.069), nor was tender joint count, swollen joint count, anti-CCP, patient global assessment, or SF-12v2. In the regression model, work disability was associated with lower income levels (p = 0.01) and worse HAQ scores (OR 2.33; p = 0.001), but not significantly associated with male gender (p = 0.08), older age (>50 years; p = 0.3), lower education (p = 0.3) or RF positivity (p = 0.6). We found rates of work disability to be low at entry into this EIA cohort compared to previous studies. There may be potential for intervention in ERA to prevent the development of work

  4. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data-A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert W; Hayward, Andrew C; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5-14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies in the future.

  5. The Scientific Filesystem

    PubMed Central

    Sochat, Vanessa

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Here, we present the Scientific Filesystem (SCIF), an organizational format that supports exposure of executables and metadata for discoverability of scientific applications. The format includes a known filesystem structure, a definition for a set of environment variables describing it, and functions for generation of the variables and interaction with the libraries, metadata, and executables located within. SCIF makes it easy to expose metadata, multiple environments, installation steps, files, and entry points to render scientific applications consistent, modular, and discoverable. A SCIF can be installed on a traditional host or in a container technology such as Docker or Singularity. We start by reviewing the background and rationale for the SCIF, followed by an overview of the specification and the different levels of internal modules (“apps”) that the organizational format affords. Finally, we demonstrate that SCIF is useful by implementing and discussing several use cases that improve user interaction and understanding of scientific applications. SCIF is released along with a client and integration in the Singularity 2.4 software to quickly install and interact with SCIF. When used inside of a reproducible container, a SCIF is a recipe for reproducibility and introspection of the functions and users that it serves. Results We use SCIF to evaluate container software, provide metrics, serve scientific workflows, and execute a primary function under different contexts. To encourage collaboration and sharing of applications, we developed tools along with an open source, version-controlled, tested, and programmatically accessible web infrastructure. SCIF and associated resources are available at https://sci-f.github.io. The ease of using SCIF, especially in the context of containers, offers promise for scientists’ work to be self-documenting and programatically parseable for maximum reproducibility. SCIF opens up an abstraction from

  6. Elevated Early Callose Deposition Results in Complete Penetration Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ellinger, Dorothea; Naumann, Marcel; Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Jamrow, Torsten; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C.; Voigt, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    A common response by plants to fungal attack is deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan polymer, in the form of cell wall thickenings called papillae, at site of wall penetration. While it has been generally believed that the papillae provide a structural barrier to slow fungal penetration, this idea has been challenged in recent studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where fungal resistance was found to be independent of callose deposition. To the contrary, we show that callose can strongly support penetration resistance when deposited in elevated amounts at early time points of infection. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that express POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT4 (PMR4), which encodes a stress-induced callose synthase, under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter. In these lines, we detected callose synthase activity that was four times higher than that in wild-type plants 6 h post inoculation with the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum. The callose synthase activity was correlated with enlarged callose deposits and the focal accumulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged PMR4 at sites of attempted fungal penetration. We observed similar results from infection studies with the nonadapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Haustoria formation was prevented in resistant transgenic lines during both types of powdery mildew infection, and neither the salicylic acid-dependent nor jasmonate-dependent pathways were induced. We present a schematic model that highlights the differences in callose deposition between the resistant transgenic lines and the susceptible wild-type plants during compatible and incompatible interactions between Arabidopsis and powdery mildew. PMID:23335625

  7. Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease Based on the Patient's Creative Drawing Process: First Results with a Novel Neuropsychological Testing Method.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Petra; Gienger, Regine; Hett, Andreas; Müller, Stephan; Laske, Christoph; Robens, Sibylle; Ostermann, Thomas; Elbing, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Based on the knowledge of art therapy, we developed a new neuropsychological drawing test in order to identify individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as dementia patients and healthy controls (HC). By observing a variety of drawing characteristics of 92 participants with a mean age of 67.7, art therapy and dementia experts discriminate HC from MCI, early dementia of the Alzheimer-type (eDAT), and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer-type (mDAT) by the process analysis of tree drawings on a digitizing tablet. The art therapist's average categorical rating of healthy and MCI or demented individuals matched the clinical diagnosis by 88%. In a first small study, we analyzed interrater reliability, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predicted values of our tree drawing test (TDT) in comparison with the clock drawing test (CDT). Similar values of moderate interrater reliability were found for the TDT (0.56) as well as for the CDT (0.54). A significant high sensitivity of 0.9 within this binary impairment scale (HC versus impaired or demented) can be demonstrated. Substantial values for the specificity (0.67) could be obtained that however remain under a perfect value of the CDT (1.0). Considering 31 individuals that received the clinical diagnosis "impaired or demented" the TDT shows a higher recognition rate for the MCI group than the CDT. Furthermore in 8 of 12 borderline cases of clinical diagnosis, the outcome of the TDT diagnosis was consistent with the final clinical result.

  8. Cardioband, a transcatheter surgical-like direct mitral valve annuloplasty system: early results of the feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Maisano, Francesco; Taramasso, Maurizio; Nickenig, Georg; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David; Baldus, Stephan; Huntgeburth, Michael; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio; La Canna, Giovanni; Agricola, Eustachio; Zuber, Michel; Tanner, Felix C; Topilsky, Yan; Kreidel, Felix; Kuck, Karl-Heinz

    2016-03-07

    Cardioband system is a direct annuloplasty adjustable device that is implanted in the beating heart on the posterior annulus under fluoroscopic and transoesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) guidance. We report the early (1 month) outcomes of the first-in-man pre-CE-mark feasibility and safety trial. The study enrolled high-risk adult individuals at five institutions in Europe with symptomatic secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) despite optimal medical therapy. The primary efficacy endpoints included the technical success rate of implantation, feasibility of the Cardioband adjustment (technical performance), and ability to reduce the annular septolateral dimension and MR grade at hospital discharge and at 30 days. The study group included 31 consecutively enrolled high-risk patients with moderate-to-severe or severe secondary MR with at least 1 month of follow-up (mean age 71.8 ± 6.9 years). All patients received the full implant of a Cardioband. Adjustment of the Cardioband resulted in a significant reduction in the septolateral dimension in all but two patients (septolateral dimension from 36.8 ± 4.8 to 29 ± 5.5 mm after the procedure, P < 0.01). Following Cardioband adjustment (29 of 31 patients) MR was none or trace in 6 (21%), mild in 21 (72%), and moderate in 2 (7%). No patient had severe MR after adjustment. Procedural mortality was zero and in-hospital mortality was 6.5% (2 of 31 patients, neither procedure- nor device-related). At 30 days, 22 of the 25 patients (88%) had MR ≤2+. This study demonstrates the feasibility and safety of percutaneous direct mitral annuloplasty with the Cardioband device in high-risk patients with MR. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Risk factors influencing the early outcome results after laparoscopic repair of perforated duodenal ulcer and their predictive value.

    PubMed

    Lunevicius, Raimundas; Morkevicius, Matas

    2005-09-01

    Clear patient selection criteria and indications for laparoscopic repair of perforated duodenal ulcers are necessary. The aims of our study are to report the early outcome results after operation and to define the predictive values of risk factors influencing conversion rate and genesis of suture leakage. Sixty nonrandomly selected patients operated on laparoscopically in a tertiary care academic center between October 1996 and May 2004 for perforated duodenal ulcers were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome measures included the duration of symptoms, shock, underlying medical illness, ulcer size, age, Boey score, and the collective predictive value of these variables for conversion and suture leakage rates. Laparoscopic repair was completed in 46 patients (76.7%). Fourteen patients (23.3%) underwent conversion to open repair. Eight patients (13.3%) had postoperative complications. Suture leakage was confirmed in four patients (6.7%). Hospital stay was 7.8+/-5.3 days. There was no mortality. Patients with an ulcer perforation size of >8 mm had a significantly increased risk for conversion to open repair (p<0.05): positive predictive value (PPV) 75%, sensitivity 27%, specificity 98%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 85%. The significance of ulcer perforation size was confirmed by a stepwise logistic regression test (p=0.0201). All patients who developed suture leakage had acute symptoms for >9 h preoperatively (p<0.001): PPV 31%, specificity 84%, sensitivity 100%, and NPV 100%. Conversions happened with surgeons whose previous experience involved 1.8+/-2.3 cases compared to 3.9+/-2.9 cases in successful laparoscopic repair (p=0.039, t test). Ulcer perforation size of >8 mm is a significant risk factor influencing the conversion rate. An increase in the suture leakage rate is predicted by delayed presentation of >9 h.

  10. Early results of prostate cancer radiation therapy: an analysis with emphasis on research strategies to improve treatment delivery and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is scant data regarding disease presentation and treatment response among black men living in Africa. In this study we evaluate disease presentation and early clinical outcomes among Ghanaian men with prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods A total of 379 men with prostate cancer were referred to the National Center for Radiotherapy, Ghana from 2003 to 2009. Data were collected regarding patient-and tumor-related factors such as age, prostate specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score (GS), clinical stage (T), and use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). For patients who received EBRT, freedom from biochemical failure (FFbF) was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of 379 patients referred for treatment 69.6% had initial PSA (iPSA) > 20 ng/ml, and median iPSA was 39.0 ng/ml. A total of 128 men, representing 33.8% of the overall cohort, were diagnosed with metastatic disease at time of referral. Among patients with at least 2 years of follow-up after EBRT treatment (n=52; median follow-up time: 38.9 months), 3- and 5-year actuarial FFbF was 73.8% and 65.1% respectively. There was significant association between higher iPSA and GS (8–10 vs. ≤7, p < 0.001), and T stage (T3/4 vs. T1/2, p < 0.001). Conclusions This is the largest series reporting on outcomes after prostate cancer treatment in West Africa. That one-third of patients presented with metastatic disease suggests potential need for earlier detection to permit curative-intent therapy. Data from this study will aid in the strategic development of prostate cancer research roadmap in Ghana. PMID:23324165

  11. Quality of work, well-being, and intended early retirement of older employees: baseline results from the SHARE Study.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Johannes; Wahrendorf, Morten; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Jürges, Hendrik; Börsch-Supan, Axel

    2007-02-01

    Given the challenge of a high proportion of older employees who retire early from work we analyse associations of indicators of a poor psychosocial quality of work with intended premature departure from work in a large sample of older male and female employees in 10 European countries. Baseline data from the 'Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe' (SHARE) were obtained from 3523 men and 3318 women in 10 European countries. Data on intended early retirement, four measures of well-being (self-rated health, depressive symptoms, general symptom load, and quality of life), and quality of work (effort-reward imbalance; low control at work) were obtained from structured interviews and questionnaires. Country-specific and total samples are analysed, using logistic regression analysis. Poor quality of work is significantly associated with intended early retirement. After adjustment for well-being odds ratios (OR) of effort-reward imbalance [OR 1.72 (1.43-2.08)] and low control at work [OR 1.51 (1.27-1.80)] on intended early retirement are observed. Poor quality of work and reduced well-being are independently associated with the intention to retire from work. The consistent association of a poor psychosocial quality of work with intended early retirement among older employees across all European countries under study calls for improved investments into better quality of work, in particular increased control and an appropriate balance between efforts spent and rewards received at work.

  12. How Old Is Scientific Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, John S.

    Scientific psychology did not begin with Fechner and Wundt in the 19th century; its roots actually stretch back to 18th century Germany. The only detailed account of this period was published by Max Dessoir more than 80 years ago. Dessoir identified some of the crucial figures in early psychology, including Wolff, Bonnet, Kruger, Hissman, and…

  13. Co-occurring development of early childhood communication and motor skills: results from a population-based longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wang, M V; Lekhal, R; Aarø, L E; Schjølberg, S

    2014-01-01

    Communicative and motor development is frequently found to be associated. In the current study we investigate to what extent communication and motor skills at 1½ years predict skills in the same domains at 3 years of age. This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath. Data stem from 62,944 children and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their child's communication and motor skills at ages 1½ and 3. Associations between communication and motor skills were estimated in a cross-lagged model with latent variables. Early communication skills were correlated with early motor skills (0.72). Stability was high (0.81) across time points for motor skills and somewhat lower (0.40) for communication skills. Early motor skills predicted later communication skills (0.38) whereas early communication skills negatively predicted later motor skills (-0.14). Our findings provide support for the hypothesis that these two difficulties are not symptoms of separate disorders, but might rather be different manifestations of a common underlying neurodevelopmental weakness. However, there also seem to be specific developmental pathways for each domain. Besides theoretical interest, more knowledge about the relationship between these early skills might shed light upon early intervention strategies and preventive efforts commonly used with children with problems in these areas. Our findings suggest that the relationship between language and motor skills is not likely to be simple and directional but rather to be complex and multifaceted. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Erastosthenes in Scientific Garb.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiVincenzo, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    How mathematics subject matter can be enhanced through the scientific reasoning method, how this integration can be achieved, adaptations needed for a modified approach, and resulting attainments are all considered. Prime numbers using the Sieve of Erastosthenes are the vehicle through which the approach is described. (MNS)

  15. Results of level-II oncoplasty in breast cancer patients: an early experience from a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sajida; Ghazanfar, Shahriyar; Iqbal, Sumera; Bhatti, Abu Bakar Hafeez; Quraishy, Mohammad Saeed

    2014-03-01

    To assess the oncologic and cosmetic outcomes for breast cancer patients who underwent breast conservation therapy using Level II oncoplasty techniques. The prospective, non-randomised and descriptive study was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Unit IV of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from December 2009 to November 2011 in which 21 consecutive women with breast carcinoma who underwent wide local excision with remodeling mammoplasty were enrolled. All patients were reviewed by the surgeon and medical oncologist every 3 months for the first year. A grading system of 5-1 (excellent to poor) was employed and those with 3 or more were considered to have acceptable results. The mean patient age was 45.38 +/- 10.09 years (range: 26-70); 11 (52.3%) were premenopausal and 10 (47.7%) were postmenopausal; and 5 (27.8%) had family history of breast cancer. The mean size of the tumour determined by histology was 59.9 +/- 3.18 mm (range: 25-150). Eight (30%) patients received preoperative chemotherapy to downsize the tumour. Three (14.2%) patients received preoperative radiotherapy. Mean operative time was 1.59 +/- 0.52 hours (range: 1-2.5 hours). Mean volume of breast tissue excised from the breast containing the tumour was 545.27 +/- 412.06 cm3 (range: 43.70-1456). Assessment of excision margi