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Sample records for early signaling pathways

  1. Inhibition of the adrenomedullin/nitric oxide signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Blom, Jan J; Giove, Thomas J; Favazza, Tara L; Akula, James D; Eldred, William D

    2011-06-01

    The nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway is integrally involved in visual processing and changes in the NO pathway are measurable in eyes of diabetic patients. The small peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) can activate a signaling pathway to increase the enzyme activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). ADM levels are elevated in eyes of diabetic patients and therefore, ADM may play a role in the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. The goal of this research was to test the effects of inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway in early diabetic retinopathy. Inhibition of this pathway decreased NO production in high-glucose retinal cultures. Treating diabetic mice with the PKC β inhibitor ruboxistaurin for 5 weeks lowered ADM mRNA levels and ADM-like immunoreactivity and preserved retinal function as assessed by electroretinography. The results of this study indicate that inhibiting the ADM/NO signaling pathway prevents neuronal pathology and functional losses in early diabetic retinopathy.

  2. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    all these cell types in all tissues and we have used intravital imaging to document intravasation in early cancer lesions (see also partnering PI...report we showed how we optimized a mammary gland imaging window to perform intravital imaging and detect P-TMEM function during early stages of...MECs) assemble primary Tumor Microenvironment of Metastasis structures (P-TMEM) during early dissemination. SA1.1. Objective: Use intravital

  3. The non-canonical BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways orchestrate early tooth development

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Zheng, Yuqian; Zhu, Xiaojing; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Zunyi; Chen, YiPing

    2015-01-01

    BMP and Wnt signaling pathways play a crucial role in organogenesis, including tooth development. Despite extensive studies, the exact functions, as well as if and how these two pathways act coordinately in regulating early tooth development, remain elusive. In this study, we dissected regulatory functions of BMP and Wnt pathways in early tooth development using a transgenic noggin (Nog) overexpression model (K14Cre;pNog). It exhibits early arrested tooth development, accompanied by reduced cell proliferation and loss of odontogenic fate marker Pitx2 expression in the dental epithelium. We demonstrated that overexpression of Nog disrupted BMP non-canonical activity, which led to a dramatic reduction of cell proliferation rate but did not affect Pitx2 expression. We further identified a novel function of Nog by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling, causing loss of Pitx2 expression. Co-immunoprecipitation and TOPflash assays revealed direct binding of Nog to Wnts to functionally prevent Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In situ PLA and immunohistochemistry on Nog mutants confirmed in vivo interaction between endogenous Nog and Wnts and modulation of Wnt signaling by Nog in tooth germs. Genetic rescue experiments presented evidence that both BMP and Wnt signaling pathways contribute to cell proliferation regulation in the dental epithelium, with Wnt signaling also controlling the odontogenic fate. Reactivation of both BMP and Wnt signaling pathways, but not of only one of them, rescued tooth developmental defects in K14Cre;pNog mice, in which Wnt signaling can be substituted by transgenic activation of Pitx2. Our results reveal the orchestration of non-canonical BMP and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in the regulation of early tooth development. PMID:25428587

  4. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    hypothesize that after extravasation at secondary site TMEM (S- TMEM), in order to exit dormancy a stable S-TMEM structure needs to be maintained and...by understanding early dissemination and dormancy of DTCs we will find ways to eradicate dormant DTCs and prevent metastasis. 2. KEYWORDS...TMEM, DTC, dormancy, dissemination intravasation, extravasation 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS:  What were the major goals of the project? Our original specific

  5. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    regulators of branching morphogenesis during mammary gland development 17,18, arguing that normal mammary epithelial cells cooperate with these innate ...CD45+CD11b+F4/80+ cells lacking lymphoid and granulocytic markers (Supplementary Fig.3B). viSNE plots 30 of myelo- monocytic cells (Fig.5A) showed that...cancer cells and how the microenvironment in these primary sites named P-TMEM (Primary Tumor Microenvironment of Metastases) contribute to early

  6. Microenvironments and Signaling Pathways Regulating Early Dissemination, Dormancy, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    late disseminated tumor cells. Progress has also been made in devising a sorting protocol to isolate CFP+/HER2+ DTCs from lungs and CTCs in the MMTV...early dissemination of pre- malignant MECs. We further hypothesize that after extravasation at S-TMEM, in order to exit dormancy a stable S-TMEM...mentioned in section SA1.2, and the optimization of these protocols is underway. Aim 2.1 requires that we validate the components of the TMEM in the

  7. Signaling Pathway in Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: News Update.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chengyuan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The annual incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by intracranial aneurysm rupture is approximately 10.5/10 million people in China, making SAH the third most frequently occurring hemorrhage of the intracranial type after cerebral embolism and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. SAH caused by ruptured aneurysm leads to a mortality rate as high as 67 %, and, because of the sudden onset of this disease, approximately 12-15 % of patients die before they can receive effective treatment. Early brain injury (EBI) is the brain damage occurring within the first 72 h after SAH. Two-thirds of mortality caused by SAH occurs within 48 h, mainly as a result of EBI. With the development of molecular biology and medicine microscopy techniques, various signaling pathways involved in EBI after SAH have been revealed. Understanding these signaling pathways may help clinicians treat EBI after SAH and improve long-term prognosis of SAH patients. This chapter summarizes several important signaling pathways implicated in EBI caused by SAH.

  8. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Langevin, Stanley; O'Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G; Kirby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    diagnostic tools to distinguish between acute viral and bacterial respiratory infections is critical to improve patient care and limit the overuse of antibiotics in the medical community. The identification of prognostic respiratory virus biomarkers provides an early warning system that is capable of predicting which subjects will become symptomatic to expand our medical diagnostic capabilities and treatment options for acute infectious diseases. The host response to acute infection may be viewed as a deterministic signaling network responsible for maintaining the health of the host organism. We identify pathway signatures that reflect the very earliest perturbations in the host response to acute infection. These pathways provide a monitor the health state of the host using anomaly detection to quantify and predict health outcomes to pathogens.

  9. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    diagnostic tools to distinguish between acute viral and bacterial respiratory infections is critical to improve patient care and limit the overuse of antibiotics in the medical community. The identification of prognostic respiratory virus biomarkers provides an early warning system that is capable of predicting which subjects will become symptomatic to expand our medical diagnostic capabilities and treatment options for acute infectious diseases. The host response to acute infection may be viewed as a deterministic signaling network responsible for maintaining the health of the host organism. We identify pathway signatures that reflect the very earliest perturbations in the host response to acute infection. These pathways provide a monitor the health state of the host using anomaly detection to quantify and predict health outcomes to pathogens. PMID:27532264

  10. The Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Mosca, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    Studies using cultured melanoma cells and patient tumor biopsies have demonstrated deregulated PI3 kinase-Akt3 pathway activity in ∼70% of melanomas. Furthermore, targeting Akt3 and downstream PRAS40 has been shown to inhibit melanoma tumor development in mice. Although these preclinical studies and several other reports using small interfering RNAs and pharmacological agents targeting key members of this pathway have been shown to retard melanoma development, analysis of early Phase I and Phase II clinical trials using pharmacological agents to target this pathway demonstrate the need for (1) selection of patients whose tumors have PI3 kinase-Akt pathway deregulation, (2) further optimization of therapeutic agents for increased potency and reduced toxicity, (3) the identification of additional targets in the same pathway or in other signaling cascades that synergistically inhibit the growth and progression of melanoma, and (4) better methods for targeted delivery of pharmaceutical agents inhibiting this pathway. In this review we discuss key potential targets in PI3K-Akt3 signaling, the status of pharmacological agents targeting these proteins, drugs under clinical development, and strategies to improve the efficacy of therapeutic agents targeting this pathway. PMID:22157148

  11. A role for the mevalonate pathway in early plant symbiotic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Chabaud, Mireille; Genre, Andrea; Balloon, Allison J.; Maeda, Junko; Forshey, Kari; den Os, Désirée; Kwiecien, Nicholas W.; Coon, Joshua J.; Barker, David G.; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce signals that are perceived by host legume receptors at the plasma membrane and trigger sustained oscillations of the nuclear and perinuclear Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ spiking), which in turn leads to gene expression and downstream symbiotic responses. The activation of Ca2+ spiking requires the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase Does not Make Infections 2 (DMI2) as well as the nuclear cation channel DMI1. A key enzyme regulating the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase 1 (HMGR1), interacts with DMI2 and is required for the legume–rhizobium symbiosis. Here, we show that HMGR1 is required to initiate Ca2+ spiking and symbiotic gene expression in Medicago truncatula roots in response to rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal signals. Furthermore, MVA, the direct product of HMGR1 activity, is sufficient to induce nuclear-associated Ca2+ spiking and symbiotic gene expression in both wild-type plants and dmi2 mutants, but interestingly not in dmi1 mutants. Finally, MVA induced Ca2+ spiking in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells expressing DMI1. This demonstrates that the nuclear cation channel DMI1 is sufficient to support MVA-induced Ca2+ spiking in this heterologous system. PMID:26199419

  12. A role for the mevalonate pathway in early plant symbiotic signaling.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Chabaud, Mireille; Genre, Andrea; Balloon, Allison J; Maeda, Junko; Forshey, Kari; den Os, Désirée; Kwiecien, Nicholas W; Coon, Joshua J; Barker, David G; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2015-08-04

    Rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce signals that are perceived by host legume receptors at the plasma membrane and trigger sustained oscillations of the nuclear and perinuclear Ca(2+) concentration (Ca(2+) spiking), which in turn leads to gene expression and downstream symbiotic responses. The activation of Ca(2+) spiking requires the plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinase Does not Make Infections 2 (DMI2) as well as the nuclear cation channel DMI1. A key enzyme regulating the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl CoA Reductase 1 (HMGR1), interacts with DMI2 and is required for the legume-rhizobium symbiosis. Here, we show that HMGR1 is required to initiate Ca(2+) spiking and symbiotic gene expression in Medicago truncatula roots in response to rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal signals. Furthermore, MVA, the direct product of HMGR1 activity, is sufficient to induce nuclear-associated Ca(2+) spiking and symbiotic gene expression in both wild-type plants and dmi2 mutants, but interestingly not in dmi1 mutants. Finally, MVA induced Ca(2+) spiking in Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells expressing DMI1. This demonstrates that the nuclear cation channel DMI1 is sufficient to support MVA-induced Ca(2+) spiking in this heterologous system.

  13. The temporal characteristics of the early and late stages of the L- and M-cone pathways that signal color

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Daniela; Henning, G. Bruce; Stockman, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Flickering long-wavelength light appears more yellow than steady light of the same average intensity. The hue change is consistent with distortion of the visual signal at some nonlinear site (or sites) that produces temporal components not present in the original stimulus (known as distortion products). We extracted the temporal attenuation characteristics of the early (prenonlinearity) and late (post-nonlinearity) filter stages in the L- and M-cone chromatic pathway by varying the input stimulus to manipulate the distortion products and the measuring of the observers' sensitivity to them. The early, linear, filter stage acts like a band-pass filter peaking at 10–15 Hz with substantial sensitivity losses at both lower and higher frequencies. Its characteristics are consistent with nonlinearity being early in the visual pathway but following surround inhibition. The late stage, in contrast, acts like a low-pass filter with a cutoff frequency around 3 Hz. The response of the early stage speeds up with radiance, but the late stage does not. A plausible site for the nonlinearity, which modelling suggests may be smoothly compressive but with a hard limit at high input levels, is after surround inhibition from the horizontal cells. PMID:23457358

  14. Illuminating the early signaling pathway of a fungal light-oxygen-voltage photoreceptor.

    PubMed

    Peter, Emanuel; Dick, Bernhard; Baeurle, Stephan A

    2012-02-01

    Circadian clocks are molecular timekeepers encountered in a wide variety of organisms, which allow to adapt the cell's metabolism and behavior to the daily and seasonal periods. Their function is regulated by light-sensing proteins, among which Vivid, a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) sensitive domain of the fungus Neurospora crassa, constitutes one of the most prominent examples. Although the major photochemical and structural changes during the photocycle of this photosensor have been elucidated through experimental means, its signal transduction pathway is still poorly resolved at the molecular level. In this article, we show through molecular dynamics simulation that the primary steps after adduct formation involve a switch of Gln182 in vicinity of the chromophore FAD (flavin-adenine-dinucleotide), followed by a coupling between the Iβ- and Hβ-strands through H-bond formation between Gln182 and Asn161 as well as subsequent weakening of the H-bonding interaction between the Iβ- and Aβ-strands. These processes then induce a reorientation of the Aβ-Bβ-loop with respect to the protein core as well as a simultaneous contraction of the partially unfolded α-helix onto the α-Aβ-linker at the Ncap. Finally, we demonstrate through additional dimer simulations that the light-induced conformational changes, observed in the monomeric case, play a decisive role in controlling the dimerization tendency of Vivid with its partner domains and that the light-state homodimer shows a much larger affinity for aggregation than the dark state. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Early Intervention of Didang Decoction on MLCK Signaling Pathways in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenqiang; Li, Jing; Li, Chunshen

    2016-01-01

    In the study, type 2 diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin (STZ) combined with a high-fat diet, and the rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were further divided into nonintervening, simvastatin, Didang Decoction (DDD) early-phase intervening, DDD mid-phase intervening, and DDD late-phase intervening groups. The expression level of MLCK was detected using Western Blot analysis, and the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein kinase A (PKA) were examined using Real Time PCR. Under the electron microscope, the cells in the early-DDD-intervention group and the simvastatin group were significantly more continuous and compact than those in the diabetic group. Compared with the control group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was decreased in all diabetic groups, whereas the expression of MLCK and PKC was increased in early- and mid-phase DDD-intervening groups (P < 0.05); compared with the late-phase DDD-intervening group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was higher, but the level of MLCK and PKC was lower in early-phase DDD-intervening group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the early use of DDD improves the permeability of vascular endothelial cells by regulating the MLCK signaling pathway. PMID:27703477

  16. Developmental insights from early mammalian embryos and core signaling pathways that influence human pluripotent cell growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kevin G; Mallon, Barbara S; Johnson, Kory R; Hamilton, Rebecca S; McKay, Ronald D G; Robey, Pamela G

    2014-05-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have two potentially attractive applications: cell replacement-based therapies and drug discovery. Both require the efficient generation of large quantities of clinical-grade stem cells that are free from harmful genomic alterations. The currently employed colony-type culture methods often result in low cell yields, unavoidably heterogeneous cell populations, and substantial chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we shed light on the structural relationship between hPSC colonies/embryoid bodies and early-stage embryos in order to optimize current culture methods based on the insights from developmental biology. We further highlight core signaling pathways that underlie multiple epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), cellular heterogeneity, and chromosomal instability in hPSCs. We also analyze emerging methods such as non-colony type monolayer (NCM) and suspension culture, which provide alternative growth models for hPSC expansion and differentiation. Furthermore, based on the influence of cell-cell interactions and signaling pathways, we propose concepts, strategies, and solutions for production of clinical-grade hPSCs, stem cell precursors, and miniorganoids, which are pivotal steps needed for future clinical applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. [Curcumin alleviates early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats by inhibiting JNK/c-Jun signal pathway].

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Zhu, Ji

    2018-03-01

    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of curcumin on early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by inhibiting JNK/ c-Jun signal pathway. Methods Sixty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation group (sham group), SAH group, SAH group treated with 100 mg/(kg.d) curcumin and SAH group treated with 200 mg/(kg.d) curcumin, with 15 rats in each group. Endovascular puncture was used to induce SAH model. Nissl staining was used to test whether neurons were broken. TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of caspase-3. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expressions of p-JNK, JNK, p-c-Jun, c-Jun, and caspase-3. Results Nissl staining indicated the decrease of Nissl bodies in SAH group, but increase of Nissl bodies in SAH group treated with curcumin. TUNEL staining showed that there were more apoptotic neurons in SAH group compared with sham group, while apoptotic neurons decreased after the treatment with curcumin, more obviously in the group treated with 200 mg/(kg.d) curcumin. The expressions of p-JNK, JNK, p-c-Jun, c-Jun, and caspase-3 were up-regulated in SAH group compared with sham group. However, the expressions of those proteins were down-regulated after the treatment with curcumin, especially by higher-dose curcumin treatment. Conclusion Curcumin might suppress early brain injury after SAH by inhibiting JNK/c-Jun signal pathway and neuron apoptosis.

  18. Rutin-Mediated Priming of Plant Resistance to Three Bacterial Pathogens Initiating the Early SA Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yingzi; Li, Ming; Wang, Yong; Ding, Xinhua; Chu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and have many diverse functions, including UV protection, auxin transport inhibition, allelopathy, flower coloring and insect resistance. Here we show that rutin, a proud member of the flavonoid family, could be functional as an activator to improve plant disease resistances. Three plant species pretreated with 2 mM rutin were found to enhance resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 in rice, tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. While they were normally propagated on the cultural medium supplemented with 2 mM rutin for those pathogenic bacteria. The enhanced resistance was associated with primed expression of several pathogenesis-related genes. We also demonstrated that the rutin-mediated priming resistance was attenuated in npr1, eds1, eds5, pad4-1, ndr1 mutants, and NahG transgenic Arabidopsis plant, while not in either snc1-11, ein2-5 or jar1 mutants. We concluded that the rutin-priming defense signal was modulated by the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent pathway from an early stage upstream of NDR1 and EDS1. PMID:26751786

  19. Comparative gene expression analysis of Dtg, a novel target gene of Dpp signaling pathway in the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo.

    PubMed

    Hodar, Christian; Zuñiga, Alejandro; Pulgar, Rodrigo; Travisany, Dante; Chacon, Carlos; Pino, Michael; Maass, Alejandro; Cambiazo, Verónica

    2014-02-10

    In the early Drosophila melanogaster embryo, Dpp, a secreted molecule that belongs to the TGF-β superfamily of growth factors, activates a set of downstream genes to subdivide the dorsal region into amnioserosa and dorsal epidermis. Here, we examined the expression pattern and transcriptional regulation of Dtg, a new target gene of Dpp signaling pathway that is required for proper amnioserosa differentiation. We showed that the expression of Dtg was controlled by Dpp and characterized a 524-bp enhancer that mediated expression in the dorsal midline, as well as, in the differentiated amnioserosa in transgenic reporter embryos. This enhancer contained a highly conserved region of 48-bp in which bioinformatic predictions and in vitro assays identified three Mad binding motifs. Mutational analysis revealed that these three motifs were necessary for proper expression of a reporter gene in transgenic embryos, suggesting that short and highly conserved genomic sequences may be indicative of functional regulatory regions in D. melanogaster genes. Dtg orthologs were not detected in basal lineages of Dipterans, which unlike D. melanogaster develop two extra-embryonic membranes, amnion and serosa, nevertheless Dtg orthologs were identified in the transcriptome of Musca domestica, in which dorsal ectoderm patterning leads to the formation of a single extra-embryonic membrane. These results suggest that Dtg was recruited as a new component of the network that controls dorsal ectoderm patterning in the lineage leading to higher Cyclorrhaphan flies, such as D. melanogaster and M. domestica. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The CD147/MMP-2 signaling pathway may regulate early stage cardiac remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Bowei; Zhou, Wanxing; Yang, Xiaorong; Zhou, Yuliang; Tan, Yongjing; Yuan, Congcong; Song, Yulan; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported that decreased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is associated with early stage (age 8-16 weeks) ventricular remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We hypothesized that inhibited CD147/MMP-2 signalling might down-regulate MMP-2 expression and augment remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Twenty-nine male SHR (8 weeks) were randomly assigned to SHR, CD147, and CD147+DOX groups. The control group included eight age-matched WKY rats. CD147 and CD147+DOX groups received recombinant human CD147 (600 ng/kg in 1.5 mL saline, weekly). The SHR and WKY groups received the vehicle. The CD147+DOX group also received doxycycline, an inhibitor of MMPs (daily, 30 mg/kg in 1.5 mL saline, iG). On day 56 echocardiography and left ventricular mass index (LVWI) measurements were collected and histological sections were stained for cell and collagen content. Myocardium MMP-2, TIMP-1, CD147, and collagens types I and III were estimated by western blot. CD147 and the ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-1 were lower in SHR than WKY rats (P<.05). Myocyte hypertrophy, partial fibre breaks, plasmolysis, necrosis and collagen content (collagen volume fraction [CVF], I and III) in SHR were above control levels (P<.05). CD147 rats showed CD147, MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-1 were increased (P<.05), CVF, LVWI, and collagen I and III were decreased (P<.05) and myocyte morphology was improved. CD147 levels did not differ between CD147+DOX and CD147 groups, CVF, collagens type I and III and partial fiber breaks were more abundant in CD147+DOX (P<.05). In summary, an inhibited CD147/MMP-2 pathway was associated with early stage cardiac remodelling, and CD147 supplementation may attenuate this response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Gene expression profiling reveals different molecular patterns in G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathways between early- and late-onset preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mengmeng; Niu, Jianmin; Zhang, Liang; Deng, Hua; Ma, Jian; Zhou, Weiping; Duan, Dongmei; Zhou, Yuheng; Xu, Huikun; Chen, Longding

    2016-04-01

    Early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia have been regarded as two different phenotypes with heterogeneous manifestations; To gain insights into the pathogenesis of the two traits, we analyzed the gene expression profiles in preeclamptic placentas. A whole genome-wide microarray was used to determine the gene expression profiles in placental tissues from patients with early-onset (n = 7; <34 weeks), and late-onset (n = 8; >36 weeks) preeclampsia and their controls who delivered preterm (n = 5; <34 weeks) or at term (n = 5; >36 weeks). Genes were termed differentially expressed if they showed a fold-change ≥ 2 and q-value < 0.05. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to verify the results. Western blotting was performed to verify the expressions of secreted genes at the protein level. Six hundred twenty-seven genes were differentially expressed in early-compared with late-onset preeclampsia (177 genes were up-regulated and 450 were down-regulated). Gene ontology analysis identified significant alterations in several biological processes; the top two were immune response and cell surface receptor linked signal transduction. Among the cell surface receptor linked signal transduction-related, differentially expressed genes, those involved in the G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway were significantly enriched. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes, such as GPR124 and MRGPRF, were both found to be down-regulated in early-onset preeclampsia. The results were consistent with those of western blotting that the abundance of GPR124 was lower in early-onset compared with late-onset preeclampsia. The different gene expression profiles reflect the different levels of transcription regulation between the two conditions and supported the hypothesis that they are separate disease entities. Moreover, the G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway related genes may contribute to the mechanism underlying early

  2. Non-Smad signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yabing; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Landström, Maréne

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is a key regulator of cell fate during embryogenesis and has also emerged as a potent driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition during tumor progression. TGFβ signals are transduced by transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (TβRI and TβRII, respectively). The activated TβR complex phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3, converting them into transcriptional regulators that complex with Smad4. TGFβ also uses non-Smad signaling pathways such as the p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to convey its signals. Ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TGFβ-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) have recently been shown to be crucial for the activation of the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Other TGFβ-induced non-Smad signaling pathways include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway, the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, and the Ras-Erk-MAPK pathway. Signals induced by TGFβ are tightly regulated and specified by post-translational modifications of the signaling components, since they dictate the subcellular localization, activity, and duration of the signal. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the field of TGFβ-induced responses by non-Smad signaling pathways.

  3. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals aberrant MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways associated with early parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Enkemann, Steven A; Liang, Ping; Hersmus, Remko; Zanazzi, Claudia; Huang, Junjiu; Wu, Chao; Chen, Zhisheng; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian parthenogenesis could not survive but aborted during mid-gestation, presumably because of lack of paternal gene expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of parthenogenesis at early stages of development, we performed global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of parthenogenetic blastocysts in comparison with those of blastocysts from normally fertilized embryos. Parthenogenetic blastocysts exhibited changes in the expression of 749 genes, of which 214 had lower expression and 535 showed higher expressions than fertilized embryos using a minimal 1.8-fold change as a cutoff. Genes important for placenta development were decreased in their expression in parthenote blastocysts. Some maternally expressed genes were up-regulated and paternal-related genes were down-regulated. Moreover, aberrantly increased Wnt signaling and reduced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling were associated with early parthenogenesis. The protein level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) was low in parthenogenetic blastocysts compared with that of fertilized blastocysts 120 h after fertilization. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, a specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, significantly decreased embryo hatching. The expression of several imprinted genes was altered in parthenote blastocysts. Gene expression also linked reduced expression of Xist to activation of X chromosome. Our findings suggest that failed X inactivation, aberrant imprinting, decreased ERK/MAPK signaling and possibly elevated Wnt signaling, and reduced expression of genes for placental development collectively may contribute to abnormal placenta formation and failed fetal development in parthenogenetic embryos.

  4. The Drosophila imd signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Myllymäki, Henna; Valanne, Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2014-04-15

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has helped us to understand how innate immunity is activated. In addition to the Toll receptor and the Toll signaling pathway, the Drosophila immune response is regulated by another evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade, the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, which activates NF-κB. In fact, the Imd pathway controls the expression of most of the antimicrobial peptides in Drosophila; thus, it is indispensable for normal immunity in flies. In this article, we review the current literature on the Drosophila Imd pathway, with special emphasis on its role in the (patho)physiology of different organs. We discuss the systemic response, as well as local responses, in the epithelial and mucosal surfaces and the nervous system.

  5. Early storage lesions in apheresis platelets are induced by the activation of the integrin αIIbβ₃ and focal adhesion signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Thomas; Iuga, Cristina; Janetzky, Susann; Schwertz, Hansjorg; Gesell Salazar, Manuela; Fürll, Birgit; Völker, Uwe; Greinacher, Andreas; Steil, Leif

    2012-12-05

    Production and storage of platelet concentrates (PC) induce protein changes in platelets leading to impaired platelet function. This study aimed to identify signaling pathways involved in the development of early platelet storage lesions in apheresis-PCs stored in plasma or additive solution (PAS). Apheresis-PCs from four donors were stored in plasma or in PAS at 22°C (n=4 each). Platelets were analyzed at day 0 (production day) and after 1, 6 and 9 days of storage. Platelet response to agonists (TRAP, collagen, ADP) and to hypotonic shock decreased, CD62P expression increased in both storage media over time. Using DIGE 1550 protein spots were monitored and compared to baseline values at day 0. Platelets in plasma displayed changes in 352 spots (166/day 1, 263/day 6 and 201/day 9); in PAS 325 spots changed (202/day 1, 221/day 6, 200/day 9). LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of 405 platelet proteins revealed 32 proteins changed during storage in plasma (9/day 1, 15/day 6 and 26/day 9) and 28 in PAS (5/day 1, 20/day 6, 26/day 9). Ingenuity pathway analysis found integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling pathways involved in early alterations, being confirmed by Western blotting. Corresponding mRNAs in platelets were identified by next generation sequencing for 84 changed proteins. Integrin-αII(b)β(3) and focal adhesion signaling cause irreversible early storage lesions in apheresis platelets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Integrated omics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hedgehog signaling pathway in neuroblastoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Souzaki, Ryota; Tajiri, Tatsuro; Souzaki, Masae; Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Sakura; Kohashi, Kenichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Katano, Mitsuo; Taguchi, Tomoaki

    2010-12-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is activated in some adult cancers. On the other hand, the Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of the neural crest in embryos. The aim of this study is to show the activation of Hh signaling pathway in neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric malignancy arising from neural crest cells, and to reveal the meaning of the Hh signaling pathway in NB development. This study analyzed the expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), GLI1, and Patched 1 (Ptch1), transactivators of Hh signaling pathway, by immunohistochemistry in 82 NB and 10 ganglioneuroblastoma cases. All 92 cases were evaluated for the status of MYCN amplification. Of the 92 cases, 67 (73%) were positive for Shh, 62 cases (67%) were positive for GLI1, and 73 cases (79%) were positive for Ptch1. Only 2 (10%) of the 20 cases with MYCN amplification were positive for Shh and GLI1, and 4 cases (20%) were positive for Ptch1 (MYCN amplification vs no MYCN amplification, P ≦ .01). The percentage of GLI1-positive cells in the cases with INSS stage 1 without MYCN amplification was significantly higher than that with INSS stage 4. Of 72 cases without MYCN amplification, 60 were GLI1-positive. Twelve cases were GLI1-negative, and the prognosis of the GLI1-positive cases was significantly better than that of the GLI1-negative cases (P = .015). Most of NBs without MYCN amplification were positive for Shh, GLI1, and Ptch1. In the cases without MYCN amplification, the high expression of GLI1 was significantly associated with early clinical stage and a good prognosis of the patients. In contrast to adult cancers, the activation of the Hh signaling pathway in NB may be associated with the differentiation of the NB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacology of intracellular signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nahorski, Stefan R

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief and somewhat personalized review of the dramatic developments that have occurred over the last 45 years in our understanding of intracellular signalling pathways associated with G-protein-coupled receptor activation. Signalling via cyclic AMP, the phosphoinositides and Ca2+ is emphasized and these systems have already been revealed as new pharmacological targets. The therapeutic benefits of most of such targets are, however, yet to be realized, but it is certain that the discipline of pharmacology needs to widen its boundaries to meet these challenges in the future. PMID:16402119

  8. Huntington disease iPSCs show early molecular changes in intracellular signaling, the expression of oxidative stress proteins and the p53 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Szlachcic, Wojciech J.; Switonski, Pawel M.; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J.; Figlerowicz, Marek; Figiel, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Huntington disease (HD) is a brain disorder characterized by the late onset of motor and cognitive symptoms, even though the neurons in the brain begin to suffer dysfunction and degeneration long before symptoms appear. There is currently no cure. Several molecular and developmental effects of HD have been identified using neural stem cells (NSCs) and differentiated cells, such as neurons and astrocytes. Still, little is known regarding the molecular pathogenesis of HD in pluripotent cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Therefore, we examined putative signaling pathways and processes involved in HD pathogenesis in pluripotent cells. We tested naïve mouse HD YAC128 iPSCs and two types of human HD iPSC that were generated from HD and juvenile-HD patients. Surprisingly, we found that a number of changes affecting cellular processes in HD were also present in undifferentiated pluripotent HD iPSCs, including the dysregulation of the MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways and the dysregulation of the expression of genes related to oxidative stress, such as Sod1. Interestingly, a common protein interactor of the huntingtin protein and the proteins in the above pathways is p53, and the expression of p53 was dysregulated in HD YAC128 iPSCs and human HD iPSCs. In summary, our findings demonstrate that multiple molecular pathways that are characteristically dysregulated in HD are already altered in undifferentiated pluripotent cells and that the pathogenesis of HD might begin during the early stages of life. PMID:26092128

  9. Molecular Steps in the Immune Signaling Pathway Evoked by Plant Elicitor Peptides: Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinases, Nitric Oxide, and Reactive Oxygen Species Are Downstream from the Early Ca2+ Signal1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Zhao, Yichen; Walker, Robin K.; Berkowitz, Gerald A.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous plant elicitor peptides (Peps) can act to facilitate immune signaling and pathogen defense responses. Binding of these peptides to the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plasma membrane-localized Pep receptors (PEPRs) leads to cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, an early event in a signaling cascade that activates immune responses. This immune response includes the amplification of signaling evoked by direct perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by plant cells under assault. Work included in this report further characterizes the Pep immune response and identifies new molecular steps in the signal transduction cascade. The PEPR coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 Associated Kinase1 contributes to generation of the Pep-activated Ca2+ signal and leads to increased defense gene expression and resistance to a virulent bacterial pathogen. Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) decode the Ca2+ signal, also facilitating defense gene expression and enhanced resistance to the pathogen. Nitric oxide and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species generation (due to the function of Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homolog proteins D and F) are also involved downstream from the Ca2+ signal in the Pep immune defense signal transduction cascade, as is the case with BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE1 Associated Kinase1 and CPK5, CPK6, and CPK11. These steps of the pathogen defense response are required for maximal Pep immune activation that limits growth of a virulent bacterial pathogen in the plant. We find a synergism between function of the PEPR and Flagellin Sensing2 receptors in terms of both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation. Presented results are also consistent with the involvement of the secondary messenger cyclic GMP and a cyclic GMP-activated Ca2+-conducting channel in the Pep immune signaling pathway. PMID:24019427

  10. Honey bee foraging induces upregulation of early growth response protein 1, hormone receptor 38 and candidate downstream genes of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Singh, A S; Shah, A; Brockmann, A

    2018-02-01

    In honey bees, continuous foraging at an artificial feeder induced a sustained upregulation of the immediate early genes early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) and hormone receptor 38 (Hr38). This gene expression response was accompanied by an upregulation of several Egr-1 candidate downstream genes: ecdysone receptor (EcR), dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR), dopamine decarboxylase and dopamine receptor 2. Hr38, EcR and DopEcR are components of the ecdysteroid signalling pathway, which is highly probably involved in learning and memory processes in honey bees and other insects. Time-trained foragers still showed an upregulation of Egr-1 when the feeder was presented at an earlier time of the day, suggesting that the genomic response is more dependent on the food reward than training time. However, presentation of the feeder at the training time without food was still capable of inducing a transient increase in Egr-1 expression. Thus, learnt feeder cues, or even training time, probably affect Egr-1 expression. In contrast, whole brain Egr-1 expression changes did not differ between dancing and nondancing foragers. On the basis of our results we propose that food reward induced continuous foraging ultimately elicits a genomic response involving Egr-1 and Hr38 and their downstream genes. Furthermore this genomic response is highly probably involved in foraging-related learning and memory responses. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. RADAR study: protocol for an observational cohort study to identify early warning signals on the pathways to alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Slade, Tim; Swift, Wendy; Mewton, Louise; Kypri, Kypros; Lynskey, Michael T; Butterworth, Peter; Tibbetts, Joel; McCraw, Stacey; Upton, Emily

    2017-08-21

    Harmful alcohol consumption, particularly alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a worldwide health priority, contributing substantially to global morbidity and mortality. The peak age of onset of AUD is 18-24, thus a deeper understanding of the young adult experience is vital if we are to identify modifiable risk factors and intervene early in the developmental course of this disabling disorder. Critical unanswered questions include: How soon after drinking initiation do AUD symptoms begin to emerge? Which symptoms come first? Do the symptoms unfold in a predictable pattern? In what ways do the emerging symptoms interact with individual, peer, family and environmental risk factors to impact on the transition to disorder? The proposed RADAR study will examine the prospective development of AUD symptoms over the young adulthood (18-24) years. We will capitalise on an existing cohort of 1911 community-based adolescents who were recruited at age 13 and have completed a baseline and five annual follow-up assessments as part of an observational cohort study. We will interview these adolescents every 6 months between the ages of 19 and 23 to derive monthly histories of both alcohol use and AUD symptomatology, along with a comprehensive battery of risk and protective factor scales hypothesised to predict the emergence and course of AUD. The results of this study will inform the natural history of AUD and will be used to identify specific targets for prevention and early intervention of AUD. Ethical approval has already been granted for the study (UNSW HREC 10144). We will disseminate the results of the study through published manuscripts, conferences and seminar presentations. Data used in published manuscripts will be made available through a suitable online repository (eg, Dryad-datadryad.org). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  12. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on the hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in early intrauterine growth-restricted rats

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kaiju; Chen, Pingyang; Li, Suping; Li, Wen; He, Mingfeng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Juncao

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway and gluconeogenic enzymes in intrauterine growth-restricted rats to dietary L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation during the lactation period early in life. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (CON), an intrauterine growth restriction group (IUGR) and an L-Arg group (LA). The pregnant rats in the CON group were fed a 21% protein diet, and those in the IUGR and LA groups were fed a 10% low protein diet, and all rats were fed a 21% protein diet after delivery. Water was available ad libitum to the pregnant rats during the 21-day lactation period, and the water provided to the LA group included 200 mg/kg/day L-Arg. Blood glucose, serum insulin, homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB) protein expression, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) mRNA expression in the offspring rats were measured postnatally at 1, 3 and 8 weeks. No significant difference in blood glucose, serum insulin and HOMA-IR were identified at any time point among the three groups. PI3K and PKB expression was lower in the IUGR group offspring compared with that in the CON group offspring, but both were increased by dietary L-Arg supplementation. PEPCK mRNA and G-6-Pase mRNA expression levels in the offspring of the IUGR group were higher compared with those in the CON group but were downregulated following L-Arg supplementation. These results suggest that dietary L-Arg supplementation during the early lactation period promoted catch-up growth and reversed abnormalities in hepatic insulin signaling and gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in IUGR offspring rats. PMID:28962167

  13. Role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological function after early ischemic stroke in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Zhi; Wang, Chun; Wang, Qian; Lin, Yong-Zhong; Ge, Yu-Song; Li, Dong-Mei; Mao, Geng-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to explore the role of fractalkine/CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway in the recovery of neurological functioning after an early ischemic stroke in rats. After establishment of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) models, 50 rats were divided into blank, sham, model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Neurological impairment, walking and grip abilities, and cortical and hippocampal infarctions were evaluated by Zea Longa scoring criterion, beam-walking assay and grip strength test, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect mRNA and protein expressions. ELISA was conducted to measure concentration of sFractalkine (sFkn), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and TNF-α. The recovery rate of neurological functioning impairment and reduced walking and grip abilities was faster in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups than the model group. The model, positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups showed increased mRNA and protein expression of chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (CX3CL1) and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions while decreased expression of NGF and BDNF compared with the blank and sham groups. Compared with the model group, the mRNA and protein expression of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1, concentration of sFkn, IL-1β and TNF-α, and size of cortical and cerebral infarctions decreased while expression of NGF and BDNF increased in the positive control and CX3CR1 inhibitor groups. Thus, the study suggests that inhibition of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway promotes the recovery of neurological functioning after the occurrence of an early ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway in autism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinghua; Yuan, Xiangshan; Wang, Zhongping; Li, Ruixi

    2014-01-01

    Mounting attention is being focused on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism in some our and other recent studies. The canonical Wnt pathway is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration, especially during nervous system development. Given its various functions, dysfunction of the canonical Wnt pathway may exert adverse effects on neurodevelopment and therefore leads to the pathogenesis of autism. Here, we review human and animal studies that implicate the canonical Wnt signal transduction pathway in the pathogenesis of autism. We also describe the crosstalk between the canonical Wnt pathway and the Notch signaling pathway in several types of autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger syndrome and Fragile X. Further research on the crosstalk between the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and other signaling cascades in autism may be an efficient avenue to understand the etiology of autism and ultimately lead to alternative medications for autism-like phenotypes.

  15. Decoding resistant hypertension signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Ricardo Cambraia; Lacerda, Leandro Heleno Guimarães; Vasconcellos, Rebecca; Lima, Swiany Silveira; Santos, Anderson Kenedy; Fontana, Vanessa; Sandrim, Valéria Cristina; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2017-12-01

    Resistant hypertension (RH) is a clinical condition in which the hypertensive patient has become resistant to drug therapy and is often associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several signalling pathways have been studied and related to the development and progression of RH: modulation of sympathetic activity by leptin and aldosterone, primary aldosteronism, arterial stiffness, endothelial dysfunction and variations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). miRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that participate in the regulation of gene expression at post-transcriptional level. miRNAs are involved in the development of both cardiovascular damage and hypertension. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms that lead to development and progression of this condition. This review aims to cover the potential roles of miRNAs in the mechanisms associated with the development and consequences of RH, and explore the current state of the art of diagnostic and therapeutic tools based on miRNA approaches. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Reprogramming of a defense signaling pathway in rough lemon and sweet orange is a critical element of the early response to ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qibin; Chen, Chunxian; Du, Dongliang; Huang, Ming; Yao, Jiqiang; Yu, Fahong; Brlansky, Ronald H; Gmitter, Frederick G.

    2017-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus infected by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) has caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry. No resistant genotypes have been identified in citrus species or close relatives. Among citrus varieties, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) has been considered tolerant due to its ability to produce a healthy flush of new growth after infection. The difference between tolerance and susceptibility is often defined by the speed and intensity of a plant’s response to a pathogen, especially early defense responses. RNA-seq data were collected from three biological replicates of CLas- and mock-inoculated rough lemon and sweet orange at week 0 and 7 following infection. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that genes involved in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were highly upregulated in rough lemon. MAPK induces the transcription of WRKY and other transcription factors which potentially turn on multiple defense-related genes. A Subnetwork Enrichment Analysis further revealed different patterns of regulation of several functional categories, suggesting DEGs with different functions were subjected to reprogramming. In general, the amplitude of the expression of defense-related genes is much greater in rough lemon than in sweet orange. A quantitative disease resistance response may contribute to the durable tolerance level to HLB observed in rough lemon. PMID:29214028

  17. Modularized Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Minli; Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-12-01

    The transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. TGFβ signaling can be induced by several factors including ionizing radiation. The pathway is regulated in a negative feedback loop through promoting the nuclear import of the regulatory Smads and a subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad7, that forms ubiquitin ligase with Smurf2, targeting active TGFβ receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the Smad-regulated TGFβ signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze mathematically each component subsystem and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, in the TGFβ signaling pathway is discussed and supported as well by numerical simulation, indicating the robustness of the model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. A Transgenerational Endocrine Signaling Pathway in Crustacea

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Wang, Ying H.; Holmes, Charisse N.; Kwon, Gwijun; Medlock, Elizabeth K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Environmental signals to maternal organisms can result in developmental alterations in progeny. One such example is environmental sex determination in Branchiopod crustaceans. We previously demonstrated that the hormone methyl farnesoate could orchestrate environmental sex determination in the early embryo to the male phenotype. Presently, we identify a transcription factor that is activated by methyl farnesoate and explore the extent and significance of this transgenerational signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Several candidate transcription factors were cloned from the water flea Daphnia pulex and evaluated for activation by methyl farnesoate. One of the factors evaluated, the complex of two bHLH-PAS proteins, dappuMet and SRC, activated a reporter gene in response to methyl farnesoate. Several juvenoid compounds were definitively evaluated for their ability to activate this receptor complex (methyl farnesoate receptor, MfR) in vitro and stimulate male sex determination in vivo. Potency to activate the MfR correlated to potency to stimulate male sex determination of offspring (pyriproxyfen>methyl farnesoate>methoprene, kinoprene). Daphnids were exposed to concentrations of pyriproxyfen and physiologic responses determined over multiple generations. Survivial, growth, and sex of maternal organisms were not affected by pyriproxyfen exposure. Sex ratio among offspring (generation 2) were increasingly skewed in favor of males with increasing pyriproxyfen concentration; while, the number of offspring per brood was progressively reduced. Female generation 2 daphnids were reared to reproductive maturity in the absence of pyriproxyfen. Sex ratios of offspring (generation 3) were not affected in this pyriproxyfen lineage, however, the number of offspring per brood, again, was significantly reduced. Conclusions Results reveal likely components to a hormone/receptor signaling pathway in a crustacean that orchestrates transgenerational modifications

  19. Cell Signaling Pathways that Regulate Ag Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Brutkiewicz, Randy R.

    2016-01-01

    Cell signaling pathways regulate much in the life of a cell: from shuttling cargo through intracellular compartments and onto the cell surface, how it should respond to stress, protecting itself from harm (environmental insults or infections), to ultimately, death by apoptosis. These signaling pathways are important for various aspects of the immune response as well. However, not much is known in terms of the participation of cell signaling pathways in Ag presentation--a necessary first step in the activation of innate and adaptive T cells. In this brief review, I will discuss the known signaling molecules (and pathways) that regulate how Ags are presented to T cells and the mechanism(s) if identified. Studies in this area have important implications in vaccine development and new treatment paradigms against infectious diseases, autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:27824592

  20. Modularized TGFbeta-Smad Signaling Pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, M.; Carra, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a prominent regulatory signaling pathway controlling various important cellular processes. It can be induced by several factors, including ionizing radiation. It is regulated by Smads in a negative feedback loop through promoting increases in the regulatory Smads in the cell nucleus, and subsequent expression of inhibitory Smad, Smad7 to form a ubiquitin ligase with Smurf targeting active TGF receptors for degradation. In this work, we proposed a mathematical model to study the radiation-induced Smad-regulated TGF signaling pathway. By modularization, we are able to analyze each module (subsystem) and recover the nonlinear dynamics of the entire network system. Meanwhile the excitability, a common feature observed in the biological systems, along the TGF signaling pathway is discussed by mathematical analysis and numerical simulation.

  1. Ral signaling pathway in health and cancer.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Patrad, Elham; Tafsiri, Elham; Peng, Warner; Fangman, Benjamin; Pluard, Timothy J; Accurso, Anthony; Salacz, Michael; Shah, Kushal; Ricke, Brandon; Bi, Danse; Kimura, Kyle; Graves, Leland; Najad, Marzieh Khajoie; Dolatkhah, Roya; Sanaat, Zohreh; Yazdi, Mina; Tavakolinia, Naeimeh; Mazani, Mohammad; Amani, Mojtaba; Ghavami, Saeid; Gartell, Robyn; Reilly, Colleen; Naima, Zaid; Esfandyari, Tuba; Farassati, Faris

    2017-12-01

    The Ral (Ras-Like) signaling pathway plays an important role in the biology of cells. A plethora of effects is regulated by this signaling pathway and its prooncogenic effectors. Our team has demonstrated the overactivation of the RalA signaling pathway in a number of human malignancies including cancers of the liver, ovary, lung, brain, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Additionally, we have shown that the activation of RalA in cancer stem cells is higher in comparison with differentiated cancer cells. In this article, we review the role of Ral signaling in health and disease with a focus on the role of this multifunctional protein in the generation of therapies for cancer. An improved understanding of this pathway can lead to development of a novel class of anticancer therapies that functions on the basis of intervention with RalA or its downstream effectors. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Premetazoan origin of the Hippo signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sebé-Pedrós, Arnau; Zheng, Yonggang; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Pan, Duojia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Non-aggregative multicellularity requires strict control of cell number. The Hippo signaling pathway coordinates cell proliferation and apoptosis and is a central regulator of organ size in animals. Recent studies have shown the presence of key members of the Hippo pathway in non-bilaterian animals, but failed to identify this pathway outside Metazoa. Through comparative analyses of recently sequenced holozoan genomes, we show that Hippo pathway components, such as the kinases Hippo and Warts, the co-activator Yorkie and the transcription factor Scalloped, were already present in the unicellular ancestors of animals. Remarkably, functional analysis of Hippo components of the amoeboid holozoan Capsaspora owczarzaki, performed in Drosophila, demonstrate that the growth-regulatory activity of the Hippo pathway is conserved in this unicellular lineage. Our findings show that the Hippo pathway evolved well before the origin of Metazoa and highlight the importance of Hippo signaling as a key developmental mechanism pre-dating the origin of Metazoa. PMID:22832104

  3. Effect of Angiotensin II and Small GTPase Ras Signaling Pathway Inhibition on Early Renal Changes in a Murine Model of Obstructive Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B.; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G.; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T.; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis. PMID:25101263

  4. Effect of angiotensin II and small GTPase Ras signaling pathway inhibition on early renal changes in a murine model of obstructive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Docherty, Neil G; Arévalo, Miguel; Grande, María T; Eleno, Nélida; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; López-Novoa, José M

    2014-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a major feature of chronic kidney disease. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in rodents leads to the development of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis consistent with histopathological changes observed in advanced chronic kidney disease in humans. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inhibiting angiotensin II receptors or Ras activation on early renal fibrotic changes induced by UUO. Animals either received angiotensin II or underwent UUO. UUO animals received either losartan, atorvastatin, and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832, or chaetomellic acid A (ChA). Levels of activated Ras, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-Akt, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were subsequently quantified in renal tissue by ELISA, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that administration of angiotensin II induces activation of the small GTPase Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system, suggesting an involvement of angiotensin II in the early obstruction-induced activation of renal Ras. Furthermore, upstream inhibition of Ras signalling by blocking either angiotensin AT1 type receptor or by inhibiting Ras prenylation (atorvastatin, FTI o ChA) reduced the activation of the Ras/Erk/Akt signaling system and decreased the early fibrotic response in the obstructed kidney. This study points out that pharmacological inhibition of Ras activation may hold promise as a future strategy in the prevention of renal fibrosis.

  5. Controversies in cancer stem cells: targeting embryonic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Takebe, Naoko; Ivy, S Percy

    2010-06-15

    Selectively targeting cancer stem cells (CSC) or tumor-initiating cells (TIC; from this point onward referred to as CSCs) with novel agents is a rapidly emerging field of oncology. Our knowledge of CSCs and their niche microenvironments remains a nascent field. CSC's critical dependence upon self-renewal makes these regulatory signaling pathways ripe for the development of experimental therapeutic agents. Investigational agents targeting the Notch, Hedgehog, and Wnt pathways are currently in late preclinical development stages, with some early phase 1-2 testing in human subjects. This series of articles will provide an overview and summary of the current state of knowledge of CSCs, their interactive microenvironment, and how they may serve as important targets for antitumor therapies. We also examine the scope and stage of development of early experimental agents that specifically target these highly conserved embryonic signaling pathways. (c) 2010 AACR.

  6. Clinical implications of hedgehog signaling pathway inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hailan; Gu, Dongsheng; Xie, Jingwu

    2011-01-01

    Hedgehog was first described in Drosophila melanogaster by the Nobel laureates Eric Wieschaus and Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard. The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is a major regulator of cell differentiation, proliferation, tissue polarity, stem cell maintenance, and Carcinogenesis. The first link of Hh signaling to cancer was established through studies of a rare familial disease, Gorlin syndrome, in 1996. Follow-up studies revealed activation of this pathway in basal cell carcinoma, medulloblastoma and, leukemia as well as in gastrointestinal, lung, ovarian, breast, and prostate cancer. Targeted inhibition of Hh signaling is now believed to be effective in the treatment and prevention of human cancer. The discovery and synthesis of specific inhibitors for this pathway are even more exciting. In this review, we summarize major advances in the understanding of Hh signaling pathway activation in human cancer, mouse models for studying Hh-mediated Carcinogenesis, the roles of Hh signaling in tumor development and metastasis, antagonists for Hh signaling and their clinical implications. PMID:21192841

  7. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25772309

  8. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Developmental Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Key Markers of mTORC1-Dependent and mTORC1-Independent Signaling Pathways Regulating Protein Synthesis in Rat Soleus Muscle During Early Stages of Hindlimb Unloading.

    PubMed

    Mirzoev, Timur; Tyganov, Sergey; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Lomonosova, Yulia; Shenkman, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the amount of rRNA and phosphorylation status of the key markers of mTORC1-dependent (70s6k, 4E-BP1) and mTORC1-independent (GSK-3β, AMPK) signaling pathways controlling protein synthesis in rat soleus during early stages of mechanical unloading (hindlimb suspension (HS) for 1-, 3- and 7 days). The content of the key signaling molecules of various anabolic signaling pathways was determined by Western-blotting. The amount of 28S rRNA was evaluated by RT-PCR. The rate of protein synthesis was assessed using in-vivo SUnSET technique. HS for 3 and 7 days induced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the rate of global protein synthesis in soleus muscle in comparison with control. HS within 24 hours resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in p-4E-BP1 content, p-AMPK content and increase in p-p70s6k content in rat soleus muscle. Following three days of HS the content of p-AKT was decreased (p<0.05). After 7 days of HS the phosphorylation level of AKT and GSK-3beta was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to control. We also observed a significant decrease in the amount of 28S rRNA in rat soleus following 1, 3 and 7 days of HS. Taken together, the results of our study suggest that a decline in the global rate of protein synthesis in rat soleus during early stages of simulated microgravity is associated with impaired ribosome biogenesis as well as reduced activity of mTORC1-independent signaling pathways. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Alpha-Tocopherol prevents esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by modulating PPARγ-Akt signaling pathway at the early stage of carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiannan; Lu, Ping; Feng, Yongquan; Geng, Xue; Zhang, Lishi; Jia, Xudong

    2017-01-01

    The poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) emphasizes the urgent need to better understand the carcinogenesis and develop prevention strategies. Previous studies have highlighted the potential of using Vitamin E (tocopherols) for cancer chemoprevention, but the preventive activity of α-Tocopherol against ESCC remains to be elucidated. Our data showed that early-stage supplementation with α-Tocopherol significantly prevented esophageal carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) in ESCC rat model. In the Het-1A cell model, α-Tocopherol markedly suppressed cell proliferation, promoted cell cycle G2-phase arrest and increased apoptosis. Gene microarray and proteins array analysis indicated that Akt signaling was a potential target for α-Tocopherol. We further demonstrated that α-Tocopherol increased the expression of PPARγ and its downstream tumor suppressor PTEN. Knockdown of PPARγ activated Akt signaling transduction, whereas this process was attenuated by the presence of α-Tocopherol and PPARγ agonist Rosiglitazone. In contrast, the effect of α-Tocopherol on Akt inhibition was not observed in established tumors, neither in cancerous cell lines which constitutively expressed higher levels of PPARγ. These results were closely correlated with the ineffectiveness of α-Tocopherol in the late stage of ESCC carcinogenesis. Taken together, our study suggested that α-Tocopherol may serve as a PPARγ agonist for the chemoprevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:29221176

  11. Signaling Pathways in Cardiac Myocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Peng; Liu, Yuening

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, the number 1 cause of death worldwide, are frequently associated with apoptotic death of cardiac myocytes. Since cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a highly regulated process, pharmacological intervention of apoptosis pathways may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders including myocardial infarction, ischemia/reperfusion injury, chemotherapy cardiotoxicity, and end-stage heart failure. Despite rapid growth of our knowledge in apoptosis signaling pathways, a clinically applicable treatment targeting this cellular process is currently unavailable. To help identify potential innovative directions for future research, it is necessary to have a full understanding of the apoptotic pathways currently known to be functional in cardiac myocytes. Here, we summarize recent progress in the regulation of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by multiple signaling molecules and pathways, with a focus on the involvement of these pathways in the pathogenesis of heart disease. In addition, we provide an update regarding bench to bedside translation of this knowledge and discuss unanswered questions that need further investigation. PMID:28101515

  12. Wnt signalling pathway parameters for mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chin Wee; Gardiner, Bruce S; Hirokawa, Yumiko; Layton, Meredith J; Smith, David W; Burgess, Antony W

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates cell fate, survival, proliferation and differentiation at many stages of mammalian development and pathology. Mutations of two key proteins in the pathway, APC and β-catenin, have been implicated in a range of cancers, including colorectal cancer. Activation of Wnt signalling has been associated with the stabilization and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and consequential up-regulation of β-catenin/TCF gene transcription. In 2003, Lee et al. constructed a computational model of Wnt signalling supported by experimental data from analysis of time-dependent concentration of Wnt signalling proteins in Xenopus egg extracts. Subsequent studies have used the Xenopus quantitative data to infer Wnt pathway dynamics in other systems. As a basis for understanding Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, a confocal live cell imaging measurement technique is developed to measure the cell and nuclear volumes of MDCK, HEK293T cells and 3 human colorectal cancer cell lines and the concentrations of Wnt signalling proteins β-catenin, Axin, APC, GSK3β and E-cadherin. These parameters provide the basis for formulating Wnt signalling models for kidney/intestinal epithelial mammalian cells. There are significant differences in concentrations of key proteins between Xenopus extracts and mammalian whole cell lysates. Higher concentrations of Axin and lower concentrations of APC are present in mammalian cells. Axin concentrations are greater than APC in kidney epithelial cells, whereas in intestinal epithelial cells the APC concentration is higher than Axin. Computational simulations based on Lee's model, with this new data, suggest a need for a recalibration of the model.A quantitative understanding of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells, in particular human colorectal cancers requires a detailed understanding of the concentrations of key protein complexes over time. Simulations of Wnt signalling in mammalian cells can be initiated with the parameters

  13. Opening up of plasmalemma type-1 VDAC to form apoptotic "find me signal" pathways is essential in early apoptosis - evidence from the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis resulting from failure of apoptotic cell clearance followed by sterile inflammation.

    PubMed

    Thinnes, Friedrich P

    2014-04-01

    Cell membrane-standing type-1 VDAC is involved in cell volume regulation and thus apoptosis. The channel has been shown to figure as a pathway for osmolytes of varying classes, ATP included. An early event in apoptotic cell death is the release of "find me signals" by cells that enter the apoptotic process. ATP is one of those signals. Apoptotic cells this way attract phagocytes for an immunologically silent cell clearance. Thus, whenever apoptosis fails by a blockade of plasmalemma type-1 VDAC processes of sterile inflammation must be assumed for cell elimination. This is evident from a close look on the pathogenetic process of cystic fibrosis (CF). However, in normal airway epithelia two different anion channels cooperate to guarantee an appropriate volume of airway surface liquid (ASL) necessary for surface clearing: the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator (CFTR) and the outwardly rectifying chloride channel (ORCC) complex also called "alternate chloride channel" and under the control of the CFTR. There are arguments, that type-1 VDAC forms the channel part of the ORCC complex, and it has been shown that CFTR and type-1 VDAC co-localize in the apical membranes of human surface respiratory epithelium. In cystic fibrosis, the central cAMP-dependent regulation of ion and water transport via functional CFTR is lost. Here, CFTR molecules do not reach the apical membranes of airway epithelia anymore or work in an insufficient way, respectively. In addition, type-1 VDAC is no longer available to work as a "find me signal" pathway. In consequence, clearing away of apoptotic cells is blocked. There are experimental data on the channel characteristics of type-1 VDAC under the anion channel blocker DIDS (4,4-diisothiocyanato-stilbenedisulphonic acid) that argue in favor of this hypothesis. Together, type-1 VDAC should be kept as a "find me signal" pathway, which may give way to several classes of such signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Metformin targets multiple signaling pathways in cancer.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yong; Yi, Yanhua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xia; Keller, Evan T; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Yi

    2017-01-26

    Metformin, an inexpensive and well-tolerated oral agent commonly used in the first-line treatment of type 2 diabetes, has become the focus of intense research as a candidate anticancer agent. Here, we discuss the potential of metformin in cancer therapeutics, particularly its functions in multiple signaling pathways, including AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, insulin-like growth factor, c-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, and nuclear factor kappaB pathways. In addition, cutting-edge targeting of cancer stem cells by metformin is summarized.

  15. The ethylene signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Using a simple response of etiolated seedlings to ethylene as a genetic screen, genes involved in ethylene signal transduction have been identified in Arabidopsis. Analysis of two of these genes that have been cloned reveals that ethylene signalling involves a combination of a protein (ETR1) with similarity to bacterial histidine kinases and a protein (CTR1) with similarity to Raf-1, a protein kinase involved in multiple signalling cascades in eukaryotic cells. Several lines of investigation provide compelling evidence that ETR1 encodes an ethylene receptor. For the first time there is a glimpse of the molecular circuitry underlying the signal transduction pathway for a plant hormone.

  16. Obesity-Induced Hypertension: Brain Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alexandre A.; Wang, Zhen; Fang, Taolin; Aberdein, Nicola; de Lara Rodriguez, Cecilia E. P.; Hall, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity greatly increases the risk for cardiovascular, metabolic, and renal diseases and is one of the most significant and preventable causes of increased blood pressure (BP) in patients with essential hypertension. This review high-lights recent advances in our understanding of central nervous system (CNS) signaling pathways that contribute to the etiology and pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension. We discuss the role of excess adiposity and activation of the brain leptin-melanocortin system in causing increased sympathetic activity in obesity. In addition, we highlight other potential brain mechanisms by which increased weight gain modulates metabolic and cardiovascular functions. Unraveling the CNS mechanisms responsible for increased sympathetic activation and hypertension and how circulating hormones activate brain signaling pathways to control BP offer potentially important therapeutic targets for obesity and hypertension. PMID:27262997

  17. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  19. Comparative Study of Early Cold-Regulated Proteins by Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis Reveals a Key Role for Phospholipase Dα1 in Mediating Cold Acclimation Signaling Pathway in Rice.

    PubMed

    Huo, Chenmin; Zhang, Baowen; Wang, Hui; Wang, Fawei; Liu, Meng; Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Wenhua; Deng, Zhiping; Sun, Daye; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-04-01

    To understand the early signaling steps that regulate cold responses in rice, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE)(1)was used to study early cold-regulated proteins in rice seedlings. Using mass spectrometry, 32 spots, which represent 26 unique proteins that showed an altered expression level within 5 min of cold treatment were identified. Among these proteins, Western blot analyses confirmed that the cellular phospholipase D α1 (OsPLDα1) protein level was increased as early as 1 min after cold treatment. Genetic studies showed that reducing the expression ofOsPLDα1makes rice plants more sensitive to chilling stress as well as cold acclimation increased freezing tolerance. Correspondingly, cold-regulated proteomic changes and the expression of the cold-responsive C repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding 1 (OsDREB1) family of transcription factors were inhibited in thepldα1mutant. We also found that the expression ofOsPLDα1is directly regulated by OsDREB1A. This transcriptional regulation ofOsPLDα1could provide positive feedback regulation of the cold signal transduction pathway in rice. OsPLDα1 hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to produce the signal molecule phosphatidic acid (PA). By lipid-overlay assay, we demonstrated that the rice cold signaling proteins, MAP kinase 6 (OsMPK6) and OsSIZ1, bind directly to PA. Taken together, our results suggest that OsPLDα1 plays a key role in transducing cold signaling in rice by producing PA and regulatingOsDREB1s' expression by OsMPK6, OsSIZ1, and possibly other PA-binding proteins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Changes in cytosolic pH within Arabidopsis root columella cells play a key role in the early signaling pathway for root gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, A. C.; Allen, N. S.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Ratiometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy with 1',7'- bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)-dextran demonstrated that gravistimulation leads to rapid changes in cytoplasmic pH (pHc) in columella cells of Arabidopsis roots. The pHc of unstimulated columella cells in tiers 2 and 3, known sites of graviperception (E.B. Blancaflor, J.B. Fasano, S. Gilroy [1998] Plant Physiol 116: 213-222), was 7.22 +/- 0.02 pH units. Following gravistimulation, the magnitude and direction of pHc changes in these cells depended on their location in the columella. Cells in the lower side of tier 2 became more alkaline by 0.4 unit within 55 s of gravistimulation, whereas alkalinization of the cells on the upper side was slower (100 s). In contrast, all cells in tier 3 acidified by 0.4 pH unit within 480 s after gravistimulation. Disrupting these pHc changes in the columella cells using pHc modifiers at concentrations that do not affect root growth altered the gravitropic response. Acidifying agents, including bafilomycin A1, enhanced curvature, whereas alkalinizing agents disrupted gravitropic bending. These results imply that pHc changes in the gravisensing cells and the resultant pH gradients across the root cap are important at an early stage in the signal cascade leading to the gravitropic response.

  1. Signaling Pathways in Leiomyoma: Understanding Pathobiology and Implications for Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borahay, Mostafa A; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Kilic, Gokhan S; Boehning, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common tumors of the female genital tract, affecting 50% to 70% of females by the age of 50. Despite their prevalence and enormous medical and economic impact, no effective medical treatment is currently available. This is, in part, due to the poor understanding of their underlying pathobiology. Although they are thought to start as a clonal proliferation of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell, these early cytogenetic alterations are considered insufficient for tumor development and additional complex signaling pathway alterations are crucial. These include steroids, growth factors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/Smad; wingless-type (Wnt)/β-catenin, retinoic acid, vitamin D, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). An important finding is that several of these pathways converge in a summative way. For example, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt pathways seem to act as signal integrators, incorporating input from several signaling pathways, including growth factors, estrogen and vitamin D. This underlines the multifactorial origin and complex nature of these tumors. In this review, we aim to dissect these pathways and discuss their interconnections, aberrations and role in leiomyoma pathobiology. We also aim to identify potential targets for development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25879625

  2. Fisetin alleviates early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats possibly by suppressing TLR 4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen-hui; Wang, Chun-xi; Xie, Guang-bin; Wu, Ling-yun; Wei, Yong-xiang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Hang, Chun-hua; Zhou, Meng-liang; Shi, Ji-xin

    2015-12-10

    Early brain injury (EBI) determines the unfavorable outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection properties in several brain injury models, but the role of fisetin on EBI following SAH remains unknown. Our study aimed to explore the effects of fisetin on EBI after SAH in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the sham and SAH groups, fisetin (25mg/kg or 50mg/kg) or equal volume of vehicle was given at 30min after SAH. Neurological scores and brain edema were assayed. The protein expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4), p65, ZO-1 and bcl-2 was examined by Western blot. TLR 4 and p65 were also assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was perform to assess neural cell apoptosis. High-dose (50mg/kg) fisetin significantly improved neurological function and reduced brain edema at both 24h and 72h after SAH. Remarkable reductions of TLR 4 expression and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) translocation to nucleus were detected after fisetin treatment. In addition, fisetin significantly reduced the productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased neural cell apoptosis and increased the protein expression of ZO-1 and bcl-2. Our data provides the evidence for the first time that fisetin plays a protective role in EBI following SAH possibly by suppressing TLR 4/NF-κB mediated inflammatory pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of neurotrophic signaling pathways by polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Razieh; Saso, Luciano; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are an important class of phytochemicals, and several lines of evidence have demonstrated their beneficial effects in the context of a number of pathologies including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. In this report, we review the studies on the effects of polyphenols on neuronal survival, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and the signaling pathways involved in these neurotrophic actions. Several polyphenols including flavonoids such as baicalein, daidzein, luteolin, and nobiletin as well as nonflavonoid polyphenols such as auraptene, carnosic acid, curcuminoids, and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives including caffeic acid phentyl ester enhance neuronal survival and promote neurite outgrowth in vitro, a hallmark of neuronal differentiation. Assessment of underlying mechanisms, especially in PC12 neuronal-like cells, reveals that direct agonistic effect on tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) receptors, the main receptors of neurotrophic factors including nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) explains the action of few polyphenols such as 7,8-dihydroxyflavone. However, several other polyphenolic compounds activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. Increased expression of neurotrophic factors in vitro and in vivo is the mechanism of neurotrophic action of flavonoids such as scutellarin, daidzein, genistein, and fisetin, while compounds like apigenin and ferulic acid increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Finally, the antioxidant activity of polyphenols reflected in the activation of Nrf2 pathway and the consequent upregulation of detoxification enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 as well as the contribution of these effects to the neurotrophic activity have also been discussed. In conclusion, a better understanding of the neurotrophic effects of polyphenols and

  4. The immune signaling pathways of Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiaolong; He, Yan; Hu, Yingxia; Wang, Yang; Chen, Yun-Ru; Bryant, Bart; Clem, Rollie J.; Schwartz, Lawrence M.; Blissard, Gary; Jiang, Haobo

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways and their coordination are critically important for proper functioning of animal immune systems. Our knowledge of the constituents of the intracellular signaling network in insects mainly comes from genetic analyses in Drosophila melanogaster. To facilitate future studies of similar systems in the tobacco hornworm and other lepidopteran insects, we have identified and examined the homologous genes in the genome of Manduca sexta. Based on 1:1 orthologous relationships in most cases, we hypothesize that the Toll, Imd, MAPK-JNK-p38 and JAK-STAT pathways are intact and operative in this species, as are most of the regulatory mechanisms. Similarly, cellular processes such as autophagy, apoptosis and RNA interference probably function in similar ways, because their mediators and modulators are mostly conserved in this lepidopteran species. We have annotated a total of 186 genes encoding 199 proteins, studied their domain structures and evolution, and examined their mRNA levels in tissues at different life stages. Such information provides a genomic perspective of the intricate signaling system in a non-drosophiline insect. PMID:25858029

  5. Interleukin 4 signals through two related pathways.

    PubMed

    Pernis, A; Witthuhn, B; Keegan, A D; Nelms, K; Garfein, E; Ihle, J N; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H; Rothman, P

    1995-08-15

    The interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling pathway involves activation, by tyrosine phosphorylation, of two distinct substrates, a signal-transducing factor (STF-IL4) and the IL-4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate (4PS). It is not known whether the IL-4-mediated activation of these substrates occurs via related or distinct signaling pathways. We report that 32D cells, an IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line in which no phosphorylated 4PS is found, activate high levels of STF-IL4 in response to IL-4. Consistent with the known requirement for 4PS or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in IL-4-mediated mitogenesis, activation of STF-IL4 in 32D cells is not sufficient for IL-4-inducible c-myc expression. In addition, we have examined the ability of 32D cells transfected with different truncation mutants of the human IL-4 receptor to activate Jak-3 kinase and STF-IL4 in response to human IL-4. As in the case of 4PS/IRS-1, we have found that activation of both Jak-3 and STF-IL4 requires the presence of the IL-4 receptor region comprising aa 437-557. The finding that the same region of the IL-4 receptor is required for the induction of both 4PS/IRS-1 and STF-IL4 suggests that the IL-4-stimulated activation of these two substrates might involve common factors.

  6. Cancer cachexia: mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Kenneth C H; Glass, David J; Guttridge, Denis C

    2012-08-08

    Cancer cachexia is characterized by a significant reduction in body weight resulting predominantly from loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Cachexia causes reduced cancer treatment tolerance and reduced quality and length of life, and remains an unmet medical need. Therapeutic progress has been impeded, in part, by the marked heterogeneity of mediators, signaling, and metabolic pathways both within and between model systems and the clinical syndrome. Recent progress in understanding conserved, molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle atrophy/hypertrophy has provided a downstream platform for circumventing the variations and redundancy in upstream mediators and may ultimately translate into new targeted therapies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatic expression of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway, acute-phase response signalling and complement system are affected in mouse offspring by prenatal and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Vanselow, Jens; Kucia, Marzena; Langhammer, Martina; Koczan, Dirk; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Metges, Cornelia C

    2011-12-01

    Effects of pre- and early postnatal exposure to maternal high-protein diets are not well understood. Transcription profiling was performed in male mouse offspring exposed to maternal high-protein diet during pregnancy and/or lactation to identify affected hepatic molecular pathways. Dams were fed isoenergetic diets with control (20% w/w) or high protein levels (40%). The hepatic expression profiles were evaluated by differential microarray analysis 3 days (d3) and 3 weeks (d21) after birth. Offspring from three different high-protein dietary groups, HP (d3, high-protein diet during pregnancy), HPHP (d21, high-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation) and CHP (d21, control diet during pregnancy and high-protein diet during lactation), were compared with age-matched offspring from dams fed control diet. Offspring body and liver mass of all high-protein groups were decreased. Prenatal high-protein diet affected hepatic expression of genes mapping to the acute response/complement system and the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF signalling pathways. Maternal exposure to high-protein diet during lactation affected hepatic gene expression of the same pathways but additionally affected genes mapping to protein, fatty acid, hexose and pyruvate metabolism. (1) Genes of the acute response/complement system and GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathways were down-regulated in offspring of dams exposed to high-protein diets during pregnancy and/or lactation. (2) Genes related to nutrient and energy metabolism, however, were only affected when high-protein diet was administered during lactation. (3) Modulation of the GH/JAK/STAT/IGF pathway might be responsible for reduced body and liver masses by maternal high-protein diet.

  8. Exercise for the heart: signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Xiao, Junjie; Li, Xinli

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise, a potent functional intervention in protecting against cardiovascular diseases, is a hot topic in recent years. Exercise has been shown to reduce cardiac risk factors, protect against myocardial damage, and increase cardiac function. This improves quality of life and decreases mortality and morbidity in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetic cardiomyopathy, cardiac aging, and pulmonary hypertension. The cellular adaptation to exercise can be associated with both endogenous and exogenous factors: 1) exercise induces cardiac growth via hypertrophy and renewal of cardiomyocytes, and 2) exercise induces endothelial progenitor cells to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into mature endothelial cells, giving rise to endothelial regeneration and angiogenesis. The cellular adaptations associated with exercise are due to the activation of several signaling pathways, in particular, the growth factor neuregulin1 (NRG1)-ErbB4-C/EBPβ and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-PI3k-Akt signaling pathways. Of interest, microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) such as miR-222 also play a major role in the beneficial effects of exercise. Thus, exploring the mechanisms mediating exercise-induced benefits will be instrumental for devising new effective therapies against cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26318584

  9. Agmatine modulates melanogenesis via MITF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2017-01-01

    Agmatine contained in soybean is also found in Manaca, an anti-aging plant, inhabited in Amazon and induces vasodilation by the promotion of NO synthesis in blood vessel. However, the research of agmatine on melanin synthesis related to hair greying is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the melanogenic effect of agmatine via regulation of MITF signaling pathway in B16F1 cells. It was determined whether agmatine regulates melanin synthesis at cellular level in addition to the effect of agmatine on mushroom tyrosinase in vitro in the presence of different concentrations of agmatine. Furthermore, the effect of agmatine on the protein expressions of tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, C-KIT, p-p38, MITF and C-FOS were examined by western blot analysis. In addition, immunofluorescence staining was carried out to visualize the location of MITF expression in cell. Agmatine at 256μM or more increased melanin synthesis as well as tyrosinase activity. Moreover, whereas agmatine increased the expression levels of TRP-1, BMP-6, p-p38 and MITF, it reduced the expression level of BMP-4. It was also found that agmatine enhanced the expression level of MITF in nucleus. These results suggest that agmatine could induce melanin synthesis though the regulation of MITF transcription factor via BMP-6/p38 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interleukin 4 signals through two related pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Pernis, A; Witthuhn, B; Keegan, A D; Nelms, K; Garfein, E; Ihle, J N; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H; Rothman, P

    1995-01-01

    The interleukin 4 (IL-4) signaling pathway involves activation, by tyrosine phosphorylation, of two distinct substrates, a signal-transducing factor (STF-IL4) and the IL-4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate (4PS). It is not known whether the IL-4-mediated activation of these substrates occurs via related or distinct signaling pathways. We report that 32D cells, an IL-3-dependent myeloid progenitor cell line in which no phosphorylated 4PS is found, activate high levels of STF-IL4 in response to IL-4. Consistent with the known requirement for 4PS or insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in IL-4-mediated mitogenesis, activation of STF-IL4 in 32D cells is not sufficient for IL-4-inducible c-myc expression. In addition, we have examined the ability of 32D cells transfected with different truncation mutants of the human IL-4 receptor to activate Jak-3 kinase and STF-IL4 in response to human IL-4. As in the case of 4PS/IRS-1, we have found that activation of both Jak-3 and STF-IL4 requires the presence of the IL-4 receptor region comprising aa 437-557. The finding that the same region of the IL-4 receptor is required for the induction of both 4PS/IRS-1 and STF-IL4 suggests that the IL-4-stimulated activation of these two substrates might involve common factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7544011

  11. Gene profiling of the red light signalling pathways in roots.

    PubMed

    Molas, Maria Lia; Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J

    2006-01-01

    Red light, acting through the phytochromes, controls numerous aspects of plant development. Many of the signal transduction elements downstream of the phytochromes have been identified in the aerial portions of the plant; however, very few elements in red-light signalling have been identified specifically for roots. Gene profiling studies using microarrays and quantitative Real-Time PCR were performed to characterize gene expression changes in roots of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. Several factors acting downstream of phytochromes in red-light signalling in roots were identified. Some of the genes found to be differentially expressed in this study have already been characterized in the red-light-signalling pathway for whole plants. For example, PHYTOCHROME KINASE 1 (PKS1), LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), and GIGANTEA (GI) were all significantly up-regulated in roots of seedlings exposed to 1 h of red light. The up-regulation of SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A RESPONSES 1 (SPA1) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1-like (COP1-like) genes suggests that the PHYA-mediated pathway was attenuated by red light. In addition, genes involved in lateral root and root hair formation, root plastid development, phenylpropanoid metabolism, and hormone signalling were also regulated by exposure to red light. Interestingly, members of the RPT2/NPH3 (ROOT PHOTOTROPIC 2/NON PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 3) family, which have been shown to mediate blue-light-induced phototropism, were also differentially regulated in roots in red light. Therefore, these results suggest that red and blue light pathways interact in roots of seedlings and that many elements involved in red-light-signalling found in the aerial portions of the plant are differentially expressed in roots within 1 h of red light exposure.

  12. SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN MELANOSOME BIOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Schiaffino, Maria Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    Melanosomes are the specialized intracellular organelles of pigment cells devoted to the synthesis, storage and transport of melanin pigments, which are responsible for most visible pigmentation in mammals and other vertebrates. As a direct consequence, any genetic mutation resulting in alteration of melanosomal function, either because affecting pigment cell survival, migration and differentiation, or because interfering with melanosome biogenesis, transport and transfer to keratinocytes, is immediately translated into color variations of skin, fur, hair or eyes. Thus, over one hundred genes and proteins have been identified as pigmentary determinants in mammals, providing us with a deep understanding of this biological system, which functions by using mechanisms and processes that have parallels in other tissues and organs. In particular, many genes implicated in melanosome biogenesis have been characterized, so that melanosomes represent an incredible source of information and a model for organelles belonging to the secretory pathway. Furthermore, the function of melanosomes can be associated with common physiological phenotypes, such as variation of pigmentation among individuals, and with rare pathological conditions, such as albinism, characterized by severe visual defects. Among the most relevant mechanisms operating in melanosome biogenesis are the signal transduction pathways mediated by two peculiar G protein-coupled receptors: the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), involved in the fair skin/red hair phenotype and skin cancer; and OA1 (GPR143), whose loss-of-function results in X-linked ocular albinism. This review will focus on the most recent novelties regarding the functioning of these two receptors, by highlighting emerging signaling mechanisms and general implications for cell biology and pathology. PMID:20381640

  13. The Hippo signal transduction pathway in soft tissue sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Abdalla D; Tremblay, Annie M; Murray, Graeme I; Wackerhage, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Sarcomas are rare cancers (≈1% of all solid tumours) usually of mesenchymal origin. Here, we review evidence implicating the Hippo pathway in soft tissue sarcomas. Several transgenic mouse models of Hippo pathway members (Nf2, Mob1, LATS1 and YAP1 mutants) develop various types of sarcoma. Despite that, Hippo member genes are rarely point mutated in human sarcomas. Instead, WWTR1-CAMTA1 and YAP1-TFE3 fusion genes are found in almost all cases of epithelioid haemangioendothelioma. Also copy number gains of YAP1 and other Hippo members occur at low frequencies but the most likely cause of perturbed Hippo signalling in sarcoma is the cross-talk with commonly mutated cancer genes such as KRAS, PIK3CA, CTNNB1 or FBXW7. Current Hippo pathway-targeting drugs include compounds that target the interaction between YAP and TEAD G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and the mevalonate pathway (e.g. statins). Given that many Hippo pathway-modulating drugs are already used in patients, this could lead to early clinical trials testing their efficacy in different types of sarcoma. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human LH and hCG stimulate differently the early signalling pathways but result in equal testosterone synthesis in mouse Leydig cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Riccetti, Laura; De Pascali, Francesco; Gilioli, Lisa; Potì, Francesco; Giva, Lavinia Beatrice; Marino, Marco; Tagliavini, Simonetta; Trenti, Tommaso; Fanelli, Flaminia; Mezzullo, Marco; Pagotto, Uberto; Simoni, Manuela; Casarini, Livio

    2017-01-05

    Human luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are glycoprotein hormones regulating development and reproductive functions by acting on the same receptor (LHCGR). We compared the LH and hCG activity in gonadal cells from male mouse in vitro, i.e. primary Leydig cells, which is a common tool used for gonadotropin bioassay. Murine Leydig cells are naturally expressing the murine LH receptor (mLhr), which binds human LH/hCG. Cultured Leydig cells were treated by increasing doses of recombinant LH and hCG, and cell signaling, gene expression and steroid synthesis were evaluated. We found that hCG is about 10-fold more potent than LH in cAMP recruitment, and slightly but significantly more potent on cAMP-dependent Erk1/2 phosphorylation. However, no significant differences occur between LH and hCG treatments, measured as activation of downstream signals, such as Creb phosphorylation, Stard1 gene expression and testosterone synthesis. These data demonstrate that the responses to human LH/hCG are only quantitatively and not qualitatively different in murine cells, at least in terms of cAMP and Erk1/2 activation, and equal in activating downstream steroidogenic events. This is at odds with what we previously described in human primary granulosa cells, where LHCGR mediates a different pattern of signaling cascades, depending on the natural ligand. This finding is relevant for gonadotropin quantification used in the official pharmacopoeia, which are based on murine, in vivo bioassay and rely on the evaluation of long-term, testosterone-dependent effects mediated by rodent receptor.

  15. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Discovering causal signaling pathways through gene-expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Jignesh R.; Klinger, Bertram; Xia, Yu; Marto, Jarrod A.; Blüthgen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    High-throughput gene-expression studies result in lists of differentially expressed genes. Most current meta-analyses of these gene lists include searching for significant membership of the translated proteins in various signaling pathways. However, such membership enrichment algorithms do not provide insight into which pathways caused the genes to be differentially expressed in the first place. Here, we present an intuitive approach for discovering upstream signaling pathways responsible for regulating these differentially expressed genes. We identify consistently regulated signature genes specific for signal transduction pathways from a panel of single-pathway perturbation experiments. An algorithm that detects overrepresentation of these signature genes in a gene group of interest is used to infer the signaling pathway responsible for regulation. We expose our novel resource and algorithm through a web server called SPEED: Signaling Pathway Enrichment using Experimental Data sets. SPEED can be freely accessed at http://speed.sys-bio.net/. PMID:20494976

  17. Oocyte exposure to ZnO nanoparticles inhibits early embryonic development through the γ-H2AX and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Weidong; Hao, Yanan; Yu, Shuai; Li, Lan; Chu, Meiqiang; Min, Lingjiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Shen, Wei

    2017-06-27

    The impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles on embryonic development following oocyte stage exposure are unknown and the underlying mechanisms are sparsely understood. In the current investigation, intact nanoparticles were detected in ovarian tissue in vivo and cultured cells in vitro under zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exposure during the oocyte stage inhibited embryonic development. Notably, in vitro culture data closely matched in vivo embryonic data, in that the impairments caused by Zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment passed through cell generations; and both gamma-H2AX and NF-kappaB pathways were involved in zinc oxide nanoparticles caused embryo-toxicity. Copper oxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been used to confirm that particles are important for the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles emanate from both intact nanoparticles and Zn2+. Our investigation along with others suggests that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to the female reproductive system [ovaries (oocytes)] and subsequently embryo-toxic and that precaution should be taken regarding human exposure to their everyday use.

  18. Oocyte exposure to ZnO nanoparticles inhibits early embryonic development through the γ-H2AX and NF-κB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Weidong; Hao, Yanan; Yu, Shuai; Li, Lan; Chu, Meiqiang; Min, Lingjiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles on embryonic development following oocyte stage exposure are unknown and the underlying mechanisms are sparsely understood. In the current investigation, intact nanoparticles were detected in ovarian tissue in vivo and cultured cells in vitro under zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles exposure during the oocyte stage inhibited embryonic development. Notably, in vitro culture data closely matched in vivo embryonic data, in that the impairments caused by Zinc oxide nanoparticles treatment passed through cell generations; and both gamma-H2AX and NF-kappaB pathways were involved in zinc oxide nanoparticles caused embryo-toxicity. Copper oxide and silicon dioxide nanoparticles have been used to confirm that particles are important for the toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The toxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles emanate from both intact nanoparticles and Zn2+. Our investigation along with others suggests that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to the female reproductive system [ovaries (oocytes)] and subsequently embryo-toxic and that precaution should be taken regarding human exposure to their everyday use. PMID:28487501

  19. Role of the NFκB-signaling pathway in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yujuan; Lin, Jingguan; Wang, Heran; Oyang, Linda; Tian, Yutong; Liu, Lu; Su, Min; Wang, Hui; Cao, Deliang; Liao, Qianjin

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a group of cells that malignantly grow and proliferate uncontrollably. At present, treatment modes for cancer mainly comprise surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, molecularly targeted therapy, gene therapy, and immunotherapy. However, the curative effects of these treatments have been limited thus far by specific characteristics of tumors. Abnormal activation of signaling pathways is involved in tumor pathogenesis and plays critical roles in growth, progression, and relapse of cancers. Targeted therapies against effectors in oncogenic signaling have improved the outcomes of cancer patients. NFκB is an important signaling pathway involved in pathogenesis and treatment of cancers. Excessive activation of the NFκB-signaling pathway has been documented in various tumor tissues, and studies on this signaling pathway for targeted cancer therapy have become a hot topic. In this review, we update current understanding of the NFκB-signaling pathway in cancer. PMID:29695914

  20. Sulphonated Formononetin Induces Angiogenesis through Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein/Early Growth Response 3/Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 and Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoju; Shi, Yanan; Zhao, Huijuan; Li, Ning; Ye, Liang; Zhang, Shuping; Zhu, Haibo

    2018-01-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a derivative of the isoflavone formononetin. In this study, we investigated whether Sul-F can regulate angiogenesis and the potential mechanism in vitro. We examined the effects of Sul-F on cell proliferation, cell invasion, and tube formation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC). To better understand the mechanism involved, we investigated effects of the following compounds: cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) inhibitor 2-naphthol-AS-E-phosphate (KG-501), early growth response 3 (Egr-3) siRNA, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antagonist soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1), VEGF receptor 2 blocker SU-1498, Wnt5a antagonist WIF-1 recombinant protein (WIF-1), and inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin recombinant Dickkopf-1 protein (DKK-1). HUVEC proliferation was tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). A scratch adhesion test was used to assess cell invasion ability. Matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. Activation of the VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) pathway in HUVEC was tested by Western blot analysis. Our results suggest that Sul-F induced angiogenesis in vitro by enhancing cell proliferation, invasion, and tube formation. The increase in proliferation and tube formation by Sul-F was counteracted by DKK-1, WIF-1, SU1498, KG-501, sFlt-1, and Egr-3 siRNA. These results may suggest that Sul-F induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programed Wnt/β-catenin pathway and VEGF/CREB/Egr-3/VCAM-1 signaling axis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Signaling pathways relevant to cognition-enhancing drug targets.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Caroline; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Quirion, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    Aging is generally associated with a certain cognitive decline. However, individual differences exist. While age-related memory deficits can be observed in humans and rodents in the absence of pathological conditions, some individuals maintain intact cognitive functions up to an advanced age. The mechanisms underlying learning and memory processes involve the recruitment of multiple signaling pathways and gene expression, leading to adaptative neuronal plasticity and long-lasting changes in brain circuitry. This chapter summarizes the current understanding of how these signaling cascades could be modulated by cognition-enhancing agents favoring memory formation and successful aging. It focuses on data obtained in rodents, particularly in the rat as it is the most common animal model studied in this field. First, we will discuss the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and its receptors, downstream signaling effectors [e.g., calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)], associated immediate early gene (e.g., Homer 1a, Arc and Zif268), and growth factors [insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)] in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Second, the impact of the cholinergic system and related modulators on memory will be briefly reviewed. Finally, since dynorphin neuropeptides have recently been associated with memory impairments in aging, it is proposed as an attractive target to develop novel cognition-enhancing agents.

  2. Hippo signaling pathway in cardiovascular development and diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-yu; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Bin

    2017-07-20

    Cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of death in the world. Understanding the development of cardiovascular system and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases will promote the generation of novel preventive and therapeutic strategy. The Hippo pathway is a recently identified signaling cascade that plays a critical role in organ size control, cell proliferation, apoptosis and fate determination of stem cells. Gene knockout and transgenic mouse models have revealed that the Hippo signaling pathway is involved in heart development, cardiomyocyte proliferation, apoptosis, hypertrophy and cardiac regeneration. The Hippo signaling pathway also regulates vascular development, differentiation and various functions of vascular cells. Dysregulation of the Hippo signaling pathway leads to different kinds of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, neointima formation and atherosclerosis. In this review, we briefly summarize current research on the roles and regulation mechanisms of the Hippo signaling pathway in cardiovascular development and diseases.

  3. Heritable and Nonheritable Pathways to Early Callous-Unemotional Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Luke W; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-09-01

    Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood signal higher risk for trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies demonstrate high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. Studies also indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. In a sample of adopted children and their biological and adoptive mothers, the authors tested novel heritable and nonheritable pathways to preschool callous-unemotional behaviors. In an adoption cohort of 561 families, history of severe antisocial behavior assessed in biological mothers and observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors at 27 months. Despite limited or no contact with offspring, biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate heritable and nonheritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important nonheritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. The finding that positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors has important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious

  4. Targeting the Hippo signalling pathway for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Keisuke; Maehama, Tomohiko; Nishio, Miki; Goto, Hiroki; Kato, Wakako; Omori, Hirofumi; Miyachi, Yosuke; Togashi, Hideru; Shimono, Yohei; Suzuki, Akira

    2017-03-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway monitors cell-cell contact and external factors that shape tissue structure. In mice, tumourigenesis and developmental abnormalities are common consequences of dysregulated Hippo signalling. Expression of Hippo pathway components is also frequently altered in human tumours and correlates with poor prognosis and reduced patient survival. Thus, the Hippo pathway is an attractive anti-cancer target. Here, we provide an overview of the function and regulation of Hippo signalling components and summarize progress to date on the development of agents able to regulate Hippo signalling for cancer therapy. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of a Novel Gnao-Mediated Alternate Olfactory Signaling Pathway in Murine OSNs.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Paul; Mohrhardt, Julia; Jansen, Fabian; Kalbe, Benjamin; Haering, Claudia; Klasen, Katharina; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the binding of odorant molecules to their specific olfactory receptor (OR) triggers a cAMP-dependent signaling cascade, activating cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG) channels. However, considerable controversy dating back more than 20 years has surrounded the question of whether alternate signaling plays a role in mammalian olfactory transduction. In this study, we demonstrate a specific alternate signaling pathway in Olfr73-expressing OSNs. Methylisoeugenol (MIEG) and at least one other known weak Olfr73 agonist (Raspberry Ketone) trigger a signaling cascade independent from the canonical pathway, leading to the depolarization of the cell. Interestingly, this pathway is mediated by Gnao activation, leading to Cl(-) efflux; however, the activation of adenylyl cyclase III (ACIII), the recruitment of Ca(2+) from extra-or intracellular stores, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent signaling (PI signaling) are not involved. Furthermore, we demonstrated that our newly identified pathway coexists with the canonical olfactory cAMP pathway in the same OSN and can be triggered by the same OR in a ligand-selective manner. We suggest that this pathway might reflect a mechanism for odor recognition predominantly used in early developmental stages before olfactory cAMP signaling is fully developed. Taken together, our findings support the existence of at least one odor-induced alternate signal transduction pathway in native OSNs mediated by Olfr73 in a ligand-selective manner.

  6. Systematic analysis of signaling pathways using an integrative environment.

    PubMed

    Visvanathan, Mahesh; Breit, Marc; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Baumgartner, Christian; Modre-Osprian, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the biological processes of signaling pathways as a whole system requires an integrative software environment that has comprehensive capabilities. The environment should include tools for pathway design, visualization, simulation and a knowledge base concerning signaling pathways as one. In this paper we introduce a new integrative environment for the systematic analysis of signaling pathways. This system includes environments for pathway design, visualization, simulation and a knowledge base that combines biological and modeling information concerning signaling pathways that provides the basic understanding of the biological system, its structure and functioning. The system is designed with a client-server architecture. It contains a pathway designing environment and a simulation environment as upper layers with a relational knowledge base as the underlying layer. The TNFa-mediated NF-kB signal trans-duction pathway model was designed and tested using our integrative framework. It was also useful to define the structure of the knowledge base. Sensitivity analysis of this specific pathway was performed providing simulation data. Then the model was extended showing promising initial results. The proposed system offers a holistic view of pathways containing biological and modeling data. It will help us to perform biological interpretation of the simulation results and thus contribute to a better understanding of the biological system for drug identification.

  7. Molecular Pathways: Hippo Signaling, a Critical Tumor Suppressor.

    PubMed

    Sebio, Ana; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2015-11-15

    The Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway controls cell fate and tissue growth. The main function of the Hippo pathway is to prevent YAP and TAZ translocation to the nucleus where they induce the transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation, survival, and stem cell maintenance. Hippo signaling is, thus, a complex tumor suppressor, and its deregulation is a key feature in many cancers. Recent mounting evidence suggests that the overexpression of Hippo components can be useful prognostic biomarkers. Moreover, Hippo signaling appears to be intimately linked to some of the most important signaling pathways involved in cancer development and progression. A better understanding of the Hippo pathway is thus essential to untangle tumor biology and to develop novel anticancer therapies. Here, we comment on the progress made in understanding Hippo signaling and its connections, and also on how new drugs modulating this pathway, such as Verteporfin and C19, are highly promising cancer therapeutics. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Estradiol targets T cell signaling pathways in human systemic lupus.

    PubMed

    Walters, Emily; Rider, Virginia; Abdou, Nabih I; Greenwell, Cindy; Svojanovsky, Stan; Smith, Peter; Kimler, Bruce F

    2009-12-01

    The major risk factor for developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is being female. The present study utilized gene profiles of activated T cells from females with SLE and healthy controls to identify signaling pathways uniquely regulated by estradiol that could contribute to SLE pathogenesis. Selected downstream pathway genes (+/- estradiol) were measured by real time polymerase chain amplification. Estradiol uniquely upregulated six pathways in SLE T cells that control T cell function including interferon-alpha signaling. Measurement of interferon-alpha pathway target gene expression revealed significant differences (p= 0.043) in DRIP150 (+/- estradiol) in SLE T cell samples while IFIT1 expression was bimodal and correlated moderately (r= 0.55) with disease activity. The results indicate that estradiol alters signaling pathways in activated SLE T cells that control T cell function. Differential expression of transcriptional coactivators could influence estrogen-dependent gene regulation in T cell signaling and contribute to SLE onset and disease pathogenesis.

  9. A comprehensive pathway map of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Kanae; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways that regulate growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation in mammalian cells. Reflecting this importance, it is one of the best-investigated signaling systems, both experimentally and computationally, and several computational models have been developed for dynamic analysis. A map of molecular interactions of the EGFR signaling system is a valuable resource for research in this area. In this paper, we present a comprehensive pathway map of EGFR signaling and other related pathways. The map reveals that the overall architecture of the pathway is a bow-tie (or hourglass) structure with several feedback loops. The map is created using CellDesigner software that enables us to graphically represent interactions using a well-defined and consistent graphical notation, and to store it in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). PMID:16729045

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi Exploits Wnt Signaling Pathway to Promote Its Intracellular Replication in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Ximena; Ambrosio, Laura F; Fozzatti, Laura; Insfran, Constanza; Stempin, Cinthia C; Cervi, Laura; Motran, Claudia Cristina

    2018-01-01

    During the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, macrophages can act as host cells for the parasites as well as effector cells in the early anti-parasitic immune response. Thus, the targeting of specific signaling pathways could modulate macrophages response to restrict parasite replication and instruct an appropriate adaptive response. Recently, it has become evident that Wnt signaling has immunomodulatory functions during inflammation and infection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that during T. cruzi infection, the activation of Wnt signaling pathway in macrophages plays a role in modulating the inflammatory/tolerogenic response and therefore regulating the control of parasite replication. In this report, we show that early after T. cruzi infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), β-catenin was activated and Wnt3a, Wnt5a, and some Frizzled receptors as well as Wnt/β-catenin pathway's target genes were upregulated, with Wnt proteins signaling sustaining the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and then activating the Wnt/Ca +2 pathway. Wnt signaling pathway activation was critical to sustain the parasite's replication in BMM; since the treatments with specific inhibitors of β-catenin transcriptional activation or Wnt proteins secretion limited the parasite replication. Mechanistically, inhibition of Wnt signaling pathway armed BMM to fight against T. cruzi by inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and by downregulating arginase activity. Likewise, in vivo pharmacological inhibition of the Wnts' interaction with its receptors controlled the parasite replication and improved the survival of lethally infected mice. It is well established that T. cruzi infection activates a plethora of signaling pathways that ultimately regulate immune mediators to determine the modulation of a defined set of effector functions in macrophages. In this study, we have revealed a new signaling pathway that is

  11. Genetic Polymorphism in Extracellular Regulators of Wnt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Seo, Eun-Min; Nam, Ju-Suk

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is mediated by a family of secreted glycoproteins through canonical and noncanonical mechanism. The signaling pathways are regulated by various modulators, which are classified into two classes on the basis of their interaction with either Wnt or its receptors. Secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) are the member of class that binds to Wnt protein and antagonizes Wnt signaling pathway. The other class consists of Dickkopf (DKK) proteins family that binds to Wnt receptor complex. The present review discusses the disease related association of various polymorphisms in Wnt signaling modulators. Furthermore, this review also highlights that some of the sFRPs and DKKs are unable to act as an antagonist for Wnt signaling pathway and thus their function needs to be explored more extensively. PMID:25945348

  12. Neurotrophin signalling pathways regulating neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Miller, F D; Kaplan, D R

    2001-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring neuronal death in mammals is regulated by the interplay between receptor-mediated prosurvival and proapoptotic signals. The neurotrophins, a family of growth factors best known for their positive effects on neuronal biology, have now been shown to mediate both positive and negative survival signals, by signalling through the Trk and p75 neurotrophin receptors, respectively. The mechanisms whereby these two neurotrophin receptors interact to determine neuronal survival have been difficult to decipher, largely because both can signal independently or coincidentally, depending upon the cell or developmental context. Nonetheless, the past several years have seen significant advances in our understanding of this receptor signalling system. In this review, we focus on the proapoptotic actions of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and on the interplay between Trk and p75NTR that determines neuronal survival.

  13. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  14. Intricacies of hedgehog signaling pathways: A perspective in tumorigenesis

    SciT

    Kar, Swayamsiddha; Deb, Moonmoon; Sengupta, Dipta

    The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a crucial negotiator of developmental proceedings in the embryo governing a diverse array of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue patterning. The overall activity of the pathway is significantly curtailed after embryogenesis as well as in adults, yet it retains many of its functional capacities. However, aberration in HH signaling mediates the initiation, proliferation and continued sustenance of malignancy in different tissues to varying degrees through different mechanisms. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of constitutively active aberrant HH signaling pathway in different types of human cancer and themore » underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms that drive tumorigenesis in that particular tissue. An insight into the various modes of anomalous HH signaling in different organs will provide a comprehensive knowledge of the pathway in these tissues and open a window for individually tailored, tissue-specific therapeutic interventions. The synergistic cross talking of HH pathway with many other regulatory molecules and developmentally inclined signaling pathways may offer many avenues for pharmacological advances. Understanding the molecular basis of abnormal HH signaling in cancer will provide an opportunity to inhibit the deregulated pathway in many aggressive and therapeutically challenging cancers where promising options are not available.« less

  15. Molecular mechanisms of the mammalian Hippo signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xin-yan; Zhong, Guoxuan; Zhao, Bin

    2017-07-20

    The Hippo pathway plays an evolutionarily conserved fundamental role in controlling organ size in multicellular organisms. Importantly, evidence from studies of patient samples and mouse models clearly indicates that deregulation of the Hippo signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the initiation and progression of many different types of human cancers. The Hippo signaling pathway is regulated by various stimuli, such as mechanical stress, G-protein coupled receptor signaling, and cellular energy status. When activated, the Hippo kinase cascade phosphorylates and inhibits the transcription co-activator YAP (Yes-associated protein), and its paralog TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), resulting in their cytoplasmic retention and degradation. When the Hippo signaling pathway is inactive, dephosphorylated YAP/TAZ translocate into the nucleus and activate gene transcription through binding to TEAD (TEA domain) family and other transcription factors. Such changes in gene expression promote cell proliferation and stem cell/progenitor cell self-renewal but inhibit apoptosis, thereby coordinately promote increase in organ size, tissue regeneration, and tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of the mammalian Hippo signaling pathway with special emphasis on the Hippo kinase cascade and its upstream signals, the Hippo signaling pathway regulation of YAP and the mechanisms of YAP in regulation of gene transcription.

  16. Contribution of chaperones to STAT pathway signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bocchini, Claire E; Kasembeli, Moses M; Roh, Soung-Hun; Tweardy, David J

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant STAT signaling is associated with the development and progression of many cancers and immune related diseases. Recent findings demonstrate that proteostasis modulators under clinical investigation for cancer therapy have a significant impact on STAT signaling, which may be critical for mediating their anti-cancer effects. Chaperones are critical for protein folding, stability and function and, thus, play an essential role in the maintenance of proteostasis. In this review we discuss the role of chaperones in STAT and tyrosine kinase (TK) protein folding, modulation of STAT and TK activity, and degradation of TKs. We highlight the important role of chaperones in STAT signaling, and how this knowledge has provided a framework for the development of new therapeutic avenues of targeting STAT signaling related pathologies. PMID:26413421

  17. Mechanical Regulation of Signaling Pathways in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William R.; Rubin, Clinton T.; Rubin, Janet

    2012-01-01

    A wide range of cell types depend on mechanically induced signals to enable appropriate physiological responses. The skeleton is particularly dependent on mechanical information to guide the resident cell population towards adaptation, maintenance and repair. Research at the organ, tissue, cell and molecular levels has improved our understanding of how the skeleton can recognize the functional environment, and how these challenges are translated into cellular information that can site-specifically alter phenotype. This review first considers those cells within the skeleton that are responsive to mechanical signals, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and osteoprogenitors. This is discussed in light of a range of experimental approaches that can vary parameters such as strain, fluid shear stress, and pressure. The identity of mechanoreceptor candidates is approached, with consideration of integrins, pericellular tethers, focal adhesions, ion channels, cadherins, connexins, and the plasma membrane including caveolar and non-caveolar lipid rafts and their influence on integral signaling protein interactions. Several mechanically regulated intracellular signaling cascades are detailed including activation of kinases (Akt, MAPK, FAK), β-catenin, GTPases, and calcium signaling events. While the interaction of bone cells with their mechanical environment is complex, an understanding of mechanical regulation of bone signaling is crucial to understanding bone physiology, the etiology of diseases such as osteoporosis, and to the development of interventions to improve bone strength. PMID:22575727

  18. UNDERSTANDING PATHWAYS OF TOXICITY: MAKING SENSE OF CHANGING SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title:
    Understanding Pathways of Toxicity: Making sense of changing signals
    Authors & affiliations:
    Sid Hunter, Maria Blanton, Edward Karoly, Ellen Rogers, Leonard Mole, Phillip Hartig, James Andrews. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Ef...

  19. Direct induction of T lymphocyte-specific gene expression by the mammalian Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reizis, Boris; Leder, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway regulates the commitment and early development of T lymphocytes. We studied Notch-mediated induction of the pre-T cell receptor α (pTa) gene, a T-cell-specific transcriptional target of Notch. The pTa enhancer was activated by Notch signaling and contained binding sites for its nuclear effector, CSL. Mutation of the CSL-binding sites abolished enhancer induction by Notch and delayed the up-regulation of pTa transgene expression during T cell lineage commitment. These results show a direct mechanism of stage- and tissue-specific gene induction by the mammalian Notch/CSL signaling pathway. PMID:11825871

  20. Linear effects models of signaling pathways from combinatorial perturbation data

    PubMed Central

    Szczurek, Ewa; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Perturbations constitute the central means to study signaling pathways. Interrupting components of the pathway and analyzing observed effects of those interruptions can give insight into unknown connections within the signaling pathway itself, as well as the link from the pathway to the effects. Different pathway components may have different individual contributions to the measured perturbation effects, such as gene expression changes. Those effects will be observed in combination when the pathway components are perturbed. Extant approaches focus either on the reconstruction of pathway structure or on resolving how the pathway components control the downstream effects. Results: Here, we propose a linear effects model, which can be applied to solve both these problems from combinatorial perturbation data. We use simulated data to demonstrate the accuracy of learning the pathway structure as well as estimation of the individual contributions of pathway components to the perturbation effects. The practical utility of our approach is illustrated by an application to perturbations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Availability and Implementation: lem is available as a R package at http://www.mimuw.edu.pl/∼szczurek/lem. Contact: szczurek@mimuw.edu.pl; niko.beerenwinkel@bsse.ethz.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307630

  1. Linear effects models of signaling pathways from combinatorial perturbation data.

    PubMed

    Szczurek, Ewa; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2016-06-15

    Perturbations constitute the central means to study signaling pathways. Interrupting components of the pathway and analyzing observed effects of those interruptions can give insight into unknown connections within the signaling pathway itself, as well as the link from the pathway to the effects. Different pathway components may have different individual contributions to the measured perturbation effects, such as gene expression changes. Those effects will be observed in combination when the pathway components are perturbed. Extant approaches focus either on the reconstruction of pathway structure or on resolving how the pathway components control the downstream effects. Here, we propose a linear effects model, which can be applied to solve both these problems from combinatorial perturbation data. We use simulated data to demonstrate the accuracy of learning the pathway structure as well as estimation of the individual contributions of pathway components to the perturbation effects. The practical utility of our approach is illustrated by an application to perturbations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiaeAvailability and Implementation: lem is available as a R package at http://www.mimuw.edu.pl/∼szczurek/lem szczurek@mimuw.edu.pl; niko.beerenwinkel@bsse.ethz.ch Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Modeling Protein Expression and Protein Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Müller, Peter; Kornblau, Steven M.; Suchard, Marc A.; Ji, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput functional proteomic technologies provide a way to quantify the expression of proteins of interest. Statistical inference centers on identifying the activation state of proteins and their patterns of molecular interaction formalized as dependence structure. Inference on dependence structure is particularly important when proteins are selected because they are part of a common molecular pathway. In that case, inference on dependence structure reveals properties of the underlying pathway. We propose a probability model that represents molecular interactions at the level of hidden binary latent variables that can be interpreted as indicators for active versus inactive states of the proteins. The proposed approach exploits available expert knowledge about the target pathway to define an informative prior on the hidden conditional dependence structure. An important feature of this prior is that it provides an instrument to explicitly anchor the model space to a set of interactions of interest, favoring a local search approach to model determination. We apply our model to reverse-phase protein array data from a study on acute myeloid leukemia. Our inference identifies relevant subpathways in relation to the unfolding of the biological process under study. PMID:26246646

  3. Implementing Guided Pathways: Early Insights from the AACC Pathways Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Lahr, Hana; Fink, John

    2017-01-01

    Across the United States, a growing number of colleges are redesigning their programs and student support services according to the "guided pathways" model. Central to this approach are efforts to clarify pathways to program completion, career advancement, and further education. Equally essential are efforts to help students explore…

  4. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    instigated by an inciting event (e.g. prolonged seizure called status epilepticus (SE), head injury, infection or stroke). This is followed by a...in two different models of temporal lobe epilepsy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Status Epilepticus , Wnt Signaling, Epileptogenesis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...disease sub-type. In this grant, we will investigate the mechanisms of Status Epilepticus (SE) and the ensuing latent period in animal models of temporal

  5. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    instigated by an inciting event (e.g. prolonged seizure called status epilepticus (SE), head injury, infection or stroke). This is followed by a...that define epileptic progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Status Epilepticus , Wnt Signaling, Epileptogenesis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17...grant, we will investigate the mechanisms of Status Epilepticus (SE) and the ensuing latent period in animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a

  6. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    sustains seizures. It is instigated by an inciting event (e.g. prolonged seizure called status epilepticus (SE), head injury, infection or stroke...onset of chronic seizures that define epileptic progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Status Epilepticus , Wnt Signaling, Epileptogenesis 16. SECURITY...availability of experimental models to molecularly dissect a disease sub-type. In this grant, we will investigate the mechanisms of Status Epilepticus

  7. Epilepsy and the Wnt Signaling Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    status epilepticus (SE), head injury, infection or stroke). This is followed by a variable (months to years in humans) “latent period” followed by the...TERMS Status Epilepticus , Wnt Signaling, Epileptogenesis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACTU U 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 4...disease sub-type. In this grant, we will investigate the mechanisms of Status Epilepticus (SE) and the ensuing latent period in animal models of

  8. Frontier of Epilepsy Research - mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Studies of epilepsy have mainly focused on the membrane proteins that control neuronal excitability. Recently, attention has been shifting to intracellular proteins and their interactions, signaling cascades and feedback regulation as they relate to epilepsy. The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway, especially, has been suggested to play an important role in this regard. These pathways are involved in major physiological processes as well as in numerous pathological conditions. Here, involvement of the mTOR pathway in epilepsy will be reviewed by presenting; an overview of the pathway, a brief description of key signaling molecules, a summary of independent reports and possible implications of abnormalities of those molecules in epilepsy, a discussion of the lack of experimental data, and questions raised for the understanding its epileptogenic mechanism. PMID:21467839

  9. The Hippo signaling pathway in stem cell biology and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Jung-Soon; Park, Hyun Woo; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway, consisting of a highly conserved kinase cascade (MST and Lats) and downstream transcription coactivators (YAP and TAZ), plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and organ size control by regulating tissue-specific stem cells. Moreover, this pathway plays a prominent role in tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway is associated with cancer development. Recent studies have revealed a complex network of upstream inputs, including cell density, mechanical sensation, and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, that modulate Hippo pathway activity. This review focuses on the role of the Hippo pathway in stem cell biology and its potential implications in tissue homeostasis and cancer. PMID:24825474

  10. Ontology based standardization of Petri net modeling for signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Takai-Igarashi, Takako

    2005-01-01

    Taking account of the great availability of Petri nets in modeling and analyzing large complicated signaling networks, semantics of Petri nets is in need of systematization for the purpose of consistency and reusability of the models. This paper reports on standardization of units of Petri nets on the basis of an ontology that gives an intrinsic definition to the process of signaling in signaling pathways.

  11. Ontology based standardization of petri net modeling for signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Takai-Igarashi, Takako

    2011-01-01

    Taking account of the great availability of Petri nets in modeling and analyzing large complicated signaling networks, semantics of Petri nets is in need of systematization for the purpose of consistency and reusability of the models. This paper reports on standardization of units of Petri nets on the basis of an ontology that gives an intrinsic definition to the process of signaling in signaling pathways.

  12. Colored Petri net modeling and simulation of signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Zimmer, Ralf; Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Sunwon

    2006-03-01

    Presented herein is a methodology for quantitatively analyzing the complex signaling network by resorting to colored Petri nets (CPN). The mathematical as well as Petri net models for two basic reaction types were established, followed by the extension to a large signal transduction system stimulated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in an application study. The CPN models based on the Petri net representation and the conservation and kinetic equations were used to examine the dynamic behavior of the EGF signaling pathway. The usefulness of Petri nets is demonstrated for the quantitative analysis of the signal transduction pathway. Moreover, the trade-offs between modeling capability and simulation efficiency of this pathway are explored, suggesting that the Petri net model can be invaluable in the initial stage of building a dynamic model.

  13. A nodal signaling pathway regulates the laterality of neuroanatomical asymmetries in the zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Concha, M L; Burdine, R D; Russell, C; Schier, A F; Wilson, S W

    2000-11-01

    Animals show behavioral asymmetries that are mediated by differences between the left and right sides of the brain. We report that the laterality of asymmetric development of the diencephalic habenular nuclei and the photoreceptive pineal complex is regulated by the Nodal signaling pathway and by midline tissue. Analysis of zebrafish embryos with compromised Nodal signaling reveals an early role for this pathway in the repression of asymmetrically expressed genes in the diencephalon. Later signaling mediated by the EGF-CFC protein One-eyed pinhead and the forkhead transcription factor Schmalspur is required to overcome this repression. When expression of Nodal pathway genes is either absent or symmetrical, neuroanatomical asymmetries are still established but are randomized. This indicates that Nodal signaling is not required for asymmetric development per se but is essential to determine the laterality of the asymmetry.

  14. AT1 receptor signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; O'Brien, Shannon; Baggett, Ariele; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2017-11-01

    The importance of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has been well described whereas the detailed molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor) is one of the key players in the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. The AT1 receptor promotes various intracellular signaling pathways resulting in hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodeling and end organ damage. Accumulating evidence shows the complex picture of AT1 receptor-mediated signaling; AT1 receptor-mediated heterotrimeric G protein-dependent signaling, transactivation of growth factor receptors, NADPH oxidase and ROS signaling, G protein-independent signaling, including the β-arrestin signals and interaction with several AT1 receptor interacting proteins. In addition, there is functional cross-talk between the AT1 receptor signaling pathway and other signaling pathways. In this review, we will summarize an up to date overview of essential AT1 receptor signaling events and their functional significances in the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aldolase positively regulates of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved system, having pivotal roles during animal development. When over-activated, this signaling pathway is involved in cancer initiation and progression. The canonical Wnt pathway regulates the stability of β-catenin primarily by a destruction complex containing a number of different proteins, including Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) and Axin, that promote proteasomal degradation of β-catenin. As this signaling cascade is modified by various proteins, novel screens aimed at identifying new Wnt signaling regulators were conducted in our laboratory. One of the different genes that were identified as Wnt signaling activators was Aldolase C (ALDOC). Here we report that ALDOC, Aldolase A (ALDOA) and Aldolase B (ALDOB) activate Wnt signaling in a GSK-3β-dependent mechanism, by disrupting the GSK-3β-Axin interaction and targeting Axin to the dishevelled (Dvl)-induced signalosomes that positively regulate the Wnt pathway thus placing the Aldolase proteins as novel Wnt signaling regulators. PMID:24993527

  16. ERβ induces the differentiation of cultured osteoblasts by both Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways

    SciT

    Yin, Xinhua; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Hu, Xiongke

    Although 17β-estradial (E2) is known to stimulate bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent studies have implicated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a major signaling cascade in bone biology. The interactions between Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and estrogen signaling pathways have been reported in many tissues. In this study, E2 significantly increased the expression of β-catenin by inducing phosphorylations of GSK3β at serine 9. ERβ siRNAs were transfected into MC3T3-E1 cells and revealed that ERβ involved E2-induced osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The osteoblast differentiation genes (BGP, ALP and OPN) and proliferation related gene (cyclin D1) expressionmore » were significantly induced by E2-mediated ERβ. Furthermore immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that E2 induced the accumulation of β-catenin protein in the nucleus which leads to interaction with T-cell-specific transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that E2 promotes osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation by inducing proliferation-related and differentiation-related gene expression via ERβ/GSK-3β-dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of E2 in osteoblastogenesis. - Highlights: • 17β-estradial (E2) promotes GSK3-β phosphorylation. • E2 activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. • The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway interacts with estrogen signaling pathways. • E2-mediated ER induced osteoblast differentiation and proliferation related genes expression.« less

  17. Regulation of early Xenopus development by ErbB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuyi; Chang, Chenbei

    2008-01-01

    ErbB signaling has long been implicated in cancer formation and progression and is shown to regulate cell division, migration and death during tumorigenesis. The functions of the ErbB pathway during early vertebrate embryogenesis, however, are not well understood. Here we report characterization of ErbB activities during early frog development. Gain-of-function analyses show that EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB4 induce ectopic tumor-like cell mass that contains increased numbers of mitotic cells. Both the muscle and the neural markers are expressed in these ectopic protrusions. ErbBs also induce mesodermal markers in ectodermal explants. Loss-of-function studies using carboxyl terminal-truncated dominant-negative ErbB receptors demonstrate that blocking ErbB signals leads to defective gastrulation movements and malformation of the embryonic axis with a reduction in the head structures in early frog embryos. These data, together with the observation that ErbBs are expressed early during frog embryogenesis, suggest that ErbBs regulate cell proliferation, movements and embryonic patterning during early Xenopus development. PMID:16258939

  18. [Signaling pathways mTOR and AKT in epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Romero-Leguizamon, C R; Ramirez-Latorre, J A; Mora-Munoz, L; Guerrero-Naranjo, A

    2016-07-01

    The signaling pathway AKT/mTOR is a central axis in regulating cellular processes, particularly in neurological diseases. In the case of epilepsy, it has been observed alteration in the pathophysiological process of the same. However, they have not described all the mechanisms of these signaling pathways that could open the opportunity to new research and therapeutic strategies. To review existing partnerships between intracellular signaling pathways AKT and mTOR in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Epilepsy is a disease with a high epidemiological impact globally, so it is widely investigated regarding the pathophysiological components thereof. In that search they have been involved different intracellular signaling pathways in neurons, as determinants epileptogenic. Advances in this field have even allowed the successful implementation of new therapeutic strategies and to open the way to new research in the field. Improving knowledge about the pathophysiological role of the signaling pathway mTOR/AKT in epilepsy can raise new investigations regarding therapeutic alternatives. The use of mTOR inhibitors, has emerged in recent years as effective in treating this disease entity alternative however is clear the necessity of continue the research for new drug therapies.

  19. Genomics and expression profiles of the Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways in sea urchin development.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine D; Croce, Jenifer C; Glenn, Thomas D; Wu, Shu-Yu; McClay, David R

    2006-12-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) and Notch signal transduction pathways control a variety of developmental processes including cell fate choice, differentiation, proliferation, patterning and boundary formation. Because many components of these pathways are conserved, it was predicted and confirmed that pathway components are largely intact in the sea urchin genome. Spatial and temporal location of these pathways in the embryo, and their function in development offer added insight into their mechanistic contributions. Accordingly, all major components of both pathways were identified and annotated in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the embryonic expression of key components was explored. Relationships of the pathway components, and modifiers predicted from the annotation of S. purpuratus, were compared against cnidarians, arthropods, urochordates, and vertebrates. These analyses support the prediction that the pathways are highly conserved through metazoan evolution. Further, the location of these two pathways appears to be conserved among deuterostomes, and in the case of Notch at least, display similar capacities in endomesoderm gene regulatory networks. RNA expression profiles by quantitative PCR and RNA in situ hybridization reveal that Hedgehog is produced by the endoderm beginning just prior to invagination, and signals to the secondary mesenchyme-derived tissues at least until the pluteus larva stage. RNA in situ hybridization of Notch pathway members confirms that Notch functions sequentially in the vegetal-most secondary mesenchyme cells and later in the endoderm. Functional analyses in future studies will embed these pathways into the growing knowledge of gene regulatory networks that govern early specification and morphogenesis.

  20. Computational identification of signalling pathways in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Oyelade, Jelili; Ewejobi, Itunu; Brors, Benedikt; Eils, Roland; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2011-06-01

    Malaria is one of the world's most common and serious diseases causing death of about 3 million people each year. Its most severe occurrence is caused by the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. Reports have shown that the resistance of the parasite to existing drugs is increasing. Therefore, there is a huge and urgent need to discover and validate new drug or vaccine targets to enable the development of new treatments for malaria. The ability to discover these drug or vaccine targets can only be enhanced from our deep understanding of the detailed biology of the parasite, for example how cells function and how proteins organize into modules such as metabolic, regulatory and signal transduction pathways. It has been noted that the knowledge of signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium is fundamental to aid the design of new strategies against malaria. This work uses a linear-time algorithm for finding paths in a network under modified biologically motivated constraints. We predicted several important signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium falciparum. We have predicted a viable signalling pathway characterized in terms of the genes responsible that may be the PfPKB pathway recently elucidated in Plasmodium falciparum. We obtained from the FIKK family, a signal transduction pathway that ends up on a chloroquine resistance marker protein, which indicates that interference with FIKK proteins might reverse Plasmodium falciparum from resistant to sensitive phenotype. We also proposed a hypothesis that showed the FIKK proteins in this pathway as enabling the resistance parasite to have a mechanism for releasing chloroquine (via an efflux process). Furthermore, we also predicted a signalling pathway that may have been responsible for signalling the start of the invasion process of Red Blood Cell (RBC) by the merozoites. It has been noted that the understanding of this pathway will give insight into the parasite virulence and will facilitate rational vaccine design

  1. A multi-pathway hypothesis for human visual fear signaling

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, David N.; Ingvar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed for five visual fear signaling pathways in humans, based on an analysis of anatomical connectivity from primate studies and human functional connectvity and tractography from brain imaging studies. Earlier work has identified possible subcortical and cortical fear pathways known as the “low road” and “high road,” which arrive at the amygdala independently. In addition to a subcortical pathway, we propose four cortical signaling pathways in humans along the visual ventral stream. All four of these traverse through the LGN to the visual cortex (VC) and branching off at the inferior temporal area, with one projection directly to the amygdala; another traversing the orbitofrontal cortex; and two others passing through the parietal and then prefrontal cortex, one excitatory pathway via the ventral-medial area and one regulatory pathway via the ventral-lateral area. These pathways have progressively longer propagation latencies and may have progressively evolved with brain development to take advantage of higher-level processing. Using the anatomical path lengths and latency estimates for each of these five pathways, predictions are made for the relative processing times at selective ROIs and arrival at the amygdala, based on the presentation of a fear-relevant visual stimulus. Partial verification of the temporal dynamics of this hypothesis might be accomplished using experimental MEG analysis. Possible experimental protocols are suggested. PMID:26379513

  2. Regulation of the Hippo signaling pathway by ubiquitin modification.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngeun; Jho, Eek-Hoon

    2018-03-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway plays an essential role in adult tissue homeostasis and organ size control. Abnormal regulation of Hippo signaling can be a cause for multiple types of human cancers. Since the awareness of the importance of the Hippo signaling in a wide range of biological fields has been continually grown, it is also understood that a thorough and well-rounded comprehension of the precise dynamics could provide fundamental insights for therapeutic applications. Several components in the Hippo signaling pathway are known to be targeted for proteasomal degradation via ubiquitination by E3 ligases. β-TrCP is a well-known E3 ligase of YAP/TAZ, which leads to the reduction of YAP/TAZ levels. The Hippo signaling pathway can also be inhibited by the E3 ligases (such as ITCH) which target LATS1/2 for degradation. Regulation via ubiquitination involves not only complex network of E3 ligases but also deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin from its targets. Interestingly, non-degradative ubiquitin modifications are also known to play important roles in the regulation of Hippo signaling. Although there has been much advanced progress in the investigation of ubiquitin modifications acting as regulators of the Hippo signaling pathway, research done to date still remains inadequate due to the sheer complexity and diversity of the subject. Herein, we review and discuss recent developments that implicate ubiquitin-mediated regulatory mechanisms at multiple steps of the Hippo signaling pathway. [BMB Reports 2018; 51(3): 143-150].

  3. Chaperokine-induced signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Asea, Alexzander

    2003-01-01

    A turning point in understanding the function of heat shock proteins (HSP) on components of the immune system has now begun. From their original description as intracellular molecular chaperones of naïve, aberrantly folded or mutated proteins and primarily involved in cytoprotection in response to stressful stimuli, in recent years, new functions of HSP have been revealed. Strong evidence now exists demonstrating that the seventy-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) exits mammalian cells not only following necrotic cell death but also by a process involving its active release in response to stresses including cytokines, acute psychological stress and exercise. The released extracellular HSP70 interacts with cells of the immune system and exerts immunoregulatory effects--known as the chaperokine activity of HSP70. The chaperokine activity of HSP70 is mediated in part by utilizing surface receptors for both Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2; receptor for Gram-positive bacteria) and TLR4 (receptor for Gram-negative bacteria) in a CD14-dependent fashion. These findings suggest an important role for heat shock proteins in host protection against pathogenic infection. This review will briefly discuss chaperokine-induced signaling and its relevance to infection and exercise.

  4. Chaperokine-Induced Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Asea, Alexzander

    2007-01-01

    A turning point in understanding the function of heat shock proteins (HSP) on components of the immune system has now begun. From their original description as intracellular molecular chaperones of naïve, aberrantly folded or mutated proteins and primarily involved in cytoprotection in response to stressful stimuli, in recent years, new functions of HSP have been revealed. Strong evidence now exists demonstrating that the seventy-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) exits mammalian cells not only following necrotic cell death but also by a process involving its active release in response to stresses including cytokines, acute psychological stress and exercise. The released extracellular HSP70 interacts with cells of the immune system and exerts immunoregulatory effects - known as the chaperokine activity of HSP70. The chaperokine activity of HSP70 is mediated in part by utilizing surface receptors for both Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2; receptor for Gram-positive bacteria) and TLR4 (receptor for Gram-negative bacteria) in a CD14-dependent fashion. These findings suggest an important role for heat shock proteins in host protection against pathogenic infection. This review will briefly discuss chaperokine-induced signaling and its relevance to infection and exercise. PMID:14686091

  5. Modeling of cell signaling pathways in macrophages by semantic networks

    PubMed Central

    Hsing, Michael; Bellenson, Joel L; Shankey, Conor; Cherkasov, Artem

    2004-01-01

    Background Substantial amounts of data on cell signaling, metabolic, gene regulatory and other biological pathways have been accumulated in literature and electronic databases. Conventionally, this information is stored in the form of pathway diagrams and can be characterized as highly "compartmental" (i.e. individual pathways are not connected into more general networks). Current approaches for representing pathways are limited in their capacity to model molecular interactions in their spatial and temporal context. Moreover, the critical knowledge of cause-effect relationships among signaling events is not reflected by most conventional approaches for manipulating pathways. Results We have applied a semantic network (SN) approach to develop and implement a model for cell signaling pathways. The semantic model has mapped biological concepts to a set of semantic agents and relationships, and characterized cell signaling events and their participants in the hierarchical and spatial context. In particular, the available information on the behaviors and interactions of the PI3K enzyme family has been integrated into the SN environment and a cell signaling network in human macrophages has been constructed. A SN-application has been developed to manipulate the locations and the states of molecules and to observe their actions under different biological scenarios. The approach allowed qualitative simulation of cell signaling events involving PI3Ks and identified pathways of molecular interactions that led to known cellular responses as well as other potential responses during bacterial invasions in macrophages. Conclusions We concluded from our results that the semantic network is an effective method to model cell signaling pathways. The semantic model allows proper representation and integration of information on biological structures and their interactions at different levels. The reconstruction of the cell signaling network in the macrophage allowed detailed

  6. SPV: a JavaScript Signaling Pathway Visualizer.

    PubMed

    Calderone, Alberto; Cesareni, Gianni

    2018-03-24

    The visualization of molecular interactions annotated in web resources is useful to offer to users such information in a clear intuitive layout. These interactions are frequently represented as binary interactions that are laid out in free space where, different entities, cellular compartments and interaction types are hardly distinguishable. SPV (Signaling Pathway Visualizer) is a free open source JavaScript library which offers a series of pre-defined elements, compartments and interaction types meant to facilitate the representation of signaling pathways consisting of causal interactions without neglecting simple protein-protein interaction networks. freely available under Apache version 2 license; Source code: https://github.com/Sinnefa/SPV_Signaling_Pathway_Visualizer_v1.0. Language: JavaScript; Web technology: Scalable Vector Graphics; Libraries: D3.js. sinnefa@gmail.com.

  7. Triggering signaling pathways using F-actin self-organization.

    PubMed

    Colin, A; Bonnemay, L; Gayrard, C; Gautier, J; Gueroui, Z

    2016-10-04

    The spatiotemporal organization of proteins within cells is essential for cell fate behavior. Although it is known that the cytoskeleton is vital for numerous cellular functions, it remains unclear how cytoskeletal activity can shape and control signaling pathways in space and time throughout the cell cytoplasm. Here we show that F-actin self-organization can trigger signaling pathways by engineering two novel properties of the microfilament self-organization: (1) the confinement of signaling proteins and (2) their scaffolding along actin polymers. Using in vitro reconstitutions of cellular functions, we found that both the confinement of nanoparticle-based signaling platforms powered by F-actin contractility and the scaffolding of engineered signaling proteins along actin microfilaments can drive a signaling switch. Using Ran-dependent microtubule nucleation, we found that F-actin dynamics promotes the robust assembly of microtubules. Our in vitro assay is a first step towards the development of novel bottom-up strategies to decipher the interplay between cytoskeleton spatial organization and signaling pathway activity.

  8. Triggering signaling pathways using F-actin self-organization

    PubMed Central

    Colin, A.; Bonnemay, L.; Gayrard, C.; Gautier, J.; Gueroui, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The spatiotemporal organization of proteins within cells is essential for cell fate behavior. Although it is known that the cytoskeleton is vital for numerous cellular functions, it remains unclear how cytoskeletal activity can shape and control signaling pathways in space and time throughout the cell cytoplasm. Here we show that F-actin self-organization can trigger signaling pathways by engineering two novel properties of the microfilament self-organization: (1) the confinement of signaling proteins and (2) their scaffolding along actin polymers. Using in vitro reconstitutions of cellular functions, we found that both the confinement of nanoparticle-based signaling platforms powered by F-actin contractility and the scaffolding of engineered signaling proteins along actin microfilaments can drive a signaling switch. Using Ran-dependent microtubule nucleation, we found that F-actin dynamics promotes the robust assembly of microtubules. Our in vitro assay is a first step towards the development of novel bottom-up strategies to decipher the interplay between cytoskeleton spatial organization and signaling pathway activity. PMID:27698406

  9. Evidence for possible non-canonical pathway(s) driven early-onset colorectal cancer in India

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Ratheesh; Kotapalli, Viswakalyan; Adduri, Raju; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata; Bashyam, Leena; Chaudhary, Ajay; Vamsy, Mohana; Patnaik, Sujith; Srinivasulu, Mukta; Sastry, Regulagadda; Rao, Subramanyeshwar; Vasala, Anjayneyulu; Kalidindi, NarasimhaRaju; Pollack, Jonathan; Murthy, Sudha; Bashyam, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Two genetic instability pathways viz. chromosomal instability, driven primarily by APC mutation induced deregulated Wnt signaling, and microsatellite instability (MSI) caused by mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation, together account for greater than 90% of late-onset colorectal cancer. Our understanding of early-onset sporadic CRC is however comparatively limited. In addition, most seminal studies have been performed in the western population and analyses of tumorigenesis pathway(s) causing CRC in developing nations have been rare. We performed a comparative analysis of early and late-onset CRC from India with respect to common genetic aberrations including Wnt, KRAS and p53 (constituting the classical CRC progression sequence) in addition to MSI. Our results revealed the absence of Wnt and MSI in a significant proportion of early-onset as against late-onset CRC in India. In addition, KRAS mutation frequency was significantly lower in early-onset CRC indicating that a significant proportion of CRC in India may follow tumorigenesis pathways distinct from the classical CRC progression sequence. Our study has therefore revealed the possible existence of non-canonical tumorigenesis pathways in early-onset CRC in India. PMID:23168910

  10. How Hippo Signaling Pathway Modulates Cardiovascular Development and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenyi; Zhao, Mingyi

    2018-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death around the globe. Cardiac deterioration is associated with irreversible cardiomyocyte loss. Understanding how the cardiovascular system develops and the pathological processes of cardiac disease will contribute to finding novel and preventive therapeutic methods. The canonical Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in mammalian cells is primarily composed of the MST1/2-SAV1-LATS1/2-MOB1-YAP/TAZ cascade. Continuing research on this pathway has identified other factors like RASSF1A, Nf2, MAP4Ks, and NDR1/2, further enriching our knowledge of the Hippo-YAP pathway. YAP, the core effecter of the Hippo pathway, may accumulate in the nucleus and initiate transcriptional activity if the pathway is inhibited. The role of Hippo signaling has been widely investigated in organ development and cancers. A heart of normal size and function which is critical for survival could not be generated without the proper regulation of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Recent research has demonstrated a novel role of Hippo signaling in cardiovascular disease in the context of development, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, regeneration, apoptosis, and autophagy. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how Hippo signaling modulates pathological processes in cardiovascular disease and discuss potential molecular therapeutic targets.

  11. Regulation of Tissue Growth by the Mammalian Hippo Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Kevin I.; Harvey, Kieran F.; Gregorevic, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The integrative control of diverse biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and metabolism is essential to maintain cellular and tissue homeostasis. Disruption of these underlie the development of many disease states including cancer and diabetes, as well as many of the complications that arise as a consequence of aging. These biological outputs are governed by many cellular signaling networks that function independently, and in concert, to convert changes in hormonal, mechanical and metabolic stimuli into alterations in gene expression. First identified in Drosophila melanogaster as a powerful mediator of cell division and apoptosis, the Hippo signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of mammalian organ size and functional capacity in both healthy and diseased tissues. Recent studies have implicated the pathway as an effector of diverse physiological cues demonstrating an essential role for the Hippo pathway as an integrative component of cellular homeostasis. In this review, we will: (a) outline the critical signaling elements that constitute the mammalian Hippo pathway, and how they function to regulate Hippo pathway-dependent gene expression and tissue growth, (b) discuss evidence that shows this pathway functions as an effector of diverse physiological stimuli and (c) highlight key questions in this developing field. PMID:29225579

  12. A lateral signalling pathway coordinates shape volatility during cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Luga, Valbona; Armitage, Sarah K.; Musiol, Martin; Won, Amy; Yip, Christopher M.; Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Wrana, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental for both physiological and pathological processes. Migrating cells usually display high dynamics in morphology, which is orchestrated by an integrative array of signalling pathways. Here we identify a novel pathway, we term lateral signalling, comprised of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Pk1 and the RhoGAPs, Arhgap21/23. We show that the Pk1–Arhgap21/23 complex inhibits RhoA, is localized on the non-protrusive lateral membrane cortex and its disruption leads to the disorganization of the actomyosin network and altered focal adhesion dynamics. Pk1-mediated lateral signalling confines protrusive activity and is regulated by Smurf2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the PCP pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that dynamic interplay between lateral and protrusive signalling generates cyclical fluctuations in cell shape that we quantify here as shape volatility, which strongly correlates with migration speed. These studies uncover a previously unrecognized lateral signalling pathway that coordinates shape volatility during productive cell migration. PMID:27226243

  13. Dissecting Nck/Dock signaling pathways in Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yong

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of neuronal connections during embryonic development requires the precise guidance and targeting of the neuronal growth cone, an expanded cellular structure at the leading tip of a growing axon. The growth cone contains sophisticated signaling systems that allow the rapid communication between guidance receptors and the actin cytoskeleton in generating directed motility. Previous studies demonstrated a specific role for the Nck/Dock SH2/SH3 adapter protein in photoreceptor (R cell) axon guidance and target recognition in the Drosophila visual system, suggesting strongly that Nck/Dock is one of the long-sought missing links between cell surface receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, I discuss the recent progress on dissecting the Nck/Dock signaling pathways in R-cell growth cones. These studies have identified additional key components of the Nck/Dock signaling pathways for linking the receptor signaling to the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling growth-cone motility.

  14. Implementing Guided Pathways: Early Insights from the AACC Pathways Colleges. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Lahr, Hana; Fink, John

    2017-01-01

    This summary is a digest of key findings from "Implementing Guided Pathways: Early Insights From the AACC Pathways Colleges," a report based on Community College Research Center's (CCRC's) research on the 30 colleges involved in the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Pathways Project. The research presented in this report…

  15. Stem cell maintenance by manipulating signaling pathways: past, current and future

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Ye, Shoudong; Ying, Qi-Long

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells only exist in a narrow window during early embryonic development, whereas multipotent stem cells are abundant throughout embryonic development and are retainedin various adult tissues and organs. While pluripotent stem cell lines have been established from several species, including mouse, rat, and human, it is still challenging to establish stable multipotent stem cell lines from embryonic or adult tissues. Based on current knowledge, we anticipate that by manipulating extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways, most if not all types of stem cells can be maintained in a long-term culture. In this article, we summarize current culture conditions established for the long-term maintenance of authentic pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the signaling pathways involved. We also discuss the general principles of stem cell maintenance and propose several strategies on the establishment of novel stem cell lines through manipulation of signaling pathways. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 668-676] PMID:26497581

  16. Complex regulation of HSC emergence by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Butko, Emerald; Pouget, Claire; Traver, David

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are formed during embryonic development, and serve as the foundation of the definitive blood program for life. Notch signaling has been well established as an essential direct contributor to HSC specification. However, several recent studies have indicated that the contribution of Notch signaling is complex. HSC specification requires multiple Notch signaling inputs, some received directly by hematopoietic precursors, and others that occur indirectly within neighboring somites. Of note, proinflammatory signals provided by primitive myeloid cells are needed for HSC specification via upregulation of the Notch pathway in hemogenic endothelium. In addition to multiple requirements for Notch activation, recent studies indicate that Notch signaling must subsequently be repressed to permit HSC emergence. Finally, Notch must then be reactivated to maintain HSC fate. In this review, we discuss the growing understanding of the dynamic contributions of Notch signaling to the establishment of hematopoiesis during development. PMID:26586199

  17. Wnt pathway in Dupuytren disease: connecting profibrotic signals.

    PubMed

    van Beuge, Marike M; Ten Dam, Evert-Jan P M; Werker, Paul M N; Bank, Ruud A

    2015-12-01

    A role of Wnt signaling in Dupuytren disease, a fibroproliferative disease of the hand and fingers, has not been fully elucidated. We examined a large set of Wnt pathway components and signaling targets and found significant dysregulation of 41 Wnt-related genes in tissue from the Dupuytren nodules compared with patient-matched control tissue. A large proportion of genes coding for Wnt proteins themselves was downregulated. However, both canonical Wnt targets and components of the noncanonical signaling pathway were upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that protein expression of Wnt1-inducible secreted protein 1 (WISP1), a known Wnt target, was increased in nodules compared with control tissue, but knockdown of WISP1 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in the Dupuytren myofibroblasts did not confirm a functional role. The protein expression of noncanonical pathway components Wnt5A and VANGL2 as well as noncanonical coreceptors Ror2 and Ryk was increased in nodules. On the contrary, the strongest downregulated genes in this study were 4 antagonists of Wnt signaling (DKK1, FRZB, SFRP1, and WIF1). Downregulation of these genes in the Dupuytren tissue was mimicked in vitro by treating normal fibroblasts with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), suggesting cross talk between different profibrotic pathways. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of these antagonists in normal fibroblasts led to increased nuclear translocation of Wnt target β-catenin in response to TGF-β1 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown extensive dysregulation of Wnt signaling in affected tissue from Dupuytren disease patients. Components of both the canonical and the noncanonical pathways are upregulated, whereas endogenous antagonists are downregulated, possibly via interaction with other profibrotic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative Biology of Exercise-Induced Signal Transduction Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Liu, Gang; Hu, Shao-Juan; Zhu, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Bo; Zhang, Quan-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is essential in regulating energy metabolism. Exercise activates cellular, molecular, and biochemical pathways with regulatory roles in training response adaptation. Among them, endurance/strength training of an individual has been shown to activate its respective signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle. This was further studied from the viewpoint of quantitative difference (QD). For the mean values, [Formula: see text], of two sets of data, their QD is defined as [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The function-specific homeostasis (FSH) of a function of a biosystem is a negative-feedback response of the biosystem to maintain the function-specific conditions inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A function in/far from its FSH is called a normal/dysfunctional function. A cellular normal function can resist the activation of other signal transduction pathways so that there are normal function-specific signal transduction pathways which full activation maintains the normal function. An acute endurance/strength training may be dysfunctional, but its regular training may be normal. The normal endurance/strength training of an individual may resist the activation of other signal transduction pathways in skeletal muscle so that there may be normal endurance/strength training-specific signal transduction pathways (NEPs/NSPs) in skeletal muscle. The endurance/strength training may activate NSPs/NEPs, but the QD from the control is smaller than 0.80. The simultaneous activation of both NSPs and NEPs may enhance their respective activation, and the QD from the control is larger than 0.80. The low level laser irradiation pretreatment of rats may promote the activation of NSPs in endurance training skeletal muscle. There may be NEPs/NSPs in skeletal muscle trained by normal endurance/strength training.

  19. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway: input and output integration.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2007-03-01

    Universal and essential to cytokine receptor signaling, the JAK-STAT pathway is one of the best understood signal transduction cascades. Almost 40 cytokine receptors signal through combinations of four JAK and seven STAT family members, suggesting commonality across the JAK-STAT signaling system. Despite intense study, there remain substantial gaps in understanding how the cascades are activated and regulated. Using the examples of the IL-6 and IL-10 receptors, I will discuss how diverse outcomes in gene expression result from regulatory events that effect the JAK1-STAT3 pathway, common to both receptors. I also consider receptor preferences by different STATs and interpretive problems in the use of STAT-deficient cells and mice. Finally, I consider how the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins regulate the quality and quantity of STAT signals from cytokine receptors. New data suggests that SOCS proteins introduce additional diversity into the JAK-STAT pathway by adjusting the output of activated STATs that alters downstream gene activation.

  20. YAP regulates neuronal differentiation through Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    SciT

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Ding, Jing-Ya; Li, Ming-Yang

    2012-09-10

    Tight regulation of cell numbers by controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis is important during development. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to regulate tissue growth and organ size in Drosophila. In mammalian cells, it also affects cell proliferation and differentiation in various tissues, including the nervous system. Interplay of several signaling cascades, such as Notch, Wnt, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathways, control cell proliferation during neuronal differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether the Hippo pathway coordinates with other signaling cascades in regulating neuronal differentiation. Here, we used P19 cells, a mouse embryonic carcinoma cell line, as a model tomore » study roles of YAP, a core component of the Hippo pathway, in neuronal differentiation. P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons by expressing a neural bHLH transcription factor gene Ascl1. Our results showed that YAP promoted cell proliferation and inhibited neuronal differentiation. Expression of Yap activated Shh but not Wnt or Notch signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, expression of Yap increased the expression of Patched homolog 1 (Ptch1), a downstream target of the Shh signaling. Knockdown of Gli2, a transcription factor of the Shh pathway, promoted neuronal differentiation even when Yap was over-expressed. We further demonstrated that over-expression of Yap inhibited neuronal differentiation in primary mouse cortical progenitors and Gli2 knockdown rescued the differentiation defect in Yap over-expressing cells. In conclusion, our study reveals that Shh signaling acts downstream of YAP in regulating neuronal differentiation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in P19 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YAP promotes Sonic hedgehog signaling activity during neuronal differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Gli2 rescues the

  1. The Hippo signaling pathway in liver regeneration and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lixin; Cai, Yabo; Jiang, Mingting; Zhou, Dawang; Chen, Lanfen

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling module that plays critical roles in liver size control and tumorigenesis. The Hippo pathway consists of a core kinase cascade in which the mammalian Ste20-like kinases (Mst1/2, orthologs of Drosophila Hippo) and their cofactor Salvador (Sav1) form a complex to phosphorylate and activate the large tumor suppressor (Lats1/2). Lats1/2 kinases in turn phosphorylate and inhibit the transcription co-activators, the Yes-associated protein (YAP) and the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), two major downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway. Losses of the Hippo pathway components induce aberrant hepatomegaly and tumorigenesis, in which YAP coordinates regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis and plays an essential role. This review summarizes the current findings of the regulation of Hippo signaling in liver regeneration and tumorigenesis, focusing on how the loss of tumor suppressor components of the Hippo pathway results in liver cancers and discussing the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression and activation of its downstream effector YAP in liver tumorigenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Cellular Metabolic and Autophagic Pathways: Traffic Control by Redox Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Matthew; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that the key metabolic pathways of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are intimately related to redox biology through control of cell signaling. Under physiological conditions glucose metabolism is linked to control of the NADH/NAD redox couple, as well as providing the major reductant, NADPH, for thiol-dependent antioxidant defenses. Retrograde signaling from the mitochondrion to the nucleus or cytosol controls cell growth and differentiation. Under pathological conditions mitochondria are targets for reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and are critical in controlling apoptotic cell death. At the interface of these metabolic pathways, the autophagy-lysosomal pathway functions to maintain mitochondrial quality, and generally serves an important cytoprotective function. In this review we will discuss the autophagic response to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that are generated from perturbations of cellular glucose metabolism and bioenergetic function. PMID:23702245

  3. Eliminating Cancer Stem Cells by Targeting Embryonic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Oren, Ohad; Smith, B Douglas

    2017-02-01

    Dramatic advances have been made in the understanding of cancer over the past decade. Prime among those are better appreciation of the biology of cancer and the development of targeted therapies. Despite these improvements, however, most tumors remain refractory to anti-cancer medications and frequently recur. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs), which in some cases express markers of pluripotency (e.g., Oct-4), share many of the molecular features of normal stem cells. These cells have been hypothesised to play a role in tumor resistance and relapse. They exhibit dependence on many primitive regulatory pathways and may be best viewed in the context of embryonic signaling pathways. In this article, we review important embryonic signaling cascades and their differential expression in CSCs. We also discuss these pathways as actionable targets for novel therapies in hopes that eliminating cancer stem cells will lead to an improvement in overall survival for patients.

  4. Targeting the Notch signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daoxin; Zhu, Yuanchao; Ji, Chunyan; Hou, Ming

    2010-05-01

    The Notch signaling pathway regulates a variety of processes and has been linked to diverse effects. Aberrant Notch function is important in several disorders. Pre-clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of Notch is an attractive approach to treat hematologic and solid malignancies. Many patients with refractory autoimmune diseases respond poorly to therapy and have significant morbidity and the treatment is highly toxic, so more effective therapies for autoimmune diseases are being examined. The role of the Notch pathway and therapeutic strategies targeting it in many illnesses, especially autoimmune diseases. The Notch pathway has unique and attractive advantages for targeting. Targeting it has already been trialed in many experiments, which may show better efficacy and fewer side effects compared with classical drugs for the treatment. Targeting Notch might provide etiological rather than symptomatic treatment. Various methods targeting the Notch pathway have been under investigation. Rational targeting of the Notch signaling pathway in cancer and some autoimmune diseases has proven to be successful. Classical drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases are inefficient and toxic to some extent, and targeting the Notch pathway is a promising therapeutic concept. However, there are still many questions about targeting Notch in autoimmune diseases, and further investigation will be needed.

  5. How Genetics Has Helped Piece Together the MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ashton-Beaucage, Dariel; Therrien, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Cells respond to changes in their environment, to developmental cues, and to pathogen aggression through the action of a complex network of proteins. These networks can be decomposed into a multitude of signaling pathways that relay signals from the microenvironment to the cellular components involved in eliciting a specific response. Perturbations in these signaling processes are at the root of multiple pathologies, the most notable of these being cancer. The study of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling led to the first description of a mechanism whereby an extracellular signal is transmitted to the nucleus to induce a transcriptional response. Genetic studies conducted in drosophila and nematodes have provided key elements to this puzzle. Here, we briefly discuss the somewhat lesser known contribution of these multicellular organisms to our understanding of what has come to be known as the prototype of signaling pathways. We also discuss the ostensibly much larger network of regulators that has emerged from recent functional genomic investigations of RTK/RAS/ERK signaling.

  6. Stress signaling pathways for the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Yong-Sun; Jung, Kwang-Woo

    2013-12-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. This ability is also essential for Cryptococcus neoformans and its sibling species Cryptococcus gattii, as these pathogens have saprobic and parasitic life cycles in natural and animal host environments. The ability of Cryptococcus to cause fatal meningoencephalitis is highly related to its capability to remodel and optimize its metabolic and physiological status according to external cues. These cues act through multiple stress signaling pathways through a panoply of signaling components, including receptors/sensors, small GTPases, secondary messengers, kinases, transcription factors, and other miscellaneous adaptors or regulators. In this minireview, we summarize and highlight the importance of several stress signaling pathways that influence the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus and discuss future challenges in these areas.

  7. Stress Signaling Pathways for the Pathogenicity of Cryptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. This ability is also essential for Cryptococcus neoformans and its sibling species Cryptococcus gattii, as these pathogens have saprobic and parasitic life cycles in natural and animal host environments. The ability of Cryptococcus to cause fatal meningoencephalitis is highly related to its capability to remodel and optimize its metabolic and physiological status according to external cues. These cues act through multiple stress signaling pathways through a panoply of signaling components, including receptors/sensors, small GTPases, secondary messengers, kinases, transcription factors, and other miscellaneous adaptors or regulators. In this minireview, we summarize and highlight the importance of several stress signaling pathways that influence the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus and discuss future challenges in these areas. PMID:24078305

  8. Chemical modulation of glycerolipid signaling and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Sarah A.; Mathews, Thomas P.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Brown, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago, glycerolipids captured the attention of biochemical researchers as novel cellular signaling entities. We now recognize that these biomolecules occupy signaling nodes critical to a number of physiological and pathological processes. Thus, glycerolipid-metabolizing enzymes present attractive targets for new therapies. A number of fields—ranging from neuroscience and cancer to diabetes and obesity—have elucidated the signaling properties of glycerolipids. The biochemical literature teems with newly emerging small molecule inhibitors capable of manipulating glycerolipid metabolism and signaling. This ever-expanding pool of chemical modulators appears daunting to those interested in exploiting glycerolipid-signaling pathways in their model system of choice. This review distills the current body of literature surrounding glycerolipid metabolism into a more approachable format, facilitating the application of small molecule inhibitors to novel systems. PMID:24440821

  9. Molecular Pathways: Translational and Therapeutic Implications of the Notch Signaling Pathway in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Previs, Rebecca A.; Coleman, Robert L.; Harris, Adrian L.; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Over 100 years have passed since the first observation of the notched wing phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster, and significant progress has been made to characterize the role of the Notch receptor, its ligands, downstream targets, and crosstalk with other signaling pathways. The canonical Notch pathway with four Notch receptors (Notch1-4) and five ligands (DLL1, 3–4, Jagged 1–2) is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway that plays critical roles in cell-fate determination, differentiation, development, tissue patterning, cell proliferation, and death. In cancer, these roles have a critical impact on tumor behavior and response to therapy. Since the role of Notch remains tissue and context dependent, alterations within this pathway may lead to tumor suppressive or oncogenic phenotypes. Although no FDA approved therapies currently exist for the Notch pathway, multiple therapeutics (e.g., demcizumab, tarextumab, GSI MK0752, R04929097, and PF63084014) have been developed to target different aspects of this pathway for both hematologic and solid malignancies. Understanding the context-specific effects of the Notch pathway will be important for individualized therapies targeting this pathway. PMID:25388163

  10. Ca2+ signalling and early embryonic patterning during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sarah E; Miller, Andrew L

    2007-09-01

    1. It has been proposed that Ca2+ signalling, in the form of pulses, waves and steady gradients, may play a crucial role in key pattern-forming events during early vertebrate development. 2. With reference to the embryo of the zebrafish (Danio rerio), herein we review the Ca2+ transients reported from the cleavage to segmentation periods. This time-window includes most of the major pattern-forming events of early development, which transform a single-cell zygote into a complex multicellular embryo with established primary germ layers and body axes. 3. Data are presented to support our proposal that intracellular Ca2+ waves are an essential feature of embryonic cytokinesis and that propagating intercellular Ca2+ waves (both long and short range) may play a crucial role in: (i) the establishment of the embryonic periderm and the coordination of cell movements during epiboly, convergence and extension; (ii) the establishment of the basic embryonic axes and germ layers; and (iii) definition of the morphological boundaries of specific tissue domains and embryonic structures, including future organ anlagen. 4. The potential downstream targets of these Ca2+ transients are also discussed, as well as how they may integrate with other pattern-forming signalling pathways known to modulate early developmental events.

  11. Emerging role of Hippo signalling pathway in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianling; Zeng, Ming; Zhu, Hua; Chen, Xiangjian; Weng, Zhiliang; Li, Shi

    2018-01-01

    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with a high progression rate and poor prognosis. The Hippo signalling pathway is a conserved pathway that plays a crucial role in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Furthermore, dysregulation and/or malfunction of the Hippo pathway is common in various human tumours, including BC. In this review, an overview of the Hippo pathway in BC and other cancers is presented. We focus on recent data regarding the Hippo pathway, its network and the regulation of the downstream co-effectors YAP1/TAZ. The core components of the Hippo pathway, which induce BC stemness acquisition, metastasis and chemoresistance, will be emphasized. Additional research on the Hippo pathway will advance our understanding of the mechanism of BC as well as the development and progression of other cancers and may be exploited therapeutically. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  12. Targeting Notch signalling pathway of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Vandana; Nataraj, Raghu; Thangaraj, Gopenath S; Karthikeyan, Murugesan; Gnanasekaran, Ashok; Kaginelli, Shanmukhappa B; Kuppanna, Gobianand; Kallappa, Chandrashekrappa Gowdru; Basalingappa, Kanthesh M

    2018-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined as cells within tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. CSCs have been increasingly identified in blood cancer, prostate, ovarian, lung, melanoma, pancreatic, colon, brain and many more malignancies. CSCs have slow growth rate and are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that lead to the failure of traditional current therapy. Eradicating the CSCs and recurrence, is promising aspect for the cure of cancer. The CSCs like any other stem cells activate the signal transduction pathways that involve the development and tissue homeostasis, which include Notch signaling pathway. The new treatment targets these pathway that control stem-cell replication, survival and differentiation that are under development. Notch inhibitors either single or in combination with chemotherapy drugs have been developed to treat cancer and its recurrence. This approach of targeting signaling pathway of CSCs represents a promising future direction for the therapeutic strategy to cure cancer.

  13. A zebrafish model of PINK1 deficiency reveals key pathway dysfunction including HIF signaling.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshini, M; Tuimala, J; Chen, Y C; Panula, P

    2013-06-01

    The PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene is mutated in patients with hereditary early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). The targets of PINK1 and the mechanisms in PD are still not fully understood. Here, we carried out a high-throughput and unbiased microarray study to identify novel functions and pathways for PINK1. In larval zebrafish, the function of pink1 was inhibited using splice-site morpholino oligonucleotides and the samples were hybridized on a two-color gene expression array. We found 177 significantly altered genes in pink1 morphants compared with the uninjected wildtype controls (log fold change values from -1.6 to +0.9). The five most prominent pathways based on critical biological processes and key toxicological responses were hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling, TGF-β signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, RAR activation, and biogenesis of mitochondria. Furthermore, we verified that potentially important genes such as hif1α, catalase, SOD3, and atp1a2a were downregulated in pink1 morphants, whereas genes such as fech, pax2a, and notch1a were upregulated. Some of these genes have been found to play important roles in HIF signaling pathways. The pink1 morphants were found to have heart dysfunction, increased erythropoiesis, increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factors, and increased ROS. Our findings suggest that a lack of pink1 in zebrafish alters many vital and critical pathways in addition to the HIF signaling pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aluminum stress and its role in the phospholipid signaling pathway in plants and possible biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Poot-Poot, Wilberth; Hernandez-Sotomayor, Soledad M Teresa

    2011-10-01

    An early response of plants to environmental signals or abiotic stress suggests that the phospholipid signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in these mechanisms. The phospholipid signaling cascade is one of the main systems of cellular transduction and is related to other signal transduction mechanisms. These other mechanisms include the generation of second messengers and their interactions with various proteins, such as ion channels. This phospholipid signaling cascade is activated by changes in the environment, such as phosphate starvation, water, metals, saline stres, and plant-pathogen interactions. One important factor that impacts agricultural crops is metal-induced stress. Because aluminum has been considered to be a major toxic factor for agriculture conducted in acidic soils, many researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in plants. We have contributed the last fifteen years in this field by studying the effects of aluminum on phospholipid signaling in coffee, one of the Mexico's primary crops. We have focused our research on aluminum toxicity mechanisms in Coffea arabica suspension cells as a model for developing future contributions to the biotechnological transformation of coffee crops such that they can be made resistant to aluminum toxicity. We conclude that aluminum is able to not only generate a signal cascade in plants but also modulate other signal cascades generated by other types of stress in plants. The aim of this review is to discuss possible involvement of the phospholipid signaling pathway in the aluminum toxicity response of plant cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. BLM promotes the activation of Fanconi Anemia signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Jayabal; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Che, Raymond; Yu, Herbert; Fei, Peiwen

    2016-05-31

    Mutations in the human RecQ helicase, BLM, causes Bloom Syndrome, which is a rare autosomal recessive disorder and characterized by genomic instability and an increased risk of cancer. Fanconi Anemia (FA), resulting from mutations in any of the 19 known FA genes and those yet to be known, is also characterized by chromosomal instability and a high incidence of cancer. BLM helicase and FA proteins, therefore, may work in a common tumor-suppressor signaling pathway. To date, it remains largely unclear as to how BLM and FA proteins work concurrently in the maintenance of genome stability. Here we report that BLM is involved in the early activation of FA group D2 protein (FANCD2). We found that FANCD2 activation is substantially delayed and attenuated in crosslinking agent-treated cells harboring deficient Blm compared to similarly treated control cells with sufficient BLM. We also identified that the domain VI of BLM plays an essential role in promoting FANCD2 activation in cells treated with DNA crosslinking agents, especially ultraviolet B. The similar biological effects performed by ΔVI-BLM and inactivated FANCD2 further confirm the relationship between BLM and FANCD2. Mutations within the domain VI of BLM detected in human cancer samples demonstrate the functional importance of this domain, suggesting human tumorigenicity resulting from mtBLM may be at least partly attributed to mitigated FANCD2 activation. Collectively, our data show a previously unknown regulatory liaison in advancing our understanding of how the cancer susceptibility gene products act in concert to maintain genome stability.

  16. Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in The Cancer Genome Atlas.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Mina, Marco; Armenia, Joshua; Chatila, Walid K; Luna, Augustin; La, Konnor C; Dimitriadoy, Sofia; Liu, David L; Kantheti, Havish S; Saghafinia, Sadegh; Chakravarty, Debyani; Daian, Foysal; Gao, Qingsong; Bailey, Matthew H; Liang, Wen-Wei; Foltz, Steven M; Shmulevich, Ilya; Ding, Li; Heins, Zachary; Ochoa, Angelica; Gross, Benjamin; Gao, Jianjiong; Zhang, Hongxin; Kundra, Ritika; Kandoth, Cyriac; Bahceci, Istemi; Dervishi, Leonard; Dogrusoz, Ugur; Zhou, Wanding; Shen, Hui; Laird, Peter W; Way, Gregory P; Greene, Casey S; Liang, Han; Xiao, Yonghong; Wang, Chen; Iavarone, Antonio; Berger, Alice H; Bivona, Trever G; Lazar, Alexander J; Hammer, Gary D; Giordano, Thomas; Kwong, Lawrence N; McArthur, Grant; Huang, Chenfei; Tward, Aaron D; Frederick, Mitchell J; McCormick, Frank; Meyerson, Matthew; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Cherniack, Andrew D; Ciriello, Giovanni; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2018-04-05

    Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number changes, mRNA expression, gene fusions and DNA methylation in 9,125 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we analyzed the mechanisms and patterns of somatic alterations in ten canonical pathways: cell cycle, Hippo, Myc, Notch, Nrf2, PI-3-Kinase/Akt, RTK-RAS, TGFβ signaling, p53 and β-catenin/Wnt. We charted the detailed landscape of pathway alterations in 33 cancer types, stratified into 64 subtypes, and identified patterns of co-occurrence and mutual exclusivity. Eighty-nine percent of tumors had at least one driver alteration in these pathways, and 57% percent of tumors had at least one alteration potentially targetable by currently available drugs. Thirty percent of tumors had multiple targetable alterations, indicating opportunities for combination therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. NK cell activation: distinct stimulatory pathways counterbalancing inhibitory signals.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B; Wu, J; Phillips, J H; Lanier, L L

    2000-01-01

    A delicate balance between positive and negative signals regulates NK cell effector function. Activation of NK cells may be initiated by the triggering of multiple adhesion or costimulatory molecules, and can be counterbalanced by inhibitory signals induced by receptors for MHC class I. A common pathway of inhibitory signaling is provided by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic domains of these receptors which mediate the recruitment of SH2 domain-bearing tyrosine phosphate-1 (SHP-1). In contrast to the extensive progress that has been made regarding the negative regulation of NK cell function, our knowledge of the signals that activate NK cells is still poor. Recent studies of the activating receptor complexes have shed new light on the induction of NK cell effector function. Several NK receptors using novel adaptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and with PI 3-kinase recruiting motifs have been implicated in NK cell stimulation.

  18. Preface: cardiac control pathways: signaling and transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Sideman, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    Signaling is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular functions and coordinates cellular activity. Transfer of ions and signaling molecules and their interactions with appropriate receptors, transmembrane transport, and the consequent intracellular interactions and functional cellular response represent a complex system of interwoven phenomena of transport, signaling, conformational changes, chemical activation, and/or genetic expression. The well-being of the cell thus depends on a harmonic orchestration of all these events and the existence of control mechanisms that assure the normal behavior of the various parameters involved and their orderly expression. The ability of cells to sustain life by perceiving and responding correctly to their microenvironment is the basis for development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Natural deviations, or human-induced interference in the signaling pathways and/or inter- and intracellular transport and information transfer, are responsible for the generation, modulation, and control of diseases. The present overview aims to highlight some major topics of the highly complex cellular information transfer processes and their control mechanisms. Our goal is to contribute to the understanding of the normal and pathophysiological phenomena associated with cardiac functions so that more efficient therapeutic modalities can be developed. Our objective in this volume is to identify and enhance the study of some basic passive and active physical and chemical transport phenomena, physiological signaling pathways, and their biological consequences.

  19. Molecular Pathways of Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Joshua; Gridley, Thomas; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC. PMID:22509166

  20. Small peptide signaling pathways modulating macronutrient utilization in plants.

    PubMed

    de Bang, Thomas C; Lay, Katerina S; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Takahashi, Hideki

    2017-10-01

    Root system architecture (RSA) and physiological functions define macronutrient uptake efficiency. Small signaling peptides (SSPs), that act in manners similar to hormones, and their cognate receptors transmit signals both locally and systemically. Several SSPs controlling morphological and physiological traits of roots have been identified to be associated with macronutrient uptake. Recent development in plant genome research has provided an avenue toward systems-based identification and prediction of additional SSPs. This review highlights recent studies on SSP pathways important for optimization of macronutrient uptake and provides new insights into the diversity of SSPs regulated in response to changes in macronutrient availabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AKAP-Lbc mobilizes a cardiac hypertrophy signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Graeme K; Soughayer, Joseph; Smith, F Donelson; Pedroja, Benjamin S; Zhang, Fang; Diviani, Dario; Bristow, Michael R; Kunkel, Maya T; Newton, Alexandra C; Langeberg, Lorene K; Scott, John D

    2008-10-24

    Elevated catecholamines in the heart evoke transcriptional activation of the Myocyte Enhancer Factor (MEF) pathway to induce a cellular response known as pathological myocardial hypertrophy. We have discovered that the A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP)-Lbc is upregulated in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. It coordinates activation and movement of signaling proteins that initiate MEF2-mediated transcriptional reprogramming events. Live-cell imaging, fluorescent kinase activity reporters, and RNA interference techniques show that AKAP-Lbc couples activation of protein kinase D (PKD) with the phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of the class II histone deacetylase HDAC5. These studies uncover a role for AKAP-Lbc in which increased expression of the anchoring protein selectively amplifies a signaling pathway that drives cardiac myocytes toward a pathophysiological outcome.

  2. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Deborah; Saccomani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature progenitors primed towards T-cell development. Clinically, T-ALL patients present with diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by immature T-cell blasts high blood cell counts, mediastinal involvement, and diffusion to the central nervous system. In the past decade, the genomic landscape of T-ALL has been the target of intense research. The identification of specific genomic alterations has contributed to identify strong oncogenic drivers and signaling pathways regulating leukemia growth. Notwithstanding, T-ALL patients are still treated with high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, potentially exposing these patients to considerable acute and long-term side effects. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the signaling pathways relevant for the pathogenesis of T-ALL and the opportunities offered for targeted therapy. PMID:28872614

  3. SNIP1: a new activator of HSE signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; An, Jian; Liu, Xianghua; Zhang, Mingjun; Ling, Yichen; Wang, Chenji; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Long

    2012-03-01

    In the last 10 years, more and more attention has been focused on SNIP1 (Smad nuclear interacting protein 1), which functions as a transcriptional coactivator. We report here that through quantitative real-time PCR analysis in 18 different human tissues, SNIP1 was found to be expressed ubiquitously. When overexpressed in HeLa cells, SNIP1-EGFP fused protein exhibited a nuclear localization with a characteristic subnuclear distribution in speckles or formed larger discrete nuclear bodies in some cells. Reporter gene assay showed that overexpression of SNIP1 in HEK 293 cells or H1299 cells strongly activated the HSE signaling pathway. Moreover, SNIP1 could selectively regulate the transcription of HSP70A1A and HSP27. Taken together, our findings suggest that SNIP1 might also be a positive regulator of HSE signaling pathway.

  4. GAS6/TAM Pathway Signaling in Hemostasis and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Law, Luke A; Graham, Douglas K; Di Paola, Jorge; Branchford, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    The GAS6/TYRO3-AXL-MERTK (TAM) signaling pathway is essential for full and sustained platelet activation, as well as thrombus stabilization. Inhibition of this pathway decreases platelet aggregation, shape change, clot retraction, aggregate formation under flow conditions, and surface expression of activation markers. Transgenic mice deficient in GAS6, or any of the TAM family of receptors that engage this ligand, exhibit in vivo protection against arterial and venous thrombosis but do not demonstrate either spontaneous or prolonged bleeding compared to their wild-type counterparts. Comparable results are observed in wild-type mice treated with pharmacological inhibitors of the GAS6-TAM pathway. Thus, GAS6/TAM inhibition offers an attractive novel therapeutic option that may allow for a moderate reduction in platelet activation and decreased thrombosis while still permitting the primary hemostatic function of platelet plug formation.

  5. PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and cancer.

    PubMed

    Fresno Vara, Juan Angel; Casado, Enrique; de Castro, Javier; Cejas, Paloma; Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; González-Barón, Manuel

    2004-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases, PI3Ks, constitute a lipid kinase family characterized by their ability to phosphorylate inositol ring 3'-OH group in inositol phospholipids to generate the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI-3,4,5-P(3)). RPTK activation results in PI(3,4,5)P(3) and PI(3,4)P(2) production by PI3K at the inner side of the plasma membrane. Akt interacts with these phospholipids, causing its translocation to the inner membrane, where it is phosphorylated and activated by PDK1 and PDK2. Activated Akt modulates the function of numerous substrates involved in the regulation of cell survival, cell cycle progression and cellular growth. In recent years, it has been shown that PI3K/Akt signalling pathway components are frequently altered in human cancers. Cancer treatment by chemotherapy and gamma-irradiation kills target cells primarily by the induction of apoptosis. However, the development of resistance to therapy is an important clinical problem. Failure to activate the apoptotic programme represents an important mode of drug resistance in tumor cells. Survival signals induced by several receptors are mediated mainly by PI3K/Akt, hence this pathway may decisively contribute to the resistant phenotype. Many of the signalling pathways involved in cellular transformation have been elucidated and efforts are underway to develop treatment strategies that target these specific signalling molecules or their downstream effectors. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in many of the mechanisms targeted by these new drugs, thus a better understanding of this crossroad can help to fully exploit the potential benefits of these new agents.

  6. Color signals through dorsal and ventral visual pathways

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Explanations for color phenomena are often sought in the retina, LGN and V1, yet it is becoming increasingly clear that a complete account will take us further along the visual-processing pathway. Working out which areas are involved is not trivial. Responses to S-cone activation are often assumed to indicate that an area or neuron is involved in color perception. However, work tracing S-cone signals into extrastriate cortex has challenged this assumption: S-cone responses have been found in brain regions, such as MT, not thought to play a major role in color perception. Here we review the processing of S-cone signals across cortex and present original data on S-cone responses measured with fMRI in alert macaque, focusing on one area in which S-cone signals seem likely to contribute to color (V4/posterior inferior temporal cortex), and on one area in which S signals are unlikely to play a role in color (MT). We advance a hypothesis that the S-cone signals in color-computing areas are required to achieve a balanced neural representation of perceptual color space, while the S-cone signals in non-color-areas provide a cue to illumination (not luminance) and confer sensitivity to the chromatic contrast generated by natural daylight (shadows, illuminated by ambient sky, surrounded by direct sunlight). This sensitivity would facilitate the extraction of shape-from-shadow signals to benefit global scene analysis and motion perception. PMID:24103417

  7. Wnt signal transduction pathways: modules, development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Losiana; Bhattacharyya, Nitai P; De, Rajat K

    2016-08-01

    Wnt signal transduction pathway (Wnt STP) is a crucial intracellular pathway mainly due to its participation in important biological processes, functions, and diseases, i.e., embryonic development, stem-cell management, and human cancers among others. This is why Wnt STP is one of the highest researched signal transduction pathways. Study and analysis of its origin, expansion and gradual development to the present state as found in humans is one aspect of Wnt research. The pattern of development and evolution of the Wnt STP among various species is not clear till date. A phylogenetic tree created from Wnt STPs of multiple species may address this issue. In this respect, we construct a phylogenetic tree from modules of Wnt STPs of diverse species. We term it as the 'Module Tree'. A module is nothing but a self-sufficient minimally-dependent subset of the original Wnt STP. Authenticity of the module tree is tested by comparing it with the two reference trees. The module tree performs better than an alternative phylogenetic tree constructed from pathway topology of Wnt STPs. Moreover, an evolutionary emergence pattern of the Wnt gene family is created and the module tree is tallied with it to showcase the significant resemblances.

  8. Herpes simplex virus triggers activation of calcium-signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Del Rosario, Brian; Woda, Craig; Marcellino, Daniel; Satlin, Lisa M.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2003-01-01

    The cellular pathways required for herpes simplex virus (HSV) invasion have not been defined. To test the hypothesis that HSV entry triggers activation of Ca2+-signaling pathways, the effects on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) after exposure of cells to HSV were examined. Exposure to virus results in a rapid and transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Pretreatment of cells with pharmacological agents that block release of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)–sensitive endoplasmic reticulum stores abrogates the response. Moreover, treatment of cells with these pharmacological agents inhibits HSV infection and prevents focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, which occurs within 5 min after viral infection. Viruses deleted in glycoprotein L or glycoprotein D, which bind but do not penetrate, fail to induce a [Ca2+]i response or trigger FAK phosphorylation. Together, these results support a model for HSV infection that requires activation of IP3-responsive Ca2+-signaling pathways and that is associated with FAK phosphorylation. Defining the pathway of viral invasion may lead to new targets for anti-viral therapy. PMID:14568989

  9. Regression of Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy: Signaling Pathways and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianglong; Kang, Y. James

    2012-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is a key risk factor for heart failure. It is associated with increased interstitial fibrosis, cell death and cardiac dysfunction. The progression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy has long been considered as irreversible. However, recent clinical observations and experimental studies have produced evidence showing the reversal of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricle assist devices used in heart failure patients for bridging to transplantation not only improve peripheral circulation but also often cause reverse remodeling of the geometry and recovery of the function of the heart. Dietary supplementation with physiologically relevant levels of copper can reverse pathological cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Angiogenesis is essential and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a constitutive factor for the regression. The action of VEGF is mediated by VEGF receptor-1, whose activation is linked to cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 (PKG-1) signaling pathways, and inhibition of cyclic GMP degradation leads to regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Most of these pathways are regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor. Potential therapeutic targets for promoting the regression include: promotion of angiogenesis, selective enhancement of VEGF receptor-1 signaling pathways, stimulation of PKG-1 pathways, and sustention of hypoxia-inducible factor transcriptional activity. More exciting insights into the regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy are emerging. The time of translating the concept of regression of pathological cardiac hypertrophy to clinical practice is coming. PMID:22750195

  10. Molecular pathways of platelet factor 4/CXCL4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Brigitte; Petersen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The platelet-derived chemokine CXCL4 takes a specific and unique position within the family of chemotactic cytokines. Today, much attention is directed to CXCL4's capacity to inhibit angiogenesis and to promote innate immune responses, which makes this chemokine an interesting tool and target for potential intervention in tumor growth and inflammation. However, such attempts demand a comprehensive knowledge on the molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying the corresponding cellular functions. At least two structurally different receptors, CXCR3-B and a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, are capable of binding CXCL4 and to induce a specific intracellular signaling machinery. While signaling mediated by CXCR3-B involves Gs proteins, elevated cAMP levels, and p38 MAP kinase, signaling via proteoglycans appears to be more complicated and varies strongly between the cell types analyzed. In CXCL4-activated neutrophils and monocytes, tyrosine kinases of the Src family and Syk as well as monomeric GTPases and members of the MAP kinase family have been identified as essential intracellular signals. Most intriguingly, signaling does not proceed in a linear sequence of events but in a repeated activation of certain transducing elements like Rac2 or sphingosine kinase 1. Depending on the downstream targets, such biphasic kinetics either leads to a redundant and prolonged activation of a single pathway or to a timely separated initiation of disparate signals and functions. Results of the studies reviewed here help to understand the molecular basis of CXCL4's functional diversity and provide insights into integrated signaling processes in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissecting Nck/Dock Signaling Pathways in Drosophila Visual System

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The establishment of neuronal connections during embryonic development requires the precise guidance and targeting of the neuronal growth cone, an expanded cellular structure at the leading tip of a growing axon. The growth cone contains sophisticated signaling systems that allow the rapid communication between guidance receptors and the actin cytoskeleton in generating directed motility. Previous studies demonstrated a specific role for the Nck/Dock SH2/SH3 adapter protein in photoreceptor (R cell) axon guidance and target recognition in the Drosophila visual system, suggesting strongly that Nck/Dock is one of the long-sought missing links between cell surface receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, I discuss the recent progress on dissecting the Nck/Dock signaling pathways in R-cell growth cones. These studies have identified additional key components of the Nck/Dock signaling pathways for linking the receptor signaling to the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling growth-cone motility. PMID:15951852

  12. Interleukins and their signaling pathways in the Reactome biological pathway database.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Steve; Ray, Keith; Roca, Corina Duenas; Varusai, Thawfeek; Shamovsky, Veronica; Stein, Lincoln; D'Eustachio, Peter; Hermjakob, Henning

    2018-04-01

    much molecular detail as possible and are linked to literature citations that contain supporting experimental details. All newly created events undergo a peer-review process before they are added to the database and made available on the associated Web site. New content is added quarterly. The 63rd release of Reactome in December 2017 contains 10,996 human proteins participating in 11,426 events in 2,179 pathways. In addition, analytic tools allow data set submission for the identification and visualization of pathway enrichment and representation of expression profiles as an overlay on Reactome pathways. Protein-protein and compound-protein interactions from several sources, including custom user data sets, can be added to extend pathways. Pathway diagrams and analytic result displays can be downloaded as editable images, human-readable reports, and files in several standard formats that are suitable for computational reuse. Reactome content is available programmatically through a REpresentational State Transfer (REST)-based content service and as a Neo4J graph database. Signaling pathways for IL-1 to IL-38 are hierarchically classified within the pathway "signaling by interleukins." The classification used is largely derived from Akdis et al. The addition to Reactome of a complete set of the known human interleukins, their receptors, and established signaling pathways linked to annotations of relevant aspects of immune function provides a significant computationally accessible resource of information about this important family. This information can be extended easily as new discoveries become accepted as the consensus in the field. A key aim for the future is to increase coverage of gene expression changes induced by interleukin signaling. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Signal Transduction Pathways of TNAP: Molecular Network Analyses.

    PubMed

    Négyessy, László; Györffy, Balázs; Hanics, János; Bányai, Mihály; Fonta, Caroline; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence pointing on the involvement of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in brain function and diseases like epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, our understanding about the role of TNAP in the regulation of neurotransmission is severely limited. The aim of our study was to integrate the fragmented knowledge into a comprehensive view regarding neuronal functions of TNAP using objective tools. As a model we used the signal transduction molecular network of a pyramidal neuron after complementing with TNAP related data and performed the analysis using graph theoretic tools. The analyses show that TNAP is in the crossroad of numerous pathways and therefore is one of the key players of the neuronal signal transduction network. Through many of its connections, most notably with molecules of the purinergic system, TNAP serves as a controller by funnelling signal flow towards a subset of molecules. TNAP also appears as the source of signal to be spread via interactions with molecules involved among others in neurodegeneration. Cluster analyses identified TNAP as part of the second messenger signalling cascade. However, TNAP also forms connections with other functional groups involved in neuronal signal transduction. The results indicate the distinct ways of involvement of TNAP in multiple neuronal functions and diseases.

  14. Emergence, development and diversification of the TGF-beta signalling pathway within the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Huminiecki, Lukasz; Goldovsky, Leon; Freilich, Shiri; Moustakas, Aristidis; Ouzounis, Christos; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2009-02-03

    The question of how genomic processes, such as gene duplication, give rise to co-ordinated organismal properties, such as emergence of new body plans, organs and lifestyles, is of importance in developmental and evolutionary biology. Herein, we focus on the diversification of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) pathway -- one of the fundamental and versatile metazoan signal transduction engines. After an investigation of 33 genomes, we show that the emergence of the TGF-beta pathway coincided with appearance of the first known animal species. The primordial pathway repertoire consisted of four Smads and four receptors, similar to those observed in the extant genome of the early diverging tablet animal (Trichoplax adhaerens). We subsequently retrace duplications in ancestral genomes on the lineage leading to humans, as well as lineage-specific duplications, such as those which gave rise to novel Smads and receptors in teleost fishes. We conclude that the diversification of the TGF-beta pathway can be parsimoniously explained according to the 2R model, with additional rounds of duplications in teleost fishes. Finally, we investigate duplications followed by accelerated evolution which gave rise to an atypical TGF-beta pathway in free-living bacterial feeding nematodes of the genus Rhabditis. Our results challenge the view of well-conserved developmental pathways. The TGF-beta signal transduction engine has expanded through gene duplication, continually adopting new functions, as animals grew in anatomical complexity, colonized new environments, and developed an active immune system.

  15. Astaxanthin induces angiogenesis through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yangyang; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Wanglin; Zhang, Shuping

    2015-07-15

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate whether astaxanthin contributes to induce angiogenesis and its mechanisms. To this end, we examined the role of astaxanthin on human brain microvascular endothelial cell line (HBMEC) and rat aortic smooth muscle cell (RASMC) proliferation, invasion and tube formation in vitro. For study of mechanism, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor IWR-1-endo was used. HMBECs and RASMCs proliferation were tested by cell counting. Scratch adhesion test was used to assess the ability of invasion. A matrigel tube formation assay was performed to test capillary tube formation ability. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation in HMBECs and RASMCs were tested by Western blot. Our data suggested that astaxanthin induces angiogenesis by increasing proliferation, invasion and tube formation in vitro. Wnt and β-catenin expression were increased by astaxanthin and counteracted by IWR-1-endo in HMBECs and RASMCs. Tube formation was increased by astaxanthin and counteracted by IWR-1-endo. It may be suggested that astaxanthin induces angiogenesis in vitro via a programmed Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Signaling Pathways Involved in Lunar Dust Induced Cytotoxicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Zalesak, Selina; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (< 3 micron), that is respirable. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the toxicity of Apollo moon dust in rodents to assess the health risk of dust exposures to humans. One of the particular interests in the study is to evaluate dust-induced changes of the expression of fibrosis-related genes, and to identify specific signaling pathways involved in lunar dust-induced toxicity. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.1, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from the blood or lung tissue after being lavaged, using the Qigen RNeasy kit. The Rat Fibrosis RT2 Profile PCR Array was used to profile the expression of 84 genes relevant to fibrosis. The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using IPA pathway analysis tool to determine the signaling pathways with significant changes.

  17. Muscle redox signalling pathways in exercise. Role of antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Mason, Shaun A; Morrison, Dale; McConell, Glenn K; Wadley, Glenn D

    2016-09-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of redox signalling pathway activation by contraction-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in normal exercise-related cellular and molecular adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss some potentially important redox signalling pathways in skeletal muscle that are involved in acute and chronic responses to contraction and exercise. Specifically, we discuss redox signalling implicated in skeletal muscle contraction force, mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzyme induction, glucose uptake and muscle hypertrophy. Furthermore, we review evidence investigating the impact of major exogenous antioxidants on these acute and chronic responses to exercise. Redox signalling pathways involved in adaptive responses in skeletal muscle to exercise are not clearly elucidated at present, and further research is required to better define important signalling pathways involved. Evidence of beneficial or detrimental effects of specific antioxidant compounds on exercise adaptations in muscle is similarly limited, particularly in human subjects. Future research is required to not only investigate effects of specific antioxidant compounds on skeletal muscle exercise adaptations, but also to better establish mechanisms of action of specific antioxidants in vivo. Although we feel it remains somewhat premature to make clear recommendations in relation to application of specific antioxidant compounds in different exercise settings, a bulk of evidence suggests that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is ergogenic through its effects on maintenance of muscle force production during sustained fatiguing events. Nevertheless, a current lack of evidence from studies using performance tests representative of athletic competition and a potential for adverse effects with high doses (>70mg/kg body mass) warrants caution in its use for performance enhancement. In addition, evidence implicates high dose vitamin C (1g/day) and E

  18. Understanding disease mechanisms with models of signaling pathway activities.

    PubMed

    Sebastian-Leon, Patricia; Vidal, Enrique; Minguez, Pablo; Conesa, Ana; Tarazona, Sonia; Amadoz, Alicia; Armero, Carmen; Salavert, Francisco; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Montaner, David; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2014-10-25

    Understanding the aspects of the cell functionality that account for disease or drug action mechanisms is one of the main challenges in the analysis of genomic data and is on the basis of the future implementation of precision medicine. Here we propose a simple probabilistic model in which signaling pathways are separated into elementary sub-pathways or signal transmission circuits (which ultimately trigger cell functions) and then transforms gene expression measurements into probabilities of activation of such signal transmission circuits. Using this model, differential activation of such circuits between biological conditions can be estimated. Thus, circuit activation statuses can be interpreted as biomarkers that discriminate among the compared conditions. This type of mechanism-based biomarkers accounts for cell functional activities and can easily be associated to disease or drug action mechanisms. The accuracy of the proposed model is demonstrated with simulations and real datasets. The proposed model provides detailed information that enables the interpretation disease mechanisms as a consequence of the complex combinations of altered gene expression values. Moreover, it offers a framework for suggesting possible ways of therapeutic intervention in a pathologically perturbed system.

  19. Prevotella intermedia induces prostaglandin E2 via multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guan, S-M; Fu, S-M; He, J-J; Zhang, M

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays important roles in the bone resorption of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis via specific prostaglandin receptors (i.e., EP1-EP4). In this study, the authors examined whether Prevotella intermedia regulates PGE(2) production and EP expression in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLs); they also explored the potential signaling pathways involved in PGE(2) production. P. intermedia induced PGE(2) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Indomethacin and NS-398 completely abrogated the P. intermedia-induced PGE(2) production without modulating COX-2 expression. Specific inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and protein kinase C--but not c-AMP and protein kinase A--significantly attenuated the P. intermedia-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) expression. P. intermedia reduced EP1 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results indicate that the COX-2-dependent induction of PGE(2) by P. intermedia in hPDLs is mediated by multiple signaling pathways.

  20. Evolutionary Proteomics Uncovers Ancient Associations of Cilia with Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sigg, Monika Abedin; Menchen, Tabea; Lee, Chanjae; Johnson, Jeffery; Jungnickel, Melissa K; Choksi, Semil P; Garcia, Galo; Busengdal, Henriette; Dougherty, Gerard W; Pennekamp, Petra; Werner, Claudius; Rentzsch, Fabian; Florman, Harvey M; Krogan, Nevan; Wallingford, John B; Omran, Heymut; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2017-12-18

    Cilia are organelles specialized for movement and signaling. To infer when during evolution signaling pathways became associated with cilia, we characterized the proteomes of cilia from sea urchins, sea anemones, and choanoflagellates. We identified 437 high-confidence ciliary candidate proteins conserved in mammals and discovered that Hedgehog and G-protein-coupled receptor pathways were linked to cilia before the origin of bilateria and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels before the origin of animals. We demonstrated that candidates not previously implicated in ciliary biology localized to cilia and further investigated ENKUR, a TRP channel-interacting protein identified in the cilia of all three organisms. ENKUR localizes to motile cilia and is required for patterning the left-right axis in vertebrates. Moreover, mutation of ENKUR causes situs inversus in humans. Thus, proteomic profiling of cilia from diverse eukaryotes defines a conserved ciliary proteome, reveals ancient connections to signaling, and uncovers a ciliary protein that underlies development and human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ROS signaling pathways and biological rhythms: perspectives in crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Fanjul-Moles, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews concepts regarding the endogenous circadian clock and the relationship between oxidative stress (OS), light and entrainment in different organisms including crustaceans, particularly crayfish. In the first section, the molecular control of circadian rhythms in invertebrates, particularly in Drosophila, is reviewed, and this model is contrasted with recent reports on the circadian genes and proteins in crayfish. Second, the redox mechanisms and signaling pathways that participate in the entrainment of the circadian clock in different organisms are reviewed. Finally, the light signals and transduction pathways involved in the entrainment of the circadian clock, specifically in relation to cryptochromes (CRYs) and their dual role in the circadian clock of different animal groups and their possible relationship to the circadian clock and redox mechanisms in crustaceans is discussed. The relationship between metabolism, ROS signals and transcription factors, such as HIF-1 alpha in crayfish, as well as the possibility that HIF-1 alpha participates in the regulation of circadian control genes (ccgs) in crustaceans is discussed.

  2. Notch pathway signaling in the skin antagonizes Merkel cell development.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gregory J; Wright, Margaret C; Kubicki, Adam C; Maricich, Stephen M

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells derived from the epidermal lineage whose development requires expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. The genes and pathways involved in regulating Merkel cell development during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Notch pathway signaling antagonizes Atoh1 expression in many developing body regions, so we hypothesized that Notch signaling might inhibit Merkel cell development. We found that conditional, constitutive overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in mouse epidermis significantly decreased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles and touch domes of hairy skin. Conversely, conditional deletion of the obligate NICD binding partner RBPj in the epidermis significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles, led to the development of ectopic Merkel cells outside of touch domes in hairy skin epidermis, and altered the distribution of Merkel cells in touch domes. Deletion of the downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 also significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates Merkel cell production and patterning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Myostatin and the skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J; Vernus, B; Chelh, I; Cassar-Malek, I; Gabillard, J C; Hadj Sassi, A; Seiliez, I; Picard, B; Bonnieu, A

    2014-11-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and is conserved in many species, from rodents to humans. Myostatin inactivation can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy, while its overexpression or systemic administration causes muscle atrophy. As it represents a potential target for stimulating muscle growth and/or preventing muscle wasting, myostatin regulation and functions in the control of muscle mass have been extensively studied. A wealth of data strongly suggests that alterations in skeletal muscle mass are associated with dysregulation in myostatin expression. Moreover, myostatin plays a central role in integrating/mediating anabolic and catabolic responses. Myostatin negatively regulates the activity of the Akt pathway, which promotes protein synthesis, and increases the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to induce atrophy. Several new studies have brought new information on how myostatin may affect both ribosomal biogenesis and translation efficiency of specific mRNA subclasses. In addition, although myostatin has been identified as a modulator of the major catabolic pathways, including the ubiquitin-proteasome and the autophagy-lysosome systems, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. The goal of this review is to highlight outstanding questions about myostatin-mediated regulation of the anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis has been placed on (1) the cross-regulation between myostatin, the growth-promoting pathways and the proteolytic systems; (2) how myostatin inhibition leads to muscle hypertrophy; and (3) the regulation of translation by myostatin.

  4. Ethnic variations in pathways into early intervention services for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Sharif; Fisher, Helen L; Joyce, John; Major, Barnaby; Hobbs, Lorna; Soni, Sujata; Chisholm, Brock; Rahaman, Nikola; Papada, Peggy; Lawrence, Jo; Bloy, Sally; Marlowe, Karl; Aitchison, Katherine J; Power, Paddy; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-04-01

    Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories. To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention services. In a naturalistic cohort study, data were collected for 1024 individuals with psychotic disorders accepted for case management by eight London early intervention services. Duration of untreated psychosis was prolonged in the White British group compared with most other ethnic groups. White British individuals were more likely to make contact with their general practitioner and less likely to be seen within emergency medical services. All Black patient groups were more likely than their White British counterparts to experience involvement of criminal justice agencies. Variations continue to exist in how and when individuals from different ethnic groups access early intervention services. These may account for disparities in DUP.

  5. Assembling the Puzzle: Pathways of Oxytocin Signaling in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Grinevich, Valery; Knobloch-Bollmann, H Sophie; Eliava, Marina; Busnelli, Marta; Chini, Bice

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide, which can be seen to be one of the molecules of the decade due to its profound prosocial effects in nonvertebrate and vertebrate species, including humans. Although OT can be detected in various physiological fluids (blood, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) and brain tissue, it is unclear whether peripheral and central OT releases match and synergize. Moreover, the pathways of OT delivery to brain regions involved in specific behaviors are far from clear. Here, we discuss the evolutionarily and ontogenetically determined pathways of OT delivery and OT signaling, which orchestrate activity of the mesolimbic social decision-making network. Furthermore, we speculate that both the alteration in OT delivery and OT receptor expression may cause behavioral abnormalities in patients afflicted with psychosocial diseases. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of signaling pathways by tanshinones in different cancers.

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Qureshi, M Z; Romero, M A; Khalid, S; Aras, A; Ozbey, U; Farooqi, A A

    2017-09-30

    Past several years have witnessed dramatic leaps in our understanding of rewiring of gene expression at the translation level during cancer developmentthat provides linchpin support to the transformed phenotype. Most recent and ground-breaking developments in the field of molecular oncology aredriven by an explosion in technological advancements and have started to reveal previously unimagined regulatory mechanisms and how they intricately co-ordinate to modulate cancer progression, loss of apoptosis and development of resistance against different therapeutics. However, the insights gained from work in this natural product research have far-reaching impact because of rapidly increasing repertoire of medicinally and biologically efficient phytochemicals. How Tanshinones mediate targeting of JAK-STAT, ER stress associated signaling cascade,PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway,autophagy, TRAIL pathway and microRNAs are being discovered and will prove to be helpful in getting a step closer to personalized medicine.

  7. Higher miRNA Tolerance in Immortal Li-Fraumeni Fibroblasts with Abrogated Interferon Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qunfang; Tainsky, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The IFN pathway is abrogated in fibroblasts from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients during spontaneous cellular immortalization, a necessary step in carcinogenesis. Microarray profiling of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNA) revealed that most miRNAs were upregulated in IFN pathway–defective MDAH087-10 fibroblasts compared with MDAH087-N cells with relatively normal IFN signaling. Overexpression of Dicer, a critical enzyme in miRNA biogenesis, promoted cell growth and colony formation in MDAH087-10 cells. However, double-stranded miRNA produced by Dicer enhanced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in MDAH087-N cells resulting in significant cell death and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, manipulation of the IFN pathway in immortal LFS fibroblasts through transcription factor IRF7 reversed their response to Dicer overexpression due to changed IFN pathway activity. Dicer overexpressing MDAH087-N cells contained lower levels of miRNA than vector control, and conversely much higher miRNA expression was detected in Dicertransfected MDAH087-10 cells. Therefore, cells with a defective IFN pathway have a higher miRNA tolerance than cells with normal IFN pathway. This work indicates for the first time that the IFN pathway as mediated through the transcription factor IRF7 must be disrupted to permit miRNA upregulation to occur in early carcinogenesis. The IFN pathway appears to provide a checkpoint for miRNA level tolerance and its abrogation leads to cellular immortalization. PMID:21199806

  8. Understanding Resolvin Signaling Pathways to Improve Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Keinan, David; Leigh, Noel J.; Nelson, Joel W.; De Oleo, Laura; Baker, Olga J.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of resolvins has been a major breakthrough for understanding the processes involved in resolution of inflammation. Resolvins belong to a family of novel lipid mediators that possess dual anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution actions. Specifically, they protect healthy tissue during immune-inflammatory responses to infection or injury, thereby aiding inflammation resolution and promoting tissue healing. One of the major concerns in modern medicine is the management and treatment of oral diseases, as they are related to systemic outcomes impacting the quality of life of many patients. This review summarizes known signaling pathways utilized by resolvins to regulate inflammatory responses associated with the oral cavity. PMID:23528855

  9. Disorders of dysregulated signal traffic through the RAS-MAPK pathway: phenotypic spectrum and molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Marco; Gelb, Bruce D

    2010-12-01

    RAS GTPases control a major signaling network implicated in several cellular functions, including cell fate determination, proliferation, survival, differentiation, migration, and senescence. Within this network, signal flow through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway-the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade-mediates early and late developmental processes controlling morphology determination, organogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and growth. Signaling through the RAS-MAPK cascade is tightly controlled; and its enhanced activation represents a well-known event in oncogenesis. Unexpectedly, in the past few years, inherited dysregulation of this pathway has been recognized as the cause underlying a group of clinically related disorders sharing facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, reduced postnatal growth, ectodermal anomalies, variable cognitive deficits, and susceptibility to certain malignancies as major features. These disorders are caused by heterozygosity for mutations in genes encoding RAS proteins, regulators of RAS function, modulators of RAS interaction with effectors, or downstream signal transducers. Here, we provide an overview of the phenotypic spectrum associated with germline mutations perturbing RAS-MAPK signaling, the unpredicted molecular mechanisms converging toward the dysregulation of this signaling cascade, and major genotype-phenotype correlations. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Flavivirus Infection Impairs Peroxisome Biogenesis and Early Antiviral Signaling

    PubMed Central

    You, Jaehwan; Hou, Shangmei; Malik-Soni, Natasha; Xu, Zaikun; Kumar, Anil; Rachubinski, Richard A.; Frappier, Lori

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flaviviruses are significant human pathogens that have an enormous impact on the global health burden. Currently, there are very few vaccines against or therapeutic treatments for flaviviruses, and our understanding of how these viruses cause disease is limited. Evidence suggests that the capsid proteins of flaviviruses play critical nonstructural roles during infection, and therefore, elucidating how these viral proteins affect cellular signaling pathways could lead to novel targets for antiviral therapy. We used affinity purification to identify host cell proteins that interact with the capsid proteins of West Nile and dengue viruses. One of the cellular proteins that formed a stable complex with flavivirus capsid proteins is the peroxisome biogenesis factor Pex19. Intriguingly, flavivirus infection resulted in a significant loss of peroxisomes, an effect that may be due in part to capsid expression. We posited that capsid protein-mediated sequestration and/or degradation of Pex19 results in loss of peroxisomes, a situation that could result in reduced early antiviral signaling. In support of this hypothesis, we observed that induction of the lambda interferon mRNA in response to a viral RNA mimic was reduced by more than 80%. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of peroxisome biogenesis may be a novel mechanism by which flaviviruses evade the innate immune system during early stages of infection. IMPORTANCE RNA viruses infect hundreds of millions of people each year, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Chief among these pathogens are the flaviviruses, which include dengue virus and West Nile virus. Despite their medical importance, there are very few prophylactic or therapeutic treatments for these viruses. Moreover, the manner in which they subvert the innate immune response in order to establish infection in mammalian cells is not well understood. Recently, peroxisomes were reported to function in early antiviral signaling, but

  11. Phototropism: at the crossroads of light-signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Anupama; Szarzynska, Bogna; Fankhauser, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Phototropism enables plants to orient growth towards the direction of light and thereby maximizes photosynthesis in low-light environments. In angiosperms, blue-light photoreceptors called phototropins are primarily involved in sensing the direction of light. Phytochromes and cryptochromes (sensing red/far-red and blue light, respectively) also modulate asymmetric hypocotyl growth, leading to phototropism. Interactions between different light-signaling pathways regulating phototropism occur in cryptogams and angiosperms. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying the co-action between photosensory systems in the regulation of hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent studies have shown that phytochromes and cryptochromes enhance phototropism by controlling the expression of important regulators of phototropin signaling. In addition, phytochromes may also regulate growth towards light via direct interaction with the phototropins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pericytes of the neurovascular unit: Key functions and signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Melanie D.; Ayyadurai, Shiva; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2017-01-01

    Pericytes are vascular mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of blood microvessels. They extend their processes along capillaries, pre-capillary arterioles, and post-capillary venules. The central nervous system (CNS) pericytes are uniquely positioned within the neurovascular unit between endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons. They integrate, coordinate, and process signals from their neighboring cells to generate diverse functional responses that are critical for CNS functions in health and disease including regulation of the blood-brain barrier permeability, angiogenesis, clearance of toxic metabolites, capillary hemodynamic responses, neuroinflammation, and stem cell activity. Here, we examine the key signaling pathways between pericytes and their neighboring endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons that control neurovascular functions. We also review the role of pericytes in different CNS disorders including rare monogenic diseases and complex neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors. Finally, we discuss directions for future studies. PMID:27227366

  13. Pathway perturbations in signaling networks: Linking genotype to phenotype.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongsheng; McGrail, Daniel J; Latysheva, Natasha; Yi, Song; Babu, M Madan; Sahni, Nidhi

    2018-05-10

    Genes and gene products interact with each other to form signal transduction networks in the cell. The interactome networks are under intricate regulation in physiological conditions, but could go awry upon genome instability caused by genetic mutations. In the past decade with next-generation sequencing technologies, an increasing number of genomic mutations have been identified in a variety of disease patients and healthy individuals. As functional and systematic studies on these mutations leap forward, they begin to reveal insights into cellular homeostasis and disease mechanisms. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of network biology and signaling pathway perturbations upon genomic changes, and highlight the success of various omics datasets in unraveling genotype-to-phenotype relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  15. Hypergravity Stimulates Osteoblast Proliferation Via Matrix-Integrin-Signaling Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vercoutere, W.; Parra, M.; Roden, C.; DaCosta, M.; Wing, A.; Damsky, C.; Holton, E.; Searby, N.; Globus, R.; Almeida, E.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive characterizations of the physiologic consequences of microgravity and gravity indicate that lack of weight-bearing may cause tissue atrophy through cellular and subcellular level mechanisms. We hypothesize that gravity is needed for the efficient transduction of cell growth and survival signals from the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in mechanosensitive tissues. Recent work from our laboratory and from others shows that an increase of gravity increases bone cell growth and survival. We found that 50-g hypergravity stimulation increased osteoblast proliferation for cells grown on Collagen Type I and Fibronectin, but not on Laminin or uncoated plastic. This may be a tissue-specific response, because 50-g hypergravity stimulation caused no increase in proliferation for primary rat fibroblasts. These results combined with RT-PCR for all possible integrins indicate that beta1 integrin subunit may be involved. The osteoblast proliferation response on Collagen Type I was greater at 25-g than at 10-g or 50-g; 24-h duration of hypergravity was necessary to see an increase in proliferation. Survival was enhanced during hypergravity stimulation by the presence of matrix. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that cell cycle may be altered; BrdU incorporation in proliferating cells showed an increase in the number of actively dividing cells from about 60% at 1-g to over 90% at 25-g. To further investigate the molecular components involved, we applied fluorescence labeling of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules to cells after 2 to 30 minutes of hypergravity stimulation. While structural components did not appear to be altered, phosphorylation increased, indicating that signaling pathways may be activated. These data indicate that gravity mechanostimulation of osteoblast proliferation involves specific matrix-integrin signaling pathways which are sensitive to duration and g-level.

  16. Autonomous rexinoid death signaling is suppressed by converging signaling pathways in immature leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Benoit, G R; Flexor, M; Besançon, F; Altucci, L; Rossin, A; Hillion, J; Balajthy, Z; Legres, L; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Gronemeyer, H; Lanotte, M

    2001-07-01

    On their own, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligands (rexinoids) are silent in retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-RXR heterodimers, and no selective rexinoid program has been described as yet in cellular systems. We report here on the rexinoid signaling capacity that triggers apoptosis of immature promyelocytic NB4 cells as a default pathway in the absence of survival factors. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis displays all features of bona fide programmed cell death and is inhibited by RXR, but not RAR antagonists. Several types of survival signals block rexinoid-induced apoptosis. RARalpha agonists switch the cellular response toward differentiation and induce the expression of antiapoptosis factors. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway in the presence of rexinoid agonists induces maturation and blocks immature cell apoptosis. Addition of nonretinoid serum factors also blocks cell death but does not induce cell differentiation. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis is linked to neither the presence nor stability of the promyelocytic leukemia-RARalpha fusion protein and operates also in non-acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Together our results support a model according to which rexinoids activate in certain leukemia cells a default death pathway onto which several other signaling paradigms converge. This pathway is entirely distinct from that triggered by RAR agonists, which control cell maturation and postmaturation apoptosis.

  17. Strigolactone regulates shoot development through a core signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Dörte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strigolactones are a recently identified class of hormone that regulate multiple aspects of plant development. The DWARF14 (D14) α/β fold protein has been identified as a strigolactone receptor, which can act through the SCFMAX2 ubiquitin ligase, but the universality of this mechanism is not clear. Multiple proteins have been suggested as targets for strigolactone signalling, including both direct proteolytic targets of SCFMAX2, and downstream targets. However, the relevance and importance of these proteins to strigolactone signalling in many cases has not been fully established. Here we assess the contribution of these targets to strigolactone signalling in adult shoot developmental responses. We find that all examined strigolactone responses are regulated by SCFMAX2 and D14, and not by other D14-like proteins. We further show that all examined strigolactone responses likely depend on degradation of SMXL proteins in the SMXL6 clade, and not on the other proposed proteolytic targets BES1 or DELLAs. Taken together, our results suggest that in the adult shoot, the dominant mode of strigolactone signalling is D14-initiated, MAX2-mediated degradation of SMXL6-related proteins. We confirm that the BRANCHED1 transcription factor and the PIN-FORMED1 auxin efflux carrier are plausible downstream targets of this pathway in the regulation of shoot branching, and show that BRC1 likely acts in parallel to PIN1. PMID:27793831

  18. The chromatin remodeler SPLAYED regulates specific stress signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Walley, Justin W; Rowe, Heather C; Xiao, Yanmei; Chehab, E Wassim; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Wagner, Doris; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2008-12-01

    Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD) is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks.

  19. The Chromatin Remodeler SPLAYED Regulates Specific Stress Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Walley, Justin W.; Rowe, Heather C.; Xiao, Yanmei; Chehab, E. Wassim; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Wagner, Doris; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2008-01-01

    Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD) is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks. PMID:19079584

  20. A SNP uncoupling Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lian, Shang L; Mihi, Belgacem; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Bix, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Mina is a JmjC family 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell-type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1-region SNPs. We previously showed that heritable differences in Mina protein level are transcriptionally regulated. Accordingly, we decided to test the hypothesis that at least one of the promoter/intron 1-region SNPs perturbs a Mina cis-regulatory element (CRE). Here, we have comprehensively scanned for CREs across a Mina locus-spanning 26-kilobase genomic interval. We discovered 8 potential CREs and functionally validated 4 of these, the strongest of which (E2), residing in intron 1, contained a SNP whose BALB/c-but not C57Bl/6 allele-abolished both Smad3 binding and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) responsiveness. Our results demonstrate the TGFβ signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating Mina expression and SNP rs4191790 controls heritable variation in Mina expression level, raising important questions regarding the evolution of an allele that uncouples Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A SNP uncoupling Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Shang L.; Mihi, Belgacem; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mina is a JmjC family 2‐oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell‐type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1‐region SNPs. We previously showed that heritable differences in Mina protein level are transcriptionally regulated. Methods Accordingly, we decided to test the hypothesis that at least one of the promoter/intron 1‐region SNPs perturbs a Mina cis‐regulatory element (CRE). Here, we have comprehensively scanned for CREs across a Mina locus‐spanning 26‐kilobase genomic interval. Results We discovered 8 potential CREs and functionally validated 4 of these, the strongest of which (E2), residing in intron 1, contained a SNP whose BALB/c—but not C57Bl/6 allele—abolished both Smad3 binding and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) responsiveness. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the TGFβ signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating Mina expression and SNP rs4191790 controls heritable variation in Mina expression level, raising important questions regarding the evolution of an allele that uncouples Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway. PMID:28967702

  2. Curcumin mediates anticancer effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin, a component of a spice native to India, was first isolated in 1815 by Vogel and Pelletier from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and, subsequently, the chemical structure of curcumin as diferuloylmethane was reported by Milobedzka et al. [(1910) 43., 2163-2170]. Since then, this polyphenol has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current review primarily focuses on the anticancer potential of curcumin through the modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Curcumin modulates diverse transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, kinases, growth factors, receptors, and various other proteins with an affinity ranging from the pM to the mM range. Furthermore, curcumin effectively regulates tumor cell growth via modulation of numerous cell signaling pathways and potentiates the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation against cancer. Curcumin can interact with most of the targets that are modulated by FDA-approved drugs for cancer therapy. The focus of this review is to discuss the molecular basis for the anticancer activities of curcumin based on preclinical and clinical findings. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Text mining for metabolic pathways, signaling cascades, and protein networks.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Robert; Krallinger, Martin; Andres, Eduardo; Tamames, Javier; Blaschke, Christian; Valencia, Alfonso

    2005-05-10

    The complexity of the information stored in databases and publications on metabolic and signaling pathways, the high throughput of experimental data, and the growing number of publications make it imperative to provide systems to help the researcher navigate through these interrelated information resources. Text-mining methods have started to play a key role in the creation and maintenance of links between the information stored in biological databases and its original sources in the literature. These links will be extremely useful for database updating and curation, especially if a number of technical problems can be solved satisfactorily, including the identification of protein and gene names (entities in general) and the characterization of their types of interactions. The first generation of openly accessible text-mining systems, such as iHOP (Information Hyperlinked over Proteins), provides additional functions to facilitate the reconstruction of protein interaction networks, combine database and text information, and support the scientist in the formulation of novel hypotheses. The next challenge is the generation of comprehensive information regarding the general function of signaling pathways and protein interaction networks.

  4. Signaling pathway for phagocyte priming upon encounter with apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Saori; Ando, Yuki; Kanetani, Takuto; Hoshi, Chiharu; Nakai, Yuji; Nainu, Firzan; Nagaosa, Kaz; Shiratsuchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-05-12

    The phagocytic elimination of cells undergoing apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells. Previous studies showed an increase in the level of engulfment receptors in phagocytes after the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which leads to the enhancement of their phagocytic activity. However, precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon require further clarification. We found that the pre-incubation of a Drosophila phagocyte cell line with the fragments of apoptotic cells enhanced the subsequent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, accompanied by an augmented expression of the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin αPS3. The DNA-binding activity of the transcription repressor Tailless was transiently raised in those phagocytes, depending on two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for the induction of phagocytosis as well as the occurrence of engulfment. The RNAi knockdown of tailless in phagocytes abrogated the enhancement of both phagocytosis and engulfment receptor expression. Furthermore, the hemocyte-specific RNAi of tailless reduced apoptotic cell clearance in Drosophila embryos. Taken together, we propose the following mechanism for the activation of Drosophila phagocytes after an encounter with apoptotic cells: two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for phagocytosis are initiated; transcription repressor Tailless is activated; expression of engulfment receptors is stimulated; and phagocytic activity is enhanced. This phenomenon most likely ensures the phagocytic elimination of apoptotic cells by stimulated phagocytes and is thus considered as a mechanism to prime phagocytes in innate immunity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Signaling pathway for phagocyte priming upon encounter with apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Yuki; Kanetani, Takuto; Hoshi, Chiharu; Nakai, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    The phagocytic elimination of cells undergoing apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved innate immune mechanism for eliminating unnecessary cells. Previous studies showed an increase in the level of engulfment receptors in phagocytes after the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, which leads to the enhancement of their phagocytic activity. However, precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon require further clarification. We found that the pre-incubation of a Drosophila phagocyte cell line with the fragments of apoptotic cells enhanced the subsequent phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, accompanied by an augmented expression of the engulfment receptors Draper and integrin αPS3. The DNA-binding activity of the transcription repressor Tailless was transiently raised in those phagocytes, depending on two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for the induction of phagocytosis as well as the occurrence of engulfment. The RNAi knockdown of tailless in phagocytes abrogated the enhancement of both phagocytosis and engulfment receptor expression. Furthermore, the hemocyte-specific RNAi of tailless reduced apoptotic cell clearance in Drosophila embryos. Taken together, we propose the following mechanism for the activation of Drosophila phagocytes after an encounter with apoptotic cells: two partially overlapping signal-transduction pathways for phagocytosis are initiated; transcription repressor Tailless is activated; expression of engulfment receptors is stimulated; and phagocytic activity is enhanced. This phenomenon most likely ensures the phagocytic elimination of apoptotic cells by stimulated phagocytes and is thus considered as a mechanism to prime phagocytes in innate immunity. PMID:28325838

  6. Signaling Pathways Regulating Redox Balance in Cancer Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Maria Chiara; Porporato, Paolo Ettore; Martini, Miriam; Morandi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The interplay between rewiring tumor metabolism and oncogenic driver mutations is only beginning to be appreciated. Metabolic deregulation has been described for decades as a bystander effect of genomic aberrations. However, for the biology of malignant cells, metabolic reprogramming is essential to tackle a harsh environment, including nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen withdrawal. Besides the well-investigated glycolytic metabolism, it is emerging that several other metabolic fluxes are relevant for tumorigenesis in supporting redox balance, most notably pentose phosphate pathway, folate, and mitochondrial metabolism. The relationship between metabolic rewiring and mutant genes is still unclear and, therefore, we will discuss how metabolic needs and oncogene mutations influence each other to satisfy cancer cells’ demands. Mutations in oncogenes, i.e., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS pathway, and MYC, and tumor suppressors, i.e., p53 and liver kinase B1, result in metabolic flexibility and may influence response to therapy. Since metabolic rewiring is shaped by oncogenic driver mutations, understanding how specific alterations in signaling pathways affect different metabolic fluxes will be instrumental for the development of novel targeted therapies. In the era of personalized medicine, the combination of driver mutations, metabolite levels, and tissue of origins will pave the way to innovative therapeutic interventions. PMID:29740540

  7. Signaling Pathways Regulating Redox Balance in Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria Chiara; Porporato, Paolo Ettore; Martini, Miriam; Morandi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The interplay between rewiring tumor metabolism and oncogenic driver mutations is only beginning to be appreciated. Metabolic deregulation has been described for decades as a bystander effect of genomic aberrations. However, for the biology of malignant cells, metabolic reprogramming is essential to tackle a harsh environment, including nutrient deprivation, reactive oxygen species production, and oxygen withdrawal. Besides the well-investigated glycolytic metabolism, it is emerging that several other metabolic fluxes are relevant for tumorigenesis in supporting redox balance, most notably pentose phosphate pathway, folate, and mitochondrial metabolism. The relationship between metabolic rewiring and mutant genes is still unclear and, therefore, we will discuss how metabolic needs and oncogene mutations influence each other to satisfy cancer cells' demands. Mutations in oncogenes, i.e., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS pathway, and MYC, and tumor suppressors, i.e., p53 and liver kinase B1, result in metabolic flexibility and may influence response to therapy. Since metabolic rewiring is shaped by oncogenic driver mutations, understanding how specific alterations in signaling pathways affect different metabolic fluxes will be instrumental for the development of novel targeted therapies. In the era of personalized medicine, the combination of driver mutations, metabolite levels, and tissue of origins will pave the way to innovative therapeutic interventions.

  8. The Arabidopsis mutant cev1 has constitutively active jasmonate and ethylene signal pathways and enhanced resistance to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ellis, C; Turner, J G

    2001-05-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) inhibit plant growth and induce plant defense responses. To define genes in the Arabidopsis JA signal pathway, we screened for mutants with constitutive expression of a luciferase reporter for the JA-responsive promoter from the vegetative storage protein gene VSP1. One mutant, named constitutive expression of VSP1 (cev1), produced plants that were smaller than wild type, had stunted roots with long root hairs, accumulated anthocyanin, had constitutive expression of the defense-related genes VSP1, VSP2, Thi2.1, PDF1.2, and CHI-B, and had enhanced resistance to powdery mildew diseases. Genetic evidence indicated that the cev1 phenotype required both COI1, an essential component of the JA signal pathway, and ETR1, which encodes the ethylene receptor. We conclude that cev1 stimulates both the JA and the ethylene signal pathways and that CEV1 regulates an early step in an Arabidopsis defense pathway.

  9. The Arabidopsis Mutant cev1 Has Constitutively Active Jasmonate and Ethylene Signal Pathways and Enhanced Resistance to Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Christine; Turner, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) inhibit plant growth and induce plant defense responses. To define genes in the Arabidopsis JA signal pathway, we screened for mutants with constitutive expression of a luciferase reporter for the JA-responsive promoter from the vegetative storage protein gene VSP1. One mutant, named constitutive expression of VSP1 (cev1), produced plants that were smaller than wild type, had stunted roots with long root hairs, accumulated anthocyanin, had constitutive expression of the defense-related genes VSP1, VSP2, Thi2.1, PDF1.2, and CHI-B, and had enhanced resistance to powdery mildew diseases. Genetic evidence indicated that the cev1 phenotype required both COI1, an essential component of the JA signal pathway, and ETR1, which encodes the ethylene receptor. We conclude that cev1 stimulates both the JA and the ethylene signal pathways and that CEV1 regulates an early step in an Arabidopsis defense pathway. PMID:11340179

  10. Leucine facilitates insulin signaling through a Gαi protein-dependent signaling pathway in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Xiang; Liu, Rui; Ma, Yan; Hao, Liping; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang; Sun, Xiufa; Gu, Haihua; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-03-29

    In this study, we addressed the direct effect of leucine on insulin signaling. In investigating the associated mechanisms, we found that leucine itself does not activate the classical Akt- or ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent signaling pathways but can facilitate the insulin-induced phosphorylations of Akt(473) and ERK1/2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured hepatocytes. The leucine-facilitated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt at residue 473 was not affected by knocking down the key component of mTORC1 or -2 complexes but was blocked by inhibition of c-Src (PP2), PI3K (LY294002), Gαi protein (pertussis toxin or siRNA against Gαi1 gene, or β-arrestin 2 (siRNA)). Similarly, the leucine-facilitated insulin activation of ERK1/2 was also blunted by pertussis toxin. We further show that leucine facilitated the insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production and expression of key gluconeogenic genes in a Gαi1 protein-dependent manner in cultured primary hepatocytes. Together, these results show that leucine can directly facilitate insulin signaling through a Gαi protein-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. This is the first evidence showing that macronutrients like amino acid leucine can facilitate insulin signaling through G proteins directly.

  11. Leucine Facilitates Insulin Signaling through a Gαi Protein-dependent Signaling Pathway in Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Xiang; Liu, Rui; Ma, Yan; Hao, Liping; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang; Sun, Xiufa; Gu, Haihua; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we addressed the direct effect of leucine on insulin signaling. In investigating the associated mechanisms, we found that leucine itself does not activate the classical Akt- or ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent signaling pathways but can facilitate the insulin-induced phosphorylations of Akt473 and ERK1/2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured hepatocytes. The leucine-facilitated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt at residue 473 was not affected by knocking down the key component of mTORC1 or -2 complexes but was blocked by inhibition of c-Src (PP2), PI3K (LY294002), Gαi protein (pertussis toxin or siRNA against Gαi1 gene, or β-arrestin 2 (siRNA)). Similarly, the leucine-facilitated insulin activation of ERK1/2 was also blunted by pertussis toxin. We further show that leucine facilitated the insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production and expression of key gluconeogenic genes in a Gαi1 protein-dependent manner in cultured primary hepatocytes. Together, these results show that leucine can directly facilitate insulin signaling through a Gαi protein-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. This is the first evidence showing that macronutrients like amino acid leucine can facilitate insulin signaling through G proteins directly. PMID:23404499

  12. Phytochrome and retrograde signalling pathways coverage to antogonistically regulate a light-induced transcription network

    Plastid-to-nucleus retrograde signals emitted by dysfunctional chloroplasts impact photomorphogenic development, but the molecular link between retrograde and photosensory-receptor signaling has remained undefined. Here, we show that the phytochrome (phy) and retrograde signaling pathways converge a...

  13. An algorithm for modularization of MAPK and calcium signaling pathways: comparative analysis among different species.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Losiana; De, Rajat K

    2007-12-01

    Signaling pathways are large complex biochemical networks. It is difficult to analyze the underlying mechanism of such networks as a whole. In the present article, we have proposed an algorithm for modularization of signal transduction pathways. Unlike studying a signaling pathway as a whole, this enables one to study the individual modules (less complex smaller units) easily and hence to study the entire pathway better. A comparative study of modules belonging to different species (for the same signaling pathway) has been made, which gives an overall idea about development of the signaling pathways over the taken set of species of calcium and MAPK signaling pathways. The superior performance, in terms of biological significance, of the proposed algorithm over an existing community finding algorithm of Newman [Newman MEJ. Modularity and community structure in networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006;103(23):8577-82] has been demonstrated using the aforesaid pathways of H. sapiens.

  14. The long reach of early adversity: Parenting, stress, and neural pathways to antisocial behavior in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gard, Arianna M; Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hariri, Ahmad R; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-10-01

    Early life adversities including harsh parenting, maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and low family economic resources are more prevalent in low-income urban environments and are potent predictors of psychopathology, including, for boys, antisocial behavior (AB). However, little research has examined how these stressful experiences alter later neural function. Moreover, identifying genetic markers of greater susceptibility to adversity is critical to understanding biopsychosocial pathways from early adversity to later psychopathology. Within a sample of 310 low-income boys followed from age 1.5 to 20, multimethod assessments of adversities were examined at age 2 and age 12. At age 20, amygdala reactivity to emotional facial expressions was assessed using fMRI, and symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder were assessed via structured clinical interview. Genetic variability in cortisol signaling ( CRHR1 ) was examined as a moderator of pathways to amygdala reactivity. Observed parenting and neighborhood deprivation at age 2 each uniquely predicted amygdala reactivity to emotional faces at age 20 over and above other adversities measured at multiple developmental periods. Harsher parenting and greater neighborhood deprivation in toddlerhood predicted clinically-significant symptoms of AB via less amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions and this pathway was moderated by genetic variation in CRHR1 . These results elucidate a pathway linking early adversity to less amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal distress 18 years later, which in turn increased risk for serious AB. Moreover, these findings suggest a genetic marker of youth more susceptible to adversity.

  15. Drosophila TIEG Is a Modulator of Different Signalling Pathways Involved in Wing Patterning and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Acquisition of a final shape and size during organ development requires a regulated program of growth and patterning controlled by a complex genetic network of signalling molecules that must be coordinated to provide positional information to each cell within the corresponding organ or tissue. The mechanism by which all these signals are coordinated to yield a final response is not well understood. Here, I have characterized the Drosophila ortholog of the human TGF-β Inducible Early Gene 1 (dTIEG). TIEG are zinc-finger proteins that belong to the Krüppel-like factor (KLF) family and were initially identified in human osteoblasts and pancreatic tumor cells for the ability to enhance TGF-β response. Using the developing wing of Drosophila as “in vivo” model, the dTIEG function has been studied in the control of cell proliferation and patterning. These results show that dTIEG can modulate Dpp signalling. Furthermore, dTIEG also regulates the activity of JAK/STAT pathway suggesting a conserved role of TIEG proteins as positive regulators of TGF-β signalling and as mediators of the crosstalk between signalling pathways acting in a same cellular context. PMID:21494610

  16. Plant Signaling and Metabolic Pathways Enabling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Allyson M; Bravo, Armando; Harrison, Maria J

    2017-10-01

    Plants have lived in close association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi for over 400 million years. Today, this endosymbiosis occurs broadly in the plant kingdom where it has a pronounced impact on plant mineral nutrition. The symbiosis develops deep within the root cortex with minimal alterations in the external appearance of the colonized root; however, the absence of macroscopic alterations belies the extensive signaling, cellular remodeling, and metabolic alterations that occur to enable accommodation of the fungal endosymbiont. Recent research has revealed the involvement of a novel N -acetyl glucosamine transporter and an alpha/beta-fold hydrolase receptor at the earliest stages of AM symbiosis. Calcium channels required for symbiosis signaling have been identified, and connections between the symbiosis signaling pathway and key transcriptional regulators that direct AM-specific gene expression have been established. Phylogenomics has revealed the existence of genes conserved for AM symbiosis, providing clues as to how plant cells fine-tune their biology to enable symbiosis, and an exciting coalescence of genome mining, lipid profiling, and tracer studies collectively has led to the conclusion that AM fungi are fatty acid auxotrophs and that plants provide their fungal endosymbionts with fatty acids. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular program for AM symbiosis and discuss these recent advances. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Interplay between sugar and hormone signaling pathways modulate floral signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Matsoukas, Ianis G.

    2014-01-01

    NOMENCLATURE The following nomenclature will be used in this article: Names of genes are written in italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of proteins are written in non-italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of mutants are written in italicized lower-case letters, e.g., abi4. The juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions are major determinants of plant reproductive success and adaptation to the local environment. Understanding the intricate molecular genetic and physiological machinery by which environment regulates juvenility and floral signal transduction has significant scientific and economic implications. Sugars are recognized as important regulatory molecules that regulate cellular activity at multiple levels, from transcription and translation to protein stability and activity. Molecular genetic and physiological approaches have demonstrated different aspects of carbohydrate involvement and its interactions with other signal transduction pathways in regulation of the juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions. Sugars regulate juvenility and floral signal transduction through their function as energy sources, osmotic regulators and signaling molecules. Interestingly, sugar signaling has been shown to involve extensive connections with phytohormone signaling. This includes interactions with phytohormones that are also important for the orchestration of developmental phase transitions, including gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids. This article highlights the potential roles of sugar-hormone interactions in regulation of floral signal transduction, with particular emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutant phenotypes, and suggests possible directions for future research. PMID:25165468

  18. Interplay between sugar and hormone signaling pathways modulate floral signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Matsoukas, Ianis G

    2014-01-01

    NOMENCLATURE The following nomenclature will be used in this article: Names of genes are written in italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of proteins are written in non-italicized upper-case letters, e.g., ABI4.Names of mutants are written in italicized lower-case letters, e.g., abi4. The juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions are major determinants of plant reproductive success and adaptation to the local environment. Understanding the intricate molecular genetic and physiological machinery by which environment regulates juvenility and floral signal transduction has significant scientific and economic implications. Sugars are recognized as important regulatory molecules that regulate cellular activity at multiple levels, from transcription and translation to protein stability and activity. Molecular genetic and physiological approaches have demonstrated different aspects of carbohydrate involvement and its interactions with other signal transduction pathways in regulation of the juvenile-to-adult and vegetative-to-reproductive phase transitions. Sugars regulate juvenility and floral signal transduction through their function as energy sources, osmotic regulators and signaling molecules. Interestingly, sugar signaling has been shown to involve extensive connections with phytohormone signaling. This includes interactions with phytohormones that are also important for the orchestration of developmental phase transitions, including gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids. This article highlights the potential roles of sugar-hormone interactions in regulation of floral signal transduction, with particular emphasis on Arabidopsis thaliana mutant phenotypes, and suggests possible directions for future research.

  19. TGF-β signalling pathway and breast cancer susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Scollen, Serena; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Driver, Kristy; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Pharoah, Paul D.; Easton, Douglas F.; Hesketh, Robin; Metcalfe, James C; Dunning, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    Background TGF-β acts as a suppressor of primary tumour initiation but has been implicated as a promoter of the later malignant stages. Here associations with risk of invasive breast cancer are assessed for SNPs tagging seventeen genes in the canonical TGF-β ALK5/SMADs 2&3 and ALK1/SMADs 1&5 signalling pathways: LTBP1, LTBP2, LTBP4, TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFBR1(ALK5), ALK1, TGFBR2, Endoglin, SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD4, SMAD5, SMAD6 and SMAD72. Methods 354 tag SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.05) were selected for genotyping in a staged study design using 6,703 cases and 6,840 controls from the SEARCH study. Significant associations were meta-analysed with data from the NCI Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS) (1,966 cases and 2,347 controls) and published data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Results Associations of three SNPs, tagging TGFB1 (rs1982073), TGFBR1 (rs10512263) and TGFBR2 (rs4522809) were detected in SEARCH; however associations became weaker in meta-analyses including data from PBCS and BCAC. Tumour sub-type analyses indicated that the TGFB1 rs1982073 association may be confined to increased risk of developing progesterone receptor negative (PR−) tumours (1.18 (95% CI 1.09-1.28), 4.1×10−5 (P value for heterogeneity of ORs by PR status = 2.3 × 10−4)). There was no evidence for breast cancer risk associations with SNPs in the endothelial-specific pathway utilising ALK1/SMADs 1&5 that promotes angiogenesis. Conclusion Common variation in the TGF-β ALK5/SMADs 2&3 signalling pathway, which initiates signalling at the cell surface to inhibit cell proliferation, might be related to risk of specific tumour sub-types. Impact The subtype specific associations require very large studies to be confirmed. PMID:21527583

  20. MGAT1 is a novel transcriptional target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Akiva, Izzet; Birgül Iyison, Necla

    2018-01-08

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway, which has important functions in vertebrate early development, axis formation, cellular proliferation and morphogenesis. Additionally, Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is one of the most important intracellular pathways that controls cancer progression. To date most of the identified targets of this pathway are shown to harbor tumorigenic properties. We previously showed that Mannosyl glycoprotein acetylglucosaminyl-transferase (MGAT1) enzyme is among the Wnt/β-catenin signaling putative target genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (Huh7). MGAT1 protein levels were determined by Western Blotting from Huh7 cell lines in which Wnt/β-catenin pathway was activated by means of different approaches such as LiCl treatment and mutant β-catenin overexpression. Luciferase reporter assay was used to analyze the promoter activity of MGAT1. The mRNA levels of MGAT1 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR from Huh7 cells that were treated with either Wnt agonist or GSK-3β inhibitor. Wound healing and XTT cell proliferation assays were performed in order to determine the proliferation and migration capacities of MGAT1 overexpressing stable Huh7 cells. Finally, xenograft experiments were carried out to measure the tumor formation capacities in vivo. In this study we showed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway culminates in the upregulation of MGAT1 enzyme both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We also showed that overexpression of the β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) increased the promoter activity of MGAT1. We applied a set of complementary approaches to elucidate the functional importance of MGAT1 as a vital target of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Huh7 cells. Our analyses related to cell proliferation and migration assays showed that in comparison to the control cells, MGAT1 expressing Huh7 cells have greater proliferative and invasive capabilities. Furthermore, the

  1. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of Wnt signaling pathway during the development of temporomandibular condylar cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kan; Quan, Huixin; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Di

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence supporting the involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway in various aspects of skeletal and joint development; however, it is unclear whether it is involved in the process of temporomandibular joint development. In order to clarify this issue, we examined the spatio-temporal distribution of mRNAs and proteins of the Wnt family during the formation of the mandibular condylar cartilage at the prenatal and postnatal stages. An in situ hybridization test revealed no mRNAs of β-catenin and Axin2 during early mesenchymal condensation; the ligands surveyed in this study (including Wnt-4, 5a, and 9a) were clearly detected at various ranges of expression, mainly in the condylar blastema and later distinct cartilaginous layers. Apart from β-catenin and Axin2, the Wnt family members surveyed in this study, including Lef-1, were found to be immunopositive during early chondrogenesis in the condylar cartilage at E14.5. After distinct chondrocyte layers were identified within the cartilage at E16.5, the expression of the Wnt signaling members was different and mainly restricted to proliferating cells and mineralized hypertrophic chondrocytes. In the adult mandibular condylar cartilage, the Wnt-4 mRNA, as well as the Wnt-4 and Wnt-9a proteins, was not observed. Our findings demonstrated that the Wnt signaling pathway was associated with the development of mandibular condylar cartilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dysregulation of signaling pathways associated with innate antibacterial immunity in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Słotwiński, Robert; Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of innate antibacterial response are of fundamental importance in the development of gastrointestinal cancers, including pancreatic cancer. Multi-regulatory properties of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (e.g., regulation of proliferation, the activity of NF-κB, gene transcription of apoptosis proteins, regulation of angiogenesis, HIF-1α protein expression) are used in experimental studies to better understand the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer, for early diagnosis, and for more effective therapeutic intervention. There are known numerous examples of TLR agonists (e.g., TLR2/5 ligands, TLR6, TLR9) of antitumor effect. The direction of these studies is promising, but a small number of them does not allow for an accurate assessment of the impact of TLR expression disorders, proteins of these signaling pathways, or attempts to block or stimulate them, on the results of treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. It is known, however, that the expression disorders of proteins of innate antibacterial response signaling pathways occur not only in tumor tissue but also in peripheral blood leukocytes of pancreatic cancer patients (e.g., increased expression of TLR4, NOD1, TRAF6), which is one of the most important factors facilitating further tumor development. This review mainly focuses on the genetic aspects of signaling pathway disorders associated with innate antibacterial response in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Kinetic insulation as an effective mechanism for achieving pathway specificity in intracellular signaling networks

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Marcelo; Dohlman, Henrik G.; Elston, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    Intracellular signaling pathways that share common components often elicit distinct physiological responses. In most cases, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for this signal specificity remain poorly understood. Protein scaffolds and cross-inhibition have been proposed as strategies to prevent unwanted cross-talk. Here, we report a mechanism for signal specificity termed “kinetic insulation.” In this approach signals are selectively transmitted through the appropriate pathway based on their temporal profile. In particular, we demonstrate how pathway architectures downstream of a common component can be designed to efficiently separate transient signals from signals that increase slowly over time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that upstream signaling proteins can generate the appropriate input to the common pathway component regardless of the temporal profile of the external stimulus. Our results suggest that multilevel signaling cascades may have evolved to modulate the temporal profile of pathway activity so that stimulus information can be efficiently encoded and transmitted while ensuring signal specificity. PMID:17913886

  4. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    PubMed Central

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. Moreover, T3 was found to up-modulate the level of cell sensitivity to parvovirus attack. These data suggest an interconnection between T3 signalling and NS cytotoxic pathways. Images PMID:8230488

  5. Targeting cancer by binding iron: Dissecting cellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Goldie Y.L.; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Vera; Merlot, Angelica M.; Kalinowski, Danuta S.; Richardson, Des R.

    2015-01-01

    Newer and more potent therapies are urgently needed to effectively treat advanced cancers that have developed resistance and metastasized. One such strategy is to target cancer cell iron metabolism, which is altered compared to normal cells and may facilitate their rapid proliferation. This is supported by studies reporting the anti-neoplastic activities of the clinically available iron chelators, desferrioxamine and deferasirox. More recently, ligands of the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone (DpT) class have demonstrated potent and selective anti-proliferative activity across multiple cancer-types in vivo, fueling studies aimed at dissecting their molecular mechanisms of action. In the past five years alone, significant advances have been made in understanding how chelators not only modulate cellular iron metabolism, but also multiple signaling pathways implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. Herein, we discuss recent research on the targeting of iron in cancer cells, with a focus on the novel and potent DpT ligands. Several key studies have revealed that iron chelation can target the AKT, ERK, JNK, p38, STAT3, TGF-β, Wnt and autophagic pathways to subsequently inhibit cellular proliferation, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. These developments emphasize that these novel therapies could be utilized clinically to effectively target cancer. PMID:26125440

  6. Higher miRNA tolerance in immortal Li-Fraumeni fibroblasts with abrogated interferon signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunfang; Tainsky, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    The IFN pathway is abrogated in fibroblasts from Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients during spontaneous cellular immortalization, a necessary step in carcinogenesis. Microarray profiling of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNA) revealed that most miRNAs were upregulated in IFN pathway-defective MDAH087-10 fibroblasts compared with MDAH087-N cells with relatively normal IFN signaling. Overexpression of Dicer, a critical enzyme in miRNA biogenesis, promoted cell growth and colony formation in MDAH087-10 cells. However, double-stranded miRNA produced by Dicer enhanced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in MDAH087-N cells resulting in significant cell death and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, manipulation of the IFN pathway in immortal LFS fibroblasts through transcription factor IRF7 reversed their response to Dicer overexpression due to changed IFN pathway activity. Dicer overexpressing MDAH087-N cells contained lower levels of miRNA than vector control, and conversely much higher miRNA expression was detected in Dicer-transfected MDAH087-10 cells. Therefore, cells with a defective IFN pathway have a higher miRNA tolerance than cells with normal IFN pathway. This work indicates for the first time that the IFN pathway as mediated through the transcription factor IRF7 must be disrupted to permit miRNA upregulation to occur in early carcinogenesis. The IFN pathway appears to provide a checkpoint for miRNA level tolerance and its abrogation leads to cellular immortalization. © 2011 AACR.

  7. Heritable temperament pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviour.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Hyde, Luke W

    2016-12-01

    Early callous-unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous-unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous-unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous-unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous-unemotional behaviour pathway. Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous-unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  8. Heritable temperament pathways to early callous–unemotional behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early callous–unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous–unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. Aims To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous–unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Method Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous–unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Results Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous–unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous–unemotional behaviour pathway. Conclusions Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous–unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. PMID:27765772

  9. The SAL-PAP Chloroplast Retrograde Pathway Contributes to Plant Immunity by Regulating Glucosinolate Pathway and Phytohormone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Ishiga, Takako; Tohge, Takayuki; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2017-10-01

    Chloroplasts have a crucial role in plant immunity against pathogens. Increasing evidence suggests that phytopathogens target chloroplast homeostasis as a pathogenicity mechanism. In order to regulate the performance of chloroplasts under stress conditions, chloroplasts produce retrograde signals to alter nuclear gene expression. Many signals for the chloroplast retrograde pathway have been identified, including chlorophyll intermediates, reactive oxygen species, and metabolic retrograde signals. Although there is a reasonably good understanding of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, some signals are not well-understood. In order to understand the role of chloroplast retrograde signaling in plant immunity, we investigated Arabidopsis chloroplast retrograde signaling mutants in response to pathogen inoculation. sal1 mutants (fry1-2 and alx8) responsible for the SAL1-PAP retrograde signaling pathway showed enhanced disease symptoms not only to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 but, also, to the necrotrophic pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum EC1. Glucosinolate profiles demonstrated the reduced accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in the fry1-2 and alx8 mutants compared with the wild-type Col-0 in response to DC3000 infection. In addition, quantification of multiple phytohormones and analyses of their gene expression profiles revealed that both the salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling pathways were down-regulated in the fry1-2 and alx8 mutants. These results suggest that the SAL1-PAP chloroplast retrograde pathway is involved in plant immunity by regulating the SA- and JA-mediated signaling pathways.

  10. Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the aeging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60–64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. Results In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Conclusions

  11. Pathways through which health influences early retirement: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    de Wind, Astrid; Geuskens, Goedele A; Reeuwijk, Kerstin G; Westerman, Marjan J; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Burdorf, Alex; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2013-04-03

    Due to the aging of the population, there is a societal need for workers to prolong their working lives. In the Netherlands, many employees still leave the workforce before the official retirement age of 65. Previous quantitative research showed that poor self-perceived health is a risk factor of (non-disability) early retirement. However, little is known on how poor health may lead to early retirement, and why poor health leads to early retirement in some employees, but not in others. Therefore, the present qualitative study aims to identify in which ways health influences early retirement. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 employees (60-64 years) who retired before the official retirement age of 65. Participants were selected from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation. The interviews were transcribed verbatim, a summary was made including a timeline, and the interviews were open coded. In 15 of the 30 persons, health played a role in early retirement. Both poor and good health influenced early retirement. For poor health, four pathways were identified. First, employees felt unable to work at all due to health problems. Second, health problems resulted in a self-perceived (future) decline in the ability to work, and employees chose to retire early. Third, employees with health problems were afraid of a further decline in health, and chose to retire early. Fourth, employees with poor health retired early because they felt pushed out by their employer, although they themselves did not experience a reduced work ability. A good health influenced early retirement, since persons wanted to enjoy life while their health still allowed to do so. The financial opportunity to retire sometimes triggered the influence of poor health on early retirement, and often triggered the influence of good health. Employees and employers barely discussed opportunities to prolong working life. Poor and good health influence early

  12. Identification of specific gravity sensitive signal transduction pathways in human A431 carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, P. J.; de Groot, R. P.; Kruijer, W.; de Laat, S. W.; Verkleij, A. J.; Boonstra, J.

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) activates a well characterized signal transduction cascade in human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. The influence of gravity on EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering and early gene expression as well as on actin polymerization and actin organization have been investigated. Different signalling pathways induced by the agents TPA, forskolin and A23187 that activate gene expression were tested for sensitivity to gravity. EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression were decreased in microgravity. However, constitutive β-2 microglobulin expression remained unaltered. Under simulated weightlessness conditions EGF- and TPA-induced c-fos expression was decreased, while forskolin- and A23187-induced c-fos expression was independent of the gravity conditions. These results suggest that gravity affects specific signalling pathways. Preliminary results indicate that EGF-induced EGF-receptor clustering remained unaltered irrespective of the gravity conditions. Furthermore, the relative filamentous actin content of steady state A431 cells was enhanced under microgravity conditions and actin filament organization was altered. Under simulated weightlessness actin filament organization in steady state cells as well as in EGF-treated cells was altered as compared to the 1 G reference experiment. Interestingly the microtubule and keratin organization in untreated cells showed no difference with the normal gravity samples. This indicates that gravity may affect specific components of the signal transduction circuitry.

  13. Targeting kinase signaling pathways with constrained peptide scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hanold, Laura E.; Fulton, Melody D.; Kennedy, Eileen J.

    2017-01-01

    Kinases are amongst the largest families in the human proteome and serve as critical mediators of a myriad of cell signaling pathways. Since altered kinase activity is implicated in a variety of pathological diseases, kinases have become a prominent class of proteins for targeted inhibition. Although numerous small molecule and antibody-based inhibitors have already received clinical approval, several challenges may still exist with these strategies including resistance, target selection, inhibitor potency and in vivo activity profiles. Constrained peptide inhibitors have emerged as an alternative strategy for kinase inhibition. Distinct from small molecule inhibitors, peptides can provide a large binding surface area that allows them to bind shallow protein surfaces rather than defined pockets within the target protein structure. By including chemical constraints within the peptide sequence, additional benefits can be bestowed onto the peptide scaffold such as improved target affinity and target selectivity, cell permeability and proteolytic resistance. In this review, we highlight examples of diverse chemistries that are being employed to constrain kinase-targeting peptide scaffolds and highlight their application to modulate kinase signaling as well as their potential clinical implications. PMID:28185915

  14. The Spectrin cytoskeleton regulates the Hippo signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Georgina C; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Khanal, Ichha; Ribeiro, Paulo S; Tapon, Nic; Thompson, Barry J

    2015-04-01

    The Spectrin cytoskeleton is known to be polarised in epithelial cells, yet its role remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the Spectrin cytoskeleton controls Hippo signalling. In the developing Drosophila wing and eye, loss of apical Spectrins (alpha/beta-heavy dimers) produces tissue overgrowth and mis-regulation of Hippo target genes, similar to loss of Crumbs (Crb) or the FERM-domain protein Expanded (Ex). Apical beta-heavy Spectrin binds to Ex and co-localises with it at the apical membrane to antagonise Yki activity. Interestingly, in both the ovarian follicular epithelium and intestinal epithelium of Drosophila, apical Spectrins and Crb are dispensable for repression of Yki, while basolateral Spectrins (alpha/beta dimers) are essential. Finally, the Spectrin cytoskeleton is required to regulate the localisation of the Hippo pathway effector YAP in response to cell density human epithelial cells. Our findings identify both apical and basolateral Spectrins as regulators of Hippo signalling and suggest Spectrins as potential mechanosensors. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Gedunin inhibits pancreatic cancer by altering sonic hedgehog signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Nandy, Sushmita Bose; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Camacho, Fernando; Medel, Joshua; Alabi, Damilola; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The lack of efficient treatment options for pancreatic cancer highlights the critical need for the development of novel and effective chemotherapeutic agents. The medicinal properties found in plants have been used to treat many different illnesses including cancers. This study focuses on the anticancer effects of gedunin, a natural compound isolated from Azadirachta indica. METHODS Anti–proliferative effect of gedunin on pancreatic cancer cells was assessed using MTS assay. We used matrigel invasion assay, scratch assay, and soft agar colony formation assay to measure the anti–metastatic potential of gedunin. Immunoblotting was performed to analyze the effect of gedunin on the expression of key proteins involved in pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. Gedunin induced apoptosis was measured using flow cytometric analysis. To further validate, xenograft studies with HPAC cells were performed. RESULTS Gedunin treatment is highly effective in inducing death of pancreatic cancer cells via intrinsic and extrinsic mediated apoptosis. Our data further indicates that gedunin inhibited metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by decreasing their EMT, invasive, migratory and colony formation capabilities. Gedunin treatment also inhibited sonic hedgehog signaling pathways. Further, experiments with recombinant sonic hedgehog protein and Gli inhibitor (Gant-61) demonstrated that gedunin induces its anti–metastatic effect through inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling. The anti–cancer effect of gedunin was further validated using xenograft mouse model. CONCLUSION Overall, our data suggests that gedunin could serve as a potent anticancer agent against pancreatic cancers. PMID:26988754

  16. Advances in mechanisms and signaling pathways of carbon nanotube toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed into new materials with a variety of industrial and commercial applications. In contrast, the physicochemical properties of CNT at the nanoscale render them the potency to generate toxic effects. Indeed, the potential health impacts of CNT have drawn a great deal of attention in recent years, owing to their identified toxicological and pathological consequences including cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrosis, genotoxicity, tumorigenesis, and immunotoxicity. Understanding the mechanisms by which CNT induce toxicity and pathology is thus urgently needed for accurate risk assessment of CNT exposure in humans, and for safe and responsible development and commercialization of nanotechnology. Here, we summarize and discuss recent advances in this area with a focus on the molecular interactions between CNT and mammalian systems, and the signaling pathways important for the development of CNT toxicity such as the NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, TGF-β1, MAPK, and p53 signaling cascades. With the current mechanistic evidence summarized in this review, we expect to provide new insights into CNT toxicology at the molecular level and offer new clues to the prevention of health effects resulting from CNT exposure. Moreover, we disclose questions and issues that remain in this rapidly advancing field of nanotoxicology, which would facilitate ascertaining future research directions. PMID:25676622

  17. Tofacitinib Represses the Janus Kinase-Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription Signalling Pathway in Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ankit; Ståhle, Mona; Pivarcsi, Andor; Sonkoly, Enikö

    2018-05-08

    Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, which has shown efficacy in treating psoriasis. The mode of action of tofacitinib is not completely understood but it has been thought to be mediated by the inhibition of CD4+ T-cell activation. Here, we investigated whether the molecular targets of tofacitinib are expressed in keratinocytes, and whether tofacitinib can modulate the activity of the JAK/Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription (STAT)-pathway in keratinocytes. Transcriptomic profiling of human keratinocytes treated with IL-22 in combination with tofacitinib revealed that tofacitinib could prevent the majority of IL-22-mediated gene expression changes. Pathway analysis of tofacitinib-regulated genes in keratinocytes revealed enrichment of genes involved in the JAK/STAT signalling pathway. Quantitative real-time-PCR confirmed the upregulation of S100A7 and downregulation of EGR1 expression by IL-22, which was prevented by tofacitinib pre-treatment. These results indicate a direct effect of tofacinitib on keratinocytes, which can have relevance for systemic as well as for topical treatment of psoriasis with tofacitinib.

  18. How the Wnt signaling pathway protects from neurodegeneration: the mitochondrial scenario

    PubMed Central

    Arrázola, Macarena S.; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. One of the hallmarks of AD is the overproduction of amyloid-beta aggregates that range from the toxic soluble oligomer (Aβo) form to extracellular accumulations in the brain. Growing evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases and is observed at an early stage in the pathogenesis of AD. Reports indicate that mitochondrial structure and function are affected by Aβo and can trigger neuronal cell death. Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles, and the balance between their fusion and fission processes is essential for neuronal function. Interestingly, in AD, the process known as “mitochondrial dynamics” is also impaired by Aβo. On the other hand, the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway has an essential role in synaptic maintenance and neuronal functions, and its deregulation has also been implicated in AD. We have demonstrated that canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt3a ligand, prevents the permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes through the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), induced by Aβo. In addition, we showed that non-canonical Wnt signaling, through the Wnt5a ligand, protects mitochondria from fission-fusion alterations in AD. These results suggest new approaches by which different Wnt signaling pathways protect neurons in AD, and support the idea that mitochondria have become potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we discuss the neuroprotective role of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in AD and their differential modulation of mitochondrial processes, associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration. PMID:25999816

  19. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein–protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets. PMID:27872612

  20. Systems Biomedicine of Rabies Delineates the Affected Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Azimzadeh Jamalkandi, Sadegh; Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Vaziri, Behrouz; Gholami, Alireza; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Jafari, Mohieddin

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical neurotropic virus, rabies, is a member of the Rhabdoviridae family that causes lethal encephalomyelitis. Although there have been a plethora of studies investigating the etiological mechanism of the rabies virus and many precautionary methods have been implemented to avert the disease outbreak over the last century, the disease has surprisingly no definite remedy at its late stages. The psychological symptoms and the underlying etiology, as well as the rare survival rate from rabies encephalitis, has still remained a mystery. We, therefore, undertook a systems biomedicine approach to identify the network of gene products implicated in rabies. This was done by meta-analyzing whole-transcriptome microarray datasets of the CNS infected by strain CVS-11, and integrating them with interactome data using computational and statistical methods. We first determined the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each study and horizontally integrated the results at the mRNA and microRNA levels separately. A total of 61 seed genes involved in signal propagation system were obtained by means of unifying mRNA and microRNA detected integrated DEGs. We then reconstructed a refined protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of infected cells to elucidate the rabies-implicated signal transduction network (RISN). To validate our findings, we confirmed differential expression of randomly selected genes in the network using Real-time PCR. In conclusion, the identification of seed genes and their network neighborhood within the refined PPIN can be useful for demonstrating signaling pathways including interferon circumvent, toward proliferation and survival, and neuropathological clue, explaining the intricate underlying molecular neuropathology of rabies infection and thus rendered a molecular framework for predicting potential drug targets.

  1. The merged basins of signal transduction pathways in spatiotemporal cell biology.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yingchun; Hou, Yang; He, Siyu; Ma, Caixia; Sun, Mengyao; He, Huimin; Gao, Ning

    2014-03-01

    Numerous evidences have indicated that a signal system is composed by signal pathways, each pathway is composed by sub-pathways, and the sub-pathway is composed by the original signal terminals initiated with a protein/gene. We infer the terminal signals merged signal transduction system as "signal basin". In this article, we discussed the composition and regulation of signal basins, and the relationship between the signal basin control and triple W of spatiotemporal cell biology. Finally, we evaluated the importance of the systemic regulation to gene expression by signal basins under triple W. We hope our discussion will be the beginning to cause the attention for this area from the scientists of life science. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Strain-specific innate immune signaling pathways determine malaria parasitemia dynamics and host mortality.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Tian, Linjie; Yu, Xiao; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Li, Jian; Wang, Mingjun; Yu, Weishi; Qi, Yanwei; Zeituni, Amir E; Nair, Sethu C; Crampton, Steve P; Orandle, Marlene S; Bolland, Silvia M; Qi, Chen-Feng; Long, Carole A; Myers, Timothy G; Coligan, John E; Wang, Rongfu; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2014-01-28

    Malaria infection triggers vigorous host immune responses; however, the parasite ligands, host receptors, and the signaling pathways responsible for these reactions remain unknown or controversial. Malaria parasites primarily reside within RBCs, thereby hiding themselves from direct contact and recognition by host immune cells. Host responses to malaria infection are very different from those elicited by bacterial and viral infections and the host receptors recognizing parasite ligands have been elusive. Here we investigated mouse genome-wide transcriptional responses to infections with two strains of Plasmodium yoelii (N67 and N67C) and discovered differences in innate response pathways corresponding to strain-specific disease phenotypes. Using in vitro RNAi-based gene knockdown and KO mice, we demonstrated that a strong type I IFN (IFN-I) response triggered by RNA polymerase III and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, not Toll-like receptors (TLRs), binding of parasite DNA/RNA contributed to a decline of parasitemia in N67-infected mice. We showed that conventional dendritic cells were the major sources of early IFN-I, and that surface expression of phosphatidylserine on infected RBCs might promote their phagocytic uptake, leading to the release of parasite ligands and the IFN-I response in N67 infection. In contrast, an elevated inflammatory response mediated by CD14/TLR and p38 signaling played a role in disease severity and early host death in N67C-infected mice. In addition to identifying cytosolic DNA/RNA sensors and signaling pathways previously unrecognized in malaria infection, our study demonstrates the importance of parasite genetic backgrounds in malaria pathology and provides important information for studying human malaria pathogenesis.

  3. WT1 controls antagonistic FGF and BMP-pSMAD pathways in early renal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Motamedi, Fariba Jian; Badro, Danielle A; Clarkson, Michael; Lecca, M Rita; Bradford, Stephen T; Buske, Fabian A; Saar, Kathrin; Hübner, Norbert; Brändli, André W; Schedl, Andreas

    2014-07-17

    Kidney organogenesis requires the tight control of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of renal progenitor cells. How the balance between these cellular decisions is achieved remains elusive. The Wilms' tumour suppressor Wt1 is required for progenitor survival, but the molecular cause for renal agenesis in mutants is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that lack of Wt1 abolishes fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and induces BMP/pSMAD signalling within the metanephric mesenchyme. Addition of recombinant FGFs or inhibition of pSMAD signalling rescues progenitor cell apoptosis induced by the loss of Wt1. We further show that recombinant BMP4, but not BMP7, induces an apoptotic response within the early kidney that can be suppressed by simultaneous addition of FGFs. These data reveal a hitherto unknown sensitivity of early renal progenitors to pSMAD signalling, establishes FGF and pSMAD signalling as antagonistic forces in early kidney development and places WT1 as a key regulator of pro-survival FGF signalling pathway genes.

  4. Oxytocin Pathways in the Intergenerational Transmission of Maternal Early Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Toepfer, Philipp; Heim, Christine; Entringer, Sonja; Binder, Elisabeth; Wadhwa, Pathik; Buss, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Severe stress in early life, such as childhood abuse and neglect, constitutes a major risk factor in the etiology of psychiatric disorders and somatic diseases. Importantly, these long-term effects may impact the next generation. The intergenerational transmission of maternal early life stress (ELS) may occur via pre-and postnatal pathways, such as alterations in maternal-fetal-placental stress physiology, maternal depression during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as impaired mother-offspring interactions. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has gained considerable attention for its role in modulating all of these assumed transmission pathways. Moreover, central and peripheral OT signaling pathways are highly sensitive to environmental exposures and may be compromised by ELS with implications for these putative transmission mechanisms. Together, these data suggest that OT pathways play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS in humans. By integrating recent studies on gene-environment interactions and epigenetic modifications in OT pathway genes, the present review aims to develop a conceptual framework of intergenerational transmission of maternal ELS that emphasizes the role of OT. PMID:28027955

  5. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway regulates Th17/Treg balance during Echinococcus multilocularis infection.

    PubMed

    Pang, Nannan; Zhang, Fengbo; Ma, Xiumin; Zhu, Yuejie; Zhao, Hui; Xin, Yan; Wang, Song; Chen, Zhaolun; Wen, Hao; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-05-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a severe parasitic disease caused by the infection of Echinococcus multilocularis (Em). Very little is known on the relationship between TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway and Treg/Th17 balance in the infected liver at different periods after Em infection. Using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and CBA assay, we measured the expression levels of TGF-β, Smad2/3/7, ROR-γt, Foxp3, IL-17, IL-10 and percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in mouse AE model, from day 2 to day 270 after infection. In the early stage of infection (day 2 to day 30), Smad7 was up-regulated and the TGF-β pathway was inactivated. In the middle stage of infection (day 30 to day 90), TGF-β and Smad2/3 were up-regulated. And levels of Treg cells, Foxp3, Th17 cells, RORγt, IL-17, IL-10 and IL-6 were significantly increased. In the late stage of infection (day 90 to day 270), Treg cells, Foxp3, TGF-β and IL-10 maintained at high levels whereas Th17 cells and IL-17 decreased significantly. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway was activated during the chronic infection. Our data suggest that there were Treg/Th17 imbalance in the middle and especially in the late stage of Em infection and that Treg/Th17 imbalance may be regulated by TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Treg and Th17 subsets may be involved in regulating immune tolerance and tissue inflammation, and facilitating the long-term survival of Em in the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Becnel, Lauren B; Darlington, Yolanda F; Ochsner, Scott A; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R; Watkins, Christopher M; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Wise, Michael W; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N; McKenna, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse 'omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy "Web 2.0" technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA's Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field.

  7. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas: Opening Access to the Biology of Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Becnel, Lauren B.; Darlington, Yolanda F.; Ochsner, Scott A.; Easton-Marks, Jeremy R.; Watkins, Christopher M.; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H.; Wise, Michael W.; DeHart, Michael; Margolis, Ronald N.; McKenna, Neil J.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways involving nuclear receptors (NRs), their ligands and coregulators, regulate tissue-specific transcriptomes in diverse processes, including development, metabolism, reproduction, the immune response and neuronal function, as well as in their associated pathologies. The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is a Consortium focused around a Hub website (www.nursa.org) that annotates and integrates diverse ‘omics datasets originating from the published literature and NURSA-funded Data Source Projects (NDSPs). These datasets are then exposed to the scientific community on an Open Access basis through user-friendly data browsing and search interfaces. Here, we describe the redesign of the Hub, version 3.0, to deploy “Web 2.0” technologies and add richer, more diverse content. The Molecule Pages, which aggregate information relevant to NR signaling pathways from myriad external databases, have been enhanced to include resources for basic scientists, such as post-translational modification sites and targeting miRNAs, and for clinicians, such as clinical trials. A portal to NURSA’s Open Access, PubMed-indexed journal Nuclear Receptor Signaling has been added to facilitate manuscript submissions. Datasets and information on reagents generated by NDSPs are available, as is information concerning periodic new NDSP funding solicitations. Finally, the new website integrates the Transcriptomine analysis tool, which allows for mining of millions of richly annotated public transcriptomic data points in the field, providing an environment for dataset re-use and citation, bench data validation and hypothesis generation. We anticipate that this new release of the NURSA database will have tangible, long term benefits for both basic and clinical research in this field. PMID:26325041

  8. Application of Signaling Pathway-Based Adverse Outcome Pathways and High Throughput Toxicokinetic-PBPK for Developmental Cardiac Malformations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Associating putative molecular initiating events (MIE) with downstream cell signaling pathways and modeling fetal exposure kinetics is an important challenge for integration in developmental systems toxicology. Here, we describe an integrative systems toxicology model for develop...

  9. Identification of Putative Cardiovascular System Developmental Toxicants using a Classification Model based on Signaling Pathway-Adverse Outcome Pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important challenge for an integrative approach to developmental systems toxicology is associating putative molecular initiating events (MIEs), cell signaling pathways, cell function and modeled fetal exposure kinetics. We have developed a chemical classification model based o...

  10. Erythrocyte signal transduction pathways, their oxygenation dependence and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Barvitenko, Nadezhda N; Adragna, Norma C; Weber, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Erythrocytes play a key role in human and vertebrate metabolism. Tissue O2 supply is regulated by both hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity and erythrocyte rheology, a key determinant of tissue perfusion. Oxygenation-deoxygenation transitions of Hb may lead to re-organization of the cytoskeleton and signalling pathways activation/deactivation in an O2-dependent manner. Deoxygenated Hb binds to the cytoplasmic domain of the anion exchanger band 3, which is anchored to the cytoskeleton, and is considered a major mechanism underlying the oxygenation-dependence of several erythrocyte functions. This work discusses the multiple modes of Hb-cytoskeleton interactions. In addition, it reviews the effects of Mg2+, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, NO, shear stress and Ca2+, all factors accompanying the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle in circulating red cells. Due to the extensive literature on the subject, the data discussed here, pertain mainly to human erythrocytes whose O2 affinity is modulated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ectothermic vertebrate erythrocytes that use ATP, and to bird erythrocytes that use inositol pentaphosphate. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. ent-Steroids: novel tools for studies of signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Covey, Douglas F

    2009-07-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways.

  12. ent-Steroids: Novel Tools for Studies of Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Douglas F.

    2008-01-01

    Membrane receptors are often modulated by steroids and it is necessary to distinguish the effects of steroids at these receptors from effects occurring at nuclear receptors. Additionally, it may also be mechanistically important to distinguish between direct effects caused by binding of steroids to membrane receptors and indirect effects on membrane receptor function caused by steroid perturbation of the membrane containing the receptor. In this regard, ent-steroids, the mirror images of naturally occurring steroids, are novel tools for distinguishing between these various actions of steroids. The review provides a background for understanding the different actions that can be expected of steroids and ent-steroids in biological systems, references for the preparation of ent-steroids, a short discussion about relevant forms of stereoisomerism and the requirements that need to be fulfilled for the interaction between two molecules to be enantioselective. The review then summarizes results of biophysical, biochemical and pharmacological studies published since 1992 in which ent-steroids have been used to investigate the actions of steroids in membranes and/or receptor-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:19103212

  13. The TORC1/P70S6K and TORC1/4EBP1 signaling pathways have a stronger contribution on skeletal muscle growth than MAPK/ERK in an early vertebrate: Differential involvement of the IGF system and atrogenes.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Paredes, Rodolfo; Hidalgo, Christian; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Molina, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the underlying mechanisms, particularly the signaling pathways that account for muscle growth in vivo in early vertebrates is still scarce. Fish (Paralichthys adspersus) were fasted for 3weeks to induce a catabolic period of strong muscle atrophy. Subsequently, fish were refed for 2weeks to induce compensatory muscle hypertrophy. During refeeding, the fish were treated daily with either rapamycin (TORC blocker), PD98059 (MEK blocker), or PBS (V; vehicle), or were untreated (C; control). Rapamycin and PD98059 differentially impaired muscle cellularity in vivo, growth performance, and the expression of growth-related genes, and the inhibition of TORC1 had a greater impact on fish muscle growth than the inhibition of MAPK. Blocking TORC1 inhibited the phosphorylation of P70S6K and 4EBP1, two downstream components activated by TORC1, thus affecting protein contents in muscle. Concomitantly, the gene expression in muscle of igf-1, 2 and igfbp-4, 5 was down-regulated while the expression of atrogin-1, murf-1, and igfbp-2, 3 was up-regulated. Muscle hypertrophy was abolished and muscle atrophy was promoted, which finally affected body weight. TORC2 complex was not affected by rapamycin. On the other hand, the PD98059 treatment triggered ERK inactivation, a downstream component activated by MEK. mRNA contents of igf-1 in muscle were down-regulated, and muscle hypertrophy was partially impaired. The present study provides the first direct data on the in vivo contribution of TORC1/P70S6K, TORC1/4EBP1, and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle of an earlier vertebrate, and highlights the transcendental role of TORC1 in growth from the cellular to organism level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Integrated Phosphoproteomics Work Flow Reveals Extensive Network Regulation in Early Lysophosphatidic Acid Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Thiemo B.; Mäusbacher, Nina; Kéri, György; Cox, Jürgen; Daub, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induces a variety of cellular signaling pathways through the activation of its cognate G protein-coupled receptors. To investigate early LPA responses and assess the contribution of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation in LPA signaling, we performed phosphoproteomics analyses of both total cell lysate and protein kinase-enriched fractions as complementary strategies to monitor phosphorylation changes in A498 kidney carcinoma cells. Our integrated work flow enabled the identification and quantification of more than 5,300 phosphorylation sites of which 224 were consistently regulated by LPA. In addition to induced phosphorylation events, we also obtained evidence for early dephosphorylation reactions due to rapid phosphatase regulation upon LPA treatment. Phosphorylation changes induced by direct heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor-mediated EGF receptor activation were typically weaker and only detected on a subset of LPA-regulated sites, indicating signal integration among EGF receptor transactivation and other LPA-triggered pathways. Our results reveal rapid phosphoregulation of many proteins not yet implicated in G protein-coupled receptor signaling and point to various additional mechanisms by which LPA might regulate cell survival and migration as well as gene transcription on the molecular level. Moreover, our phosphoproteomics analysis of both total lysate and kinase-enriched fractions provided highly complementary parts of the LPA-regulated signaling network and thus represents a useful and generic strategy toward comprehensive signaling studies on a system-wide level. PMID:20071362

  15. The Wnt signaling pathway in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and Norrie disease.

    PubMed

    Warden, Scott M; Andreoli, Christopher M; Mukai, Shizuo

    2007-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is highly conserved among species and has an important role in many cell biological processes throughout the body. This signaling cascade is involved in regulating ocular growth and development, and recent findings indicate that this is particularly true in the retina. Mutations involving different aspects of the Wnt signaling pathway are being linked to several diseases of retinal development. The aim of this article is to first review the Wnt signaling pathway. We will then describe two conditions, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND), which have been shown to be caused in part by defects in the Wnt signaling cascade.

  16. Protein quality control in the early secretory pathway

    PubMed Central

    Anelli, Tiziana; Sitia, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells are able to discriminate between native and non-native polypeptides, selectively transporting the former to their final destinations. Secretory proteins are scrutinized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi interface. Recent findings reveal novel features of the underlying molecular mechanisms, with several chaperone networks cooperating in assisting the maturation of complex proteins and being selectively induced to match changing synthetic demands. ‘Public' and ‘private' chaperones, some of which enriched in specializes subregions, operate for most or selected substrates, respectively. Moreover, sequential checkpoints are distributed along the early secretory pathway, allowing efficiency and fidelity in protein secretion. PMID:18216874

  17. Early warning signal for interior crises in excitable systems.

    PubMed

    Karnatak, Rajat; Kantz, Holger; Bialonski, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The ability to reliably predict critical transitions in dynamical systems is a long-standing goal of diverse scientific communities. Previous work focused on early warning signals related to local bifurcations (critical slowing down) and nonbifurcation-type transitions. We extend this toolbox and report on a characteristic scaling behavior (critical attractor growth) which is indicative of an impending global bifurcation, an interior crisis in excitable systems. We demonstrate our early warning signal in a conceptual climate model as well as in a model of coupled neurons known to exhibit extreme events. We observed critical attractor growth prior to interior crises of chaotic as well as strange-nonchaotic attractors. These observations promise to extend the classes of transitions that can be predicted via early warning signals.

  18. Early Induction of NRF2 Antioxidant Pathway by RHBDF2 Mediates Rapid Cutaneous Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hosur, Vishnu; Burzenski, Lisa M.; Stearns, Timothy M.; Farley, Michelle L.; Sundberg, John P.; Wiles, Michael V.; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2017-01-01

    Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. In humans, a gain-of-function mutation in the RHBDF2 gene accelerates cutaneous wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Likewise, a gain-of-function mutation in the mouse Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2cub/cub) shows a regenerative phenotype (rapid ear-hole closure) resulting from constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. Because the RHBDF2-regulated EGFR pathway is relevant to cutaneous wound healing in humans, we used Rhbdf2cub/cub mice to investigate the biological networks and pathways leading to accelerated ear-hole closure, with the goal of identifying therapeutic targets potentially effective in promoting wound healing in humans. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ear pinna tissue from Rhbdf2cub/cub and Rhbdf2+/+ mice at 0h, 15 min, 2h, and 24h post-wounding revealed an early induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated anti-oxidative pathway (0h and 15 min), followed by the integrin-receptor aggregation pathway (2h) as early-stage events immediately and shortly after wounding in Rhbdf2cub/cub mice. Additionally, we observed genes enriched for the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa (FCGR3A)-mediated phagocytosis pathway 24h post-wounding. Although cutaneous wound repair in healthy individuals is generally non-problematic, it can be severely impaired due to aging, diabetes, and chronic inflammation. This study suggests that activation of the NRF2-antioxidant pathway by rhomboid protein RHBDF2 might be beneficial in treating chronic non-healing wounds. PMID:28268192

  19. Early induction of NRF2 antioxidant pathway by RHBDF2 mediates rapid cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hosur, Vishnu; Burzenski, Lisa M; Stearns, Timothy M; Farley, Michelle L; Sundberg, John P; Wiles, Michael V; Shultz, Leonard D

    2017-04-01

    Rhomboid family protein RHBDF2, an upstream regulator of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signaling, has been implicated in cutaneous wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still emerging. In humans, a gain-of-function mutation in the RHBDF2 gene accelerates cutaneous wound healing in an EGFR-dependent manner. Likewise, a gain-of-function mutation in the mouse Rhbdf2 gene (Rhbdf2 cub/cub ) shows a regenerative phenotype (rapid ear-hole closure) resulting from constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. Because the RHBDF2-regulated EGFR pathway is relevant to cutaneous wound healing in humans, we used Rhbdf2 cub/cub mice to investigate the biological networks and pathways leading to accelerated ear-hole closure, with the goal of identifying therapeutic targets potentially effective in promoting wound healing in humans. Comparative transcriptome analysis of ear pinna tissue from Rhbdf2 cub/cub and Rhbdf2 +/+ mice at 0h, 15min, 2h, and 24h post-wounding revealed an early induction of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated anti-oxidative pathway (0h and 15min), followed by the integrin-receptor aggregation pathway (2h) as early-stage events immediately and shortly after wounding in Rhbdf2 cub/cub mice. Additionally, we observed genes enriched for the Fc fragment of the IgG receptor IIIa (FCGR3A)-mediated phagocytosis pathway 24h post-wounding. Although cutaneous wound repair in healthy individuals is generally non-problematic, it can be severely impaired due to aging, diabetes, and chronic inflammation. This study suggests that activation of the NRF2-antioxidant pathway by rhomboid protein RHBDF2 might be beneficial in treating chronic non-healing wounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction in the ICE-CBF-COR Signaling Pathway during Cold Stress in Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Zhi; Jin, Ya-Nan; Ding, Xi-Han; Wang, Wen-Jia; Zhai, Shan-Shan; Bai, Li-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Fu

    2017-10-01

    Low temperature is an abiotic stress that adversely affects the growth and production of plants. Resistance and adaptation of plants to cold stress is dependent upon the activation of molecular networks and pathways involved in signal transduction and the regulation of cold-stress related genes. Because it has numerous and complex genes, regulation factors, and pathways, research on the ICE-CBF-COR signaling pathway is the most studied and detailed, which is thought to be rather important for cold resistance of plants. In this review, we focus on the function of each member, interrelation among members, and the influence of manipulators and repressors in the ICE-CBF-COR pathway. In addition, regulation and signal transduction concerning plant hormones, circadian clock, and light are discussed. The studies presented provide a detailed picture of the ICE-CBF-COR pathway.

  1. Pathway connectivity and signaling coordination in the yeast stress-activated signaling network

    PubMed Central

    Chasman, Deborah; Ho, Yi-Hsuan; Berry, David B; Nemec, Corey M; MacGilvray, Matthew E; Hose, James; Merrill, Anna E; Lee, M Violet; Will, Jessica L; Coon, Joshua J; Ansari, Aseem Z; Craven, Mark; Gasch, Audrey P

    2014-01-01

    Stressed cells coordinate a multi-faceted response spanning many levels of physiology. Yet knowledge of the complete stress-activated regulatory network as well as design principles for signal integration remains incomplete. We developed an experimental and computational approach to integrate available protein interaction data with gene fitness contributions, mutant transcriptome profiles, and phospho-proteome changes in cells responding to salt stress, to infer the salt-responsive signaling network in yeast. The inferred subnetwork presented many novel predictions by implicating new regulators, uncovering unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways, and pointing to previously unknown ‘hubs’ of signal integration. We exploited these predictions to show that Cdc14 phosphatase is a central hub in the network and that modification of RNA polymerase II coordinates induction of stress-defense genes with reduction of growth-related transcripts. We find that the orthologous human network is enriched for cancer-causing genes, underscoring the importance of the subnetwork's predictions in understanding stress biology. PMID:25411400

  2. Wnt and the Wnt signaling pathway in bone development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiping; Li, Yi-Ping; Paulson, Christie; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Wu, Mengrui; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling affects both bone modeling, which occurs during development, and bone remodeling, which is a lifelong process involving tissue renewal. Wnt signals are especially known to affect the differentiation of osteoblasts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of Wnt signaling, which is divided into two major branches: the canonical pathway and the noncanonical pathway. The canonical pathway is also called the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. There are two major noncanonical pathways: the Wnt-planar cell polarity pathway (Wnt-PCP pathway) and the Wnt-calcium pathway (Wnt-Ca2+ pathway). This review also discusses how Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists affect both the bone modeling and bone remodeling processes. We also review the role of Wnt ligands, receptors, intracellular effectors, transcription factors, and antagonists in bone as demonstrated in mouse models. Disrupted Wnt signaling is linked to several bone diseases, including osteoporosis, van Buchem disease, and sclerosteosis. Studying the mechanism of Wnt signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in bone will provide potential therapeutic targets to treat these bone diseases. PMID:24389191

  3. Oncogenic signalling pathways in benign odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Marina Gonçalves; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Xavier, Guilherme Machado; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The first step towards the prevention of cancer is to develop an in-depth understanding of tumourigenesis and the molecular basis of malignant transformation. What drives tumour initiation? Why do most benign tumours fail to metastasize? Oncogenic mutations, previously considered to be the hallmark drivers of cancers, are reported in benign cysts and tumours, including those that have an odontogenic origin. Despite the presence of such alterations, the vast majority of odontogenic lesions are benign and never progress to the stage of malignant transformation. As these lesions are likely to develop due to developmental defects, it is possible that they harbour quiet genomes. Now the question arises - do they result from DNA replication errors? Specific candidate genes have been sequenced in odontogenic lesions, revealing recurrent BRAF mutation in the case of ameloblastoma, KRAS mutation in adenomatoid odontogenic tumours, PTCH1 mutation in odontogenic keratocysts, and CTNNB1 (Beta-catenin) mutation in calcifying odontogenic cysts. Studies on these benign and rare entities might reveal important information about the tumorigenic process and the mechanisms that hinder/halt neoplastic progression. This is because the role of relatively common oncogenic mutations seems to be context dependent. In this review, each mutation signature of the odontogenic lesion and the affected signalling pathways are discussed in the context of tooth development and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, behavioural differences between different types of odontogenic lesions are explored and discussed based on the molecular alteration described. This review also includes the employment of molecular results for guiding therapeutic approaches towards odontogenic lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Methamphetamine addiction: involvement of CREB and neuroinflammatory signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Krasnova, Irina N.; Justinova, Zuzana; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and objectives Addiction to psychostimulant methamphetamine (METH) remains a major public health problem in the world. Animal models that use METH self-administration incorporate many features of human drug-taking behavior and are very helpful in elucidating mechanisms underlying METH addiction. These models are also helping to decipher the neurobiological substrates of associated neuropsychiatric complications. This review summarizes our work on the influence of METH self-administration on dopamine systems, transcriptional and immune responses in the brain. Methods We used the rat model of METH self-administration with extended access (15 hours/day for 8 consecutive days) to investigate the effects of voluntary METH intake on the markers of dopamine system integrity and changes in gene expression observed in the brain at 2 hours – 1 month after cessation of drug exposure. Results Extended access to METH self-administration caused changes in the rat brain that are consistent with clinical findings reported in neuroimaging and post-mortem studies of human METH addicts. In addition, gene expression studies using striatal tissues from METH self-administering rats revealed increased expression of genes involved in CREB signaling pathway and in the activation of neuroinflammatory response in the brain. Conclusion These data show an association of METH exposure with activation of neuroplastic and neuroinflammatory cascades in the brain. The neuroplastic changes may be involved in promoting METH addiction. Neuroinflammatory processes in the striatum may underlie cognitive deficits, depression, and parkinsonism reported in METH addicts. Therapeutic approaches that include suppression of neuroinflammation may be beneficial to addicted patients. PMID:26873080

  5. Chloral Hydrate Treatment Induced Apoptosis of Macrophages via Fas Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jun; Peng, Yanxia; Chen, Ting; Liao, Huanjin; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Qiuhua; He, Yiming; Wu, Ping; Xie, Tong; Pan, Qingjun

    2016-12-10

    BACKGROUND There are recent reports on several anesthetics that have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects apart from their uses for pain relief and muscle relaxation. Chloral hydrate is a clinical anesthetic drug and sedative that has also been reported to attenuate inflammatory response, but the mechanisms are not clearly understood. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study investigated the effect of chloral hydrate treatment on the apoptosis of macrophages and explored the underlying mechanisms. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with various concentrations of chloral hydrate for various lengths of time. Morphological changes were observed under a light microscope and apoptosis was detected with annexin-V-FITC/PI double-staining assay, Hochest 33258 and DNA ladder assay, the expression of Fas/FasL was detected with a flow cytometer, and the Fas signaling pathway was assessed by Western blotting. RESULTS The results showed that chloral hydrate treatment induced the morphology of RAW264.7 macrophages to change shape from typical fusiform to round in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and was finally suspended in the supernatant. For the induction of apoptosis, chloral hydrate treatment induced the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages from early-to-late stage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. For the mechanism, chloral hydrate treatment induced higher expression of Fas on RAW264.7 macrophages, and was also associated with changes in the expression of proteins involved in Fas signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS Chloral hydrate treatment can induce the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages through the Fas signaling pathway, which may provide new options for adjunctive treatment of acute inflammation.

  6. Chloral Hydrate Treatment Induced Apoptosis of Macrophages via Fas Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jun; Peng, Yanxia; Chen, Ting; Liao, Huanjin; Zhang, Lifang; Chen, Qiuhua; He, Yiming; Wu, Ping; Xie, Tong; Pan, Qingjun

    2016-01-01

    Background There are recent reports on several anesthetics that have anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects apart from their uses for pain relief and muscle relaxation. Chloral hydrate is a clinical anesthetic drug and sedative that has also been reported to attenuate inflammatory response, but the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Material/Methods This study investigated the effect of chloral hydrate treatment on the apoptosis of macrophages and explored the underlying mechanisms. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with various concentrations of chloral hydrate for various lengths of time. Morphological changes were observed under a light microscope and apoptosis was detected with annexin-V-FITC/PI double-staining assay, Hochest 33258 and DNA ladder assay, the expression of Fas/FasL was detected with a flow cytometer, and the Fas signaling pathway was assessed by Western blotting. Results The results showed that chloral hydrate treatment induced the morphology of RAW264.7 macrophages to change shape from typical fusiform to round in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and was finally suspended in the supernatant. For the induction of apoptosis, chloral hydrate treatment induced the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages from early-to-late stage apoptosis in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. For the mechanism, chloral hydrate treatment induced higher expression of Fas on RAW264.7 macrophages, and was also associated with changes in the expression of proteins involved in Fas signaling pathways. Conclusions Chloral hydrate treatment can induce the apoptosis of RAW264.7 macrophages through the Fas signaling pathway, which may provide new options for adjunctive treatment of acute inflammation. PMID:27941708

  7. Interleukin-1 Acts via the JNK-2 Signaling Pathway to Induce Aggrecan Degradation by Human Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Heba M; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Vincent, Tonia L; Nagase, Hideaki; Troeberg, Linda; Saklatvala, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    Aggrecan enables articular cartilage to bear load and resist compression. Aggrecan loss occurs early in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and can be induced by inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). IL-1 induces cleavage of specific aggrecans characteristic of the ADAMTS proteinases. The aim of this study was to identify the intracellular signaling pathways by which IL-1 causes aggrecan degradation by human chondrocytes and to investigate how aggrecanase activity is controlled by chondrocytes. We developed a cell-based assay combining small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown with aggrecan degradation assays. Human articular chondrocytes were overlaid with bovine aggrecan after transfection with siRNAs against molecules of the IL-1 signaling pathway. After IL-1 stimulation, released aggrecan fragments were detected with AGEG and ARGS neoepitope antibodies. Aggrecanase activity and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) shedding was analyzed by Western blotting. ADAMTS-5 is a major aggrecanase in human chondrocytes, regulating aggrecan degradation in response to IL-1. The tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated 6 (TRAF-6)/transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1)/MKK-4 signaling axis is essential for IL-1-induced aggrecan degradation, while NF-κB is not. Of the 3 MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK), only JNK-2 showed a significant role in aggrecan degradation. Chondrocytes constitutively secreted aggrecanase, which was continuously endocytosed by LRP-1, keeping the extracellular level of aggrecanase low. IL-1 induced aggrecanase activity in the medium in a JNK-2-dependent manner, possibly by reducing aggrecanase endocytosis, because IL-1 caused JNK-2-dependent shedding of LRP-1. The signaling axis TRAF-6/TAK-1/MKK-4/JNK-2 mediates IL-1-induced aggrecanolysis. The level of aggrecanase is controlled by its

  8. Wnt5a / planar cell polarity signaling pathway in urothelial carcinoma, a potential prognostic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Saling, Mark; Duckett, Jordan K; Ackers, Ian; Coschigano, Karen; Jenkinson, Scott; Malgor, Ramiro

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Bladder cancers detected at an early stage have a very high five-year survival rate, but when detected after local metastasis the rate is only about 50%. Our group recently reported a positive correlation between the expression of Wnt5a, a member of the Wnt proteins family, and histopathological grade and stage of urothelial carcinoma (UC). The objective of this study was to analyze UC cases reported in Athens, Ohio and investigate the major components of Wnt5a / planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway in UC human tissue samples and UC cell lines. Formalin fixed and paraffin embedded transurethral resection tissues were immunostained for Wnt5a, Ror-2, CTHRC1 and E-cadherin. In addition, in vitro studies using UC cell lines were investigated for Wnt5a/PCP signaling and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene expression. The IHC results showed a correlation between the expression of Wnt5a, Ror2 and CTHRC1 with high histological grade of the tumor, while E-cadherin showed an opposite trend of expression. Real time RT-PCR results showed that RNA expression of the Wnt5a/ PCP pathway genes vary in low and high grade UC cell lines and that the high grade cell lines exhibited signs of EMT. These findings support that Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling plays a role in UC, support the potential use of Wnt5a as a prognostic marker and provide evidence that Wnt5a signaling may be used as an effective molecular target for novel therapeutic tools. PMID:28427201

  9. Developmental expression of the Notch signaling pathway genes during mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Sarah; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved pathway involved in intercellular signaling and essential for proper cell fate choices during development. Thus, it could be involved in mouse preimplantation development where intercellular signaling plays a crucial role, particularly between the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. At their face value, the phenotypes observed when disrupting each of the four Notch genes known in the mouse do not support this view as none of them involves perturbation of preimplantation development. However this could be due to functional redundancy and/or maternal expression. As a first step to address this issue, we decided to examine the expression in early development of various genes known to participate in Notch signaling. Here, we report on the expression pattern of Notch1-4, Jagged1 (Jag1), Jag2, Delta-like1 (Dll-1), Dll-3, Dll-4, Rbpsuh, Deltex1(Dtx1)and Dtx2 genes during preimplantation development from unfertilized eggs until late blastocyst stage using a RT-PCR strategy. We show that Notch1, 2, Jag1-2, Dll-3, Rbpsuh and Dtx2 transcripts are expressed at all stages. Notch4 and Dll-4 mRNAs are synthesized from the 2-cell through to the hatched blastocyst stage. Notch3, Dll-1 and Dtx1exhibit a stage dependent expression as their mRNAs are detected in 2-cell embryos and in hatched blastocysts, but are absent or weakly detected at the morula stage. Finally, we show that all the above genes are expressed both in Embryonic and Trophoblast Stem cells (ES and TS cells, respectively). Our results suggest that the Notch pathway may be active during mouse preimplantation development.

  10. Clinical Development of VEGF Signaling Pathway Inhibitors in Childhood Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Fox, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a target shared by both adult epithelial cancers and the mesenchymal or embryonal tumors of childhood. Development of antiangiogenic agents for the pediatric population has been complicated by largely theoretical concern for toxicities specific to the growing child and prioritization among the many antiangiogenic agents being developed for adults. This review summarizes the mechanism of action and preclinical data relevant to childhood cancers and early-phase clinical trials in childhood solid tumors. Single-agent adverse event profiles in adults and children are reviewed with emphasis on cardiovascular, bone health, and endocrine side effects. In addition, pharmacological factors that may be relevant for prioritizing clinical trials of these agents in children are reviewed. Considerations for further clinical evaluation should include preclinical data, relative potency, efficacy in adults, and the current U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval status. Toxicity profiles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway inhibitors may be age dependent and ultimately, their utility in the treatment of childhood cancer will require combination with standard cytotoxic drugs or other molecularly targeted agents. In combination studies, toxicity profiles, potential drug interactions, and late effects must be considered. Studies to assess the long-term impact of VEGF signaling pathway inhibitors on cardiovascular, endocrine, and bone health in children with cancer are imperative if these agents are to be administered to growing children and adolescents with newly diagnosed cancers. PMID:22042784

  11. Murine Polyomavirus Cell Surface Receptors Activate Distinct Signaling Pathways Required for Infection.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Samantha D; Garcea, Robert L

    2016-11-01

    Virus binding to the cell surface triggers an array of host responses, including activation of specific signaling pathways that facilitate steps in virus entry. Using mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV), we identified host signaling pathways activated upon virus binding to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Pathways activated by MuPyV included the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), FAK/SRC, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Gangliosides and α4-integrin are required receptors for MuPyV infection. MuPyV binding to both gangliosides and the α4-integrin receptors was required for activation of the PI3K pathway; however, either receptor interaction alone was sufficient for activation of the MAPK pathway. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we confirmed that the PI3K and FAK/SRC pathways were required for MuPyV infection, while the MAPK pathway was dispensable. Mechanistically, the PI3K pathway was required for MuPyV endocytosis, while the FAK/SRC pathway enabled trafficking of MuPyV along microtubules. Thus, MuPyV interactions with specific cell surface receptors facilitate activation of signaling pathways required for virus entry and trafficking. Understanding how different viruses manipulate cell signaling pathways through interactions with host receptors could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for viral infection. Virus binding to cell surface receptors initiates outside-in signaling that leads to virus endocytosis and subsequent virus trafficking. How different viruses manipulate cell signaling through interactions with host receptors remains unclear, and elucidation of the specific receptors and signaling pathways required for virus infection may lead to new therapeutic targets. In this study, we determined that gangliosides and α4-integrin mediate mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV) activation of host signaling pathways. Of these pathways, the PI3K and FAK/SRC pathways were required for MuPyV infection. Both the PI3K and FAK/SRC pathways

  12. Early Warning Signals of Ecological Transitions: Methods for Spatial Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Brock, William A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Livina, Valerie N.; Seekell, David A.; Scheffer, Marten; van Nes, Egbert H.; Dakos, Vasilis

    2014-01-01

    A number of ecosystems can exhibit abrupt shifts between alternative stable states. Because of their important ecological and economic consequences, recent research has focused on devising early warning signals for anticipating such abrupt ecological transitions. In particular, theoretical studies show that changes in spatial characteristics of the system could provide early warnings of approaching transitions. However, the empirical validation of these indicators lag behind their theoretical developments. Here, we summarize a range of currently available spatial early warning signals, suggest potential null models to interpret their trends, and apply them to three simulated spatial data sets of systems undergoing an abrupt transition. In addition to providing a step-by-step methodology for applying these signals to spatial data sets, we propose a statistical toolbox that may be used to help detect approaching transitions in a wide range of spatial data. We hope that our methodology together with the computer codes will stimulate the application and testing of spatial early warning signals on real spatial data. PMID:24658137

  13. Evaluation of Signaling Pathways Involved in γ-Globin Gene Induction Using Fetal Hemoglobin Inducer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Fakher; Allahmoradi, Hossein; Salari, Fatemeh; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Fard, Ali Dehghani; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Mousakhani, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Potent induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) production results in alleviating the complications of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease (SCD). HbF inducer agents can trigger several molecular signaling pathways critical for erythropoiesis. Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), mitogen activated protein kinas (MAPK) and Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are considered as main signaling pathways, which may play a significant role in HbF induction. All these signaling pathways are triggered by erythropoietin (EPO) as the main growth factor inducing erythroid differentiation, when it binds to its cell surface receptor, erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) HbF inducer agents have been shown to upregulate HbF production level by triggering certain signaling pathways. As a result, understanding the pivotal signaling pathways influencing HbF induction leads to effective upregulation of HbF. In this mini review article, we try to consider the correlation between HbF inducer agents and their molecular mechanisms of γ-globin upregulation. Several studies suggest that activating P38 MAPK, RAS and STAT5 signaling pathways result in efficient HbF induction. Nevertheless, the role of other erythroid signaling pathways in HbF induction seems to be indispensible and should be emphasized.

  14. [Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway regulates the endothelial differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Lankun; Wang, Ying; Tan, Jun; Xue, Peng; Wang, Qintao

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway on the endothelial differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC). Human PDLSC was cultured in the medium with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) to induce endothelial differentiation. Endothelial inducing cells was incubated with U0126, a specific p-ERK1/2 inhibitor. PDLSC from one person were randomly divided into four groups: control group, endothelial induced group, endothelial induced+DMSO group and endothelial induced+U0126 group. The protein expression of the p-EKR1/2 was analyzed by Western blotting at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 hours during endonthelial induction. The mRNA expressions of CD31, VE-cadherin, and VEGF were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) after a 7-day induction. The proportion of CD31(+) to VE-cadherin(+) cells was identified by flow cytometry, and the ability of capillary-like tubes formation was detected by Matrigel assay after a 14-day induction. The measurement data were statistically analyzed. Phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein level in PDLSC was increased to 1.24±0.12 and 1.03±0.24 at 1 h and 3 h respectively, during the endothelial induction (P<0.01). The mRNA expressions of CD31 and VEGF in induced+U0126 group were decreased to 0.09±0.18 and 0.49±0.17, which were both significantly different with those in induced group (P<0.05). The proportion of CD31(+) to VE-cadherin(+) cells of induced+U0126 group were decreased to 5.22±0.85 and 3.56±0.87, which were both significantly different with those in induced group (P<0.05). In Matrigel assay, the branching points, tube number and tube length were decreased to 7.0±2.7, 33.5±6.4, and (15 951.0±758.1) pixels, which were all significantly different with those in induced group (P<0.05). The endothelial differentiation of PDLSC is positively regulated by ERK signaling pathway. Inhibition of

  15. The node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify elements of cancer-related signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yahui; Ma, Chenkai; Halgamuge, Saman

    2017-12-28

    Cancer constitutes a momentous health burden in our society. Critical information on cancer may be hidden in its signaling pathways. However, even though a large amount of money has been spent on cancer research, some critical information on cancer-related signaling pathways still remains elusive. Hence, new works towards a complete understanding of cancer-related signaling pathways will greatly benefit the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. We propose the node-weighted Steiner tree approach to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways at the level of proteins. This new approach has advantages over previous approaches since it is fast in processing large protein-protein interaction networks. We apply this new approach to identify important elements of two well-known cancer-related signaling pathways: PI3K/Akt and MAPK. First, we generate a node-weighted protein-protein interaction network using protein and signaling pathway data. Second, we modify and use two preprocessing techniques and a state-of-the-art Steiner tree algorithm to identify a subnetwork in the generated network. Third, we propose two new metrics to select important elements from this subnetwork. On a commonly used personal computer, this new approach takes less than 2 s to identify the important elements of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in a large node-weighted protein-protein interaction network with 16,843 vertices and 1,736,922 edges. We further analyze and demonstrate the significance of these identified elements to cancer signal transduction by exploring previously reported experimental evidences. Our node-weighted Steiner tree approach is shown to be both fast and effective to identify important elements of cancer-related signaling pathways. Furthermore, it may provide new perspectives into the identification of signaling pathways for other human diseases.

  16. Comparison of tumor related signaling pathways with known compounds to determine potential agents for lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Song; Liu, Renwang; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-05

    This study compared tumor-related signaling pathways with known compounds to determine potential agents for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) treatment. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes signaling pathway analyses were performed based on LUAD differentially expressed genes from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project and genotype-tissue expression controls. These results were compared to various known compounds using the Connectivity Mapping dataset. The clinical significance of the hub genes identified by overlapping pathway enrichment analysis was further investigated using data mining from multiple sources. A drug-pathway network for LUAD was constructed, and molecular docking was carried out. After the integration of 57 LUAD-related pathways and 35 pathways affected by small molecules, five overlapping pathways were revealed. Among these five pathways, the p53 signaling pathway was the most significant, with CCNB1, CCNB2, CDK1, CDKN2A, and CHEK1 being identified as hub genes. The p53 signaling pathway is implicated as a risk factor for LUAD tumorigenesis and survival. A total of 88 molecules significantly inhibiting the five LUAD-related oncogenic pathways were involved in the LUAD drug-pathway network. Daunorubicin, mycophenolic acid, and pyrvinium could potentially target the hub gene CHEK1 directly. Our study highlights the critical pathways that should be targeted in the search for potential LUAD treatments, most importantly, the p53 signaling pathway. Some compounds, such as ciclopirox and AG-028671, may have potential roles for LUAD treatment but require further experimental verification. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. An interplay between 2 signaling pathways: Melatonin-cAMP and IP{sub 3}–Ca{sup 2+} signaling pathways control intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    SciT

    Furuyama, Wakako; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mossaad, Ehab

    Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca{sup 2+}- and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Ourmore » previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca{sup 2+} imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca{sup 2+} oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP{sub 3}–Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum.« less

  18. Pathway to a Phenocopy: Heat Stress Effects in Early Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Sarah M.; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2015-01-01

    Background Heat shocks applied at the onset of gastrulation in early Drosophila embryos frequently lead to phenocopies of U-shaped mutants – having characteristic failures in the late morphogenetic processes of germband retraction and dorsal closure. The pathway from non-specific heat stress to phenocopied abnormalities is unknown. Results Drosophila embryos subjected to 30-min, 38-°C heat shocks at gastrulation appear to recover and restart morphogenesis. Post-heat-shock development appears normal, albeit slower, until a large fraction of embryos develop amnioserosa holes (diameters > 100 μm). These holes are positively correlated with terminal U-shaped phenocopies. They initiate between amnioserosa cells and open over tens of minutes by evading normal wound healing responses. They are not caused by tissue-wide increases in mechanical stress or decreases in cell-cell adhesion, but instead appear to initiate from isolated apoptosis of amnioserosa cells. Conclusions The pathway from heat shock to U-shaped phenocopies involves the opening of one or more large holes in the amnioserosa that compromise its structural integrity and lead to failures in morphogenetic processes that rely on amnioserosa-generated tensile forces. The proposed mechanism by which heat shock leads to hole initiation and expansion is heterochonicity – i.e., disruption of morphogenetic coordination between embryonic and extra-embryonic cell types. PMID:26498920

  19. A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection

    PubMed Central

    Khatiwada, Sushil; Delhon, Gustavo; Nagendraprabhu, Ponnuraj; Chaulagain, Sabal; Luo, Shuhong; Diel, Diego G.; Flores, Eduardo F.

    2017-01-01

    Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Expression of ORFV073 alone was sufficient to inhibit TNFα induced activation of the NF-κB signaling in uninfected cells. Consistent with observed inhibition of IKK complex activation, ORFV073 interacted with the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex NEMO. Infection of sheep with OV-IA82Δ073 led to virus attenuation, indicating that ORFV073 is a virulence determinant in the natural host. Notably, ORFV073 represents the first poxviral virion-associated NF-κB inhibitor described, highlighting the significance of viral inhibition of NF-κB signaling very early in infection. PMID:28787456

  20. Discovering relationships between nuclear receptor signaling pathways, genes, and tissues in Transcriptomine.

    PubMed

    Becnel, Lauren B; Ochsner, Scott A; Darlington, Yolanda F; McOwiti, Apollo; Kankanamge, Wasula H; Dehart, Michael; Naumov, Alexey; McKenna, Neil J

    2017-04-25

    We previously developed a web tool, Transcriptomine, to explore expression profiling data sets involving small-molecule or genetic manipulations of nuclear receptor signaling pathways. We describe advances in biocuration, query interface design, and data visualization that enhance the discovery of uncharacterized biology in these pathways using this tool. Transcriptomine currently contains about 45 million data points encompassing more than 2000 experiments in a reference library of nearly 550 data sets retrieved from public archives and systematically curated. To make the underlying data points more accessible to bench biologists, we classified experimental small molecules and gene manipulations into signaling pathways and experimental tissues and cell lines into physiological systems and organs. Incorporation of these mappings into Transcriptomine enables the user to readily evaluate tissue-specific regulation of gene expression by nuclear receptor signaling pathways. Data points from animal and cell model experiments and from clinical data sets elucidate the roles of nuclear receptor pathways in gene expression events accompanying various normal and pathological cellular processes. In addition, data sets targeting non-nuclear receptor signaling pathways highlight transcriptional cross-talk between nuclear receptors and other signaling pathways. We demonstrate with specific examples how data points that exist in isolation in individual data sets validate each other when connected and made accessible to the user in a single interface. In summary, Transcriptomine allows bench biologists to routinely develop research hypotheses, validate experimental data, or model relationships between signaling pathways, genes, and tissues. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Induction of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Contributes to Inhibition of the Interferon Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Shin-ichi; Yokosawa, Noriko; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Suzutani, Tatsuo; Miura, Shunsuke; Jimbow, Kowichi; Fujii, Nobuhiro

    2004-01-01

    We showed previously that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) suppresses the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway during the early infection stage in the human amnion cell line FL. HSV-1 inhibits the IFN-induced phosphorylation of Janus kinases (JAK) in infected FL cells. In the present study, we showed that the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), a host negative regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway, is rapidly induced in FL cells after HSV-1 infection. Maximal levels of SOCS3 protein were detected at around 1 to 2 h after infection. This is consistent with the occurrence of HSV-1-mediated inhibition of IFN-induced JAK phosphorylation. The HSV-1 wild-type strain VR3 induced SOCS3 more efficiently than did mutants that are defective in UL41 or UL13 and that are hyperresponsive to IFN. Induction of the IRF-7 protein and transcriptional activation of IFN-α4, which occur in a JAK/STAT pathway-dependent manner, were poorly induced by VR3 but efficiently induced by the mutant viruses. In contrast, phosphorylation of IRF-3 and transcriptional activation of IFN-β, which are JAK/STAT pathway-independent process, were equally well induced by the wild-type strain and the mutants. In conclusion, the SOCS3 protein appears to be mainly responsible for the suppression of IFN signaling and IFN production that occurs during HSV-1 infection. PMID:15163721

  2. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL2 Mediates Notch and Kit Signals in Early T Cell Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michihiro; Nabinger, Sarah C; Bai, Yunpeng; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Yao, Chonghua; Dong, Yuanshu; Zhang, Lujuan; Rodriguez, Sonia; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Pear, Warren S; Carlesso, Nadia; Yoder, Mervin C; Kapur, Reuben; Kaplan, Mark H; Daniel Lacorazza, Hugo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The molecular pathways regulating lymphoid priming, fate, and development of multipotent bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that continuously feed thymic progenitors remain largely unknown. While Notch signal is indispensable for T cell specification and differentiation, the downstream effectors are not well understood. PRL2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and self-renewal, is highly expressed in murine thymocyte progenitors. Here we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL2 and receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit are critical downstream targets and effectors of the canonical Notch/RBPJ pathway in early T cell progenitors. While PRL2 deficiency resulted in moderate defects of thymopoiesis in the steady state, de novo generation of T cells from Prl2 null hematopoietic stem cells was significantly reduced following transplantation. Prl2 null HSPCs also showed impaired T cell differentiation in vitro. We found that Notch/RBPJ signaling upregulated PRL2 as well as c-Kit expression in T cell progenitors. Further, PRL2 sustains Notch-mediated c-Kit expression and enhances stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling in T cell progenitors, promoting effective DN1-DN2 transition. Thus, we have identified a critical role for PRL2 phosphatase in mediating Notch and c-Kit signals in early T cell progenitors. Stem Cells 2017;35:1053-1064. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Dissecting Cell-Fate Determination Through Integrated Mathematical Modeling of the ERK/MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung-Young; Nguyen, Lan K

    2017-01-01

    The past three decades have witnessed an enormous progress in the elucidation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway and its involvement in various cellular processes. Because of its importance and complex wiring, the ERK pathway has been an intensive subject for mathematical modeling, which facilitates the unraveling of key dynamic properties and behaviors of the pathway. Recently, however, it became evident that the pathway does not act in isolation but closely interacts with many other pathways to coordinate various cellular outcomes under different pathophysiological contexts. This has led to an increasing number of integrated, large-scale models that link the ERK pathway to other functionally important pathways. In this chapter, we first discuss the essential steps in model development and notable models of the ERK pathway. We then use three examples of integrated, multipathway models to investigate how crosstalk of ERK signaling with other pathways regulates cell-fate decision-making in various physiological and disease contexts. Specifically, we focus on ERK interactions with the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling pathways. We conclude that integrated modeling in combination with wet-lab experimentation have been and will be instrumental in gaining an in-depth understanding of ERK signaling in multiple biological contexts.

  4. Sig2GRN: a software tool linking signaling pathway with gene regulatory network for dynamic simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Runsheng; Zheng, Jie

    2016-12-23

    Linking computational models of signaling pathways to predicted cellular responses such as gene expression regulation is a major challenge in computational systems biology. In this work, we present Sig2GRN, a Cytoscape plugin that is able to simulate time-course gene expression data given the user-defined external stimuli to the signaling pathways. A generalized logical model is used in modeling the upstream signaling pathways. Then a Boolean model and a thermodynamics-based model are employed to predict the downstream changes in gene expression based on the simulated dynamics of transcription factors in signaling pathways. Our empirical case studies show that the simulation of Sig2GRN can predict changes in gene expression patterns induced by DNA damage signals and drug treatments. As a software tool for modeling cellular dynamics, Sig2GRN can facilitate studies in systems biology by hypotheses generation and wet-lab experimental design. http://histone.scse.ntu.edu.sg/Sig2GRN/.

  5. Chordin and dickkopf-1b are essential for the formation of head structures through activation of the FGF signaling pathway in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shingo; Hosokawa, Hiroshi; Weinberg, Eric S; Maegawa, Shingo

    2017-04-15

    The ability of the Spemann organizer to induce dorsal axis formation is dependent on downstream factors of the maternal Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway has been identified as one of the downstream components of the maternal Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The ability of the FGF signaling pathway to induce the formation of a dorsal axis with a complete head structure requires chordin (chd) expression; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this developmental process, due to activation of FGF signaling, remain unclear. In this study, we showed that activation of the FGF signaling pathway induced the formation of complete head structures through the expression of chd and dickkopf-1b (dkk1b). Using the organizer-deficient maternal mutant, ichabod, we identified dkk1b as a novel downstream factor in the FGF signaling pathway. We also demonstrate that dkk1b expression is necessary, after activation of the FGF signaling pathway, to induce neuroectoderm patterning along the anteroposterior (AP) axis and for formation of complete head structures. Co-injection of chd and dkk1b mRNA resulted in the formation of a dorsal axis with a complete head structure in ichabod embryos, confirming the role of these factors in this developmental process. Unexpectedly, we found that chd induced dkk1b expression in ichabod embryos at the shield stage. However, chd failed to maintain dkk1b expression levels in cells of the shield and, subsequently, in the cells of the prechordal plate after mid-gastrula stage. In contrast, activation of the FGF signaling pathway maintained the dkk1b expression from the beginning of gastrulation to early somitogenesis. In conclusion, activation of the FGF signaling pathway induces the formation of a dorsal axis with a complete head structure through the expression of chd and subsequent maintenance of dkk1b expression levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Hippo signaling pathway provides novel anti-cancer drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Bae, June Sung; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Ho

    2017-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and development. Major effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway include the transcriptional co-activators Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and WW domain-containing transcription regulator protein 1 (TAZ). The transcriptional activities of YAP and TAZ are affected by interactions with proteins from many diverse signaling pathways as well as responses to the external environment. High YAP and TAZ activity has been observed in many cancer types, and functional dysregulation of Hippo signaling enhances the oncogenic properties of YAP and TAZ and promotes cancer development. Many biological elements, including mechanical strain on the cell, cell polarity/adhesion molecules, other signaling pathways (e.g., G-protein-coupled receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, Wnt, Notch, and transforming growth factor β/bone morphogenic protein), and cellular metabolic status, can promote oncogenesis through synergistic association with components of the Hippo signaling pathway. Here, we review the signaling networks that interact with the Hippo signaling pathway and discuss the potential of using drugs that inhibit YAP and TAZ activity for cancer therapy. PMID:28035075

  7. The Hippo signaling pathway provides novel anti-cancer drug targets.

    PubMed

    Bae, June Sung; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Ho

    2017-02-28

    The Hippo signaling pathway plays a crucial role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and development. Major effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway include the transcriptional co-activators Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) and WW domain-containing transcription regulator protein 1 (TAZ). The transcriptional activities of YAP and TAZ are affected by interactions with proteins from many diverse signaling pathways as well as responses to the external environment. High YAP and TAZ activity has been observed in many cancer types, and functional dysregulation of Hippo signaling enhances the oncogenic properties of YAP and TAZ and promotes cancer development. Many biological elements, including mechanical strain on the cell, cell polarity/adhesion molecules, other signaling pathways (e.g., G-protein-coupled receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, Wnt, Notch, and transforming growth factor β/bone morphogenic protein), and cellular metabolic status, can promote oncogenesis through synergistic association with components of the Hippo signaling pathway. Here, we review the signaling networks that interact with the Hippo signaling pathway and discuss the potential of using drugs that inhibit YAP and TAZ activity for cancer therapy.

  8. Alterations in molecular pathways in the retina of early experimental glaucoma eyes

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li; Wang, Lin; Cull, Grant; Zhou, An

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial, neurodegenerative disease. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathophysiological changes in glaucomatous eyes, especially at the early stage of the disease, are poorly understood. Here, we report the findings from a quantitative proteomic analysis of retinas from experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes. An early stage of EG was modeled on unilateral eyes of five nonhuman primates (NHP) by laser treatment-induced elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Retinal proteins were extracted from individual EG eyes and their contralateral control eyes of the same animals, respectively, and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). As a result, a total, 475 retinal proteins were confidently identified and quantified. Results of bioinformatic analysis of proteins that showed an increase in the EG eyes suggested changes in apoptosis, DNA damage, immune response, cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion processes. Interestingly, hemoglobin subunit alpha (HBA) and Ras related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) were among the increased proteins. Results of molecular modeling of HBA- and Rac1-associated signaling network implicated the involvement of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway in the EG, through which Rac1 may exert a regulatory role on HBA. This is the first observation of this potentially novel signaling network in the NHP retina and in EG. Results of Western blot analyses for Rac1, HBA and a selected MAPK pathway protein indicated synergistic changes in all three proteins in the EG eyes. Further, results of hierarchical cluster analysis of proteomes of control eyes revealed a clear age-proteome relationship, and such relationship appeared disrupted in the EG eyes. In conclusion, our results suggested an increased presence of a potentially novel signaling network at the early stage of glaucoma, and age might be one of the determinant factors in retinal proteomic characteristics under normal conditions. PMID

  9. NetPath: a public resource of curated signal transduction pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We have developed NetPath as a resource of curated human signaling pathways. As an initial step, NetPath provides detailed maps of a number of immune signaling pathways, which include approximately 1,600 reactions annotated from the literature and more than 2,800 instances of transcriptionally regulated genes - all linked to over 5,500 published articles. We anticipate NetPath to become a consolidated resource for human signaling pathways that should enable systems biology approaches. PMID:20067622

  10. Proteins in phytohormone signaling pathways for abiotic stress in plants

    Plant hormones and their signaling network systems have an essential role in activating and regulating plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stress factors. This chapter describes proteins that are involved in hormone biosynthesis, long distance and intra-cellular transport, the signaling sensi...

  11. Mapping glucose-mediated gut-to-brain signalling pathways in humans.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; McKie, Shane; Jones, Richard B; D'Amato, Massimo; Smith, Craig; Kiss, Orsolya; Thompson, David G; McLaughlin, John T

    2014-08-01

    Previous fMRI studies have demonstrated that glucose decreases the hypothalamic BOLD response in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the CNS response to glucose have not been defined. We recently demonstrated that the slowing of gastric emptying by glucose is dependent on activation of the gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK1) receptor. Using physiological functional magnetic resonance imaging this study aimed to determine the whole brain response to glucose, and whether CCK plays a central role. Changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal were monitored using fMRI in 12 healthy subjects following intragastric infusion (250ml) of: 1M glucose+predosing with dexloxiglumide (CCK1 receptor antagonist), 1M glucose+placebo, or 0.9% saline (control)+placebo, in a single-blind, randomised fashion. Gallbladder volume, blood glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were determined. Hunger, fullness and nausea scores were also recorded. Intragastric glucose elevated plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, and reduced gall bladder volume (an in vivo assay for CCK secretion). Glucose decreased BOLD signal, relative to saline, in the brainstem and hypothalamus as well as the cerebellum, right occipital cortex, putamen and thalamus. The timing of the BOLD signal decrease was negatively correlated with the rise in blood glucose and insulin levels. The glucose+dex arm highlighted a CCK1-receptor dependent increase in BOLD signal only in the motor cortex. Glucose induces site-specific differences in BOLD response in the human brain; the brainstem and hypothalamus show a CCK1 receptor-independent reduction which is likely to be mediated by a circulatory effect of glucose and insulin, whereas the motor cortex shows an early dexloxiglumide-reversible increase in signal, suggesting a CCK1 receptor-dependent neural pathway. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Mapping glucose-mediated gut-to-brain signalling pathways in humans☆

    PubMed Central

    Little, Tanya J.; McKie, Shane; Jones, Richard B.; D'Amato, Massimo; Smith, Craig; Kiss, Orsolya; Thompson, David G.; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous fMRI studies have demonstrated that glucose decreases the hypothalamic BOLD response in humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the CNS response to glucose have not been defined. We recently demonstrated that the slowing of gastric emptying by glucose is dependent on activation of the gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK1) receptor. Using physiological functional magnetic resonance imaging this study aimed to determine the whole brain response to glucose, and whether CCK plays a central role. Experimental design Changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal were monitored using fMRI in 12 healthy subjects following intragastric infusion (250 ml) of: 1 M glucose + predosing with dexloxiglumide (CCK1 receptor antagonist), 1 M glucose + placebo, or 0.9% saline (control) + placebo, in a single-blind, randomised fashion. Gallbladder volume, blood glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were determined. Hunger, fullness and nausea scores were also recorded. Principal observations Intragastric glucose elevated plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, and reduced gall bladder volume (an in vivo assay for CCK secretion). Glucose decreased BOLD signal, relative to saline, in the brainstem and hypothalamus as well as the cerebellum, right occipital cortex, putamen and thalamus. The timing of the BOLD signal decrease was negatively correlated with the rise in blood glucose and insulin levels. The glucose + dex arm highlighted a CCK1-receptor dependent increase in BOLD signal only in the motor cortex. Conclusions Glucose induces site-specific differences in BOLD response in the human brain; the brainstem and hypothalamus show a CCK1 receptor-independent reduction which is likely to be mediated by a circulatory effect of glucose and insulin, whereas the motor cortex shows an early dexloxiglumide-reversible increase in signal, suggesting a CCK1 receptor-dependent neural pathway. PMID:24685436

  13. CD25 and CD69 induction by α4β1 outside-in signalling requires TCR early signalling complex proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cimo, Ann-Marie; Ahmed, Zamal; McIntyre, Bradley W.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Ladbury, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Distinct signalling pathways producing diverse cellular outcomes can utilize similar subsets of proteins. For example, proteins from the TCR (T-cell receptor) ESC (early signalling complex) are also involved in interferon-α receptor signalling. Defining the mechanism for how these proteins function within a given pathway is important in understanding the integration and communication of signalling networks with one another. We investigated the contributions of the TCR ESC proteins Lck (lymphocyte-specific kinase), ZAP-70 (ζ-chain-associated protein of 70 kDa), Vav1, SLP-76 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa] and LAT (linker for activation of T-cells) to integrin outside-in signalling in human T-cells. Lck, ZAP-70, SLP-76, Vav1 and LAT were activated by α4β1 outside-in signalling, but in a manner different from TCR signalling. TCR stimulation recruits ESC proteins to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase). α4β1 outside-in-mediated ERK activation did not require TCR ESC proteins. However, α4β1 outside-in signalling induced CD25 and co-stimulated CD69 and this was dependent on TCR ESC proteins. TCR and α4β1 outside-in signalling are integrated through the common use of TCR ESC proteins; however, these proteins display functionally distinct roles in these pathways. These novel insights into the cross-talk between integrin outside-in and TCR signalling pathways are highly relevant to the development of therapeutic strategies to overcome disease associated with T-cell deregulation. PMID:23758320

  14. Role of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chong; Xing, Rui; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway downstream genes in the nucleus. It shows that CSL-dependent signaling regulates the cell apoptosis through Hes-1-PTEN-AKT-mTOR signaling, but rather the CSL-independent signaling mediates the cell apoptosis possibly via NIC-mTORC2-AKT-mTOR signaling, providing a new insight into apoptotic mechanisms.

  15. Expression and Genetic Variation in Neuroendocrine Signaling Pathways in Lethal and Nonlethal Prostate Cancer among Men Diagnosed with Localized Disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Donghao; Carlsson, Jessica; Penney, Kathryn L; Davidsson, Sabina; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Mucci, Lorelei A; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur; Andrén, Ove; Fang, Fang; Fall, Katja

    2017-12-01

    Background: Recent data suggest that neuroendocrine signaling pathways may play a role in the progression of prostate cancer, particularly for early-stage disease. We aimed to explore whether expression of selected genes in the adrenergic, serotoninergic, glucocorticoid, and dopaminergic pathways differs in prostate tumor tissue from men with lethal disease compared with men with nonlethal disease. Methods: On the basis of the Swedish Watchful Waiting Cohort, we included 511 men diagnosed with incidental prostate cancer through transurethral resection of the prostate during 1977-1998 with follow-up up to 30 years. For those with tumor tissue ( N = 262), we measured mRNA expression of 223 selected genes included in neuroendocrine pathways. Using DNA from normal prostate tissue ( N = 396), we genotyped 36 SNPs from 14 receptor genes. Lethal prostate cancer was the primary outcome in analyses with pathway gene expression and genetic variants. Results: Differential expression of genes in the serotoninergic pathway was associated with risk of lethal prostate cancer ( P = 0.007); similar but weaker associations were noted for the adrenergic ( P = 0.014) and glucocorticoid ( P = 0.020) pathways. Variants of the HTR2A (rs2296972; P = 0.002) and NR3CI (rs33388; P = 0.035) genes (within the serotoninergic and glucocorticoid pathways) were associated with lethal cancer in overdominant models. These genetic variants were correlated with expression of several genes in corresponding pathways ( P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings lend support to hypothesis that the neuroendocrine pathways, particularly serotoninergic pathway, are associated with lethal outcome in the natural course of localized prostate cancer. Impact: This study provides evidence of the role of neuroendocrine pathways in prostate cancer progression that may have clinical utility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(12); 1781-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Petri net-based method for the analysis of the dynamics of signal propagation in signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Simon; Robillard, Pierre N

    2008-01-15

    Cellular signaling networks are dynamic systems that propagate and process information, and, ultimately, cause phenotypical responses. Understanding the circuitry of the information flow in cells is one of the keys to understanding complex cellular processes. The development of computational quantitative models is a promising avenue for attaining this goal. Not only does the analysis of the simulation data based on the concentration variations of biological compounds yields information about systemic state changes, but it is also very helpful for obtaining information about the dynamics of signal propagation. This article introduces a new method for analyzing the dynamics of signal propagation in signaling pathways using Petri net theory. The method is demonstrated with the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulation network. The results constitute temporal information about signal propagation in the network, a simplified graphical representation of the network and of the signal propagation dynamics and a characterization of some signaling routes as regulation motifs.

  17. Early warning signals detect critical impacts of experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Lauren; McCann, Kevin; Tunney, Tyler; Gellner, Gabriel; Fryxell, John M

    2016-09-01

    Earth's surface temperatures are projected to increase by ~1-4°C over the next century, threatening the future of global biodiversity and ecosystem stability. While this has fueled major progress in the field of physiological trait responses to warming, it is currently unclear whether routine population monitoring data can be used to predict temperature-induced population collapse. Here, we integrate trait performance theory with that of critical tipping points to test whether early warning signals can be reliably used to anticipate thermally induced extinction events. We find that a model parameterized by experimental growth rates exhibits critical slowing down in the vicinity of an experimentally tested critical threshold, suggesting that dynamical early warning signals may be useful in detecting the potentially precipitous onset of population collapse due to global climate change.

  18. Radiotracers For Lipid Signaling Pathways In Biological Systems

    SciT

    Gatley, S. J.

    enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase, which may regulate endocannabinoid tone in animals. Early results were presented at the 2011 ICRS meeting, and at the 2012 Society for Neurosciences. Narachidonoylethanolamine is an endocannabinoid signaling messenger in animals and is known as “anandamide”. It is one of several families of signaling molecules derived from arachidonic acid, the principal omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA’s) in animal species. Other derivatives of arachidonic acid include thromboxanes and prostaglandins. Full details of the studies with the ethanolamide isotopomers were a part of the PhD dissertation of Kun Hu (nee Qian), and were submitted for publication to Nuclear Medicine and Biology in August 2016. Syntheses of [14C]docosahexanoylethanolamine isotopomers and preliminary biological investigations Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the omega-3 PUFA that can be regarded in some respects as the counterpart of arachidonic acid in the omega-6 series. While arachidonic acid is proinflammatory, DHA is anti-inflammatory, and foods high in DHA (or artificially enriched in DHA) are commonly regarded as promoting health. In contrast to the large literature on the Nethanolamide of arachidonic acid (i.e. the endocannabinoid anandamide) as of now (9/25/2016) there are only six papers on the corresponding ethanolamide of DHA, and when our studies under this grant began there were none. Beneficial actions of endogenously produced DHAethanolamine (“synaptamide”) have been indicated, and to help elucidate the possible roles of synaptamide, we have synthesized this molecule for the first time labeled with C-14 in either the ethanolamine moiety or the fatty acid moiety. Studies of the disposition of endogenously administered isotopomers of DHA-ethanolamine are in progress, to complement tissue culture experiments evaluation hypothesized protective effects of this DHA derivative.« less

  19. Sex and hedgehog: roles of genes in the hedgehog signaling pathway in mammalian sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Heather L; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2012-01-01

    The chromosome status of the mammalian embryo initiates a multistage process of sexual development in which the bipotential reproductive system establishes itself as either male or female. These events are governed by intricate cell-cell and interorgan communication that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. The hedgehog signaling pathway was originally identified for its key role in the development of Drosophila, but is now recognized as a critical developmental regulator in many species, including humans. In addition to its developmental roles, the hedgehog signaling pathway also modulates adult organ function, and misregulation of this pathway often leads to diseases, such as cancer. The hedgehog signaling pathway acts through its morphogenetic ligands that signal from ligand-producing cells to target cells over a specified distance. The target cells then respond in a graded manner based on the concentration of the ligands that they are exposed to. Through this unique mechanism of action, the hedgehog signaling pathway elicits cell fate determination, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, and cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current findings on the roles of hedgehog signaling in the sexually dimorphic development of the reproductive organs with an emphasis on mammals and comparative evidence in other species.

  20. A proteomic analysis of LRRK2 binding partners reveals interactions with multiple signaling components of the WNT/PCP pathway.

    PubMed

    Salašová, Alena; Yokota, Chika; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Bryja, Vítězslav; Arenas, Ernest

    2017-07-11

    Autosomal-dominant mutations in the Park8 gene encoding Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) have been identified to cause up to 40% of the genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. However, the function and molecular pathways regulated by LRRK2 are largely unknown. It has been shown that LRRK2 serves as a scaffold during activation of WNT/β-catenin signaling via its interaction with the β-catenin destruction complex, DVL1-3 and LRP6. In this study, we examine whether LRRK2 also interacts with signaling components of the WNT/Planar Cell Polarity (WNT/PCP) pathway, which controls the maturation of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, the main cell type lost in Parkinson's disease patients. Co-immunoprecipitation and tandem mass spectrometry was performed in a mouse substantia nigra cell line (SN4741) and human HEK293T cell line in order to identify novel LRRK2 binding partners. Inhibition of the WNT/β-catenin reporter, TOPFlash, was used as a read-out of WNT/PCP pathway activation. The capacity of LRRK2 to regulate WNT/PCP signaling in vivo was tested in Xenopus laevis' early development. Our proteomic analysis identified that LRRK2 interacts with proteins involved in WNT/PCP signaling such as the PDZ domain-containing protein GIPC1 and Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in dopaminergic cells in vitro and in the mouse ventral midbrain in vivo. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that LRRK2 binds to two core components of the WNT/PCP signaling pathway, PRICKLE1 and CELSR1, as well as to FLOTILLIN-2 and CULLIN-3, which regulate WNT secretion and inhibit WNT/β-catenin signaling, respectively. We also found that PRICKLE1 and LRRK2 localize in signalosomes and act as dual regulators of WNT/PCP and β-catenin signaling. Accordingly, analysis of the function of LRRK2 in vivo, in X. laevis revelaed that LRKK2 not only inhibits WNT/β-catenin pathway, but induces a classical WNT/PCP phenotype in vivo. Our study shows for the first time that LRRK2 activates the WNT

  1. A pathway to bone: signaling molecules and transcription factors involved in chondrocyte development and maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kozhemyakina, Elena; Lassar, Andrew B.; Zelzer, Elazar

    2015-01-01

    Decades of work have identified the signaling pathways that regulate the differentiation of chondrocytes during bone formation, from their initial induction from mesenchymal progenitor cells to their terminal maturation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we review how multiple signaling molecules, mechanical signals and morphological cell features are integrated to activate a set of key transcription factors that determine and regulate the genetic program that induces chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation. Moreover, we describe recent findings regarding the roles of several signaling pathways in modulating the proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes in the growth plate, which is the ‘engine’ of bone elongation. PMID:25715393

  2. Control of proliferation and cancer growth by the Hippo signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ehmer, Ursula; Sage, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The control of cell division is essential for normal development and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Abnormal cell proliferation is associated with multiple pathological states, including cancer. While the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway was initially thought to control organ size and growth, increasing evidence indicates that this pathway also plays a major role in the control of proliferation independent of organ size control. In particular, accumulating evidence indicates that the Hippo/YAP signaling pathway functionally interacts with multiple other cellular pathways and serves as a central node in the regulation of cell division, especially in cancer cells. Here recent observations are highlighted that connect Hippo/YAP signaling to transcription, the basic cell cycle machinery, and the control of cell division. Furthermore, the oncogenic and tumor suppressive attributes of YAP/TAZ are reviewed which emphasizes the relevance of the Hippo pathway in cancer. PMID:26432795

  3. Correlated cone noise decreases rod signal contributions to the post-receptoral pathways.

    PubMed

    Hathibelagal, Amithavikram R; Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated how invisible extrinsic temporal white noise that correlates with the activity of one of the three [magnocellular (MC), parvocellular (PC), or koniocellular (KC)] post-receptoral pathways alters mesopic rod signaling. A four-primary photostimulator provided independent control of the rod and three cone photoreceptor excitations. The rod contributions to the three post-receptoral pathways were estimated by perceptually matching a 20% contrast rod pulse by independently varying the LMS (MC pathway), +L-M (PC pathway), and S-cone (KC pathway) excitations. We show that extrinsic cone noise caused a predominant decrease in the overall magnitude and ratio of the rod contributions to each pathway. Thus, the relative cone activity in the post-receptoral pathways determines the relative mesopic rod inputs to each pathway.

  4. Tight Junction–Associated Signaling Pathways Modulate Cell Proliferation in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jayagopal, Ashwath; Yang, Jin-Long; Haselton, Frederick R.; Chang, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of tight junction (TJ)–associated signaling pathways in the proliferation of uveal melanoma. Methods. Human uveal melanoma cell lines overexpressing the TJ molecule blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves) were generated. The effects of Bves overexpression on TJ protein expression, cell proliferation, and cell cycle distribution were quantified. In addition, localization and transcription activity of the TJ-associated protein ZO-1–associated nucleic acid binding protein (ZONAB) were evaluated using immunofluorescence and bioluminescence reporter assays to study the involvement of Bves signaling in cell proliferation-associated pathways. Results. Bves overexpression in uveal melanoma cell lines resulted in increased expression of the TJ proteins occludin and ZO-1, reduced cell proliferation, and increased sequestration of ZONAB at TJs and reduced ZONAB transcriptional activity. Conclusions. TJ proteins are present in uveal melanoma, and TJ-associated signaling pathways modulate cell signaling pathways relevant to proliferation in uveal melanoma. PMID:20861479

  5. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF CELL SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using respiratory epithelial cells transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase, the authors tested the hypothesis that the activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signal pathway after asbestos exposure involves an oxidative stress. Western blot...

  6. The pathway to earthquake early warning in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Given, D. D.; Heaton, T. H.; Vidale, J. E.; West Coast Earthquake Early Warning Development Team

    2013-05-01

    The development of earthquake early warning capabilities in the United States is now accelerating and expanding as the technical capability to provide warning is demonstrated and additional funding resources are making it possible to expand the current testing region to the entire west coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Over the course of the next two years we plan to build a prototype system that will provide a blueprint for a full public system in the US. California currently has a demonstrations warning system, ShakeAlert, that provides alerts to a group of test users from the public and private sector. These include biotech companies, technology companies, the entertainment industry, the transportation sector, and the emergency planning and response community. Most groups are currently in an evaluation mode, receiving the alerts and developing protocols for future response. The Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system is the one group who has now implemented an automated response to the warning system. BART now stops trains when an earthquake of sufficient size is detected. Research and development also continues to develop improved early warning algorithms to better predict the distribution of shaking in large earthquakes when the finiteness of the source becomes important. The algorithms under development include the use of both seismic and GPS instrumentation and integration with existing point source algorithms. At the same time, initial testing and development of algorithms in and for the Pacific Northwest is underway. In this presentation we will review the current status of the systems, highlight the new research developments, and lay out a pathway to a full public system for the US west coast. The research and development described is ongoing at Caltech, UC Berkeley, University of Washington, ETH Zurich, Southern California Earthquake Center, and the US Geological Survey, and is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the US Geological

  7. The type I BMP receptors, Bmpr1a and Acvr1, activate multiple signaling pathways to regulate lens formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Ramya; Huang, Jie; Dattilo, Lisa K.; Kaartinen, Vesa; Mishina, Yuji; Deng, Chu-Xia; Umans, Lieve; Zwijsen, An; Roberts, Anita B.; Beebe, David C.

    2009-01-01

    BMPs play multiple roles in development and BMP signaling is essential for lens formation. However, the mechanisms by which BMP receptors function in vertebrate development are incompletely understood. To determine the downstream effectors of BMP signaling and their functions in the ectoderm that will form the lens, we deleted the genes encoding the type I BMP receptors, Bmpr1a and Acvr1, and the canonical transducers of BMP signaling, Smad4, Smad1 and Smad5. Bmpr1a and Acvr1 regulated cell survival and proliferation, respectively. Absence of both receptors interfered with the expression of proteins involved in normal lens development and prevented lens formation, demonstrating that BMPs induce lens formation by acting directly on the prospective lens ectoderm. Remarkably, the canonical Smad signaling pathway was not needed for most of these processes. Lens formation, placode cell proliferation, the expression of FoxE3, a lens-specific transcription factor, and the lens protein, αA-crystallin were regulated by BMP receptors in a Smad-independent manner. Placode cell survival was promoted by R-Smad signaling, but in a manner that did not involve Smad4. Of the responses tested, only maintaining a high level of Sox2 protein, a transcription factor expressed early in placode formation, required the canonical Smad pathway. A key function of Smad-independent BMP receptor signaling may be reorganization of actin cytoskeleton to drive lens invagination. PMID:19733164

  8. The crossroads of breast cancer progression: insights into the modulation of major signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Jessica O; Torres, Nadia EC; Ferruzo, Pault YM; Anschau, Valesca; Jesus-Ferreira, Henrique C; Chang, Ted Hung-Tse; Sogayar, Mari Cleide; Zerbini, Luiz F; Correa, Ricardo G

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the disease with highest public health impact in developed countries. Particularly, breast cancer has the highest incidence in women worldwide and the fifth highest mortality in the globe, imposing a significant social and economic burden to society. The disease has a complex heterogeneous etiology, being associated with several risk factors that range from lifestyle to age and family history. Breast cancer is usually classified according to the site of tumor occurrence and gene expression profiling. Although mutations in a few key genes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, are associated with high breast cancer risk, the large majority of breast cancer cases are related to mutated genes of low penetrance, which are frequently altered in the whole population. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of breast cancer, including the several deregulated genes and related pathways linked to this pathology, is essential to ensure advances in early tumor detection and prevention. In this review, we outline key cellular pathways whose deregulation has been associated with breast cancer, leading to alterations in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the delicate hormonal balance of breast tissue cells. Therefore, here we describe some potential breast cancer-related nodes and signaling concepts linked to the disease, which can be positively translated into novel therapeutic approaches and predictive biomarkers. PMID:29200866

  9. Impaired insulin signaling pathway in ovarian follicles of cows with cystic ovarian disease.

    PubMed

    Hein, G J; Panzani, C G; Rodríguez, F M; Salvetti, N R; Díaz, P U; Gareis, N C; Benítez, G A; Ortega, H H; Rey, F

    2015-05-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. Follicular cell steroidogenesis and proliferation in ovulatory follicles is stimulated by hormones such as insulin and its necessary post-receptor response. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate-1 (IRS1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), key intermediates in the insulin pathway, in control cows and cows with spontaneous COD and ACTH-induced COD. IR and IRS1 mRNA levels were greater in granulosa cells and lower in follicular cysts than in control tertiary follicles. PI3K mRNA levels were similar in all follicles evaluated, whereas the expression of IR, IRS1 and PI3K was similar in theca cells. Protein expression of IR was higher in control tertiary follicles than in the same structures in animals with COD and with cysts. IRS1 and PI3K protein expression showed the same pattern in tertiary and cystic follicles. However, the protein expression of subunit alpha p85 of PI3K was greater in theca cells from tertiary follicles than in cystic follicles. These results provide new insights into the insulin response in cows with COD. The lower gene and protein expressions of some insulin downstream effectors at an early stage of the signaling pathway could negatively influence the functionality of ovaries and contribute to follicle persistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Arsenic and Cadmium Impacts Infectious Disease-Related Genes within the Glucocorticoid Receptor Signal Transduction Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rager, Julia E.; Yosim, Andrew; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that environmental agents mediate susceptibility to infectious disease. Studies support the impact of prenatal/early life exposure to the environmental metals inorganic arsenic (iAs) and cadmium (Cd) on increased risk for susceptibility to infection. The specific biological mechanisms that underlie such exposure-mediated effects remain understudied. This research aimed to identify key genes/signal transduction pathways that associate prenatal exposure to these toxic metals with changes in infectious disease susceptibility using a Comparative Genomic Enrichment Method (CGEM). Using CGEM an infectious disease gene (IDG) database was developed comprising 1085 genes with known roles in viral, bacterial, and parasitic disease pathways. Subsequently, datasets collected from human pregnancy cohorts exposed to iAs or Cd were examined in relationship to the IDGs, specifically focusing on data representing epigenetic modifications (5-methyl cytosine), genomic perturbations (mRNA expression), and proteomic shifts (protein expression). A set of 82 infection and exposure-related genes was identified and found to be enriched for their role in the glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction pathway. Given their common identification across numerous human cohorts and their known toxicological role in disease, the identified genes within the glucocorticoid signal transduction pathway may underlie altered infectious disease susceptibility associated with prenatal exposures to the toxic metals iAs and Cd in humans. PMID:25479081

  11. The Hippo-YAP signaling pathway and contact inhibition of growth

    PubMed Central

    Gumbiner, Barry M.; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Hippo-YAP pathway mediates the control of cell proliferation by contact inhibition as well as other attributes of the physical state of cells in tissues. Several mechanisms sense the spatial and physical organization of cells, and function through distinct upstream modules to stimulate Hippo-YAP signaling: adherens junction or cadherin–catenin complexes, epithelial polarity and tight junction complexes, the FAT-Dachsous morphogen pathway, as well as cell shape, actomyosin or mechanotransduction. Soluble extracellular factors also regulate Hippo pathway signaling, often inhibiting its activity. Indeed, the Hippo pathway mediates a reciprocal relationship between contact inhibition and mitogenic signaling. As a result, cells at the edges of a colony, a wound in a tissue or a tumor are more sensitive to ambient levels of growth factors and more likely to proliferate, migrate or differentiate through a YAP and/or TAZ-dependent process. Thus, the Hippo-YAP pathway senses and responds to the physical organization of cells in tissues and coordinates these physical cues with classic growth-factor-mediated signaling pathways. This Commentary is focused on the biological significance of Hippo-YAP signaling and how upstream regulatory modules of the pathway interact to produce biological outcomes. PMID:24532814

  12. Teaching the Toolkit: A Laboratory Series to Demonstrate the Evolutionary Conservation of Metazoan Cell Signaling Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClair, Elizabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    A major finding of comparative genomics and developmental genetics is that metazoans share certain conserved, embryonically deployed signaling pathways that instruct cells as to their ultimate fate. Because the DNA encoding these pathways predates the evolutionary split of most animal groups, it should in principle be possible to clone…

  13. Spatial separation of two different pathways accounting for the generation of calcium signals in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oschmann, Franziska; Mergenthaler, Konstantin; Jungnickel, Evelyn; Obermayer, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    Astrocytes integrate and process synaptic information and exhibit calcium (Ca2+) signals in response to incoming information from neighboring synapses. The generation of Ca2+ signals is mostly attributed to Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores evoked by an elevated metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activity. Different experimental results associated the generation of Ca2+ signals to the activity of the glutamate transporter (GluT). The GluT itself does not influence the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, but it indirectly activates Ca2+ entry over the membrane. A closer look into Ca2+ signaling in different astrocytic compartments revealed a spatial separation of those two pathways. Ca2+ signals in the soma are mainly generated by Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores (mGluR-dependent pathway). In astrocytic compartments close to the synapse most Ca2+ signals are evoked by Ca2+ entry over the plasma membrane (GluT-dependent pathway). This assumption is supported by the finding, that the volume ratio between the internal Ca2+ store and the intracellular space decreases from the soma towards the synapse. We extended a model for mGluR-dependent Ca2+ signals in astrocytes with the GluT-dependent pathway. Additionally, we included the volume ratio between the internal Ca2+ store and the intracellular compartment into the model in order to analyze Ca2+ signals either in the soma or close to the synapse. Our model results confirm the spatial separation of the mGluR- and GluT-dependent pathways along the astrocytic process. The model allows to study the binary Ca2+ response during a block of either of both pathways. Moreover, the model contributes to a better understanding of the impact of channel densities on the interaction of both pathways and on the Ca2+ signal.

  14. Intercellular signaling pathways active during and after growth and differentiation of the lumbar vertebral growth plate.

    PubMed

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2011-06-15

    Vertebral growth plates at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the major signaling pathways active in the postnatal mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. The growth of all long bones is known to occur by cartilaginous growth plates. The growth plate is composed of layers of chondrocyets that actively proliferate, differentiate, die and, are replaced by bone. The role of major cell signaling pathways has been suggested for regulation of the fetal long bones. But not much is known about the molecular or cellular signals that control the postnatal vertebral growth plate and hence postnatal vertebral bone growth. Understanding such molecular mechanisms will help design therapeutic treatments for vertebral growth disorders such as scoliosis. Antibodies against activated downstream intermediates were used to identify cells in the growth plate responding to BMP, TGFβ, and FGF in cryosections of lumbar vertebrae from different postnatal age mice to identify the zones that were responding to these signals. Reporter mice were used to identify the chondrocytes responding to hedgehog (Ihh), and Wnt signaling. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, and differentiation of the mouse lumbar vertebral growth plate. During growth and differentiation of the vertebral growth plate, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Response to most of these signals is dramatically downregulated at the end of vertebral growth.

  15. Evolution and Design Governing Signal Precision and Amplification in a Bacterial Chemosensory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Leon; Baronian, Grégory; Molle, Virginie; Mauriello, Emilia M. F.; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Mignot, Tâm

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the principles underlying the plasticity of signal transduction networks is fundamental to decipher the functioning of living cells. In Myxococcus xanthus, a particular chemosensory system (Frz) coordinates the activity of two separate motility systems (the A- and S-motility systems), promoting multicellular development. This unusual structure asks how signal is transduced in a branched signal transduction pathway. Using combined evolution-guided and single cell approaches, we successfully uncoupled the regulations and showed that the A-motility regulation system branched-off an existing signaling system that initially only controlled S-motility. Pathway branching emerged in part following a gene duplication event and changes in the circuit structure increasing the signaling efficiency. In the evolved pathway, the Frz histidine kinase generates a steep biphasic response to increasing external stimulations, which is essential for signal partitioning to the motility systems. We further show that this behavior results from the action of two accessory response regulator proteins that act independently to filter and amplify signals from the upstream kinase. Thus, signal amplification loops may underlie the emergence of new connectivity in signal transduction pathways. PMID:26291327

  16. Berberine inhibits enterovirus 71 replication by downregulating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiqiang; Li, Ke; Ma, Linlin; Wu, Shuo; Hu, Jin; Yan, Haiyan; Jiang, Jiandong; Li, Yuhuan

    2017-01-11

    The MEK-ERK signaling pathway and autophagy play an important role for enterovirus71(EV71) replication. Inhibition of MEK-ERK signaling pathway and autophagy is shown to impair EV71 replication. Berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis vulgaris L., has been reported to have ability to regulate this signaling pathway and autophagy. Herein, we want to determine whether berberine can inhibit EV71 infection by downregulating the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and autophagy. The antiviral effect of berberine was determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, western blotting assay and qRT-PCR assay. The mechanism of BBR anti-virus was determined by western blotting assay and immunofluorescence assay. We showed that berberine does-dependently reduced EV71 RNA and protein synthesis, which was, at least in part, the result of inhibition of activation of MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that berberine suppressed the EV71-induced autophagy by activating AKT protein and inhibiting the phosphorylation of JNK and PI3KIII. BBR inhibited EV71 replication by downregulating autophagy and MEK/ERK signaling pathway. These findings suggest that BBR may be a potential agent or supplement against EV71 infection.

  17. Activation of the yeast Hippo pathway by phosphorylation-dependent assembly of signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Rock, Jeremy M; Lim, Daniel; Stach, Lasse; Ogrodowicz, Roksana W; Keck, Jamie M; Jones, Michele H; Wong, Catherine C L; Yates, John R; Winey, Mark; Smerdon, Stephen J; Yaffe, Michael B; Amon, Angelika

    2013-05-17

    Scaffold-assisted signaling cascades guide cellular decision-making. In budding yeast, one such signal transduction pathway called the mitotic exit network (MEN) governs the transition from mitosis to the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The MEN is conserved and in metazoans is known as the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway. We found that signaling through the MEN kinase cascade was mediated by an unusual two-step process. The MEN kinase Cdc15 first phosphorylated the scaffold Nud1. This created a phospho-docking site on Nud1, to which the effector kinase complex Dbf2-Mob1 bound through a phosphoserine-threonine binding domain, in order to be activated by Cdc15. This mechanism of pathway activation has implications for signal transmission through other kinase cascades and might represent a general principle in scaffold-assisted signaling.

  18. RD26 mediates crosstalk between drought and brassinosteroid signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Huaxun; Liu, Sanzhen; Tang, Buyun; Chen, Jiani; Xie, Zhouli; Nolan, Trevor M.; Jiang, Hao; Guo, Hongqing; Lin, Hung-Ying; Li, Lei; Wang, Yanqun; Tong, Hongning; Zhang, Mingcai; Chu, Chengcai; Li, Zhaohu; Aluru, Maneesha; Aluru, Srinivas; Schnable, Patrick S.; Yin, Yanhai

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant growth and stress responses via the BES1/BZR1 family of transcription factors, which regulate the expression of thousands of downstream genes. BRs are involved in the response to drought, however the mechanistic understanding of interactions between BR signalling and drought response remains to be established. Here we show that transcription factor RD26 mediates crosstalk between drought and BR signalling. When overexpressed, BES1 target gene RD26 can inhibit BR-regulated growth. Global gene expression studies suggest that RD26 can act antagonistically to BR to regulate the expression of a subset of BES1-regulated genes, thereby inhibiting BR function. We show that RD26 can interact with BES1 protein and antagonize BES1 transcriptional activity on BR-regulated genes and that BR signalling can also repress expression of RD26 and its homologues and inhibit drought responses. Our results thus reveal a mechanism coordinating plant growth and drought tolerance. PMID:28233777

  19. Regulation of PCP by the Fat signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Matis, Maja; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelia, orthogonal to the apical–basal axis, is essential for numerous developmental events and physiological functions. Drosophila model systems have been at the forefront of studies revealing insights into mechanisms regulating PCP and have revealed distinct signaling modules. One of these, involving the atypical cadherins Fat and Dachsous and the ectokinase Four-jointed, appears to link the direction of cell polarization to the tissue axes. We discuss models for the function of this signaling module as well as several unanswered questions that may guide future investigations. PMID:24142873

  20. MicroRNA and receptor mediated signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Simonetta, Irene; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac remodelling is a complex pathogenetic pathway involving genome expression, molecular, cellular, and interstitial changes that cause changes in size, shape and function of the heart after cardiac injury. Areas covered: We will review recent advances in understanding the role of several receptor-mediated signaling pathways and micro-RNAs, in addition to their potential as candidate target pathways in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The myocyte is the main target cell involved in the remodelling process via ischemia, cell necrosis and apoptosis (by means of various receptor pathways), and other mechanisms mediated by micro-RNAs. We will analyze the role of some receptor mediated signaling pathways such as natriuretic peptides, mediators of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ERK1/2 pathways, beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes and relaxin receptor signaling mechanisms, TNF/TNF receptor family and TWEAK/Fn14 axis, and some micro-RNAs as candidate target pathways in pathogenesis of heart failure. These mediators of receptor-mediated pathways and micro-RNA are the most addressed targets of emerging therapies in modern heart failure treatment strategies. Expert opinion: Future treatment strategies should address mediators involved in multiple steps within heart failure pathogenetic pathways.

  1. Characteristic Markers of the WNT Signaling Pathways Are Differentially Expressed in Osteoarthritic Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Dehne, T.; Lindahl, A.; Brittberg, M.; Pruss, A.; Ringe, J.; Sittinger, M.; Karlsson, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: It is well known that expression of markers for WNT signaling is dysregulated in osteoarthritic (OA) bone. However, it is still not fully known if the expression of these markers also is affected in OA cartilage. The aim of this study was therefore to examine this issue. Methods: Human cartilage biopsies from OA and control donors were subjected to genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes involved in WNT signaling were selected using the BioRetis database, KEGG pathway analysis was searched using DAVID software tools, and cluster analysis was performed using Genesis software. Results from the microarray analysis were verified using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. In order to study the impact of cytokines for the dysregulated WNT signaling, OA and control chondrocytes were stimulated with interleukin-1 and analyzed with real-time PCR for their expression of WNT-related genes. Results: Several WNT markers displayed a significantly altered expression in OA compared to normal cartilage. Interestingly, inhibitors of the canonical and planar cell polarity WNT signaling pathways displayed significantly increased expression in OA cartilage, while the Ca2+/WNT signaling pathway was activated. Both real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry verified the microarray results. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that interleukin-1 upregulated expression of important WNT markers. Conclusions: WNT signaling is significantly affected in OA cartilage. The result suggests that both the canonical and planar cell polarity WNT signaling pathways were partly inhibited while the Ca2+/WNT pathway was activated in OA cartilage. PMID:26069618

  2. Intercellular signaling pathways active during intervertebral disc growth, differentiation, and aging.

    PubMed

    Dahia, Chitra Lekha; Mahoney, Eric J; Durrani, Atiq A; Wylie, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Intervertebral discs at different postnatal ages were assessed for active intercellular signaling pathways. To generate a spatial and temporal map of the signaling pathways active in the postnatal intervertebral disc (IVD). The postnatal IVD is a complex structure, consisting of 3 histologically distinct components, the nucleus pulposus, fibrous anulus fibrosus, and endplate. These differentiate and grow during the first 9 weeks of age in the mouse. Identification of the major signaling pathways active during and after the growth and differentiation period will allow functional analysis using mouse genetics and identify targets for therapy for individual components of the disc. Antibodies specific for individual cell signaling pathways were used on cryostat sections of IVD at different postnatal ages to identify which components of the IVD were responding to major classes of intercellular signal, including sonic hedgehog, Wnt, TGFbeta, FGF, and BMPs. We present a spatial/temporal map of these signaling pathways during growth, differentiation, and aging of the disc. During growth and differentiation of the disc, its different components respond at different times to different intercellular signaling ligands. Most of these are dramatically downregulated at the end of disc growth.

  3. Nanometer Scale Titanium Surface Texturing Are Detected by Signaling Pathways Involving Transient FAK and Src Activations

    PubMed Central

    Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Jimbo, Ryo; Hayashi, Mariko; Andersson, Martin; Alves, Gutemberg; Takamori, Esther R.; Beltrão, Paulo J.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Granjeiro, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations. Methodology Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M), dual acid-etched (DAA), resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA), and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB). Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites. Principal Findings The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption. Conclusions It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces. PMID:24999733

  4. The role of the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway in patients with midline defects and congenital hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Gregory, L C; Gaston-Massuet, C; Andoniadou, C L; Carreno, G; Webb, E A; Kelberman, D; McCabe, M J; Panagiotakopoulos, L; Saldanha, J W; Spoudeas, H A; Torpiano, J; Rossi, M; Raine, J; Canham, N; Martinez-Barbera, J P; Dattani, M T

    2015-05-01

    The Gli family of zinc finger (GLI) transcription factors mediates the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway (HH) essential for CNS, early pituitary and ventral forebrain development in mice. Human mutations in this pathway have been described in patients with holoprosencephaly (HPE), isolated congenital hypopituitarism (CH) and cranial/midline facial abnormalities. Mutations in Sonic hedgehog (SHH) have been associated with HPE but not CH, despite murine studies indicating involvement in pituitary development. We aimed to establish the role of the HH pathway in the aetiology of hypothalamo-pituitary disorders by screening our cohort of patients with midline defects and/or CH for mutations in SHH, GLI2, Shh brain enhancer 2 (SBE2) and growth-arrest specific 1 (GAS1). Two variants and a deletion of GLI2 were identified in three patients. A novel variant at a highly conserved residue in the zinc finger DNA-binding domain, c.1552G > A [pE518K], was identified in a patient with growth hormone deficiency and low normal free T4. A nonsynonymous variant, c.2159G > A [p.R720H], was identified in a patient with a short neck, cleft palate and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. A 26·6 Mb deletion, 2q12·3-q21·3, encompassing GLI2 and 77 other genes, was identified in a patient with short stature and impaired growth. Human embryonic expression studies and molecular characterisation of the GLI2 mutant p.E518K support the potential pathogenicity of GLI2 mutations. No mutations were identified in GAS1 or SBE2. A novel SHH variant, c.1295T>A [p.I432N], was identified in two siblings with variable midline defects but normal pituitary function. Our data suggest that mutations in SHH, GAS1 and SBE2 are not associated with hypopituitarism, although GLI2 is an important candidate for CH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Curcumin and emodin down-regulate TGF-β signaling pathway in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Pooja Chandrakant; Karunagaran, Devarajan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling) and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug) upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  6. SMAD4 feedback regulates the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway to control granulosa cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Pan, Zengxiang; Li, Qiqi; Liu, Honglin; Li, Qifa

    2018-02-02

    Canonical TGF-β signals are transduced from the cell surface to the cytoplasm, and then translocated into the nucleus, a process that involves ligands (TGF-β1), receptors (TGFBR2/1), receptor-activated SMADs (SMAD2/3), and the common SMAD (SMAD4). Here we provide evidence that SMAD4, a core component of the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway, regulates the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells (GCs) through a feedback mechanism. Genome-wide analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that SMAD4 affected miRNA biogenesis in GCs. Interestingly, TGFBR2, the type II receptor of the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway, was downregulated in SMAD4-silenced GCs and found to be a common target of SMAD4-inhibited miRNAs. miR-425, the most significantly elevated miRNA in SMAD4-silenced GCs, mediated the SMAD4 feedback regulation of the TGF-β signaling pathway. This was accomplished through a direct interaction between the transcription factor SMAD4 and the miR-425 promoter, and a direct interaction between miR-425 and the TGFBR2 3'-UTR. Furthermore, miR-425 enhanced GC apoptosis by targeting TGFBR2 and the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway, which was rescued by SMAD4 and TGF-β1. Overall, our findings demonstrate that a positive feedback mechanism exists within the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway. This study also provides new insights into mechanism underlying the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway, which regulates GC function and follicular development.

  7. Curcumin and Emodin Down-Regulate TGF-β Signaling Pathway in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Pooja Chandrakant; Karunagaran, Devarajan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling) and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug) upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25786122

  8. Adapting the Stress Response: Viral Subversion of the mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Le Sage, Valerie; Cinti, Alessandro; Amorim, Raquel; Mouland, Andrew J

    2016-05-24

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of gene expression, translation and various metabolic processes. Multiple extracellular (growth factors) and intracellular (energy status) molecular signals as well as a variety of stressors are integrated into the mTOR pathway. Viral infection is a significant stress that can activate, reduce or even suppress the mTOR signaling pathway. Consequently, viruses have evolved a plethora of different mechanisms to attack and co-opt the mTOR pathway in order to make the host cell a hospitable environment for replication. A more comprehensive knowledge of different viral interactions may provide fruitful targets for new antiviral drugs.

  9. [Role of Ski/SnoN protein in the regulation of TGF-beta signal pathway].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhao-hui; Chen, Jie

    2003-04-01

    TGF-beta signal pathway plays an important role in the cell growth, differentiation, formation of extracellular matrix, embryo development and carcinogenesis, etc. However, the regulation of TGF-beta pathway is not totally understood. In 1999, three independent research groups found that Ski/SnoN protein could inhibit the TGF-beta mediated transcription by recruiting N-CoR, a transcription co-repressor. Later studies suggested that TGF-beta and SMADs degraded the Ski/SnoN protein by mediating ubiquitin linkage, showing negative feedback regulation. The important findings in Ski/SnoN laid the theoretical foundation for demonstrating the function of TGF-beta signal pathway.

  10. Quantification of growth factor signaling and pathway cross talk by live-cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Gross, Sean M; Rotwein, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Peptide growth factors stimulate cellular responses through activation of their transmembrane receptors. Multiple intracellular signaling cascades are engaged following growth factor-receptor binding, leading to short- and long-term biological effects. Each receptor-activated signaling pathway does not act in isolation but rather interacts at different levels with other pathways to shape signaling networks that are distinctive for each growth factor. To gain insights into the specifics of growth factor-regulated interactions among different signaling cascades, we developed a HeLa cell line stably expressing fluorescent live-cell imaging reporters that are readouts for two major growth factor-stimulated pathways, Ras-Raf-Mek-ERK and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-Akt. Incubation of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in rapid, robust, and sustained ERK signaling but shorter-term activation of Akt. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor induced sustained Akt signaling but weak and short-lived ERK activity, and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated strong long-term Akt responses but negligible ERK signaling. To address potential interactions between signaling pathways, we employed specific small-molecule inhibitors. In cells incubated with EGF or platelet-derived growth factor-AA, Raf activation and the subsequent stimulation of ERK reduced Akt signaling, whereas Mek inhibition, which blocked ERK activation, enhanced Akt and turned transient effects into sustained responses. Our results reveal that individual growth factors initiate signaling cascades that vary markedly in strength and duration and demonstrate in living cells the dramatic effects of cross talk from Raf and Mek to PI 3-kinase and Akt. Our data further indicate how specific growth factors can encode distinct cellular behaviors by promoting complex interactions among signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Quantification of growth factor signaling and pathway cross talk by live-cell imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Peptide growth factors stimulate cellular responses through activation of their transmembrane receptors. Multiple intracellular signaling cascades are engaged following growth factor–receptor binding, leading to short- and long-term biological effects. Each receptor-activated signaling pathway does not act in isolation but rather interacts at different levels with other pathways to shape signaling networks that are distinctive for each growth factor. To gain insights into the specifics of growth factor-regulated interactions among different signaling cascades, we developed a HeLa cell line stably expressing fluorescent live-cell imaging reporters that are readouts for two major growth factor-stimulated pathways, Ras–Raf–Mek–ERK and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase–Akt. Incubation of cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in rapid, robust, and sustained ERK signaling but shorter-term activation of Akt. In contrast, hepatocyte growth factor induced sustained Akt signaling but weak and short-lived ERK activity, and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulated strong long-term Akt responses but negligible ERK signaling. To address potential interactions between signaling pathways, we employed specific small-molecule inhibitors. In cells incubated with EGF or platelet-derived growth factor-AA, Raf activation and the subsequent stimulation of ERK reduced Akt signaling, whereas Mek inhibition, which blocked ERK activation, enhanced Akt and turned transient effects into sustained responses. Our results reveal that individual growth factors initiate signaling cascades that vary markedly in strength and duration and demonstrate in living cells the dramatic effects of cross talk from Raf and Mek to PI 3-kinase and Akt. Our data further indicate how specific growth factors can encode distinct cellular behaviors by promoting complex interactions among signaling pathways. PMID:28100485

  12. An Interdisciplinary Approach for Designing Kinetic Models of the Ras/MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marcelo S; Noël, Vincent; Dias, Matheus H; Albuquerque, Layra L; Guimarães, Amanda S; Wu, Lulu; Barrera, Junior; Armelin, Hugo A

    2017-01-01

    We present in this article a methodology for designing kinetic models of molecular signaling networks, which was exemplarily applied for modeling one of the Ras/MAPK signaling pathways in the mouse Y1 adrenocortical cell line. The methodology is interdisciplinary, that is, it was developed in a way that both dry and wet lab teams worked together along the whole modeling process.

  13. Potential signaling pathways as therapeutic targets for overcoming chemoresistance in mucinous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niiro, Emiko; Morioka, Sachiko; Iwai, Kana; Yamada, Yuki; Ogawa, Kenji; Kawahara, Naoki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Cases of mucinous ovarian cancer are predominantly resistant to chemotherapies. The present review summarizes current knowledge of the therapeutic potential of targeting the Wingless (WNT) pathway, with particular emphasis on preclinical and clinical studies, for improving the chemoresistance and treatment of mucinous ovarian cancer. A review was conducted of English language literature published between January 2000 and October 2017 that concerned potential signaling pathways associated with the chemoresistance of mucinous ovarian cancer. The literature indicated that aberrant activation of growth factor and WNT signaling pathways is specifically observed in mucinous ovarian cancer. An evolutionarily conserved signaling cascade system including epidermal growth factor/RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and WNT signaling regulates a variety of cellular functions; their crosstalk mutually enhances signaling activity and induces chemoresistance. Novel antagonists, modulators and inhibitors have been developed for targeting the components of the WNT signaling pathway, namely Frizzled, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5/6, Dishevelled, casein kinase 1, AXIN, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and β-catenin. Targeted inhibition of WNT signaling represents a rational and promising novel approach to overcome chemoresistance, and several WNT inhibitors are being evaluated in preclinical studies. In conclusion, the WNT receptors and their downstream components may serve as novel therapeutic targets for overcoming chemoresistance in mucinous ovarian cancer. PMID:29564122

  14. The Role of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    breast cancer cells, I tested whether ErbB2 overexpression will cooperate with Notch in HMLE cells. While overexpression of activated Notch1 failed to...tyrosine kinase upstream of Ras normally found overexpressed in many breast cancers , also failed to transform HMLE cells. These observations suggested...cooperation between Notch1IC and ErbB2 signaling in transforming HMLE cells. Breast cancers typically do not harbor oncogenic Ras mutations; nevertheless

  15. Non Linear Programming (NLP) Formulation for Quantitative Modeling of Protein Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Melody K.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms. PMID:23226239

  16. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  17. Parent-offspring conflict theory, signaling of need, and weight gain in early life.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C

    2003-06-01

    Human growth in early life has major implications for fitness. During this period, the mother regulates the growth of her offspring through placental nutrition and lactation. However, parent-offspring conflict theory predicts that offspring are selected to demand more resources than the mother is selected to provide. This general issue has prompted the development of begging theory, which attempts to find the optimal levels of offspring demand and parental provisioning. Several models have been proposed to account for begging behavior, whether by biochemical or behavioral pathways, including: (1) blackmail of parents; (2) scramble competition between multiple offspring; (3) honest signaling of nutritional need; and (4) honest signaling of offspring worth. These models are all supported by data from nonhuman animals, with species varying according to which model is relevant. This paper examines the evidence that human suckling and crying signal nutritional demand, need, and worth to the mother. While suckling provides hormonal stimulation of breast milk production and signals hunger, crying fulfills a different role, with evidence suggesting that it signals both worth and need for resources (nutrition and thermoregulation). The role of signaling in nutritional demand is examined in the context of three common health problems that have traditionally been assumed to have physiological rather than behavioral causes: excess weight gain, failure to thrive, and colic. The value of such an evolutionary approach lies in its potential to enhance behavioral management of these conditions.

  18. Intrinsic noise analysis and stochastic simulation on transforming growth factor beta signal pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Ouyang, Qi

    2010-10-01

    A typical biological cell lives in a small volume at room temperature; the noise effect on the cell signal transduction pathway may play an important role in its dynamics. Here, using the transforming growth factor-β signal transduction pathway as an example, we report our stochastic simulations of the dynamics of the pathway and introduce a linear noise approximation method to calculate the transient intrinsic noise of pathway components. We compare the numerical solutions of the linear noise approximation with the statistic results of chemical Langevin equations, and find that they are quantitatively in agreement with the other. When transforming growth factor-β dose decreases to a low level, the time evolution of noise fluctuation of nuclear Smad2—Smad4 complex indicates the abnormal enhancement in the transient signal activation process.

  19. Targeting the intracellular signaling "STOP" and "GO" pathways for the treatment of alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Ron, Dorit; Berger, Anthony

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, research has identified the molecular and neural substrates underlying the transition of moderate "social" consumption of alcohol to the characteristic alcohol use disorder (AUD) phenotypes including excessive and compulsive alcohol use which we define in the review as the GO signaling pathways. In addition, growing evidence points to the existence of molecular mechanisms that keep alcohol consumption in check and that confer resilience for the development of AUD which we define herein as the STOP signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on examples of the GO and the STOP intracellular signaling pathways and discuss our current knowledge of how manipulations of these pathways may be used for the treatment of AUD.

  20. Necroptosis Signaling Pathways in Stroke: from Mechanisms to Therapies.

    PubMed

    Jun-Long, Huang; Yi, Li; Bao-Lian, Zhao; Jia-Si, Li; Ning, Zhang; Zhou-Heng, Ye; Xue-Jun, Sun; Wen-Wu, Liu

    2018-04-16

    It has been confirmed that apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis are the three major modes of cell death. For a long time, necrosis is regarded as a deranged or accidental cell demise. In recent years, there is evidence showing that necrotic cell death can be a well regulated and orchestrated event, which is also known as programmed cell death or "necroptosis". Necroptosis can be triggered by a variety of external stimuli and regulated by a caspase-independent pathway. It plays a key role in the pathogenesis of some diseases including neurological diseases. In the past two decades, a variety of studies have revealed that the necroptosis related pathway is activated in stroke, and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of stroke. Moreover, necroptosis may serve as a potential target in the therapy of stroke because genetic or pharmacological inhibition of necroptosis has been shown to be neuroprotective in stroke in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly summarize recent advance in necroptosis, introduce the mechanism and strategies targeting necroptosis in stroke, and finally propose some issues in the treatment of stroke by targeting necroptosis. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Construction of large signaling pathways using an adaptive perturbation approach with phosphoproteomic data.

    PubMed

    Melas, Ioannis N; Mitsos, Alexander; Messinis, Dimitris E; Weiss, Thomas S; Rodriguez, Julio-Saez; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-04-01

    Construction of large and cell-specific signaling pathways is essential to understand information processing under normal and pathological conditions. On this front, gene-based approaches offer the advantage of large pathway exploration whereas phosphoproteomic approaches offer a more reliable view of pathway activities but are applicable to small pathway sizes. In this paper, we demonstrate an experimentally adaptive approach to construct large signaling pathways from phosphoproteomic data within a 3-day time frame. Our approach--taking advantage of the fast turnaround time of the xMAP technology--is carried out in four steps: (i) screen optimal pathway inducers, (ii) select the responsive ones, (iii) combine them in a combinatorial fashion to construct a phosphoproteomic dataset, and (iv) optimize a reduced generic pathway via an Integer Linear Programming formulation. As a case study, we uncover novel players and their corresponding pathways in primary human hepatocytes by interrogating the signal transduction downstream of 81 receptors of interest and constructing a detailed model for the responsive part of the network comprising 177 species (of which 14 are measured) and 365 interactions.

  2. Signaling Pathways Involved in the Regulation of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Translation is a key step in the regulation of gene expression and one of the most energy-consuming processes in the cell. In response to various stimuli, multiple signaling pathways converge on the translational machinery to regulate its function. To date, the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the regulation of translation are among the best understood. Both pathways engage the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) to regulate a variety of components of the translational machinery. While these pathways regulate protein synthesis in homeostasis, their dysregulation results in aberrant translation leading to human diseases, including diabetes, neurological disorders, and cancer. Here we review the roles of the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways in the regulation of mRNA translation. We also highlight additional signaling mechanisms that have recently emerged as regulators of the translational apparatus. PMID:29610153

  3. Mitotic wavefronts mediated by mechanical signaling in early Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Louis; Idema, Timon; Liu, Andrea; Lubensky, Tom

    2013-03-01

    Mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo demonstrates spatial and temporal correlations in the form of wavefronts that travel across the embryo in each cell cycle. This coordinated phenomenon requires a signaling mechanism, which we suggest is mechanical in origin. We have constructed a theoretical model that supports nonlinear wavefront propagation in a mechanically-excitable medium. Previously, we have shown that this model captures quantitatively the wavefront speed as it varies with cell cycle number, for reasonable values of the elastic moduli and damping coefficient of the medium. Now we show that our model also captures the displacements of cell nuclei in the embryo in response to the traveling wavefront. This new result further supports that mechanical signaling may play an important role in mediating mitotic wavefronts.

  4. [Effect of Inhibiting and Activating Wnt Signalling Pathway on NSC67657-inducing Monocytic Differentiation of HL-60 Cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Jia; Zhang, Xiu-Ming; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jin-Shu

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of inhibiting and activating Wnt signalling pathway on monocyte differentiation of HL-60 cells induced with a new steroidal drug NSC67657 and its possible mechamism. The HL-60 cells were treated with 5, 10 and 20 µmol/L XAV-939 (inhibitor of Wnt signalling pathway) for 3 days, and with 10, 20 and 30 mmol/L LiCl (activator of Wnt signalling pathway) for 1 day; the expression levels of down-stream genes and proteins of Wnt signolling pathway were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively; the expression of cell surface differentiation antigen CD14 and early apoptosis of HL-60 cells was detected by flow cytometry, moreover the most suitable concentration of Wnt inhibitor and activator for HL-60 cells was determined. Then the HL-60 cells with inhibited and activated Wnt pathway were treated with NSC67657 of 10 µmol/L for 3 days; the expression levels of CD14 and down-stream target proteins of Wnt signalling pathway in blank control (culture mediam) group, simple NSC67657-treated group, NSC67657 combined with inhibitor group and NSC67657 combined activator group were compared and analyzed. 20 µmol/L XAV-939 and 20 mmol/L LiCl could effectively inhibit and activate Wnt signalling pathway of HL-60 cells respectively, could significantly down- and up-regulate the expression of cyclinD1, TCF1 and c-Jun genes (P < 0.05) and proteins (P < 0.05); moreover, the number of CD10(+) HL-60 cells in these conditions was below 1%, no early apoptosis of HL-60 cells was found. In the simple NSC67657-treated groups, the expression of cyclinD1, TCF1 and c-Jun proteins was down-regulated (P < 0.05), and the percentage of CD14(+) HL-60 cells accounted for 62.13 ± 9.44; after the HL-60 cells were treated with XAV-939, the NSC67657 could more significantly down-regulate the expression of cyclinD1, TCF1 and c-Jun proteins and the percentage of CD14(+) HL-60 cell accounted for 84.17 ± 5.39%, as compared with simple NSC67657-treated group; as compared with

  5. Three branches of phospholipase C signaling pathway promote hepatocyte growth in rat liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, G G; Geng, Z; Zhou, X C; He, Y G; He, T T; Mei, J X; Yang, Y J; Liu, Y Q; Xu, C S

    2015-05-29

    In general, the phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway is involved in many physiological activities, including cell growth. However, little is known regarding how the PLC signaling pathway participates in regulating hepatocyte (HC) growth during liver regeneration (LR). To further explore the influence of the PLC signaling pathway on HCs at the cellular level, HCs of high purity and vitality were isolated using Percoll density-gradient centrifugation after partial hepatectomy. The genes of the PLC signaling pathway and target genes of transcription factors in the pathway were obtained by searching the pathways and transcription factor databases, and changes in gene expression of isolated HCs were examined using the Rat Genome 230 2.0 Microarray. The results suggested that various genes involved in the pathway (including 151 known genes and 39 homologous genes) and cell growth (including 262 known genes and 37 homologous genes) were associated with LR. Subsequently, the synergetic effect of these genes in LR was analyzed using a mathematical model (Et) according to their expression profiles. The results showed that the Et values of G protein-coupled receptor/PLC, integrin/PLC, and growth factor receptor/PLC branches of the PLC pathway were all significantly strengthened during the progression and termination phases of LR. The synergetic effect of target genes, in parallel with target gene-related cell growth, was also enhanced during whole rat LR, suggesting the potential positive effect of PLC on HC growth. The present data indicate that the PLC signaling pathway may promote HC growth through 3 mechanisms during rat LR after partial hepatectomy.

  6. Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway

    PubMed Central

    Haustein, Martin D.; Kracun, Sebastian; Lu, Xiao-Hong; Shih, Tiffany; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Tong, Xiaoping; Xu, Ji; Yang, X. William; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Bushong, Eric A.; Looger, Loren L.; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The spatiotemporal activities of astrocyte Ca2+ signaling in mature neuronal circuits remain unclear. We used genetically encoded Ca2+ and glutamate indicators as well as pharmacogenetic and electrical control of neurotransmitter release to explore astrocyte activity in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Our data revealed numerous localised spontaneous Ca2+ signals in astrocyte branches and territories, but these were not driven by neuronal activity or glutamate. Moreover, evoked astrocyte Ca2+ signaling changed linearly with the number of mossy fiber action potentials. Under these settings astrocyte responses were global, suppressed by neurotransmitter clearance and mediated by glutamate and GABA. Thus, astrocyte engagement in the fully developed mossy fiber pathway was slow and territorial, contrary to that frequently proposed for astrocytes within microcircuits. We show that astrocyte Ca2+ signaling functionally segregates large volumes of neuropil and that these transients are not suited for responding to, or regulating, single synapses in the mossy fiber pathway. PMID:24742463

  7. Encoding of temporal signals by the TGF-β pathway and implications for embryonic patterning

    PubMed Central

    Sorre, Benoit; Warmflash, Aryeh; Brivanlou, Ali H.; Siggia, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Genetics and biochemistry have defined the components and wiring of the signaling pathways that pattern the embryo. Among them, the TGF-β pathway has the potential to behave as a morphogen: invitro experiments have clearly established that it can dictate cell fate in a concentration dependent manner. How morphogens convey positional information in a developing embryo, where signal levels are changing with time, is less understood. Using integrated microfluidic cell culture and time-lapse microscopy, we demonstrate here that the speed of ligand presentation has a key and previously unexpected influence on TGF-β signaling outcomes. The response to a TGF-β concentration step is transient and adaptive, slowly increasing the ligand concentration diminishes the response and well-spaced pulses of ligand combine additively resulting in greater pathway output than with constant stimulation. Our results suggest that in an embryonic context, the speed of change of ligand concentration is an instructive signal for patterning. PMID:25065773

  8. Crosstalk between the Notch signaling pathway and non-coding RNAs in gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangyang; Mao, Yuyan; Jin, Rong; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is one of the main signaling pathways that mediates direct contact between cells, and is essential for normal development. It regulates various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. It additionally serves an important function in tumor progression. Non-coding RNAs mainly include small microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs. At present, a large body of literature supports the biological significance of non-coding RNAs in tumor progression. It is also becoming increasingly evident that cross-talk exists between Notch signaling and non-coding RNAs. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of Notch-mediated gastrointestinal cancer cell processes, and the effect of the crosstalk between the three major types of non-coding RNAs and the Notch signaling pathway on the fate of gastrointestinal cancer cells. PMID:29285185

  9. Smad2 and Smad3 have differential sensitivity in relaying TGFβ signaling and inversely regulate early lineage specification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Liu, Xu; Ren, Xudong; Tian, Yue; Chen, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiangjie; Du, Yanhua; Jiang, Cizhong; Fang, Yujiang; Liu, Zhongliang; Fan, Beibei; Zhang, Quanbin; Jin, Guohua; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) related signaling is one of the most important signaling pathways regulating early developmental events. Smad2 and Smad3 are structurally similar and it is mostly considered that they are equally important in mediating TGFβ signals. Here, we show that Smad3 is an insensitive TGFβ transducer as compared with Smad2. Smad3 preferentially localizes within the nucleus and is thus sequestered from membrane signaling. The ability of Smad3 in oligomerization with Smad4 upon agonist stimulation is also impaired given its unique linker region. Smad2 mediated TGFβ signaling plays a crucial role in epiblast development and patterning of three germ layers. However, signaling unrelated nuclear localized Smad3 is dispensable for TGFβ signaling-mediated epiblast specification, but important for early neural development, an event blocked by TGFβ/Smad2 signaling. Both Smad2 and Smad3 bind to the conserved Smads binding element (SBE), but they show nonoverlapped target gene binding specificity and differential transcriptional activity. We conclude that Smad2 and Smad3 possess differential sensitivities in relaying TGFβ signaling and have distinct roles in regulating early developmental events. PMID:26905010

  10. Smad2 and Smad3 have differential sensitivity in relaying TGFβ signaling and inversely regulate early lineage specification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Liu, Xu; Ren, Xudong; Tian, Yue; Chen, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiangjie; Du, Yanhua; Jiang, Cizhong; Fang, Yujiang; Liu, Zhongliang; Fan, Beibei; Zhang, Quanbin; Jin, Guohua; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2016-02-24

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) related signaling is one of the most important signaling pathways regulating early developmental events. Smad2 and Smad3 are structurally similar and it is mostly considered that they are equally important in mediating TGFβ signals. Here, we show that Smad3 is an insensitive TGFβ transducer as compared with Smad2. Smad3 preferentially localizes within the nucleus and is thus sequestered from membrane signaling. The ability of Smad3 in oligomerization with Smad4 upon agonist stimulation is also impaired given its unique linker region. Smad2 mediated TGFβ signaling plays a crucial role in epiblast development and patterning of three germ layers. However, signaling unrelated nuclear localized Smad3 is dispensable for TGFβ signaling-mediated epiblast specification, but important for early neural development, an event blocked by TGFβ/Smad2 signaling. Both Smad2 and Smad3 bind to the conserved Smads binding element (SBE), but they show nonoverlapped target gene binding specificity and differential transcriptional activity. We conclude that Smad2 and Smad3 possess differential sensitivities in relaying TGFβ signaling and have distinct roles in regulating early developmental events.

  11. Repression of Ccr9 transcription in mouse T lymphocyte progenitors by the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Carr, Tiffany; de Pooter, Renee F; Emanuelle, Akinola Olumide; Akinola, Emanuelle Olumide; Gounari, Fotini; Kee, Barbara L

    2015-04-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR9 controls the immigration of multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells into the thymus to sustain T cell development. Postimmigration, thymocytes downregulate CCR9 and migrate toward the subcapsular zone where they recombine their TCR β-chain and γ-chain gene loci. CCR9 is subsequently upregulated and participates in the localization of thymocytes during their selection for self-tolerant receptor specificities. Although the dynamic regulation of CCR9 is essential for early T cell development, the mechanisms controlling CCR9 expression have not been determined. In this article, we show that key regulators of T cell development, Notch1 and the E protein transcription factors E2A and HEB, coordinately control the expression of Ccr9. E2A and HEB bind at two putative enhancers upstream of Ccr9 and positively regulate CCR9 expression at multiple stages of T cell development. In contrast, the canonical Notch signaling pathway prevents the recruitment of p300 to the putative Ccr9 enhancers, resulting in decreased acetylation of histone H3 and a failure to recruit RNA polymerase II to the Ccr9 promoter. Although Notch signaling modestly modulates the binding of E proteins to one of the two Ccr9 enhancers, we found that Notch signaling represses Ccr9 in T cell lymphoma lines in which Ccr9 transcription is independent of E protein function. Our data support the hypothesis that activation of Notch1 has a dominant-negative effect on Ccr9 transcription and that Notch1 and E proteins control the dynamic expression of Ccr9 during T cell development. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. RIP2 Is a Critical Regulator for NLRs Signaling and MHC Antigen Presentation but Not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao Man; Chen, Wen Qin; Hu, Yi Wei; Cao, Lu; Nie, Pin; Chang, Ming Xian

    2018-01-01

    RIP2 is an adaptor protein which is essential for the activation of NF-κB and NOD1- and NOD2-dependent signaling. Although NOD-RIP2 axis conservatively existed in the teleost, the function of RIP2 was only reported in zebrafish, goldfish, and rainbow trout in vitro . Very little is known about the role and mechanisms of piscine NOD-RIP2 axis in vivo . Our previous study showed the protective role of zebrafish NOD1 in larval survival through CD44a-mediated activation of PI3K-Akt signaling. In this study, we examined whether RIP2 was required for larval survival with or without pathogen infection, and determined the signaling pathways modulated by RIP2. Based on our previous report and the present study, our data demonstrated that NOD1-RIP2 axis was important for larval survival in the early ontogenesis. Similar to NOD1, RIP2 deficiency significantly affected immune system processes. The significantly enriched pathways were mainly involved in immune system, such as "Antigen processing and presentation" and "NOD-like receptor signaling pathway" and so on. Furthermore, both transcriptome analysis and qRT-PCR revealed that RIP2 was a critical regulator for expression of NLRs (NOD-like receptors) and those genes involved in MHC antigen presentation. Different from NOD1, the present study showed that NOD1, but not RIP2 deficiency significantly impaired protein levels of MAPK pathways. Although RIP2 deficiency also significantly impaired the expression of CD44a, the downstream signaling of CD44a-Lck-PI3K-Akt pathway remained unchanged. Collectively, our works highlight the similarity and discrepancy of NOD1 and RIP2 in the regulation of immune signaling pathways in the zebrafish early ontogenesis, and confirm the crucial role of RIP2 in NLRs signaling and MHC antigen presentation, but not for MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  13. Xtalk: a path-based approach for identifying crosstalk between signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tegge, Allison N.; Sharp, Nicholas; Murali, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Cells communicate with their environment via signal transduction pathways. On occasion, the activation of one pathway can produce an effect downstream of another pathway, a phenomenon known as crosstalk. Existing computational methods to discover such pathway pairs rely on simple overlap statistics. Results: We present Xtalk, a path-based approach for identifying pairs of pathways that may crosstalk. Xtalk computes the statistical significance of the average length of multiple short paths that connect receptors in one pathway to the transcription factors in another. By design, Xtalk reports the precise interactions and mechanisms that support the identified crosstalk. We applied Xtalk to signaling pathways in the KEGG and NCI-PID databases. We manually curated a gold standard set of 132 crosstalking pathway pairs and a set of 140 pairs that did not crosstalk, for which Xtalk achieved an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.65, a 12% improvement over the closest competing approach. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve varied with the pathway, suggesting that crosstalk should be evaluated on a pathway-by-pathway level. We also analyzed an extended set of 658 pathway pairs in KEGG and to a set of more than 7000 pathway pairs in NCI-PID. For the top-ranking pairs, we found substantial support in the literature (81% for KEGG and 78% for NCI-PID). We provide examples of networks computed by Xtalk that accurately recovered known mechanisms of crosstalk. Availability and implementation: The XTALK software is available at http://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/~murali/software. Crosstalk networks are available at http://graphspace.org/graphs?tags=2015-bioinformatics-xtalk. Contact: ategge@vt.edu, murali@cs.vt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26400040

  14. MiRNA-mediated regulation of cell signaling and homeostasis in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Pernaute, Barbara; Spruce, Thomas; Rodriguez, Tristan A; Manzanares, Miguel

    2011-02-15

    At the time of implantation the mouse embryo is composed of three tissues the epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. As development progresses the epiblast goes on to form the foetus whilst the trophectoderm and primitive endoderm give rise to extra-embryonic structures with important roles in embryo patterning and nutrition. Dramatic changes in gene expression occur during early embryo development and these require regulation at different levels. miRNAs are small non coding RNAs that have emerged over the last decade as important post-transcriptional repressors of gene expression. The roles played by miRNAs during early mammalian development are only starting to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into the function of miRNAs in the different lineages of the early mouse embryo we have analysed in depth the phenotype of embryos and extra-embryonic stem cells mutant for the miRNA maturation protein Dicer. This study revealed that miRNAs are involved in regulating cell signaling and homeostasis in the early embryo. Specifically, we identified a role for miRNAs in regulating the Erk signaling pathway in the extra-embryonic endoderm, cell cycle progression in extra-embryonic tissues and apoptosis in the epiblast.

  15. EGFR-TKIs resistance via EGFR-independent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Yu, Shengnan; Zhao, Weiheng; Qin, Shuang; Chu, Qian; Wu, Kongming

    2018-02-19

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)-treatments bring significant benefit for patients harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, especially for those with lung cancer. Unfortunately, the majority of these patients ultimately develop to the acquired resistance after a period of treatment. Two central mechanisms are involved in the resistant process: EGFR secondary mutations and bypass signaling activations. In an EGFR-dependent manner, acquired mutations, such as T790 M, interferes the interaction between TKIs and the kinase domain of EGFR. While in an EGFR-independent manner, dysregulation of other receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) or abnormal activation of downstream compounds both have compensatory functions against the inhibition of EGFR through triggering phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling axes. Nowadays, many clinical trials aiming to overcome and prevent TKIs resistance in various cancers are ongoing or completed. EGFR-TKIs in accompany with the targeted agents for resistance-related factors afford a promising first-line strategy to further clinical application.

  16. Signaling pathways and immune evasion mechanisms in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, W Robert; Shipp, Margaret A

    2017-11-23

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is an unusual B-cell-derived malignancy in which rare malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells are surrounded by an extensive but ineffective inflammatory/immune cell infiltrate. This striking feature suggests that malignant HRS cells escape immunosurveillance and interact with immune cells in the cancer microenvironment for survival and growth. We previously found that cHLs have a genetic basis for immune evasion: near-uniform copy number alterations of chromosome 9p24.1 and the associated PD-1 ligand loci, CD274/PD-L1 and PDCD1LG2/PD-L2, and copy number-dependent increased expression of these ligands. HRS cells expressing PD-1 ligands are thought to engage PD-1 receptor-positive immune effectors in the tumor microenvironment and induce PD-1 signaling and associated immune evasion. The genetic bases of enhanced PD-1 signaling in cHL make these tumors uniquely sensitive to PD-1 blockade. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. The ATR Signaling Pathway Is Disabled during Infection with the Parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemi, Richard O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ATR kinase has essential functions in maintenance of genome integrity in response to replication stress. ATR is recruited to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA at DNA damage sites via its interacting partner, ATRIP, which binds to the large subunit of RPA. ATR activation typically leads to activation of the Chk1 kinase among other substrates. We show here that, together with a number of other DNA repair proteins, both ATR and its associated protein, ATRIP, were recruited to viral nuclear replication compartments (autonomous parvovirus-associated replication [APAR] bodies) during replication of the single-stranded parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). Chk1, however, was not activated during MVM infection even though viral genomes bearing bound RPA, normally a potent trigger of ATR activation, accumulate in APAR bodies. Failure to activate Chk1 in response to MVM infection was likely due to our observation that Rad9 failed to associate with chromatin at MVM APAR bodies. Additionally, early in infection, prior to the onset of the virus-induced DNA damage response (DDR), stalling of the replication of MVM genomes with hydroxyurea (HU) resulted in Chk1 phosphorylation in a virus dose-dependent manner. However, upon establishment of full viral replication, MVM infection prevented activation of Chk1 in response to HU and various other drug treatments. Finally, ATR phosphorylation became undetectable upon MVM infection, and although virus infection induced RPA32 phosphorylation on serine 33, an ATR-associated phosphorylation site, this phosphorylation event could not be prevented by ATR depletion or inhibition. Together our results suggest that MVM infection disables the ATR signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE Upon infection, the parvovirus MVM activates a cellular DNA damage response that governs virus-induced cell cycle arrest and is required for efficient virus replication. ATM and ATR are major cellular kinases that coordinate the DNA damage response to diverse DNA

  18. The ATR signaling pathway is disabled during infection with the parvovirus minute virus of mice.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Richard O; Pintel, David J

    2014-09-01

    The ATR kinase has essential functions in maintenance of genome integrity in response to replication stress. ATR is recruited to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA at DNA damage sites via its interacting partner, ATRIP, which binds to the large subunit of RPA. ATR activation typically leads to activation of the Chk1 kinase among other substrates. We show here that, together with a number of other DNA repair proteins, both ATR and its associated protein, ATRIP, were recruited to viral nuclear replication compartments (autonomous parvovirus-associated replication [APAR] bodies) during replication of the single-stranded parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM). Chk1, however, was not activated during MVM infection even though viral genomes bearing bound RPA, normally a potent trigger of ATR activation, accumulate in APAR bodies. Failure to activate Chk1 in response to MVM infection was likely due to our observation that Rad9 failed to associate with chromatin at MVM APAR bodies. Additionally, early in infection, prior to the onset of the virus-induced DNA damage response (DDR), stalling of the replication of MVM genomes with hydroxyurea (HU) resulted in Chk1 phosphorylation in a virus dose-dependent manner. However, upon establishment of full viral replication, MVM infection prevented activation of Chk1 in response to HU and various other drug treatments. Finally, ATR phosphorylation became undetectable upon MVM infection, and although virus infection induced RPA32 phosphorylation on serine 33, an ATR-associated phosphorylation site, this phosphorylation event could not be prevented by ATR depletion or inhibition. Together our results suggest that MVM infection disables the ATR signaling pathway. Upon infection, the parvovirus MVM activates a cellular DNA damage response that governs virus-induced cell cycle arrest and is required for efficient virus replication. ATM and ATR are major cellular kinases that coordinate the DNA damage response to diverse DNA damage stimuli

  19. Transplantation of prokaryotic two-component signaling pathways into mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jonathan; Mailand, Erik; Swaminathan, Krishna Kumar; Schreiber, Joerg; Angelici, Bartolomeo; Benenson, Yaakov

    2014-11-04

    Signaling pathway engineering is a promising route toward synthetic biological circuits. Histidine-aspartate phosphorelays are thought to have evolved in prokaryotes where they form the basis for two-component signaling. Tyrosine-serine-threonine phosphorelays, exemplified by MAP kinase cascades, are predominant in eukaryotes. Recently, a prokaryotic two-component pathway was implemented in a plant species to sense environmental trinitrotoluene. We reasoned that "transplantation" of two-component pathways into mammalian host could provide an orthogonal and diverse toolkit for a variety of signal processing tasks. Here we report that two-component pathways could be partially reconstituted in mammalian cell culture and used for programmable control of gene expression. To enable this reconstitution, coding sequences of histidine kinase (HK) and response regulator (RR) components were codon-optimized for human cells, whereas the RRs were fused with a transactivation domain. Responsive promoters were furnished by fusing DNA binding sites in front of a minimal promoter. We found that coexpression of HKs and their cognate RRs in cultured mammalian cells is necessary and sufficient to strongly induce gene expression even in the absence of pathways' chemical triggers in the medium. Both loss-of-function and constitutive mutants behaved as expected. We further used the two-component signaling pathways to implement two-input logical AND, NOR, and OR gene regulation. Thus, two-component systems can be applied in different capacities in mammalian cells and their components can be used for large-scale synthetic gene circuits.

  20. Modular and Stochastic Approaches to Molecular Pathway Models of ATM, TGF beta, and WNT Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; O'Neill, Peter; Ponomarev, Artem; Carra, Claudio; Whalen, Mary; Pluth, Janice M.

    2009-01-01

    Deterministic pathway models that describe the biochemical interactions of a group of related proteins, their complexes, activation through kinase, etc. are often the basis for many systems biology models. Low dose radiation effects present a unique set of challenges to these models including the importance of stochastic effects due to the nature of radiation tracks and small number of molecules activated, and the search for infrequent events that contribute to cancer risks. We have been studying models of the ATM, TGF -Smad and WNT signaling pathways with the goal of applying pathway models to the investigation of low dose radiation cancer risks. Modeling challenges include introduction of stochastic models of radiation tracks, their relationships to more than one substrate species that perturb pathways, and the identification of a representative set of enzymes that act on the dominant substrates. Because several pathways are activated concurrently by radiation the development of modular pathway approach is of interest.

  1. JNK: bridging the insulin signaling and inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Rondinone, Cristina M

    2005-10-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are strongly associated with systemic markers of inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are activated by inflammatory cytokines and have a key role in beta-cell apoptosis and in negative regulation of insulin signaling. JNK1-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, while genetically obese mice with targeted mutations in JNK1 are leaner and have reduced insulin and blood glucose levels. These studies validate JNK as a link between inflammation and metabolic diseases and as a promising drug target. This review highlights recent advances in small-molecule inhibitors of JNK that have also been targeted for other diseases with an inflammatory component such as stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  2. Early warnings, weak signals and learning from healthcare disasters.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Carl

    2014-06-01

    In the wake of healthcare disasters, such as the appalling failures of care uncovered in Mid Staffordshire, inquiries and investigations often point to a litany of early warnings and weak signals that were missed, misunderstood or discounted by the professionals and organisations charged with monitoring the safety and quality of care. Some of the most urgent challenges facing those responsible for improving and regulating patient safety are therefore how to identify, interpret, integrate and act on the early warnings and weak signals of emerging risks-before those risks contribute to a disastrous failure of care. These challenges are fundamentally organisational and cultural: they relate to what information is routinely noticed, communicated and attended to within and between healthcare organisations-and, most critically, what is assumed and ignored. Analysing these organisational and cultural challenges suggests three practical ways that healthcare organisations and their regulators can improve safety and address emerging risks. First, engage in practices that actively produce and amplify fleeting signs of ignorance. Second, work to continually define and update a set of specific fears of failure. And third, routinely uncover and publicly circulate knowledge on the sources of systemic risks to patient safety and the improvements required to address them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways orchestrate adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora; Shwish, Najla Bin; Hamam, Rimi; Kassem, Moustapha; Alfayez, Musaad; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Alajez, Nehad M

    2018-02-28

    Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 up-regulated and 2,583 down-regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the up-regulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e.g. selenium metabolism, Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, ketone body metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and catalytic cycle of mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs). On the other hand, pathway analysis on the down-regulated genes revealed significant enrichment in pathways related to cell cycle regulation. Based on these data, we assessed the effect of pharmacological inhibition of FAK signaling using PF-573228, PF-562271, and InsR/IGF-1R using NVP-AEW541 and GSK-1904529A on adipocyte differentiation. hMSCs exposed to FAK or IGF-1R/InsR inhibitors exhibited fewer adipocyte formation (27-58% inhibition, P <0005). Concordantly, the expression of adipocyte-specific genes AP2, AdipoQ, and CEBPα was significantly reduced. On the other hand, we did not detect significant effects on cell viability as a result of FAK or IGF-1R/InsR inhibition. Our data identified FAK and insulin signaling as important intracellular signaling pathways relevant to bone marrow adipogenesis. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    SciT

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletalmore » myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.« less

  5. Optimization of a cAMP response element signal pathway reporter system.

    PubMed

    Shan, Qiang; Storm, Daniel R

    2010-08-15

    A sensitive cAMP response element (CRE) reporter system is essential for studying the cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element binding protein signal pathway. Here we have tested a few CRE promoters and found one with high sensitivity to external stimuli. Using this optimal CRE promoter and the enhanced green fluorescent protein as the reporter, we have established a CRE reporter cell line. This cell line can be used to study the signal pathway by fluorescent microscope, fluorescence-activated cell analysis and luciferase assay. This cell line's sensitivity to forskolin, using the technique of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, was increased to approximately seven times that of its parental HEK 293 cell line, which is currently the most commonly used cell line in the field for the signal pathway study. Therefore, this newly created cell line is potentially useful for studying the signal pathway's modulators, which generally have weaker effect than its mediators. Our research has also established a general procedure for optimizing transcription-based reporter cell lines, which might be useful in performing the same task when studying many other transcription-based signal pathways. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory signaling pathways induced by Helicobacter pylori in primary human gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cong Tri; Garcia, Magali; Garnier, Martine; Burucoa, Christophe; Bodet, Charles

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory signaling pathways induced by Helicobacter pylori remain unclear, having been studied mostly on cell-line models derived from gastric adenocarcinoma with potentially altered signaling pathways and nonfunctional receptors. Here, H. pylori-induced signaling pathways were investigated in primary human gastric epithelial cells. Inflammatory response was analyzed on chemokine mRNA expression and production after infection of gastric epithelial cells by H. pylori strains, B128 and B128Δ cagM, a cag type IV secretion system defective strain. Signaling pathway involvement was investigated using inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MAPK, JAK and blocking Abs against TLR2 and TLR4. Inhibitors of EGFR, MAPK and JAK significantly reduced the chemokine mRNA expression and production induced by both H. pylori strains at 3 h and 24 h post-infection. JNK inhibitor reduced chemokine production at 24 h post-infection. Blocking Abs against TLR2 but not TLR4 showed significant reduction of chemokine secretion. Using primary culture of human gastric epithelial cells, our data suggest that H. pylori can be recognized by TLR2, leading to chemokine induction, and that EGFR, MAPK and the JAK/STAT signaling pathways play a key role in the H. pylori-induced CXCL1, CXCL5 and CXCL8 response in a cag pathogenicity island-independent manner.

  7. Necrotrophic pathogens use the salicylic acid signaling pathway to promote disease development in tomato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Taha Abd El; Oirdi, Mohamed El; Gonzalez-Lamothe, Rocio; Bouarab, Kamal

    2012-12-01

    Plants use different immune pathways to combat pathogens. The activation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-signaling pathway is required for resistance against necrotrophic pathogens; however, to combat biotrophic pathogens, the plants activate mainly the salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathway. SA can antagonize JA signaling and vice versa. NPR1 (noninducible pathogenesis-related 1) is considered a master regulator of SA signaling. NPR1 interacts with TGA transcription factors, ultimately leading to the activation of SA-dependent responses. SA has been shown to promote disease development caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea through NPR1, by suppressing the expression of two JA-dependent defense genes, proteinase inhibitors I and II. We show here that the transcription factor TGA1.a contributes to disease development caused by B. cinerea in tomato by suppressing the expression of proteinase inhibitors I and II. Finally, we present evidence that the SA-signaling pathway contributes to disease development caused by another necrotrophic pathogen, Alternaria solani, in tomato. Disease development promoted by SA through NPR1 requires the TGA1.a transcription factor. These data highlight how necrotrophs manipulate the SAsignaling pathway to promote their disease in tomato.

  8. Signaling pathway deregulation and molecular alterations across pediatric medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, B; Blandin, A F; Coca, A; Guerin, E; Durand, A; Entz-Werlé, N

    2018-05-15

    Medulloblastomas (MBs) account for 15% of brain tumors in children under the age of 15. To date, the overall 5-year survival rate for all children is only around 60%. Recent advances in cancer genomics have led to a fundamental change in medulloblastoma classification and is evolving along with the genomic discoveries, allowing to regularly reclassify this disease. The previous molecular classification defined 4 groups (WNT-activated MB, SHH-activated MB and the groups 3 and 4 characterized partially by NMYC and MYC driven MBs). This stratification moved forward recently to better define these groups and their correlation to outcome. This new stratification into 7 novel subgroups was helpful to lay foundations and complementary data on the understanding regarding molecular pathways and gene mutations underlying medulloblastoma biology. This review was aimed at answering the recent key questions on MB genomics and go further in the relevance of those genes in MB development as well as in their targeted therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting the Hippo Signaling Pathway for Tissue Regeneration and Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Wen Chun; Hong, Wanjin

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is a highly-conserved developmental pathway that plays an essential role in organ size control, tumor suppression, tissue regeneration and stem cell self-renewal. The YES-associated protein (YAP) and the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are two important transcriptional co-activators that are negatively regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway. By binding to transcription factors, especially the TEA domain transcription factors (TEADs), YAP and TAZ induce the expression of growth-promoting genes, which can promote organ regeneration after injury. Therefore, controlled activation of YAP and TAZ can be useful for regenerative medicine. However, aberrant activation of YAP and TAZ due to deregulation of the Hippo pathway or overexpression of YAP/TAZ and TEADs can promote cancer development. Hence, pharmacological inhibition of YAP and TAZ may be a useful approach to treat tumors with high YAP and/or TAZ activity. In this review, we present the mechanisms regulating the Hippo pathway, the role of the Hippo pathway in tissue repair and cancer, as well as a detailed analysis of the different strategies to target the Hippo signaling pathway and the genes regulated by YAP and TAZ for regenerative medicine and cancer therapy. PMID:27589805

  10. Targeting the Hippo Signaling Pathway for Tissue Regeneration and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Juan, Wen Chun; Hong, Wanjin

    2016-08-30

    The Hippo signaling pathway is a highly-conserved developmental pathway that plays an essential role in organ size control, tumor suppression, tissue regeneration and stem cell self-renewal. The YES-associated protein (YAP) and the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) are two important transcriptional co-activators that are negatively regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway. By binding to transcription factors, especially the TEA domain transcription factors (TEADs), YAP and TAZ induce the expression of growth-promoting genes, which can promote organ regeneration after injury. Therefore, controlled activation of YAP and TAZ can be useful for regenerative medicine. However, aberrant activation of YAP and TAZ due to deregulation of the Hippo pathway or overexpression of YAP/TAZ and TEADs can promote cancer development. Hence, pharmacological inhibition of YAP and TAZ may be a useful approach to treat tumors with high YAP and/or TAZ activity. In this review, we present the mechanisms regulating the Hippo pathway, the role of the Hippo pathway in tissue repair and cancer, as well as a detailed analysis of the different strategies to target the Hippo signaling pathway and the genes regulated by YAP and TAZ for regenerative medicine and cancer therapy.

  11. SignaLink 2 – a signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Signaling networks in eukaryotes are made up of upstream and downstream subnetworks. The upstream subnetwork contains the intertwined network of signaling pathways, while the downstream regulatory part contains transcription factors and their binding sites on the DNA as well as microRNAs and their mRNA targets. Currently, most signaling and regulatory databases contain only a subsection of this network, making comprehensive analyses highly time-consuming and dependent on specific data handling expertise. The need for detailed mapping of signaling systems is also supported by the fact that several drug development failures were caused by undiscovered cross-talk or regulatory effects of drug targets. We previously created a uniformly curated signaling pathway resource, SignaLink, to facilitate the analysis of pathway cross-talks. Here, we present SignaLink 2, which significantly extends the coverage and applications of its predecessor. Description We developed a novel concept to integrate and utilize different subsections (i.e., layers) of the signaling network. The multi-layered (onion-like) database structure is made up of signaling pathways, their pathway regulators (e.g., scaffold and endocytotic proteins) and modifier enzymes (e.g., phosphatases, ubiquitin ligases), as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of all of these components. The user-friendly website allows the interactive exploration of how each signaling protein is regulated. The customizable download page enables the analysis of any user-specified part of the signaling network. Compared to other signaling resources, distinctive features of SignaLink 2 are the following: 1) it involves experimental data not only from humans but from two invertebrate model organisms, C. elegans and D. melanogaster; 2) combines manual curation with large-scale datasets; 3) provides confidence scores for each interaction; 4) operates a customizable download page with multiple file formats

  12. SignaLink 2 - a signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Dávid; Koltai, Mihály; Türei, Dénes; Módos, Dezső; Pálfy, Máté; Dúl, Zoltán; Zsákai, Lilian; Szalay-Bekő, Máté; Lenti, Katalin; Farkas, Illés J; Vellai, Tibor; Csermely, Péter; Korcsmáros, Tamás

    2013-01-18

    Signaling networks in eukaryotes are made up of upstream and downstream subnetworks. The upstream subnetwork contains the intertwined network of signaling pathways, while the downstream regulatory part contains transcription factors and their binding sites on the DNA as well as microRNAs and their mRNA targets. Currently, most signaling and regulatory databases contain only a subsection of this network, making comprehensive analyses highly time-consuming and dependent on specific data handling expertise. The need for detailed mapping of signaling systems is also supported by the fact that several drug development failures were caused by undiscovered cross-talk or regulatory effects of drug targets. We previously created a uniformly curated signaling pathway resource, SignaLink, to facilitate the analysis of pathway cross-talks. Here, we present SignaLink 2, which significantly extends the coverage and applications of its predecessor. We developed a novel concept to integrate and utilize different subsections (i.e., layers) of the signaling network. The multi-layered (onion-like) database structure is made up of signaling pathways, their pathway regulators (e.g., scaffold and endocytotic proteins) and modifier enzymes (e.g., phosphatases, ubiquitin ligases), as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of all of these components. The user-friendly website allows the interactive exploration of how each signaling protein is regulated. The customizable download page enables the analysis of any user-specified part of the signaling network. Compared to other signaling resources, distinctive features of SignaLink 2 are the following: 1) it involves experimental data not only from humans but from two invertebrate model organisms, C. elegans and D. melanogaster; 2) combines manual curation with large-scale datasets; 3) provides confidence scores for each interaction; 4) operates a customizable download page with multiple file formats (e.g., Bio

  13. Molecular targets and signaling pathways regulated by nuclear translocation of syndecan-1.

    PubMed

    Szatmári, Tünde; Mundt, Filip; Kumar-Singh, Ashish; Möbus, Lena; Ötvös, Rita; Hjerpe, Anders; Dobra, Katalin

    2017-12-08

    The cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 is important for tumor cell proliferation, migration, and cell cycle regulation in a broad spectrum of malignancies. Syndecan-1, however, also translocates to the cell nucleus, where it might regulate various molecular functions. We used a fibrosarcoma model to dissect the functions of syndecan-1 related to the nucleus and separate them from functions related to the cell-surface. Nuclear translocation of syndecan-1 hampered the proliferation of fibrosarcoma cells compared to the mutant lacking nuclear localization signal. The growth inhibitory effect of nuclear syndecan-1 was accompanied by significant accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase, which indicated a possible G1/S phase arrest. We implemented multiple, unsupervised global transcriptome and proteome profiling approaches and combined them with functional assays to disclose the molecular mechanisms that governed nuclear translocation and its related functions. We identified genes and pathways related to the nuclear compartment with network enrichment analysis of the transcriptome and proteome. The TGF-β pathway was activated by nuclear syndecan-1, and three genes were significantly altered with the deletion of nuclear localization signal: EGR-1 (early growth response 1), NEK11 (never-in-mitosis gene a-related kinase 11), and DOCK8 (dedicator of cytokinesis 8). These candidate genes were coupled to growth and cell-cycle regulation. Nuclear translocation of syndecan-1 influenced the activity of several other transcription factors, including E2F, NFκβ, and OCT-1. The transcripts and proteins affected by syndecan-1 showed a striking overlap in their corresponding biological processes. These processes were dominated by protein phosphorylation and post-translation modifications, indicative of alterations in intracellular signaling. In addition, we identified molecules involved in the known functions of syndecan-1, including extracellular matrix

  14. Spontaneous Seizures and Altered Gene Expression in GABA Signaling Pathways in a mind bomb Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Hortopan, Gabriela A.; Dinday, Matthew T.; Baraban, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Disruption of E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in immature zebrafish mind bomb mutants, leads to a failure in Notch signaling, excessive numbers of neurons, and depletion of neural progenitor cells. This neurogenic phenotype is associated with defects in neural patterning and brain development. Because developmental brain abnormalities are recognized as an important feature of childhood neurological disorders such as epilepsy and autism, we determined whether zebrafish mutants with grossly abnormal brain structure exhibit spontaneous electrical activity that resembles the long-duration, high-amplitude multi-spike discharges reported in immature zebrafish exposed to convulsant drugs. Electrophysiological recordings from agar immobilized mind bomb mutants at three days postfertilization (dpf) confirmed the occurrence of electrographic seizure activity; seizure-like behaviors were also noted during locomotion video tracking of freely behaving mutants. To identify genes differentially expressed in the mind bomb mutant and provide insight into molecular pathways that may mediate these epileptic phenotypes, a transcriptome analysis was performed using microarray. Interesting candidate genes were further analyzed using conventional reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), as well as whole-mount in situ hybridization. Approximately 150 genes, some implicated in development, transcription, cell metabolism and signal transduction, are differentially regulated including down-regulation of several genes necessary for GABA-mediated signaling. These findings identify a collection of gene transcripts that may be responsible for the abnormal electrical discharge and epileptic activities observed in a mind bomb zebrafish mutant. This work may have important implications for neurological and neurodevelopmental disorders associated with mutations in ubiquitin ligase activity. Notch is an essential component of an evolutionarily

  15. The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway and Its Involvement in Secondary Metabolite Production.

    PubMed

    Valiante, Vito

    2017-12-06

    The fungal cell wall is the external and first layer that fungi use to interact with the environment. Every stress signal, before being translated into an appropriate stress response, needs to overtake this layer. Many signaling pathways are involved in translating stress signals, but the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway is the one responsible for the maintenance and biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall. In fungi, the CWI signal is composed of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) module. After the start of the phosphorylation cascade, the CWI signal induces the expression of cell-wall-related genes. However, the function of the CWI signal is not merely the activation of cell wall biosynthesis, but also the regulation of expression and production of specific molecules that are used by fungi to better compete in the environment. These molecules are normally defined as secondary metabolites or natural products. This review is focused on secondary metabolites affected by the CWI signal pathway with a special focus on relevant natural products such as melanins, mycotoxins, and antibacterial compounds.

  16. Vitamin D and K signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Louka, Manal L; Fawzy, Ahmed M; Naiem, Abdelrahman M; Elseknedy, Mustafa F; Abdelhalim, Ahmed E; Abdelghany, Mohamed A

    2017-09-20

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy, and is now the six most common in between malignancies. Early diagnosis of HCC with prompt treatment increases the opportunity of patients to survive. With the advances in understanding the molecular biology of HCC, new therapeutic strategies to treat HCC have emerged. There is a growing consensus that vitamins are important for the control of various cancers. Biochemical evidence clearly indicates that HCC cells are responsive to the inhibitory effect of vitamin D, vitamin D analogues and vitamin K. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms used by vitamin D and K to influence the development of HCC and the latest development of vitamin analogues for potential HCC therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Affinity of antigen encounter and other early B-cell signals determine B-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Micah J; Erickson, Loren D; Gleeson, Michael W; Noelle, Randolph J

    2010-01-01

    Three possible effector fates await the naïve follicular B cell following antigen stimulation in thymus-dependent reactions. Short-lived plasma cells produce an initial burst of germline-encoded protective antibodies, and long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells arise from the germinal center and function to enhance and sustain the humoral immune response. The inherent B-cell receptor affinity of naïve follicular B cells and the contribution of other early B-cell signals pre-determines the pattern of transcription factor expression and the differentiation path taken by these cells. High initial B-cell receptor affinity shunts naïve follicular B-cell clones towards the short-lived plasma cell fate, whereas modest-affinity clones are skewed towards a plasma cell fate and low-affinity clones are recruited into the germinal center and are selected for both long-lived plasma cells and memory B cell pathways. In the germinal center reaction, increased levels of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-4 drive the molecular program that dictates differentiation into the long-lived plasma cell phenotype but has no impact on the memory B cell compartment. We hypothesize that graded interferon regulatory factor-4 levels driven by signals to B cells, including B-cell receptor signal strength, are responsible for this branch point in the B-cell terminal differentiation pathway. PMID:17433651

  18. Ancestral Ca2+ Signaling Machinery in Early Animal and Fungal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xinjiang; Clapham, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Animals and fungi diverged from a common unicellular ancestor of Opisthokonta, yet they exhibit significant differences in their components of Ca2+ signaling pathways. Many Ca2+ signaling molecules appear to be either animal-specific or fungal-specific, which is generally believed to result from lineage-specific adaptations to distinct physiological requirements. Here, by analyzing the genomic data from several close relatives of animals and fungi, we demonstrate that many components of animal and fungal Ca2+ signaling machineries are present in the apusozoan protist Thecamonas trahens, which belongs to the putative unicellular sister group to Opisthokonta. We also identify the conserved portion of Ca2+ signaling molecules in early evolution of animals and fungi following their divergence. Furthermore, our results reveal the lineage-specific expansion of Ca2+ channels and transporters in the unicellular ancestors of animals and in basal fungi. These findings provide novel insights into the evolution and regulation of Ca2+ signaling critical for animal and fungal biology. PMID:21680871

  19. CD147 regulates extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes by modulating NFκB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chaoqun; Fok, Kin Lam; Cai, Zhiming; Chen, Hao; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2017-01-01

    CD147 null mutant male mice are infertile with arrested spermatogenesis and increased apoptotic germ cells. Our previous studies have shown that CD147 prevents apoptosis in mouse spermatocytes but not spermatogonia. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we aim to determine the CD147-regulated apoptotic pathway in mouse spermatocytes. Our results showed that immunodepletion of CD147 triggered apoptosis through extrinsic apoptotic pathway in mouse testis and spermatocyte cell line (GC-2 cells), accompanied by activation of non-canonical NFκB signaling and suppression of canonical NFκB signaling. Furthermore, CD147 was found to interact with TRAF2, a factor known to regulate NFκB and extrinsic apoptotic signaling, and interfering CD147 led to the decrease of TRAF2. Consistently, depletion of CD147 by CRISPR/Cas9 technique in GC-2 cells down-regulated TRAF2 and resulted in cell death with suppressed canonical NFκB and activated non-canonical NFκB signaling. On the contrary, interfering of CD147 had no effect on NFκB signaling pathways as well as TRAF2 protein level in mouse spermatogonia cell line (GC-1 cells). Taken together, these results suggested that CD147 plays a key role in reducing extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes, but not spermatogonia, through modulating NFκB signaling pathway. PMID:27902973

  20. CD147 regulates extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes by modulating NFκB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoqun; Fok, Kin Lam; Cai, Zhiming; Chen, Hao; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2017-01-10

    CD147 null mutant male mice are infertile with arrested spermatogenesis and increased apoptotic germ cells. Our previous studies have shown that CD147 prevents apoptosis in mouse spermatocytes but not spermatogonia. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, we aim to determine the CD147-regulated apoptotic pathway in mouse spermatocytes. Our results showed that immunodepletion of CD147 triggered apoptosis through extrinsic apoptotic pathway in mouse testis and spermatocyte cell line (GC-2 cells), accompanied by activation of non-canonical NFκB signaling and suppression of canonical NFκB signaling. Furthermore, CD147 was found to interact with TRAF2, a factor known to regulate NFκB and extrinsic apoptotic signaling, and interfering CD147 led to the decrease of TRAF2. Consistently, depletion of CD147 by CRISPR/Cas9 technique in GC-2 cells down-regulated TRAF2 and resulted in cell death with suppressed canonical NFκB and activated non-canonical NFκB signaling. On the contrary, interfering of CD147 had no effect on NFκB signaling pathways as well as TRAF2 protein level in mouse spermatogonia cell line (GC-1 cells). Taken together, these results suggested that CD147 plays a key role in reducing extrinsic apoptosis in spermatocytes, but not spermatogonia, through modulating NFκB signaling pathway.

  1. BDE-47 induces oxidative stress, activates MAPK signaling pathway, and elevates de novo lipogenesis in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Chul; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Seung-Hwi; Kang, Hye-Min; Park, Jun Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Om, Ae-Son; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-12-01

    Brominated flame retardant, 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), has received grave concerns as a persistent organic pollutant, which is toxic to marine organisms, and a suspected link to endocrine abnormalities. Despite the wide distribution in the marine ecosystem, very little is known about the toxic impairments on marine organisms, particularly on invertebrates. Thus, we examined the adverse effects of BDE-47 on life history trait (development), oxidative markers, fatty acid composition, and lipid accumulation in response to BDE-47-induced stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Also, activation level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the gene expression profile of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathways were addressed. As a result, BDE-47 induced oxidative stress (e.g. reactive oxygen species, ROS) mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in MAPK pathways. Activated MAPK pathways, in turn, induced signal molecules that bind to the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for lipogenesis to EcR, SREBP, ChREBP promoters. Also, the stress stimulated the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a preparedness of the organism to adapt the observed stress, which could be correlated with the elongase and desaturase gene (e.g. ELO3, Δ5-DES, Δ9-DES) expressions, and then extended to the delayed early post-embryonic development and increased accumulation of lipid droplets in P. nana. This study will provide a better understanding of how BDE-47 effects on marine invertebrates particularly on the copepods, an important link in the marine food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potentiation of neutrophil cyclooxygenase-2 by adenosine: an early anti-inflammatory signal

    PubMed Central

    Cadieux, Jean-Sébastien; Leclerc, Patrick; St-Onge, Mireille; Dussault, Andrée-Anne; Laflamme, Cynthia; Picard, Serge; Ledent, Catherine; Borgeat, Pierre; Pouliot, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neutrophils, which are often the first to migrate at inflamed sites, can generate leukotriene B4 from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and prostaglandin E2 through the inducible cyclooxygenase-2 pathway. Adenosine, an endogenous autacoid with several anti-inflammatory properties, blocks the synthesis of leukotriene B4 while it potentiates the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in fMLP-treated neutrophils, following activation of the A2A receptor. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we observed that inflammatory leukocytes from mice lacking the A2A receptor have less cyclooxygenase-2 induction than wild-type animals. In human leukocytes, A2A receptor activation specifically elicited potentiation of cyclooxygenase-2 in neutrophils, but not in monocytes. Signal transduction studies indicated that the cAMP, ERK1/2, PI-3K and p38K intracellular pathways are implicated both in the direct upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and in its potentiation. Together, these results indicate that neutrophils are particularly important mediators of adenosine’s effects. Given the uncontrolled inflammatory phenotype observed in knockout mice and in view of the potent inhibitory actions of prostaglandin E2 on inflammatory cells, an increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression resulting from A2A receptor activation, observed particularly in neutrophils, may take part in an early modulatory mechanism promoting anti-inflammatory activities of adenosine. PMID:15769843

  3. Differential and directional estrogenic signaling pathways induced by enterolignans and their precursors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Kawaguchi, Kayoko; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian lignans or enterolignans are metabolites of plant lignans, an important category of phytochemicals. Although they are known to be associated with estrogenic activity, cell signaling pathways leading to specific cell functions, and especially the differences among lignans, have not been explored. We examined the estrogenic activity of enterolignans and their precursor plant lignans and cell signaling pathways for some cell functions, cell cycle and chemokine secretion. We used DNA microarray-based gene expression profiling in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to examine the similarities, as well as the differences, among enterolignans, enterolactone and enterodiol, and their precursors, matairesinol, pinoresinol and sesamin. The profiles showed moderate to high levels of correlation (R values: 0.44 to 0.81) with that of estrogen (17β-estradiol or E2). Significant correlations were observed among lignans (R values: 0.77 to 0.97), and the correlations were higher for cell functions related to enzymes, signaling, proliferation and transport. All the enterolignans/precursors examined showed activation of the Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, indicating the involvement of rapid signaling through the non-genomic estrogen signaling pathway. However, when their effects on specific cell functions, cell cycle progression and chemokine (MCP-1) secretion were examined, positive effects were observed only for enterolactone, suggesting that signals are given in certain directions at a position closer to cell functions. We hypothesized that, while estrogen signaling is initiated by the enterolignans/precursors examined, their signals are differentially and directionally modulated later in the pathways, resulting in the differences at the cell function level. PMID:28152041

  4. Retinoic acid signaling pathways in development and diseases.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhaskar C; Thapa, Pritam; Karki, Radha; Das, Sasmita; Mahapatra, Sweta; Liu, Ting-Chun; Torregroza, Ingrid; Wallace, Darren P; Kambhampati, Suman; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Verma, Amit; Ray, Swapan K; Evans, Todd

    2014-01-15

    Retinoids comprise a group of compounds each composed of three basic parts: a trimethylated cyclohexene ring that is a bulky hydrophobic group, a conjugated tetraene side chain that functions as a linker unit, and a polar carbon-oxygen functional group. Biochemical conversion of carotenoid or other retinoids to retinoic acid (RA) is essential for normal regulation of a wide range of biological processes including development, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Retinoids regulate various physiological outputs by binding to nuclear receptors called retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which themselves are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators. The functional response of RA and their receptors are modulated by a host of coactivators and corepressors. Retinoids are essential in the development and function of several organ systems; however, deregulated retinoid signaling can contribute to serious diseases. Several natural and synthetic retinoids are in clinical use or undergoing trials for treating specific diseases including cancer. In this review, we provide a broad overview on the importance of retinoids in development and various diseases, highlighting various retinoids in the drug discovery process, ranging all the way from retinoid chemistry to clinical uses and imaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RSPO1/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Regulates Oogonia Differentiation and Entry into Meiosis in the Mouse Fetal Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chassot, Anne-Amandine; Gregoire, Elodie P.; Lavery, Rowena; Taketo, Makoto M.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; Adams, Ian R.; Chaboissier, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation of germ cells into male gonocytes or female oocytes is a central event in sexual reproduction. Proliferation and differentiation of fetal germ cells depend on the sex of the embryo. In male mouse embryos, germ cell proliferation is regulated by the RNA helicase Mouse Vasa homolog gene and factors synthesized by the somatic Sertoli cells promote gonocyte differentiation. In the female, ovarian differentiation requires activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in the somatic cells by the secreted protein RSPO1. Using mouse models, we now show that Rspo1 also activates the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in germ cells. In XX Rspo1−/− gonads, germ cell proliferation, expression of the early meiotic marker Stra8, and entry into meiosis are all impaired. In these gonads, impaired entry into meiosis and germ cell sex reversal occur prior to detectable Sertoli cell differentiation, suggesting that β-catenin signaling acts within the germ cells to promote oogonial differentiation and entry into meiosis. Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/β-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm. PMID:21991325

  6. Cancer Stem-like Cells Act via Distinct Signaling Pathways in Promoting Late Stages of Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Diz, Victoria; Simón-Extremera, Pilar; Bernat-Peguera, Adrià; de Sostoa, Jana; Urpí, Maria; Penín, Rosa M; Sidelnikova, Diana Pérez; Bermejo, Oriol; Viñals, Joan Maria; Rodolosse, Annie; González-Suárez, Eva; Moruno, Antonio Gómez; Pujana, Miguel Ángel; Esteller, Manel; Villanueva, Alberto; Viñals, Francesc; Muñoz, Purificación

    2016-03-01

    Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) play key roles in long-term tumor propagation and metastasis, but their dynamics during disease progression are not understood. Tumor relapse in patients with initially excised skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) is characterized by increased metastatic potential, and SCC progression is associated with an expansion of CSC. Here, we used genetically and chemically-induced mouse models of skin SCC to investigate the signaling pathways contributing to CSC function during disease progression. We found that CSC regulatory mechanisms change in advanced SCC, correlating with aggressive tumor growth and enhanced metastasis. β-Catenin and EGFR signaling, induced in early SCC CSC, were downregulated in advanced SCC. Instead, autocrine FGFR1 and PDGFRα signaling, which have not been previously associated with skin SCC CSC, were upregulated in late CSC and promoted tumor growth and metastasis, respectively. Finally, high-grade and recurrent human skin SCC recapitulated the signaling changes observed in advanced mouse SCC. Collectively, our findings suggest a stage-specific switch in CSC regulation during disease progression that could be therapeutically exploited by targeting the PDGFR and FGFR1 pathways to block relapse and metastasis of advanced human skin SCC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Hippo-YAP signaling pathway: A new paradigm for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanlei; Yang, Yongzhi; Wang, Feng; Wei, Qing; Qin, Huanlong

    2015-11-15

    In the past decades, the Hippo signaling pathway has been delineated and shown to play multiple roles in the control of organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. In mammals, the Hippo pathway is a kinase cascade leading from Mst1/2 to YAP and its paralog TAZ. Several studies have demonstrated that YAP/TAZ is a candidate oncogene and that other members of the Hippo pathway are tumor suppressive genes. The dysregulation of the Hippo pathway has been observed in a variety of cancers. This review chronicles the recent progress in elucidating the function of Hippo signaling in tumorigenesis and provide a rich source of potential targets for cancer therapy. © 2014 UICC.

  8. Long non-coding RNA-mediated regulation of signaling pathways in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zong, Wei; Ju, Shaoqing; Jing, Rongrong; Cui, Ming

    2018-05-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers globally. Because of the high frequency of tumor recurrence, or metastasis, after surgical resection, the prognosis of patients with GC is poor. Therefore, exploring the mechanisms underlying GC is of great importance. Recently, accumulating evidence has begun to show that dysregulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in the progression of GC via several typical signaling pathways, such as the AKT and MAPK signaling pathways. Moreover, the interactions between lncRNAs and microRNAs appear to represent a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of GC. This review provides a synopsis of the latest research relating to lncRNAs and associated signaling pathways in GC.

  9. Hippo Signaling in Mitosis: An Updated View in Light of the MEN Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hergovich, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is an essential tumor suppressor signaling network that coordinates cell proliferation, death, and differentiation in higher eukaryotes. Intriguingly, the core components of the Hippo pathway are conserved from yeast to man, with the yeast analogs of mammalian MST1/2 (fly Hippo), MOB1 (fly Mats), LATS1/2 (fly Warts), and NDR1/2 (fly Tricornered) functioning as essential components of the mitotic exit network (MEN). Here, we update our previous summary of mitotic functions of Hippo core components in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals, with particular emphasis on similarities between the yeast MEN pathway and mitotic Hippo signaling. Mitotic functions of YAP and TAZ, the two main effectors of Hippo signaling, are also discussed.

  10. Phosphoproteomic Analysis Identifies Signaling Pathways Regulated by Curcumin in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Higuchi, Yutaka; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a major polyphenol of the spice turmeric, acts as a potent chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer types, including colon cancer. Although various proteins have been shown to be affected by curcumin, how curcumin exerts its anticancer activity is not fully understood. Phosphoproteomic analyses were performed using SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells to identify curcumin-affected signaling pathways. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the two cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-nine curcumin-regulated phosphoproteins were identified, five of which are involved in cancer signaling pathways. Detailed analyses revealed that the mTORC1 and p53 signaling pathways are main targets of curcumin. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of curcumin and future molecular targets for its clinical application. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Epigenetic targeting of the Nanog pathway and signaling networks during chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Stella; Zheng, Albert; Yoon, Jae-In; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Chemical carcinogenesis has long been synonymous with genotoxicity, which entails DNA damage, genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. The present study investigates a paradigm-shifting model in which epigenetic changes are key contributors to chemical carcinogenesis. Using genome-wide microarray-based analysis followed by conventional validation assays, we have progressively chronicled changes in the epigenetic landscape, as reflected in the patterns of DNA methylation, in the target organ of tumorigenesis in mice treated in vivo with a prototype chemical carcinogen (benzo[a]pyrene). Here, we demonstrate characteristic CpG island gain/loss of methylation and demethylation of repetitive DNA elements in carcinogen-treated mice, dependent on tumor progression. Alterations of the DNA methylome are accompanied by silencing of major DNA methyltransferases. Members of the Nanog pathway that establishes and maintains pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and possibly triggers uncontrolled proliferation of neoplastic cells are preferential targets of aberrant DNA methylation and concomitant gene dysregulation during chemical carcinogenesis. Several components of the MEK/ERK, JAK/STAT3, PI3K/AKT, WNT/β- catenin and Shh signaling cascades, which are known to modulate Nanog expression, also show concurrent changes in the patterns of DNA methylation and gene expression. Our data support an epigenetic model of chemical carcinogenesis and suggest that surveillance of the epigenetic landscape, particularly at the loci and in the pathways identified in this study, may have utility for early detection and monitoring of the progression of malignancy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Early activation of mTORC1 signalling in response to mechanical overload is independent of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Mitsunori; McCarthy, John J; Fedele, Mark J; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) functions as a central integrator of a wide range of signals that modulate protein metabolism and cell growth. However, the contributions of individual pathways regulating mTORC1 activity in skeletal muscle are poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the regulatory mechanisms that contribute to mTORC1 activation during mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Consistent with previous studies, mechanical overload induced progressive hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle which was associated with significant increases in total RNA content and protein metabolism. mTORC1 was activated after a single day of overload as indicated by a significant increase in S6K1 phosphorylation at T389 and T421/S424. In contrast, Akt activity, as assessed by Akt phosphorylation status (T308 and S473), phosphorylation of direct downstream targets (glycogen synthase kinase 3 β, proline-rich Akt substrate 40 kDa and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2)) and a kinase assay, was not significantly increased until 2–3 days of overload. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity by wortmannin was sufficient to block insulin-dependent signalling but did not prevent the early activation of mTORC1 in response to overload. We identified that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent pathway was activated at day 1 after overload. In addition, a target of MEK/ERK signalling, phosphorylation of TSC2 at S664, was also increased at this early time point. These observations demonstrate that in vivo, mTORC1 activation at the early phase of mechanical overload in skeletal muscle occurs independently of PI3K/Akt signalling and provide evidence that the MEK/ERK pathway may contribute to mTORC1 activation through phosphorylation of TSC2. PMID:21300751

  13. Functionally reciprocal mutations of the prolactin signalling pathway define hairy and slick cattle

    PubMed Central

    Littlejohn, Mathew D.; Henty, Kristen M.; Tiplady, Kathryn; Johnson, Thomas; Harland, Chad; Lopdell, Thomas; Sherlock, Richard G.; Li, Wanbo; Lukefahr, Steven D.; Shanks, Bruce C.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Snell, Russell G.; Spelman, Richard J.; Davis, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Lactation, hair development and homeothermy are characteristic evolutionary features that define mammals from other vertebrate species. Here we describe the discovery of two autosomal dominant mutations with antagonistic, pleiotropic effects on all three of these biological processes, mediated through the prolactin signalling pathway. Most conspicuously, mutations in prolactin (PRL) and its receptor (PRLR) have an impact on thermoregulation and hair morphology phenotypes, giving prominence to this pathway outside of its classical roles in lactation. PMID:25519203

  14. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    SciT

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways ledmore » to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.« less

  15. Solar Signals in CMIP-5 Simulations: The Stratospheric Pathway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D.M.; Misios, S.; Gray, L. J.; Tourpali, K.; Matthes, K.; Hood, L.; Schmidt, H.; Chiodo, G.; Thieblemont, R.; Rozanov, E.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The 11 year solar-cycle component of climate variability is assessed in historical simulations of models taken from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP-5). Multiple linear regression is applied to estimate the zonal temperature, wind and annular mode responses to a typical solar cycle, with a focus on both the stratosphere and the stratospheric influence on the surface over the period approximately 1850-2005. The analysis is performed on all CMIP-5 models but focuses on the 13 CMIP-5 models that resolve the stratosphere (high-top models) and compares the simulated solar cycle signature with reanalysis data. The 11 year solar cycle component of climate variability is found to be weaker in terms of magnitude and latitudinal gradient around the stratopause in the models than in the reanalysis. The peak in temperature in the lower equatorial stratosphere (approximately 70 hPa) reported in some studies is found in the models to depend on the length of the analysis period, with the last 30 years yielding the strongest response. A modification of the Polar Jet Oscillation (PJO) in response to the 11 year solar cycle is not robust across all models, but is more apparent in models with high spectral resolution in the short-wave region. The PJO evolution is slower in these models, leading to a stronger response during February, whereas observations indicate it to be weaker. In early winter, the magnitude of the modeled response is more consistent with observations when only data from 1979-2005 are considered. The observed North Pacific high-pressure surface response during the solar maximum is only simulated in some models, for which there are no distinguishing model characteristics. The lagged North Atlantic surface response is reproduced in both high- and low-top models, but is more prevalent in the former. In both cases, the magnitude of the response is generally lower than in observations.

  16. Ties that bind: the integration of plastid signalling pathways in plant cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

    2018-04-13

    Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Several excellent recent reviews have provided broad perspectives on plastid signalling pathways. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in our understanding of chloroplast signalling pathways. Our discussion focuses on new discoveries illuminating how chloroplasts determine life and death decisions in cells and on studies elucidating tetrapyrrole biosynthesis signal transduction networks. We will also examine the role of a plastid RNA helicase, ISE2, in chloroplast signalling, and scrutinize intriguing results investigating the potential role of stromules in conducting signals from the chloroplast to other cellular locations. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  18. Modulatory Mechanism of Polyphenols and Nrf2 Signaling Pathway in LPS Challenged Pregnancy Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Ghulam; Rahu, Najma; Saleem, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Early embryonic loss and adverse birth outcomes are the major reproductive disorders that affect both human and animals. The LPS induces inflammation by interacting with robust cellular mechanism which was considered as a plethora of numerous reproductive disorders such as fetal resorption, preterm birth, teratogenicity, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion, neural tube defects, fetal demise, and skeletal development retardation. LPS-triggered overproduction of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which mediates inflammation via stimulation of NF-κB and PPARγ transcription factors. Flavonoids, which exist in copious amounts in nature, possess a wide array of functions; their supplementation during pregnancy activates Nrf2 signaling pathway which encounters pregnancy disorders. It was further presumed that the development of strong antioxidant uterine environment during gestation can alleviate diseases which appear at adult stages. The purpose of this review is to focus on modulatory properties of flavonoids on oxidative stress-mediated pregnancy insult and abnormal outcomes and role of Nrf2 activation in pregnancy disorders. These findings would be helpful for providing new insights in ameliorating oxidative stress-induced pregnancy disorders. PMID:29138679

  19. Salidroside protects against foam cell formation and apoptosis, possibly via the MAPK and AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jing; Li, Yuanmin; Li, Weiming; Guo, Rong

    2017-10-10

    Foam cell formation and apoptosis are closely associated with atherosclerosis pathogenesis. We determined the effect of salidroside on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and apoptosis in THP1 human acute monocytic leukemia cells and investigated the associated molecular mechanisms. THP1-derived macrophages were incubated with salidroside for 5 h and then exposed to ox-LDL for 24 h to induce foam cell formation. Cytotoxicity, lipid deposition, apoptosis, and the expression of various proteins were tested using the CCK8 kit, Oil Red O staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting, respectively. Ox-LDL treatment alone promoted macrophage-derived foam cell formation, while salidroside treatment alone inhibited it (p < 0.05). The number of early/late apoptotic cells decreased with salidroside treatment in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Salidroside dramatically upregulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, but had no effect on heme oxygenase-1 expression; moreover, it markedly downregulated ox-LDL receptor 1 and upregulated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. Salidroside also obviously decreased the phosphorylation of JNK, ERK, p38 MAPK, and increased that of Akt. However, the total expression of these proteins was not affected. Based on our findings, we speculate that salidroside can suppress ox-LDL-induced THP1-derived foam cell formation and apoptosis, partly by regulating the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways.

  20. High levels of testosterone inhibit ovarian follicle development by repressing the FSH signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Cui, Yu-qian; Zhao, Han; Liu, Hong-bin; Zhao, Shi-dou; Gao, Yuan; Mu, Xiao-li; Gao, Fei; Chen, Zi-jiang

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high concentrations of testosterone on ovarian follicle development was investigated. Primary follicles and granulosa cells were cultured in vitro in media supplemented with a testosterone concentration gradient. The combined effects of testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on follicular growth and granulosa cell gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression were also investigated. Follicle growth in the presence of high testosterone concentrations was promoted at early stages (days 1-7), but inhibited at later stage (days 7-14) of in vitro culture. Interestingly, testosterone-induced follicle development arrest was rescued by treatment with high concentrations of FSH (400 mIU/mL). In addition, in cultured granulosa cells, high testosterone concentrations induced cell proliferation, and increased the mRNA expression level of FSH receptor (FSHR), and luteinized hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor. It was concluded that high concentrations of testosterone inhibited follicle development, most likely through regulation of the FSH signaling pathway, although independently from FSHR downregulation. These findings are an important step in further understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  1. Development of the Drosophila entero-endocrine lineage and its specification by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L.; Ortiz, Paola A.; Ying, Chong T.; Moridzadeh, Rameen; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the developmental-genetic steps that shape the entero-endocrine system of Drosophila melanogaster from the embryo to the adult. The process starts in the endoderm of the early embryo where precursors of endocrine cells and enterocytes of the larval midgut, as well as progenitors of the adult midgut, are specified by a Notch signaling-dependent mechanism. In a second step that occurs during the late larval period, enterocytes and endocrine cells of a transient pupal midgut are selected from within the clusters of adult midgut progenitors. As in the embryo, activation of the Notch pathway triggers enterocyte differentiation, and inhibits cells from further proliferation or choosing the endocrine fate. The third step of entero-endocrine cell development takes place at a mid-pupal stage. Before this time point, the epithelial layer destined to become the adult midgut is devoid of endocrine cells. However, precursors of the intestinal midgut stem cells (pISCs) are already present. After an initial phase of symmetric divisions which causes an increase in their own population size, pISCs start to spin off cells that become postmitotic and express the endocrine fate marker, Prospero. Activation of Notch in pISCs forces these cells into an enterocyte fate. Loss of Notch function causes an increase in the proliferatory activity of pISCs, as well as a higher ratio of Prospero-positive cells. PMID:21382366

  2. Toll-like receptor-4 signaling pathway in aorta aging and diseases: "its double nature".

    PubMed

    Balistreri, Carmela Rita; Ruvolo, Giovanni; Lio, Domenico; Madonna, Rosalinda

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in the field of innate immunity have revealed a complex role of innate immune signaling pathways in both tissue homeostasis and disease. Among them, the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) pathways has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This has been interrogated by developing multiple laboratory tools that have shown in animal models and clinical conditions, the involvement of the TLR-4 signaling pathway in the pathophysiology of different CVDs, such as atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, ischemia-reperfusion injury and aorta aneurysm. Among these, aorta aneurysm, a very complex pathological condition with uncertain etiology and fatal complications (i.e. dissection and rupture), has been associated with the occurrence of high risk cardiovascular conditions, including thrombosis and embolism. In this review, we discuss the possible role of TLR-4 signaling pathway in the development of aorta aneurysm, considering the emerging evidence from ongoing investigations. Our message is that emphasizing the role of TLR-4 signaling pathway in aorta aneurysm may serve as a starting point for future studies, leading to a better understanding of the pathophysiological basis and perhaps the effective treatment of this difficult human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of the ceramide-signaling pathways in ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Vit, Jean-Philippe; Rosselli, Filippo

    2003-11-27

    Ionizing radiations (IR) exposure leads to damage on several cellular targets. How signals from different targets are integrated to determine the cell fate remains a controversial issue. Understanding the pathway(s) responsible(s) for the cell killing effect of the IR exposure is of prime importance in light of using radiations as anticancer agent or as diagnostic tool. In this study, we have established that IR-induced cell damage initiates two independent signaling pathways that lead to a biphasic intracellular ceramide increase. A transitory increase of ceramide is observed within minutes after IR exposure as a consequence of DNA damage-independent acid sphingomyelinase activation. Several hours after irradiation, a second wave of ceramide accumulation is observed depending on the DNA damage-dependent activation of ceramide synthase, which requires a signaling pathway involving ATM. Importantly, we have demonstrated that the late ceramide accumulation is also dependent on the first one and is rate limiting for the apoptotic process induced by IR. In conclusion, our observations suggest that ceramide is a major determinant of the IR-induced apoptotic process at the cross-point of different signal transduction pathways.

  4. Dynamics and control of the ERK signaling pathway: Sensitivity, bistability, and oscillations.

    PubMed

    Arkun, Yaman; Yasemi, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Cell signaling is the process by which extracellular information is transmitted into the cell to perform useful biological functions. The ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) signaling controls several cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The ERK signaling pathway considered in this work starts with an extracellular stimulus and ends with activated (double phosphorylated) ERK which gets translocated into the nucleus. We model and analyze this complex pathway by decomposing it into three functional subsystems. The first subsystem spans the initial part of the pathway from the extracellular growth factor to the formation of the SOS complex, ShC-Grb2-SOS. The second subsystem includes the activation of Ras which is mediated by the SOS complex. This is followed by the MAPK subsystem (or the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway) which produces the double phosphorylated ERK upon being activated by Ras. Although separate models exist in the literature at the subsystems level, a comprehensive model for the complete system including the important regulatory feedback loops is missing. Our dynamic model combines the existing subsystem models and studies their steady-state and dynamic interactions under feedback. We establish conditions under which bistability and oscillations exist for this important pathway. In particular, we show how the negative and positive feedback loops affect the dynamic characteristics that determine the cellular outcome.

  5. [Cell signaling pathways interaction in cellular proliferation: Potential target for therapeutic interventionism].

    PubMed

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel; Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia Margarita; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, cellular physiology is best understood by analysing their interacting molecular components. Proteins are the major components of the cells. Different proteins are organised in the form of functional clusters, pathways or networks. These molecules are ordered in clusters of receptor molecules of extracellular signals, transducers, sensors and biological response effectors. The identification of these intracellular signaling pathways in different cellular types has required a long journey of experimental work. More than 300 intracellular signaling pathways have been identified in human cells. They participate in cell homeostasis processes for structural and functional maintenance. Some of them participate simultaneously or in a nearly-consecutive progression to generate a cellular phenotypic change. In this review, an analysis is performed on the main intracellular signaling pathways that take part in the cellular proliferation process, and the potential use of some components of these pathways as target for therapeutic interventionism are also underlined. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of Major Signaling Pathways in Prion Disease Progression Using Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Newaz, Khalique; Sriram, K.; Bera, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases that arise due to conformational change of normal, cellular prion protein (PrPC) to protease-resistant isofrom (rPrPSc). Deposition of misfolded PrpSc proteins leads to an alteration of many signaling pathways that includes immunological and apoptotic pathways. As a result, this culminates in the dysfunction and death of neuronal cells. Earlier works on transcriptomic studies have revealed some affected pathways, but it is not clear which is (are) the prime network pathway(s) that change during the disease progression and how these pathways are involved in crosstalks with each other from the time of incubation to clinical death. We perform network analysis on large-scale transcriptomic data of differentially expressed genes obtained from whole brain in six different mouse strain-prion strain combination models to determine the pathways involved in prion diseases, and to understand the role of crosstalks in disease propagation. We employ a notion of differential network centrality measures on protein interaction networks to identify the potential biological pathways involved. We also propose a crosstalk ranking method based on dynamic protein interaction networks to identify the core network elements involved in crosstalk with different pathways. We identify 148 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) potentially related to the prion disease progression. Functional association of the identified genes implicates a strong involvement of immunological pathways. We extract a bow-tie structure that is potentially dysregulated in prion disease. We also propose an ODE model for the bow-tie network. Predictions related to diseased condition suggests the downregulation of the core signaling elements (PI3Ks and AKTs) of the bow-tie network. In this work, we show using transcriptomic data that the neuronal dysfunction in prion disease is strongly related to the immunological pathways. We conclude that these

  7. Natural Genetic Variation Influences Protein Abundances in C. elegans Developmental Signalling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kapil Dev; Roschitzki, Bernd; Snoek, L. Basten; Grossmann, Jonas; Zheng, Xue; Elvin, Mark; Kamkina, Polina; Schrimpf, Sabine P.; Poulin, Gino B.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Hengartner, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    Complex traits, including common disease-related traits, are affected by many different genes that function in multiple pathways and networks. The apoptosis, MAPK, Notch, and Wnt signalling pathways play important roles in development and disease progression. At the moment we have a poor understanding of how allelic variation affects gene expression in these pathways at the level of translation. Here we report the effect of natural genetic variation on transcript and protein abundance involved in developmental signalling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans. We used selected reaction monitoring to analyse proteins from the abovementioned four pathways in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) generated from the wild-type strains N2 (Bristol) and CB4856 (Hawaii) to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. About half of the cases from the 44 genes tested showed a statistically significant change in protein abundance between various strains, most of these were however very weak (below 1.3-fold change). We detected a distant QTL on the left arm of chromosome II that affected protein abundance of the phosphatidylserine receptor protein PSR-1, and two separate QTLs that influenced embryonic and ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis on chromosome IV. Our results demonstrate that natural variation in C. elegans is sufficient to cause significant changes in signalling pathways both at the gene expression (transcript and protein abundance) and phenotypic levels. PMID:26985669

  8. Maternal Chromium Restriction Leads to Glucose Metabolism Imbalance in Mice Offspring through Insulin Signaling and Wnt Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xiao, Xinhua; Zheng, Jia; Li, Ming; Yu, Miao; Ping, Fan; Wang, Zhixin; Qi, Cuijuan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    An adverse intrauterine environment, induced by a chromium-restricted diet, is a potential cause of metabolic disease in adult life. Up to now, the relative mechanism has not been clear. C57BL female mice were time-mated and fed either a control diet (CD), or a chromium-restricted diet (CR) throughout pregnancy and the lactation period. After weaning, some offspring continued the diet diagram (CD-CD or CR-CR), while other offspring were transferred to another diet diagram (CD-CR or CR-CD). At 32 weeks of age, glucose metabolism parameters were measured, and the liver from CR-CD group and CD-CD group was analyzed using a gene array. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blot were used to verify the result of the gene array. A maternal chromium-restricted diet resulted in obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased area under the curve (AUC) of glucose in oral glucose tolerance testing and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). There were 463 genes that differed significantly (>1.5-fold change, p < 0.05) between CR-CD offspring (264 up-regulated genes, 199 down-regulated genes) and control offspring. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins) analysis revealed that the insulin signaling pathway and Wnt signaling pathway were in the center of the gene network. Our study provides the first evidence that maternal chromium deficiency influences glucose metabolism in pups through the regulation of insulin signaling and Wnt signaling pathways. PMID:27782077

  9. The self-renewal signaling pathways utilized by gastric cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Li, Hui; Hao, Xishan

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells are the source of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Self-renewal is a marker of cancer stem cells and also the basis of long-lasting survival and tumor progression. Although the mechanism of gastric cancer stem cell self-renewal is not clear, there are several signaling pathways and environmental factors known to be involved. This mini review describes recent developments in the self-renewal signaling pathway of gastric cancer stem cell research. Advancements made in this field of research will likely support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  10. New Insights into Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation and Its Signaling Pathways in Glomerular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua; Chen, Shan; He, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yu-Mei; Bondzie, Philip; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    The glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs) have aroused an increasing attention recently. The proliferation of PECs is the main feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis; besides that, in the past decade, PEC activation has been identified in several types of noninflammatory glomerulonephropathies, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetic glomerulopathy, and membranous nephropathy. The pathogenesis of PEC activation is poorly understood; however, a few studies delicately elucidate the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways implicated in these processes. In this review we will focus on the latest observations and concepts about PEC activation in glomerular diseases and the newest identified signaling pathways in PEC activation. PMID:25866774

  11. Novel mTORC1 and 2 Signaling Pathways in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0172 TITLE: Novel mTORC1 and 2 Signaling Pathways in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0172 Novel mTORC1 and 2 Signaling Pathways in Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...investigate the effects of mTORC1 (Raptor) knockout, mTORC2 (Rictor) knockout or combined mTORC1 and 2 knockout on cyst growth and kidney function. The

  12. Association of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 with the proliferation, migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuqin; Qu, Tingting; Feng, Mengmeng; Ji, Ke; Li, Ziyu; Jiang, Wenguo; Ji, Jiafu

    2017-06-01

    Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 is a cysteine-rich protein that belongs to the CCN family, which has been implicated in mediating the occurrence and progression through distinct molecular mechanisms in several tumor types. However, the association of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 with gastric cancer and the related molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify the biological role of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 in the proliferation, migration, and invasion in gastric cancer cells and further investigated the associated molecular mechanism on these biological functions. We first detected the expression level of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 in gastric cancer, and the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction have shown that Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 expression levels were upregulated in gastric cancer tissues. The expression of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 in gastric cancer cell lines was also detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Furthermore, two gastric cancer cell lines with high expression of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 were selected to explore the biological function of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 in gastric cancer. Function assays indicated that knockdown of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in BGC-823 and AGS gastric cancer cells. Further investigation of mechanisms suggested that cyclinD1 was identified as one of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 related genes to accelerate proliferation in gastric cancer cells. In addition, one pathway of Wnt1-inducible signaling pathway protein-1 induced migration and invasion was mainly through the enhancement of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition progression. Taken together, our findings presented the first evidence that Wnt1-inducible signaling

  13. The emerging role of Hippo signaling pathway in regulating osteoclast formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanlei; Han, Weiqi; Qin, An; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Jiake; Qian, Yu

    2018-06-01

    A delicate balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption is crucial for bone homeostasis. This process is regulated by the Hippo signaling pathway including key regulatory molecules RASSF2, NF2, MST1/2, SAV1, LATS1/2, MOB1, YAP, and TAZ. It is well established that the Hippo signaling pathway plays an important part in regulating osteoblast differentiation, but its role in osteoclast formation and activation remains poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the emerging role of Hippo-signaling pathway in osteoclast formation and bone homeostasis. It is revealed that specific molecules of the Hippo-signaling pathway take part in a stage specific regulation in pre-osteoclast proliferation, osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast apoptosis and survival. Upon activation, MST and LAST, transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ bind to the members of the TEA domain (TEAD) family transcription factors, and influence osteoclast differentiation via regulating the expression of downstream target genes such as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1). In addition, through interacting or cross talking with RANKL-mediated signaling cascades including NF-κB, MAPKs, AP1, and NFATc1, Hippo-signaling molecules such as YAP/TAZ/TEAD complex, RASSF2, MST2, and Ajuba could also potentially modulate osteoclast differentiation and function. Elucidating the roles of the Hippo-signaling pathway in osteoclast development and specific molecules involved is important for understanding the mechanism of bone homeostasis and diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  15. Bile Acid Signaling Pathways from the Enterohepatic Circulation to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Kim L.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Soeters, Maarten R.; Eggink, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). These effects of bile acids are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, but can affect different tissues throughout the organism. It is still unclear whether these effects also involve signaling of bile acids to the central nervous system (CNS). Bile acid signaling to the CNS encompasses both direct and indirect pathways. Bile acids can act directly in the brain via central FXR and TGR5 signaling. In addition, there are two indirect pathways that involve intermediate agents released upon interaction with bile acids receptors in the gut. Activation of intestinal FXR and TGR5 receptors can result in the release of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), both capable of signaling to the CNS. We conclude that when plasma bile acids levels are high all three pathways may contribute in signal transmission to the CNS. However, under normal physiological circumstances, the indirect pathway involving GLP-1 may evoke the most substantial effect in the brain. PMID:29163019

  16. B-cell receptor signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Seda, Vaclav; Mraz, Marek

    2015-03-01

    The physiology of B cells is intimately connected with the function of their B-cell receptor (BCR). B-cell lymphomas frequently (dys)regulate BCR signalling and thus take advantage of this pre-existing pathway for B-cell proliferation and survival. This has recently been underscored by clinical trials demonstrating that small molecules (fosfamatinib, ibrutinib, idelalisib) inhibiting BCR-associated kinases (SYK, BTK, PI3K) have an encouraging clinical effect. Here we describe the current knowledge of the specific aspects of BCR signalling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and normal B cells. Multiple factors can contribute to BCR pathway (dys)regulation in these malignancies and the activation of 'chronic' or 'tonic' BCR signalling. In lymphoma B cells, the balance of initiation, amplitude and duration of BCR activation can be influenced by a specific immunoglobulin structure, the expression and mutations of adaptor molecules (like GAB1, BLNK, GRB2, CARD11), the activity of kinases (like LYN, SYK, PI3K) or phosphatases (like SHIP-1, SHP-1 and PTEN) and levels of microRNAs. We also discuss the crosstalk of BCR with other signalling pathways (NF-κB, adhesion through integrins, migration and chemokine signalling) to emphasise that the 'BCR inhibitors' target multiple pathways interconnected with BCR, which might explain some of their clinical activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of OPN signaling pathway in four kinds of liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaiping; Chen, Shasha; Zhao, Congcong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhao, Weiming; Yang, Jing; Chang, Cuifang; Xu, Cunshuan

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relevance of OPN signalling pathway to the occurrence and development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatic cancer (HC) and acute hepatic failure (AHF) at transcriptional level, Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect expression profiles of OPN signalling pathway-related genes in four kinds of liver diseases. The results showed that 23, 33, 59 and 74 genes were significantly changed in the above four kinds of liver diseases, respectively. H-clustering analysis showed that the expression profiles of OPN signalling-related genes were notably different in four kinds of liver diseases. Subsequently, a total of above-mentioned 147 genes were categorized into four clusters by k-means according to the similarity of gene expression, and expression analysis systematic explorer (EASE) functional enrichment analysis revealed that OPN signalling pathway-related genes were involved in cell adhesion and migration, cell proliferation, apoptosis, stress and inflammatory reaction, etc. Finally, ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software was used to predict the functions of OPN signalling-related genes, and the results indicated that the activities of ROS production, cell adhesion and migration, cell proliferation were remarkably increased, while that of apoptosis, stress and inflammatory reaction were reduced in four kinds of liver diseases. In summary, the above physiological activities changed more obviously in LC, HC and AHF than in NAFLD.

  18. Protein C receptor stimulates multiple signaling pathways in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daisong; Liu, Chunye; Wang, Jingqiang; Jia, Yingying; Hu, Xin; Jiang, Hai; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Zeng, Yi Arial

    2018-01-26

    The protein C receptor (PROCR) has emerged as a stem cell marker in several normal tissues and has also been implicated in tumor progression. However, the functional role of PROCR and the signaling mechanisms downstream of PROCR remain poorly understood. Here, we dissected the PROCR signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Combining protein array, knockdown, and overexpression methods, we found that PROCR concomitantly activates multiple pathways. We also noted that PROCR-dependent ERK and PI3k-Akt-mTOR signaling pathways proceed through Src kinase and transactivation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R). These pathway activities led to the accumulation of c-Myc and cyclin D1. On the other hand, PROCR-dependent RhoA-ROCK-p38 signaling relied on coagulation factor II thrombin receptor (F2R). We confirmed these findings in primary cells isolated from triple-negative breast cancer-derived xenografts (PDX) that have high expression of PROCR. To the best our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of PROCR signaling in breast cancer cells, and its findings also shed light on the molecular mechanisms of PROCR in stem cells in normal tissue. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Bipolar cell gap junctions serve major signaling pathways in the human retina.

    PubMed

    Kántor, Orsolya; Varga, Alexandra; Nitschke, Roland; Naumann, Angela; Énzsöly, Anna; Lukáts, Ákos; Szabó, Arnold; Németh, János; Völgyi, Béla

    2017-08-01

    Connexin36 (Cx36) constituent gap junctions (GJ) throughout the brain connect neurons into functional syncytia. In the retina they underlie the transmission, averaging and correlation of signals prior conveying visual information to the brain. This is the first study that describes retinal bipolar cell (BC) GJs in the human inner retina, whose function is enigmatic even in the examined animal models. Furthermore, a number of unique features (e.g. fovea, trichromacy, midget system) necessitate a reexamination of the animal model results in the human retina. Well-preserved postmortem human samples of this study are allowed to identify Cx36 expressing BCs neurochemically. Results reveal that both rod and cone pathway interneurons display strong Cx36 expression. Rod BC inputs to AII amacrine cells (AC) appear in juxtaposition to AII GJs, thus suggesting a strategic AII cell targeting by rod BCs. Cone BCs serving midget, parasol or koniocellular signaling pathways display a wealth of Cx36 expression to form homologously coupled arrays. In addition, they also establish heterologous GJ contacts to serve an exchange of information between parallel signaling streams. Interestingly, a prominent Cx36 expression was exhibited by midget system BCs that appear to maintain intimate contacts with bistratified BCs serving other pathways. These findings suggest that BC GJs in parallel signaling streams serve both an intra- and inter-pathway exchange of signals in the human retina.

  20. Drosophila melanogaster Hedgehog cooperates with Frazzled to guide axons through a non-canonical signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ricolo, Delia; Butí, Elisenda; Araújo, Sofia J

    2015-08-01

    We report that the morphogen Hedgehog (Hh) is an axonal chemoattractant in the midline of Drosophila melanogaster embryos. Hh is present in the ventral nerve cord during axonal guidance and overexpression of hh in the midline causes ectopic midline crossing of FasII-positive axonal tracts. In addition, we show that Hh influences axonal guidance via a non-canonical signalling pathway dependent on Ptc. Our results reveal that the Hh pathway cooperates with the Netrin/Frazzled pathway to guide axons through the midline in invertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroglian activates Echinoid to antagonize the Drosophila EGF receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rafique; Wei, Shu-Yi; Chiu, Wei-Hsin; Hortsch, Michael; Hsu, Jui-Chou

    2003-05-01

    echinoid (ed) encodes an cell-adhesion molecule (CAM) that contains immunoglobulin domains and regulates the EGFR signaling pathway during Drosophila eye development. Based on our previous genetic mosaic and epistatic analysis, we proposed that Ed, via homotypic interactions, activates a novel, as yet unknown pathway that antagonizes EGFR signaling. In this report, we demonstrate that Ed functions as a homophilic adhesion molecule and also engages in a heterophilic trans-interaction with Drosophila Neuroglian (Nrg), an L1-type CAM. Co-expression of ed and nrg in the eye exhibits a strong genetic synergy in inhibiting EGFR signaling. This synergistic effect requires the intracellular domain of Ed, but not that of Nrg. In addition, Ed and Nrg colocalize in the Drosophila eye and are efficiently co-immunoprecipitated. Together, our results suggest a model in which Nrg acts as a heterophilic ligand and activator of Ed, which in turn antagonizes EGFR signaling.

  2. Early-warning signals of topological collapse in interbank networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; van Lelyveld, Iman; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-11-01

    The financial crisis clearly illustrated the importance of characterizing the level of `systemic' risk associated with an entire credit network, rather than with single institutions. However, the interplay between financial distress and topological changes is still poorly understood. Here we analyze the quarterly interbank exposures among Dutch banks over the period 1998-2008, ending with the crisis. After controlling for the link density, many topological properties display an abrupt change in 2008, providing a clear - but unpredictable - signature of the crisis. By contrast, if the heterogeneity of banks' connectivity is controlled for, the same properties show a gradual transition to the crisis, starting in 2005 and preceded by an even earlier period during which anomalous debt loops could have led to the underestimation of counter-party risk. These early-warning signals are undetectable if the network is reconstructed from partial bank-specific data, as routinely done. We discuss important implications for bank regulatory policies.

  3. Understanding the Contribution of Zinc Transporters in the Function of the Early Secretory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Mayu; Takeda, Taka-aki

    2017-01-01

    More than one-third of newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the early secretory pathway, which is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and other intermediate compartments. The early secretory pathway plays a key role in controlling the folding, assembly, maturation, modification, trafficking, and degradation of such proteins. A considerable proportion of the secretome requires zinc as an essential factor for its structural and catalytic functions, and recent findings reveal that zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of the early secretory pathway. Hence, a disruption of zinc homeostasis and metabolism involving the early secretory pathway will lead to pathway dysregulation, resulting in various defects, including an exacerbation of homeostatic ER stress. The accumulated evidence indicates that specific members of the family of Zn transporters (ZNTs) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), which operate in the early secretory pathway, play indispensable roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux of zinc. In this review, the biological functions of these transporters are discussed, focusing on recent aspects of their roles. In particular, we discuss in depth how specific ZNT transporters are employed in the activation of zinc-requiring ectoenzymes. The means by which early secretory pathway functions are controlled by zinc, mediated by specific ZNT and ZIP transporters, are also subjects of this review. PMID:29048339

  4. Understanding the Contribution of Zinc Transporters in the Function of the Early Secretory Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kambe, Taiho; Matsunaga, Mayu; Takeda, Taka-Aki

    2017-10-19

    More than one-third of newly synthesized proteins are targeted to the early secretory pathway, which is comprised of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, and other intermediate compartments. The early secretory pathway plays a key role in controlling the folding, assembly, maturation, modification, trafficking, and degradation of such proteins. A considerable proportion of the secretome requires zinc as an essential factor for its structural and catalytic functions, and recent findings reveal that zinc plays a pivotal role in the function of the early secretory pathway. Hence, a disruption of zinc homeostasis and metabolism involving the early secretory pathway will lead to pathway dysregulation, resulting in various defects, including an exacerbation of homeostatic ER stress. The accumulated evidence indicates that specific members of the family of Zn transporters (ZNTs) and Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), which operate in the early secretory pathway, play indispensable roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux of zinc. In this review, the biological functions of these transporters are discussed, focusing on recent aspects of their roles. In particular, we discuss in depth how specific ZNT transporters are employed in the activation of zinc-requiring ectoenzymes. The means by which early secretory pathway functions are controlled by zinc, mediated by specific ZNT and ZIP transporters, are also subjects of this review.

  5. Is the canonical RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway a therapeutic target in SCLC?

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Sandra; Sage, Julien

    2017-01-01

    The activity of the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway is critical for the proliferation of normal and cancerous cells. Oncogenic mutations driving the development of lung adenocarcinoma often activate this signaling pathway. In contrast, pathway activity levels and their biological roles are not well established in small cell lung cancer (SCLC), a fast-growing neuroendocrine lung cancer subtype. Here we discuss the function of the RAF-MEK-ERK kinase pathway and the mechanisms leading to its activation in SCLC cells. In particular, we argue that activation of this pathway may be beneficial to the survival, proliferation and spread of SCLC cells in response to multiple stimuli. We also consider evidence that high levels of RAF-MEK-ERK pathway activity may be detrimental to SCLC tumors, including in part by interfering with their neuroendocrine fate. Based on these observations, we examine when small molecules targeting kinases in the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway may be useful therapeutically in SCLC patients, including in combination with other therapeutic agents. PMID:27133774

  6. Early warning signals of desertification transitions in semiarid ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Raffaele; Cherubini, Anna Maria; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    The identification of early warning signals for regime shifts in ecosystems is of crucial importance given their impact in terms of economic and social effects. We present here the results of a theoretical study on the desertification transition in semiarid ecosystems under external stress. We performed numerical simulations based on a stochastic cellular automaton model, and we studied the dynamics of the vegetation clusters in terms of percolation theory, assumed as an effective tool for analyzing the geometrical properties of the clusters. Focusing on the role played by the strength of external stresses, measured by the mortality rate m, we followed the progressive degradation of the ecosystem for increasing m, identifying different stages: first, the fragmentation transition occurring at relatively low values of m, then the desertification transition at higher mortality rates, and finally the full desertification transition corresponding to the extinction of the vegetation and the almost complete degradation of the soil, attained at the maximum value of m. For each transition we calculated the spanning probabilities as functions of m and the percolation thresholds according to different spanning criteria. The identification of the different thresholds is proposed as an useful tool for monitoring the increasing degradation of real-world finite-size systems. Moreover, we studied the time fluctuations of the sizes of the biggest clusters of vegetated and nonvegetated cells over the entire range of mortality values. The change of sign in the skewness of the size distributions, occurring at the fragmentation threshold for the biggest vegetation cluster and at the desertification threshold for the nonvegetated cluster, offers new early warning signals for desertification. Other new and robust indicators are given by the maxima of the root-mean-square deviation of the distributions, which are attained respectively inside the fragmentation interval, for the vegetated

  7. Early warning signals of desertification transitions in semiarid ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrado, Raffaele; Cherubini, Anna Maria; Pennetta, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    The identification of early warning signals for regime shifts in ecosystems is of crucial importance given their impact in terms of economic and social effects. We present here the results of a theoretical study on the desertification transition in semiarid ecosystems under external stress. We performed numerical simulations based on a stochastic cellular automaton model, and we studied the dynamics of the vegetation clusters in terms of percolation theory, assumed as an effective tool for analyzing the geometrical properties of the clusters. Focusing on the role played by the strength of external stresses, measured by the mortality rate m , we followed the progressive degradation of the ecosystem for increasing m , identifying different stages: first, the fragmentation transition occurring at relatively low values of m , then the desertification transition at higher mortality rates, and finally the full desertification transition corresponding to the extinction of the vegetation and the almost complete degradation of the soil, attained at the maximum value of m . For each transition we calculated the spanning probabilities as functions of m and the percolation thresholds according to different spanning criteria. The identification of the different thresholds is proposed as an useful tool for monitoring the increasing degradation of real-world finite-size systems. Moreover, we studied the time fluctuations of the sizes of the biggest clusters of vegetated and nonvegetated cells over the entire range of mortality values. The change of sign in the skewness of the size distributions, occurring at the fragmentation threshold for the biggest vegetation cluster and at the desertification threshold for the nonvegetated cluster, offers new early warning signals for desertification. Other new and robust indicators are given by the maxima of the root-mean-square deviation of the distributions, which are attained respectively inside the fragmentation interval, for the

  8. Cross-talk of WNT and FGF signaling pathways at GSK3beta to regulate beta-catenin and SNAIL signaling cascades.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masuko; Katoh, Masaru

    2006-09-01

    WNT and FGF signaling pathways cross-talk during a variety of cellular processes, such as human colorectal carcinogenesis, mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced carcinogenesis, E2A-Pbx-induced leukemogenesis, early embryogenesis, body-axis formation, limb-bud formation, and neurogenesis. Canonical WNT signals are transduced through Frizzled receptor and LRP5/6 coreceptor to downregulate GSK3beta (GSK3B) activity not depending on Ser 9 phosphorylation. FGF signals are transduced through FGF receptor to the FRS2-GRB2-GAB1-PI3K-AKT signaling cascade to downregulate GSK3beta activity depending on Ser 9 phosphorylation. Because GSK3beta-dependent phosphorylation of beta-catenin and SNAIL leads to FBXW1 (betaTRCP)-mediated ubiquitination and degradation, GSK3beta downregulation results in the stabilization and the nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin and SNAIL. Nuclear beta-catenin is complexed with TCF/LEF, Legless (BCL9 or BCL9L) and PYGO (PYGO1 or PYGO2) to activate transcription of CCND1, MYC, FGF18 and FGF20 genes for the cell-fate determination. Nuclear SNAIL represses transcription of CDH1 gene, encoding E-cadherin, to induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mammary carcinogenesis in MMTV-Wnt1 transgenic mice is accelerated by MMTV infection due to MMTV integration around Fgf3-Fgf4 or Fgf8 loci, and mammary carcinogenesis in MMTV-Fgf3 transgenic mice due to MMTV integration around Wnt1-Wnt10b locus. Coactivation of WNT and FGF signaling pathways in tumors leads to more malignant phenotypes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number polymorphism (CNP) of WNT and FGF signaling molecules could be utilized as screening method of cancer predisposition. cDNA-PCR, microarray or ELISA reflecting aberrant activation of WNT and FGF signaling pathways could be developed as novel cancer-related biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. Cocktail therapy using WNT and FGF inhibitors, such as small-molecule compounds and human neutralizing

  9. Molecular mechanism of TGF-β signaling pathway in colon carcinogenesis and status of curcumin as chemopreventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ganesan; Sivalingam, Nageswaran

    2014-08-01

    Colon cancer is one of the third most common cancer in man, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the second leading cause of mortality in the USA. There are a number of molecular pathways that have been implicated in colon carcinogenesis, including TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. TGF-β (transforming growth factor-beta) signaling pathway has the potential to regulate various biological processes including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, extracellular matrix modeling, and immune response. TGF-β signaling pathway acts as a tumor suppressor, but alterations in TGF-β signaling pathway promotes colon cancer cell growth, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Here we review the role of TGF-β signaling cascade in colon carcinogenesis and multiple molecular targets of curcumin in colon carcinogenesis. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism of curcumin on TGF-β signaling pathway-induced colon carcinogenesis may ultimately lead to novel and more effective treatments for colon cancer.

  10. Cartography of Pathway Signal Perturbations Identifies Distinct Molecular Pathomechanisms in Malignant and Chronic Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arakelyan, Arsen; Nersisyan, Lilit; Petrek, Martin; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Binder, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Lung diseases are described by a wide variety of developmental mechanisms and clinical manifestations. Accurate classification and diagnosis of lung diseases are the bases for development of effective treatments. While extensive studies are conducted toward characterization of various lung diseases at molecular level, no systematic approach has been developed so far. Here we have applied a methodology for pathway-centered mining of high throughput gene expression data to describe a wide range of lung diseases in the light of shared and specific pathway activity profiles. We have applied an algorithm combining a Pathway Signal Flow (PSF) algorithm for estimation of pathway activity deregulation states in lung diseases and malignancies, and a Self Organizing Maps algorithm for classification and clustering of the pathway activity profiles. The analysis results allowed clearly distinguish between cancer and non-cancer lung diseases. Lung cancers were characterized by pathways implicated in cell proliferation, metabolism, while non-malignant lung diseases were characterized by deregulations in pathways involved in immune/inflammatory response and fibrotic tissue remodeling. In contrast to lung malignancies, chronic lung diseases had relatively heterogeneous pathway deregulation profiles. We identified three groups of interstitial lung diseases and showed that the development of characteristic pathological processes, such as fibrosis, can be initiated by deregulations in different signaling pathways. In conclusion, this paper describes the pathobiology of lung diseases from systems viewpoint using pathway centered high-dimensional data mining approach. Our results contribute largely to current understanding of pathological events in lung cancers and non-malignant lung diseases. Moreover, this paper provides new insight into molecular mechanisms of a number of interstitial lung diseases that have been studied to a lesser extent. PMID:27200087

  11. Detailed educational pathways among females after very early sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steward, Nicole R; Farkas, George; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have shown that early sex is negatively associated with high school graduation and college enrollment, no recent study has examined the extent to which early sex affects educational attainment, and the mediating mechanisms have not been established. Data from 4,613 female participants in the National Educational Longitudinal Study were used to examine the relationship between early sexual intercourse (i.e., first sex prior to age 15) and educational attainment. Logistic regression analyses that controlled for background characteristics, school performance, behavioral factors and academic aspirations were conducted to assess this association, as well as to explore the potential mediating role of early marriage and childbearing. Young women who had had early sex had reduced odds of having graduated from high school (odds ratio, 0.4) and from college (0.5). Postsecondary enrollment was positively associated with expectations of postsecondary education (1.5) and levels of academic achievement (1.4-1.5), but not with early sex. Respondents who had married before their expected high school graduation date had reduced odds of having graduated from high school (0.1), enrolled in postsecondary school (0.4) or completed college (0.1); those who had a child before their expected high school graduation date had reduced odds of having graduated from high school (0.3) or college (0.1). Programs that target early parenthood and marriage, and that provide hope for future educational opportunities, could lessen the impact of early sex for young women.

  12. Pattern-recognition receptors: signaling pathways and dysregulation in canine chronic enteropathies-brief review.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Allenspach, Karin

    2017-11-01

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are expressed by innate immune cells and recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecules. With a large potential for synergism or convergence between their signaling pathways, PRRs orchestrate a complex interplay of cellular mediators and transcription factors, and thus play a central role in homeostasis and host defense. Aberrant activation of PRR signaling, mutations of the receptors and/or their downstream signaling molecules, and/or DAMP/PAMP complex-mediated receptor signaling can potentially lead to chronic auto-inflammatory diseases or development of cancer. PRR signaling pathways appear to also present an interesting new avenue for the modulation of inflammatory responses and to serve as potential novel therapeutic targets. Evidence for a dysregulation of the PRR toll-like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)2, and the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) exists in dogs with chronic enteropathies. We describe the TLR, NOD2, and RAGE signaling pathways and evaluate the current veterinary literature-in comparison to human medicine-to determine the role of TLRs, NOD2, and RAGE in canine chronic enteropathies.

  13. Analysis of corkscrew signaling in the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson Hamlet, M R; Perkins, L A

    2001-11-01

    The Drosophila nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, Corkscrew (Csw), functions positively in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, including signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Detailed phenotypic analyses of csw mutations have revealed that Csw activity is required in many of the same developmental processes that require EGFR function. However, it is still unclear where in the signaling hierarchy Csw functions relative to other proteins whose activities are also required downstream of the receptor. To address this issue, genetic interaction experiments were performed to place csw gene activity relative to the EGFR, spitz (spi), rhomboid (rho), daughter of sevenless (DOS), kinase-suppressor of ras (ksr), ras1, D-raf, pointed (pnt), and moleskin. We followed the EGFR-dependent formation of VA2 muscle precursor cells as a sensitive assay for these genetic interaction studies. First, we established that Csw has a positive function during mesoderm development. Second, we found that tissue-specific expression of a gain-of-function csw construct rescues loss-of-function mutations in other positive signaling genes upstream of rolled (rl)/MAPK in the EGFR pathway. Third, we were able to infer levels of EGFR signaling in various mutant backgrounds during myogenesis. This work extends previous studies of Csw during Torso and Sevenless RTK signaling to include an in-depth analysis of the role of Csw in the EGFR signaling pathway.

  14. Analysis of corkscrew signaling in the Drosophila epidermal growth factor receptor pathway during myogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson Hamlet, M R; Perkins, L A

    2001-01-01

    The Drosophila nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, Corkscrew (Csw), functions positively in multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways, including signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Detailed phenotypic analyses of csw mutations have revealed that Csw activity is required in many of the same developmental processes that require EGFR function. However, it is still unclear where in the signaling hierarchy Csw functions relative to other proteins whose activities are also required downstream of the receptor. To address this issue, genetic interaction experiments were performed to place csw gene activity relative to the EGFR, spitz (spi), rhomboid (rho), daughter of sevenless (DOS), kinase-suppressor of ras (ksr), ras1, D-raf, pointed (pnt), and moleskin. We followed the EGFR-dependent formation of VA2 muscle precursor cells as a sensitive assay for these genetic interaction studies. First, we established that Csw has a positive function during mesoderm development. Second, we found that tissue-specific expression of a gain-of-function csw construct rescues loss-of-function mutations in other positive signaling genes upstream of rolled (rl)/MAPK in the EGFR pathway. Third, we were able to infer levels of EGFR signaling in various mutant backgrounds during myogenesis. This work extends previous studies of Csw during Torso and Sevenless RTK signaling to include an in-depth analysis of the role of Csw in the EGFR signaling pathway. PMID:11729154

  15. Rabex-5 ubiquitin ligase activity restricts Ras signaling to establish pathway homeostasis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hua; Jahanshahi, Maryam; Horvath, Elizabeth A; Liu, Hsiu-Yu; Pfleger, Cathie M

    2010-08-10

    The Ras signaling pathway allows cells to translate external cues into diverse biological responses. Depending on context and the threshold reached, Ras signaling can promote growth, proliferation, differentiation, or cell survival. Failure to maintain precise control of Ras can have adverse physiological consequences. Indeed, excess Ras signaling disrupts developmental patterning and causes developmental disorders [1, 2], and in mature tissues, it can lead to cancer [3-5]. We identify Rabex-5 as a new component of Ras signaling crucial for achieving proper pathway outputs in multiple contexts in vivo. We show that Drosophila Rabex-5 restricts Ras signaling to establish organism size, wing vein pattern, and eye versus antennal fate. Rabex-5 has both Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity that regulates endocytic trafficking [6] and ubiquitin ligase activity [7, 8]. Surprisingly, overexpression studies demonstrate that Rabex-5 ubiquitin ligase activity, not its Rab5 GEF activity, is required to restrict wing vein specification and to suppress the eye phenotypes of oncogenic Ras expression. Furthermore, genetic interaction experiments indicate that Rabex-5 acts at the step of Ras, and tissue culture studies show that Rabex-5 promotes Ras ubiquitination. Together, these findings reveal a new mechanism for attenuating Ras signaling in vivo and suggest an important role for Rabex-5-mediated Ras ubiquitination in pathway homeostasis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Sean S.; Haas, W. Randall; Shennan, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization—regime shift—may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8–4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science. PMID:27573833

  17. European Neolithic societies showed early warning signals of population collapse.

    PubMed

    Downey, Sean S; Haas, W Randall; Shennan, Stephen J

    2016-08-30

    Ecosystems on the verge of major reorganization-regime shift-may exhibit declining resilience, which can be detected using a collection of generic statistical tests known as early warning signals (EWSs). This study explores whether EWSs anticipated human population collapse during the European Neolithic. It analyzes recent reconstructions of European Neolithic (8-4 kya) population trends that reveal regime shifts from a period of rapid growth following the introduction of agriculture to a period of instability and collapse. We find statistical support for EWSs in advance of population collapse. Seven of nine regional datasets exhibit increasing autocorrelation and variance leading up to collapse, suggesting that these societies began to recover from perturbation more slowly as resilience declined. We derive EWS statistics from a prehistoric population proxy based on summed archaeological radiocarbon date probability densities. We use simulation to validate our methods and show that sampling biases, atmospheric effects, radiocarbon calibration error, and taphonomic processes are unlikely to explain the observed EWS patterns. The implications of these results for understanding the dynamics of Neolithic ecosystems are discussed, and we present a general framework for analyzing societal regime shifts using EWS at large spatial and temporal scales. We suggest that our findings are consistent with an adaptive cycling model that highlights both the vulnerability and resilience of early European populations. We close by discussing the implications of the detection of EWS in human systems for archaeology and sustainability science.

  18. The Bmp signaling pathway regulates development of left-right asymmetry in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimir; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2018-02-01

    Establishment of asymmetry along the left-right (LR) body axis in vertebrates requires interplay between Nodal and Bmp signaling pathways. In the basal chordate amphioxus, the left-sided activity of the Nodal signaling has been attributed to the asymmetric morphogenesis of paraxial structures and pharyngeal organs, however the role of Bmp signaling in LR asymmetry establishment has not been addressed to date. Here, we show that Bmp signaling is necessary for the development of LR asymmetric morphogenesis of amphioxus larvae through regulation of Nodal signaling. Loss of Bmp signaling results in loss of the left-sided expression of Nodal, Gdf1/3, Lefty and Pitx and in gain of ectopic expression of Cerberus on the left side. As a consequence, the larvae display loss of the offset arrangement of axial structures, loss of the left-sided pharyngeal organs including the mouth, and ectopic development of the right-sided organs on the left side. Bmp inhibition thus phenocopies inhibition of Nodal signaling and results in the right isomerism. We conclude that Bmp and Nodal pathways act in concert to specify the left side and that Bmp signaling plays a fundamental role during LR development in amphioxus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Recording and data processing of electrical signals of the specific atrioventricular conduction pathways in man].

    PubMed

    Héron, F; Mialet, G; Schuller, C; Breton, D; Perrin, J; Degeorges, M

    1979-01-01

    Signals of the electrical activity of the specific atrioventricular conduction pathways were recorded with an unipolar lead to obtain an exact time reference. The amplifier used had special characteristics: high gain settings (up to 300,000), very low noise levels, and wide filter range (2 Hz - 1,600 Hz). The low amplitude of the signals under study, of the order of a microvolt, and the wide filter range of the amplifier necessitated placing the patient in a Faraday cage. The signals recorded on magnetic tape were treated by a system of analysis for signal treatment. The method of averaging was used to extract the signal from background noise especially that arising from somatic muscle. The amplitude of the Hisian signal was much larger than that usually obtained with other methods. The intervals were determined with precision of the order of 1 millisecond. Frequential analysis of the signals gave another representation of the information contained in the time signals. This new representation seems to give better discrimination of the different zones of activation of the specific atrioventricular conduction pathways.

  20. The Use of Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters to Identify Possible Signaling Pathways of a Serum Biomarker, HE4.

    PubMed

    Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Karaman, Adem; Akcay, Mufide Nuran; Palabiyik, Saziye Sezin; Erdemci, Burak; Alper, Fatih; Acemoglu, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters; clinical features such as age, tumor diameter, N, T, and TNM stages; and serum human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) levels in patients with breast carcinoma and use this as a means of estimating possible signaling pathways of the biomarker, HE4. Thirty-seven patients with breast cancer were evaluated by breast MRI and serum HE4 levels before therapy. Correlations between parameters including age, tumor diameter T and N, dynamic curve type, enhancement ratio (ER), slope washin (S-WI), time to peak (TTP), slope washout (S-WO), and the serum level of HE4 were investigated statistically. Human epididymis protein 4 levels of early and advanced stage of disease were also compared statistically. Breast MRI parameters showed correlation to serum HE4 levels and correlations were statistically significant. Of these MRI parameters, S-WI had higher correlation coefficient than the others. Human epididymis protein 4 levels were not statistically different in early and advanced stage of disease. High correlation with MRI parameters related to neoangiogenesis may indicate signaling pathway of HE4.

  1. FIST: a sensory domain for diverse signal transduction pathways in prokaryotes and ubiquitin signaling in eukaryotes

    SciT

    Borziak, Kirill; Jouline, Igor B

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Sensory domains that are conserved among Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya are important detectors of common signals detected by living cells. Due to their high sequence divergence, sensory domains are difficult to identify. We systematically look for novel sensory domains using sensitive profile-based searches initi-ated with regions of signal transduction proteins where no known domains can be identified by current domain models. Results: Using profile searches followed by multiple sequence alignment, structure prediction, and domain architecture analysis, we have identified a novel sensory domain termed FIST, which is present in signal transduction proteins from Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya. Remote similaritymore » to a known ligand-binding fold and chromosomal proximity of FIST-encoding genes to those coding for proteins involved in amino acid metabolism and transport suggest that FIST domains bind small ligands, such as amino acids.« less

  2. Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Downregulation of the Neurotrophin-MAPK Signaling Pathway in Female Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Zhou, Wen-Hua; Cai, Jiang-Jia; Feng, Mei; Zhou, Mi; Hu, Su-Pei; Xu, Jin; Ji, Lin-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is not diagnosed or managed properly in the majority of patients because its pathogenesis remains controversial. In this study, human whole genome microarrays identified 2898 and 4493 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DM and DPN patients, respectively. A further KEGG pathway analysis indicated that DPN and DM share four pathways, including apoptosis, B cell receptor signaling pathway, endocytosis, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The DEGs identified through comparison of DPN and DM were significantly enriched in MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and neurotrophin signaling pathway, while the "neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway" was notably downregulated. Seven DEGs from the neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway were validated in additional 78 samples, and the results confirmed the initial microarray findings. These findings demonstrated that downregulation of the neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway may be the major mechanism of DPN pathogenesis, thus providing a potential approach for DPN treatment.

  3. Role of PDGFs/PDGFRs signaling pathway in myocardial fibrosis of DOCA/salt hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bin; Ma, Likun; Li, Qian; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Junling; Wu, Jiawei

    2014-01-01

    vimentin positive fibroblasts, and α-SMA positive cells were less identified in CON group. In DOCA group, α-SMA positive fibroblasts (spindle-shaped) increased significantly, but the myofibroblasts reduced significantly in DOCA+IMA group when compared with DOCA group. 4) PDGFRα protein expression was observed in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, but not in VSMCs. PDGFRβ protein expression was noted in not only fibroblasts and myofibroblasts but also VSMCs. Thus, During myocardial fibrosis of DOCA induced salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, PDGFRα acts at early stage, but PDGFRβ functions in the whole process. PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expressions increase in fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, suggesting that PDGF/PDGFR signaling pathway is involved in the myocardial fibrosis via stimulating fibroblasts to proliferate and transform into myofibroblasts. PMID:24427322

  4. A Novel Apoptosis Pathway that is Defective in Early Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0612 TITLE: A Novel Apoptosis Pathway that is Defective in Early Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Scott Cramer...Defective in Early DAMD17-02-1-0612 Breast Cancer 6. AUTHOR(S) Scott Cramer, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING...These experiments were intended to determine why breast cancer cells are resistant to this apoptosis pathway BODY. As outlined in the previous

  5. Genetic Variants in the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway as Indicators of Bladder Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Pierzynski, Jeanne A; Hildebrandt, Michelle A; Kamat, Ashish M; Lin, Jie; Ye, Yuanqing; Dinney, Colin P N; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-12-01

    Genetic factors that influence bladder cancer risk remain largely unknown. Previous research has suggested that there is a strong genetic component underlying the risk of bladder cancer. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a key modulator of cellular proliferation through its regulation of stem cell homeostasis. Furthermore, variants in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway have been implicated in the development of other cancers, leading us to believe that this pathway may have a vital r