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Sample records for early smoking-induced respiratory

  1. An improved method of early diagnosis of smoking-induced respiratory changes using machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Jorge L M; Lopes, Agnaldo J; Jansen, José M; Faria, Alvaro C D; Melo, Pedro L

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an automatic classifier to increase the accuracy of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) for diagnosing early respiratory abnormalities in smoking patients. The data consisted of FOT parameters obtained from 56 volunteers, 28 healthy and 28 smokers with low tobacco consumption. Many supervised learning techniques were investigated, including logistic linear classifiers, k nearest neighbor (KNN), neural networks and support vector machines (SVM). To evaluate performance, the ROC curve of the most accurate parameter was established as baseline. To determine the best input features and classifier parameters, we used genetic algorithms and a 10-fold cross-validation using the average area under the ROC curve (AUC). In the first experiment, the original FOT parameters were used as input. We observed a significant improvement in accuracy (KNN=0.89 and SVM=0.87) compared with the baseline (0.77). The second experiment performed a feature selection on the original FOT parameters. This selection did not cause any significant improvement in accuracy, but it was useful in identifying more adequate FOT parameters. In the third experiment, we performed a feature selection on the cross products of the FOT parameters. This selection resulted in a further increase in AUC (KNN=SVM=0.91), which allows for high diagnostic accuracy. In conclusion, machine learning classifiers can help identify early smoking-induced respiratory alterations. The use of FOT cross products and the search for the best features and classifier parameters can markedly improve the performance of machine learning classifiers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections Enhance Cigarette Smoke Induced COPD in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foronjy, Robert F.; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Taggart, Clifford C.; Weldon, Sinead; Geraghty, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infections are a frequent cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, which are a major factor in disease progression and mortality. RSV is able to evade antiviral defenses to persist in the lungs of COPD patients. Though RSV infection has been identified in COPD, its contribution to cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction has not been established. Here we examine the long-term effects of cigarette smoke exposure, in combination with monthly RSV infections, on pulmonary inflammation, protease production and remodeling in mice. RSV exposures enhanced the influx of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes to the airways of cigarette smoke exposed C57BL/6J mice. This infiltration of cells was most pronounced around the vasculature and bronchial airways. By itself, RSV caused significant airspace enlargement and fibrosis in mice and these effects were accentuated with concomitant smoke exposure. Combined stimulation with both smoke and RSV synergistically induced cytokine (IL-1α, IL-17, IFN-γ, KC, IL-13, CXCL9, RANTES, MIF and GM-CSF) and protease (MMP-2, -8, -12, -13, -16 and cathepsins E, S, W and Z) expression. In addition, RSV exposure caused marked apoptosis within the airways of infected mice, which was augmented by cigarette smoke exposure. RSV and smoke exposure also reduced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and protein tyrosine phosphates (PTP1B) expression and activity. This is significant as these phosphatases counter smoke-induced inflammation and protease expression. Together, these findings show for the first time that recurrent RSV infection markedly enhances inflammation, apoptosis and tissue destruction in smoke-exposed mice. Indeed, these results indicate that preventing RSV transmission and infection has the potential to significantly impact on COPD severity and progression. PMID:24587397

  3. Cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Gairola, C G; Gupta, R C

    1991-01-01

    Formation of DNA adducts is regarded as an essential initial step in the process of chemical carcinogenesis. To determine how chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the distribution of DNA adducts in selected respiratory and nonrespiratory tissues, we exposed male Sprague-Dawley rats daily to fresh mainstream smoke from the University of Kentucky reference cigarettes (2R1) in a nose-only exposure system for 32 weeks. Blood carboxyhemoglobin, total particulate matter (TPM) intake, and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase values indicated effective exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. DNA was extracted from three respiratory (larynx, trachea, and lung) and three nonrespiratory (liver, heart, and bladder) tissues and analyzed for DNA adducts by the 32P-postlabeling assay under conditions capable of detecting low levels of diverse aromatic/hydrophobic adducts. Data showed that the total DNA adducts in the lung, heart, trachea, and larynx were increased by 10- to 20-fold in the smoke-exposed group. Five-fold increase was observed in the bladder tissue, but differences were not present in the liver DNA of control and smoke-exposed groups. These data suggest selective formation of DNA adducts in the tissues.

  4. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    PubMed

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  5. Early diagnosis based on clinical history and BALF for successful management of smoking-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia without unnecessary antibiotic usage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Song, Jee In; Kim, Yang-Ki; Hwang, Jung Hwa; Yang, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rapid onset and severe respiratory illness characterized by acute febrile respiratory insufficiency, eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and unique findings on chest imaging. Difficulty in differentiating from other respiratory distress caused by community-acquired pneumonia may result in a delayed diagnosis or treatment with empirical antibiotics. Sixteen-year-old boy who developed AEP with marked eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, 36.6%), decreased diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (62%) and unique radiological findings. Although he initially denied tobacco use, on repeated thorough clinical history questioning, he eventually admitted beginning smoking 19 days before the onset of symptoms with gradually increasing frequency. His symptoms resolved quickly without use of antibiotics after cessation of tobacco and treatment with corticosteroids. Careful clinical history taking regarding tobacco use combined with early examination of BALF and recognition of unique radiological findings are critical for proper management of AEP.

  6. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M.; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). PMID:27160659

  7. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  8. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions HMERF Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure ( HMERF ) is an inherited muscle disease that ...

  9. Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency in adults.

    PubMed

    Naddaf, Elie; Milone, Margherita

    2017-11-01

    Hereditary myopathies with early respiratory insufficiency as a predominant feature of the clinical phenotype are uncommon and underestimated in adults. We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data of patients with hereditary myopathies who demonstrated early respiratory insufficiency before the need for ambulatory assistance. Only patients with disease-causing mutations or a specific histopathological diagnosis were included. Patients with cardiomyopathy were excluded. We identified 22 patients; half had isolated respiratory symptoms at onset. The diagnosis of the myopathy was often delayed, resulting in delayed ventilatory support. The most common myopathies were adult-onset Pompe disease, myofibrillar myopathy, multi-minicore disease, and myotonic dystrophy type 1. Single cases of laminopathy, MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike events), centronuclear myopathy, and cytoplasmic body myopathy were identified. We highlighted the most common hereditary myopathies associated with early respiratory insufficiency as the predominant clinical feature, and underscored the importance of a timely diagnosis for patient care. Muscle Nerve 56: 881-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Innate Immunity to Respiratory Infection in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Culley, Fiona J.

    2017-01-01

    Early life is a period of particular susceptibility to respiratory infections and symptoms are frequently more severe in infants than in adults. The neonatal immune system is generally held to be deficient in most compartments; responses to innate stimuli are weak, antigen-presenting cells have poor immunostimulatory activity and adaptive lymphocyte responses are limited, leading to poor immune memory and ineffective vaccine responses. For mucosal surfaces such as the lung, which is continuously exposed to airborne antigen and to potential pathogenic invasion, the ability to discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens is essential, to prevent inflammation that could lead to loss of gaseous exchange and damage to the developing lung tissue. We have only recently begun to define the differences in respiratory immunity in early life and its environmental and developmental influences. The innate immune system may be of relatively greater importance than the adaptive immune system in the neonatal and infant period than later in life, as it does not require specific antigenic experience. A better understanding of what constitutes protective innate immunity in the respiratory tract in this age group and the factors that influence its development should allow us to predict why certain infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory infections, design treatments to accelerate the development of protective immunity, and design age specific adjuvants to better boost immunity to infection in the lung. PMID:29184555

  11. Simvastatin inhibits smoke-induced airway epithelial injury: implications for COPD therapy.

    PubMed

    Davis, Benjamin B; Zeki, Amir A; Bratt, Jennifer M; Wang, Lei; Filosto, Simone; Walby, William F; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Goldkorn, Tzipora; Schelegle, Edward S; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2013-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death. The statin drugs may have therapeutic potential in respiratory diseases such as COPD, but whether they prevent bronchial epithelial injury is unknown. We hypothesised that simvastatin attenuates acute tobacco smoke-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation and airway epithelial injury. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were given simvastatin (20 mg·kg(-1) i.p.) daily for either 7 days prior to tobacco smoke exposure and during 3 days of smoke exposure, or only during tobacco smoke exposure. Pretreatment with simvastatin prior to and continued throughout smoke exposure reduced the total influx of leukocytes, neutrophils and macrophages into the lung and airways. Simvastatin attenuated tobacco smoke-induced cellular infiltration into lung parenchymal and airway subepithelial and interstitial spaces. 1 week of simvastatin pretreatment almost completely prevented smoke-induced denudation of the airway epithelial layer, while simvastatin given only concurrently with the smoke exposure had no effect. Simvastatin may be a novel adjunctive therapy for smoke-induced lung diseases, such as COPD. Given the need for statin pretreatment there may be a critical process of conditioning that is necessary for statins' anti-inflammatory effects. Future work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of this statin protective effect.

  12. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Zimbler, Daniel L.; Schroeder, Jay A.; Eddy, Justin L.; Lathem, Wyndham W.

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals. PMID:26123398

  13. Early emergence of Yersinia pestis as a severe respiratory pathogen.

    PubMed

    Zimbler, Daniel L; Schroeder, Jay A; Eddy, Justin L; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-06-30

    Yersinia pestis causes the fatal respiratory disease pneumonic plague. Y. pestis recently evolved from the gastrointestinal pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis; however, it is not known at what point Y. pestis gained the ability to induce a fulminant pneumonia. Here we show that the acquisition of a single gene encoding the protease Pla was sufficient for the most ancestral, deeply rooted strains of Y. pestis to cause pneumonic plague, indicating that Y. pestis was primed to infect the lungs at a very early stage in its evolution. As Y. pestis further evolved, modern strains acquired a single amino-acid modification within Pla that optimizes protease activity. While this modification is unnecessary to cause pneumonic plague, the substitution is instead needed to efficiently induce the invasive infection associated with bubonic plague. These findings indicate that Y. pestis was capable of causing pneumonic plague before it evolved to optimally cause invasive infections in mammals.

  14. Respiratory impairment and symptoms as predictors of early retirement with disability in US underground coal miners

    SciT

    Ames, R.G.; Trent, R.B.

    1984-08-01

    A five-year prospective study of 1,394 United States underground coal miners was undertaken to study the effects of respiratory impairment on the rate of early retirement with disability (ERD). Using a logistic regression analysis, ERD was found to be related to reported persistent phlegm after adjustment was made for other respiratory symptoms, respiratory function measurements, cigarette smoking, and some demographic characteristics. No prediction of ERD occurred for spirometrically determined measures of respiratory function. The data thus give limited support to the hypothesis that early retirement with disability in underground coal miners can be predicted prospectively by measures of respiratory symptoms.

  15. Early Childhood Lower Respiratory Illness and Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Baker, Rebecca James; Yap, Poh-Sin; Dostál, Miroslav; Joad, Jesse P.; Lipsett, Michael; Greenfield, Teri; Herr, Caroline E.W.; Beneš, Ivan; Shumway, Robert H.; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Background Few studies of air pollutants address morbidity in preschool children. In this study we evaluated bronchitis in children from two Czech districts: Teplice, with high ambient air pollution, and Prachatice, characterized by lower exposures. Objectives Our goal was to examine rates of lower respiratory illnesses in preschool children in relation to ambient particles and hydrocarbons. Methods Air monitoring for particulate matter < 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was conducted daily, every third day, or every sixth day. Children born May 1994 through December 1998 were followed to 3 or 4.5 years of age to ascertain illness diagnoses. Mothers completed questionnaires at birth and at follow-up regarding demographic, lifestyle, reproductive, and home environmental factors. Longitudinal multivariate repeated-measures analysis was used to quantify rate ratios for bronchitis and for total lower respiratory illnesses in 1,133 children. Results After adjustment for season, temperature, and other covariates, bronchitis rates increased with rising pollutant concentrations. Below 2 years of age, increments in 30-day averages of 100 ng/m3 PAHs and of 25 μg/m3 PM2.5 resulted in rate ratios (RRs) for bronchitis of 1.29 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.54] and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.08–1.58), respectively; from 2 to 4.5 years of age, these RRs were 1.56 (95% CI, 1.22–2.00) and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.94–1.62), respectively. Conclusion Ambient PAHs and fine particles were associated with early-life susceptibility to bronchitis. Associations were stronger for longer pollutant-averaging periods and, among children > 2 years of age, for PAHs compared with fine particles. Preschool-age children may be particularly vulnerable to air pollution–induced illnesses. PMID:17938744

  16. Respiratory and reproductive paleophysiology of dinosaurs and early birds.

    PubMed

    Ruben, John A; Jones, Terry D; Geist, Nicholas R

    2003-01-01

    In terms of their diversity and longevity, dinosaurs and birds were/are surely among the most successful of terrestrial vertebrates. Unfortunately, interpreting many aspects of the biology of dinosaurs and the earliest of the birds presents formidable challenges because they are known only from fossils. Nevertheless, a variety of attributes of these taxa can be inferred by identification of shared anatomical structures whose presence is causally linked to specialized functions in living reptiles, birds, and mammals. Studies such as these demonstrate that although dinosaurs and early birds were likely to have been homeothermic, the absence of nasal respiratory turbinates in these animals indicates that they were likely to have maintained reptile-like (ectothermic) metabolic rates during periods of rest or routine activity. Nevertheless, given the metabolic capacities of some extant reptiles during periods of elevated activity, early birds were probably capable of powered flight. Similarly, had, for example, theropod dinosaurs possessed aerobic metabolic capacities and habits equivalent to those of some large, modern tropical latitude lizards (e.g., Varanus), they may well have maintained significant home ranges and actively pursued and killed large prey. Additionally, this scenario of active, although ectothermic, theropod dinosaurs seems reinforced by the likely utilization of crocodilian-like, diaphragm breathing in this group. Finally, persistent in vivo burial of their nests and apparent lack of egg turning suggests that clutch incubation by dinosaurs was more reptile- than birdlike. Contrary to previous suggestions, there is little if any reliable evidence that some dinosaur young may have been helpless and nestbound (altricial) at hatching.

  17. Respiratory

    MedlinePlus

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  18. Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Spending on cigarettes may deprive households of other items like food. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China. Methods The data came from waves 1–3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, conducted from 2006 to 2009 among urban adults aged 18 years or older in China. We focus on the samples of current smokers from six cities (N=7981). Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the survey question, “In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?” We examined whether sociodemographic factors, smoking intensity and price paid per pack of cigarettes were associated with smoking-induced deprivation using generalised estimating equations modelling. Findings 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. Low-income and middle-income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with high-income smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.06, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.31; AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69); smokers living in Shenyang (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.24) and Yinchuan (AOR=2.50, 95% CI 1.89 to 3.32) were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with smokers living in Beijing. Retired smokers were less likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with employed smokers (AOR=0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity, price paid per pack of cigarettes and smoking-induced deprivation. Conclusions Our findings indicate that certain groups of smokers in China acknowledge spending money on cigarettes that could be better spent on household essentials. Tobacco control policies that reduce smoking in China may improve household living standards by reducing smoking-induced deprivation. PMID:24827978

  19. Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Spending on cigarettes may deprive households of other items like food. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China. The data came from Waves 1-3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, conducted from 2006 to 2009 among urban adults aged 18 years or older in China. We focus on the samples of current smokers from six cities (N=7981). Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the survey question, "In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?" We examined whether sociodemographic factors, smoking intensity and price paid per pack of cigarettes were associated with smoking-induced deprivation using generalised estimating equations modelling. 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. Low-income and middle-income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with high-income smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.06, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.31; AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69); smokers living in Shenyang (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.24) and Yinchuan (AOR=2.50, 95% CI 1.89 to 3.32) were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with smokers living in Beijing. Retired smokers were less likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with employed smokers (AOR=0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity, price paid per pack of cigarettes and smoking-induced deprivation. Our findings indicate that certain groups of smokers in China acknowledge spending money on cigarettes that could be better spent on household essentials. Tobacco control policies that reduce smoking in China may improve household living standards by reducing smoking-induced deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  20. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Håberg, S E; London, S J; Stigum, H; Nafstad, P; Nystad, W

    2009-03-01

    Folate supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to reduce the risk of congenital malformations. Maternal intake of folate supplements during pregnancy might also influence childhood immune phenotypes via epigenetic mechanisms. To investigate the relationship between folate supplements in pregnancy and risk of lower respiratory tract infections and wheeze in children up to 18 months of age. In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, questionnaire data collected at several time points during pregnancy and after birth on 32,077 children born between 2000 and 2005 were used to assess the effects of folate supplements during pregnancy on respiratory outcomes up to 18 months of age, while accounting for other supplements in pregnancy and supplementation in infancy. Folate supplements in the first trimester were associated with increased risk of wheeze and respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. Adjusting for exposure later in pregnancy and in infancy, the relative risk for wheeze for children exposed to folic acid supplements in the first trimester was 1.06 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.10), the relative risk for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.09 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.15) and the relative risk for hospitalisations for lower respiratory tract infections was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.41). Folic acid supplements in pregnancy were associated with a slightly increased risk of wheeze and lower respiratory tract infections up to 18 months of age. The results suggest that methyl donors in the maternal diet during pregnancy may influence respiratory health in children consistent with epigenetic mechanisms.

  1. Early Exercise Rehabilitation of Muscle Weakness in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Michael J.; Morris, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Failure patients experience significant muscle weakness which contributes to prolonged hospitalization and functional impairments post-hospital discharge. Based on our previous work, we hypothesize that an exercise intervention initiated early in the intensive care unit aimed at improving skeletal muscle strength could decrease hospital stay and attenuate the deconditioning and skeletal muscle weakness experienced by these patients. Summary Early exercise has the potential to decrease hospital length of stay and improve function in Acute Respiratory Failure patients. PMID:23873130

  2. The contribution of benzene to smoking-induced leukemia.

    PubMed

    Korte, J E; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Schulz, M R; Ball, L M; Duell, E J

    2000-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of leukemia; benzene, an established leukemogen, is present in cigarette smoke. By combining epidemiologic data on the health effects of smoking with risk assessment techniques for low-dose extrapolation, we assessed the proportion of smoking-induced total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) attributable to the benzene in cigarette smoke. We fit both linear and quadratic models to data from two benzene-exposed occupational cohorts to estimate the leukemogenic potency of benzene. Using multiple-decrement life tables, we calculated lifetime risks of total leukemia and AML deaths for never, light, and heavy smokers. We repeated these calculations, removing the effect of benzene in cigarettes based on the estimated potencies. From these life tables we determined smoking-attributable risks and benzene-attributable risks. The ratio of the latter to the former constitutes the proportion of smoking-induced cases attributable to benzene. Based on linear potency models, the benzene in cigarette smoke contributed from 8 to 48% of smoking-induced total leukemia deaths [95% upper confidence limit (UCL), 20-66%], and from 12 to 58% of smoking-induced AML deaths (95% UCL, 19-121%). The inclusion of a quadratic term yielded results that were comparable; however, potency models with only quadratic terms resulted in much lower attributable fractions--all < 1%. Thus, benzene is estimated to be responsible for approximately one-tenth to one-half of smoking-induced total leukemia mortality and up to three-fifths of smoking-related AML mortality. In contrast to theoretical arguments that linear models substantially overestimate low-dose risk, linear extrapolations from empirical data over a dose range of 10- to 100-fold resulted in plausible predictions.

  3. Autonomic dysfunction with early respiratory syncytial virus-related infection.

    PubMed

    Stock, Claire; Teyssier, Georges; Pichot, Vincent; Goffaux, Philippe; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Patural, Hugues

    2010-08-25

    Apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) and/or prolonged apnoea have been well-documented during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infants less than 2 months of age but fundamental mechanisms remain unclear. The possibility of a central origin for the development of severe cardiac and respiratory events encouraged us, to explore the autonomic nervous system (ANS) profile of infected infants, since ANS activity may contribute to the constellation of symptoms observed during severe forms of RSV bronchiolitis. Eight infants (2 preterm and 6 full-term) less than 2 months of age and presenting with severe and apnoeic forms of RSV infection were evaluated using non-invasive electrophysiological monitoring obtained simultaneously for approximately 2 consecutive hours, including a quiet sleep period. Eight control subjects, paired for gestational and postnatal age, were also evaluated. ANS status was monitored using electrocardiogram recordings and quantified through a frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). This included sympathetic (VLF and LF) and parasympathetic (HF) indices as well as a measure of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) obtained using non-invasive continuous arterial pressure. Regardless of gestational and postnatal age, heart rate variability components (Ptot, VLF, LF, and HF) and baroreflex components (alpha LF, alpha HF and sBR) were found to be significantly lower in the RSV-infected group than in the control group (p<0.05). RSV infection in neonates is associated with profound central autonomic dysfunction. The potentially fatal consequence stresses the importance of maintaining prolonged cardiopulmonary monitoring. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Healthcare Cost of Smoking Induced Cardiovascular Disease in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Asmerom; Hepelwa, Aloyce; Ngeh, Ernest Tingum; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The study presented here estimates the total health care cost attributable to smoking induced cardiovascular disease in Tanzania. The study based on a survey conducted at a referral university hospital in Dar es Salaam in 2014. Assuming a 2% prevalence rate of cardiovascular disease and a population of 47.2 million, it was estimated that there are 943,800 cardiovascular patients in Tanzania. The proportion of ever smokers among the surveyed patients was found to be 25 percent yielding 240,400 patients who suffer from smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Per capita annual expenditure per patient is estimated to be 566.6 US dollars and total annual expenditure for the country was estimated to be 136.1 million US dollars. On a per capita basis more direct and indirect cost is incurred on males compared to females; more is spent on the elderly (40 or more years) compared to the youth (less than 20 years). When compared with the mean annual household income of the surveyed population, the smoking induced per capita expenditure constitutes 35% of household income.

  5. Cigarette smoke induced urocystic epithelial mesenchymal transition via MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dexin; Geng, Hao; Liu, Zhiqi; Zhao, Li; Liang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Dongdong; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Tao; Min, Jie; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-01-31

    Cigarette smoke has been shown to be a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process in cancer development. The role of MAPK pathways in regulating cigarette smoke-triggered urocystic EMT remains to be elucidated. Human normal urothelial cells and BALB/c mice were used as in vitro and in vivo cigarette smoke exposure models. Exposure of human normal urothelial cells to cigarette smoke induced morphological change, enhanced migratory and invasive capacities, reduced epithelial marker expression and increased mesenchymal marker expression, along with the activation of MAPK pathways. Moreover, we revealed that ERK1/2 and p38 inhibitors, but rather JNK inhibitor, effectively attenuated cigarette smoke-induced urocystic EMT. Importantly, the regulatory function of ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in cigarette smoke-triggered urocystic EMT was further confirmed in mice exposed to CS for 12 weeks. These findings could provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-associated bladder cancer development as well as its potential intervention.

  6. Early postnatal changes in respiratory activity in rat in vitro and modulatory effects of substance P.

    PubMed

    Shvarev, Y N; Lagercrantz, H

    2006-10-01

    Developmental changes in the respiratory activity and its modulation by substance P (SP) were studied in the neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparation from the day of birth to day 3 (P0-P3). The respiratory network activity in the ventrolateral medulla was represented by two types of bursts: basic regular bursts with typical decrementing shape and biphasic bursts appearing after augmented biphasic discharges in inspiratory neurons. With advancing postnatal age the respiratory output was considerably modified; the basic rhythm became faster by 20%, whereas the biphasic burst rate, which was originally 15 times slower, declined further by 180% and the C4 burst duration significantly decreased by 20% due to reduced decay time without preceding changes in the central inspiratory drive. SP had an age-dependent excitatory effect on respiratory activity. In the basic rhythm, SP could induce transient rhythm cessations on P0-P2 but not on P3. For the biphasic burst frequency, the sensitivity to SP significantly decreased from P0 to P3, whereas the range of SP-induced changes increased. In both types of bursts, SP prolonged C4 burst duration due to increasing decay time. This effect was three times greater on P3 and did not depend on the central inspiratory drive. Our results suggest that the potency of SP to regulate the respiratory activity elevates during the early postnatal period. The developmental changes in the respiratory activity appear to represent the transient stage in the maturation of rhythm and pattern generation mechanisms facilitating adaptive behavior of a quickly growing organism.

  7. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  8. Early High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure. A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Scot T; Borasino, Santiago; Asaro, Lisa A; Cheifetz, Ira M; Diane, Shelley; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2016-03-01

    The use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for acute respiratory failure in children is prevalent despite the lack of efficacy data. To compare the outcomes of patients with acute respiratory failure managed with HFOV within 24-48 hours of endotracheal intubation with those receiving conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and/or late HFOV. This is a secondary analysis of data from the RESTORE (Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure) study, a prospective cluster randomized clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013 in 31 U.S. pediatric intensive care units. Propensity score analysis, including degree of hypoxia in the model, compared the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality of patients treated with early HFOV matched with those treated with CMV/late HFOV. Among 2,449 subjects enrolled in RESTORE, 353 patients (14%) were ever supported on HFOV, of which 210 (59%) had HFOV initiated within 24-48 hours of intubation. The propensity score model predicting the probability of receiving early HFOV included 1,064 patients (181 early HFOV vs. 883 CMV/late HFOV) with significant hypoxia (oxygenation index ≥ 8). The degree of hypoxia was the most significant contributor to the propensity score model. After adjusting for risk category, early HFOV use was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P = 0.001) but not with mortality (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.79; P = 0.15) compared with CMV/late HFOV. In adjusted models including important oxygenation variables, early HFOV was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. These analyses make supporting the current approach to HFOV less convincing.

  9. Plasma cytokine levels fall in preterm newborn infants on nasal CPAP with early respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Silveira, Rita de Cassia; Neto, Eurico Camargo; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann

    2015-01-01

    Early nCPAP seems to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury in humans, although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect have not been clarified yet. To evaluate plasma levels IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α immediately before the start of nCPAP and 2 hours later in preterm infants. Prospective cohort including preterm infants with 28 to 35 weeks gestational age with moderate respiratory distress requiring nCPAP. Extreme preemies, newborns with malformations, congenital infections, sepsis, surfactant treatment, and receiving ventilatory support in the delivery room were excluded. Blood samples were collected right before and 2 hours after the start of nCPAP. 23 preterm infants (birth weight 1851±403 grams; GA 32.3±1.7 weeks) were treated with nCPAP. IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α levels were similar, IL-8 levels were reduced in 18/23 preterm infants and a significant decrease in IL-6 levels was observed after 2 hours of nCPAP. All newborns whose mothers received antenatal steroids had lower cytokine levels at the onset of nCPAP than those whose mothers didn't receive it; this effect was not sustained after 2 hours of nCPAP. Early use nCPAP is not associated with rising of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines and it seems to be a less harmful respiratory strategy for preterm with moderate respiratory distress.

  10. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    SciT

    Keravec, Marlène; Mounier, Jérôme; Prestat, Emmanuel

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly moremore » prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  11. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    SciT

    Keravec, Marlene; Mounier, Jerome; Prestat , Emmanuel

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantlymore » more prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  12. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  13. Insights into the respiratory tract microbiota of patients with cystic fibrosis during early Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization

    DOE PAGES

    Keravec, Marlène; Mounier, Jérôme; Prestat, Emmanuel; ...

    2015-08-09

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) progression. Therefore, it is important to understand the initial steps of P. aeruginosa infection. The structure and dynamics of CF respiratory tract microbial communities during the early stages of P. aeruginosa colonization were characterized by pyrosequencing and cloning-sequencing. The respiratory microbiota showed high diversity, related to the young age of the CF cohort (mean age 10 years). Wide inter- and intra-individual variations were revealed. A common core microbiota of 5 phyla and 13 predominant genera was found, the majority of which were obligate anaerobes. A few genera were significantly moremore » prevalent in patients never infected by P. aeruginosa. Persistence of an anaerobic core microbiota regardless of P. aeruginosa status suggests a major role of certain anaerobes in the pathophysiology of lung infections in CF. Some genera may be potential biomarkers of pulmonary infection state.« less

  14. Modifications of the National Early Warning Score for patients with chronic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, N E; Rasmussen, L S; Petersen, J A; Gerds, T A; Østergaard, D; Lippert, A

    2018-02-01

    The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) uses physiological variables to detect deterioration in hospitalized patients. However, patients with chronic respiratory disease may have abnormal variables not requiring interventions. We studied how the Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System (CROS), the Chronic Respiratory Early Warning Score (CREWS) and the Salford NEWS (S-NEWS) affected NEWS total scores and NEWS performance. In an observational study, we included patients with chronic respiratory disease. The frequency of use of CROS and the NEWS total score changes caused by CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS were described. NEWS, CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS were compared using 48-h mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission within 48 h as outcomes. We studied 11,266 patients during 25,978 admissions; the use of CROS lowered NEWS total scores in 40% of included patients. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS had lower sensitivities than NEWS for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Specificities and PPV were higher. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS downgraded, respectively, 51.5%, 44.9% and 32.8% of the NEWS total scores from the 'mandatory doctor presence' and 'immediate doctor presence and specialist consultation' total score intervals to lower intervals. Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System was frequently used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS reduced sensitivity for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Using the methodology prevalent in the NEWS literature, we cannot conclude on the safety of these systems. Future prospective studies should investigate the balance between detection rate and alarm fatigue of different systems, or use controlled designs and patient-centred outcomes. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Early Diagnosis of Respiratory Abnormalities in Asbestos-Exposed Workers by the Forced Oscillation Technique.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Paula Morisco; Castro, Hermano Albuquerque; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2016-01-01

    The current reference test for the detection of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers is spirometry. However, spirometry has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current asbestos control programs. The forced oscillation technique (FOT) represents the current state-of-the-art technique in the assessment of lung function. This method provides a detailed analysis of respiratory resistance and reactance at different oscillatory frequencies during tidal breathing. Here, we evaluate the FOT as an alternative method to standard spirometry for the early detection and quantification of respiratory abnormalities in asbestos-exposed workers. Seventy-two subjects were analyzed. The control group was composed of 33 subjects with a normal spirometric exam who had no history of smoking or pulmonary disease. Thirty-nine subjects exposed to asbestos were also studied, including 32 volunteers in radiological category 0/0 and 7 volunteers with radiological categories of 0/1 or 1/1. FOT data were interpreted using classical parameters as well as integer (InOr) and fractional-order (FrOr) modeling. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by investigating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Exposed workers presented increased obstruction (resistance p<0.001) and a reduced compliance (p<0.001), with a predominance of obstructive changes. The FOT parameter changes were correlated with the standard pulmonary function analysis methods (R = -0.52, p<0.001). Early respiratory abnormalities were identified with a high diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.987) using parameters obtained from the FrOr modeling. This accuracy was significantly better than those obtained with classical (p<0.001) and InOr (p<0.001) model parameters. The FOT improved our knowledge about the biomechanical abnormalities in workers exposed to asbestos. Additionally, a high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of early respiratory abnormalities in asbestos

  16. Early childhood growth patterns and school-age respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide and asthma.

    PubMed

    Casas, Maribel; den Dekker, Herman T; Kruithof, Claudia J; Reiss, Irwin K; Vrijheid, Martine; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2016-12-01

    Greater infant weight gain is associated with lower lung function and increased risk of childhood asthma. The role of early childhood peak growth patterns is unclear. We assessed the associations of individually derived early childhood peak growth patterns with respiratory resistance, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, wheezing patterns, and asthma until school-age. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5364 children. Repeated growth measurements between 0 and 3 years of age were used to derive standard deviation scores (s.d.s) of peak height and weight velocities (PHV and PWV, respectively), and body mass index (BMI) and age at adiposity peak. Respiratory resistance and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured at 6 years of age. Wheezing patterns and asthma were prospectively assessed by annual questionnaires. We also assessed whether any association was explained by childhood weight status. Greater PHV was associated with lower respiratory resistance [Z-score (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.04, -0.01) per s.d.s increase] (n = 3382). Greater PWV and BMI at adiposity peak were associated with increased risks of early wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.11 (1.06, 1.16), 1.26 (1.11, 1.43), respectively] and persistent wheezing [relative risk ratio (95% CI): 1.09 (1.03, 1.16), 1.37 (1.17, 1.60), respectively] (n = 3189 and n = 3005, respectively). Childhood weight status partly explained these associations. No other associations were observed. PWV and BMI at adiposity peak are critical for lung developmental and risk of school-age wheezing. Follow-up studies at older ages are needed to elucidate whether these effects persist at later ages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Respiratory flows during early childhood: Computational models to examine therapeutic aerosols in the developing airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Sznitman, Josué; Janna Tenenbaum-Katan Team

    2015-11-01

    Inhalation therapy is the cornerstone of early-childhood respiratory treatments, as well as a rising potential for systemic drug delivery and pulmonary vaccination. As such, indispensable understanding of respiratory flow phenomena, coupled with particle transport at the deep regions of children's lungs is necessary to attain efficient targeting of aerosol therapy. However, fundamental research of pulmonary transport is overwhelmingly focused on adults. In our study, we have developed an anatomically-inspired computational model of representing pulmonary acinar regions at several age points during a child's development. Our numerical simulations examine respiratory flows and particle deposition maps within the acinar model, accounting for varying age dependant anatomical considerations and ventilation patterns. Resulting deposition maps of aerosols alter with age, such findings might suggest that medication protocols of inhalation therapy in young children should be considered to be accordingly amended with the child's development. Additionally to understanding basic scientific concepts of age effects on aerosol deposition, our research can potentially contribute practical guidelines to therapy protocols, and its' necessary modifications with age. We acknowledge the support of the ISF and the Israeli ministry of Science.

  18. African ancestry, early life exposures, and respiratory morbidity in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Tsai, H-J; Hong, X; Gignoux, C; Pearson, C; Ortiz, K; Fu, M; Pongracic, J A; Burchard, E G; Bauchner, H; Wang, X

    2012-02-01

    Racial disparities persist in early childhood wheezing and cannot be completely explained by known risk factors. To evaluate the associations of genetic ancestry and self-identified race with early childhood recurrent wheezing, accounting for socio-economic status (SES) and early life exposures. We studied 1034 children in an urban, multi-racial, prospective birth cohort. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of genetic ancestry as opposed to self-identified race with recurrent wheezing (>3 episodes). Sequential models accounted for demographic, socio-economic factors and early life risk factors. Genetic ancestry, estimated using 150 ancestry informative markers, was expressed in deciles. Approximately 6.1% of subjects (mean age 3.1 years) experienced recurrent wheezing. After accounting for SES and demographic factors, African ancestry (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.31) was significantly associated with recurrent wheezing. By self-reported race, hispanic subjects had a borderline decrease in risk of wheeze compared with African Americans (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.19-1.00), whereas white subjects (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-1.57) did not have. After further adjustment for known confounders and early life exposures, both African (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.34) and European ancestry (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.94) retained a significant association with recurrent wheezing, as compared with self-identified race (OR(whites) : 0.31, 95% CI: 0.09-1.14; OR(hispanic) : 0.47, 95% CI: 0.20-1.08). There were no significant interactions between ancestry and early life factors on recurrent wheezing. In contrast to self-identified race, African ancestry remained a significant, independent predictor of early childhood wheezing after accounting for early life and other known risk factors associated with lung function changes and asthma. Genetic ancestry may be a powerful way to evaluate wheezing disparities and a proxy for differentially distributed genetic and

  19. African ancestry, early life exposures, and respiratory morbidity in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Tsai, H.-J.; Hong, X.; Gignoux, C.; Pearson, C.; Ortiz, K.; Fu, M.; Pongracic, J. A.; Burchard, E. G.; Bauchner, H.; Wang, X.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Racial disparities persist in early childhood wheezing and cannot be completely explained by known risk factors. Objective To evaluate the associations of genetic ancestry and self-identified race with early childhood recurrent wheezing, accounting for socio-economic status (SES) and early life exposures. Methods We studied 1034 children in an urban, multi-racial, prospective birth cohort. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of genetic ancestry as opposed to self-identified race with recurrent wheezing (>3 episodes). Sequential models accounted for demographic, socio-economic factors and early life risk factors. Genetic ancestry, estimated using 150 ancestry informative markers, was expressed in deciles. Results Approximately 6.1% of subjects (mean age 3.1 years) experienced recurrent wheezing. After accounting for SES and demographic factors, African ancestry (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.31) was significantly associated with recurrent wheezing. By self-reported race, hispanic subjects had a borderline decrease in risk of wheeze compared with African Americans (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.19–1.00), whereas white subjects (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–1.57) did not have. After further adjustment for known confounders and early life exposures, both African (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05–1.34) and European ancestry (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74–0.94) retained a significant association with recurrent wheezing, as compared with self-identified race (ORwhites: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.09–1.14; ORhispanic: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.20–1.08). There were no significant interactions between ancestry and early life factors on recurrent wheezing. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance In contrast to self-identified race, African ancestry remained a significant, independent predictor of early childhood wheezing after accounting for early life and other known risk factors associated with lung function changes and asthma. Genetic ancestry may be a powerful way to

  20. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  1. Early-life house dust mite allergens, childhood mite sensitization, and respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casas, L; Sunyer, J; Tischer, C; Gehring, U; Wickman, M; Garcia-Esteban, R; Lehmann, I; Kull, I; Reich, A; Lau, S; Wijga, A; Antó, J M; Nawrot, T S; Heinrich, J; Keil, T; Torrent, M

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens during early life may play a role in the development of the immune system and inception of asthma. To describe the house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentrations in bedroom dust during early life and to evaluate its associations with HDM sensitization, wheezing, and asthma, from birth to school age, in 5 geographically spread European birth cohorts. We included 4334 children from INMA-Menorca (Spain), BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and MAS (Germany), and PIAMA-NHS (the Netherlands). Dust samples were collected from bedrooms during early life and analyzed for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1). HDM concentrations were divided into four categories. Sensitization was determined by specific IgE. Wheezing and asthma information up to 8/10 years was collected through questionnaires. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression models and expressed associations as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. House dust mite concentrations varied across cohorts. Mean allergen concentrations were highest in INMA-Menorca (geometric mean (GM) Der p1 = 3.3 μg/g) and LISAplus (GM Der f1 = 2.1 μg/g) and lowest in BAMSE (GM Der p1 = 0.1 μg/g, Der f1 = 0.3 μg/g). Moderate and high HDM concentrations were significantly (P-values < 0.05) associated with 50-90% higher prevalence of HDM sensitization. No significant associations were observed with respiratory outcomes. Our study based on geographically spread regions, a large sample size, and a wide range of allergen concentration shows that HDM allergen concentrations vary across regions and that exposure during early life plays a role in the development of allergic sensitization but not in the development of respiratory outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vani, G.; Anbarasi, K.; Shyamaladevi, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke. PMID:26413118

  3. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain.

    PubMed

    Vani, G; Anbarasi, K; Shyamaladevi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA) on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  4. Cigarette smoke induces mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Hitendra S; Babu, Niraj; Jain, Ankit P; Bhat, Mohd Younis; Puttamallesh, Vinuth N; Advani, Jayshree; Raja, Remya; Mangalaparthi, Kiran K; Kumar, Mahesh M; Prasad, T S Keshava; Mathur, Premendu Prakash; Sidransky, David; Gowda, Harsha; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2018-05-01

    Cellular transformation owing to cigarette smoking is due to chronic exposure and not acute. However, systematic studies to understand the molecular alterations in lung cells due to cigarette smoke are lacking. To understand these molecular alterations induced by chronic cigarette smoke exposure, we carried out tandem mass tag (TMT) based temporal proteomic profiling of lung cells exposed to cigarette smoke for upto 12months. We identified 2620 proteins in total, of which 671 proteins were differentially expressed (1.5-fold) after 12months of exposure. Prolonged exposure of lung cells to smoke for 12months revealed dysregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and overexpression of enzymes involved in TCA cycle. In addition, we also observed overexpression of enzymes involved in glutamine metabolism, fatty acid degradation and lactate synthesis. This could possibly explain the availability of alternative source of carbon to TCA cycle apart from glycolytic pyruvate. Our data indicates that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induces mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming in cells to support growth and survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal follow-up study of smoking-induced emphysema progression in low-dose CT screening of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, N.

    2014-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major public health problem that is predicted to be third leading cause of death in 2030. Although spirometry is traditionally used to quantify emphysema progression, it is difficult to detect the loss of pulmonary function by emphysema in early stage, and to assess the susceptibility to smoking. This study presents quantification method of smoking-induced emphysema progression based on annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in lung cancer screening. The method consists of three steps. First, lung lobes are segmented using extracted interlobar fissures by enhancement filter based on fourdimensional curvature. Second, LAV of each lung lobe is segmented. Finally, smoking-induced emphysema progression is assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV percentage in each lung lobe. This method was applied to 140 participants in lung cancer CT screening for six years. The results showed that LAV progressions of nonsmokers, past smokers, and current smokers are different in terms of pack-year and smoking cessation duration. This study demonstrates effectiveness in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in lung cancer CT screening.

  6. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain-Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude <300 μV, sum of CMAP duration >50 msec and sum of area < 4 mVmS. None with normal phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure.

  7. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain–Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. Objective: To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. Methods: 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Results: Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude <300 μV, sum of CMAP duration >50 msec and sum of area < 4 mVmS. None with normal phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Conclusion: Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure. PMID:29720799

  8. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    PubMed

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  9. Evaluation of the Novel Respiratory Virus Surveillance Program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh M.; Lutman, Michelle L.; Middaugh, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Methods Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Results Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. Conclusion We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable. PMID:23997308

  10. Early respiratory acidosis is a new risk factor for pneumonia after lung resection.

    PubMed

    Planquette, Benjamin; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Trinquart, Ludovic; Meyer, Guy; Riquet, Marc; Sanchez, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    Postoperative pneumonia (POP) is a life-threatening complication of lung resection (LR). Its risk factors, bacteriological profile and outcome are not well known. The aims of this study were to describe the outcome and causal bacteria and to identify risk factors for POP. We reviewed all cases admitted to intensive care after LR. Clinical parameters, operative and postoperative data were recorded. POP was suspected on the basis of fever, radiographic infiltrate, and either leucocytosis or purulent sputum. The diagnosis was confirmed by culture of a respiratory sample. Risk factors for POP were identified by univariate and multivariate analysis. We included 159 patients in this study. POP was diagnosed in 23 patients (14.4%) and was associated with a higher hospital mortality rate (30% versus 5%, P = 0.0007) and a longer hospital stay. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas species were the most frequently identified pathogens. Early respiratory acidosis (ERA; OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.1-8.1), blood transfusion (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.1-13.1), bilobectomy (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.2-43.1) and smoking history (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.1-3) were identified as independent risk factors. ERA may be a risk factor for POP and could serve as a target for therapeutic interventions.

  11. Cigarette smoke induces methylation of the tumor suppressor gene NISCH

    PubMed Central

    Ostrow, Kimberly Laskie; Michalidi, Christina; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Greenberg, Alissa; Rom, William; Sidransky, David

    2013-01-01

    We have previously identified a putative tumor suppressor gene, NISCH, whose promoter is methylated in lung tumor tissue as well as in plasma obtained from lung cancer patients. NISCH was observed to be more frequently methylated in smoker lung cancer patients than in non-smoker lung cancer patients. Here, we investigated the effect of tobacco smoke exposure on methylation of the NISCH gene. We tested methylation of NISCH after oral keratinocytes were exposed to mainstream and side stream cigarette smoke extract in culture. Methylation of the promoter region of the NISCH gene was also evaluated in plasma obtained from lifetime non-smokers and light smokers (< 20 pack/year), with and without lung tumors, and heavy smokers (20+ pack/year) without disease. Promoter methylation of NISCH was tested by quantitative fluorogenic real-time PCR in all samples. Promoter methylation of NISCH occurred after exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke as well as to side stream tobacco smoke in normal oral keratinocyte cell lines. NISCH methylation was also detected in 68% of high-risk, heavy smokers without detectable tumors. Interestingly, in light smokers, NISCH methylation was present in 69% of patients with lung cancer and absent in those without disease. Our pilot study indicates that tobacco smoke induces methylation changes in the NISCH gene promoter before any detectable cancer. Methylation of the NISCH gene was also found in lung cancer patients’ plasma samples. After confirming these findings in longitudinally collected plasma samples from high-risk populations (such as heavy smokers), examining patients for hypermethylation of the NISCH gene may aid in identifying those who should undergo additional screening for lung cancer. PMID:23503203

  12. Sociodemographic risk, parenting, and inhibitory control in early childhood: the role of respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Holochwost, Steven J; Volpe, Vanessa V; Gueron-Sela, Noa; Propper, Cathi B; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2018-03-13

    Deficits of inhibitory control in early childhood are linked to externalizing behaviors and attention problems. While environmental factors and physiological processes are associated with its etiology, few studies have examined how these factors jointly predict inhibitory control. This study examined whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) functioned as a mediator or moderator of both cumulative sociodemographic risk and parenting behaviors on inhibitory control during early childhood. The sample included 206 children and their biological mothers. At 24, 30, and 36 months of child age dyads participated in a series of laboratory visits in which sociodemographic, parenting, and baseline RSA (RSAB) data were collected. Inhibitory control was assessed at 36 months using a gift-wrap delay task. A series of structural equation models yielded no evidence that RSAB mediated the relations of risk or parenting and inhibitory control. RSAB moderated the effects of risk, such that high-risk children with low RSAB performed more poorly on tasks of inhibitory control, while high-risk children with high RSAB did not. These results suggest that higher levels of RSAB may mitigate the influence of environmental risk on the development of inhibitory control early childhood. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Early respiratory infection is associated with reduced spirometry in children with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Ranganathan, Sarath; Park, Judy; Skoric, Billy; Adams, Anne-Marie; Simpson, Shannon J; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Franklin, Peter J; de Klerk, Nick H; Sly, Peter D; Stick, Steve M; Hall, Graham L

    2014-11-15

    Pulmonary inflammation, infection, and structural lung disease occur early in life in children with cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that the presence of these markers of cystic fibrosis lung disease in the first 2 years of life would be associated with reduced lung function in childhood. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in the first three-quarters of a second [FEV0.75], FVC) was assessed in individuals with cystic fibrosis diagnosed after newborn screening and healthy subjects during infancy (0-2 yr) and again at early school age (4-8 yr). Individuals with cystic fibrosis underwent annual bronchoalveolar lavage fluid examination, and chest computed tomography. We examined which clinical outcomes (pulmonary inflammation, infection, structural lung disease, respiratory hospitalizations, antibiotic prophylaxis) measured in the first 2 years of life were associated with reduced lung function in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis, using a mixed effects model. Children with cystic fibrosis (n = 56) had 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -15.9 to -6.6; P = 0.04) lower FEV0.75 compared with healthy subjects (n = 18). Detection of proinflammatory bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Aspergillus species, Streptococcus pneumoniae) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was associated with clinically significant reductions in FEV0.75 (ranging between 11.3 and 15.6%). The onset of lung disease in infancy, specifically the occurrence of lower respiratory tract infection, is associated with low lung function in young children with cystic fibrosis. Deficits in lung function measured in infancy persist into childhood, emphasizing the need for targeted therapeutic interventions in infancy to maximize functional outcomes later in life.

  14. Immune-regulating effects of exercise on cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Ashkan; Alack, Katharina; Richter, Manuel Jonas; Krüger, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking (LTCS) represents an important risk factor for cardiac infarction and stroke and the central risk factor for the development of a bronchial carcinoma, smoking-associated interstitial lung fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The pathophysiologic development of these diseases is suggested to be promoted by chronic and progressive inflammation. Cigarette smoking induces repetitive inflammatory insults followed by a chronic and progressive activation of the immune system. In the pulmonary system of cigarette smokers, oxidative stress, cellular damage, and a chronic activation of pattern recognition receptors are described which are followed by the translocation of the NF-kB, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteases, and damage-associated molecular patterns. In parallel, smoke pollutants cross directly through the alveolus–capillary interface and spread through the systemic bloodstream targeting different organs. Consequently, LTCS induces a systemic low-grade inflammation and increased oxidative stress in the vascular system. In blood, these processes promote an increased coagulation and endothelial dysfunction. In muscle tissue, inflammatory processes activate catabolic signaling pathways followed by muscle wasting and sarcopenia. In brain, several characteristics of neuroinflammation were described. Regular exercise training has been shown to be an effective nonpharmacological treatment strategy in smoke-induced pulmonary diseases. It is well established that exercise training exerts immune-regulating effects by activating anti-inflammatory signaling pathways. In this regard, the release of myokines from contracting skeletal muscle, the elevations of cortisol and adrenalin, the reduced expression of Toll-like receptors, and the increased mobilization of immune-regulating leukocyte subtypes might be of vital importance. Exercise training also increases the local and systemic

  15. Prospective study of maternal mid-pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and early childhood respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Maria C; Stene, Lars C; Håberg, Siri E; Nafstad, Per; Stigum, Hein; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2013-11-01

    Studies suggest that prenatal vitamin D status may be inversely associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) early in life. Studies of prenatal vitamin D status and development of asthma have inconsistent findings. We examined the associations of maternal mid-pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level with the frequency of LRTIs by 36 months and with current asthma at 36 months using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Maternal plasma 25(OH)D level was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Respiratory disorders were evaluated by maternal report through questionnaires. LRTIs were analysed in a random sample of 1248 children. Asthma was analysed using a case-control design, including 489 cases and 1183 controls. Multivariable generalised linear models calculated adjusted measures of association. The median gestational week of sample collection was 18 weeks (range 9, 35). The mean 25(OH)D level was 73.7 nmol/L (standard deviation 23.7). Higher maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was associated with a reduced risk of three or more LRTIs by 36 months vs. none, adjusted risk ratio 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58, 0.93] per 20 nmol/L increase. Associations were similar when examining the frequency of LRTIs by 18 months, and the frequency of LRTIs between 18 and 36 months. Maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was not significantly associated with current asthma at 36 months, adjusted odds ratio 0.91 [95% CI 0.81, 1.02] per 20 nmol/L increase. Higher maternal mid-pregnancy 25(OH)D level was associated with a modestly reduced risk of recurrent LRTIs by 36 months, but was not associated with current asthma at 36 months. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Association of Early Blood Oxygenation with Child Development in Preterm Infants with Acute Respiratory Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Karen E.; Keeney, Susan; Zhang, Lifang; Perez-Polo, Regino; Rassin, David K.

    2008-01-01

    The potential negative impact of early blood oxygenation on development of specific cognitive and motor outcomes in children born at very low birth weight (VLBW; 1000 − 1500g) has not been examined even though these infants are exposed to varying durations and amounts of oxygen as part of their neonatal care. While this is the largest group of preterm infants, they receive much less research attention than extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW < 1000g). Although neonatologists are questioning the routine use of oxygen therapy for all neonates, research has focused primarily on the more medically fragile ELBW infants. To date there are no systematic studies available to guide decision making for oxygen supplementation for a large segment of the preterm infant population. The aim of the present study was to determine if there is an association between blood oxygenation in the first four hours of life and specific cognitive and motor skills in preterm infants with acute respiratory disorders but no severe intracranial insult using a selected cohort from a longitudinal study children recruited in 1991 and 1992 designed to examine the role of biological immaturity as defined by gestational age and parenting in development. From this cohort, 55 children had acute respiratory disorders without severe intracranial insult. Of these, 35 children had at least one partial pressure of oxygen obtained from arterial blood (PaO2) during the first four hours of life as part of their clinical care. Higher early PaO2 values were associated with lower impulse control and attention skills in the elementary school age period. Models that examined for relations between PaO2 values that also included birth weight and parenting quality across the first year of life revealed that higher PaO2 remained associated with impulse control but not attention skills. Birth weight was not associated with any outcomes. These results suggest that hyperoxia may be a risk factor for developmental

  17. Chronic respiratory symptoms in children following in utero and early life exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Allan H; Yunus, Mohammad; Khan, Al Fazal; Ercumen, Ayse; Yuan, Yan; Smith, Meera Hira; Liaw, Jane; Balmes, John; von Ehrenstein, Ondine; Raqib, Rubhana; Kalman, David; Alam, Dewan S; Streatfield, Peter K; Steinmaus, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic exposure via drinking water increases the risk of chronic respiratory disease in adults. However, information on pulmonary health effects in children after early life exposure is limited. Methods This population-based cohort study set in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, assessed lung function and respiratory symptoms of 650 children aged 7–17 years. Children with in utero and early life arsenic exposure were compared with children exposed to less than 10 µg/l in utero and throughout childhood. Because most children drank the same water as their mother had drunk during pregnancy, we could not assess only in utero or only childhood exposure. Results Children exposed in utero to more than 500 µg/l of arsenic were more than eight times more likely to report wheezing when not having a cold [odds ratio (OR) = 8.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66–42.6, P < 0.01] and more than three times more likely to report shortness of breath when walking on level ground (OR = 3.86, 95% CI: 1.09–13.7, P = 0.02) and when walking fast or climbing (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.22–8.32, P < 0.01]. However, there was little evidence of reduced lung function in either exposure category. Conclusions Children with high in utero and early life arsenic exposure had marked increases in several chronic respiratory symptoms, which could be due to in utero exposure or to early life exposure, or to both. Our findings suggest that arsenic in water has early pulmonary effects and that respiratory symptoms are a better marker of early life arsenic toxicity than changes in lung function measured by spirometry. PMID:24062297

  18. Clinical Meaning of Early Oxygenation Improvement in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome under Prolonged Prone Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangha; Kim, Mi-Young; Yoo, Jung-Wan; Hong, Sang-Bum; Lim, Chae-Man

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Ventilating patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the prone position has been shown to improve arterial oxygenation, but prolonged prone positioning frequently requires continuous deep sedation, which may be harmful to patients. We evaluated the meaning of early gas exchange in patients with severe ARDS under prolonged (≥ 12 hours) prone positioning. Methods We retrospectively studied 96 patients (mean age, 60.1 ± 15.6 years; 75% men) with severe ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 150 mmHg) admitted to a medical intensive care unit (MICU). The terms "PaO2 response" and "PaCO2 response" represented responses that resulted in increases in the PaO2/FiO2 ratio of ≥ 20 mmHg and decreases in PaCO2 of ≥ 1 mmHg, respectively, 8 to 12 hours after first placement in the prone position. Results The mean duration of prone positioning was 78.5 ± 61.2 hours, and the 28-day mortality rate after MICU admission was 56.3%. No significant difference in clinical characteristics was observed between PaO2 and PaCO2 responders and non-responders. The PaO2 responders after prone positioning showed an improved 28-day outcome, compared with non-responders by Kaplan-Meier survival estimates (p < 0.05 by the log-rank test), but the PaCO2 responders did not. Conclusions Our results suggest that the early oxygenation improvement after prone positioning might be associated with an improved 28-day outcome and may be an indicator to maintain prolonged prone positioning in patients with severe ARDS. PMID:20195404

  19. Cigarette smoke-induced Egr-1 upregulates proinflammatory cytokines in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Paul R; Cosio, Manuel G; Hoidal, John R

    2006-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and is a progressive and irreversible disorder. Cigarette smoking is associated with 80-90% of COPD cases; however, the genes involved in COPD-associated emphysema and chronic inflammation are poorly understood. It was recently demonstrated that early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) is significantly upregulated in the lungs of smokers with COPD (Ning W and coworkers, Proc Natl Acad Sci 2004;101:14895-14900). We hypothesized that Egr-1 is activated in pulmonary epithelial cells during exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A-549) and primary epithelial cells lacking basal Egr-1 markedly induce Egr-1 expression after CSE exposure. To evaluate Egr-1-specific effects, we used antisense (alphaS) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to knock down Egr-1 expression. Incorporation of Egr-1 alphaS ODN significantly decreased CSE-induced Egr-1 mRNA and protein, while sense ODN had no effect. Via Egr-1-mediated mechanisms, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly upregulated in pulmonary epithelial cells exposed to CSE or transfected with Egr-1. To investigate the relationship between Egr-1 induction by smoking and susceptibility to emphysema, we determined Egr-1 expression in strains of mice with different susceptibilities for the development of smoking-induced emphysema. Egr-1 was markedly increased in the lungs of emphysema-susceptible AKR/J mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke, but only minimally increased in resistant NZWLac/J mice. In conclusion, Egr-1 is induced by cigarette smoke and functions in proinflammatory mechanisms that likely contribute to the development of COPD in the lungs of smokers.

  20. A cross-sectional analysis of daytime versus nocturnal polysomnographic respiratory parameters in cystic fibrosis during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Waters, K A; Lowe, A; Cooper, P; Vella, S; Selvadurai, Hiran

    2017-03-01

    In Cystic Fibrosis (CF), early detection and treatment of respiratory disease is considered the standard for respiratory care. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) may help identify respiratory deterioration in young patients with CF. A prospective cohort study of 46 patients with CF, aged 8-12years, from a specialist clinic in a tertiary paediatric hospital. Daytime pulmonary function, shuttle test exercise testing and overnight PSG were studied. Of 81 children aged 8-12years, 46 (57%) agreed to participate. FEV 1 (% predicted, mean 74.6%) was normal in 23 (50%), mildly abnormal in 12 (26.1%), moderately abnormal in 10 (21.7%) and severely abnormal in 1 (2.2%). Amongst sleep study parameters, FEV 1 (% predicted) showed significant correlation with the respiratory rate (RR) in slow wave sleep (SWS), CO 2 change in REM, baseline SaO 2 , and the arousal index (h -1 ). Backward, stepwise linear regression modelling for FEV 1 (% predicted) included the entire group with a wide spectrum of clinical severity. From sleep, variables remaining in the multivariate model for FEV 1 (F=16.81, p<0.001) were the RR in SWS (min -1 ) and the CO 2 change in REM (p=0.003, and 0.014, respectively). When daytime tests were included, the variables remaining were RR in SWS and SD score for BMI (BMIsds) (F=18.70, p<0.001). Respiratory abnormalities on overnight sleep studies included elevated respiratory rates during SWS and mild CO 2 retention in REM sleep, and these incorporated into a model correlating with FEV 1 (% predicted). Thus, mild mechanical impairment of ventilation is evident on overnight sleep studies in children with cystic fibrosis although the significance of this finding will require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Present-day potentialities of endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of early cancer in respiratory and digestive tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Zharkova, Natalia N.; Filonenko, E. V.; Telegina, L. V.; Karpova, E. S.

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest potentialities of the endoscopic fluorescent diagnostics as well as endoscopic electric-, laser surgery and photodynamic therapy (PDT) of the early cancer in the respiratory and digestive tracts. We present in detail indication and factors determining the application of the endoscopic resection of the tumor. The advantages of the combination application of PDT, electro-, Nd:YAG laser surgery and brachitherapy are stressed. The near and remote results of endoscopic treatment of the early cancer in larynx (37), lung (109), esophagus (39) and stomach (58) are shown.

  2. Bilirubin treatment suppresses pulmonary inflammation in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingjing; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Guoquan; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-09-18

    Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for emphysema, which is characterized by airway inflammation and oxidative damage. To assess the capacity of bilirubin to protect against smoke-induced emphysema. Smoking status and bilirubin levels were recorded in 58 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 71 non-COPD participants. The impact of smoking on serum bilirubin levels and exogenous bilirubin (20 mg/kg/day) on pulmonary injury was assessed in a rat model of smoking-induced emphysema. At sacrifice lung histology, airway leukocyte accumulation and cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung were analyzed. Oxidative lipid damage and anti-oxidative components was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione. Total serum bilirubin levels were lower in smokers with or without COPD than non-smoking patients without COPD (P < 0.05). Indirect serum bilirubin levels were lower in COPD patients than patients without COPD (P < 0.05). In rats, cigarette smoke reduced serum total and indirect bilirubin levels. Administration of bilirubin reduced mean linear intercept and mean alveoli area, increased mean alveoli number, reduced macrophage, neutrophil and TNF-α content of BALF, and increased BALF and serum IL-10 level, but lowered local and systemic CCL2, CXCL2, CXCL8 and IL-17 levels. Bilirubin suppressed the smoke-induced systemic and regional oxidative lipid damage associated with increased SOD activity. Bilirubin attenuated smoking-induced pulmonary injury by suppressing inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and anti-oxidant SOD activity in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema.

  4. Effects of intratracheal administration of nuclear factor-kappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides on long-term cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation and pathology in mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To determine if nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation may be a key factor in lung inflammation and respiratory dysfunction, we investigated whether NF-κB can be blocked by intratracheal administration of NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), and whether decoy ODN-mediated NF-κB inhibition can prevent smoke-induced lung inflammation, respiratory dysfunction, and improve pathological alteration in the small airways and lung parenchyma in the long-term smoke-induced mouse model system. We also detected changes in transcriptional factors. In vivo, the transfection efficiency of NF-κB decoy ODNs to alveolar macrophages in BALF was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled NF-κB decoy ODNs and flow cytometry post intratracheal ODN administration. Pulmonary function was measured by pressure sensors, and pathological changes were assessed using histology and the pathological Mias software. NF-κB and activator protein 1(AP-1) activity was detected by the electrophoretic motility shift assay (EMSA). Mouse cytokine and chemokine pulmonary expression profiles were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue homogenates, respectively, after repeated exposure to cigarette smoke. After 24 h, the percentage of transfected alveolar macrophages was 30.00 ± 3.30%. Analysis of respiratory function indicated that transfection of NF-κB decoy ODNs significantly impacted peak expiratory flow (PEF), and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology displayed evidence of decreased macrophage infiltration in airways compared to normal saline-treated or scramble NF-κB decoy ODNs smoke exposed mice. NF-κB decoy ODNs inhibited significantly level of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1) in lung homogenates compared to normal saline-treated smoke exposed mice. In contrast, these NF-κB decoy ODNs-treated mice showed significant increase in the level of tumor

  5. [The clinical economic analysis of application of immune correcting preparations to prevent respiratory infections and their complications in frequently ill children of early school age].

    PubMed

    Maiorov, R V; Derbenov, D P

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of clinical economic analysis of effect of different immune correcting preparations on rate of respiratory infections in 548 frequently ill children of early school age. It is established that preventive immune correction with lysates of bacteria or glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide in aggregate with vitamin mineral complex results in statistically significant decreasing of rate of respiratory infections and dramatic decreasing of direct and indirect costs of treatment of infectious diseases of respiratory ways. The preventive application of juice of cone-flower herb or interferon in aggregate with vitamnin mineral complex statistically significantly decreases rate of respiratory infections and negligibly decreases direct and indirect costs of their treatment.

  6. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P < 0.001). Furthermore, increased mean mealtime, frequency

  7. Bubble CPAP versus ventilator CPAP in preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tagare, Amit; Kadam, Sandeep; Vaidya, Umesh; Pandit, Anand; Patole, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (BCPAP) is a low cost nasal CPAP delivery system with potential benefits to developing nations. To compare the efficacy and safety of BCPAP with ventilator-derived CPAP (VCPAP) in preterm neonates with respiratory distress. In a randomized controlled trial, preterm neonates with Silverman-Anderson score ≥ 4 and oxygen requirement >30% within first 6 h of life were randomly allocated to BCPAP or VCPAP. Proportion of neonates with success or failure was compared. In all, 47 of 57 (82.5%) neonates from BCPAP group and 36 of 57 (63.2%) neonates from the VCPAP group completed CPAP successfully (p = 0.03). Neonates who failed CPAP had higher Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01), lower arterial to alveolar oxygenation ratio (p < 0.05) and needed surfactant more frequently (p < 0.01). BCPAP has higher success rate than VCPAP for managing preterm neonates with early onset respiratory distress, with comparable safety.

  8. Radio-frequency tracking of respiratory equipment: rationale and early experience at the Cleveland Clinic.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K; Roberts, Vincent; Matt, David; Chom, Leslie; Sasidhar, Madhu; Chatburn, Robert L

    2013-12-01

    When respiratory therapists (RTs) seek respiratory care equipment, finding it quickly is desirable, both to expedite patient care and to avert RTs wasting time. To optimize RTs' ability to quickly locate ventilators, we developed and implemented a radio-frequency identification (RFID) tagging system called eTrak. The Clinical Engineering and Information Technology groups at Cleveland Clinic collaboratively developed a Wi-Fi-based RFID program that used active RFID tags. Altogether, 218 ventilators, 82 noninvasive ventilators, and various non-respiratory equipment were tagged, beginning in March 2010. We calculated the difference in time required to locate equipment before versus after implementation. The eTrak system had a mean 145 log-ons per week over the first year of use, and was associated with a decreased time required for RTs to locate ventilators: median 18 min (range 1-45 min) versus 3 min (range 1-6 min) (P < .001). Surveys of RTs regarding whether equipment was hard to find before versus after implementing eTrak showed a non-significant trend toward improvement. An RFID tracking system for respiratory equipment shortened the time to locate ventilators and non-significantly improved RT satisfaction with finding equipment. RFID tagging of equipment warrants further investigation.

  9. Injury of the cell's respiratory system by heat and by formaldehyde. Thermokinetics and early molecular events.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H A; Wiske, P S

    1976-08-01

    This is a study of the manner in which the respiratory system of the cell is injured either by elevated temperature or by exposure to diluted formaldehyde. Molecular mechanisms were identified by thermokinetic measurements. The rates at which respiratory failure developed in mouse liver slices in an injurious environment were measured at various temperatures. The data were fitted to the Arrhenius equation, and the effective activation energies of the injury processes were calculated. These data show that (1) the thermokinetics of injury to the cell's respiratory system, whether by thermal or chemical means, follows the Arrhenius law. (2) Thermal injury of the cell's respiratory system has a high activation energy, indicating that the critical, rate-determining event is a protein denaturation. Other mechanisms such as imbalance of metabolic reaction rates and thermal liquefaction of membrane lipids can be ruled out. (3) Repression of cell respiration by diluted formaldehyde has an activation energy compatible with a chemical reaction but low enough to exclude protein denaturation as a mechanism.

  10. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Stefano; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Del Donno, Mario; Delucchi, Maurizio; Bettoncelli, Germano; Lamberti, Vincenzo; Patera, Carlo; Polverino, Mario; Russo, Antonio; Santoriello, Carlo; Soverina, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3(rd) ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2(nd) if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increase due to epidemiologic and demographic factors (foremost amongst which are the widespread diffusion of cigarette smoking, the increasing mean age of the general population, immigration, and pollution). Within the more general problem of chronic disease care, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) constitute one of the four national priorities in that they represent an important burden for society in terms of mortality, invalidity, and direct healthcare costs. The strategy suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an integrated approach consisting of three goals: inform about health, reduce risk exposure, improve patient care. The three goals are translated into practice in the three areas of prevention (1-primary, 2-secondary, 3-tertiary) as: 1) actions of primary (universal) prevention targeted at the general population with the aim to control the causes of disease, and actions of Predictive Medicine - again addressing the general population but aimed at measuring the individual's risk for disease insurgence; 2) actions of early diagnosis targeted at groups or - more precisely - subgroups identified as at risk; 3) continuous improvement and integration of care and rehabilitation support - destined at the greatest possible number of patients, at all stages of disease severity. In Italy, COPD care is generally still inadequate. Existing guidelines, institutional and non-institutional, are inadequately implemented: the international guidelines are not always adaptable

  11. The AIMAR recommendations for early diagnosis of chronic obstructive respiratory disease based on the WHO/GARD model*

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in Italy already now represent an emergency (they are the 3rd ranking cause of death in the world, and the 2nd if Lung cancer is included). In countries similar to our own, they result as the principal cause for a visit to the general practitioner (GP) and the second main cause after injury for recourse to Emergency Care. Their frequency is probably higher than estimated (given that respiratory diseases are currently underdiagnosed). The trend is towards a further increase due to epidemiologic and demographic factors (foremost amongst which are the widespread diffusion of cigarette smoking, the increasing mean age of the general population, immigration, and pollution). Within the more general problem of chronic disease care, chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) constitute one of the four national priorities in that they represent an important burden for society in terms of mortality, invalidity, and direct healthcare costs. The strategy suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO) is an integrated approach consisting of three goals: inform about health, reduce risk exposure, improve patient care. The three goals are translated into practice in the three areas of prevention (1-primary, 2-secondary, 3-tertiary) as: 1) actions of primary (universal) prevention targeted at the general population with the aim to control the causes of disease, and actions of Predictive Medicine - again addressing the general population but aimed at measuring the individual’s risk for disease insurgence; 2) actions of early diagnosis targeted at groups or - more precisely - subgroups identified as at risk; 3) continuous improvement and integration of care and rehabilitation support - destined at the greatest possible number of patients, at all stages of disease severity. In Italy, COPD care is generally still inadequate. Existing guidelines, institutional and non-institutional, are inadequately implemented: the international guidelines are not always adaptable to

  12. Cotinine Concentration in Serum Correlates with Tobacco Smoke-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Su, Yunchao; Fan, Z. Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) has been associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes in nonsmokers, including emphysema (a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). One way to detect SHS exposure is to measure the concentration of cotinine, the primary metabolite of nicotine, in bodily fluids. We have developed a method for cotinine analysis by combining micellar electrokinetic chromatography with enrichment techniques. We employed the method to measure cotinine concentrations in serum samples of mice exposed to tobacco smoke for 12 or 24 weeks and found that it was 3.1-fold or 4.8-fold higher than those exposed to room air for the same period. Further, we investigated the morphological changes in lungs of mice and observed tobacco smoke induced emphysema. Our results indicate that the method can be used to measure cotinine and there is an association between the serum cotinine concentration and tobacco smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  13. Cigarette smoke induces β2-integrin-dependent neutrophil migration across human endothelium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking induces peripheral inflammatory responses in all smokers and is the major risk factor for neutrophilic lung disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on neutrophil migration and on β2-integrin activation and function in neutrophilic transmigration through endothelium. Methods and results Utilizing freshly isolated human PMNs, the effect of cigarette smoke on migration and β2-integrin activation and function in neutrophilic transmigration was studied. In this report, we demonstrated that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) dose dependently induced migration of neutrophils in vitro. Moreover, CSE promoted neutrophil adherence to fibrinogen. Using functional blocking antibodies against CD11b and CD18, it was demonstrated that Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is responsible for the cigarette smoke-induced firm adhesion of neutrophils to fibrinogen. Furthermore, neutrophils transmigrated through endothelium by cigarette smoke due to the activation of β2-integrins, since pre-incubation of neutrophils with functional blocking antibodies against CD11b and CD18 attenuated this transmigration. Conclusion This is the first study to describe that cigarette smoke extract induces a direct migratory effect on neutrophils and that CSE is an activator of β2-integrins on the cell surface. Blocking this activation of β2-integrins might be an important target in cigarette smoke induced neutrophilic diseases. PMID:21651795

  14. Delivery by Cesarean Section and Early Childhood Respiratory Symptoms and Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Maria C.; Håberg, Siri E.; Stigum, Hein; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J.; Vangen, Siri; Nystad, Wenche

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that children delivered by cesarean section are at an increased risk of developing wheezing and asthma. This could be the result of an altered immune system development due to delayed gut colonization or of increased neonatal respiratory morbidity. The authors examined the associations between delivery by cesarean section and the development of wheezing, asthma, and recurrent lower respiratory tract infections in children up to 36 months of age among 37,171 children in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Generalized linear models were used in the multivariable analysis. Children delivered by cesarean section had an increased likelihood of current asthma at 36 months of age (relative risk = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.32), and the association was stronger among children of nonatopic mothers (relative risk = 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.58). No increased risk of wheezing or recurrent lower respiratory tract infections was seen among children delivered by cesarean section. Findings were similar among children delivered by acute and elective cesarean section. In conclusion, children delivered by cesarean section may have an increased risk of current asthma at 36 months, but residual confounding cannot be excluded. In future prospective studies, investigators should reexamine this association in different age groups. PMID:22038100

  15. Toward Primary Prevention of Asthma. Reviewing the Evidence for Early-Life Respiratory Viral Infections as Modifiable Risk Factors to Prevent Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy S.; He, Yuan; Moore, Martin L.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2015-01-01

    A first step in primary disease prevention is identifying common, modifiable risk factors that contribute to a significant proportion of disease development. Infant respiratory viral infection and childhood asthma are the most common acute and chronic diseases of childhood, respectively. Common clinical features and links between these diseases have long been recognized, with early-life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) being strongly associated with increased asthma risk. However, there has long been debate over the role of these respiratory viruses in asthma inception. In this article, we systematically review the evidence linking early-life RSV and RV LRTIs with asthma inception and whether they could therefore be targets for primary prevention efforts. PMID:25369458

  16. A population-based prospective cohort study examining the influence of early-life respiratory tract infections on school-age lung function and asthma.

    PubMed

    van Meel, Evelien R; den Dekker, Herman T; Elbert, Niels J; Jansen, Pauline W; Moll, Henriëtte A; Reiss, Irwin K; de Jongste, Johan C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Duijts, Liesbeth

    2018-02-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections could affect airway obstruction and increase asthma risk in later life. However, results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of early-life respiratory tract infections with lung function and asthma in school-aged children. This study among 5197 children born between April 2002 and January 2006 was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study. Information on physician-attended upper and lower respiratory tract infections until age 6 years (categorised into ≤ 3 and >3-6 years) was obtained by annual questionnaires. Spirometry measures and physician-diagnosed asthma were assessed at age 10 years. Upper respiratory tract infections were not associated with adverse respiratory outcomes. Compared with children without lower respiratory tract infections ≤3 years, children with lower respiratory tract infections ≤3 years had a lower FEV 1 , FVC, FEV 1 :FVC and forced expiratory flow at 75% of FVC (FEF 75 ) (Z-score (95% CI): ranging from -0.22 (-0.31 to -0.12) to -0.12 (-0.21 to -0.03)) and an increased risk of asthma (OR (95% CI): 1.79 (1.19 to 2.59)). Children with lower respiratory tract infections >3-6 years had an increased risk of asthma (3.53 (2.37 to 5.17)) only. Results were not mediated by antibiotic or paracetamol use and not modified by inhalant allergic sensitisation. Cross-lagged modelling showed that results were not bidirectional and independent of preschool wheezing patterns. Early-life lower respiratory tract infections ≤3 years are most consistently associated with lower lung function and increased risk of asthma in school-aged children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Early application of airway pressure release ventilation may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongfang; Jin, Xiaodong; Lv, Yinxia; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yunqing; Liang, Guopeng; Wang, Bo; Kang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Experimental animal models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have shown that the updated airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) methodologies may significantly improve oxygenation, maximize lung recruitment, and attenuate lung injury, without circulatory depression. This led us to hypothesize that early application of APRV in patients with ARDS would allow pulmonary function to recover faster and would reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation as compared with low tidal volume lung protective ventilation (LTV). A total of 138 patients with ARDS who received mechanical ventilation for <48 h between May 2015 to October 2016 while in the critical care medicine unit (ICU) of the West China Hospital of Sichuan University were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive APRV (n = 71) or LTV (n = 67). The settings for APRV were: high airway pressure (P high ) set at the last plateau airway pressure (P plat ), not to exceed 30 cmH 2 O) and low airway pressure ( P low ) set at 5 cmH 2 O; the release phase (T low ) setting adjusted to terminate the peak expiratory flow rate to ≥ 50%; release frequency of 10-14 cycles/min. The settings for LTV were: target tidal volume of 6 mL/kg of predicted body weight; P plat not exceeding 30 cmH 2 O; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) guided by the PEEP-FiO 2 table according to the ARDSnet protocol. The primary outcome was the number of days without mechanical ventilation from enrollment to day 28. The secondary endpoints included oxygenation, P plat , respiratory system compliance, and patient outcomes. Compared with the LTV group, patients in the APRV group had a higher median number of ventilator-free days {19 [interquartile range (IQR) 8-22] vs. 2 (IQR 0-15); P < 0.001}. This finding was independent of the coexisting differences in chronic disease. The APRV group had a shorter stay in the ICU (P = 0.003). The ICU mortality rate was 19.7% in the APRV group versus 34.3% in the

  18. Evidence of early systemic activation and transendothelial migration of neutrophils in neonates with severe respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sarafidis, K; Drossou-Agakidou, V; Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou, F; Taparkou, A; Tsakalidis, C; Tsandali, C; Kremenopoulos, G

    2001-03-01

    Several observations imply that the early inflammatory response involving activated neutrophils, tissue macrophages, and cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and progression to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in circulating neutrophil number and function and plasma levels of cytokines, consistent with neutrophil activation and migration to the tissues, occur during the early stages of neonatal RDS. For this purpose we measured peripheral blood levels of certain immunological parameters that promote neutrophil activation and transendothelial migration. Twenty preterm neonates with severe RDS and 20 healthy infants matched for gestational age were the subjects. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and sL-selectin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), neutrophil CD11b expression, and respiratory burst activity (RBA) using flow cytometry, were measured within 24 h after birth. The two groups were comparable regarding perinatal characteristics. None of the neonates studied had any clinical or laboratory evidence of infection by the time of blood sampling. The immunological investigation showed that the RDS neonates had significantly lower ANC (P = 0.032), higher expression of the CD11b on neutrophils (P = 0.0065), and higher G-CSF and IL-6 plasma levels (P = 0.0047 and P < 0.0001, respectively) in comparison to healthy preterm neonates. The neutrophil RBA and plasma sL-selectin levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. We conclude that in neonates with severe RDS, there is evidence of a systemic neutrophil activation early in the course of the disease, supporting the view of a contributing role of activated neutrophils in the pathogenesis of RDS. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Exome sequencing identifies titin mutations causing hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) in families of diverse ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Toro, Camilo; Olivé, Montse; Dalakas, Marinos C; Sivakumar, Kumaraswami; Bilbao, Juan M; Tyndel, Felix; Vidal, Noemí; Farrero, Eva; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; Goldfarb, Lev G

    2013-03-20

    Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) was described in several North European families and recently linked to a titin gene (TTN) mutation. We independently studied HMERF-like diseases with the purpose to identify the cause, refine diagnostic criteria, and estimate the frequency of this disease among myopathy patients of various ethnic origins. Whole exome sequencing analysis was carried out in a large U.S. family that included seven members suffering from skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Subsequent mutation screening was performed in further 45 unrelated probands with similar phenotypes. Studies included muscle strength evaluation, nerve conduction studies and concentric needle EMG, respiratory function test, cardiologic examination, and muscle biopsy. A novel TTN p.Gly30150Asp mutation was identified in the highly conserved A-band of titin that co-segregated with the disease in the U.S. family. Screening of 45 probands initially diagnosed as myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) but excluded based on molecular screening for the known MFM genes led to the identification of a previously reported TTN p.Cys30071Arg mutation in one patient. This same mutation was also identified in a patient with suspected HMERF. The p.Gly30150Asp and p.Cys30071Arg mutations are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin. Missense mutations in TTN are the cause of HMERF in families of diverse origins. A comparison of phenotypic features of HMERF caused by the three known TTN mutations in various populations allowed to emphasize distinct clinical/pathological features that can serve as the basis for diagnosis. The newly identified p.Gly30150Asp and the p.Cys30071Arg mutation are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin.

  20. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Tzong-Shiun; Chung, Jui-Jung; Wang, Chung-Jing; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-02-13

    To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Tea

  1. A prospective study of the severity of early respiratory distress in late preterms compared to term infants.

    PubMed

    Kitsommart, Ratchada; Phatihattakorn, Chayawat; Pornladnun, Pornpat; Paes, Bosco

    2016-01-01

    To compare the severity of early respiratory distress in late preterm (LPT) versus term infants. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care neonatal unit in Thailand. Levels of respiratory support, duration of intubation, and short term morbidities were compared between LPT and term infants. Two-hundred nineteen LPT and 564 term infants were included over a period of 2 years (2009-2011). 106 (48.4%) LPTs versus 58 (10.3%) term infants received non-invasive ventilation or intubation [p < 0.001; OR (95% CI) 8.2 (5.6, 12.0)]. The intubation rate was 24.7% in LPTs versus 7.3% in term infants [p < 0.001; OR (95% CI) 4.18 (2.7, 6.5)]. The duration of intubation was longer in LPT infants (median 5.0 versus 2.0 days. p = 0.03). There was a non-significant trend towards a higher mortality rate in the LPT group [p = 0.14; OR (95% CI) 3.9 (0.7, 23.5)]. This is one of three published prospective studies on the topic. The study design lends more robust credence to the results previously identified only in retrospective and systematic reviews. LPT infants are more likely to require positive-pressure ventilation support and incur a longer duration of intubation. A trend towards greater mortality is prevalent compared to term infants.

  2. An Italian case of hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) not associated with the titin kinase domain R279W mutation.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Monforte, Mauro; Sabatelli, Mario; Biscione, Gian Luca; Piluso, Giulio; Gualandi, Francesca; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Udd, Bjarne; Ricci, Enzo

    2010-11-01

    Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) is a rare disorder characterized by severe respiratory involvement at onset, muscle weakness starting in the early adulthood, and cytoplasmic bodies with peculiar immunohistochemical reactivity on muscle biopsy. Here we describe a patient who presented with hypercapnic coma at age 32. A detailed light and electron microscopy analysis on muscle biopsy was performed and, together with clinical data, led to the diagnosis. The R279W mutation in the TTN gene was excluded. This report expands the geographical region of incidence and encourages additional studies to clarify the genetic heterogeneity of the condition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin E isoform γ-tocotrienol protects against emphysema in cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

    PubMed

    Peh, Hong Yong; Tan, W S Daniel; Chan, Tze Khee; Pow, Chen Wei; Foster, Paul S; Wong, W S Fred

    2017-09-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to emphysema in COPD. Although corticosteroids are the standard of care for COPD, they do not reduce oxidative stress, and a subset of patients is steroid-resistant. Vitamin E isoform γ-tocotrienol possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties that may protect against emphysema. We aimed to establish the therapeutic potential of γ-tocotrienol in cigarette smoke-induced COPD models in comparison with prednisolone. BALB/c mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 weeks or 2 months. γ-Tocotrienol and prednisolone were given orally. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were assessed for inflammation, oxidative damage, and regulation of transcription factor activities. Emphysema and lung function were also evaluated. γ-Tocotrienol dose-dependently reduced cigarette smoke-induced BAL fluid neutrophil counts and levels of cytokines, chemokines and oxidative damage biomarkers, and pulmonary pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant gene expression, but restored lung endogenous antioxidant activities. γ-Tocotrienol acted by inhibiting nuclear translocation of STAT3 and NF-κB, and up-regulating Nrf2 activation in the lungs. In mice exposed to 2-month cigarette smoke, γ-tocotrienol ameliorated bronchial epithelium thickening and destruction of alveolar sacs in lungs, and improved lung functions. In comparison with prednisolone, γ-tocotrienol demonstrated better anti-oxidative efficacy, and protection against emphysema and lung function in COPD. We revealed for the first time the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacies of γ-tocotrienol in cigarette smoke-induced COPD models. In addition, γ-tocotrienol was able to attenuate emphysematous lesions and improve lung function in COPD. γ-Tocotrienol may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of COPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of OSGIN1 in mediating smoking-induced autophagy in the human airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Haixia; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Al-Hijji, Mohammed; Ou, Xuemei; Salit, Jacqueline; Walters, Matthew S; Staudt, Michelle R; Kaner, Robert J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2017-07-03

    Enhanced macroautophagy/autophagy is recognized as a component of the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease. Based on the knowledge that enhanced autophagy is linked to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response, both of which are linked to smoking, we used microarray analysis of the airway epithelium to identify smoking upregulated genes known to respond to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response. This analysis identified OSGIN1 (oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor 1) as significantly upregulated by smoking, in both the large and small airway epithelium, an observation confirmed by an independent small airway microarray cohort, TaqMan PCR of large and small airway samples and RNA-Seq of small airway samples. High and low OSGIN1 expressors have different autophagy gene expression patterns in vivo. Genome-wide correlation of RNAseq analysis of airway basal/progenitor cells showed a direct correlation of OSGIN1 mRNA levels to multiple classic autophagy genes. In vitro cigarette smoke extract exposure of primary airway basal/progenitor cells was accompanied by a dose-dependent upregulation of OSGIN1 and autophagy induction. Lentivirus-mediated expression of OSGIN1 in human primary basal/progenitor cells induced puncta-like staining of MAP1LC3B and upregulation of MAP1LC3B mRNA and protein and SQSTM1 mRNA expression level in a dose and time-dependent manner. OSGIN1-induction of autophagosome, amphisome and autolysosome formation was confirmed by colocalization of MAP1LC3B with SQSTM1 or CD63 (endosome marker) and LAMP1 (lysosome marker). Both OSGIN1 overexpression and knockdown enhanced the smoking-evoked autophagic response. Together, these observations support the concept that smoking-induced upregulation of OSGIN1 is one link between smoking-induced stress and enhanced-autophagy in the human airway epithelium.

  5. Role of chymase in cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary artery remodeling and pulmonary hypertension in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Han, Su-Xia; Zhang, Shang-Fu; Ning, Yun-Ye; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ya-Juan; He, Guang-Ming; Xu, Dan; An, Jin; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Wen, Fu-Qiang

    2010-03-31

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chymase has been shown to function in the enzymatic production of angiotensin II (AngII) and the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to determine the potential role of chymase in cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary artery remodeling and PAH. Hamsters were exposed to cigarette smoke; after 4 months, lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were examined using immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, radioimmunoassay and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Our results show that chronic cigarette smoke exposure significantly induced elevation of right ventricular systolic pressures (RVSP) and medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arterioles in hamsters, concurrent with an increase of chymase activity and synthesis in the lung. Elevated Ang II levels and enhanced TGF-beta1/Smad signaling activation were also observed in smoke-exposed lungs. Chymase inhibition with chymostatin reduced the cigarette smoke-induced increase in chymase activity and Ang II concentration in the lung, and attenuated the RVSP elevation and the remodeling of pulmonary arterioles. Chymostatin did not affect angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hamster lungs. These results suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure can increase chymase activity and expression in hamster lungs. The capability of activated chymase to induce Ang II formation and TGF-beta1 signaling may be part of the mechanism for smoking-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling. Thus, our study implies that blockade of chymase might provide benefits to PAH smokers.

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Alters Postnatal Immunity and Airway Smooth Muscle Contractility during Early-Life Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Terri J.; Agrawal, Vandana; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Rezaee, Fariba; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Maternal viral infections can have pathological effects on the developing fetus which last long after birth. Recently, maternal-fetal transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to cause postnatal airway hyperreactivity (AHR) during primary early-life reinfection; however, the influence of prenatal exposure to RSV on offspring airway immunity and smooth muscle contractility during recurrent postnatal reinfections remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine whether maternal RSV infection impairs specific aspects of cell-mediated offspring immunity during early-life reinfections and the mechanisms leading to AHR. Red fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant RSV (rrRSV) was inoculated into pregnant rat dams at midterm, followed by primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV inoculations of their offspring at early-life time points. Pups and weanlings were tested for specific lower airway leukocyte populations by flow cytometry; serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations by multiplex ELISA and neurotrophins concentrations by standard ELISA; and ex vivo lower airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction by physiological tissue bath. Pups born to RSV-infected mothers displayed elevated total CD3+ T cells largely lacking CD4+ and CD8+ surface expression after both primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV infection. Cytokine/chemokine analyses revealed reduced IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-18, and TNF-α, as well as elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) expression. Prenatal exposure to RSV also increased ASM reactivity and contractility during early-life rrRSV infection compared to non-exposed controls. We conclude that maternal RSV infection can predispose offspring to postnatal lower airways dysfunction by altering immunity development, NGF signaling, and ASM contraction during early-life RSV reinfections. PMID:28178290

  7. The upper respiratory pyramid: early factors and later treatment utilization in World Trade Center exposed firefighters.

    PubMed

    Niles, Justin K; Webber, Mayris P; Liu, Xiaoxue; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B; Cohen, Hillel W; Glaser, Michelle S; Weakley, Jessica; Schwartz, Theresa M; Weiden, Michael D; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K; Glass, Lara; Kelly, Kerry J; Prezant, David J

    2014-08-01

    We investigated early post 9/11 factors that could predict rhinosinusitis healthcare utilization costs up to 11 years later in 8,079 World Trade Center-exposed rescue/recovery workers. We used bivariate and multivariate analytic techniques to investigate utilization outcomes; we also used a pyramid framework to describe rhinosinusitis healthcare groups at early (by 9/11/2005) and late (by 9/11/2012) time points. Multivariate models showed that pre-9/11/2005 chronic rhinosinusitis diagnoses and nasal symptoms predicted final year healthcare utilization outcomes more than a decade after WTC exposure. The relative proportion of workers on each pyramid level changed significantly during the study period. Diagnoses of chronic rhinosinusitis within 4 years of a major inhalation event only partially explain future healthcare utilization. Exposure intensity, early symptoms and other factors must also be considered when anticipating future healthcare needs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Upper Respiratory Pyramid: Early Factors and Later Treatment Utilization in World Trade Center Exposed Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Niles, Justin K.; Webber, Mayris P.; Liu, Xiaoxue; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Glaser, Michelle S.; Weakley, Jessica; Schwartz, Theresa M.; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Glass, Lara; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated early post 9/11 factors that could predict rhinosinusitis healthcare utilization costs up to 11 years later in 8,079 World Trade Center-exposed rescue/recovery workers. Methods We used bivariate and multivariate analytic techniques to investigate utilization outcomes; we also used a pyramid framework to describe rhinosinusitis healthcare groups at early (by 9/11/2005) and late (by 9/11/2012) time points. Results Multivariate models showed that pre-9/11/2005 chronic rhinosinusitis diagnoses and nasal symptoms predicted final year healthcare utilization outcomes more than a decade after WTC exposure. The relative proportion of workers on each pyramid level changed significantly during the study period. Conclusions Diagnoses of chronic rhinosinusitis within 4 years of a major inhalation event only partially explain future healthcare utilization. Exposure intensity, early symptoms and other factors must also be considered when anticipating future healthcare needs. PMID:24898816

  9. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, effortful control, and parenting as predictors of children's sympathy across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Zoe E; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children's sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children's effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children's sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children's subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children's effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children's sympathy.

  10. Sudden unexpected death owing to unilateral medial medullary infarction with early involvement of the respiratory center.

    PubMed

    Hata, Yukiko; Yoshida, Koji; Kinoshita, Koshi; Nishida, Naoki

    2014-05-01

    A 64-year-old woman was found dead in her home. At autopsy, although relatively fresh bruises were found on her body, no lethal injury was observed in an internal observation. Mild edematous swelling of the right half of the medulla oblongata was observed. There was acute medial medullary infarction (MMI), which mainly involved the nucleus hypoglossi, medial lemniscus, hypoglossal root, inferior olivary nucleus, and pyramidal tract. Subacute infarction of the lower part of the cerebellum was also found, and severe atherosclerosis of the right vertebral artery containing thrombi was found as the culprit lesion. Immunohistochemistry using amyloid precursor protein (APP) was positive in neuronal tissue in the nucleus ambiguus, despite not showing coagulative necrosis in the nucleus. Therefore, acute ischemic necrosis of the nucleus ambiguus, which is considered to be a component of the dorsal respiratory group, may be a significant finding for her expected death. Immunohistochemistry of APP may be useful for confirming the precise extent of acute ischemia in brain stem infarction, such as unilateral MMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early stabilizing alveolar ventilation prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome: a novel timing-based ventilatory intervention to avert lung injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shreyas; Sadowitz, Benjamin; Andrews, Penny; Gatto, Louis A; Marx, William; Ge, Lin; Wang, Guirong; Lin, Xin; Dean, David A; Kuhn, Michael; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Joshua; Snyder, Kathy; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary; Habashi, Nader

    2012-08-01

    Established acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often refractory to treatment. Clinical trials have demonstrated modest treatment effects, and mortality remains high. Ventilator strategies must be developed to prevent ARDS. Early ventilatory intervention will block progression to ARDS if the ventilator mode (1) maintains alveolar stability and (2) reduces pulmonary edema formation. Yorkshire pigs (38-45 kg) were anesthetized and subjected to a "two-hit" ischemia-reperfusion and peritoneal sepsis. After injury, animals were randomized into two groups: early preventative ventilation (airway pressure release ventilation [APRV]) versus nonpreventative ventilation (NPV) and followed for 48 hours. All animals received anesthesia, antibiotics, and fluid or vasopressor therapy as per the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Titrated for optimal alveolar stability were the following ventilation parameters: (1) NPV group--tidal volume, 10 mL/kg + positive end-expiratory pressure - 5 cm/H2O volume-cycled mode; (2) APRV group--tidal volume, 10 to 15 mL/kg; high pressure, low pressure, time duration of inspiration (Thigh), and time duration of release phase (Tlow). Physiological data and plasma were collected throughout the 48-hour study period, followed by BAL and necropsy. APRV prevented the development of ARDS (p < 0.001 vs. NPV) by PaO₂/FIO₂ ratio. Quantitative histological scoring showed that APRV prevented lung tissue injury (p < 0.001 vs. NPV). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed that APRV lowered total protein and interleukin 6 while preserving surfactant proteins A and B (p < 0.05 vs. NPV). APRV significantly lowered lung water (p < 0.001 vs. NPV). Plasma interleukin 6 concentrations were similar between groups. Early preventative mechanical ventilation with APRV blocked ARDS development, preserved surfactant proteins, and reduced pulmonary inflammation and edema despite systemic inflammation similar to NPV. These data suggest that early preventative ventilation

  12. Evaluation of whole cigarette smoke induced oxidative stress in A549 and BEAS-2B cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shimin; Li, Xiang; Xie, Fuwei; Liu, Kejian; Liu, Huimin; Xie, Jianping

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex and oxidative aerosol. Previous researches on the hazards of cigarette smoke mainly focused on the adverse bioeffects induced by its condensates or gas vapor phase, which ignored the dynamic processes of smoking and the cigarette smoke aging. To overcome these disadvantages, we performed air-liquid interface exposure of whole smoke, which used native and unmodified smoke and ensured the exposure similar to physiological inhalation. Our results indicated that whole cigarette smoke induced lung epithelial cells (A549) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) damages in cytotoxicity assays (methyl thiazoly tetrazolium and neutral red uptake assays). In addition, A549 and BEAS-2B cells showed oxidative damages in whole smoke exposure, with concentration change of several biomarkers (reduced and oxidized glutathione, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxyhydroxy-2-nonenal, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine). These results indicate that whole smoke-induced oxidative stress occurs in two different kinds of cells at air-liquid interface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A new experimental model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in Wistar rats*, **

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Rodrigo de las Heras; Alves, Edson Marcelino; Barbosa-de-Oliveira, Valter Abraão; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenorio Quirino dos Santos; Guardia, Renan Cenize; Buzo, Henrique Vivi; de Faria, Carolina Arruda; Yamashita, Camila; Cavazzana, Manzelio; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: the cigarette smoke group, comprising 12 rats exposed to smoke from 12 commercial filter cigarettes three times a day (a total of 36 cigarettes per day) every day for 30 weeks; and the control group, comprising 12 rats exposed to room air three times a day every day for 30 weeks. Lung function was assessed by mechanical ventilation, and emphysema was morphometrically assessed by measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm). RESULTS: The mean weight gain was significantly (approximately ten times) lower in the cigarette smoke group than in the control group. The Lm was 25.0% higher in the cigarette smoke group. There was a trend toward worsening of lung function parameters in the cigarette smoke group. CONCLUSIONS: The new murine model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and the methodology employed in the present study are effective and reproducible, representing a promising and economically viable option for use in studies investigating the pathophysiology of and therapeutic approaches to COPD. PMID:24626269

  14. Automated graphic assessment of respiratory activity is superior to pulse oximetry and visual assessment for the detection of early respiratory depression during therapeutic upper endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargo, John J; Zuccaro, Gregory; Dumot, John A; Conwell, Darwin L; Morrow, J Brad; Shay, Steven S

    2002-06-01

    Recommendations from the American Society of Anesthesiologists suggest that monitoring for apnea using the detection of exhaled carbon dioxide (capnography) is a useful adjunct in the assessment of ventilatory status of patients undergoing sedation and analgesia. There are no data on the utility of capnography in GI endoscopy, nor is the frequency of abnormal ventilatory activity during endoscopy known. The aims of this study were to determine the following: (1) the frequency of abnormal ventilatory activity during therapeutic upper endoscopy, (2) the sensitivity of observation and pulse oximetry in the detection of apnea or disordered respiration, and (3) whether capnography provides an improvement over accepted monitoring techniques. Forty-nine patients undergoing therapeutic upper endoscopy were monitored with standard methods including pulse oximetry, automated blood pressure measurement, and visual assessment. In addition, graphic assessment of respiratory activity with sidestream capnography was performed in all patients. Endoscopy personnel were blinded to capnography data. Episodes of apnea or disordered respiration detected by capnography were documented and compared with the occurrence of hypoxemia, hypercapnea, hypotension, and the recognition of abnormal respiratory activity by endoscopy personnel. Comparison of simultaneous respiratory rate measurements obtained by capnography and by auscultation with a pretracheal stethoscope verified that capnography was an excellent indicator of respiratory rate when compared with the reference standard (auscultation) (r = 0.967, p < 0.001). Fifty-four episodes of apnea or disordered respiration occurred in 28 patients (mean duration 70.8 seconds). Only 50% of apnea or disordered respiration episodes were eventually detected by pulse oximetry. None were detected by visual assessment (p < 0.0010). Apnea/disordered respiration occurs commonly during therapeutic upper endoscopy and frequently precedes the development

  15. Lung Metabolic Activation as an Early Biomarker of the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Local Gene Expression Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Wellman, Tyler J.; de Prost, Nicolas; Tucci, Mauro; Winkler, Tilo; Baron, Rebecca M.; Filipczak, Piotr; Raby, Benjamin; Chu, Jen-hwa; Harris, R. Scott; Musch, Guido; dos Reis Falcao, Luiz F.; Capelozzi, Vera; Venegas, Jose; Melo, Marcos F. Vidal

    2016-01-01

    Background The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory condition comprising diffuse lung edema and alveolar damage. ARDS frequently results from regional injury mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether detectable inflammation precedes lung edema and opacification, and whether topographically differential gene expression consistent with heterogeneous injury occurs in early ARDS. We aimed to determine the temporal relationship between pulmonary metabolic activation and density in a large animal model of early ARDS, and to assess gene expression in differentially activated regions. Methods We produced ARDS in sheep with intravenous LPS (10ng/kg/h) and mechanical ventilation for 20h. Using positron emission tomography, we assessed regional cellular metabolic activation with 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose, perfusion and ventilation with 13NN-saline, and aeration using transmission scans. Species-specific micro-array technology was used to assess regional gene expression. Results Metabolic activation preceded detectable increases in lung density (as required for clinical diagnosis) and correlated with subsequent histological injury, suggesting its predictive value for severity of disease progression. Local time-courses of metabolic activation varied, with highly perfused and less aerated dependent lung regions activated earlier than non-dependent regions. These regions of distinct metabolic trajectories demonstrated differential gene expression for known and potential novel candidates for ARDS pathogenesis. Conclusions Heterogeneous lung metabolic activation precedes increases in lung density in the development of ARDS due to endotoxemia and mechanical ventilation. Local differential gene expression occurs in these early stages and reveals molecular pathways relevant to ARDS biology and of potential use as treatment targets. PMID:27611185

  16. Smoking induces long-lasting effects through a monoamine-oxidase epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Launay, Jean-Marie; Del Pino, Muriel; Chironi, Gilles; Callebert, Jacques; Peoc'h, Katell; Mégnien, Jean-Louis; Mallet, Jacques; Simon, Alain; Rendu, Francine

    2009-11-23

    Postulating that serotonin (5-HT), released from smoking-activated platelets could be involved in smoking-induced vascular modifications, we studied its catabolism in a series of 115 men distributed as current smokers (S), never smokers (NS) and former smokers (FS) who had stopped smoking for a mean of 13 years. 5-HT, monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) activities and amounts were measured in platelets, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA)--the 5-HT/MAO catabolite--in plasma samples. Both platelet 5-HT and plasma 5-HIAA levels were correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular Framingham relative risk (P<0.01), but these correlations became non-significant after adjustment for smoking status, underlining that the determining risk factor among those taken into account in the Framingham risk calculation was smoking. Surprisingly, the platelet 5-HT content was similar in S and NS but lower in FS with a parallel higher plasma level of 5-HIAA in FS. This was unforeseen since MAO-B activity was inhibited during smoking (P<0.00001). It was, however, consistent with a higher enzyme protein concentration found in S and FS than in NS (P<0.001). It thus appears that MAO inhibition during smoking was compensated by a higher synthesis. To investigate the persistent increase in MAO-B protein concentration, a study of the methylation of its gene promoter was undertaken in a small supplementary cohort of similar subjects. We found that the methylation frequency of the MAOB gene promoter was markedly lower (P<0.0001) for S and FS vs. NS due to cigarette smoke-induced increase of nucleic acid demethylase activity. This is one of the first reports that smoking induces an epigenetic modification. A better understanding of the epigenome may help to further elucidate the physiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction. The results could have a larger impact than cardiovascular damage, considering that MAO-dependent 5-HT catabolism is also involved in

  17. Smoking-Induced Upregulation of AKR1B10 Expression in the Airway Epithelium of Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Guoqing; Ricard, Megan J.; Ferris, Barbara; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Salit, Jacqueline; Hackett, Neil R.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) gene superfamily codes for monomeric, soluble reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent oxidoreductases that mediate elimination reactions. AKR1B10, an AKR that eliminates retinals, has been observed as upregulated in squamous metaplasia and non-small cell lung cancer and has been suggested as a diagnostic marker specific to tobacco-related carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that upregulation of AKR1B10 expression may be initiated in healthy smokers prior to the development of evidence of lung cancer. Methods: Expression of AKR1B10 was assessed at the mRNA level using microarrays with TaqMan confirmation in the large airway epithelium (21 healthy nonsmokers, 31 healthy smokers) and small airway epithelium (51 healthy nonsmokers, 58 healthy smokers) obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and brushing. Results: Compared with healthy nonsmokers, AKR1B10 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in both large and small airway epithelia of healthy smokers. Consistent with the mRNA data, AKR1B10 protein was significantly upregulated in the airway epithelium of healthy smokers as assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, with AKR1B10 expressed in both differentiated and basal cells. Finally, cigarette smoke extract mediated upregulation of AKR1B10 in airway epithelial cells in vitro, and transfection of AKR1B10 into airway epithelial cells enhanced the conversion of retinal to retinol. Conclusions: Smoking per se mediates upregulation of AKR1B10 expression in the airway epithelia of healthy smokers with no evidence of lung cancer. In the context of these observations and the link of AKR1B10 to the metabolism of retinals and to lung cancer, the smoking-induced upregulation of AKR1B10 may be an early process in the multiple events leading to lung cancer. PMID:20705797

  18. Impact of an early respiratory care programme with non-invasive ventilation adaptation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vitacca, M; Montini, A; Lunetta, C; Banfi, P; Bertella, E; De Mattia, E; Lizio, A; Volpato, E; Lax, A; Morini, R; Paneroni, M

    2018-03-01

    Forced vital capacity (FVC) <80% is one of the key indications for starting non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It was hypothesized that a very early start of NIV could lengthen the free interval before death compared to later-start NIV; as a secondary outcome, the survival rate of patients on NIV without tracheotomy was also evaluated. This retrospective study was conducted on 194 ALS patients, divided into a later group (LG) with FVC <80% at NIV prescription (n = 129) and a very early group (VEG) with FVC ≥80% at NIV prescription (n = 65). Clinical and respiratory functional data and time free to death between groups over a 3-year follow-up were compared. At 36 months from diagnosis, mortality was 35% for the VEG versus 52.7% for the LG (P = 0.022). Kaplan-Meier survival curves adjusted for tracheotomy showed a lower probability of death (P = 0.001) for the VEG as a whole (P = 0.001) and for the non-bulbar (NB) subgroup (P = 0.007). Very early NIV was protective of survival for all patients [hazard ratio (HR) 0.45; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-0.74; P = 0.001] and for the NB subgroup (HR 0.43; 95% CI 0.23-0.79; P = 0.007), whilst a tracheotomy was protective for all patients (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.15-0.50; P = 0.000) and both NB (HR 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.56; P = 0.001) and bulbar subgroups (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.11-0.77; P = 0.013). Survival in VEG patients on NIV without tracheotomy was three times that for the LG (43.1% vs. 14.7%). Very early NIV prescription prolongs the free time from diagnosis to death in NB ALS patients whilst tracheotomy reduces the mortality risk in all patients. © 2017 EAN.

  19. γδ T Cells Regulate the Early Inflammatory Response to Bordetella pertussis Infection in the Murine Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Zachariadis, O.; Cassidy, J. P.; Brady, J.; Mahon, B. P.

    2006-01-01

    The role of γδ T cells in the regulation of pulmonary inflammation following Bordetella pertussis infection was investigated. Using a well-characterized murine aerosol challenge model, inflammatory events in mice with targeted disruption of the T-cell receptor δ-chain gene (γδ TCR−/− mice) were compared with those in wild-type animals. Early following challenge with B. pertussis, γδ TCR−/− mice exhibited greater pulmonary inflammation, as measured by intra-alveolar albumin leakage and lesion histomorphometry, yet had lower contemporaneous bacterial lung loads. The larger numbers of neutrophils and macrophages and the greater concentration of the neutrophil marker myeloperoxidase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from γδ TCR−/− mice at this time suggested that differences in lung injury were mediated through increased leukocyte trafficking into infected alveoli. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis found the pattern of recruitment of natural killer (NK) and NK receptor+ T cells into airspaces differed between the two mouse types over the same time period. Taken together, these findings suggest a regulatory influence for γδ T cells over the early pulmonary inflammatory response to bacterial infection. The absence of γδ T cells also influenced the subsequent adaptive immune response to specific bacterial components, as evidenced by a shift from a Th1 to a Th2 type response against the B. pertussis virulence factor filamentous hemagglutinin in γδ TCR−/− mice. The findings are relevant to the study of conditions such as neonatal B. pertussis infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome where γδ T cell dysfunction has been implicated in the inflammatory process. PMID:16495558

  20. Genetic Ablation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Causes Cigarette Smoke-induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Rico de Souza, Angela; Zago, Michela; Pollock, Stephen J.; Sime, Patricia J.; Phipps, Richard P.; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alterations in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation are involved in the etiology of COPD. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells are sensitive to the oxidative properties of cigarette smoke, and whose loss may precipitate the development of COPD. Fibroblasts express the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor that attenuates pulmonary inflammation and may also regulate apoptosis. We hypothesized the AhR would prevent apoptosis caused by cigarette smoke. Using genetically deleted in vitro AhR expression models and an established method of cigarette smoke exposure, we report that AhR expression regulates fibroblasts proliferation and prevents morphological features of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation caused by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Absence of AhR expression results in cleavage of PARP, lamin, and caspase-3. Mitochondrial dysfunction, including cytochrome c release, was associated with loss of AhR expression, indicating activation of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Heightened sensitivity of AhR-deficient fibroblasts was not the result of alterations in GSH, Nrf2, or HO-1 expression. Instead, AhR−/− cells had significantly less MnSOD and CuZn-SOD expression, enzymes that protects against oxidative stress. The ability of the AhR to suppress apoptosis was not restricted to fibroblasts, as siRNA-mediated knockdown of the AhR in lung epithelial cells also increased sensitivity to smoke-induced apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that cigarette smoke induced loss of lung structural support (i.e. fibroblasts, epithelial cells) caused by aberrations in AhR expression may explain why some smokers develop lung diseases such as COPD. PMID:21984831

  1. Cigarette smoke induces an unfolded protein response in the human lung: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Steven G; Duan, Xunbao; Ji, Rong; Perez, Oscar; Liu, Chunli; Merali, Salim

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking, which exposes the lung to high concentrations of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent studies indicate that ROS interfere with protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum and elicit a compensatory response termed the "unfolded protein response" (UPR). The importance of the UPR lies in its ability to alter expression of a variety of genes involved in antioxidant defense, inflammation, energy metabolism, protein synthesis, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. The present study used comparative proteomic technology to test the hypothesis that chronic cigarette smoking induces a UPR in the human lung. Studies were performed on lung tissue samples obtained from three groups of human subjects: nonsmokers, chronic cigarette smokers, and ex-smokers. Proteomes of lung samples from chronic cigarette smokers demonstrated 26 differentially expressed proteins (20 were up-regulated, 5 were down-regulated, and 1 was detected only in the smoking group) compared with nonsmokers. Several UPR proteins were up-regulated in smokers compared with nonsmokers and ex-smokers, including the chaperones, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and calreticulin; a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); and enzymes involved in antioxidant defense. In cultured human airway epithelial cells, GRP78 and the UPR-regulated basic leucine zipper, transcription factors, ATF4 and Nrf2, which enhance expression of important anti-oxidant genes, increased rapidly (< 24 h) with cigarette smoke extract. These data indicate that cigarette smoke induces a UPR response in the human lung that is rapid in onset, concentration dependent, and at least partially reversible with smoking cessation. We speculate that activation of a UPR by cigarette smoke may protect the lung from oxidant injury and the development of COPD.

  2. Free and nanoencapsulated curcumin prevents cigarette smoke-induced cognitive impairment and redox imbalance.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Jeandre Augusto dos Santos; Doleski, Pedro Henrique; Castilhos, Lívia Gelain; da Rosa, Michelle Melgarejo; Souza, Viviane do Carmo Gonçalves; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; Marisco, Patrícia; Thorstenberg, Maria Luiza Prates; Rezer, João Felipe Peres; Ruchel, Jader Betch; Coradini, Karine; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Rubin, Maribel Antonello; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoke-exposure promotes neurobiological changes associated with neurocognitive abnormalities. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol, have shown to be able to prevent cigarette smoke-induced cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated possible mechanisms involved in curcumin protection against cigarette smoke-induced cognitive impairment and, due to its poor bioavailability, we investigated the potential of using curcumin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (C-LNC) suspension. Rats were treated with curcumin and cigarette smoke, once a day, 5 days each week, for 30 days. Animals were divided into ten groups: I, control (vehicle/corn oil); II, curcumin 12.5mg/kg; III, curcumin 25mg/kg; IV, curcumin 50mg/kg; V, C-LNC 4 mg/kg; VI, tobacco exposed; VII, curcumin 12.5mg/kg along with tobacco exposure; VIII, curcumin 25mg/kg along with tobacco exposure; IX, curcumin 50mg/kg along with tobacco exposure; X, C-LNC 4 mg/kg along with tobacco exposure. Cigarette smoke-exposure impaired object recognition memory (P<0.001), indicated by the low recognition index, increased biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress such as TBARS (P<0.05) and NOx (P<0.01), decreased antioxidant defenses such as NPSH content (P<0.01) and SOD activity (P<0.01) and inhibited the activities of enzymes involved in ion homeostasis such as Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase. Both curcumin formulations (free and nanoencapsulated) prevented the memory impairment, the redox imbalance and the alterations observed in the ATPases activities. Maintenance of ion homeostasis and redox balance is involved in the protective mechanism of curcumin against tobacco-induced cognitive impairment. Our results suggest that curcumin is a potential therapeutic agent for neurocognition and that C-LNC may be an alternative to its poor bioavailability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical evaluation of burns to the human respiratory tract due to inhalation of hot gas in the early stage of fires.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yong-Gang; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jun

    2006-06-01

    A transient two-dimensional mathematical model for heat and water vapor transport across the respiratory tract of human body was established and applied to predict the thermal impact of inhaled hot gas to the nasal tissues during the early stage of fires. Influences of individual's physiological status and environment variables were comprehensively investigated through numerical calculations. Burn evaluation was performed using the classical Henriques model to predict the time for thermal injury to occur. It was shown that decreasing the air velocity and increasing the respiratory rate is helpful to minimize the burn over the respiratory tract. The effect of relative humidity of surrounding dry hot air could be ignored in predicting burns for short duration exposures. Due to evaporation cooling on the mucousal membrane, the burn often occurs at certain positions underneath the skin of the tract near the inlet of the respiratory tract. Most of the tissues near the surface suffer injury immediately after exposure to fire, while in the deeper tissues, serious damage occurs after a relatively longer time period. The method presented in this paper may suggest a valuable approach to theoretically evaluate the injury of hot air to the human respiratory tract under various fire situations.

  4. Cigarette smoking induces heat shock protein 70 kDa expression and apoptosis in rat brain: Modulation by bacoside A.

    PubMed

    Anbarasi, K; Kathirvel, G; Vani, G; Jayaraman, G; Shyamala Devi, C S

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with the development of several diseases and antioxidants play a major role in the prevention of smoking-related diseases. Apoptosis is suggested as a possible contributing factor in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced toxicity. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the influence of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on apoptosis and the modulatory effect of bacoside A (triterpenoid saponin isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera) on smoking-induced apoptosis in rat brain. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were exposed to cigarette smoke and simultaneously administered with bacoside A (10 mg/kg b.w./day, orally) for a period of 12 weeks. Expression of brain hsp70 was analyzed by Western blotting. Apoptosis was identified by DNA fragmentation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy uridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that exposure to cigarette smoke induced hsp70 expression and apoptosis as characterized by DNA laddering, increased TUNEL-positive cells and ultrastructural apoptotic features in the brain. Administration of bacoside A prevented expression of hsp70 and neuronal apoptosis during cigarette smoking. We speculate that apoptosis may be responsible for the smoking-induced brain damage and bacoside A can protect the brain from the toxic effects of cigarette smoking.

  5. Immunoregulation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Chronic Cigarette Smoking-Induced Lung Inflammation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junyan; Cao, Jing; Ma, Lijuan; Xu, Jianying

    2015-01-01

    Impact of bone mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transfusion on chronic smoking-induced lung inflammation is poorly understood. In this study, a rat model of smoking-related lung injury was induced and the rats were treated with vehicle or BMSCs for two weeks. Different subsets of CD4+ T cells, cytokines, and anti-elastin in the lungs as well as the lung injury were characterized. Serum and lung inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and STAT5 phosphorylation in lymphocytes from lung tissue were also analyzed. Results indicated that transfusion of BMSCs significantly reduced the chronic smoking-induced lung injury, inflammation, and levels of lung anti-elastin in rats. The frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells and the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IP-10, and MCP-1 increased, but the frequency of Tregs and IL-10 decreased. Transfusion of BMSCs significantly modulated the imbalance of immune responses by mitigating chronic smoking-increased Th1 and Th17 responses, but enhancing Treg responses in the lungs of rats. Transfusion of BMSCs limited chronic smoking-related reduction in the levels of serum and lung iNOS and mitigated smoking-induced STAT5 phosphorylation in lymphocytes from lung tissue. BMSCs negatively regulated smoking-induced autoimmune responses in the lungs of rats and may be promising for the intervention of chronic smoking-related lung injury. PMID:26665150

  6. Beta-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    In epidemiologic studies, high intake of beta-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among current smokers. However, data are not available from well-controlled animal studies to examine the effects of beta-cryptoxanthin on cigarette smoke-induced lung ...

  7. Early-life residential exposure to soil components in rural areas and childhood respiratory health and allergy.

    PubMed

    Devereux, Graham; Tagiyeva, Nara; Turner, Stephen W; Ayres, Jon G; Seaton, Anthony; Hudson, Gordon; Hough, Rupert L; Campbell, Colin D; Shand, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The increase in asthma and allergies has been attributed to declining exposure to environmental microorganisms. The main source of these is soil, the composition of which varies geographically and which is a major component (40-45%) of household dust. Our hypothesis-generating study aimed to investigate associations between soil components, respiratory health and allergy in a Scottish birth cohort. The cohort was recruited in utero in 1997/8, and followed up at one, two and five years for the development of wheezing, asthma and eczema. Lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and allergic sensitization were measured at age five in a subset. The Scottish Soils Database held at The James Hutton Institute was linked to the birth cohort data by the residential postcode at birth and five years. The soil database contained information on size separates, organic matter concentration, pH and a range of inorganic elements. Soil and clinical outcome data were available for 869, 790 and 727 children at one, two and five years. Three hundred and fifty nine (35%) of children had the same address at birth and five years. No associations were found between childhood outcomes and soil content in the residential area at age five. The soil silt content (2-20 μm particle size) of the residential area at birth was associated with childhood wheeze (adjusted OR 1.20, 95% CI [1.05; 1.37]), wheeze without a cold (1.41 [1.18; 1.69]), doctor-diagnosed asthma (1.54 [1.04; 2.28]), lung function (FEV1: beta -0.025 [-0.047;-0.001]) and airway inflammation (FENO: beta 0.15 [0.03; 0.27]) at age five, but not with allergic status or eczema. Whilst residual confounding is the most likely explanation for the associations reported, the results of this study lead us to hypothesise that early life exposure to residential soil silt may adversely influence childhood respiratory health, possibly because of the organic components of silt. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Respiratory acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ventilatory failure; Respiratory failure; Acidosis - respiratory ... Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Diseases of the airways (such as asthma and COPD ) Diseases of the lung tissue (such as ...

  9. Nedocromil sodium reduces cigarette smoke-induced bronchoconstrictor hyperresponsiveness to substance P in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Dusser, D J; Lacroix, H; Desmazes-Dufeu, N; Mordelet-Dambrine, M; Roisman, G L

    1995-01-01

    Acute exposure to cigarette smoke provokes airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P and inactivates neutral endopeptidase (NEP). To determine whether nedocromil sodium can prevent cigarette smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P, we studied two groups of anaesthetized guinea-pigs. One group of guinea-pigs was pretreated with aerosolized 0.9% NaCl solution (90 breaths), the other group was pretreated with aerosolized nedocromil sodium (10(-4) M, 90 breaths). In each animal, pretreatment was followed by either exposure to the smoke of one cigarette or exposure to air. After acute exposure to cigarette smoke or to air, we measured the change in total pulmonary resistance (RL) induced by increasing concentrations of aerosolized substance P. In the absence of nedocromil sodium, the bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P were greater in cigarette smoke-exposed guinea-pigs than in air-exposed animals. Aerosolized nedocromil sodium had no effect on the response to substance P in air-exposed animals, but it reduced cigarette smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P. The preventive effect on cigarette smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P was observed at concentrations of aerosolized nedocromil sodium of 3 x 10(-5), 10(-4), and 3 x 10(-4) M. In vitro, cigarette smoke solution inhibited NEP activity from lung membrane preparations, but this inhibitory effect was not modified by nedocromil sodium (10(-4) M). We conclude that aerosolized nedocromil sodium reduces cigarette smoke-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P in vivo. This action of nedocromil sodium is not due to a protective effect on cigarette smoke-induced inactivation of NEP in vitro.

  10. Relationship between the Use of Inhaled Steroids for Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Early Outcomes in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Jordi; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Hospital, Imma; Carandell, Eugenia; Agustí, Mercè; Ayuso, Pilar; Estela, Andreu; Torres, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. Methods Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality). Results Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%). In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002) in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787). This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542), with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194), but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027). Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. Conclusions Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis. PMID:24039899

  11. Early identification of patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome among severe pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Yu, He; Hu, Yue-Hong; Liu, Dan; Wang, Yi-Wei; Wang, Mao-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Background Severe pneumonia is the predominant cause for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Identification of ARDS from patients with severe pneumonia remains a significant clinical problem due to the overlap of clinical presentations and symptoms. Early recognition of risks for ARDS from severe pneumonia is of great clinical value. Methods From April 2014 to December 2015, patients with severe pneumonia at admission were retrieved from the hospital database, of which ARDS developed within 7 days were further identified. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics at admission between severe pneumonia patients with and without ARDS development, followed by analysis of potential predictors for ARDS development and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to screen independent risk factors and identify their sensitivity in predicting ARDS development and prognosis. Results Compared with severe pneumonia without ARDS development, patients with ARDS development had shorter disease duration before admission, higher lung injury score (LIS), serum fibrinogen (FiB), and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), lower Marshall score, sequential organ failure assessment score and proportion of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases, but similar mortality. Serum FiB >5.15 g/L [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.893, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.141–3.142, P=0.014] and PEEP >6.5 cmH2O (adjusted OR 1.651, 95% CI: 1.218–2.237, P=0.001) were independent predictors for ARDS development with a sensitivity of 58.3% and 87.5%, respectively, and pH <7.35 (adjusted OR 0.832, 95% CI: 0.702–0.985, P=0.033) was an independent risk factor for ARDS mortality with a sensitivity of 95.2%. Conclusions ARDS development risk could be early recognized by PEEP >6.5 cmH2O and serum FiB >5.15 g/L in severe pneumonia patients, and pH <7.35 is a reliable prognostic factor in predicting ARDS mortality risk

  12. Early food allergy and respiratory allergy symptoms and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Chinese children: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Shen, Chun; Dai, Yuan; Jiang, Fan; Li, Shenghui; Shen, Xiaoming; Hu, Yan; Li, Fei

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between food allergy and respiratory allergy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is rarely investigated. The objective of this study was to determine whether early food allergy and respiratory allergy symptoms are associated with the prevalence of ADHD in Chinese school-age children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children using cluster-stratified methods from 9 cities across China between November and December 2005. A family and social environmental questionnaire including the diagnosis history of ADHD and allergic diseases (food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and bronchial asthma), as well as general information, was completed by parents. The prevalence of both allergic rhinitis (20.4%) and asthma (11.6%) in the food allergy group was significantly higher than in the non-food allergy group (9.0% and 2.8%, respectively; both P < .001). The multivariable analysis showed that single food allergy (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.13-2.05, P = .005), food allergy complicated with allergic rhinitis or asthma (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.19-5.14, P < .001), and food allergy complicated with allergic rhinitis and asthma simultaneously (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.05-8.11, P < .001) were independently associated with the increased risk of ADHD. Early food allergy is associated with ADHD in school-age children. Early food allergy and respiratory allergy symptoms independently and synergistically contributed to higher risk of ADHD. Monitoring food allergy in early life could help in the early prediction and intervention for the consequent allergy march and ADHD in children. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  13. Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on active and healthy ageing. A debate at the European Union Parliament.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, J; Tanasescu, C C; Camuzat, T; Anto, J M; Blasi, F; Neou, A; Palkonen, S; Papadopoulos, N G; Antunes, J P; Samolinski, B; Yiallouros, P; Zuberbier, T

    2013-01-01

    A debate at the European Union Parliament was held on 13 November 2012 on the Impact of early diagnosis and control of chronic respiratory diseases on Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA). The debate was held under the auspices of the Cyprus Presidency of the European Union (2012) and represents a follow-up of the priorities of the Polish Presidency of the European Union (2011). It highlighted the importance of early life events on the occurrence of chronic respiratory diseases later in life and their impact on active and healthy ageing. Epidemiologic evidence was followed by actions that should be taken to prevent and manage chronic respiratory diseases in children. The debate ended by practical, feasible and achievable projects, demonstrating the strength of the political action in the field. Three projects will be initiated from this debate: The first will be a meeting sponsored by the Région Languedoc-Roussillon on the developmental origins of chronic diseases and ageing: from research to policies and value creation. The second project is being led by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Asthma and Rhinitis: Prevention of Asthma, Prevention of Allergy (PAPA). The third project is the GA(2)LEN sentinel network. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Atorvastatin and Simvastatin Promoted Mouse Lung Repair After Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Vanessa; Melo, Adriana Correa; Kennedy-Feitosa, Emanuel; Graca-Reis, Adriane; Barroso, Marina Valente; Cattani-Cavalieri, Isabella; Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Zin, Walter Araújo; Porto, Luis Cristóvão; Gitirana, Lycia Brito; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel Santos

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) induces pulmonary emphysema by inflammation, oxidative stress, and metalloproteinase (MMP) activation. Pharmacological research studies have not focused on tissue repair after the establishment of emphysema but have instead focused on inflammatory stimulation. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin on mouse lung repair after emphysema caused by CS. Male mice (C57BL/6, n = 45) were divided into the following groups: control (sham-exposed), CSr (mice exposed to 12 cigarettes a day for 60 days and then treated for another 60 days with the vehicle), CSr+A (CSr mice treated with atorvastatin for 60 days), and CSr+S (CSr mice treated with simvastatin for 60 days). The treatment with atorvastatin and simvastatin was administered via inhalation (15 min with 1 mg/mL once a day). Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the completion of the 120-day experimental procedure. We performed biochemical, morphological, and physiological analyses. We observed decreased levels of leukocytes and cytokines in statin-treated mice, accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress markers. We also observed a morphological improvement confirmed by a mean linear intercept counting in statin-treated mice. Finally, statins also ameliorated lung function. We conclude that inhaled atorvastatin and simvastatin improved lung repair after cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice.

  15. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of surfactant treatment (Curosurf®) in respiratory distress syndrome therapy in preterm infants: early treatment compared to late treatment.

    PubMed

    Dani, Carlo; Ravasio, Roberto; Fioravanti, Leonardo; Circelli, Maria

    2014-05-02

    The best criteria for surfactant treatment in the perinatal period are unknown and this makes it of interest to consider the possible economic implications of lessening the use of more restrictive criteria. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the costs of respiratory care for preterm infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) treated with "early rescue" surfactant compared to a "late rescue" strategy. The study was carried out applying the costs of materials used, of staff and pharmacological therapy calculated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of an Italian hospital to the Verder et al. study (Pediatrics 1999) clinical data. The cost for patients treated with early strategy was slightly lower than for patients treated with late strategy (Euro 4,901.70 vs. Euro 4,960.07). The cost of treatment with surfactant was greater in the early group (Euro 458.49 vs. Euro 311.74), but this was compensated by the greater cost of treatment with Mechanical Ventilation (MV) in the late group (respectively Euro 108.85 vs. Euro 259.25). The cost-effectiveness analysis performed in this study shows how early treatment with surfactant in preterm infants with RDS, as well as being clinically more effective, is associated with a slightly lower cost.

  16. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of surfactant treatment (Curosurf®) in respiratory distress syndrome therapy in preterm infants: early treatment compared to late treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The best criteria for surfactant treatment in the perinatal period are unknown and this makes it of interest to consider the possible economic implications of lessening the use of more restrictive criteria. Objective The objective of this study is the evaluation of the costs of respiratory care for preterm infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) treated with "early rescue" surfactant compared to a "late rescue" strategy. Methods The study was carried out applying the costs of materials used, of staff and pharmacological therapy calculated in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of an Italian hospital to the Verder et al. study (Pediatrics 1999) clinical data. Results The cost for patients treated with early strategy was slightly lower than for patients treated with late strategy (Euro 4,901.70 vs. Euro 4,960.07). The cost of treatment with surfactant was greater in the early group (Euro 458.49 vs. Euro 311.74), but this was compensated by the greater cost of treatment with Mechanical Ventilation (MV) in the late group (respectively Euro 108.85 vs. Euro 259.25). Conclusions The cost-effectiveness analysis performed in this study shows how early treatment with surfactant in preterm infants with RDS, as well as being clinically more effective, is associated with a slightly lower cost. PMID:24886906

  17. Vasoprotective effects of resveratrol and SIRT1: attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and proinflammatory phenotypic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Csiszar, Anna; Labinskyy, Nazar; Podlutsky, Andrej; Kaminski, Pawel M.; Wolin, Michael S.; Zhang, Cuihua; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Pacher, Pal; Hu, Furong; de Cabo, Rafael; Ballabh, Praveen; Ungvari, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    The dietary polyphenolic compound resveratrol, by activating the protein deacetylase enzyme silent information regulator 2/sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), prolongs life span in evolutionarily distant organisms and may mimic the cytoprotective effects of dietary restriction. The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of resveratrol on cigarette smoke-induced vascular oxidative stress and inflammation, which is a clinically highly relevant model of accelerated vascular aging. Cigarette smoke exposure of rats impaired the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of carotid arteries, which could be prevented by resveratrol treatment. Smoking and in vitro treatment with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) increased reactive oxygen species production in rat arteries and cultured coronary arterial endothelial cells (CAECs), respectively, which was attenuated by resveratrol treatment. The smoking-induced upregulation of inflammatory markers (ICAM-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-6, and TNF-α) in rat arteries was also abrogated by resveratrol treatment. Resveratrol also inhibited CSE-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory gene expression in CAECs. In CAECs, the aforementioned protective effects of resveratrol were abolished by knockdown of SIRT1, whereas the overexpression of SIRT1 mimicked the effects of resveratrol. Resveratrol treatment of rats protected aortic endothelial cells against cigarette smoking-induced apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol also exerted antiapoptotic effects in CSE-treated CAECs, which could be abrogated by knockdown of SIRT1. Resveratrol treatment also attenuated CSE-induced DNA damage in CAECs (comet assay). Thus resveratrol and SIRT1 exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects, which protect the endothelial cells against the adverse effects of cigarette smoking-induced oxidative stress. The vasoprotective effects of resveratrol will likely contribute to its anti-aging action in mammals and may be especially beneficial in patho

  18. Aberrant epithelial differentiation by cigarette smoke dysregulates respiratory host defence.

    PubMed

    Amatngalim, Gimano D; Schrumpf, Jasmijn A; Dishchekenian, Fernanda; Mertens, Tinne C J; Ninaber, Dennis K; van der Linden, Abraham C; Pilette, Charles; Taube, Christian; Hiemstra, Pieter S; van der Does, Anne M

    2018-04-01

    It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence.Localisation of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface, and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks exposed daily to whole cigarette smoke. Gene expression, protein levels and epithelial cell markers were subsequently assessed. In addition, functional activities and persistence of the cigarette smoke-induced effects upon cessation were determined.Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor and long and short PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone protein) was restricted to luminal cells and exposure of differentiating PBECs to cigarette smoke resulted in a selective reduction of the expression of these luminal cell-restricted respiratory host defence proteins compared to controls. This reduced expression was a consequence of cigarette smoke-impaired end-stage differentiation of epithelial cells, and accompanied by a significant decreased transepithelial transport of IgA and bacterial killing.These findings shed new light on the importance of airway epithelial cell differentiation in respiratory host defence and could provide an additional explanation for the increased susceptibility of smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to respiratory infections. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  19. A computer-aided audit system for respiratory therapy consult evaluations: description of a method and early results.

    PubMed

    Kester, Lucy; Stoller, James K

    2013-05-01

    Use of respiratory therapist (RT)-guided protocols enhances allocation of respiratory care. In the context that optimal protocol use requires a system for auditing respiratory care plans to assure adherence to protocols and expertise of the RTs generating the care plan, a live audit system has been in longstanding use in our Respiratory Therapy Consult Service. Growth in the number of RT positions and the need to audit more frequently has prompted development of a new, computer-aided audit system. The number and results of audits using the old and new systems were compared (for the periods May 30, 2009 through May 30, 2011 and January 1, 2012 through May 30, 2012, respectively). In contrast to the original, live system requiring a patient visit by the auditor, the new system involves completion of a respiratory therapy care plan using patient information in the electronic medical record, both by the RT generating the care plan and the auditor. Completing audits in the new system also uses an electronic respiratory therapy management system. The degrees of concordance between the audited RT's care plans and the "gold standard" care plans using the old and new audit systems were similar. Use of the new system was associated with an almost doubling of the rate of audits (ie, 11 per month vs 6.1 per month). The new, computer-aided audit system increased capacity to audit more RTs performing RT-guided consults while preserving accuracy as an audit tool. Ensuring that RTs adhere to the audit process remains the challenge for the new system, and is the rate-limiting step.

  20. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of oxygen in the blood, it's called hypoxemic (HI-pok-SE-mik) respiratory failure. When respiratory failure ... carbon dioxide in the blood, it's called hypercapnic (HI-per-KAP-nik) respiratory failure. Causes Diseases and ...

  1. Respiratory alkalosis

    MedlinePlus

    Alkalosis - respiratory ... leads to shortness of breath can also cause respiratory alkalosis (such as pulmonary embolism and asthma). ... Treatment is aimed at the condition that causes respiratory alkalosis. Breathing into a paper bag -- or using ...

  2. Differential Susceptibility and the Early Development of Aggression: Interactive Effects of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Environmental Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Liew, Jeffrey; Sallquist, Julie; Popp, Tierney K.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Hart, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to predict the development of aggressive behavior from young children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and environmental quality. In a longitudinal sample of 213 children, baseline RSA, RSA suppression in response to a film of crying babies, and a composite measure of environmental quality (incorporating…

  3. Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Cigarette Smoke-induced Murine Myelosuppression via TSG-6

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jie; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Feng, Dongni; Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Yi, Ru; Cook, Todd G.; Chitteti, Brahmananda R.; Barwinska, Daria; Traktuev, Dmitry O.; Van Demark, Mary J.; Justice, Matthew J.; Ou, Xuan; Srour, Edward F.; Prockop, Darwin J.; Petrache, Irina; March, Keith L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSC/HPC) are critical to homeostasis and tissue repair. The aims of this study were to delineate the myelotoxicity of cigarette smoking (CS) in a murine model, to explore human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC) as a novel approach to mitigate this toxicity, and to identify key mediating factors for ASC activities. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CS with or without i.v. injection of regular or siRNA-transfected hASC. For in vitro experiments, cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was used to mimic the toxicity of CS exposure. Analysis of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) were performed both by flow cytometry and colony forming unit assays. Results In this study, we demonstrate that as few as three days of CS exposure result in marked cycling arrest and diminished clonogenic capacity of HPC, followed by depletion of phenotypically-defined HSC/HPC. Intravenous injection of hASC substantially ameliorated both acute and chronic CS-induced myelosuppression. This effect was specifically dependent on the anti-inflammatory factor TSG-6, which is induced from xenografted hASC, primarily located in the lung and capable of responding to host inflammatory signals. Gene expression analysis within bone marrow HSC/HPC revealed several specific signaling molecules altered by CS and normalized by hASC. Conclusion Our results suggest that systemic administration of hASC or TSG-6 may be novel approaches to reverse cigarette smoking-induced myelosuppression. PMID:25329668

  4. Proteomic differences with and without ozone-exposure in a smoking-induced emphysema lung model

    PubMed Central

    Uh, Soo-Taek; Koo, So-My; Jang, An Soo; Park, Sung Woo; Choi, Jae Sung; Kim, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be related to air pollution, of which ozone is an important constituent. In this study, we investigated the protein profiles associated with ozone-induced exacerbations in a smoking-induced emphysema model. Methods Mice were divided into the following groups: group I, no smoking and no ozone (NS + NO); group II, no smoking and ozone (NS + O); group III, smoking and no ozone (S + NO); and group IV, smoking and ozone (S + O). Bronchoalveolar lavage, the mean linear intercept (MLI) on hematoxylin and eosin staining, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and Western blotting analyses were performed. Results The MLIs of groups III (S + NO) and IV (S + O) (45 ± 2 and 44 ± 3 µm, respectively) were significantly higher than those of groups I (NS + NO) and II (NS + O) (26 ± 2 and 23 ± 2 µm, respectively; p < 0.05). Fourteen spots that showed significantly different intensities on image analyses of two-dimensional (2D) protein electrophoresis in group I (NS + NO) were identified by LC-MS/MS. The levels of six proteins were higher in group IV (S + O). The levels of vimentin, lactate dehydrogenase A, and triose phosphate isomerase were decreased by both smoking and ozone treatment in Western blotting and proteomic analyses. In contrast, TBC1 domain family 5 (TBC1D5) and lamin A were increased by both smoking and ozone treatment. Conclusions TBC1D5 could be a biomarker of ozone-induced lung injury in emphysema. PMID:25589837

  5. Smoking Induces Oropharyngeal Narrowing and Increases the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jun Hee; Park, Sung Yoon; Won, Ho-Ryun; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is a known risk factor for snoring, and is reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this was to determine the relationship of smoking to the severity of OSAS and examine what local histological changes in the uvular mucosa of OSAS patients might influence this relationship. Study Design and Methods: Fifty-seven OSAS subjects were included and classified according to smoking history and OSAS severity. Twenty-eight subjects were heavy smokers and 29 were nonsmokers; these 57 patients were divided according to moderate or severe OSAS. Histologic changes in the uvular mucosa were evaluated in all subjects as well as smoking duration and OSAS severity. Results: Among smokers, moderate-to-severe OSAS was more common, and apnea, hypopnea, and oxygen desaturation indices were higher. Moreover, smoking duration and OSAS severity were significantly correlated. Increased thickness and edema of the uvular mucosa lamina propria were observed in moderate and severe OSAS patients, and only smokers had significant changes in uvular mucosa histology. Positive staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a neuroinflammatory marker for peripheral nerves, was increased in the uvular mucosa of smokers. Conclusions: Our results suggest that smoking may worsen OSAS through exacerbation of upper airway collapse at the level of the uvula, and that histological changes of the uvular mucosa correlated with smoking might be due to increased CGRP-related neurogenic inflammation. Citation: Kim KS; Kim JH; Park SY; Won HR; Lee HJ; Yang HS; Kim HJ. Smoking induces oropharyngeal narrowing and increases the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):367-374. PMID:22893766

  6. The MAP kinase JNK2 mediates cigarette smoke-induced arterial thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Alexander; Stämpfli, Simon F; Reiner, Martin F; Shi, Yi; Keller, Stephan; Akhmedov, Alexander; Schaub Clerigué, Ariane; Spescha, Remo D; Beer, Hans-Jürg; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C; Camici, Giovanni G

    2017-01-05

    Despite public awareness of its deleterious effects, smoking remains a major cause of death. Indeed, it is a risk factor for atherothrombotic complications and in line with this, the introduction of smoking ban in public areas reduced smoking-associated cardiovascular complications. Nonetheless, smoking remains a major concern, and molecular mechanisms by which it causes cardiovascular disease are not known. Peripheral blood monocytes from healthy smokers displayed increased JNK2 and tissue factor (TF) gene expression compared to non-smokers (n=15, p<0.05). Similarly, human aortic endothelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (CS-TPM) revealed increased TF expression mediated by JNK2 (n=4; p<0.05). Wild-type and JNK2 -/- mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for two weeks after which arterial thrombosis was investigated. Wild-type mice exposed to smoke displayed reduced time to thrombotic arterial occlusion (n=8; p<0.05) and increased tissue factor activity (n=7; p<0.05) as compared to wild-type controls (n=6), while JNK2 -/- mice exposed to smoke maintained an unaltered thrombotic potential (n=8; p=NS) and tissue factor activity (n=8) comparable to that of JNK2 -/- and wild-type controls (n=6; p=NS). Smoking caused an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in wild-type but not in JNK2 -/- mice (n=7; p<0.05 for wild-type mice and n=5-6; p=NS for JNK2 -/- mice). In conclusion, the MAP kinase JNK2 mediates cigarette smoke-induced TF activation, arterial thrombosis and ROS production. These results underscore a major role of JNK2 in smoke-mediated thrombus formation and may offer an attractive target to prevent smoke-related thrombosis in those subjects which do not manage quitting.

  7. TLR9 expression is required for the development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice

    PubMed Central

    Foronjy, Robert F.; Salathe, Matthias A.; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Baumlin, Nathalie; Cummins, Neville; Eden, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, a pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes unmethylated CpG sequences in microbial DNA molecules, is linked to the pathogenesis of several lung diseases. TLR9 expression and signaling was investigated in animal and cell models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We observed enhanced TLR9 expression in mouse lungs following exposure to cigarette smoke. Tlr9−/− mice were resistant to cigarette smoke-induced loss of lung function as determined by mean linear intercept, total lung capacity, lung compliance, and tissue elastance analysis. Tlr9 expression also regulated smoke-mediated immune cell recruitment to the lung; apoptosis; expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), the CXCL5 protein, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity in the lung. PTP1B, a phosphatase with anti-inflammatory abilities, was identified as binding to TLR9. In vivo delivery of a TLR9 agonist enhanced TLR9 binding to PTP1B, which inactivated PTP1B. Ptp1b−/− mice had elevated lung concentrations of G-CSF, CXCL5, and MMP-2, and tissue expression of type-1 interferon following TLR9 agonist administration, compared with wild-type mice. TLR9 responses were further determined in fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells isolated from nonsmoker, smoker, and COPD donors, and then cultured at air liquid interface. NHBE cells from smokers and patients with COPD expressed more TLR9 and secreted greater levels of G-CSF, IL-6, CXCL5, IL-1β, and MMP-2 upon TLR9 ligand stimulation compared with cells from nonsmoker donors. Although TLR9 combats infection, our results indicate that TLR9 induction can affect lung function by inactivating PTP1B and upregulating expression of proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:27288485

  8. Tobacco-smoking induced GPR15-expressing T cells in blood do not indicate pulmonary damage.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Mario; Fink, Beate; Seyfarth, Hans-Jürgen; Wirtz, Hubert; Frille, Armin

    2017-11-28

    Recently, it was shown that chronic tobacco smoking evokes specific cellular and molecular changes in white blood cells by an excess of G protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15)-expressing T cells as well as a hypomethylation at DNA CpG site cg05575921 in granulocytes. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the general usefulness of these two biomarkers as putative signs of non-cancerous change in homeostasis of the lungs. In a clinical cohort consisting of 42 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease (ILD) and pneumonia and a control cohort of 123 volunteers, the content of GPR15-expressing blood cells as well as the degree of methylation at cg05575921 were analysed by flow-cytometry and pyrosequencing, respectively. Smoking behaviour was estimated by questionnaire and cotinine level in plasma. Never-smoking patients could be distinguished from former and current smokers by both the proportion of GPR15-expressing T cells as well as cg05575921 methylation in granulocytes, with 100% and 97% specificity and 100% sensitivity, respectively. However, both parameters were not affected by lung diseases. The degrees of both parameters were not changed neither in non-smoking nor smoking patients, compared to appropriate control cohorts of volunteers. The degree of GPR15-expressing cells among T cells as well as the methylation at cg05575921 in granulocytes in blood are both rather signs of tobacco-smoking induced systemic inflammation because they don't indicate specifically non-cancerous pathological changes in the lungs.

  9. Src mediates cigarette smoke-induced resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cells.

    PubMed

    Filosto, Simone; Baston, David S; Chung, Samuel; Becker, Cathleen R; Goldkorn, Tzipora

    2013-08-01

    The EGF receptor (EGFR) is a proto-oncogene commonly dysregulated in several cancers including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and, thus, is targeted for treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as erlotinib. However, despite the efficacy observed in patients with NSCLC harboring oncogenic variants of the EGFR, general ineffectiveness of TKIs in patients with NSCLC who are current and former smokers necessitates identification of novel mechanisms to overcome this phenomenon. Previously, we showed that NSCLC cells harboring either wild-type (WT) EGFR or oncogenic mutant (MT) L858R EGFR become resistant to the effects of TKIs when exposed to cigarette smoke, evidenced by their autophosphorylation and prolonged downstream signaling. Here, we present Src as a target mediating cigarette smoke-induced resistance to TKIs in both WT EGFR- and L858R MT EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells. First, we show that cigarette smoke exposure of A549 cells leads to time-dependent activation of Src, which then abnormally binds to the WT EGFR causing TKI resistance, contrasting previous observations of constitutive binding between inactive Src and TKI-sensitive L858R MT EGFR. Next, we show that Src inhibition restores TKI sensitivity in cigarette smoke-exposed NSCLC cells, preventing EGFR autophosphorylation in the presence of erlotinib. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of a dominant-negative Src (Y527F/K295R) restores TKI sensitivity to A549 exposed to cigarette smoke. Importantly, the TKI resistance that emerges even in cigarette smoke-exposed L858R EGFR-expressing NSCLC cells could be eliminated with Src inhibition. Together, these findings offer new rationale for using Src inhibitors for treating TKI-resistant NSCLC commonly observed in smokers.

  10. Respiratory constraints during activities in daily life and the impact on health status in patients with early-stage COPD: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    van Helvoort, Hanneke Ac; Willems, Laura M; Dekhuijzen, Pn Richard; van Hees, Hieronymus Wh; Heijdra, Yvonne F

    2016-10-13

    In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exercise capacity is reduced, resulting over time in physical inactivity and worsened health status. It is unknown whether ventilatory constraints occur during activities of daily life (ADL) in early stages of COPD. The aim of this study was to assess respiratory mechanics during ADL and to study its consequences on dyspnoea, physical activity and health status in early-stage COPD compared with healthy controls. In this cross-sectional study, 39 early-stage COPD patients (mean FEV 1 88±s.d. 12% predicted) and 20 controls performed 3 ADL: climbing stairs, vacuum cleaning and displacing groceries in a cupboard. Respiratory mechanics were measured during ADL. Physical activity was measured with accelerometry. Health status was assessed by the Nijmegen Clinical Screening Instrument. Compared with controls, COPD patients had greater ventilatory inefficiency and higher ventilatory requirements during ADL (P<0.05). Dyspnoea scores were increased in COPD compared with controls (P<0.001). During ADL, >50% of the patients developed dynamic hyperinflation in contrast to 10-35% of the controls. Higher dyspnoea was scored by patients with dynamic hyperinflation. Physical activity was low but comparable between both groups. From the patients, 55-84% experienced mild-to-severe problems in health status compared with 5-25% of the controls. Significant ventilatory constraints already occur in early-stage COPD patients during common ADL and result in increased dyspnoea. Physical activity level is not yet reduced, but many patients already experience limitations in health status. These findings reinforce the importance of early diagnosis of COPD and assessment of more than just spirometry.

  11. Analysis of the influence of respiratory disorders observed in preoperative spirometry on the dynamics of early inflammatory response in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Szylińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Mariusz J; Rotter, Iwona; Rył, Aleksandra; Biskupski, Andrzej; Brykczyński, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Background Preoperative spirometry provides measurable information about the occurrence of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association between preoperative spirometry abnormalities and the intensification of early inflammatory responses in patients following coronary artery bypass graft in extracorporeal circulation. Material and methods The study involved 810 patients (625 men and 185 women) aged 65.4±7.9 years who were awaiting isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. On the basis of spirometry performed on the day of admittance to the hospital, the patients were divided into three groups. Patients without respiratory problems constituted 78.8% of the entire group. Restricted breathing was revealed by spirometry in 14.9% and obstructive breathing in 6.3% of patients. Results Inter-group analysis showed statistically significant differences in C-reactive protein (CRP) between patients with restrictive spirometry abnormalities and patients without any pulmonary dysfunction. CRP concentrations differed before surgery (P=0.006) and on the second (P<0.001), fourth (P=0.005) and sixth days after surgery (P=0.029). There was a negative correlation between CRP levels and FEV1. Conclusion In our study, the most common pulmonary disorders in the coronary artery bypass graft patients were restrictive. Patients with abnormal spirometry results from restrictive respiratory disorders have an elevated level of generalized inflammatory response both before and after the isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Therefore, this group of patients should be given special postoperative monitoring and, in particular, intensive respiratory rehabilitation immediately after reconstitution. PMID:28769557

  12. Early Detection of Peak Demand Days of Chronic Respiratory Diseases Emergency Department Visits Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Krishan L; Tamil, Lakshman S

    2018-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), affect the lives of people by limiting their activities in various aspects. Overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to respiratory diseases in certain weather and environmental pollution conditions results in the degradation of quality of medical care, and even limits its availability. A useful tool for ED managers would be to forecast peak demand days so that they can take steps to improve the availability of medical care. In this paper, we developed an artificial neural network based classifier using multilayer perceptron with back propagation algorithm that predicts peak event (peak demand days) of patients with respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and COPD visiting EDs in Dallas County of Texas in the United States. The precision and recall for peak event class were 77.1% and 78.0%, respectively, and those for nonpeak events were 83.9% and 83.2%, respectively. The overall accuracy of the system is 81.0%.

  13. Early consumption of human milk oligosaccharides is inversely related to subsequent risk of respiratory and enteric disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Stepans, Mary Beth Flanders; Wilhelm, Susan L; Hertzog, Melody; Rodehorst, T Kim Callahan; Blaney, Susan; Clemens, Beth; Polak, Josef J; Newburg, David S

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study tested the relationship between human milk oligosaccharide consumption, oligosaccharide content of feces, and subsequent disease in breastfed infants. Forty-nine (49) mother-infant pairs provided milk and fecal samples 2 weeks postpartum; infant health was assessed through 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. LNF-II (lacto-N-fucopentaose II), a major human milk oligosaccharide, was measured to represent levels of total oligosaccharides consumed in milk and remaining in feces. LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks postpartum were associated with fewer infant respiratory problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.010), as were LNF-II levels in infant feces (p = 0.003). LNF-II levels in milk at 2 weeks were also associated with fewer respiratory problems by 12 weeks (p = 0.038), and fewer enteric problems by 6 weeks (p = 0.004) and 12 weeks (p = 0.045). Thus, consumption of human milk oligosaccharides through breastfeeding, represented by LNF-II, was associated with less reported respiratory and gastrointestinal illness in infants.

  14. Impact of Early Detection of Respiratory Viruses by Multiplex PCR Assay on Clinical Outcomes in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Audrey N.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Calfee, David P.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Wells, Martin T.; Hollenberg, James P.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and definitive diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is imperative in patient triage and management. We compared the outcomes for adult patients with positive tests for respiratory viruses at a tertiary care center across two consecutive influenza seasons (winters of 2010-2011 and 2012). Infections were diagnosed by conventional methods in the first season and by multiplex PCR (FilmArray) in the second season. FilmArray decreased the time to diagnosis of influenza compared to conventional methods (median turnaround times of 1.7 h versus 7.7 h, respectively; P = 0.015); FilmArray also decreased the time to diagnosis of non-influenza viruses (1.5 h versus 13.5 h, respectively; P < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression found that a diagnosis of influenza by FilmArray was associated with significantly lower odds ratios (ORs) for admission (P = 0.046), length of stay (P = 0.040), duration of antimicrobial use (P = 0.032), and number of chest radiographs (P = 0.005), when controlling for potential confounders. We conclude that the rapid turnaround time, multiplex nature of the test (allowing simultaneous detection of an array of viruses), and superior sensitivity of FilmArray may improve the evaluation and management of patients suspected of having respiratory virus infections. PMID:27225406

  15. Associations of gestational and early life exposures to ambient air pollution with childhood respiratory diseases in Shanghai, China: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Chen; Hu, Yu; Fu, Qingyan; Zou, Zhijun; Sun, Chanjuan; Shen, Li; Wang, Xueying; Cai, Jiao; Pan, Jun; Huang, Yanmin; Chang, Jing; Sun, Yuexia; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Associations of ambient air pollutants with respiratory health are inconsistent. We analyzed the associations of gestational and early life exposures to air pollutants with doctor-diagnosed asthma, allergic rhinitis, and pneumonia in children. We selected 3358 preschool children who did not alter residences after birth from a cross-sectional study in 2011-2012 in Shanghai, China. Parents reported children's respiratory health history, home environment, and family lifestyle behaviors. We collected daily concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10) during the child's total lifetime (2006-2012) for each district where the children lived. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression models. After adjusting for covariates and the other studied pollutants, we found that exposure to NO2 (increment of 20μg/m(3)) during the first year of life was significantly associated with asthma [odds ratio (OR)=1.77; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-2.43] and allergic rhinitis (OR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.07-2.61). Exposure to NO2 during gestation, the first two and three years, and over total lifetimewas all consistently associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis. Quartiles of NO2 concentration during different exposure periods showed a slight dose-response relationship with the studied diseases. These diseases had significant associations with pollutant mixtures that included NO2, but had no significant association with exposures to SO2 and PM10 individually or in mixtures. Gestational and early life exposures to ambient NO2 are risk factors for childhood respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  17. Cigarette Smoke Induces Stem Cell Features of Pancreatic Cancer Cells via PAF1.

    PubMed

    Nimmakayala, Rama Krishna; Seshacharyulu, Parthasarathy; Lakshmanan, Imayavaramban; Rachagani, Satyanarayana; Chugh, Seema; Karmakar, Saswati; Rauth, Sanchita; Vengoji, Raghupathy; Atri, Pranita; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Lele, Subodh M; Smith, Lynette M; Thapa, Ishwor; Bastola, Dhundy; Ouellette, Michel M; Batra, Surinder K; Ponnusamy, Moorthy P

    2018-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Aggressive pancreatic tumors contain cancer cells with stem cell features. We investigated whether cigarette smoke induces stem cell features in pancreatic cancer cells. Kras G12D ; Pdx1-Cre (KC) mice were exposed to cigarette smoke or clean air (controls) for up to 20 weeks; pancreata were collected and analyzed by histology, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. HPNE and Capan1 cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), nicotine and nicotine-derived carcinogens (NNN or NNK), or clean air (controls) for 80 days and evaluated for stem cell markers and features using flow cytometry-based autofluorescence, sphere formation, and immunoblot assays. Proteins were knocked down in cells with small interfering RNAs. We performed RNA sequencing analyses of CSE-exposed cells. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation assays to confirm the binding of FOS like 1, AP-1 transcription factor subunit (FOSL1) to RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF1) promoter. We obtained pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and matched non-tumor tissues (n=15) and performed immunohistochemical analyses. Chronic exposure of HPNE and Capan1 cells to CSE caused them to increase markers of stem cells, including autofluorescence and sphere formation, compared to control cells. These cells increased expression of ABCG2, SOX9 and PAF1, via cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7 subunit (CHRNA7) signaling to mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and FOSL1. Pancreatic cell lines with knockdown of PAF1 did not develop features of stem cells upon exposure to CSE. Exposure of cells to NNN and NNK led to increased expression of CHRNA7, FOSL1, and PAF1 along with stem cell features. Pancreata from KC mice exposed to cigarette smoke had increased levels of PAF1 mRNA and protein, compared with control mice, as well as increased expression of SOX9. Levels of PAF1 and FOSL1 were increased in PDAC

  18. The NF-κB family member RelB regulates microRNA miR-146a to suppress cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression in lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zago, Michela; Rico de Souza, Angela; Hecht, Emelia; Rousseau, Simon; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2014-04-21

    Diseases due to cigarette smoke exposure, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, are associated with chronic inflammation typified by the increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. RelB is an NF-κB family member that suppresses cigarette smoke induction of COX-2 through an unknown mechanism. The ability of RelB to regulate COX-2 expression may be via miR-146a, a miRNA that attenuates COX-2 in lung fibroblasts. In this study we tested whether RelB attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein is due to miR-146a. Utilizing pulmonary fibroblasts deficient in RelB expression, together with siRNA knock-down of RelB, we show the essential role of RelB in diminishing smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression despite robust activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway and subsequent induction of Cox-2 mRNA. RelB did not regulate COX-2 protein expression at the level of mRNA stability. Basal levels of miR-146a were significantly lower in Relb-deficient cells and cigarette smoke increased miR-146a expression only in Relb-expressing cells. Inhibition of miR-146a had no effects on Relb expression or induction of Cox-2 mRNA by cigarette smoke but significantly increased COX-2 protein. These data highlight the potential of a RelB-miR-146a axis as a novel regulatory pathway that attenuates inflammation in response to respiratory toxicants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema and Pulmonary Hypertension Can Be Prevented by Phosphodiesterase 4 and 5 Inhibition in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pichl, Alexandra; Bednorz, Mariola; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Weissmann, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a widespread disease, with no curative therapies available. Recent findings suggest a key role of NO and sGC-cGMP signaling for the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous data suggest a downregulation/inactivation of the cGMP producing soluble guanylate cyclase, and sGC stimulation prevented cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. We thus aimed to investigate if the inhibition of the cGMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 has similar effects. Results were compared to the effects of a PDE 4 inhibitor (cAMP elevating) and a combination of both. Methods C57BL6/J mice were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and in parallel either treated with Tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor), Piclamilast (PDE4 inhibitor) or both. Functional measurements (lung compliance, hemodynamics) and structural investigations (alveolar and vascular morphometry) as well as the heart ratio were determined after 6 months of tobacco smoke exposure. In addition, the number of alveolar macrophages in the respective lungs was counted. Results Preventive treatment with Tadalafil, Piclamilast or a combination of both almost completely prevented the development of emphysema, the increase in lung compliance, tidal volume, structural remodeling of the lung vasculature, right ventricular systolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Single, but not combination treatment prevented or reduced smoke-induced increase in alveolar macrophages. Conclusion Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and PH could be prevented by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in mice. PMID:26058042

  20. Reassessment of the Evidence for Postcranial Skeletal Pneumaticity in Triassic Archosaurs, and the Early Evolution of the Avian Respiratory System

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Richard J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Gower, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Uniquely among extant vertebrates, birds possess complex respiratory systems characterised by the combination of small, rigid lungs, extensive pulmonary air sacs that possess diverticula that invade (pneumatise) the postcranial skeleton, unidirectional ventilation of the lungs, and efficient crosscurrent gas exchange. Crocodilians, the only other living archosaurs, also possess unidirectional lung ventilation, but lack true air sacs and postcranial skeletal pneumaticity (PSP). PSP can be used to infer the presence of avian-like pulmonary air sacs in several extinct archosaur clades (non-avian theropod dinosaurs, sauropod dinosaurs and pterosaurs). However, the evolution of respiratory systems in other archosaurs, especially in the lineage leading to crocodilians, is poorly documented. Here, we use µCT-scanning to investigate the vertebral anatomy of Triassic archosaur taxa, from both the avian and crocodilian lineages as well as non-archosaurian diapsid outgroups. Our results confirm previous suggestions that unambiguous evidence of PSP (presence of internal pneumatic cavities linked to the exterior by foramina) is found only in bird-line (ornithodiran) archosaurs. We propose that pulmonary air sacs were present in the common ancestor of Ornithodira and may have been subsequently lost or reduced in some members of the clade (notably in ornithischian dinosaurs). The development of these avian-like respiratory features might have been linked to inferred increases in activity levels among ornithodirans. By contrast, no crocodile-line archosaur (pseudosuchian) exhibits evidence for unambiguous PSP, but many of these taxa possess the complex array of vertebral laminae and fossae that always accompany the presence of air sacs in ornithodirans. These laminae and fossae are likely homologous with those in ornithodirans, which suggests the need for further investigation of the hypothesis that a reduced, or non-invasive, system of pulmonary air sacs may be have been present

  1. [Effect of early use of different doses of enteral nutrition on prognosis of patients with acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianting; Wang, Qiuyan

    2017-11-01

    To observe the impact of initial low-dose (trophic type) enteral nutrition (EN) support on mechanical ventilation (MV) time, the incidence of complications and survival rate in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). A prospective study was conducted. Forty-four patients with ARF undergoing MV admitted to Department of Critical Care Medicine of Hangzhou Traditional Chinese Medical Hospital from September 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into a trophic feeding group (n = 23, study group) and a standard-dose feeding group (n = 21, control group). In the two groups, the EN support feeding was given to the patients through a nasogastric tube within 24-hour MV for consecutive 7 days, the protein supply to each one of all of them was 1.2-1.6 g×kg -1 ×d -1 . The study group received EN according to non-protein calories of 41.84-83.68 kJ×kg -1 ×d -1 to calculate, while the control group accepted EN according to non-protein calories of 104.60-125.50 kJ×kg -1 ×d -1 to calculate. The serum albumin (Alb) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured in two groups 1 day before EN treatment and at 1, 2, 3, 7 days of treatment, and the energy levels in initial 3 days and 7 days of MV and the 24-hour urine creatinine (UCr) level on the 7th day after treatment were recorded. The creatinine-height index (CHI, CHI = actual UCr/standard UCr) was calculated. The incidence of intestinal intolerance (vomiting, gastric retention, diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding, etc.) in 7 days of treatment, MV time, the length of stay in ICU, the total length of stay in the hospital and the 28-day incidence of new infections (pulmonary, hematogenous, urinary, abdominal, and other infections) and 60-day survival rate were observed between the two groups. The EN supplies within 3 days and 7 days in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group [within 3 days (kJ/d): 1 710.58±703.96 vs. 4 152.79±1 334.65, 7 days (kJ/d): 2 471.28

  2. Edaravone attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome associated early pulmonary fibrosis via amelioration of oxidative stress and transforming growth factor-β1/Smad3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xida; Lai, Rongde; Su, Xiangfen; Chen, Guibin; Liang, Zijing

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is responsible for the both short-term and long-term outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). There is still no effective cure to improve prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether edaravone, a free radical scavenger, have anti-fibrosis effects in the rat model of ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Rats were subjected to intravenous injection of LPS, and edaravone was given intraperitoneally after LPS administration daily for 7 consecutive days. LPS treatment rapidly increased lung histopathology abnormalities, coefficient of lung, hydroxyproline and collagen I levels, stimulated myofibroblast differentiation and induced expression of TGF-β1 and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling as early as day 7 after LPS injection. Moreover, LPS intoxication significantly increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas it dramatically decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) activities from day 1 after LPS treatment. On the contrary, edaravone treatment ameliorated LPS-induced myofibroblast differentiation and pulmonary fibrosis, simultaneously, and attenuated LPS-stimulated oxidative stress and activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling. Collectively, edaravone may attenuate ARDS associated early pulmonary fibrosis through amelioration of oxidative stress and TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. Edaravone may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of ARDS-related pulmonary fibrosis in early period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of household cleaning products during pregnancy and lower respiratory tract infections and wheezing during early life.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Zock, Jan Paul; Carsin, Anne Elie; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Esplugues, Ana; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran; Basterrechea, Mikel; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of household use of cleaning products during pregnancy on infant wheezing and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). In four prospective Spanish birth cohorts (n = 2,292), pregnant women reported the use of household cleaning products. When infants were 12-18 months old, current cleaning product use and infant's wheezing and LRTI were reported. Cohort-specific associations between the use of specific products and respiratory outcomes were evaluated using multivariable regression analyses and estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analyses. The period prevalence of LRTI was higher when sprays (combined odds ratio (OR) = 1.29; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.59) or air fresheners (OR = 1.29; CI 1.03-1.63) were used during pregnancy. The odds of wheezing increased with spray (OR = 1.37; CI 1.10-1.69) and solvent (OR = 1.30; CI 1.03-1.62) use. The associations between spray and air freshener use during pregnancy and both outcomes remained apparent when these products were not used after pregnancy. Nevertheless, the estimates were higher when post-natal exposure was included. The use of cleaning sprays, air fresheners and solvents during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheezing and infections in the offspring.

  4. Exercise training attenuated chronic cigarette smoking-induced up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα in lung of rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wan-li; Cai, Peng-cheng; Xiong, Xian-zhi; Ye, Hong

    2013-02-01

    FIZZ/RELM is a new gene family named "found in inflammatory zone" (FIZZ) or "resistin-like molecule" (RELM). FIZZ1/RELMα is specifically expressed in lung tissue and associated with pulmonary inflammation. Chronic cigarette smoking up-regulates FIZZ1/RELMα expression in rat lung tissues, the mechanism of which is related to cigarette smoking-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. To investigate the effect of exercise training on chronic cigarette smoking-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα, rat chronic cigarette smoking model was established. The rats were treated with regular exercise training and their airway responsiveness was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of lung tissues were performed to detect the expression of FIZZ1/RELMα. Results revealed that proper exercise training decreased airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation in rat chronic cigarette smoking model. Cigarette smoking increased the mRNA and protein levels of FIZZ1/RELMα, which were reversed by the proper exercise. It is concluded that proper exercise training prevents up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα induced by cigarette smoking, which may be involved in the mechanism of proper exercise training modulating airway hyperresponsiveness.

  5. Marijuana smoke induces severe pulmonary hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and emphysema in a predictive mouse model not via CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Helyes, Z; Kemény, Á; Csekő, K; Szőke, É; Elekes, K; Mester, M; Sándor, K; Perkecz, A; Kereskai, L; Márk, L; Bona, Á; Benkő, A; Pintér, E; Szolcsányi, J; Ledent, C; Sperlágh, B; Molnár, T F

    2017-08-01

    Sporadic clinical reports suggested that marijuana smoking induces spontaneous pneumothorax, but no animal models were available to validate these observations and to study the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, we performed a systematic study in CD1 mice as a predictive animal model and assessed the pathophysiological alterations in response to 4-mo-long whole body marijuana smoke with integrative methodologies in comparison with tobacco smoke. Bronchial responsiveness was measured with unrestrained whole body plethysmography, cell profile in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with flow cytometry, myeloperoxidase activity with spectrophotometry, inflammatory cytokines with ELISA, and histopathological alterations with light microscopy. Daily marijuana inhalation evoked severe bronchial hyperreactivity after a week. Characteristic perivascular/peribronchial edema, atelectasis, apical emphysema, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration developed after 1 mo of marijuana smoking; lymphocyte accumulation after 2 mo; macrophage-like giant cells, irregular or destroyed bronchial mucosa, goblet cell hyperplasia after 3 mo; and severe atelectasis, emphysema, obstructed or damaged bronchioles, and endothelial proliferation at 4 mo. Myeloperoxidase activity, inflammatory cell, and cytokine profile correlated with these changes. Airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation were not altered in mice lacking the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. In comparison, tobacco smoke induced hyperresponsiveness after 2 mo and significantly later caused inflammatory cell infiltration/activation with only mild emphysema. We provide the first systematic and comparative experimental evidence that marijuana causes severe airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, tissue destruction, and emphysema, which are not mediated by the CB1 receptor. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Autophagy Has a Beneficial Role in Relieving Cigarette Smoke-Induced Apoptotic Death in Human Gingival Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Soo; Yun, Jeong-Won; Park, Jin-Ho; Park, Bong-Wook; Kang, Young-Hoon; Hah, Young-Sool; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Woo, Dong Kyun; Byun, June-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious role of cigarette smoke has long been documented in various human diseases including periodontal complications. In this report, we examined this adverse effect of cigarette smoke on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) which are critical not only in maintaining gingival tissue architecture but also in mediating immune responses. As well documented in other cell types, we also observed that cigarette smoke promoted cellular reactive oxygen species in HGFs. And we found that this cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress reduced HGF viability through inducing apoptosis. Our results indicated that an increased Bax/Bcl-xL ratio and resulting caspase activation underlie the apoptotic death in HGFs exposed to cigarette smoke. Furthermore, we detected that cigarette smoke also triggered autophagy, an integrated cellular stress response. Interesting, a pharmacological suppression of the cigarette smoke-induced autophagy led to a further reduction in HGF viability while a pharmacological promotion of autophagy increased the viability of HGFs with cigarette smoke exposures. These findings suggest a protective role for autophagy in HGFs stressed with cigarette smoke, highlighting that modulation of autophagy can be a novel therapeutic target in periodontal complications with cigarette smoke.

  7. Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the lung of smoking-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Ming; Luo, Li; Guo, Zhen; Yang, Ming; Ye, Ren-Song; Luo, Chuan

    2015-06-01

    To explore the role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke. 48 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (12/group): control group (group A); inhibitor alone group (group B); cigarette induction group (group C); cigarette induction + inhibitor group (group D). After the establishment of smoking-induced PAH rat model, the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was detected using an inserted catheter; western blotting was used to detect the protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); expression levels of angiotensin II (AngII) in lung tissue were measured by radioimmunoassay. After six months of cigarette exposure, the RVSP of chronic cigarette induction group was significantly higher than that of the control group; expression levels of AngII and ACE increased in lung tissues, but ACE2 expression levels reduced. Compared with cigarette exposure group, after losartan treatment, RVSP, ACE and AngII obviously decreased (P<0.05), and ACE2 expression levels significantly increased. Chronic cigarette exposure may result in PAH and affect the protein expression of ACE2 and ACE in lung tissue, suggesting that ACE2 and ACE play an important role in the pathogenesis of smoking-induced PAH. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Applied Early After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting on Pulmonary Function, Respiratory Muscle Strength, and Functional Capacity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Borges, Daniel L; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle; Silva, Luan Nascimento; Fortes, João Vyctor; Costa, Erika Thalita; Assunção, Rebeca Pessoa; Lima, Carlos Magno; da Silva Nina, Vinícius José; Bernardo-Filho, Mário; Caputo, Danúbia Sá

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity is beneficial in several clinical situations and recommended for patients with ischemic heart disease, as well as for those undergoing cardiac surgery. In a randomized controlled trial, 34 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. A randomized control group (n = 15) submitted to conventional physiotherapy. The intervention group (n = 19) received the same protocol plus additional aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function by spirometry, respiratory muscle strength by manovacuometry, and functional capacity through 6-minute walking test was assessed before surgery and at hospital discharge. There was significant reduction in pulmonary function in both groups. In both groups, inspiratory muscle strength was maintained while expiratory muscle strength significantly decreased. Functional capacity was maintained in the intervention group (364.5 [324.5 to 428] vs. 348 [300.7 to 413.7] meters, P = .06), but it decreased significantly in control group patients (320 [288.5 to 393.0] vs. 292 [237.0 to 336.0] meters, P = .01). A significant difference in functional capacity was also found in intergroup analyses at hospital discharge (P = .03). Aerobic exercise applied early on coronary artery bypass grafting patients may promote maintenance of functional capacity, with no impact on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength when compared with conventional physiotherapy.

  9. Respiratory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  10. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  11. Novel SNP array analysis and exome sequencing detect a homozygous exon 7 deletion of MEGF10 causing early onset myopathy, areflexia, respiratory distress and dysphagia (EMARDD)

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, Tyler Mark; Markello, Thomas; Accardi, John; Wolfe, Lynne; Adams, David; Sincan, Murat; Tarazi, Noor M.; Fajardo, Karin Fuentes; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Bajraktari, Ilda; Meilleur, Katy G.; Donkervoort, Sandra; Jain, Mina; Hu, Ying; Lehky, Tanya J.; Cruz, Pedro; Mullikin, James C.; Bonnemann, Carsten; Gahl, William A.; Boerkoel, Cornelius F.; Tifft, Cynthia J.

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset myopathy, areflexia, respiratory distress and dysphagia (EMARDD) is a myopathic disorder associated with mutations in MEGF10. By novel analysis of SNP array hybridization and exome sequence coverage, we diagnosed a 10-year old girl with EMARDD following identification of a novel homozygous deletion of exon 7 in MEGF10. In contrast to previously reported EMARDD patients, her weakness was more prominent proximally than distally, and involved her legs more than her arms. MRI of her pelvis and thighs showed muscle atrophy and fatty replacement. Ultrasound of several muscle groups revealed dense homogenous increases in echogenicity. Cloning and sequencing of the deletion breakpoint identified features suggesting the mutation arose by fork stalling and template switching. These findings constitute the first genomic deletion causing EMARDD, expand the clinical phenotype, and provide new insight into the pattern and histology of its muscular pathology. PMID:23453856

  12. Early-Life Exposure to Outdoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health, Ear Infections, and Eczema in Infants from the INMA Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Marie; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Ballester, Ferran; Basterrechea, Mikel; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. Objectives: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during the first 12–18 months of age in a Spanish birth cohort of 2,199 infants. Methods: We obtained parentally reported information on doctor-diagnosed lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and parental reports of wheezing, eczema, and ear infections. We estimated individual exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene with temporally adjusted land use regression models. We used log-binomial regression models and a combined random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effects of air pollution exposure on health outcomes across the four study locations. Results: A 10-µg/m3 increase in average NO2 during pregnancy was associated with LRTI [relative risk (RR) = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12] and ear infections (RR = 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.41). The RRs for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NO2 were 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.21) for LRTI and 1.31 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.76) for ear infections. Compared with NO2, the association for an IQR increase in average benzene exposure was similar for LRTI (RR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.19) and slightly lower for ear infections (RR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.46). Associations were slightly stronger among infants whose mothers spent more time at home during pregnancy. Air pollution exposure during the first year was highly correlated with prenatal exposure, so we were unable to discern the relative importance of each exposure period. Conclusions: Our findings support the hypothesis that early-life exposure to ambient air pollution may increase the risk of upper and lower respiratory tract infections in infants. PMID:23221880

  13. Smoke-induced microRNA and related proteome alterations. Modulation by chemopreventive agents.

    PubMed

    De Flora, Silvio; Balansky, Roumen; D'Agostini, Francesco; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Steele, Vernon E; Izzotti, Alberto

    2012-12-15

    Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has important consequences on gene and protein expression since a single miRNA targets a number of genes simultaneously. This article provides a review of published data and ongoing studies regarding the effects of cigarette smoke (CS), either mainstream (MCS) or environmental (ECS), on the expression of miRNAs and related proteins. The results generated in mice, rats, and humans provided evidence that exposure to CS results in an intense dysregulation of miRNA expression in the respiratory tract, which is mainly oriented in the sense of downregulation. In parallel, there was an upregulation of proteins targeted by the downregulated miRNAs. These trends reflect an attempt to defend the respiratory tract by means of antioxidant mechanisms, detoxification of carcinogens, DNA repair, anti-inflammatory pathways, apoptosis, etc. However, a long-lasting exposure to CS causes irreversible miRNA alterations that activate carcinogenic mechanisms, such as modulation of oncogenes and oncosuppressor genes, cell proliferation, recruitment of undifferentiated stem cells, inflammation, inhibition of intercellular communications, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. The miRNA alterations induced by CS in the lung of mice and rats are similar to those observed in the human respiratory tract. Since a number of miRNAs that are modulated by CS and/or chemopreventive agents are subjected to single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans, they can be evaluated according to toxicogenomic/pharmacogenomics approaches. A variety of cancer chemopreventive agents tested in our laboratory modulated both baseline and CS-related miRNA and proteome alterations, thus contributing to evaluate both safety and efficacy of dietary and pharmacological agents. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. Differential Susceptibility and the Early Development of Aggression: Interactive Effects of Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia and Environmental Quality

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Liew, Jeffrey; Sallquist, Julie; Popp, Tierney K.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Hart, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to predict the development of aggressive behavior from young children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and environmental quality. In a longitudinal sample of 213 children, baseline RSA, RSA suppression in response to a film of crying babies, and a composite measure of environmental quality (incorporating socioeconomic status and marital adjustment) were measured, and parent-reported aggression was assessed from 18 to 54 months of age. Predictions based on biological sensitivity-to-context/differential susceptibility and diathesis-stress models, as well as potential moderation by child sex, were examined. The interaction of baseline RSA with environmental quality predicted the development (slope) and 54-month intercept of mothers’ reports of aggression. For girls only, the interaction between baseline RSA and environmental quality predicted the 18-month intercept of fathers’ reports. In general, significant negative relations between RSA and aggression were found primarily at high levels of environmental quality. In addition, we found a significant Sex × RSA interaction predicting the slope and 54-month intercept of fathers’ reports of aggression, such that RSA was negatively related to aggression for boys but not for girls. Contrary to predictions, no significant main effects or interactions were found for RSA suppression. The results provide mixed but not full support for differential susceptibility theory and provide little support for the diathesis-stress model. PMID:22182294

  15. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia, Effortful Control, and Parenting as Predictors of Children’s Sympathy Across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine physiological and environmental predictors of children’s sympathy (an emotional response consisting of feelings of concern or sorrow for others who are distressed or in need) and whether temperamental effortful control mediated these relations. Specifically, in a study of 192 children (23% Hispanic; 54% male), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure thought to reflect physiological regulation, and observed authoritative parenting (both at 42 months) were examined as predictors of children’s effortful control (at 54 months) and, in turn, children’s sympathy (at 72 and 84 months). Measures of both baseline RSA and RSA suppression were examined. In a structural equation model, observed parenting was positively related to children’s subsequent sympathy through its positive relation to effortful control. Furthermore, the indirect path from baseline RSA to higher sympathy through effortful control was marginally significant. Authoritative parenting and baseline RSA uniquely predicted individual differences in children’s effortful control. Findings highlight the potential role of both authoritative parenting and physiological regulation in the development of children’s sympathy. PMID:25329555

  16. A novel double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the nucleocapsid protein for early detection of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Venteo, A; Rebollo, B; Sarraseca, J; Rodriguez, M J; Sanz, A

    2012-04-01

    Precise and rapid detection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in swine farms is critical. Improvement of control procedures, such as testing incoming gilt and surveillance of seronegative herds requires more rapid and sensitive methods. However, standard serological techniques detect mainly IgG antibodies. A double recognition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DR-ELISA) was developed for detection of antibodies specific to European PRRSV. This new assay can recognize both IgM and IgG antibodies to PRSSV which might be useful for detecting in routine surveillance assays pigs that are in the very early stages of infection and missed by conventional assays detecting only IgG antibodies. DR-ELISA is based on the double recognition of antigen by antibody. In this study, the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (N) of PRRSV was used both as the coating and the enzyme-conjugated antigen. To evaluate the sensitivity of the assay at early stages of the infection, sera from 69 pigs infected with PRRSV were collected during successive days post infection (pi) and tested. While standard methods showed low sensitivity rates before day 14 pi, DR-ELISA detected 88.4% seropositive samples at day 7 showing greater sensitivity at early stages of the infection. Further studies were carried out to assess the efficiency of the new assay, and the results showed DR-ELISA to be a sensitive and accurate method for early diagnosis of EU-PRRSV infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is early integration of palliative care feasible and acceptable for advanced respiratory and gastrointestinal cancer patients? A phase 2 mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Massimo; Apolone, Giovanni; Tanzi, Silvia; Falco, Francesco; Rondini, Ermanno; Guberti, Monica; Fanello, Silvia; Cavuto, Silvio; Savoldi, Luisa; Piro, Roberto; Mecugni, Daniela; Di Leo, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    There is evidence that early integration of palliative care improves quality of life, lowers spending and helps clarify preferences and goals for advanced cancer patients. Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of early integration. Assessing feasibility of early integration of palliative care, and exploring concerns perceived and problems encountered by patients, relatives and oncologists. A phase 2 mixed-methods study ( ClinicalTrials.Gov :NCT02078700). Oncologists of two outpatient clinics offered a specialised palliative care intervention integrated with standard oncological care to all consecutive newly diagnosed metastatic respiratory/gastrointestinal cancer patients. We interviewed samples of patients, relatives and oncologists to explore strengths and weaknesses of the intervention. The intervention was proposed to 44/54 eligible patients (81.5%), 40 (90.1%) accepted, 38 (95.0%) attended the first palliative care visit. The intervention was completed for 32 patients (80.0%). It did not start for three (7.5%) and was interrupted for three patients who refused (7.5%). The Palliative Care Unit performed 274 visits in 38 patients (median per patient 4.5), and 24 family meetings with relatives of 16 patients. All patients and most relatives referred to the usefulness of the intervention, specifically for symptoms management, information and support to strategies for coping. Oncologists highlighted their difficulties in informing patients on palliative intervention, sharing information and coordinating patient's care with the palliative care team. Early integration of palliative care in oncological setting seems feasible and well accepted by patients, relatives and, to a lesser extent, oncologists. Some difficulties emerged concerning patient information and inter-professional communication.

  18. [The early changes of respiratory system resistance and γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in graft after lung transplantation of mouse].

    PubMed

    Chen, Q R; Wang, L F; Zhang, Y M; Xu, J N; Li, H; Ding, Y Z

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: To generate an orthotopic left lung transplantation model in mice, and to observe the early changes of respiratory system resistance and γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in grafts. Methods: The research time was from March 2014 to May 2015. The male C57BL/6 mice ( n =35) and BALB/c mice (syngenic group, n =10) were randomly divided into five groups. Control group ( n =5): wild C57BL/6 mice; syngenic transplant group ( n =10): C57BL/6→C57BL/6; allogenic transplant group(allogenic group, n =10): BALB/c→C57BL/6; each transplant group was randomly divided into 3-day and 7-day subgroups ( n =5). Respiratory system resistance and histological features of grafts were assessed, and differences in graft infiltrating γδT lymphocytes and mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-17A were quantified on 3 and 7 days after transplantation. Multiple comparisons were performed using one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference analysis. Results: (1) The respiratory system resistance of syngenic group and allogenic group were (2.61±0.59) cmH 2 O·s/ml and (2.84±0.31) cmH 2 O·s/ml 3 days post-operation, both of them increased compared to control group (1.39±0.17) cmH 2 O·s/ml (1 cmH 2 O=0.098 kPa) ( P =0.001, 0.000). The respiratory system resistance of allogenic group were (4.33±0.67) cmH 2 O·s/ml 7 days post-operation, which was significantly higher than that of syngenic 7-day subgroup (1.87±0.27) cmH 2 O·s/ml and control group (1.39±0.17) cmH 2 O·s/ml ( P =0.000, 0.000). (2) The isografts of syngenic group showed a relatively normal histological appearance with minimal infiltration of inflammatory cells, and the allografts of allogenic group infiltrated apparently by inflammatory cells, especially 7-day subgroup showed acute cellular rejection. (3) The percentage of γδT lymphocytes infiltrated in isografts and allografts were 3.90%±0.86% and 4.40%±0.57%, respectively, which were significantly increased compared to that of control lungs 2

  19. Hydrocortisone treatment in early sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tongyoo, Surat; Permpikul, Chairat; Mongkolpun, Wasineenart; Vattanavanit, Veerapong; Udompanturak, Suthipol; Kocak, Mehmet; Meduri, G Umberto

    2016-10-15

    Authors of recent meta-analyses have reported that prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with significant improvements in patients with severe pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of multifactorial etiology. A prospective randomized trial limited to patients with sepsis-associated ARDS is lacking. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of hydrocortisone treatment in sepsis-associated ARDS. In this double-blind, single-center (Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok), randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with severe sepsis within 12 h of their meeting ARDS criteria. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1 ratio) to receive either hydrocortisone 50 mg every 6 h or placebo. The primary endpoint was 28-day all-cause mortality; secondary endpoints included survival without organ support on day 28. Over the course of 4 years, 197 patients were randomized to either hydrocortisone (n = 98) or placebo (n = 99) and were included in this intention-to-treat analysis. The treatment group had significant improvement in the ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood to fraction of inspired oxygen and lung injury score (p = 0.01), and similar timing to removal of vital organ support (HR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.51-1.07; p = 0.107). After adjustment for significant covariates, day 28 survival was similar for the whole group (HR 0.80, 95 % CI 0.46-1.41; p = 0.44) and for the larger subgroup (n = 126) with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score <25 (HR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.24-1.36; p = 0.20). With the exception of hyperglycemia (80.6 % vs. 67.7 %; p = 0.04), the rate of adverse events was similar. Hyperglycemia had no impact on outcome. In sepsis-associated ARDS, hydrocortisone treatment was associated with a significant improvement in pulmonary physiology, but without a significant survival benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01284452 . Registered on 18 January

  20. Respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, G T; Vaziri, N D; Sassoon, C S

    2001-04-01

    Respiratory alkalosis is an extremely common and complicated problem affecting virtually every organ system in the body. This article reviews the various facets of this interesting problem. Respiratory alkalosis produces multiple metabolic abnormalities, from changes in potassium, phosphate, and calcium, to the development of a mild lactic acidosis. Renal handling of the above ions is also affected. The etiologies may be related to pulmonary or extrapulmonary disorders. Hyperventilation syndrome is a common etiology of respiratory alkalosis in the emergency department setting and is a diagnosis by exclusion. There are many cardiac effects of respiratory alkalosis, such as tachycardia, ventricular and atrial arrhythmias, and ischemic and nonischemic chest pain. In the lungs, vasodilation occurs, and in the gastrointestinal system there are changes in perfusion, motility, and electrolyte handling. Therapeutically, respiratory alkalosis is used for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure. Correction of a respiratory alkalosis is best performed by correcting the underlying etiology.

  1. A susceptible-infected model of early detection of respiratory infection outbreaks on a background of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Mohtashemi, Mojdeh; Szolovits, Peter; Dunyak, James; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The threat of biological warfare and the emergence of new infectious agents spreading at a global scale have highlighted the need for major enhancements to the public health infrastructure. Early detection of epidemics of infectious diseases requires both real-time data and real-time interpretation of data. Despite moderate advancements in data acquisition, the state of the practice for real-time analysis of data remains inadequate. We present a nonlinear mathematical framework for modeling the transient dynamics of influenza, applied to historical data sets of patients with influenza-like illness. We estimate the vital time-varying epidemiological parameters of infections from historical data, representing normal epidemiological trends. We then introduce simulated outbreaks of different shapes and magnitudes into the historical data, and estimate the parameters representing the infection rates of anomalous deviations from normal trends. Finally, a dynamic threshold-based detection algorithm is devised to assess the timeliness and sensitivity of detecting the irregularities in the data, under a fixed low false-positive rate. We find that the detection algorithm can identify such designated abnormalities in the data with high sensitivity with specificity held at 97%, but more importantly, early during an outbreak. The proposed methodology can be applied to a broad range of influenza-like infectious diseases, whether naturally occurring or a result of bioterrorism, and thus can be an integral component of a real-time surveillance system. PMID:16556450

  2. Evaluating the cost implications of a radio frequency identification feeding system for early detection of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfger, Barbara; Manns, Braden J; Barkema, Herman W; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Dorin, Craig; Orsel, Karin

    2015-03-01

    New technologies to identify diseased feedlot cattle in early stages of illness have been developed to reduce costs and welfare impacts associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). However, the economic value of early BRD detection has never been assessed. The objective was to simulate cost differences between two BRD detection methods during the first 61 d on feed (DOF) applied in moderate- to large-sized feedlots using an automated recording system (ARS) for feeding behavior and the current industry standard, pen-checking (visual appraisal confirmed by rectal temperature). Economic impact was assessed with a cost analysis in a simple decision model. Scenarios for Canadian and US feedlots with high- and low-risk cattle were modeled, and uncertainty was estimated using extensive sensitivity analyses. Input costs and probabilities were mainly extracted from publicly accessible market observations and a large-scale US feedlot study. In the baseline scenario, we modeled high-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 20% within the first 61 DOF in a feedlot of >8000 cattle in Canada. Early BRD detection was estimated to result in a relative risk of 0.60 in retreatment and 0.66 in mortality compared to pen-checking (based on previously published estimates). The additional cost of monitoring health with ARS in Canadian dollar (CAD) was 13.68 per steer. Scenario analysis for similar sized US feedlots and low-risk cattle with a treatment rate of 8% were included to account for variability in costs and probabilities in various cattle populations. Considering the cost of monitoring, all relevant treatment costs and sale price, ARS was more costly than visual appraisal during the first 61 DOF by CAD 9.61 and CAD 9.69 per steer in Canada and the US, respectively. This cost difference increased in low-risk cattle in Canada to CAD 12.45. Early BRD detection with ARS became less expensive if the costs for the system decreased to less than CAD 4.06/steer, or if the underlying true

  3. Measuring Interference of Drug-Like Molecules with the Respiratory Chain: Toward the Early Identification of Mitochondrial Uncouplers in Lead Finding

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Hans; Diekert, Kerstin; Dörner, Wolfgang; Dröse, Stefan; Licher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The electron transport chain (ETC) couples electron transfer between donors and acceptors with proton transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The resulting electrochemical proton gradient is used to generate chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Proton transfer is based on the activity of complex I–V proteins in the ETC. The overall electrical activity of these proteins can be measured by proton transfer using Solid Supported Membrane technology. We tested the activity of complexes I, III, and V in a combined assay, called oxidative phosphorylation assay (oxphos assay), by activating each complex with the corresponding substrate. The oxphos assay was used to test in-house substances from different projects and several drugs currently available on the market that have reported effects on mitochondrial functions. The resulting data were compared to the influence of the respective compounds on mitochondria as determined by oxygen consumption and to data generated with an ATP depletion assay. The comparison shows that the oxidative phosphorylation assay provides both a rapid approach for detecting interaction of compounds with respiratory chain proteins and information on their mode of interaction. Therefore, the oxphos assay is a useful tool to support structure activity relationship studies by allowing early identification of mitotoxicity and for analyzing the outcome of phenotypic screens that are susceptible to the generation of mitotoxicity-related artifacts. PMID:23992120

  4. Effectiveness of an early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy for lower respiratory tract infection in patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Masaru; Hoshina, Takayuki; Ogawa, Masato; Nakamoto, Takato; Kusuhara, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    An early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy is useful for reducing the duration of the hospitalization in adult patients with community acquired-pneumonia, whereas the efficacy of switch therapy for pediatric patients with community acquired (CA)-lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of switch therapy for LRTI in patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities (SMID). This retrospective study was performed on 92 patients with SMID who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Hospital of University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2017 for the suspicion of bacterial LRTI and were initially treated with an intravenous antimicrobial agent. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with switch therapy (Switch therapy group) and conventional intravenous antimicrobial therapy (No switch therapy group). Thirteen and 79 in patients with SMID belonged to Switch thrapy group and No switch therapy group, respectively. Length of hospital stay in Switch therapy group was significantly shorter than that in No switch therapy group (P = 0.002). In the patients undergoing switch therapy, there was no patient who required re-treatment and/or re-hospitalization. Switch therapy for LRTI was useful for the reduction of length of hospital stay without increasing risk of re-treatment and re-hospitalization in patients with SMID. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Exposure to Recommended Calorie Delivery in the Intensive Care Unit Is Associated With Increased Mortality in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah J; Lateef, Omar B; Freels, Sally; McKeever, Liam; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Braunschweig, Carol A

    2017-06-01

    The Intensive Nutrition in Acute Lung Injury: Clinical Trial (INTACT), designed to evaluate outcomes of calorie delivery from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) diagnosis through hospital discharge, was stopped due to higher mortality in the intervention group. Post hoc analysis found timing and dose of calorie delivery influenced mortality. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to determine if early vs late calorie exposure changed the hazard of death among a larger sample of patients with ARDS. Adult patients who met the eligibility criteria for INTACT but did not participate were included. Daily calorie delivery was collected from the date INTACT eligibility was determined to extubation or death. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model the relationship between hazard of hospital death with average calorie exposure received over increasing study days and after day 7. A total of 298 patients were included; overall mortality was 33%. Among patients who remained intubated at 1 week (n = 202), higher kcal/kg received from intensive care unit (ICU) days 1-6 increased hazards of subsequent death on days 7+ (hazard ratio [HR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.06); kcal/kg received after ICU day 7 decreased the hazards of death on day 7+ (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.84). Higher calorie exposure between ICU days 1 and 7 was associated with higher subsequent hazard of mortality, and provision of high-calorie exposure after day 8 decreased the hazards of death.

  6. Protective effect of bacoside A on cigarette smoking-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Vani, Ganapathy; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the structure and function of mitochondria, which may account for the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases. Bacopa monniera Linn., used in traditional Indian medicine for various neurological disorders, was shown to possess mitrochondrial membrane-stabilizing properties in the rat brain during exposure to morphine. We investigated the protective effect of bacoside A, the active principle of Bacopa monniera, against mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain induced by cigarette smoke. Male Wistar albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and administered bacoside A for a period of 12 weeks. The mitochondrial damage in the brain was assessed by examining the levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, phospholipid, cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, and the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome C oxidase. The oxidative phosphorylation (rate of succinate oxidation, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio, and the levels of ATP) was evaluated for the assessment of mitochondrial functional capacity. We found significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, and C/P ratio, and decreased levels of phospholipids and mitochondrial enzymes in the rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Measurement of oxidative phosphorylation revealed a marked depletion in all the variables studied. Administration of bacoside A prevented the structural and functional impairment of mitochondria upon exposure to cigarette smoke. From the results, we suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure induces damage to the mitochondria and that bacoside A protects the brain from this damage by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane.

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) entry is inhibited by serine protease inhibitor AEBSF when present during an early stage of infection.

    PubMed

    Van der Gucht, Winke; Leemans, Annelies; De Schryver, Marjorie; Heykers, Annick; Caljon, Guy; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Delputte, Peter L

    2017-08-17

    Host proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. Therefore, these cellular proteases are putative targets for the development of antivirals that inhibit their activity. Host proteases have been described to play essential roles in Ebola, HCV, HIV and influenza, such that specific protease inhibitors are able to reduce infection. RSV utilizes a host protease in its replication cycle but its potential as antiviral target is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of protease inhibitors on RSV infection. To measure the sensitivity of RSV infection to protease inhibitors, cells were infected with RSV and incubated for 18 h in the presence or absence of the inhibitors. Cells were fixed, stained and studied using fluorescence microscopy. Several protease inhibitors, representing different classes of proteases (AEBSF, Pepstatin A, E-64, TPCK, PMSF and aprotinin), were tested for inhibitory effects on an RSV A2 infection of HEp-2 cells. Different treatment durations, ranging from 1 h prior to inoculation and continuing for 18 h during the assay, were evaluated. Of all the inhibitors tested, AEBSF and TPCK significantly decreased RSV infection. To ascertain that the observed effect of AEBSF was not a specific feature related to HEp-2 cells, A549 and BEAS-2B cells were also used. Similar to HEp-2, an almost complete block in the number of RSV infected cells after 18 h of incubation was observed and the effect was dose-dependent. To gain insight into the mechanism of this inhibition, AEBSF treatment was applied during different phases of an infection cycle (pre-, peri- and post-inoculation treatment). The results from these experiments indicate that AEBSF is mainly active during the early entry phase of RSV. The inhibitory effect was also observed with other RSV isolates A1998/3-2 and A2000/3-4, suggesting that this is a general feature of RSV. RSV infection can be

  8. A Graphical Model of Smoking-Induced Global Instability in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo; Qian, Weikang; Yuan, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The most current view about lung cancer is no longer limited to individual genes being mutated by any carcinogenic insults from smoking. Instead, tumorigenesis is a phenotype conferred by many systematic and global alterations, leading to extensive heterogeneity and variation for both the genotypes and phenotypes of individual cancer cells. Thus, strategically it is foremost important to develop a methodology to capture any consistent and global alterations presumably shared by most of the cancerous cells for a given population. This is particularly true that almost all of the data collected from solid cancers (including lung cancers) are usually distant apart over a large span of temporal or even spatial contexts. Here, we report a multiple non-Gaussian graphical model to reconstruct the gene interaction network using two previously published gene expression datasets. Our graphical model aims to selectively detect gross structural changes at the level of gene interaction networks. Our methodology is extensively validated, demonstrating good robustness, as well as the selectivity and specificity expected based on our biological insights. In summary, gene regulatory networks are still relatively stable during presumably the early stage of neoplastic transformation. But drastic structural differences can be found between lung cancer and its normal control, including the gain of functional modules for cellular proliferations such as EGFR and PDGFRA, as well as the lost of the important IL6 module, supporting their roles as potential drug targets. Interestingly, our method can also detect early modular changes, with the ALDH3A1 and its associated interactions being strongly implicated as a potential early marker, whose activations appear to alter LCN2 module as well as its interactions with the important TP53-MDM2 circuitry. Our strategy using the graphical model to

  9. Respiratory problems in foals.

    PubMed

    Beech, J

    1985-04-01

    Despite major advances in our knowledge and ability to treat respiratory diseases in neonatal foals, neonatal respiratory medicine is still in its infancy. It is hoped that this article may serve as a guideline for diagnosis and treatment. Specific antibiotic regimens and emergency procedures are covered in other articles in this symposium. Because management factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease, education of clients as to their importance would help both prophylactically and therapeutically. The necessity of very careful monitoring of neonates, which is critical to early detection of disease, should be stressed. As respiratory diseases can be fulminant and rapidly fatal, it is imperative not to delay diagnosis and therapy. Thorough examination and implementation of appropriate diagnostic techniques, as well as prompt early referral to a more sophisticated facility when indicated, would prevent many deaths. Although sophisticated support systems are vital for survival of some of these foals, good basic intensive nursing care combined with selection of appropriate drug therapy very early in the course of the disease is all that many foals require and can significantly improve survival rates.

  10. Quantitative assessment of smoking-induced emphysema progression in longitudinal CT screening for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Mizuguchi, R.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography has been used for assessing structural abnormalities associated with emphysema. It is important to develop a robust CT based imaging biomarker that would allow quantification of emphysema progression in early stage. This paper presents effect of smoking on emphysema progression using annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in longitudinal screening for lung cancer. The percentage of LAV (LAV%) was measured after applying CT value threshold method and small noise reduction. Progression of emphysema was assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV%. This method was applied to 215 participants in lung cancer CT screening for five years (18 nonsmokers, 85 past smokers, and 112 current smokers). The results showed that LAV% is useful to classify current smokers with rapid progression of emphysema (0.2%/year, p<0.05). This paper demonstrates effectiveness of the proposed method in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in CT screening for lung cancer.

  11. A murine model of elastase- and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rubia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Lourenço, Juliana Dias; Riane, Alyne; Cervilha, Daniela Aparecida de Brito; Ito, Juliana Tiyaki; Martins, Milton de Arruda; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    To describe a murine model of emphysema induced by a combination of exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). A total of 38 C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control (one intranasal instillation of 0.9% saline solution); PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE); CS (CS exposure for 60 days); and CS + PPE (two intranasal instillations of PPE + CS exposure for 60 days). At the end of the experimental protocol, all animals were anesthetized and tracheostomized for calculation of respiratory mechanics parameters. Subsequently, all animals were euthanized and their lungs were removed for measurement of the mean linear intercept (Lm) and determination of the numbers of cells that were immunoreactive to macrophage (MAC)-2 antigen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, and glycosylated 91-kDa glycoprotein (gp91phox) in the distal lung parenchyma and peribronchial region. Although there were no differences among the four groups regarding the respiratory mechanics parameters assessed, there was an increase in the Lm in the CS + PPE group. The numbers of MAC-2-positive cells in the peribronchial region and distal lung parenchyma were higher in the CS + PPE group than in the other groups, as were the numbers of cells that were positive for MMP-12 and gp91phox, although only in the distal lung parenchyma. Our model of emphysema induced by a combination of PPE instillation and CS exposure results in a significant degree of parenchymal destruction in a shorter time frame than that employed in other models of CS-induced emphysema, reinforcing the importance of protease-antiprotease imbalance and oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Descrever um modelo murino de enfisema induzido por exposição a fumaça de cigarro (FC) e instilação de elastase pancreática porcina (EPP). Trinta e oito camundongos C57BL/6 foram aleatoriamente divididos em quatro grupos: controle (uma instilação intranasal

  12. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bacharier, Leonard B; Guilbert, Theresa W; Mauger, David T; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Jackson, Daniel J; Baxi, Sachin N; Benson, Mindy; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Cabana, Michael; Castro, Mario; Chmiel, James F; Covar, Ronina; Daines, Michael; Gaffin, Jonathan M; Gentile, Deborah Ann; Holguin, Fernando; Israel, Elliot; Kelly, H William; Lazarus, Stephen C; Lemanske, Robert F; Ly, Ngoc; Meade, Kelley; Morgan, Wayne; Moy, James; Olin, Tod; Peters, Stephen P; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Raissy, Hengameh H; Ross, Kristie; Sheehan, William J; Sorkness, Christine; Szefler, Stanley J; Teague, W Gerald; Thyne, Shannon; Martinez, Fernando D

    2015-11-17

    Many preschool children develop recurrent, severe episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). Although viral infections are often present, bacteria may also contribute to illness pathogenesis. Strategies that effectively attenuate such episodes are needed. To evaluate if early administration of azithromycin, started prior to the onset of severe LRTI symptoms, in preschool children with recurrent severe LRTIs can prevent the progression of these episodes. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by December 2014. Participants were 607 children aged 12 through 71 months with histories of recurrent, severe LRTIs and minimal day-to-day impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin (12 mg/kg/d for 5 days; n = 307) or matching placebo (n = 300), started early during each predefined RTI (child's signs or symptoms prior to development of LRTI), based on individualized action plans, over a 12- through 18-month period. The primary outcome measure was the number of RTIs not progressing to a severe LRTI, measured at the level of the RTI, that would in clinical practice trigger the prescription of oral corticosteroids. Presence of azithromycin-resistant organisms in oropharyngeal samples, along with adverse events, were among the secondary outcome measures. A total of 937 treated RTIs (azithromycin group, 473; placebo group, 464) were experienced by 443 children (azithromycin group, 223; placebo group, 220), including 92 severe LRTIs (azithromycin group, 35; placebo group, 57). Azithromycin significantly reduced the risk of progressing to severe LRTI relative to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.41-0.98], P = .04; absolute risk for first RTI: 0.05 for azithromycin, 0.08 for placebo; risk difference, 0.03 [95% CI, 0

  13. Early Administration of Azithromycin and Prevention of Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Preschool Children With a History of Such Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Mauger, David T.; Boehmer, Susan; Beigelman, Avraham; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Jackson, Daniel J.; Baxi, Sachin N.; Benson, Mindy; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.; Cabana, Michael; Castro, Mario; Chmiel, James F.; Covar, Ronina; Daines, Michael; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Gentile, Deborah Ann; Holguin, Fernando; Israel, Elliot; Kelly, H. William; Lazarus, Stephen C.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Ly, Ngoc; Meade, Kelley; Morgan, Wayne; Moy, James; Olin, Tod; Peters, Stephen P.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Raissy, Hengameh H.; Ross, Kristie; Sheehan, William J.; Sorkness, Christine; Szefler, Stanley J.; Teague, W. Gerald; Thyne, Shannon; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many preschool children develop recurrent, severe episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). Although viral infections are often present, bacteria may also contribute to illness pathogenesis. Strategies that effectively attenuate such episodes are needed. OBJECTIVE To evaluate if early administration of azithromycin, started prior to the onset of severe LRTI symptoms, in preschool children with recurrent severe LRTIs can prevent the progression of these episodes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by December 2014. Participants were 607 children aged 12 through 71 months with histories of recurrent, severe LRTIs and minimal day-to-day impairment. INTERVENTION Participants were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin (12 mg/kg/d for 5 days; n = 307) or matching placebo (n = 300), started early during each predefined RTI (child’s signs or symptoms prior to development of LRTI), based on individualized action plans, over a 12-through 18-month period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was the number of RTIs not progressing to a severe LRTI, measured at the level of the RTI, that would in clinical practice trigger the prescription of oral corticosteroids. Presence of azithromycin-resistant organisms in oropharyngeal samples, along with adverse events, were among the secondary outcome measures. RESULTS A total of 937 treated RTIs (azithromycin group, 473; placebo group, 464) were experienced by 443 children (azithromycin group, 223; placebo group, 220), including 92 severe LRTIs (azithromycin group, 35; placebo group, 57). Azithromycin significantly reduced the risk of progressing to severe LRTI relative to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.41-0.98], P = .04; absolute risk for

  14. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself.

  15. Smoking-induced alterations in platelet membrane fluidity and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in chronic cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Padmavathi, Pannuru; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2010-06-30

    Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Platelet adhesiveness and aggregation increases as a result of smoking. Cigarette smoking modifies haemostatic parameters via thrombosis with a consequently higher rate of cardiovascular events, but smoking-induced alterations of platelet membrane fluidity and other changes have not been studied. Thirty experimental and control subjects (mean age 35+/-8) were selected for the study. Experimental subjects had smoked 10+/-2 cigarettes per day for 7-10 years. The plasma lipid profile, platelet carbonyls, sulfhydryl groups, Na(+)/k(+)-ATPase activity, fluidity using a fluorescent probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), total cholesterol and phospholipids as well individual phospholipids were determined. Increases in the platelet membrane cholesterol phospholipid (C/P) ratio, phosphotidylethanolamine, phosphotidylserine with decreased phosphotidylcholine, Na(+)/k(+)-ATPase activity, fluidity and no significant change in phosphotidylinositol and sphingomylein, as well as increases in plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, protein carbonyls with decreased HDL-cholesterol and sulfhydryl groups were observed in cigarette smokers. Platelet membrane total phospholipids were positively correlated with plasma LDL-cholesterol (r=0.568) and VLDL-cholesterol (r=0.614) in cigarette smokers. Increased plasma LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol might have resulted in the increased C/P ratio and decreased platelet membrane fluidity of cigarette smokers.

  16. NF-{kappa}B inhibition is involved in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis in the lungs of rats

    SciT

    Zhong Caiyun; Zhou Yamei; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2008-07-15

    Apoptosis is a vital mechanism for the regulation of cell turnover and plays a critical role in tissue homeostasis and development of many disease processes. Previous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic effect of tobacco smoke; however, the molecular mechanisms by which tobacco smoke triggers apoptosis remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the induction of apoptosis in the lungs of rats and modulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) in this process. Exposure of rats to 80 mg/m{sup 3} tobacco smoke significantly induced apoptosis in the lungs. Tobacco smoke resulted in inhibition of NF-{kappa}Bmore » activity, noted by suppression of inhibitor of {kappa}B (I{kappa}B) kinase (IKK), accumulation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, decrease of NF-{kappa}B DNA binding activity, and downregulation of NF-{kappa}B-dependent anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Initiator caspases for the death receptor pathway (caspase 8) and the mitochondrial pathway (caspase 9) as well as effector caspase 3 were activated following tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure did not alter the levels of p53 and Bax proteins. These findings suggest the role of NF-{kappa}B pathway in tobacco smoke-induced apoptosis.« less

  17. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.

  18. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey

    PubMed Central

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Aim Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. Methods We used data (n = 2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID (‘In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?’). Results Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex $1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex $6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Conclusion Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected. PMID:22923478

  19. Effects of Curcumin on Tobacco Smoke-induced Hepatic MAPK Pathway Activation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaofeng; Wu, Rui; Xie, Wei; Xie, Chunfeng; Wu, Jieshu; Geng, Shanshan; Li, Xiaoting; Zhu, Mingming; Zhu, Weiwei; Zhu, Jianyun; Huang, Cong; Ma, Xiao; Xu, Wenrong; Zhong, Caiyun; Han, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco smoke is a major risk factor for hepatic cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by tobacco smoke is crucially involved in the initiation and development of cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play important roles in tobacco smoke-associated carcinogenesis including EMT process. The chemopreventive effect of curcumin supplementation against cancers has been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on MAPK pathway activation and EMT alterations, and then the preventive effect of curcumin was examined in the liver of BALB/c mice. Our results indicated that exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks led to activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and ERK5 pathways as well as activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins in liver tissue. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke reduced the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of the epithelial markers, while the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of the mesenchymal markers were increased. Treatment of curcumin effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-induced activation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK pathways, AP-1 proteins and EMT alterations in the mice liver. Our data suggested the protective effect of curcumin in tobacco smoke-triggered MAPK pathway activation and EMT in the liver of BALB/c mice, thus providing new insights into the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated hepatic cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A varying T cell subtype explains apparent tobacco smoking induced single CpG hypomethylation in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Mario; Linsel, Gunter; Fink, Beate; Offenberg, Kirsten; Hahn, Anne Maria; Sack, Ulrich; Knaack, Heike; Eszlinger, Markus; Herberth, Gunda

    2015-01-01

    Many recent epigenetic studies report that cigarette smoking reduces DNA methylation in whole blood at the single CpG site cg19859270 within the GPR15 gene. Within two independent cohorts, we confirmed the differentially expression of the GPR15 gene when smokers and non-smokers subjects are compared. By validating the GPR15 protein expression at the cellular level, we found that the observed decreased methylation at this site in white blood cells (WBC) of smokers is mainly caused by the high proportion of CD3+GPR15+ expressing T cells in peripheral blood. In current smokers, the percentage of GPR15+ cells among CD3+ T cells in peripheral blood is significantly higher (15.5 ± 7.2 %, mean ± standard deviation) compared to non-smokers (3.7 ± 1.6 %). Treatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures with aqueous cigarette smoke extract did not induce a higher proportion of this T cell subtype. Our results underline that DNA hypomethylation at cg19859270 site, observed in WBCs of smokers, did not arise by direct effect of tobacco smoking compounds on methylation of DNA but rather by the enrichment of a tobacco-smoking-induced lymphocyte population in the peripheral blood.

  1. Point-of-sale cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation in smokers: results from a population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Robbins, Regina; Tibbits, Melissa; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Soliman, Ghada; McCarthy, Molly; Singh, Gopal K

    2016-04-28

    Strict restrictions on outdoor cigarette marketing have resulted in increasing concentration of cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale (POS). The association between POS cigarette marketing and smoking-induced deprivation (SID) has never been studied. The aim of this study was to examine this association and how it is mediated by cravings to smoke, urges to buy cigarettes, and unplanned purchases of cigarettes. Data from a telephone survey of 939 smokers were collected in Omaha, Nebraska. POS cigarette marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions such as cigarette price discounts within their respective neighborhoods. SID was measured with the following question: "In the last six months, has there been a time when the money you spent on cigarettes resulted in not having enough money for household essentials such as food? [yes/no]" We used structural equation modeling to examine the study aim. There was overwhelming evidence for an association between higher levels of POS cigarette marketing and a higher probability of SID (p < 0.001). This association was partly mediated by cravings to smoke, urges to buy cigarettes, and unplanned purchases of cigarettes during a visit to a neighborhood store (p < 0.001). Given that POS cigarette marketing is associated with a higher probability of experiencing SID, policies that ban POS cigarette marketing might help some smokers afford essentials household items such as food more easily and thus have better standards of living.

  2. Lung Function in Rural Guatemalan Women Before and After a Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Wood Smoke Exposure: Results From the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects and Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter Study.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Michael; Diaz, Esperanza; Pope, Daniel; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Smith, Kirk R; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Bruce, Nigel G; Balmes, John R

    2015-11-01

    COPD is the third most frequent cause of death globally, with much of this burden attributable to household biomass smoke exposure in developing countries. As biomass smoke exposure is also associated with cardiovascular disease, lower respiratory infection, lung cancer, and cataracts, it presents an important target for public health intervention. Lung function in Guatemalan women exposed to wood smoke from open fires was measured throughout the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) stove intervention trial and continued during the Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) cohort study. In RESPIRE, early stove households received a chimney woodstove at the beginning of the 18-month trial, and delayed stove households received a stove at trial completion. Personal exposure to wood smoke was assessed with exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO) and personal CO tubes. Change in lung function between intervention groups and as a function of wood smoke exposure was assessed using random effects models. Of 306 women participating in both studies, acceptable spirometry was collected in 129 early stove and 136 delayed stove households (n = 265), with a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. Despite reduced wood smoke exposures in early stove households, there were no significant differences in any of the measured spirometric variables during the study period (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and annual change) after adjustment for confounding. In these young Guatemalan women, there was no association between lung function and early randomization to a chimney stove or personal wood smoke exposure. Future stove intervention trials should incorporate cleaner stoves, longer follow-up, or potentially susceptible groups to identify meaningful differences in lung function.

  3. Hydrogen coadministration slows the development of COPD-like lung disease in a cigarette smoke-induced rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Ma, Cuiqing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Zhu; Wang, Xiansheng; Wang, Pengyu; Sun, Wuzhuang; Xue, Baojian

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive pulmonary disease caused by harmful gases or particles. Recent studies have shown that 2% hydrogen or hydrogen water is effective in the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases. This study investigated the beneficial effects and the possible mechanisms of different hydrogen concentrations on COPD. A rat COPD model was established through smoke exposure methods, and inhalation of different concentrations of hydrogen was used as the intervention. The daily condition of rats and the weight changes were observed; lung function and right ventricular hypertrophy index were assessed. Also, white blood cells were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pathologic changes in the lung tissue were analyzed using light microscopy and electron microscopy; cardiovascular structure and pulmonary arterial pressure changes in rats were observed using ultrasonography. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, IL-23, matrix metalloproteinase-12, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, caspase-3, caspase-8 protein, and mRNA levels in the lung tissue were determined using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that hydrogen inhalation significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, matrix metalloproteinase-12, caspase-3, and caspase-8, but increased the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression. Furthermore, hydrogen inhalation ameliorated lung pathology, lung function, and cardiovascular function and reduced the right ventricular hypertrophy index. Inhalation of 22% and 41.6% hydrogen showed better outcome than inhalation of 2% hydrogen. These results suggest that hydrogen inhalation slows the development of COPD-like lung disease in a cigarette smoke-induced rat model. Higher concentrations of

  4. Hydrogen coadministration slows the development of COPD-like lung disease in a cigarette smoke-induced rat model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Ma, Cuiqing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wenjing; Li, Zhu; Wang, Xiansheng; Wang, Pengyu; Sun, Wuzhuang; Xue, Baojian

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive pulmonary disease caused by harmful gases or particles. Recent studies have shown that 2% hydrogen or hydrogen water is effective in the treatment and prevention of a variety of diseases. This study investigated the beneficial effects and the possible mechanisms of different hydrogen concentrations on COPD. Methods A rat COPD model was established through smoke exposure methods, and inhalation of different concentrations of hydrogen was used as the intervention. The daily condition of rats and the weight changes were observed; lung function and right ventricular hypertrophy index were assessed. Also, white blood cells were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pathologic changes in the lung tissue were analyzed using light microscopy and electron microscopy; cardiovascular structure and pulmonary arterial pressure changes in rats were observed using ultrasonography. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, IL-23, matrix metalloproteinase-12, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, caspase-3, caspase-8 protein, and mRNA levels in the lung tissue were determined using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The results showed that hydrogen inhalation significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, matrix metalloproteinase-12, caspase-3, and caspase-8, but increased the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression. Furthermore, hydrogen inhalation ameliorated lung pathology, lung function, and cardiovascular function and reduced the right ventricular hypertrophy index. Inhalation of 22% and 41.6% hydrogen showed better outcome than inhalation of 2% hydrogen. Conclusion These results suggest that hydrogen inhalation slows the development of COPD-like lung disease in a cigarette smoke-induced

  5. Cigarette smoke-induced cell death of a spermatocyte cell line can be prevented by inactivating the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    PubMed Central

    Esakky, P; Hansen, D A; Drury, A M; Cusumano, A; Moley, K H

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure causes germ cell death during spermatogenesis. Our earlier studies demonstrated that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) causes spermatocyte cell death in vivo and growth arrest of the mouse spermatocyte cell line (GC-2spd(ts)) in vitro via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). We hypothesize here that inactivation of AHR could prevent the CSC-induced cell death in spermatocytes. We demonstrate that CSC exposure generates oxidative stress, which differentially regulates mitochondrial apoptosis in GC-2spd(ts) and wild type (WT) and AHR knockout (AHR-KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). SiRNA-mediated silencing of Ahr augments the extent of CSC-mediated cellular damage while complementing the AHR-knockout condition. Pharmacological inhibition using the AHR-antagonist (CH223191) modulates the CSC-altered expression of apoptotic proteins and significantly abrogates DNA fragmentation though the cleavage of PARP appears AHR independent. Pretreatment with CH223191 at concentrations above 50 μM significantly prevents the CSC-induced activation of caspase-3/7 and externalization of phosphatidylserine in the plasma membrane. However, MAPK inhibitors alone or together with CH223191 could not prevent the membrane damage upon CSC addition and the caspase-3/7 activation and membrane damage in AHR-deficient MEF indicates the interplay of multiple cell signaling and cytoprotective ability of AHR. Thus the data obtained on one hand signifies the protective role of AHR in maintaining normal cellular homeostasis and the other, could be a potential prophylactic therapeutic target to promote cell survival and growth under cigarette smoke exposed environment by receptor antagonism via CH223191-like mechanism. Antagonist-mediated inactivation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor blocks downstream events leading to cigarette smoke-induced cell death of a spermatocyte cell line. PMID:27551479

  6. Tobacco expenditure, smoking-induced deprivation and financial stress: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four-Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-07-01

    While higher tobacco prices lead to a reduction in smoking prevalence, there is a concern that paying more for cigarettes can lead to excess financial burden. Our primary aim was to examine the association of daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and financial stress (FS). We used data from wave 7 (2008-2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four-Country Survey which is a survey of smokers in Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia (n = 5887). Logistic regressions were used to assess the association of daily cigarette expenditure with SID and FS. In multivariate analyses, a one standard deviation increase in daily cigarette expenditure was associated with an increase of 24% (P = 0.004) in the probability of experiencing SID. While we found no association between daily cigarette expenditure and FS, we found that SID is a strong predictor of FS (odds ratio 6.25; P < 0.001). This suggests that cigarette expenditure indirectly affects FS through SID. Results showed no evidence of an interaction between cigarette expenditure and income or education in their effect on SID or FS. Our results imply that spending more on tobacco may result in SID but surprisingly has no direct effect on FS. While most smokers may be adjusting their incomes and consumption to minimise FS, some fail to do so occasionally as indexed by the SID measure. Future studies need to prospectively examine the effect of increased tobacco expenditure on financial burden of smokers. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Gene Profiles in a Smoke-Induced COPD Mouse Lung Model Following Treatment with Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, You-Sun; Kokturk, Nurdan; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Sei Won; Lim, Jaeyun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Oh, Yeon-Mok

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) effectively reduce airway inflammation and regenerate the alveolus in cigarette- and elastase-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) animal models. The effects of stem cells are thought to be paracrine and immune-modulatory because very few stem cells remain in the lung one day after their systemic injection, which has been demonstrated previously. In this report, we analyzed the gene expression profiles to compare mouse lungs with chronic exposure to cigarette smoke with non-exposed lungs. Gene expression profiling was also conducted in a mouse lung tissue with chronic exposure to cigarette smoke following the systemic injection of human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hCB-MSCs). Globally, 834 genes were differentially expressed after systemic injection of hCB-MSCs. Seven and 21 genes, respectively, were up-and downregulated on days 1, 4, and 14 after HCB-MSC injection. The Hbb and Hba, genes with oxygen transport and antioxidant functions, were increased on days 1 and 14. A serine protease inhibitor was also increased at a similar time point after injection of hCB-MSCs. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that the levels of genes related to immune responses, metabolic processes, and blood vessel development were altered, indicating host responses after hCB-MSC injection. These gene expression changes suggest that MSCs induce a regeneration mechanism against COPD induced by cigarette smoke. These analyses provide basic data for understanding the regeneration mechanisms promoted by hCB-MSCs in cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

  8. Assessing Respiratory System Mechanical Function.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Ruben D; Serrato, Diana M; Adasme, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    The main goals of assessing respiratory system mechanical function are to evaluate the lung function through a variety of methods and to detect early signs of abnormalities that could affect the patient's outcomes. In ventilated patients, it has become increasingly important to recognize whether respiratory function has improved or deteriorated, whether the ventilator settings match the patient's demand, and whether the selection of ventilator parameters follows a lung-protective strategy. Ventilator graphics, esophageal pressure, intra-abdominal pressure, and electric impedance tomography are some of the best-known monitoring tools to obtain measurements and adequately evaluate the respiratory system mechanical function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory Distress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The University of Miami School of Medicine asked the Research Triangle Institute for assistance in improvising the negative pressure technique to relieve respiratory distress in infants. Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center engineers adapted this idea to the lower-body negative-pressure system seals used during the Skylab missions. Some 20,000 babies succumb to respiratory distress in the U.S. each year, a condition in which lungs progressively lose their ability to oxygenate blood. Both positive and negative pressure techniques have been used - the first to force air into lungs, the second to keep infant's lungs expanded. Negative pressure around chest helps the baby expand his lungs and maintain proper volume of air. If doctors can keep the infant alive for four days, the missing substance in the lungs will usually form in sufficient quantity to permit normal breathing. The Skylab chamber and its leakproof seals were adapted for medical use.

  10. Cigarette smoke-induced DNA damage and repair detected by the comet assay in HPV-transformed cervical cells.

    PubMed

    Moktar, Afsoon; Ravoori, Srivani; Vadhanam, Manicka V; Gairola, C Gary; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2009-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative factor in the development and progression of cervical cancers in >97% of the cases, although insufficient. Epidemiological studies suggest an elevated risk of cervical cancer for cigarette smokers; therefore, we examined cigarette smoke-induced DNA damage and repair in HPV16-transformed human ectocervical cells (ECT1/E6 E7). Cells were treated with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) for 72 h to assess the formation of single- and double-strand DNA breaks, measured by alkaline and neutral single cell gel electrophoresis assays, respectively. The mean tail length of cells with single-strand breaks was increased by 1.8-, 2.7- and 3.7-fold (p<0.001) after treatment with 4, 8 and 12 microg/ml CSC, respectively. The tail length with double-strand breaks was also increased dose-dependently. These results were further supported by measurement of the mean tail moment: the increase in both single- and double-strand breaks were much more pronounced with increasing concentration of CSC, by up to 23.5-fold (p<0.0001 for both assays). To examine the DNA repair, cells were treated with CSC for 72 h, followed by CSC withdrawal and re-incubation of the cells with fresh medium for 24, 48, or 72 h. Both single- and double-strand DNA breaks were removed during the initial 24 h but no further removal of the damage was observed. Up to 80% of residual single- and double-strand DNA breaks (p<0.05) were found to persist at all CSC concentrations examined. Ellagic acid, a known antioxidant and free-radical scavenger, was found to significantly inhibit DNA breaks induced by CSC. Thus, free radicals may be a plausible source of CSC-induced DNA damage. These data show that CSC-mediated DNA strand breaks are highly persistent, and suggest that persistence of cigarette smoke-associated DNA damage in the presence of HPV infection may lead to increased mutations in cervical cells and ultimately higher cancer risk.

  11. Time-course effects of aerobic physical training in the prevention of cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Arruda, Alessandra C; Vieira, Rodolfo P; Guarnier, Flávia A; Suehiro, Camila L; Caleman-Neto, Agostinho; Olivo, Clarice R; Arantes, Petra M M; Almeida, Francine M; Lopes, Fernanda D T Q S; Ramos, Ercy M C; Cecchini, Rubens; Lin, Chin Jia; Martins, Milton Arruda

    2017-09-01

    A previous study by our group showed that regular exercise training (ET) attenuated pulmonary injury in an experimental model of chronic exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) in mice, but the time-course effects of the mechanisms involved in this protection remain poorly understood. We evaluated the temporal effects of regular ET in an experimental model of chronic CS exposure. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: Control (sedentary + air), Exercise (aerobic training + air), Smoke (sedentary + smoke), and Smoke + Exercise (aerobic training + smoke). Mice were exposed to CS and ET for 4, 8, or 12 wk. Exercise protected mice exposed to CS from emphysema and reductions in tissue damping and tissue elastance after 12 wk ( P < 0.01). The total number of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage increased in the Smoke group, mainly due to the recruitment of macrophages after 4 wk, neutrophils and lymphocytes after 8 wk, and lymphocytes and macrophages after 12 wk ( P < 0.01). Exercise attenuated this increase in mice exposed to CS. The protection conferred by exercise was mainly observed after exercise adaptation. Exercise increased IL-6 and IL-10 in the quadriceps and lungs ( P < 0.05) after 12 wk. Total antioxidant capacity and SOD was increased and TNF-α and oxidants decreased in lungs of mice exposed to CS after 12 wk ( P < 0.05). The protective effects of exercise against lung injury induced by cigarette smoke exposure suggests that anti-inflammatory mediators and antioxidant enzymes play important roles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease development mainly after the exercise adaptation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY These experiments investigated for the first time the temporal effects of regular moderate exercise training in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We demonstrate that aerobic conditioning had a protective effect in emphysema development induced by cigarette smoke exposure. This effect was most likely secondary to an

  12. IL-1α/IL-1R1 Expression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Mechanistic Relevance to Smoke-Induced Neutrophilia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Donna; Nikota, Jake K.; Zavitz, Caleb C. J.; Kelly, Ashling; Lambert, Kristen N.; Piper, Sian; Foster, Martyn L.; Goldring, James J. P.; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A.; Bassett, Jennifer; Bramson, Jonathan; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sleeman, Matthew; Kolbeck, Roland; Coyle, Anthony J.; Humbles, Alison A.; Stämpfli, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite this, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to COPD pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Methodology and Principal Findings The objective of this study was to assess IL-1 α and β expression in COPD patients and to investigate their respective roles in perpetuating cigarette smoke-induced inflammation. Functional studies were pursued in smoke-exposed mice using gene-deficient animals, as well as blocking antibodies for IL-1α and β. Here, we demonstrate an underappreciated role for IL-1α expression in COPD. While a strong correlation existed between IL-1α and β levels in patients during stable disease and periods of exacerbation, neutrophilic inflammation was shown to be IL-1α-dependent, and IL-1β- and caspase-1-independent in a murine model of cigarette smoke exposure. As IL-1α was predominantly expressed by hematopoietic cells in COPD patients and in mice exposed to cigarette smoke, studies pursued in bone marrow chimeric mice demonstrated that the crosstalk between IL-1α+ hematopoietic cells and the IL-1R1+ epithelial cells regulates smoke-induced inflammation. IL-1α/IL-1R1-dependent activation of the airway epithelium also led to exacerbated inflammatory responses in H1N1 influenza virus infected smoke-exposed mice, a previously reported model of COPD exacerbation. Conclusions and Significance This study provides compelling evidence that IL-1α is central to the initiation of smoke-induced neutrophilic inflammation and suggests that IL-1α/IL-1R1 targeted therapies may be relevant for limiting inflammation and exacerbations in COPD. PMID:22163019

  13. Cigarette smoke induces bronchoconstrictor hyperresponsiveness to substance P and inactivates airway neutral endopeptidase in the guinea pig. Possible role of free radicals.

    PubMed

    Dusser, D J; Djokic, T D; Borson, D B; Nadel, J A

    1989-09-01

    We examined the effects of acute exposure to cigarette smoke on the airway responses to substance P in anesthetized guinea pigs and on the activity of airway neutral endopeptidase (NEP). After exposure to air or to cigarette smoke we measured the change in total pulmonary resistance (RL) induced by increasing concentrations of aerosolized substance P in the absence or presence of the NEP inhibitor phosphoramidon. In the absence of phosphramidon the bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P were greater in cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs than in air-exposed animals. Phosphoramidon did not further potentiate the responses to substance P in smoke-exposed guinea pigs, whereas it did so in air-exposed animals. In the presence of phosphoramidon, bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P in animals exposed to air or to cigarette smoke were not different. Aerosols of SOD delivered before cigarette smoke exposures dramatically reduced smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P, whereas heat-inactivated SOD had no effect on smoke-induced hyper-responsiveness to substance P. Cigarette smoke solution inhibited NEP activity from tracheal homogenate in a concentration-dependent fashion, an inhibitory effect that was mostly due to the gas phase of the smoke, but not to nicotine. The mild chemical oxidant N-chlorosuccinimide mimicked the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of smoke solution on airway NEP activity. We conclude that cigarette smoke causes enhanced airway responsiveness to substance P in vivo by inactivating airway NEP. We suggest that cigarette smoke-induced inhibition of airway NEP is due to effects of free radicals.

  14. Cigarette smoke induces bronchoconstrictor hyperresponsiveness to substance P and inactivates airway neutral endopeptidase in the guinea pig. Possible role of free radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Dusser, D J; Djokic, T D; Borson, D B; Nadel, J A

    1989-01-01

    We examined the effects of acute exposure to cigarette smoke on the airway responses to substance P in anesthetized guinea pigs and on the activity of airway neutral endopeptidase (NEP). After exposure to air or to cigarette smoke we measured the change in total pulmonary resistance (RL) induced by increasing concentrations of aerosolized substance P in the absence or presence of the NEP inhibitor phosphoramidon. In the absence of phosphramidon the bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P were greater in cigarette smoke-exposed guinea pigs than in air-exposed animals. Phosphoramidon did not further potentiate the responses to substance P in smoke-exposed guinea pigs, whereas it did so in air-exposed animals. In the presence of phosphoramidon, bronchoconstrictor responses to substance P in animals exposed to air or to cigarette smoke were not different. Aerosols of SOD delivered before cigarette smoke exposures dramatically reduced smoke-induced hyperresponsiveness to substance P, whereas heat-inactivated SOD had no effect on smoke-induced hyper-responsiveness to substance P. Cigarette smoke solution inhibited NEP activity from tracheal homogenate in a concentration-dependent fashion, an inhibitory effect that was mostly due to the gas phase of the smoke, but not to nicotine. The mild chemical oxidant N-chlorosuccinimide mimicked the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of smoke solution on airway NEP activity. We conclude that cigarette smoke causes enhanced airway responsiveness to substance P in vivo by inactivating airway NEP. We suggest that cigarette smoke-induced inhibition of airway NEP is due to effects of free radicals. PMID:2474576

  15. Probing cigarette smoke-induced DNA single-strand breaks and screening natural protective compounds by use of magnetic bead-based chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongjun; Yu, Zicheng; Cao, Zhijuan; Lau, Choiwan

    2016-11-01

    Magnetic bead (MB)-based chemiluminescence (CL) ELISA can be a sample-thrifty, time-saving tool for evaluation of cigarette smoke-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) with high specificity. This article describes a novel approach using immobilized oligonucleotide on MBs to determine cigarette smoke-induced DNA SSBs and screen some protective natural compounds. Typically, fluorescein-labeled DNA (FAM-DNA) was immobilized on the MBs and then oxidized by the smoke in the absence or presence of natural compounds, and a part of FAM-DNA was fragmented due to cigarette smoke-induced DNA SSB and then detached from MBs whereas other non-broken FAM-DNA still remained on MBs. Then, any broken FAM-DNA fragments, complex tobacco smoke matrix, and other stuff related with natural compounds were conveniently washed away by a magnetic force, and thus possible interfering substances were completely removed. Finally, those remaining non-broken FAM-DNA on MBs were reacted with HRP-labeled anti-fluorescein antibody and then detected by CL ELISA. CL signal was converted to molar concentrations of the FAM-DNA by interpolation from a pre-determined standard linear calibration curve. The level of DNA SSBs induced by cigarette smoke was thus calculated using the method. A library of 30 natural products was subsequently screened, and two among them were found to protect DNA from oxidative damage and thus may be promising compounds for the development of new drugs. The method developed will be useful for quantitative screening of drug genotoxicity in terms of induction of DNA SSBs. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  16. Thoracic vagal efferent nerve stimulation evokes substance P-induced early airway bronchonstriction and late proinflammatory and oxidative injury in the rat respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping-Chia; Li, Sheng-Chung; Lin, Yuan-Ju; Liang, Jin-Tung; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Shaw, Chen-Fu

    2005-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of efferent thoracic vagus nerve (TVN) evoked neurogenic inflammation in respiratory tract of atropine-treated rats by an undefined mechanism. We explored whether efferent TVN stimulation via substance P facilitates neurogenic inflammation via action of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Our results showed that increased frequency of TVN stimulation concomitantly increased substance P-enhanced hypotension, and bronchoconstriction (increases in smooth muscle electromyographic activity and total pulmonary resistance). The enhanced SP release evoked the appearance of endothelial gap in silver-stained leaky venules, India-ink labeled extravasation, and accumulations of inflammatory cells in the respiratory tract, contributing to trachea plasma extravasation as well as increases in blood O (2)(-) and H(2)O(2) ROS amount. L-732138 (NK(1) receptor antagonist), SR-48968 (NK(2) receptor antagonist), dimethylthiourea (H(2)O(2) scavenger) or catechins (O (2)(-) and H(2)O(2) scavenger) pretreatment reduced efferent TVN stimulation-enhanced hypotension, bronchoconstriction, and plasma extravasation. Increased frequency of TVN stimulation significantly upregulated the expression of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in nuclear protein and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in total protein of the lower respiratory tract tissue. The upregulation of NF-kappaB and ICAM-1 was attenuated by NK receptor antagonist and antioxidants. In conclusion, TVN efferent stimulation increases substance P release to trigger NF-kappaB mediated ICAM-1 expression and O (2)(-) and H(2)O(2) ROS production in the respiratory tract.

  17. [Respiratory sounds].

    PubMed

    Marquet, P

    1995-01-01

    After having invented the stethoscope, Laennec published his treatise on auscultation in 1819, describing the acoustic events generated by ventilation and linking them with anatomopathological findings. The weak points of his semiology lay in its subjective and interpretative character, expressed by an imprecise and picturesque nomenclature. Technical studies of breath sounds began in the middle of the twentieth century, and this enabled the American Thoracic Society to elaborate a new classification of adventitious noises based on a few physical characteristics. This terminology replaced that of Laennec or his translators (except in France). The waveforms of the different normal and adventitious noises have been well described. However, only the study of the time evolution of their tone (frequency-amplitude-time relationship) will enable a complete analysis of these phenomena. This approach has been undertaken by a few teams but much remains to be done, in particular in relation to discontinuous noises (crackles). Technology development raises hope for the design, in near future, of automatic processes for respiratory noise detection and classification. Systematic research into the production mechanisms and sites of these noises has progressed equally. It should, in time, reinforce their semiological value and give to auscultation, either instrumental or using the stethoscope or instrumentally, an increased diagnostic power and the status of respiratory function test.

  18. Attenuation of smoke induced neuronal and physiological changes by bacoside rich extract in Wistar rats via down regulation of HO-1 and iNOS.

    PubMed

    Pandareesh, M D; Anand, T

    2014-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is well known herbal medicine for its neuropharmacological effects. It alleviates variety of disorders including neuronal and physiological changes. Crackers smoke is a potent risk factor that leads to free radical mediated oxidative stress in vivo. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the protective efficacy of B. monniera extract (BME) against crackers smoke induced neuronal and physiological changes via modulating inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in rats. Rats were exposed to smoke for 1h for a period of 3 weeks and consecutively treated with BME at three different dosages (i.e., 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg b.wt.). Our results elucidate that BME treatment ameliorates histopathalogical changes, reactive oxygen species levels, lipid peroxidation, acetylcholine esterase activity and brain neurotransmitter levels to normal. BME supplementation efficiently inhibited HO-1 expression and nitric oxide generation by down-regulating iNOS expression. Smoke induced depletion of antioxidant enzyme status, monoamine oxidase activity was also replenished by BME supplementation. Thus the present study indicates that BME ameliorates various impairments associated with neuronal and physiological changes in rats exposed to crackers smoke by its potent neuromodulatory, antioxidant and adaptogenic propensity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of On-Pump and Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery on Respiratory Function in the Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, Federica; Tsoutsouras, Theodoros; Cassisi, Cesare; Santonocito, Cristina; Gerry, Stephen; Astuto, Marinella; George, Shane; Sanfilippo, Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory complications are common after cardiac surgery and the use of extracorporeal circulation is one of the main causes of lung injury. We hypothesized a better postoperative respiratory function in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG) as compared with "on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting" (ONCABG). This is a retrospective, single-center study at a cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU) in a tertiary university hospital. Consecutive data on 339 patients undergoing elective CABG (n = 215 ONCABG, n = 124 OPCABG) were collected for 1 year from the ICU electronic medical records. We compared respiratory variables (Pao 2 , Pao 2 /Fio 2 ratio, Sao 2 , and Paco 2 ) at 7 predefined time points (ICU admission, postoperative hours 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24). We also evaluated time to extubation, rates of reintubation, and use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We used mixed-effects linear regression models (with time as random effect for clustering of repeated measures) adjusted for a predetermined set of covariates. The values of Pao 2 and Pao 2 /Fio 2 were significantly higher in the OPCABG group only at ICU admission (mean differences: 9.7 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.2; and 27, 95% CI 6.1-47.7, respectively). The OPCABG group showed higher Paco 2 , overall ( P = .02) and at ICU admission (mean difference 1.8 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.6-3), although mean values were always within normal range in both groups. No differences were seen in Sao 2 values, time to extubation, rate of reintubation rate, and use of postoperative NIV. Extubation rate was higher in OPCABG only at postoperative hour 12 (92% vs ONCABG 82%, P = .02). The OPCABG showed only marginal improvements of unlikely clinical meaning in oxygenation as compared to ONCABG in elective low-risk patients.

  20. Respiratory assessment.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Heidi

    The ability to carry out and document a full respiratory assessment is an essential skill for all nurses. The elements included are: an initial assessment, history taking, inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation and further investigations. A prompt initial assessment allows immediate evaluation of severity of illness and appropriate treatment measures may warrant instigation at this point. Following this, a comprehensive patient history will be elicited. Clinical examination of the patient follows and involves inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation. At this point, consideration must be given to preparation of a light, warm, quiet, private environment for examination and suitable patient positioning. Inspection is a comprehensive visual assessment, while palpation involves using touch to gather information. The next stages are percussion and auscultation. While percussion is striking the chest to determine the state of underlying tissues, auscultation entails listening to and interpreting sound transmission through the chest wall via a stethoscope. Finally, further investigations may be necessary to confirm or negate suspected diagnoses.

  1. Climate Change and Respiratory Infections.

    PubMed

    Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Motahari, Hooman; Taghizadeh Khamesi, Mojdeh; Sharifi, Arash; Campos, Michael; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2016-08-01

    The rate of global warming has accelerated over the past 50 years. Increasing surface temperature is melting glaciers and raising the sea level. More flooding, droughts, hurricanes, and heat waves are being reported. Accelerated changes in climate are already affecting human health, in part by altering the epidemiology of climate-sensitive pathogens. In particular, climate change may alter the incidence and severity of respiratory infections by affecting vectors and host immune responses. Certain respiratory infections, such as avian influenza and coccidioidomycosis, are occurring in locations previously unaffected, apparently because of global warming. Young children and older adults appear to be particularly vulnerable to rapid fluctuations in ambient temperature. For example, an increase in the incidence in childhood pneumonia in Australia has been associated with sharp temperature drops from one day to the next. Extreme weather events, such as heat waves, floods, major storms, drought, and wildfires, are also believed to change the incidence of respiratory infections. An outbreak of aspergillosis among Japanese survivors of the 2011 tsunami is one such well-documented example. Changes in temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, and air pollution influence viral activity and transmission. For example, in early 2000, an outbreak of Hantavirus respiratory disease was linked to a local increase in the rodent population, which in turn was attributed to a two- to threefold increase in rainfall before the outbreak. Climate-sensitive respiratory pathogens present challenges to respiratory health that may be far greater in the foreseeable future.

  2. Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyaline membrane disease (HMD); Infant respiratory distress syndrome; Respiratory distress syndrome in infants; RDS - infants ... improves slowly after that. Some infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome will die. This most often occurs ...

  3. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  4. Early Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptoms at 4 Years of Age, and Potential Effect Modification by Parental Allergy, Stressful Family Events, and Sex: A Prospective Follow-up Study of the PARIS Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rancière, Fanny; Bougas, Nicolas; Viola, Malika; Momas, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background: The relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and the incidence of asthma/allergy in preschool children has been widely studied, but results remain heterogeneous, possibly due to differences in methodology and susceptibility to TRAP. Objectives: We aimed to study the relation of early TRAP exposure with the development of respiratory/allergic symptoms and asthma during preschool years, and to investigate parental allergy, “stressful” family events, and sex as possible effect modifiers. Methods: We examined data of 2,015 children from the PARIS birth cohort followed up with repeated questionnaires completed by parents until age 4 years. TRAP exposure in each child’s first year of life was estimated by nitrogen oxides (NOx) air dispersion modeling, taking into account both home and day care locations. Association between TRAP exposure and patterns of wheezing, dry night cough, and rhinitis symptoms was studied using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and sex was investigated. Results: An interquartile range (26 μg/m3) increase in NOx levels was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of persistent wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.47). TRAP exposure was positively associated with persistent wheeze, dry cough, and rhinitis symptoms among children with a parental allergy, those experiencing stressful family events, and boys, but not in children whose parents did not have allergies or experience stressful events, or in girls (all interaction p-values < 0.2). Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis that not all preschool children are equal regarding TRAP health effects. Parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and male sex may increase their susceptibility to adverse respiratory effects of early TRAP exposure. Citation: Rancière F, Bougas N, Viola M

  5. CDC's Early Response to a Novel Viral Disease, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), September 2012-May 2014.

    PubMed

    Williams, Holly Ann; Dunville, Richard L; Gerber, Susan I; Erdman, Dean D; Pesik, Nicki; Kuhar, David; Mason, Karen A; Haynes, Lia; Rotz, Lisa; St Pierre, Jeanette; Poser, Sarah; Bunga, Sudhir; Pallansch, Mark A; Swerdlow, David L

    2015-01-01

    The first ever case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported in September 2012. This report describes the approaches taken by CDC, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, to respond to this novel virus, and outlines the agency responses prior to the first case appearing in the United States in May 2014. During this time, CDC's response integrated multiple disciplines and was divided into three distinct phases: before, during, and after the initial activation of its Emergency Operations Center. CDC's response to MERS-CoV required a large effort, deploying at least 353 staff members who worked in the areas of surveillance, laboratory capacity, infection control guidance, and travelers' health. This response built on CDC's experience with previous outbreaks of other pathogens and provided useful lessons for future emerging threats.

  6. CDC's Early Response to a Novel Viral Disease, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), September 2012–May 2014

    PubMed Central

    Dunville, Richard L.; Gerber, Susan I.; Erdman, Dean D.; Pesik, Nicki; Kuhar, David; Mason, Karen A.; Haynes, Lia; Rotz, Lisa; St. Pierre, Jeanette; Poser, Sarah; Bunga, Sudhir; Pallansch, Mark A.; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    The first ever case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was reported in September 2012. This report describes the approaches taken by CDC, in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, to respond to this novel virus, and outlines the agency responses prior to the first case appearing in the United States in May 2014. During this time, CDC's response integrated multiple disciplines and was divided into three distinct phases: before, during, and after the initial activation of its Emergency Operations Center. CDC's response to MERS-CoV required a large effort, deploying at least 353 staff members who worked in the areas of surveillance, laboratory capacity, infection control guidance, and travelers' health. This response built on CDC's experience with previous outbreaks of other pathogens and provided useful lessons for future emerging threats. PMID:26345122

  7. Decline in Early Childhood Respiratory Tract Infections in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study after Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Maria C.; Vestrheim, Didrik F.; Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri Eldevik; Stigum, Hein; London, Stephanie J.; Bergsaker, Marianne A. R.; Caugant, Dominique A.; Aaberge, Ingeborg S.; Nafstad, Per

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into the Norwegian Childhood Immunization Program in 2006. A substantial effectiveness of PCV7 immunization against invasive pneumococcal disease has been demonstrated, while evidence of the impact on respiratory tract infections are less consistent. METHODS This study included children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, which recruited pregnant women between 1999 and 2008. Maternal report of acute otitis media (AOM), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) and asthma in the child was compared with PCV7 immunization status, as obtained from the Norwegian Immunization Registry. Generalized linear models with the log link function were used to report adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS For children who had received three or more PCV7 immunizations by 12 months of age, the adjusted relative risks of AOM and LRTIs between 12 and 18 months were 0.86 [95% CI: 0.81, 0.91] and 0.78 [95% CI: 0.70, 0.87] respectively, when compared with non-immunized children. A reduced risk of AOM, RR 0.92 [95% CI: 0.90, 0.94], and LRTIs, RR 0.75 [95%CI: 0.71, 0.80], between 18 and 36 months of age was also identified among children who had received 3 or more immunizations by 18 months. No association was seen between PCV7 immunization and asthma at 36 months of age. CONCLUSION Reduced incidence proportions of AOM and LRTIs before 36 months of age were observed among children immunized with PCV7 through the childhood immunization program. PMID:22627867

  8. Absence of Association between Cord Specific Antibody Levels and Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Disease in Early Infants: A Case Control Study from Coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nyiro, Joyce Uchi; Sande, Charles Jumba; Mutunga, Martin; Kiyuka, Patience Kerubo; Munywoki, Patrick Kioo; Scott, John Anthony G; Nokes, David James

    2016-01-01

    The target group for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease prevention is infants under 6 months of age. Vaccine boosting of antibody titres in pregnant mothers could protect these young infants from severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated disease. Quantifying protective levels of RSV-specific maternal antibody at birth would inform vaccine development. A case control study nested in a birth cohort (2002-07) was conducted in Kilifi, Kenya; where 30 hospitalised cases of RSV-associated severe disease were matched to 60 controls. Participants had a cord blood and 2 subsequent 3-monthly blood samples assayed for RSV-specific neutralising antibody by the plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). Two sample paired t test and conditional logistic regression were used in analyses of log2PRNT titres. The mean RSV log2PRNT titre at birth for cases and controls were not significantly different (P = 0.4) and remained so on age-stratification. Cord blood PRNT titres showed considerable overlap between cases and controls. The odds of RSV disease decreased with increase in log2PRNT cord blood titre. There was a 30% reduction in RSV disease per unit increase in log2PRNT titre (<3months age group) but not significant (P = 0.3). From this study, there is no strong evidence of protection by maternal RSV specific antibodies from severe RSV disease. Cord antibody levels show wide variation with considerable overlap between cases and controls. It is likely that, there are additional factors to specific PRNT antibody levels which determine susceptibility to severe RSV disease. In addition, higher levels of neutralizing antibody beyond the normal range may be required for protection; which it is hoped can be achieved by a maternal RSV vaccine.

  9. How best to capture the respiratory consequences of prematurity?

    PubMed

    Ciuffini, Francesca; Robertson, Colin F; Tingay, David G

    2018-03-31

    Chronic respiratory morbidity is a common complication of premature birth, generally defined by the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, both clinically and in trials of respiratory therapies. However, recent data have highlighted that bronchopulmonary dysplasia does not correlate with chronic respiratory morbidity in older children born preterm. Longitudinally evaluating pulmonary morbidity from early life through to childhood provides a more rational method of defining the continuum of chronic respiratory morbidity of prematurity, and offers new insights into the efficacy of neonatal respiratory interventions. The changing nature of preterm lung disease suggests that a multimodal approach using dynamic lung function assessment will be needed to assess the efficacy of a neonatal respiratory therapy and predict the long-term respiratory consequences of premature birth. Our aim is to review the literature regarding the long-term respiratory outcomes of neonatal respiratory strategies, the difficulties of assessing dynamic lung function in infants, and potential new solutions. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  10. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzmann; de Brito, Auriléia Aparecida; Pelatti, Mayra; Brandão, Wesley Nogueira; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Greiffo, Flávia Regina; da Silveira, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira-Junior, Manuel Carneiro; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila; Halpern, Silvio; Nisenbaum, Marcelo Gil; Perin, Paulo; Czeresnia, Carlos Eduardo; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Aimbire, Flávio; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula; Zatz, Mayana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL) therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs) cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day) and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC), which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  11. Early Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Respiratory Symptoms at 4 Years of Age, and Potential Effect Modification by Parental Allergy, Stressful Family Events, and Sex: A Prospective Follow-up Study of the PARIS Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Rancière, Fanny; Bougas, Nicolas; Viola, Malika; Momas, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    The relation between traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure and the incidence of asthma/allergy in preschool children has been widely studied, but results remain heterogeneous, possibly due to differences in methodology and susceptibility to TRAP. We aimed to study the relation of early TRAP exposure with the development of respiratory/allergic symptoms and asthma during preschool years, and to investigate parental allergy, "stressful" family events, and sex as possible effect modifiers. We examined data of 2,015 children from the PARIS birth cohort followed up with repeated questionnaires completed by parents until age 4 years. TRAP exposure in each child's first year of life was estimated by nitrogen oxides (NO x ) air dispersion modeling, taking into account both home and day care locations. Association between TRAP exposure and patterns of wheezing, dry night cough, and rhinitis symptoms was studied using multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification by parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and sex was investigated. An interquartile range (26 μg/m 3 ) increase in NO x levels was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) of persistent wheezing at 4 years (adjusted OR = 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.47). TRAP exposure was positively associated with persistent wheeze, dry cough, and rhinitis symptoms among children with a parental allergy, those experiencing stressful family events, and boys, but not in children whose parents did not have allergies or experience stressful events, or in girls (all interaction p -values < 0.2). This study supports the hypothesis that not all preschool children are equal regarding TRAP health effects. Parental history of allergy, stressful family events, and male sex may increase their susceptibility to adverse respiratory effects of early TRAP exposure.

  12. Bioterrorism for the respiratory physician.

    PubMed

    Waterer, Grant W; Robertson, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Terrorist attacks by definition are designed to cause fear and panic. There is no question that a terrorist attack using biological agents would present a grave threat to stability of the society in which they were released. Early recognition of such a bioterrorist attack is crucial to containing the damage they could cause. As many of the most likely bioterrorism agents present with pulmonary disease, respiratory physicians may be crucial in the initial recognition and diagnosis phase, and certainly would be drawn into treatment of affected individuals. This review focuses on the biological agents thought most likely to be used by terrorists that have predominantly respiratory presentations. The primary focus of this review is on anthrax, plague, tularaemia, ricin, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B. The pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and treatment of these agents will be discussed as well as historical examples of their use. Other potential bioterrorism agents with respiratory manifestations will also be discussed briefly.

  13. Early caregiving stress exposure moderates the relation between respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity at 1 month and biobehavioral outcomes at age 3

    PubMed Central

    CONRADT, ELISABETH; BEAUCHAINE, THEODORE; ABAR, BEAU; LAGASSE, LINDA; SHANKARAN, SEETHA; BADA, HENRIETTA; BAUER, CHARLES; WHITAKER, TONI; HAMMOND, JANE; LESTER, BARRY

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing scientific interest in the psychophysiological functioning of children living in low-socioeconomic status (SES) contexts, though this research is complicated by knowledge that physiology–behavior relations often operate differently in these environments among adults. Importantly, such research is made more difficult because SES may be a proxy for a wide range of risk factors including poor caregiving and exposure to parental substance use. We used factor analysis to organize risk-exposure data collected from 827 children—many of whom were raised in low-SES contexts and exposed to substances prenatally—into dissociable components including economic stress, caregiving stress (e.g., stress the caregiver may experience, including parental psychopathology), and postnatal substance exposure. These factors, along with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity at age 1 month, were used to predict behavior dysregulation and resting RSA at age 3 years. A significant RSA Reactivity × Caregiving Stress interaction indicated that infants who exhibited high RSA reactivity at 1 month experienced the greatest behavior dysregulation at 3 years, but only when they were exposed to high levels of caregiving stress. Among African Americans, the highest resting RSA at 3 years was found in infants with less RSA reactivity, but only if they also experienced less caregiving stress. Our work is consistent with biological sensitivity to context, adaptive calibration, and allostatic load models, and highlights the importance of studying Physiology × Environment interactions in low-SES contexts for predicting behavior and resting RSA. PMID:26681620

  14. Quasispecies evolution of the prototypical genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus early during in vivo infection is rapid and tissue specific.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zen H; Wang, Xinglong; Wilson, Alison D; Dorey-Robinson, Daniel L W; Archibald, Alan L; Ait-Ali, Tahar; Frossard, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major infectious threat to the pig industry worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that microevolution within a quasispecies population can give rise to high sequence heterogeneity in PRRSV; potentially impacting the pathogenicity of the virus. Here, we report on micro-evolutionary events taking place within the viral quasispecies population in lung and lymph node 3 days post infection (dpi) following experimental in vivo infection with the prototypical Lelystad PRRSV (LV). Sequence analysis revealed 16 high frequency single nucleotide variants (SNV) or differences from the reference LV genome which are assumed to be representative of the consensus inoculum genome. Additionally, 49 other low frequency SNVs were also found in the inoculum population. At 3 dpi, a total of 9 and 10 SNVs of varying frequencies could already be detected in the LV population infecting the lung and lymph nodes, respectively. Interestingly, of these, three and four novel SNVs emerged independently in the two respective tissues when compared to the inoculum. The remaining variants, though already present at lower frequencies in the inoculum, were positively selected and their frequency increased within the quasispecies population. Hence, we were able to determine directly from tissues infected with PRRSV the repertoire of genetic variants within the viral quasispecies population. Our data also suggest that microevolution of these variants is rapid and some may be tissue-specific.

  15. Shifting the boundaries for early caffeine initiation in neonatal practice: Results of a prospective, multicenter study on very preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Borszewska-Kornacka, Maria Katarzyna; Hożejowski, Roman; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Lauterbach, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    There is growing evidence that supports the benefits of early use of caffeine in preterm neonates with RDS; however, no formal recommendations specifying the exact timing of therapy initiation have been provided. We compared neonatal outcomes in infants receiving early (initial dose on the 1st day of life) and late (initial dose on day 2+ of life) caffeine therapy. Using data from a prospective, cohort study, we identified 986 infants ≤32 weeks' gestation with RDS and assessed the timing of caffeine therapy initiation, need for ventilatory support, mortality and incidence of typical complications of prematurity. To adjust for baseline severity, the early and late caffeine groups were propensity score (PS) matched to 286 infants (1:1). Clinical outcomes were compared between the PS-matched groups. Early treatment with caffeine citrate was associated with a significantly reduced need for invasive ventilation (71.3% vs 83.2%; P = 0.0165) and total duration of mechanical ventilation (mean 5 ± 11.1 days vs 10.8 ± 14.6 days; P = 0.0000) and significantly lower odds of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) (OR 0.4827; 95% CI 0.2999-0.7787) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (OR 0.5686; 95% CI 0.3395-0.9523). The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (36.4% vs 45.8%) and rates of moderate and severe BPD were not significantly different between the two groups. The mortality rates were comparable between the two groups (8.6% vs 8.5%, P = ns). Early caffeine initiation was associated with a decreased need for invasive ventilatory support and lower incidence of IVH and PDA.

  16. A Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-regulated Akt-independent signaling promotes cigarette smoke-induced FRA-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Adiseshaiah, Pavan; Kalvakolanu, Dhananjaya V; Reddy, Sekhar P

    2006-04-14

    The FRA-1 proto-oncogene is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and is known to up-regulate the expression of genes involved in tumor progression and invasion. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway is also known to regulate these cellular processes. More importantly, respiratory toxicants and carcinogens activate both the PI3K-Akt pathway and FRA-1 expression in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. In this study we investigated a potential link between the PI3K-Akt pathway and the cigarette smoke (CS)-stimulated epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated FRA-1 induction in non-oncogenic HBE cells. Treatment of cells with LY294002, an inhibitor of the PI3K-Akt pathway, completely blocked CS-induced FRA-1 expression. Surprisingly pharmacological inhibition of Akt had no significant effect on CS-induced FRA-1 expression. Likewise the inhibition of protein kinase C zeta, which is a known downstream effector of PI3K, did not alter FRA-1 expression. We found that the PI3K through p21-activated kinase 1 regulates FRA-1 proto-oncogene induction by CS and the subsequent activation of the Elk1 and cAMP-response element-binding protein transcription factors that are bound to the promoter in HBE cells.

  17. Administration of intrapulmonary sodium polyacrylate to induce lung injury for the development of a porcine model of early acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Henderson, William R; Barnbrook, Julian; Dominelli, Paolo B; Griesdale, Donald Eg; Arndt, Tara; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Foster, Glen; Ackland, Gareth L; Xu, James; Ayas, Najib T; Sheel, Andrew W

    2014-12-01

    The loss of alveolar epithelial and endothelial integrity is a central component in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, experimental models investigating the mechanisms of epithelial injury are lacking. The purpose of the present study was to design and develop an experimental porcine model of ARDS by inducing lung injury with intrapulmonary administration of sodium polyacrylate (SPA). The present study was performed at the Centre for Comparative Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia. Human alveolar epithelial cells were cultured with several different concentrations of SPA; a bioluminescence technique was used to assess cell death associated with each concentration. In the anesthetized pig model (female Yorkshire X pigs (n = 14)), lung injury was caused in 11 animals (SPA group) by injecting sequential aliquots (5 mL) of 1% SPA gel in aqueous solution into the distal airway via a rubber catheter through an endotracheal tube. The SPA was dispersed throughout the lungs by manual bag ventilation. Three control animals (CON group) underwent all experimental procedures and measurements with the exception of SPA administration. The mean (± SD) ATP concentration after incubation of human alveolar epithelial cells with 0.1% SPA (0.92 ± 0.27 μM/well) was approximately 15% of the value found for the background control (6.30 ± 0.37 μM/well; p < 0.001). Elastance of the respiratory system (E RS) and the lung (E L) increased in SPA-treated animals after injury (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively). Chest wall elastance (E CW) did not change in SPA-treated animals. There were no differences in E RS, E L, or E CW in the CON group when pre- and post-injury values were compared. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed a significant shift toward neutrophil predominance from before to after injury in SPA-treated animals (p < 0.001) but not in the CON group (p = 0.38). Necropsy revealed

  18. Selective inhibition by aspirin and naproxen of mainstream cigarette smoke-induced genotoxicity and lung tumors in female mice.

    PubMed

    Balansky, Roumen; Ganchev, Gancho; Iltcheva, Marietta; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; D'Oria, Chiara; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in smoke-related lung carcinogenesis is still controversial. We have developed and validated a murine model for evaluating the tumorigenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) and its modulation by chemopreventive agents. In the present study, the protective effects of the nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitors aspirin and naproxen were investigated by using a total of 277 Swiss H neonatal mice of both genders. Groups of mice were exposed whole-body to MCS during the first 4 months of life, followed by an additional 3.5 months in filtered air in order to allow a better growth of tumors. Aspirin (1600 mg/kg diet) and naproxen (320 mg/kg diet) were given after weanling until the end of the experiment. After 4 months of exposure, MCS significantly enhanced the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of mice, and naproxen prevented such systemic genotoxic damage in female mice. After 7.5 months, exposure of mice to MCS resulted in the formation of lung tumors, both benign and malignant, and in several other histopathological lesions detectable both in the respiratory tract and in the urinary tract. Aspirin and, even more sharply, naproxen significantly inhibited the formation of lung tumors in MCS-exposed mice, but this protective effect selectively occurred in female mice only. These results lend support to the views that estrogens are involved in smoke-related pulmonary carcinogenesis and that NSAIDs have antiestrogenic properties. The two NSAIDs proved to be safe and efficacious in the experimental model used.

  19. SpO2/FiO2 ratio on hospital admission is an indicator of early acute respiratory distress syndrome development among patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Festic, Emir; Bansal, Vikas; Kor, Daryl J; Gajic, Ognjen

    2015-05-01

    Oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (SpO(2)/FiO(2)) has been validated as a surrogate marker for partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio among mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The validity of SpO(2)/FiO(2) measurements in predicting ARDS has not been studied. Recently, a Lung Injury Prediction Score (LIPS) has been developed to help identify patients at risk of developing ARDS. This was a secondary analysis of the LIPS-1 cohort. A multivariate logistic regression included all established variables for LIPS, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation 2, age, and comorbid conditions that could affect SpO(2)/FiO(2). The primary outcome was development of ARDS in the hospital. The secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, hospital day of ARDS development, and hospital day of death. Of the 5584 patients, we evaluated all 4646 with recorded SpO(2)/FiO(2) values. Median SpO(2)/FiO(2) in those who did and did not develop ARDS was 254 (100, 438) and 452 (329, 467), respectively. There was a significant association between SpO(2)/FiO(2) and ARDS (P ≤ .001). The SpO(2)/FiO(2) was found to be an independent predictor of ARDS in a "dose-dependent" manner; for SpO(2)/FiO(2) < 100--odds ratios (OR) 2.49 (1.69-3.64, P < .001), for SpO(2)/FiO(2) 100 < 200--OR 1.75 (1.16-2.58, P = .007), and for SpO(2)/FiO(2) 200 < 300--OR 1.62 (1.06-2.42, P = .025). The discriminatory characteristics of the multivariable model and SpO2/FiO2 as a single variable demonstrated area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 and AUC of 0.74, respectively. The SpO2/FiO2, measured within the first 6 hours after hospital admission, is an independent indicator of ARDS development among patients at risk. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction: pathophysiology and preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Meyer, Matthew J; Eikermann, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are responsible for significant increases in hospital cost as well as patient morbidity and mortality; respiratory muscle dysfunction represents a contributing factor. Upper airway dilator muscles functionally resist the upper airway collapsing forces created by the respiratory pump muscles. Standard perioperative medications (anesthetics, sedatives, opioids, and neuromuscular blocking agents), interventions (patient positioning, mechanical ventilation, and surgical trauma), and diseases (lung hyperinflation, obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea) have differential effects on the respiratory muscle subgroups. These effects on the upper airway dilators and respiratory pump muscles impair their coordination and function and can result in respiratory failure. Perioperative management strategies can help decrease the incidence of postoperative respiratory muscle dysfunction. Such strategies include minimally invasive procedures rather than open surgery, early and optimal mobilizing of respiratory muscles while on mechanical ventilation, judicious use of respiratory depressant anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents, and noninvasive ventilation when possible.

  1. Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in SMP30 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yohei; Sato, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Masataka; Baskoro, Hario; Karasutani, Keiko; Mitsui, Aki; Nurwidya, Fariz; Arano, Naoko; Kodama, Yuzo; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ishigami, Akihito; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-10-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a cigarette smoke (CS)-triggered disease with features of chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidants derived from CS can induce DNA damage and stress-induced premature cellular senescence in the respiratory system, which play significant roles in COPD. Therefore, antioxidants should provide benefits for the treatment of COPD; however, their therapeutic potential remains limited owing to the complexity of this disease. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been reported as a preventive and therapeutic antioxidant. Molecular H 2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radical accumulation with no known side effects, showing potential applications in managing oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. However, there have been no reports on the efficacy of molecular H 2 in COPD patients. In the present study, we used a mouse model of COPD to investigate whether CS-induced histological damage in the lungs could be attenuated by administration of molecular H 2 . We administered H 2 -rich pure water to senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice exposed to CS for 8 weeks. Administration of H 2 -rich water attenuated the CS-induced lung damage in the SMP30-KO mice and reduced the mean linear intercept and destructive index of the lungs. Moreover, H 2 -rich water significantly restored the static lung compliance in the CS-exposed mice compared with that in the CS-exposed H 2 -untreated mice. Moreover, treatment with H 2 -rich water decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage markers such as phosphorylated histone H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and senescence markers such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, and β-galactosidase in the CS-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that H 2 -rich pure water attenuated CS-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice by reducing CS-induced oxidative DNA damage and premature cell senescence in the lungs. Our

  2. Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by alleviating airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zibing; Geng, Wenye; Jiang, Chuanwei; Zhao, Shujun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Qin, Shucun; Li, Chenxu; Zhang, Xinfang; Si, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by tobacco smoke has been regarded as a great health problem worldwide. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline, a novel antioxidant, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and explore the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were made chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models via tobacco smoke exposure for 12 weeks and the rats were treated with 10 ml/kg hydrogen-rich saline intraperitoneally during the last 4 weeks. Lung function testing indicated hydrogen-rich saline decreased lung airway resistance and increased lung compliance and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s/forced vital capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. Histological analysis revealed that hydrogen-rich saline alleviated morphological impairments of lung in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. ELISA assay showed hydrogen-rich saline lowered the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. The content of malondialdehyde in lung tissue and serum was also determined and the data indicated hydrogen-rich saline suppressed oxidative stress reaction. The protein expressions of mucin MUC5C and aquaporin 5 involved in mucus hypersecretion were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA and the data revealed that hydrogen-rich saline down-regulated MUC5AC level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue and up-regulated aquaporin 5 level in lung tissue of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that administration of hydrogen-rich saline exhibits significant protective effect on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through alleviating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress and lessening mucus hypersecretion in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats

  3. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  4. Respiratory Issues in OI

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory Issues in Osteogenesis Imperfecta \\ Introduction The respiratory system’s job is to bring oxygen into the body and remove carbon dioxide, the waste product of breathing. Because oxygen is the fuel ...

  5. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  6. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    MedlinePlus

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000103.htm Acute respiratory distress syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung ...

  8. MSFC Respiratory Protection Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    CoVan, James P.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center Respiratory Protection program is provided in this poster display. Respiratory protection personnel, building, facilities, equipment, customers, maintenance and operational activities, and Dynatech fit testing details are described and illustrated.

  9. Early effects of ageing on the mechanical performance of isolated locomotory (EDL) and respiratory (diaphragm) skeletal muscle using the work-loop technique.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Jason; James, Rob S; Little, Alexander G; Cox, Val M; Duncan, Michael J; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-09-15

    Previous isolated muscle studies examining the effects of ageing on contractility have used isometric protocols, which have been shown to have poor relevance to dynamic muscle performance in vivo. The present study uniquely uses the work-loop technique for a more realistic estimation of in vivo muscle function to examine changes in mammalian skeletal muscle mechanical properties with age. Measurements of maximal isometric stress, activation and relaxation time, maximal power output, and sustained power output during repetitive activation and recovery are compared in locomotory extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and core diaphragm muscle isolated from 3-, 10-, 30-, and 50-wk-old female mice to examine the early onset of ageing. A progressive age-related reduction in maximal isometric stress that was of greater magnitude than the decrease in maximal power output occurred in both muscles. Maximal force and power developed earlier in diaphragm than EDL muscle but demonstrated a greater age-related decline. The present study indicates that ability to sustain skeletal muscle power output through repetitive contraction is age- and muscle-dependent, which may help rationalize previously reported equivocal results from examination of the effect of age on muscular endurance. The age-related decline in EDL muscle performance is prevalent without a significant reduction in muscle mass, and biochemical analysis of key marker enzymes suggests that although there is some evidence of a more oxidative fiber type, this is not the primary contributor to the early age-related reduction in muscle contractility. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Lungs and Respiratory System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Teens / Lungs and Respiratory System ... didn't breathe, you couldn't live. Lungs & Respiratory System Basics Each day we breathe about 20, ...

  11. [Undernutrition in chronic respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, lung cancer, infections, including also tuberculosis constitute the most frequent diseases in the word. Undernutrition frequently accompanies these diseases. Early diagnosis of malnutrition and implementation of appropriate treatment is very important. A nutritional interview and anthropometric examinations, such as body mass index, fat free mass and fat mass are used to diagnose it. Nutritional therapy affects the course and prognosis of these diseases. Diet should be individually adjusted to the calculated caloric intake that increases during exacerbation of disease, because of increased respiratory effort. Too large supply of energy can cause increase metabolism, higher oxygen consumption and PaCO2 increase each dangerous for patients with respiratory insufficiency. Main source of carbohydrates for these patients should be products with low glycemic index and with high dietary fiber contents. Large meals should be avoided since they cause rapid satiety, abdominal discomfort and have negative impact on the work of the respiratory muscles, especially of the diaphragm. Dietary supplements can be used in case of ineffectiveness of diet or for the patients with severe undernutrition.

  12. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)

    MedlinePlus

    SARS; Respiratory failure - SARS ... Complications may include: Respiratory failure Liver failure Heart failure ... 366. McIntosh K, Perlman S. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). ...

  13. Sestrin-2, a repressor of PDGFRβ signalling, promotes cigarette-smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice and is upregulated in individuals with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Heidler, Juliana; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Wempe, Frank; Seimetz, Michael; Bangsow, Thorsten; Tomasovic, Ana; Veit, Florian; Scheibe, Susan; Pichl, Alexandra; Weisel, Friederike; Lloyd, K. C. Kent; Jaksch, Peter; Klepetko, Walter; Weissmann, Norbert; von Melchner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is caused by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke and/or other environmental pollutants that are believed to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that gradually disrupt signalling pathways responsible for maintaining lung integrity. Here we identify the antioxidant protein sestrin-2 (SESN2) as a repressor of PDGFRβ signalling, and PDGFRβ signalling as an upstream regulator of alveolar maintenance programmes. In mice, the mutational inactivation of Sesn2 prevents the development of cigarette-smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema by upregulating PDGFRβ expression via a selective accumulation of intracellular superoxide anions (O2−). We also show that SESN2 is overexpressed and PDGFRβ downregulated in the emphysematous lungs of individuals with COPD and to a lesser extent in human lungs of habitual smokers without COPD, implicating a negative SESN2-PDGFRβ interrelationship in the pathogenesis of COPD. Taken together, our results imply that SESN2 could serve as both a biomarker and as a drug target in the clinical management of COPD. PMID:24046361

  14. Simvastatin mitigates functional and structural impairment of lung and right ventricle in a rat model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajie; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Lihong; Li, Zhu; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to investigate an effect of simvastatin on cigarette smoke-induced COPD. Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of simvastatin. Heart and lung tissues were harvested for histopathologic and morphometric analysis. Body weight of rat, mean liner intercept (MLI), mean alveolar number (MAN), lung function test, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) and 5-HTT level in serum and BALF were examined in experimental rats, respectively. Application of simvastatin mitigated peribronchiolar inflammation and pulmonary bullae formed in the smoke-exposed lungs with weight gain as compared to the smoking rats (P < 0.05). Simvastatin-treated rats showed slight but significant decreases in MLI and MAN with a partial reversal of lung function decline (all P < 0.05). Treatment with simvastatin resulted in a significant decrease not only in mPAP and RVHI but also in a 5-HTT level in serum and BALF (P < 0.01 or 0.05) with a good correlation between the 5-HTT level and mPAP or RVHI (r = 0.693 and 0.479; 0.675 and 0.508). Simvastatin partly reverses lung function decline and attenuates structural impairments of lung and right ventricle possibly through reducing 5-HTT content in the model of COPD.

  15. Simvastatin mitigates functional and structural impairment of lung and right ventricle in a rat model of cigarette smoke-induced COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yajie; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Lihai; Wang, Lihong; Li, Zhu; Sun, Wuzhuang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study is conducted to investigate an effect of simvastatin on cigarette smoke-induced COPD. Methods: Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of simvastatin. Heart and lung tissues were harvested for histopathologic and morphometric analysis. Body weight of rat, mean liner intercept (MLI), mean alveolar number (MAN), lung function test, mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP), right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) and 5-HTT level in serum and BALF were examined in experimental rats, respectively. Results: Application of simvastatin mitigated peribronchiolar inflammation and pulmonary bullae formed in the smoke-exposed lungs with weight gain as compared to the smoking rats (P < 0.05). Simvastatin-treated rats showed slight but significant decreases in MLI and MAN with a partial reversal of lung function decline (all P < 0.05). Treatment with simvastatin resulted in a significant decrease not only in mPAP and RVHI but also in a 5-HTT level in serum and BALF (P < 0.01 or 0.05) with a good correlation between the 5-HTT level and mPAP or RVHI (r = 0.693 and 0.479; 0.675 and 0.508). Conclusion: Simvastatin partly reverses lung function decline and attenuates structural impairments of lung and right ventricle possibly through reducing 5-HTT content in the model of COPD. PMID:25674219

  16. Sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of smoking-induced deprivation and its effect on quitting: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey.

    PubMed

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie

    2007-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of smokers who experience smoking-induced deprivation (SID), and to examine its effect on quit attempts, relapse and cessation. Waves 2 and 3 (2003-5) of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey were used, which is a prospective study of a cohort of smokers in the US, Canada, UK and Australia. SID was measured with the question "In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?" A total of 7802 smokers participated in the survey in wave 2, of whom 5408 were also interviewed in wave 3. The proportion of smokers who reported SID was highest in Australia (33%) and lowest in the UK (20%). Younger age, minority status and low income were associated with a higher probability of SID. Some of the other factors related to a higher probability of SID were higher level of nicotine dependence, having an intention to quit, and smoking to help one socialise or control weight. The relationship between SID and quit attempt was mediated by having an intention to quit and worrying that smoking would damage health and reduce the quality of life. The relationship between SID and relapse was mediated by perceived stress. SID was not associated with successful cessation. Many smokers experience deprivation that is the result of their smoking. Strategies to reduce the prevalence of smoking probably effect a general improvement in standards of living and reduction in deprivation.

  17. Decreased expression of 14-3-3 σ, an early event of malignant transformation of respiratory epithelium, also facilitates progression of squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Nan; Wu, Yongkai; Huang, Bo; Liu, Qian; Dong, Yinan; Ding, Jianqiao; Liu, Yongyu

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been shown that 14-3-3 σ serves as a tumor suppressor gene, and is downregulated in various tumor tissues. However, the role of 14-3-3 σ during the initiation and progression of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) is not well understood. Methods The expression status of 14-3-3 σ in archival tissue samples from 40 lung SqCC patients (36 with normal bronchia, 19 squamous metaplasia, and 17 dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, in their tissue samples) was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The proliferation rate and tumor formation ability of the H520 cell transfected with 14-3-3 σ was tested with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and nude mice subcutaneous injection, respectively. Results In the normal bronchial epithelia, 14-3-3 σ was highly expressed, whereas it was significantly decreased in precancerous and cancerous tissues. Compared with matched invasive cancer tissues, the expression level of 14-3-3 σ in squamous metaplasia was significantly higher (P = 0.049), while that in dysplasia/carcinoma in situ showed no significant changes (P = 0.135). Statistical analysis showed that the expression level of 14-3-3 σ in tumor tissue was associated with the differentiation grade of the tumor (P = 0.001) and the prognosis of the patient (P = 0.003). The overexpression of 14-3-3 σ significantly suppressed the proliferation of H520 cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The inactivation of 14-3-3 σ may be a very early event in tumorigenesis and could facilitate the initiation and progression of lung SqCC in a sustainable way. PMID:26557909

  18. Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) in C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice: strain differences in early host responses and exacerbation by nitrogen dioxide

    SciT

    Parker, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The studies reported here used genetic differences in susceptibility of C57BL/6N and C3H/HeN mice and exacerbation of the disease by nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) as tools in assessing the role of early host responses in the pathogenesis of MRM. The two strains did not differ in susceptibility to infection, but C3H/HeN mice were more susceptible to and had increased severity of lung lesions 14 days after intranasal inoculation as determined by 50% biological endpoints and morphometric analysis of tissues. Exposure to NO/sub 2/ for 4 hours prior to exposure to infectious aerosols exacerbated murine respiratory mycoplasmosis (MRM) by 7 daysmore » after exposure in both mouse strains. NO/sub 2/ appeared to affect host lung defense mechanisms responsible for limiting mycoplasmal growth in the lungs. The NO/sub 2/ exposure concentration required for this effect varied with the genetic background of the host, the dose of mycoplasmas administered, and the endpoint measured. Pulmonary clearance of radiolabeled M. pulmonis was determined in both mouse strains, and in C57BL/6N mice exposed to NO/sub 2/.« less

  19. Differential DNA hypermethylation of critical genes mediates the stage-specific tobacco smoke-induced neoplastic progression of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Andrea L; Thiagalingam, Arunthathi; Pan, Hongjie; Califano, Joseph; Cheng, Kuang-hung; Ponte, Jose F; Chinnappan, Dharmaraj; Nemani, Pratima; Sidransky, David; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2005-04-01

    Promoter DNA methylation status of six genes in samples derived from 27 bronchial epithelial cells and matching blood samples from 22 former/current smokers and five nonsmokers as well as 49 primary non-small cell lung cancer samples with corresponding blood controls was determined using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Lung tumor tissues showed a significantly higher frequency of promoter DNA methylation in p16, MGMT, and DAPK (P < 0.05; Fisher's exact test). p16 promoter DNA methylation in tumors was observed at consistently higher levels when compared with all the other samples analyzed (P = 0.001; Fisher's exact test). ECAD and DAPK exhibited statistically insignificant differences in their levels of DNA methylation among the tumors and bronchial epithelial cells from the smokers. Interestingly, similar levels of methylation were observed in bronchial epithelial cells and corresponding blood from smokers for all four genes (ECAD, p16, MGMT, and DAPK) that showed smoking/lung cancer-associated methylation changes. In summary, our data suggest that targeted DNA methylation silencing of ECAD and DAPK occurs in the early stages and that of p16 and MGMT in the later stages of lung cancer progression. We also provide preliminary evidence that peripheral lymphocytes could potentially be used as a surrogate for bronchial epithelial cells to detect altered DNA methylation in smokers.

  20. Respiratory disease in United States farmers

    PubMed Central

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; Long, Stuart; Rinsky, Jessica L; Henneberger, Paul K; Salo, Paivi M; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Farmers may be at increased risk for adverse respiratory outcomes compared with the general population due to their regular exposures to dusts, animals and chemicals. However, early life farm exposures to microbial agents may result in reduced risk. Understanding respiratory disease risk among farmers and identifying differences between farmers and other populations may lead to better understanding of the contribution of environmental exposures to respiratory disease risk in the general population. Methods We compared the prevalence of self-reported respiratory outcomes in 43548 participants from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort of farmers and their spouses from Iowa and North Carolina, with data from adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) over the same period (2005–2010). Results AHS participants had lower prevalences of respiratory diseases (asthma, adult-onset asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema), but higher prevalences of current respiratory symptoms (wheeze, cough and phlegm) even after controlling for smoking, body mass index and population characteristics. The overall prevalence of asthma in the AHS (7.2%, 95% CI 6.9 to 7.4) was 52% of that in NHANES (13.8%, 95% CI 13.3 to 14.3), although the prevalence of adult-onset asthma among men did not differ (3.6% for AHS, 3.7% for NHANES). Conversely, many respiratory symptoms were more common in the AHS than NHANES, particularly among men. Conclusions These findings suggest that farmers and their spouses have lower risk for adult-onset respiratory diseases compared with the general population, and potentially higher respiratory irritation as evidenced by increased respiratory symptoms. PMID:24913223

  1. Variation of p53 mutational spectra between carcinoma of the upper and lower respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Law, J C; Whiteside, T L; Gollin, S M; Weissfeld, J; El-Ashmawy, L; Srivastava, S; Landreneau, R J; Johnson, J T; Ferrell, R E

    1995-07-01

    Mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most common genetic alterations associated with human cancer. Tumor-associated p53 mutations often show characteristic tissue-specific profiles which may infer environmentally induced mutational mechanisms. The p53 mutational frequency and spectrum were determined for 95 carcinomas of the upper and lower respiratory tract (32 lung and 63 upper respiratory tract). Mutations were identified at a frequency of 30% in upper respiratory tract (URT) tumors and 31% in lung tumors. All 29 identified mutations were single-base substitutions. Comparison of the frequency of specific base substitutions between lung and URT showed a striking difference. Transitions occurred at a frequency of 68% in URT, but only 30% in lung. Mutations involving G:C-->A:T transitions, which are commonly reported in gastric and esophageal tumors, were the most frequently identified alteration in URT (11/19). Mutations involving G:C-->T:A transversions, which were relatively common in lung tumors (3/10) and are representative of tobacco smoke-induced mutations were rare in URT tumors (1/19). Interestingly, G:C-->A:T mutations at CpG sites, which are characteristic of endogenous processes, were observed frequently in URT tumors (9/19) but only rarely in lung tumors (1/10), suggesting that both endogenous and exogenous factors are responsible for the observed differences in mutational spectra between the upper and lower respiratory systems.

  2. Proposed Mode of Action for Acrolein Respiratory Toxicity Associated with Inhaled Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R Philip; Kushman, Mary; Chemerynski, Susan; Weil, Roxana; Fu, Xin; White, Marcella; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Rosenfeldt, Hans

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a mode of action (MOA) analysis that identifies key mechanisms in the respiratory toxicity of inhaled acrolein and proposes key acrolein-related toxic events resulting from the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Smoking causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and acrolein has been previously linked to the majority of smoking-induced noncancer respiratory toxicity. In contrast to previous MOA analyses for acrolein, this MOA focuses on the toxicity of acrolein in the lower respiratory system, reflecting the exposure that smokers experience upon tobacco smoke inhalation. The key mechanisms of acrolein toxicity identified in this proposed MOA include (1) acrolein chemical reactivity with proteins and other macromolecules of cells lining the respiratory tract, (2) cellular oxidative stress, including compromise of the important anti-oxidant glutathione, (3) chronic inflammation, (4) necrotic cell death leading to a feedback loop where necrosis-induced inflammation leads to more necrosis and oxidative damage and vice versa, (5) tissue remodeling and destruction, and (6) loss of lung elasticity and enlarged lung airspaces. From these mechanisms, the proposed MOA analysis identifies the key cellular processes in acrolein respiratory toxicity that consistently occur with the development of COPD: inflammation and necrosis in the middle and lower regions of the respiratory tract. Moreover, the acrolein exposures that occur as a result of smoking are well above exposures that induce both inflammation and necrosis in laboratory animals, highlighting the importance of the role of acrolein in smoking-related respiratory disease. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Common respiratory conditions of the newborn

    PubMed Central

    Gallacher, David J.; Hart, Kylie

    2016-01-01

    Key points Respiratory distress is a common presenting feature among newborn infants. Prompt investigation to ascertain the underlying diagnosis and appropriate subsequent management is important to improve outcomes. Many of the underlying causes of respiratory distress in a newborn are unique to this age group. A chest radiograph is crucial to assist in diagnosis of an underlying cause. Educational aims To inform readers of the common respiratory problems encountered in neonatology and the evidence-based management of these conditions. To enable readers to develop a framework for diagnosis of an infant with respiratory distress. The first hours and days of life are of crucial importance for the newborn infant as the infant adapts to the extra-uterine environment. The newborn infant is vulnerable to a range of respiratory diseases, many unique to this period of early life as the developing fluid-filled fetal lungs adapt to the extrauterine environment. The clinical signs of respiratory distress are important to recognise and further investigate, to identify the underlying cause. The epidemiology, diagnostic features and management of common neonatal respiratory conditions are covered in this review article aimed at all healthcare professionals who come into contact with newborn infants. PMID:27064402

  4. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Dependent Retention of Nuclear HuR Suppresses Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression Independent of DNA-Binding

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A.; Nair, Parameswaran; Rico de Souza, Angela; Gallouzi, Imed-Eddine; Rousseau, Simon; Di Marco, Sergio; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H.; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to man-made environmental toxicants, has emerged as an endogenous regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) by a mechanism that is poorly understood. In this study, we first used AhR-deficient (AhR−/−) primary pulmonary cells, together with pharmacological tools to inhibit new RNA synthesis, to show that the AhR is a prominent factor in the destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA. The destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA and subsequent suppression of cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression by the AhR was independent of its ability to bind the dioxin response element (DRE), thereby differentiating the DRE-driven toxicological AhR pathway from its anti-inflammatory abilities. We further describe that the AhR destabilizes Cox-2 mRNA by sequestering HuR within the nucleus. The role of HuR in AhR stabilization of Cox-2 mRNA was confirmed by knockdown of HuR, which resulted in rapid Cox-2 mRNA degradation. Finally, in the lungs of AhR−/− mice exposed to cigarette smoke, there was little Cox-2 mRNA despite robust COX-2 protein expression, a finding that correlates with almost exclusive cytoplasmic HuR within the lungs of AhR−/− mice. Therefore, we propose that the AhR plays an important role in suppressing the expression of inflammatory proteins, a function that extends beyond the ability of the AhR to respond to man-made toxicants. These findings open the possibility that a DRE-independent AhR pathway may be exploited therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory target. PMID:24086407

  5. Associations of interleukin-1 gene cluster polymorphisms with C-reactive protein concentration and lung function decline in smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Shumansky, Karey; Sin, Don D; Man, SF Paul; Akhabir, Loubna; Connett, John E; Anthonisen, Nicholas R; Paré, Peter D; Sandford, Andrew J; He, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We reported association of haplotypes formed by IL-1b (IL1B)-511C/T (rs16944) and a variable number of tandem repeats (rs2234663) in intron 3 of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) with rate of lung function decline in smoking-induced COPD. The aim of current study was to further investigate this association. Methods: We genotyped an additional 19 polymorphisms in IL1 cluster (including IL1A, IL1B and IL1RN) in non-Hispanic whites who had the fastest (n = 268) and the slowest (n = 292) decline of FEV1% predicted in the same study. We also analyzed the association of all 21 polymorphisms with serum CRP levels. Results: None of 21 polymorphisms showed significant association with rate of decline of lung function or CRP levels after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Before adjusting for multiple comparisons, only IL1RN_19327 (rs315949) showed significant association with lung function decline (P = 0.03, additive model). The frequencies of genotypes containing the IL1RN_19327A allele were 71.9% and 62.2%, respectively in the fast and slow decline groups (P = 0.02, odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.3); the IL1B_5200 (rs1143633) and rs2234663 in IL1RN were associated with serum CRP levels (P=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). Conclusions: No single marker was significantly associated with either rate of lung function decline or serum CRP levels. PMID:26722511

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent retention of nuclear HuR suppresses cigarette smoke-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression independent of DNA-binding.

    PubMed

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A; Nair, Parameswaran; Rico de Souza, Angela; Gallouzi, Imed-Eddine; Rousseau, Simon; Di Marco, Sergio; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to man-made environmental toxicants, has emerged as an endogenous regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) by a mechanism that is poorly understood. In this study, we first used AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-) ) primary pulmonary cells, together with pharmacological tools to inhibit new RNA synthesis, to show that the AhR is a prominent factor in the destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA. The destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA and subsequent suppression of cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression by the AhR was independent of its ability to bind the dioxin response element (DRE), thereby differentiating the DRE-driven toxicological AhR pathway from its anti-inflammatory abilities. We further describe that the AhR destabilizes Cox-2 mRNA by sequestering HuR within the nucleus. The role of HuR in AhR stabilization of Cox-2 mRNA was confirmed by knockdown of HuR, which resulted in rapid Cox-2 mRNA degradation. Finally, in the lungs of AhR(-/-) mice exposed to cigarette smoke, there was little Cox-2 mRNA despite robust COX-2 protein expression, a finding that correlates with almost exclusive cytoplasmic HuR within the lungs of AhR(-/-) mice. Therefore, we propose that the AhR plays an important role in suppressing the expression of inflammatory proteins, a function that extends beyond the ability of the AhR to respond to man-made toxicants. These findings open the possibility that a DRE-independent AhR pathway may be exploited therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory target.

  7. Respiratory Toxicology: 1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    AFAMRL-TR-81-81 D /a , 𔄁 RESPIRATORY TOXICOLOGY Annual Technical Report: 1981 P. E. NEWTON, Ph.D. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE OVERLOOK BRANCH...OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED RESPIRATORY TOXICOLOGY: 1981 Annual Technical June 1980 through May 198 Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8...ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side if necessary and Identify by block number) The Respiratory Toxicology research programs conducted at the Toxic Hazards

  8. The respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Zifko, U; Chen, R

    1996-10-01

    Neurological disorders frequently contribute to respiratory failure in critically ill patients. They may be the primary reason for the initiation of mechanical ventilation, or may develop later as a secondary complication. Disorders of the central nervous system leading to respiratory failure include metabolic encephalopathies, acute stroke, lesions of the motor cortex and brain-stem respiratory centres, and their descending pathways. Guillan-Barré syndrome, critical illness polyneuropathy and acute quadriplegic myopathy are the more common neuromuscular causes of respiratory failure. Clinical observations and pulmonary function tests are important in monitoring respiratory function. Respiratory electrophysiological studies are useful in the investigation and monitoring of respiratory failure. Transcortical and cervical magnetic stimulation can assess the central respiratory drive, and may be useful in determining the prognosis in ventilated patients, with cervical cord dysfunction. It is also helpful in the assessment of failure to wean, which is often caused by a combination of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Phrenic nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography of the diaphragm and chest wall muscles are useful to characterize neuropathies and myopathies affecting the diaphragm. Repetitive phrenic nerve stimulation can assess neuromuscular transmission defects. It is important to identify patients at risk of respiratory failure. They should be carefully monitored and mechanical ventilation should be initiated before the development of severe hypoxaemia.

  9. The human respiratory gate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory activity phasically alters membrane potentials of preganglionic vagal and sympathetic motoneurones and continuously modulates their responsiveness to stimulatory inputs. The most obvious manifestation of this 'respiratory gating' is respiratory sinus arrhythmia, the rhythmic fluctuations of electrocardiographic R-R intervals observed in healthy resting humans. Phasic autonomic motoneurone firing, reflecting the throughput of the system, depends importantly on the intensity of stimulatory inputs, such that when levels of stimulation are low (as with high arterial pressure and sympathetic activity, or low arterial pressure and vagal activity), respiratory fluctuations of sympathetic or vagal firing are also low. The respiratory gate has a finite capacity, and high levels of stimulation override the ability of respiration to gate autonomic responsiveness. Autonomic throughput also depends importantly on other factors, including especially, the frequency of breathing, the rate at which the gate opens and closes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia is small at rapid, and large at slow breathing rates. The strong correlation between systolic pressure and R-R intervals at respiratory frequencies reflects the influence of respiration on these two measures, rather than arterial baroreflex physiology. A wide range of evidence suggests that respiratory activity gates the timing of autonomic motoneurone firing, but does not influence its tonic level. I propose that the most enduring significance of respiratory gating is its use as a precisely controlled experimental tool to tease out and better understand otherwise inaccessible human autonomic neurophysiological mechanisms.

  10. The leukocyte-stiffening property of plasma in early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) revealed by a microfluidic single-cell study: the role of cytokines and protection with antibodies.

    PubMed

    Preira, Pascal; Forel, Jean-Marie; Robert, Philippe; Nègre, Paulin; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Xeridat, Francois; Bongrand, Pierre; Papazian, Laurent; Theodoly, Olivier

    2016-01-12

    Leukocyte-mediated pulmonary inflammation is a key pathophysiological mechanism involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Massive sequestration of leukocytes in the pulmonary microvasculature is a major triggering event of the syndrome. We therefore investigated the potential role of leukocyte stiffness and adhesiveness in the sequestration of leukocytes in microvessels. This study was based on in vitro microfluidic assays using patient sera. Cell stiffness was assessed by measuring the entry time (ET) of a single cell into a microchannel with a 6 × 9-μm cross-section under a constant pressure drop (ΔP = 160 Pa). Primary neutrophils and monocytes, as well as the monocytic THP-1 cell line, were used. Cellular adhesiveness to human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined using the laminar flow chamber method. We compared the properties of cells incubated with the sera of healthy volunteers (n = 5), patients presenting with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE; n = 6), and patients with ARDS (n = 22), of whom 13 were classified as having moderate to severe disease and the remaining 9 as having mild disease. Rapid and strong stiffening of primary neutrophils and monocytes was induced within 30 minutes (mean ET >50 seconds) by sera from the ARDS group compared with both the healthy subjects and the ACPE groups (mean ET <1 second) (p < 0.05). Systematic measurements with the THP-1 cell line allowed for the establishment of a strong correlation between stiffening and the severity of respiratory status (mean ET 0.82 ± 0.08 seconds for healthy subjects, 1.6 ± 1.0 seconds for ACPE groups, 10.5 ± 6.1 seconds for mild ARDS, and 20.0 ± 8.1 seconds for moderate to severe ARDS; p < 0.05). Stiffening correlated with the cytokines interleukin IL-1β, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor TNF-α, and IL-10 but not with interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β, IL-6, or IL-17. Strong stiffening was induced by IL-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α but not by IL-10, and

  11. Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Feng Ru; Loke, Weng Keong

    2012-09-01

    Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and Iran-Iraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in Iran-Iraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed.

  12. EARLY BIOMARKERS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY ALLERGEN EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Allergic asthma prevalence has been increasing in Western societies for several decades. Identification of potential allergens facilitates reduction in exposure and may reduce the risk of asthma development. Predictive models for recognition of sensitizers require th...

  13. Respiratory Care Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of respiratory care therapist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 18 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of respiratory care therapist. The following…

  14. Pneumococcal vaccination and chronic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Froes, Filipe; Roche, Nicolas; Blasi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Patients with COPD and other chronic respiratory diseases are especially vulnerable to viral and bacterial pulmonary infections, which are major causes of exacerbations, hospitalization, disease progression, and mortality in COPD patients. Effective vaccines could reduce the burden of respiratory infections and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, but what is the evidence for this? This article reviews and discusses the existing evidence for pneumococcal vaccination efficacy and its changing role in patients with chronic respiratory diseases, especially COPD. Specifically, the recent Community-Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults (CAPITA) showed the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in older adults, many of whom had additional risk factors for pneumococcal disease, including chronic lung diseases. Taken together, the evidence suggests that pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations can prevent community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations in COPD patients, while pneumococcal vaccination early in the course of COPD could help maintain stable health status. Despite the need to prevent pulmonary infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and evidence for the efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine coverage and awareness are low and need to be improved. Respiratory physicians need to communicate the benefits of vaccination more effectively to their patients who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases.

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is viral respiratory illness that was ...

  16. A Molecular atlas of Xenopus respiratory system development.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Scott A; Thi Tran, Hong; Wlizla, Marcin; Mancini, Pamela; Shifley, Emily T; Bloor, Sean D; Han, Lu; Vleminckx, Kris; Wert, Susan E; Zorn, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory system development is regulated by a complex series of endoderm-mesoderm interactions that are not fully understood. Recently Xenopus has emerged as an alternative model to investigate early respiratory system development, but the extent to which the morphogenesis and molecular pathways involved are conserved between Xenopus and mammals has not been systematically documented. In this study, we provide a histological and molecular atlas of Xenopus respiratory system development, focusing on Nkx2.1+ respiratory cell fate specification in the developing foregut. We document the expression patterns of Wnt/β-catenin, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components in the foregut and show that the molecular mechanisms of respiratory lineage induction are remarkably conserved between Xenopus and mice. Finally, using several functional experiments we refine the epistatic relationships among FGF, Wnt, and BMP signaling in early Xenopus respiratory system development. We demonstrate that Xenopus trachea and lung development, before metamorphosis, is comparable at the cellular and molecular levels to embryonic stages of mouse respiratory system development between embryonic days 8.5 and 10.5. This molecular atlas provides a fundamental starting point for further studies using Xenopus as a model to define the conserved genetic programs controlling early respiratory system development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Respiratory symptoms in Lancashire textile weavers.

    PubMed

    Raza, S N; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, C A; Niven, R M; Faragher, E B

    1999-08-01

    To investigate a large population of cotton textile weavers for reported respiratory symptoms relative to occupational factors, smoking, and exposure to dust. Cotton processing is known to produce a respiratory disease known as byssinosis particularly in the early processes of cotton spinning. Relatively little is known about the respiratory health of the cotton weavers who produce cloth from spun cotton. By the time cotton is woven many of the original contaminants have been removed. 1295 operatives from a target population of 1428 were given an interviewer led respiratory questionnaire. The presence of upper and lower respiratory tract symptoms were sought and the work relatedness of these symptoms determined by a stem questionnaire design. Also occupational and demographic details were obtained and spirometry and personal dust sampling performed. Byssinosis was present in only four people (0.3%). Chronic bronchitis had a moderate overall prevalence of about 6% and was related predominantly to smoking. There were several other work related respiratory symptoms (persistent cough 3.9%, chronic production of phlegm 3.6%, chest tightness 4.8%, wheezing 5.4%, and breathlessness 2.3%). All of these were predicted predominantly by smoking (either past or present), with no consistent independent effect of exposure to dust. Work related eye and nasal symptoms were more common (10.4% and 16.9% respectively). Byssinosis is a rare respiratory symptom in cotton weaving. Other work related respiratory symptoms were reported but their presence was predominantly related to smoking with no consistent effects of exposure to dust.

  18. Respiratory medicine of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Juergen

    2011-05-01

    Noninfectious and infectious causes have been implicated in the development of respiratory tract disease in reptiles. Treatment modalities in reptiles have to account for species differences in response to therapeutic agents as well as interpretation of diagnostic findings. Data on effective drugs and dosages for the treatment of respiratory diseases are often lacking in reptiles. Recently, advances have been made on the application of advanced imaging modalities, especially computed tomography for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of reptiles. This article describes common infectious and noninfectious causes of respiratory disease in reptiles, including diagnostic and therapeutic regimen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Amanda Marie; Bear, Natasha; Blair, Eve; Langdon, Katherine; Moshovis, Lisa; Steer, Kellie; Wilson, Andrew C

    2018-03-19

    To determine the early predictors of respiratory hospital admissions in young people with cerebral palsy (CP). A 3-year prospective cohort study using linked data. Children and young people with CP, aged 1 to 26 years. Self-reported and carer-reported respiratory symptoms were linked to respiratory hospital admissions (as defined by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision codes) during the following 3 years. 482 participants (including 289 males) were recruited. They were aged 1 to 26 years (mean 10 years, 10 months; SD 5 years, 11 months) at the commencement of the study, and represented all Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) levels. During the 3-year period, 55 (11.4%) participants had a total of 186 respiratory hospital admissions, and spent a total of 1475 days in hospital. Statistically significant risk factors for subsequent respiratory hospital admissions over 3 years in univariate analyses were GMFCS level V, at least one respiratory hospital admission in the year preceding the survey, oropharyngeal dysphagia, seizures, frequent respiratory symptoms, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, at least two courses of antibiotics in the year preceding the survey, mealtime respiratory symptoms and nightly snoring. Most risk factors for respiratory hospital admissions are potentially modifiable. Early identification of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the management of seizures may help prevent serious respiratory illness. One respiratory hospital admission should trigger further evaluation and management to prevent subsequent respiratory illness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... It's been added to your dashboard . Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. Almost ... antiviral is medicine that kills infections caused by viruses. How can you help protect your baby from ...

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes mild, cold-like symptoms in adults and older healthy children. It can cause serious problems in ... tests can tell if your child has the virus. There is no specific treatment. You should give ...

  2. Occupational Respiratory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... other particles. Types of occupational respiratory disease include: coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, also known as Black Lung Disease ... include: Dust from things such as wood, cotton, coal, asbestos, silica, and talc. Pesticides, drug or enzyme ...

  3. Respiratory disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Niharika; Chen, Kenneth; Hardy, Erica; Powrie, Raumond

    2015-07-01

    Many physiological and anatomical changes of pregnancy affect the respiratory system. These changes often affect the presentation and management of the various respiratory illnesses in pregnancy. This article focuses on several important respiratory issues in pregnancy. The management of asthma, one of the most common chronic illnesses in pregnancy, remains largely unchanged compared to the nonpregnant state. Infectious respiratory illness, including pneumonia and tuberculosis, are similarly managed in pregnancy with antibiotics, although special attention may be needed for antibiotic choices with more pregnancy safety data. When mechanical ventilation is necessary, consideration should be given to the maternal hemodynamics of pregnancy and fetal oxygenation. Maintaining maternal oxygen saturation above 95% is recommended to sustain optimal fetal oxygenation. Cigarette smoking has known risks in pregnancy, and current practice guidelines recommend offering cognitive and pharmacologic interventions to pregnant women to assist in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring respiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Nava, S

    1998-12-01

    The respiratory system consists of two main parts, the lung and the ventilatory pump. The latter consists of the bony structure of the thorax, the central respiratory controllers, the inspiratory and expiratory muscles, and the nerves innervating these muscles. Respiratory muscle fatigue occurs when respiratory muscle endurance is exceeded. Muscle fatigue is defined as a condition in which there is a reduction in the capacity for developing force and/or velocity of a muscle, resulting from muscle activity, and which is reversible by rest. The respiratory muscles are somewhat difficult to assess and the techniques employed are still relatively primitive. The most important methods of respiratory muscles function assessment are: 1) the vital capacity manoeuvre, which depends on maximum inspiratory and expiratory effort by the muscles and may be a useful indicator of respiratory muscle function; 2) radiological screening has been proposed for the detection of diaphragm paralysis. This may be helpful if the paralysis is unilateral, but bilateral paralysis is difficult to detect; and 3) respiratory muscles strength may be assessed with either voluntary or nonvoluntary manoeuvres. The function of the inspiratory muscles is assessed with 3 voluntary dependent manoeuvres. They are the so called Müller manoeuvre (or maximal inspiratory pressure), the sniff test and the combined test. All these three manoeuvres generate a pressure that is a reflection of complex interactions between several muscle groups since the efforts produce different mechanisms of activity of inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Two techniques are presently employed to assess diaphragm function, not being dependent on the patient's motivation: electrical phrenic nerve stimulation and cervical magnetic stimulation. Since it is less painful, magnetic cervical stimulation overcomes some of the difficulties encountered during electrical stimulation. With these two techniques recordings of diaphragmatic

  5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dustin K; Seales, Sajeewane; Budzik, Carol

    2017-01-15

    Bronchiolitis is a common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of this infection. RSV is transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets either directly from an infected person or self-inoculation by contaminated secretions on surfaces. Patients with RSV bronchiolitis usually present with two to four days of upper respiratory tract symptoms such as fever, rhinorrhea, and congestion, followed by lower respiratory tract symptoms such as increasing cough, wheezing, and increased respiratory effort. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics updated its clinical practice guideline for diagnosis and management of RSV bronchiolitis to minimize unnecessary diagnostic testing and interventions. Bronchiolitis remains a clinical diagnosis, and diagnostic testing is not routinely recommended. Treatment of RSV infection is mainly supportive, and modalities such as bronchodilators, epinephrine, corticosteroids, hypertonic saline, and antibiotics are generally not useful. Evidence supports using supplemental oxygen to maintain adequate oxygen saturation; however, continuous pulse oximetry is no longer required. The other mainstay of therapy is intravenous or nasogastric administration of fluids for infants who cannot maintain their hydration status with oral fluid intake. Educating parents on reducing the risk of infection is one of the most important things a physician can do to help prevent RSV infection, especially early in life. Children at risk of severe lower respiratory tract infection should receive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, in up to five monthly doses. Prophylaxis guidelines are restricted to infants born before 29 weeks' gestation, infants with chronic lung disease of prematurity, and infants and children with hemodynamically significant heart disease.

  6. Respiratory Infections: Respiratory Infections Challenge Child Care Centers. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Albert M.; Henderson, Frederick W.

    This report, the fifth in the National Center for Early Development & Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlight" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during the "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses preventing respiratory infections in child care centers.…

  7. Managing respiratory problems in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hull, James H; Ansley, Les; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Parsons, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Respiratory problems are common in athletes of all abilities and can significantly impact upon their health and performance. In this article, we provide an overview of respiratory physiology in athletes. We also discuss the assessment and management of common clinical respiratory conditions as they pertain to athletes, including airways disease, respiratory tract infection and pneumothorax. We focus on providing a pragmatic approach and highlight important caveats for the physician treating respiratory conditions in this highly specific population.

  8. Foods and respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Novembre, E; de Martino, M; Vierucci, A

    1988-05-01

    Foods may induce respiratory symptoms by both reaginic and nonreaginic mechanisms. Asthma is one of the most common respiratory manifestations in children, and it is well known that many factors may provoke an attack. When considering the relationship between foods and asthma, we must keep in mind that food allergy may coexist with an inhalant allergy and that other nonallergens, such as pollutants, smoke, or additives, may modulate or modify bronchial reactivity and thus favor the food allergen action. In a study using clinical history, prick test, radioallergosorbent test, and double-blind food challenge, we demonstrated respiratory symptoms related to food allergy in 13 of 140 (9.2%) children with asthma. Asthma, in particular, was demonstrated in 8 of 140 (5.7%) patients. Food allergy respiratory symptoms are, in our experience, almost always associated with other clinical manifestations (e.g., cutaneous, gastrointestinal). The recognition of food-dependent IgE-mediated respiratory symptoms is essentially limited to those cases characterized by food allergy with asthmatic expression. It is possible, however, that in many cases foods may have a nonspecific role in the determination of asthma or in the preparation of bronchi for the possible consequent stimulus.

  9. History of mechanical ventilation may affect respiratory mechanics evolution in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Perraki, Helen; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Tromaropoulos, Andreas; Sotiropoulou, Christina; Roussos, Charis

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mechanical ventilation (MV) before acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on subsequent evolution of respiratory mechanics and blood gases in protectively ventilated patients with ARDS. Nineteen patients with ARDS were stratified into 2 groups according to ARDS onset relative to the onset of MV: In group A (n = 11), MV was applied at the onset of ARDS; in group B (n = 8), MV had been initiated before ARDS. Respiratory mechanics and arterial blood gas were assessed in early (respiratory system decreased (8.3 +/- 1.8 vs 6.0 +/- 2.1 cm H(2)O L(-1) s(-1)) from early to late ARDS. In group B, static elastance of respiratory system increased in the late stage (30.4 +/- 7.8 vs 36.4 +/- 9.9 cm H(2)O/L). In both groups, positive end-expiratory pressure application resulted in Pao(2)/fractional inspired oxygen concentration improvement and minimal resistance of respiratory system decreases in both stages. In protectively ventilated patients with ARDS, late alteration of respiratory mechanics occurs more commonly in patients who have been ventilated before ARDS onset, suggesting that the history of MV affects the subsequent progress of ARDS even when using protective ventilation.

  10. A Kinome-Wide Small Interfering RNA Screen Identifies Proviral and Antiviral Host Factors in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication, Including Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase and Early Secretory Pathway Proteins

    PubMed Central

    de Wilde, Adriaan H.; Wannee, Kazimier F.; Scholte, Florine E. M.; Goeman, Jelle J.; ten Dijke, Peter; Snijder, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To identify host factors relevant for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication, we performed a small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screen targeting the human kinome. Protein kinases are key regulators of many cellular functions, and the systematic knockdown of their expression should provide a broad perspective on factors and pathways promoting or antagonizing coronavirus replication. In addition to 40 proteins that promote SARS-CoV replication, our study identified 90 factors exhibiting an antiviral effect. Pathway analysis grouped subsets of these factors in specific cellular processes, including the innate immune response and the metabolism of complex lipids, which appear to play a role in SARS-CoV infection. Several factors were selected for in-depth validation in follow-up experiments. In cells depleted for the β2 subunit of the coatomer protein complex (COPB2), the strongest proviral hit, we observed reduced SARS-CoV protein expression and a >2-log reduction in virus yield. Knockdown of the COPB2-related proteins COPB1 and Golgi-specific brefeldin A-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GBF1) also suggested that COPI-coated vesicles and/or the early secretory pathway are important for SARS-CoV replication. Depletion of the antiviral double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) enhanced virus replication in the primary screen, and validation experiments confirmed increased SARS-CoV protein expression and virus production upon PKR depletion. In addition, cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) was identified as a novel antiviral host factor in SARS-CoV replication. The inventory of pro- and antiviral host factors and pathways described here substantiates and expands our understanding of SARS-CoV replication and may contribute to the identification of novel targets for antiviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Replication of all viruses, including SARS-CoV, depends on and is influenced by cellular pathways. Although

  11. Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Kênia Kp; Nascimento, Lucas R; Ada, Louise; Polese, Janaine C; Avelino, Patrick R; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-07-01

    After stroke, does respiratory muscle training increase respiratory muscle strength and/or endurance? Are any benefits carried over to activity and/or participation? Does it reduce respiratory complications? Systematic review of randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Adults with respiratory muscle weakness following stroke. Respiratory muscle training aimed at increasing inspiratory and/or expiratory muscle strength. Five outcomes were of interest: respiratory muscle strength, respiratory muscle endurance, activity, participation and respiratory complications. Five trials involving 263 participants were included. The mean PEDro score was 6.4 (range 3 to 8), showing moderate methodological quality. Random-effects meta-analyses showed that respiratory muscle training increased maximal inspiratory pressure by 7 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 14) and maximal expiratory pressure by 13 cmH2O (95% CI 1 to 25); it also decreased the risk of respiratory complications (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.96) compared with no/sham respiratory intervention. Whether these effects carry over to activity and participation remains uncertain. This systematic review provided evidence that respiratory muscle training is effective after stroke. Meta-analyses based on five trials indicated that 30minutes of respiratory muscle training, five times per week, for 5 weeks can be expected to increase respiratory muscle strength in very weak individuals after stroke. In addition, respiratory muscle training is expected to reduce the risk of respiratory complications after stroke. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the benefits are carried over to activity and participation. PROSPERO (CRD42015020683). [Menezes KKP, Nascimento LR, Ada L, Polese JC, Avelino PR, Teixeira-Salmela LF (2016) Respiratory muscle training increases respiratory muscle strength and reduces respiratory complications after stroke: a systematic review.Journal of Physiotherapy62: 138-144]. Copyright © 2016 Australian

  12. Respiratory diagnostic possibilities during closed circuit anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Verkaaik, A P; Erdmann, W

    1990-01-01

    An automatic feed back controlled totally closed circuit system (Physioflex) has been developed for quantitative practice of inhalation anesthesia and ventilation. In the circuit system the gas is moved unidirectionally around by a blower at 70 l/min. In the system four membrane chambers are integrated for ventilation. Besides end-expiratory feed back control of inhalation anesthetics, and inspiratory closed loop control of oxygen, the system offers on-line registration of flow, volume and respiratory pressures as well as a capnogram and oxygen consumption. Alveolar ventilation and static compliance can easily be derived. On-line registration of oxygen consumption has proven to be of value for determination of any impairment of tissue oxygen supply when the oxygen delivery has dropped to critical values. Obstruction of the upper or lower airways are immediately detected and differentiated. Disregulations of metabolism, e.g. in malignant hyperthermia, are seen in a pre-crisis phase (increase of oxygen consumption and of CO2 production), and therapy can be started extremely early and before a disastrous condition has developed. Registration of compliance is only one of the continuously available parameters that guarantee a better and adequate control of lung function (e.g. atalectasis is early detected). The newly developed sophisticated anesthesia device enlarges tremendously the monitoring and respiratory diagnostic possibilities of artificial ventilation, gives new insights in the (patho)physiology and detects disturbances of respiratory parameters and metabolism in an early stage.

  13. Respiratory Compromise as a New Paradigm for the Care of Vulnerable Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Morris, Timothy A; Gay, Peter C; MacIntyre, Neil R; Hess, Dean R; Hanneman, Sandra K; Lamberti, James P; Doherty, Dennis E; Chang, Lydia; Seckel, Maureen A

    2017-04-01

    Acute respiratory compromise describes a deterioration in respiratory function with a high likelihood of rapid progression to respiratory failure and death. Identifying patients at risk for respiratory compromise coupled with monitoring of patients who have developed respiratory compromise might allow earlier interventions to prevent or mitigate further decompensation. The National Association for the Medical Direction of Respiratory Care (NAMDRC) organized a workshop meeting with representation from many national societies to address the unmet needs of respiratory compromise from a clinical practice perspective. Respiratory compromise may arise de novo or may complicate preexisting lung disease. The group identified distinct subsets of respiratory compromise that present similar opportunities for early detection and useful intervention to prevent respiratory failure. The subtypes were characterized by the pathophysiological mechanisms they had in common: impaired control of breathing, impaired airway protection, parenchymal lung disease, increased airway resistance, hydrostatic pulmonary edema, and right-ventricular failure. Classification of acutely ill respiratory patients into one or more of these categories may help in selecting the screening and monitoring strategies that are most appropriate for the patient's particular pathophysiology. Standardized screening and monitoring practices for patients with similar mechanisms of deterioration may enhance the ability to predict respiratory failure early and prevent its occurrence. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. Respiratory Muscle Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gransee, Heather M.; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle’s plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles. PMID:23798306

  15. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    SciT

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.

  16. Viral respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Moise, N S

    1985-09-01

    An overview of the more commonly encountered viral diseases of the dog and cat is presented. The reader is acquainted with the principles of antiviral therapy and the drugs that have been studied for use in animal viral respiratory diseases. An update on vaccination principles and guidelines is provided.

  17. Middle East respiratory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Hui, David S; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-09-05

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a highly lethal respiratory disease caused by a novel single-stranded, positive-sense RNA betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Dromedary camels, hosts for MERS-CoV, are implicated in direct or indirect transmission to human beings, although the exact mode of transmission is unknown. The virus was first isolated from a patient who died from a severe respiratory illness in June, 2012, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. As of May 31, 2015, 1180 laboratory-confirmed cases (483 deaths; 40% mortality) have been reported to WHO. Both community-acquired and hospital-acquired cases have been reported with little human-to-human transmission reported in the community. Although most cases of MERS have occurred in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, cases have been reported in Europe, the USA, and Asia in people who travelled from the Middle East or their contacts. Clinical features of MERS range from asymptomatic or mild disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure resulting in death, especially in individuals with underlying comorbidities. No specific drug treatment exists for MERS and infection prevention and control measures are crucial to prevent spread in health-care facilities. MERS-CoV continues to be an endemic, low-level public health threat. However, the virus could mutate to have increased interhuman transmissibility, increasing its pandemic potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-07-25

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA.

  19. Respiratory failure in diabetic ketoacidosis

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Nikifor K; Rohrscheib, Mark; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Dorin, Richard I; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory failure complicating the course of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. Detection of respiratory failure in DKA requires focused clinical monitoring, careful interpretation of arterial blood gases, and investigation for conditions that can affect adversely the respiration. Conditions that compromise respiratory function caused by DKA can be detected at presentation but are usually more prevalent during treatment. These conditions include deficits of potassium, magnesium and phosphate and hydrostatic or non-hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Conditions not caused by DKA that can worsen respiratory function under the added stress of DKA include infections of the respiratory system, pre-existing respiratory or neuromuscular disease and miscellaneous other conditions. Prompt recognition and management of the conditions that can lead to respiratory failure in DKA may prevent respiratory failure and improve mortality from DKA. PMID:26240698

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    MedlinePlus

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... for Disease Control and Prevention website. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Frequently asked questions and answers. www. ...

  1. Respiratory cancers and pollution.

    PubMed

    Ding, N; Zhou, N; Zhou, M; Ren, G-M

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the major public health problem worldwide, irrespective of the socio-economic status of the countries. Even though the overall mortality from cancer is higher in the western countries, the cancer burden is on the rise in under-developed countries, with a projected 81-100% increase by 2030, mostly due to pollution and tobacco use. Respiratory cancers affect the lung, larynx, trachea, and bronchus and depending on the location of the cancer, the symptoms change and also the risks, incidence and survival outcomes differ accordingly. Besides tobacco use, chronic exposure to household pollution is known to be associated with elevated risk of lung cancer and other cancers. Women and children living in severe poverty in the underdeveloped countries are exposed most to household air pollution and, thus, suffer its consequences maximally, and household air pollution, specifically arising from solid fuel burning, which accounts for nearly 4 million deaths throughout the world annually. Cancers affecting the respiratory tract, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal and other solid fuel burning. Lung cancer, which is of two types, small cell lung carcinoma and the non-small cell lung cancer, is the most common and fatal cancer. Even though tobacco has been viewed as the major risk for respiratory cancers, it is now evident that household pollution, exposure to asbestos, chromium and arsenic etc, all pose a significant risk for respiratory cancers. Preventive steps to curtail the many sources of air pollution by improving living conditions and reducing the occupational exposure hazards like welding, industrial work etc., are markedly needed to control the incidence of respiratory cancers.

  2. Respiratory, cardiovascular and other physiological consequences of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Gratziou, Christina

    2009-02-01

    Smoking cessation is associated with substantial reductions in tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. Based on the current literature, the beneficial effects of quitting are particularly evident on pulmonary and cardiovascular function, but the negative physiological effects of cessation are less well documented. The objective of this article was to review systematically data on the physiological effects of smoking cessation. Articles based upon clinical trials, randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses were selected from titles and abstracts obtained via a MEDLINE search (May 2003-May 2008). Additional studies were identified from the bibliographies of reviewed literature. Smoking cessation is associated with improved lung function and a reduction in the presence and severity of respiratory symptoms. These changes, apparent within months of quitting, are sustained with long-term abstinence. The underlying pathophysiologies of smoking-induced airway inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are partially reversed following cessation in healthy ex-smokers, but not in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoking cessation is also associated with substantially improved cardiovascular function and reduced risk of primary and secondary cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the overall long-term health benefits are unquestionable, smoking cessation is also associated with other possible undesirable short-term physiological effects such as weight gain, hypertension, constipation and mouth ulcers; and altered activity of the enzyme cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which metabolises many commonly used drugs. The negative physiological effects of smoking cessation may adversely affect a smoker's attempt to quit, and physicians should provide their smoking patients with motivation and regular encouragement and support when attempting to quit, whilst educating them on the health benefits of abstinence. Additionally, since cigarette smoke is a potent

  3. Clinical experience with respiratory syncytial virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Pedro A

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is at times associated with life-threatening lower respiratory tract illness in infancy. Severe infection during the first year of life may be an important risk factor or indicator for the development of asthma in early childhood. Severe infections primarily occur in healthy infants, and young infants and children with specific risk factors. However, RSV causes respiratory infections in all age groups. Indeed it is now recognized that RSV disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. RSV infection remains difficult to treat, and prevention is a worldwide goal. For this reason there has been an intensive effort to develop an effective and safe RSV vaccine. Initial infection with RSV affords limited protection to reinfection, yet repeated episodes decrease the risk for lower respiratory tract illness. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1980, trials of several candidate RSV vaccines failed to attain the desired safety and protection against natural infection. Some vaccine types either failed to elicit immunogenicity, as with the live subcutaneous vaccine, or resulted in exaggerated disease on natural exposure to the virus, as with the formalin-inactivated (FI) type. Currently vaccine candidates are being developed based on the molecular virology of RSV. Recent formulations of candidate RSV vaccines have focused on subunit vaccines [such as purified fusion protein (PFP)], subunit vaccines combined with nonspecific immune activating adjuvants, live attenuated vaccines (including cold passaged, temperature-sensitive or cpts mutants), genetically engineered live attenuated vaccines and polypeptide vaccines.

  4. [Respiratory handicap. Recognition, evaluation and social benefits].

    PubMed

    Marsac, J; Pujet, J C

    1983-01-01

    The medico-social aspects of respiratory handicap pose some perplexing problems, notably in their recognition, rigorous evaluation and in the granting of social security benefits. The clinical and respiratory function data should be standardised and classified according to type and significance of respiratory disease and also according to the degree of co-operation and understanding of the patient. The respiratory handicap should be evaluated after considering the functional disability engendered by the disorder and their socio-professional repercussions. The abnormality in the lungs should be measured by resting tests; the degree of disability by exercise studies; the socio-professional handicap by ergonometric tests to assess the scale of the demands and requirements of family and social and professional life, indeed the cultural and economic style of the individual concerned. Such combined studies would enable recognition of severe chronic respiratory handicap leading to decisions for exemption certificates, such as cases of severe respiratory failure in patients requiring supplementary treatment for oxygen therapy or assisted ventilation. The benefits and grants offered to those with respiratory handicaps would involve a number of rights relating to: care, work, costs of replacement of workers in the event of prolonged sick leave or the benefits of an invalidity pension. There will be other allowances such as invalidity cards, lodging special studies and other rights particularly relating to lodging and special equipment. The present scale is difficult to use both because of its lack of specificity and its ill-chosen terminology. For better balance between the handicap and the benefits offered, a common and more flexible system, with a printed table should be at hand for the doctor to use for certain decisions: long term illness, period of invalidity or early retirement because of medical incapacity. Within each table a sub-section should exist to allow for

  5. Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

    PubMed

    Ayres, J G; Forsberg, B; Annesi-Maesano, I; Dey, R; Ebi, K L; Helms, P J; Medina-Ramón, M; Windt, M; Forastiere, F

    2009-08-01

    Climate change will affect individuals with pre-existing respiratory disease, but the extent of the effect remains unclear. The present position statement was developed on behalf of the European Respiratory Society in order to identify areas of concern arising from climate change for individuals with respiratory disease, healthcare workers in the respiratory sector and policy makers. The statement was developed following a 2-day workshop held in Leuven (Belgium) in March 2008. Key areas of concern for the respiratory community arising from climate change are discussed and recommendations made to address gaps in knowledge. The most important recommendation was the development of more accurate predictive models for predicting the impact of climate change on respiratory health. Respiratory healthcare workers also have an advocatory role in persuading governments and the European Union to maintain awareness and appropriate actions with respect to climate change, and these areas are also discussed in the position statement.

  6. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  7. Respiratory fluid mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Grotberg, James B.

    2011-01-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from “capillary-elastic instabilities,” as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the “oscillating butter knife;” liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg–Borgas–Gaver shock. PMID:21403768

  8. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  9. Nanotechnology in respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Omlor, Albert Joachim; Nguyen, Juliane; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-05-29

    Like two sides of the same coin, nanotechnology can be both boon and bane for respiratory medicine. Nanomaterials open new ways in diagnostics and treatment of lung diseases. Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems can help against diseases such as lung cancer, tuberculosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Moreover, nanoparticles can be loaded with DNA and act as vectors for gene therapy in diseases like cystic fibrosis. Even lung diagnostics with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) profits from new nanoparticle based contrast agents. However, the risks of nanotechnology also have to be taken into consideration as engineered nanomaterials resemble natural fine dusts and fibers, which are known to be harmful for the respiratory system in many cases. Recent studies have shown that nanoparticles in the respiratory tract can influence the immune system, can create oxidative stress and even cause genotoxicity. Another important aspect to assess the safety of nanotechnology based products is the absorption of nanoparticles. It was demonstrated that the amount of pulmonary nanoparticle uptake not only depends on physical and chemical nanoparticle characteristics but also on the health status of the organism. The huge diversity in nanotechnology could revolutionize medicine but makes safety assessment a challenging task.

  10. Respiratory care manpower issues.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Paul; Drumheller, Lois; Carlow, John J

    2006-03-01

    Although respiratory care is a relatively new profession, its practitioners are deeply involved in providing patient care in the critical care. In preparation for writing this article, we sought to explore the respiratory therapy manpower needs and activities designed to fulfill those needs in critical care practice. We began by delineating the historical development of respiratory care as a profession, the development of its education, and the professional credentialing system. We then conducted several literature reviews with few articles generated. We requested and received data from the American Association for Respiratory Care (AARC), The National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC), and the Committee on Accreditation of Respiratory Care education (CoARC) relative to their membership, number of credentialed individuals, and educational program student and graduate data for 2000 through 2004. We then conducted two electronic surveys. Survey 1 was a six-item survey that examined the use of mandatory overtime in respiratory care departments. We used a convenience sample of 30 hospitals stratified by size (or=500 beds). Survey 2 was a five-item instrument distributed by blast E-mail to the Society of Critical Care Medicine's Respiratory Care Section members and members of the RC_World list serve. This survey elicited 51 usable and non-duplicative responses from geographically and size-varied institutions. We analyzed these data in several ways from distribution analysis to one-way analysis of variance procedure and appropriate post hoc analysis techniques. Where appropriate, a matched-pairs analysis was performed and these were compared across the variables intensive care unit (ICU) beds per actual number of respiratory care practitioners (RCPs) and ICU beds per preferred number of RCPs. The data gathered from the professional organizations indicated a relatively stable attrition rate (35.2%+/-1.7-3.1%), even in the face of varying

  11. Impact of nasopharyngeal microbiota on the development of respiratory tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects. PubMed was used to search for all studies published over the last 15 years using the following key words: "microbiota" or "microbioma" and "nasopharyngeal" or "respiratory" or "nasal" and "children" or "paediatric" or "infant". Analysis of the literature showed that respiratory microbiota can regulate health and disease development in the respiratory tract. Like the gut microbiota, the respiratory microbiota is established at birth, and early respiratory microbiota composition determines bacterial succession patterns and respiratory health in children. Protective and dangerous bacteria have been identified, and this can be considered the base for developing new approaches to diseases that respond poorly to traditional interventions. Reconstitution of missing microbes can be achieved by the administration of pre- and probiotics. Modulation of respiratory microbiota by favouring colonisation of the upper respiratory tract by beneficial commensals can interfere with the proliferation and activity of resident pathobionts and is a possible new measure to reduce the risk of disease. However, further studies are needed because a deeper understanding of these and related issues can be transferred to clinical practice.

  12. Erythropoietin-Mediated Regulation of Central Respiratory Command.

    PubMed

    Seaborn, Tommy; Caravagna, Céline

    2017-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a cytokine expressed throughout the body, including in the central nervous system where it can act as a breathing modulator in the central respiratory network. In vitro, Epo allows maintaining the activity of respiratory neurons during acute hypoxia, resulting in inhibition of the hypoxia-induced rhythm depression. In vivo, Epo action on the central respiratory command results in enhancement of the acute hypoxic ventilatory response, allowing a better oxygenation of the body by improvement of gases exchanges in the lungs. Importantly, this effect of Epo is age-dependent, being observed at adulthood and at both early and late postnatal ages, but not at middle postnatal ages, when an important setup of the central respiratory command occurs. Epo regulation of the central respiratory command involves at least two intracellular signaling pathways, PI3K-Akt and MEK-ERK pathways. However, the exact mechanism underlying the action of Epo on the central respiratory control remains to be deciphered, as well as the exact cell types and nuclei involved in this control. Epo-mediated effect on the central respiratory command is regulated by several factors, including hypoxia, sex hormones, and an endogen antagonist. Although more knowledge is needed before reaching the clinical trial step, Epo seems to be a promising therapeutic treatment, notably against newborn breathing disorders. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interventions to prevent respiratory diseases - Nutrition and the developing world.

    PubMed

    Karim, Tasneem; Muhit, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2017-03-01

    Malnutrition is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and nutrition plays a critical role in both acute and chronic respiratory conditions. Inadequacies in the nutritional requirements of a developing lung in utero and in early life can compromise the respiratory system integrity and result in poor lung function, reduced protection against infections, greater likelihood of acute illnesses in childhood and chronic illness in adulthood. Nutritional interventions harness great potential in reducing respiratory illness related morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In this review we have summarized the findings from published systematic reviews/meta-analysis, experimental and observational studies that looked into different nutritional interventions for preventing respiratory diseases in developing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0378 TITLE: Improving Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL...Aug 2015 - 14 Aug 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CordCorInjury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Improvi g Survival and Promoting Respiratory Motor Function After... respiratory complications. This application proposes to help improve survival, decrease early dependence on mechanical ventilation, and restore breathing

  15. Implementing a bedside assessment of respiratory mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Chen, Guang-Qiang; Shore, Kevin; Shklar, Orest; Martins, Concetta; Devenyi, Brian; Lindsay, Paul; McPhail, Heather; Lanys, Ashley; Soliman, Ibrahim; Tuma, Mazin; Kim, Michael; Porretta, Kerri; Greco, Pamela; Every, Hilary; Hayes, Chris; Baker, Andrew; Friedrich, Jan O; Brochard, Laurent

    2017-04-04

    Despite their potential interest for clinical management, measurements of respiratory mechanics in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are seldom performed in routine practice. We introduced a systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in our clinical practice. After the first year of clinical use, we retrospectively assessed whether these measurements had any influence on clinical management and physiological parameters associated with clinical outcomes by comparing their value before and after performing the test. The respiratory mechanics assessment constituted a set of bedside measurements to determine passive lung and chest wall mechanics, response to positive end-expiratory pressure, and alveolar derecruitment. It was obtained early after ARDS diagnosis. The results were provided to the clinical team to be used at their own discretion. We compared ventilator settings and physiological variables before and after the test. The physiological endpoints were oxygenation index, dead space, and plateau and driving pressures. Sixty-one consecutive patients with ARDS were enrolled. Esophageal pressure was measured in 53 patients (86.9%). In 41 patients (67.2%), ventilator settings were changed after the measurements, often by reducing positive end-expiratory pressure or by switching pressure-targeted mode to volume-targeted mode. Following changes, the oxygenation index, airway plateau, and driving pressures were significantly improved, whereas the dead-space fraction remained unchanged. The oxygenation index continued to improve in the next 48 h. Implementing a systematic respiratory mechanics test leads to frequent individual adaptations of ventilator settings and allows improvement in oxygenation indexes and reduction of the risk of overdistention at the same time. The present study involves data from our ongoing registry for respiratory mechanics (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02623192 . Registered 30 July 2015).

  16. Metformin-associated respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Sean M; Cumpston, Kirk; Lipsky, Martin S; Patel, Nirali; Leikin, Jerrold B

    2004-01-01

    We present an 84-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, and bladder cancer who presented to the emergency department after the police found him disoriented and confused. Metformin therapy began 3 days before, and he denied any overdose or suicidal ideation. Other daily medications included glipizide, fluticasone, prednisone, aspirin, furosemide, insulin, and potassium supplements. In the emergency department, his vital signs were significant for hypertension (168/90), tachycardia (120 bpm), and Kussmaul respirations at 24 breaths per minute. Oxygen saturation was 99% on room air, and a fingerstick glucose was 307 mg/dL. He was disoriented to time and answered questions slowly. Metformin was discontinued, and by day 3, the patient's vital signs and laboratory test results normalized. He has been asymptomatic at subsequent follow-up visits. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a well-known phenomenon. Respiratory alkalosis may be an early adverse event induced by metformin prior to the development of lactic acidosis.

  17. Chest Wall Diseases: Respiratory Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tzelepis, George E

    2018-06-01

    The chest wall consists of various structures that function in an integrated fashion to ventilate the lungs. Disorders affecting the bony structures or soft tissues of the chest wall may impose elastic loads by stiffening the chest wall and decreasing respiratory system compliance. These alterations increase the work of breathing and lead to hypoventilation and hypercapnia. Respiratory failure may occur acutely or after a variable period of time. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of respiratory function in specific diseases and disorders of the chest wall, and highlights pathogenic mechanisms of respiratory failure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Confalonieri, Marco; Salton, Francesco; Fabiano, Francesco

    2017-06-30

    Since its first description, the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been acknowledged to be a major clinical problem in respiratory medicine. From July 2015 to July 2016 almost 300 indexed articles were published on ARDS. This review summarises only eight of them as an arbitrary overview of clinical relevance: definition and epidemiology, risk factors, prevention and treatment. A strict application of definition criteria is crucial, but the diverse resource-setting scenarios foster geographic variability and contrasting outcome data. A large international multicentre prospective cohort study including 50 countries across five continents reported that ARDS is underdiagnosed, and there is potential for improvement in its management. Furthermore, epidemiological data from low-income countries suggest that a revision of the current definition of ARDS is needed in order to improve its recognition and global clinical outcome. In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances. Drug-based preventive strategies remain a major challenge, since two recent trials on aspirin and statins failed to reduce the incidence in at-risk patients. A new disease-modifying therapy is awaited: some recent studies promised to improve the prognosis of ARDS, but mortality and disabling complications are still high in survivors in intensive care. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  19. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION INDUCED BY RESPIRATORY SYNCTIAL VIRUS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a negative-stranded RNA virus, is a common viral pathogen for respiratory infection in both children and immunocompromised adults. Early host defense may play a critical role in determining the severity of the infection. To gain further insight ...

  20. Respiratory Therapy and Respiratory Therapy Technician. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This program guide identifies primary considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of respiratory therapy and respiratory therapy technician programs. An occupational description and program content are presented. The curriculum framework specifies the exact course title, course number, levels of instruction, major course content,…

  1. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  2. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  3. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  4. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  5. 10 CFR 850.28 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Respiratory protection. 850.28 Section 850.28 Energy... Respiratory protection. (a) The responsible employer must establish a respiratory protection program that complies with the respiratory protection program requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134, Respiratory Protection...

  6. Effects of Smoking on Respiratory Capacity and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Alphonso, Vania A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information concerning the possible early effects of smoking on measures of respiratory capacity and control in young adult female smokers vs. nonsmokers. In particular, maximum performance test results (vital capacity and maximum phonation time) and measures of air pressures and airflows during voiceless,…

  7. Fibulin-1 regulates the pathogenesis of tissue remodeling in respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Cooley, Marion A; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Hsu, Alan C-Y; Nair, Prema M; Haw, Tatt Jhong; Fricker, Michael; Gellatly, Shaan L; Kim, Richard Y; Inman, Mark D; Tjin, Gavin; Wark, Peter A B; Walker, Marjorie M; Horvat, Jay C; Oliver, Brian G; Argraves, W Scott; Knight, Darryl A; Burgess, Janette K; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-06-16

    Airway and/or lung remodeling, involving exaggerated extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition, is a critical feature common to pulmonary diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Fibulin-1 (Fbln1), an important ECM protein involved in matrix organization, may be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. We found that Fbln1 was increased in COPD patients and in cigarette smoke-induced (CS-induced) experimental COPD in mice. Genetic or therapeutic inhibition of Fbln1c protected against CS-induced airway fibrosis and emphysema-like alveolar enlargement. In experimental COPD, this occurred through disrupted collagen organization and interactions with fibronectin, periostin, and tenascin-c. Genetic inhibition of Fbln1c also reduced levels of pulmonary inflammatory cells and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines (TNF-α, IL-33, and CXCL1) in experimental COPD. Fbln1c -/- mice also had reduced airway remodeling in experimental chronic asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. Our data show that Fbln1c may be a therapeutic target in chronic respiratory diseases.

  8. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is the number one disease affecting US swine. It is caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV) and is recognized as reproductive failure of sows and respiratory problems of piglets and growing pigs. This book chapter is part of the Office of International E...

  9. Bovine Respiratory Disease: Sex matters

    To evaluate a potential sexual dimorphic innate immune response to respiratory disease, 8 steers and 7 heifers (BW=280±4 kg) were subjected to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge utilizing BHV-1 (intranasal; 1.0x10^8 PFU/mL/nostril) at -72h and Mannheimia haemolytica (MH; intrat...

  10. Doping and respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Casali, L; Pinchi, G; Puxeddu, E

    2007-03-01

    Historically many different drugs have been used to enhance sporting performances. The magic elixir is still elusive and the drugs are still used despite the heavy adverse effects. The respiratory system is regularly involved in this research probably because of its central location in the body with several connections to the cardiovascular system. Moreover people are aware that O2 consumption and its delivery to mitochondria firstly depend on ventilation and on the respiratory exchanges. The second step consists in the tendency to increase V'O2 max and to prolong its availability with the aim of improving the endurance time and to relieve the fatigue. Many methods and substances had been used in order to gain an artificial success. Additional oxygen, autologous and homologous transfusion and erythropoietin, mainly the synthetic type, have been administered with the aim of increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the tissues. Some compounds like stimulants and caffeine are endowed of excitatory activity on the CNS and stimulate pulmonary ventilation. They did not prove to have any real activity in supporting the athletic performances. Beta-adrenergic drugs, particularly clenbuterol, when administered orally or parenterally develop a clear illicit activity on the myosin fibres and on the muscles as a whole. Salbutamol, terbutaline, salmeterol and formoterol are legally admitted when administrated by MDI in the treatment of asthma. The prevalence of asthma and bronchial hyperactivity is higher in athletes than amongst the general population. This implies that clear rules must be provided to set a correct diagnosis of asthma in the athletes and a correct therapy to align with the actual guidelines according to the same rights of the "other" asthmatic patients.

  11. Respiratory infections during air travel.

    PubMed

    Leder, K; Newman, D

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals undertake air travel annually. Issues regarding cabin air quality and the potential risks of transmission of respiratory infections during flight have been investigated and debated previously, but, with the advent of severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza outbreaks, these issues have recently taken on heightened importance. Anecdotally, many people complain of respiratory symptoms following air travel. However, studies of ventilation systems and patient outcomes indicate the spread of pathogens during flight occurs rarely. In the present review, aspects of the aircraft cabin environment that affect the likelihood of transmission of respiratory pathogens on airplanes are outlined briefly and evidence for the occurrence of outbreaks of respiratory illness among airline passengers are reviewed.

  12. Loss of CDKL5 disrupts respiratory function in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Liao, Wenlin

    2018-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) is an X-linked gene encoding a serine-threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in CDKL5 cause neurological and psychiatric symptoms, including early-onset seizures, motor dysfunction, autistic features and sleep breathing abnormalities in patients. It remains to be addressed whether loss of CDKL5 causes respiratory dysfunction in mice. Here, we examined the respiratory pattern of male Cdkl5 -/y mice at 1-3 months of age during resting breathing and respiratory challenge (i.e., hypoxia and hypercapnia) via whole body plethysmography. The results demonstrated that the resting respiratory frequency and tidal volume of Cdkl5 -/y mice was unaltered compared to that of WT mice at 1 month of age. However, these mutant mice exhibit transient reduction in tidal volume during respiratory challenge even the reduction was restored at 2 months of age. Notably, the sigh-breathing pattern was changed in Cdkl5 -/y mice, showing a transient reduction in sigh volume at 1-2 month of age and long-term attenuation of peak expiratory airflow from 1 to 3 month of age. Therefore, loss of CDKL5 causes breathing deficiency, supporting a CDKL5-mediated regulation of respiratory function in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Respiratory mechanics and fluid dynamics after lung resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Miserocchi, Giuseppe; Beretta, Egidio; Rivolta, Ilaria

    2010-08-01

    Thoracic surgery that requires resection of a portion of lung or of a whole lung profoundly alters the mechanical and fluid dynamic setting of the lung-chest wall coupling, as well as the water balance in the pleural space and in the remaining lung. The most frequent postoperative complications are of a respiratory nature, and their incidence increases the more the preoperative respiratory condition seems compromised. There is an obvious need to identify risk factors concerning mainly the respiratory function, without neglecting the importance of other comorbidities, such as coronary disease. At present, however, a satisfactory predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications is lacking; postoperative morbidity and mortality have remained unchanged in the last 10 years. The aim of this review is to provide a pathophysiologic interpretation of the main respiratory complications of a respiratory nature by relying on new concepts relating to lung fluid dynamics and mechanics. New parameters are proposed to improve evaluation of respiratory function from pre- to the early postoperative period when most of the complications occur. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The potential of palliative care for patients with respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Narsavage, Georgia L.; Chen, Yea-Jyh; Korn, Bettina; Elk, Ronit

    2017-01-01

    Based on the demonstrated effectiveness of palliative care in the alleviation of symptoms and enhancement of life quality, it is important to incorporate palliative care early in the respiratory disease trajectory. Quality palliative care addresses eight domains that are all patient and family centred. Palliative care interventions in respiratory conditions include management of symptoms such as dyspnoea, cough, haemoptysis, sputum production, fatigue and respiratory secretion management, especially as the end-of-life nears. A practical checklist of activities based on the domains of palliative care can assist clinicians to integrate palliative care into their practice. Clinical management of patients receiving palliative care requires consideration of human factors and related organisational characteristics that involve cultural, educational and motivational aspects of the patient/family and clinicians. Educational aims To explain the basic domains of palliative care applicable to chronic respiratory diseases. To review palliative care interventions for patients with chronic respiratory diseases. To outline a checklist for clinicians to use in practice, based on the domains of palliative care. To propose recommendations for clinical management of patients receiving palliative care for chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:29209422

  15. Fentanyl-induced respiratory depression is attenuated in pregnant patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jie; Yu, Min; Fang, Yin; Ding, Zhengnian

    2017-01-01

    Background Respiratory depression is a complication of intravenous fentanyl administration. The effect of pregnancy on respiratory depression following opioid administration is unclear. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy on fentanyl-induced respiratory depression. Patients and methods Female patients were divided into three groups (n=20 per group): control group (non-pregnant and scheduled for laparoscopic surgery), early pregnancy group (pregnant for 45–60 days and scheduled for abortion), and postpartum group (5–7 days postpartum scheduled for complete curettage of uterine cavity). All patients received an intravenous infusion of fentanyl 2 μg/kg. Respiratory rate (RR), end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded continuously from just before fentanyl infusion to 15 min after commencing infusion. Plasma levels of progesterone were measured. Results SpO2 levels in the early pregnancy and postpartum groups were significantly higher and the levels of RR and PETCO2 were significantly lower than the control group. RR and SpO2 levels were significantly decreased in all groups, whereas PETCO2 was significantly increased after fentanyl infusion. The rates of RR increase and SpO2 decrease were significantly faster in the control group than in the other groups. The lowest SpO2 after intravenous fentanyl administration was significantly positively correlated with plasma progesterone levels. Conclusion Pregnancy improves fentanyl-induced respiratory depression, which may be associated with the increased levels of plasma progesterone. PMID:29200828

  16. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis or Laryngeal Papillomatosis On this page: What ... find additional information about RRP? What is recurrent respiratory papillomatosis? Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a disease ...

  17. Is recurrent respiratory infection associated with allergic respiratory disease?

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tiago Bittencourt; Klering, Everton Andrei; da Veiga, Ana Beatriz Gorini

    2018-03-13

    Respiratory infections cause high morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aims to estimate the relationship between allergic respiratory diseases with the occurrence of recurrent respiratory infection (RRI) in children and adolescents. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and a questionnaire that provides data on the history of respiratory infections and the use of antibiotics were used to obtain data from patients. The relationship between the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis and the occurrence of respiratory infections in childhood was analyzed. We interviewed the caregivers of 531 children aged 0 to 15 years. The average age of participants was 7.43 years, with females accounting for 52.2%. This study found significant relationship between: presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis with RRI, with prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.47 (1.51-4.02) and 1.61 (1.34-1.93), respectively; respiratory allergies with use of antibiotics for respiratory problems, with PR of 5.32 (2.17-13.0) for asthma and of 1.64 (1.29-2.09) for allergic rhinitis; asthma and allergic rhinitis with diseases of the lower respiratory airways, with PR of 7.82 (4.63-13.21) and 1.65 (1.38-1.96), respectively. In contrast, no relationship between upper respiratory airway diseases and asthma and allergic rhinitis was observed, with PR of 0.71 (0.35-1.48) and 1.30 (0.87-1.95), respectively. RRI is associated with previous atopic diseases, and these conditions should be considered when treating children.

  18. Respiratory effects of air pollution on children.

    PubMed

    Goldizen, Fiona C; Sly, Peter D; Knibbs, Luke D

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the global burden of disease is directly or indirectly attributable to exposure to air pollution. Exposures occurring during the periods of organogenesis and rapid lung growth during fetal development and early post-natal life are especially damaging. In this State of the Art review, we discuss air toxicants impacting on children's respiratory health, routes of exposure with an emphasis on unique pathways relevant to young children, methods of exposure assessment and their limitations and the adverse health consequences of exposures. Finally, we point out gaps in knowledge and research needs in this area. A greater understanding of the adverse health consequences of exposure to air pollution in early life is required to encourage policy makers to reduce such exposures and improve human health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  20. Health surveillance for occupational respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L; Fishwick, D

    2013-07-01

    Occupational lung diseases remain common, and health surveillance is one approach used to assist identification of early cases. To identify areas of good practice within respiratory health surveillance and to formulate recommendations for practice. Published literature was searched since 1990 using a semi-systematic methodology. A total of 561 documents were identified on Medline and Embase combined. Other search engines did not identify relevant documents that had not already been identified by these two main searches. Seventy-nine of these were assessed further and 36 documents were included for the full analysis. Respiratory health surveillance remains a disparate process, even within disease type. A standard validated questionnaire and associated guidance should be developed. Lung function testing was common and generally supported by the evidence. Cross-sectional interpretation of lung function in younger workers needs careful assessment in order to best identify early cases of disease. More informed interpretation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, for example by using a lower limit of normal for each worker, and of longitudinal lung function information is advised. Immunological tests appear useful in small groups of workers exposed to common occupational allergens. Education, training and improved occupational health policies are likely to improve uptake of health surveillance, to ensure that those who fail health surveillance at any point are handled appropriately.

  1. Detection of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks by CUSUM-based overcrowd-severe-respiratory-disease-index model.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008-2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts.

  2. Detection of Severe Respiratory Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by CUSUM-Based Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index Model

    PubMed Central

    Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E.; Samaniego, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    A severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreak correlates with a high demand of specific supplies and specialized personnel to hold it back in a wide region or set of regions; these supplies would be beds, storage areas, hemodynamic monitors, and mechanical ventilators, as well as physicians, respiratory technicians, and specialized nurses. We describe an online cumulative sum based model named Overcrowd-Severe-Respiratory-Disease-Index based on the Modified Overcrowd Index that simultaneously monitors and informs the demand of those supplies and personnel in a healthcare network generating early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks through the interpretation of such variables. A post hoc historical archive is generated, helping physicians in charge to improve the transit and future allocation of supplies in the entire hospital network during the outbreak. The model was thoroughly verified in a virtual scenario, generating multiple epidemic outbreaks in a 6-year span for a 13-hospital network. When it was superimposed over the H1N1 influenza outbreak census (2008–2010) taken by the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City, it showed that it is an effective algorithm to notify early warnings of severe respiratory disease epidemic outbreaks with a minimal rate of false alerts. PMID:24069063

  3. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  4. Early use of noninvasive techniques for clearing respiratory secretions during noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypercapnic encephalopathy: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Cui, Zhaobo; Liu, Shuhong; Gao, Xiuling; Gao, Pan; Shi, Yi; Guo, Shufen; Li, Peipei

    2017-03-01

    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients.The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China.A total of 74 patients received NPPV and 90 patients received CMV. Inclusion criteria included the following: physician-diagnosed AECOPD, spontaneous airway clearance of excessive secretions, arterial blood gas analysis requiring intensive care, moderate-to-severe dyspnea, and a Kelly-Matthay scale score of 3 to 5. Exclusion criteria included the following: preexisting psychiatric/neurological disorders unrelated to HE, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, upper airway obstruction, acute coronary syndromes, preadmission tracheostomy or endotracheal intubation, and urgent endotracheal intubation for cardiovascular, psychomotor agitation, or severe hemodynamic conditions.Intensive care unit participants were managed by NPPV. Participants received standard treatment consisting of controlled oxygen therapy during NPPV-free periods; antibiotics, intravenous doxofylline, corticosteroids (e.g., salbutamol and ambroxol), and subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin; and therapy for comorbidities if necessary. Nasogastric tubes were inserted only in participants who developed gastric distension. No pharmacological sedation was administered.The primary and secondary outcome measures included comparative complication rates, durations of ventilation and hospitalization, number of invasive devices/patient, and in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates

  5. Loss of heterozygosity patterns provide fingerprints for genetic heterogeneity in multistep cancer progression of tobacco smoke-induced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongjie; Califano, Joseph; Ponte, Jose F; Russo, Andrea L; Cheng, Kuang-hung; Thiagalingam, Arunthathi; Nemani, Pratima; Sidransky, David; Thiagalingam, Sam

    2005-03-01

    Dilution end point loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis, a novel approach for the analysis of LOH, was used to evaluate allelic losses with the use of 21 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers at nine chromosomal sites most frequently affected in smoking-related non-small cell lung cancers. Allelotyping was done for bronchial epithelial cells and matching blood samples from 23 former and current smokers and six nonsmokers as well as in 33 adenocarcinomas and 25 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and corresponding matching blood from smokers. Major conclusions from these studies are as follows: (a) LOH at chromosomal sites 8p, 9p, 11q, and 13q (P >0.05, Fisher's exact test) are targeted at the early stages, whereas LOH at 1p, 5q, 17p, and 18q (P <0.05, Fisher's exact test) occur at the later stages of non-small cell lung cancer progression; (b) LOH at 1p, 3p, 5q, 8p, 9p, 11q, 13q, 17p, and 18q occurs in over 45% of the tobacco smokers with SCC and adenocarcinoma; (c) compared with bronchial epithelial cells from smokers, there is a significantly higher degree of LOH at 1p, 5q, and 18q in adenocarcinoma and at 1p, 3p, and 17p in SCC (P <0.05, Fisher's exact test). We propose that lung cancer progression induced by tobacco smoke occurs in a series of target gene inactivations/activations in defined modules of a global network. The gatekeeper module consists of multiple alternate target genes, which is inclusive of but not limited to genes localized to chromosomal loci 8p, 9p, 11q, and 13q.

  6. Observing the sick child: Part 2c. Respiratory auscultation.

    PubMed

    Aylott, Marion

    2007-04-01

    Nursing continues to extend its practice base as the acuity of children in general wards often with complex illnesses and treatment increases. There is a need for ongoing development of the physical assessment skills of nurses who care for children and young people in order to facilitate early recognition of clinical problems. Respiratory dysfunction is the common precursor to adverse events. The skill of auscultation adds another dimension that augments the respiratory assessment repertoire of the nurse. This article builds on the palpation skills presented in February issue and provides a practical step-by-step introduction to auscultation.

  7. Auscultation of the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Madabhavi, Irappa; Niranjan, Narasimhalu; Dogra, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an important part of the respiratory examination and is helpful in diagnosing various respiratory disorders. Auscultation assesses airflow through the trachea-bronchial tree. It is important to distinguish normal respiratory sounds from abnormal ones for example crackles, wheezes, and pleural rub in order to make correct diagnosis. It is necessary to understand the underlying pathophysiology of various lung sounds generation for better understanding of disease processes. Bedside teaching should be strengthened in order to avoid erosion in this age old procedure in the era of technological explosion. PMID:26229557

  8. Multiplex detection of respiratory pathogens

    DOEpatents

    McBride, Mary [Brentwood, CA; Slezak, Thomas [Livermore, CA; Birch, James M [Albany, CA

    2012-07-31

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of respiratory pathogens (influenza A (including subtyping capability for H1, H3, H5 and H7 subtypes) influenza B, parainfluenza (type 2), respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from the respiratory pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  9. [The respiratory effects of smoking].

    PubMed

    Peiffer, G; Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2018-06-01

    A marked increase in the morbidity and mortality of a large number of broncho-pulmonary diseases has been documented in relation to smoking. The influence of tobacco smoking on various respiratory conditions. is discussed: incidence, severity or natural history modification of some respiratory illnesses: obstructive lung diseases (COPD, asthma), lung cancer, bacterial, viral respiratory infections, with the impact of smoking on tuberculosis. Finally, the relationship of tobacco with diffuse interstitial lung disease: protective role of smoking (controversial in sarcoidosis, real in hypersensitivity pneumonitis). The benefits of smoking cessation are described. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Achalasia and Respiratory Symptoms: Effect of Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Ciro; Kavitt, Robert T; Herbella, Fernando A M; Patti, Marco G

    2016-09-01

    Dysphagia and regurgitation are considered typical symptoms of achalasia. However, there is mounting evidence that some achalasia patients may also experience respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and hoarseness. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) what percentage of achalasia patients experience respiratory symptoms and (2) the effect of a laparoscopic Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication on the typical and respiratory symptoms of achalasia. Between May 2008 and December 2015, 165 patients with achalasia were referred for treatment to the Center for Esophageal Diseases of the University of Chicago. Patients had preoperatively a barium swallow, endoscopy, and esophageal manometry. All patients underwent a Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication. Based on the presence of respiratory symptoms, patients were divided into two groups: group A, 98 patients (59%) without respiratory symptoms and group B, 67 patients (41%) with respiratory symptoms. The preoperative Eckardt score was similar in the two groups (6.5 ± 2.1 versus 6.4 ± 2.0). The mean esophageal diameter was 27.7 ± 10.8 mm in group A and 42.6 ± 20.1 mm in group B (P < .05). The operation consisted of a myotomy that extended for 5 cm on the esophagus and 2.5 cm onto the gastric wall. At a median postoperative follow-up of 17 months, the Eckardt score improved significantly and similarly in the two groups (0.3 ± 0.8 versus 0.3 ± 1.0). Respiratory symptoms improved or resolved in 62 patients (92.5%). The results of this study showed that: (1) respiratory symptoms were present in 41% of patients; (2) patients with respiratory symptoms had a more dilated esophagus; and (3) surgical treatment resolved or improved respiratory symptoms in 92.5% of patients. This study underlines the importance of investigating the presence of respiratory symptoms along with the more common symptoms of achalasia and of early treatment before lung damage occurs.

  11. Managing respiratory care services.

    PubMed

    Thalman, Janice J

    2004-06-01

    Managing in a health care environment is not for the frail of heart or weak of spirit. Health care is a system in crisis that is exacerbated because it got there by doing what once made it successful. From 1900 to 2004, focus of health care has shifted from controlling infectious diseases to episodic care and to present-day chronic and perspective care. The system has moved from issues of mortality, to morbidity, to mobility, to quality of life, to feeling good and, finally, to looking good. Managing the delivery of health care, if you choose to accept it, is not an impossible mission, but it will be a challenging job. Obviously, the focus of managers is how the system can be designed to innovate and improve care. Organizations and professions must change not only structures and processes, but national priorities for improvement with better methods of disseminating and applying knowledge. Managers of respiratory care departments must foster the use of information technology in clinical care, must create payment policies that encourage innovation and tested performance, and must enhance education programs to strengthen and retain the health care work forces.

  12. [Choice of optimal respiratory support in acute parenchymatous respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Cherniĭ, V I; Kuznetsova, I V; Kovalenko, V L

    2005-01-01

    The principal goals of respiratory therapy for acute respiratory failure are to correct gas exchange and to lower respiratory performance. In acute lung lesion syndrome (ALLS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) reflects the degree of alveolar-capillary membrane damage. The changes in PaO2/FiO2 between 400 to 300 at adequate ventilation can be interpreted as occult alveolar-capillary insufficiency. The principle of power saving in ALLS/ARDS is to choose a respiratory support regimen that may ensure oxygenation safety by eliminating the excess work of respiration. The ratio of PaO2/FiO2/VO2 is proposed to consider to be a criterion for the effectiveness of respiratory support in ALLS/ARDS and a marker of energy deficiency. It has been established that the function of the alveolar-capillary membrane is not impaired with the PaO2/FiO2 ratio of more than 1.5 and the ratio of less than 1.0 is typical of the severe course of the severe course of ARDS and suggests both alveolar-capillary membrane damage and energy deficiency.

  13. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  14. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  15. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  16. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  17. 33 CFR 142.39 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 142.39... Respiratory protection. (a) Personnel in an atmosphere specified under ANSI Z88.2, requiring the use of respiratory protection equipment shall wear the type of respiratory protection equipment specified in ANSI Z88...

  18. Management of respiratory distress syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Ricardo J

    2003-03-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common respiratory disorder in preterm infants. Over the last decade, because of improvements in neonatal care and increased use of antenatal steroids and surfactant replacement therapy, mortality from respiratory distress syndrome has dropped substantially. However, respiratory morbidity, primarily bronchopulmonary dysplasia, remains unacceptably high. The management of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants is based on various modalities of respiratory support and the application of fundamental principles of neonatal care. To obtain best results, a multidisciplinary approach is crucial. This review discusses surfactant replacement therapy and some of the current strategies in ventilatory management of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Copyright 2003 Daedalus Enterprises

  19. The burden of seasonal respiratory infections on a national telehealth service in England.

    PubMed

    Morbey, R A; Harcourt, S; Pebody, R; Zambon, M; Hutchison, J; Rutter, J; Thomas, H; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2017-07-01

    Seasonal respiratory illnesses present a major burden on primary care services. We assessed the burden of respiratory illness on a national telehealth system in England and investigated the potential for providing early warning of respiratory infection. We compared weekly laboratory reports for respiratory pathogens with telehealth calls (NHS 111) between week 40 in 2013 and week 29 in 2015. Multiple linear regression was used to identify which pathogens had a significant association with respiratory calls. Children aged <5 and 5-14 years, and adults over 65 years were modelled separately as were time lags of up to 4 weeks between calls and laboratory specimen dates. Associations with respiratory pathogens explained over 83% of the variation in cold/flu, cough and difficulty breathing calls. Based on the first two seasons available, the greatest burden was associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, with associations found in all age bands. The most sensitive signal for influenza was calls for 'cold/flu', whilst for RSV it was calls for cough. The best-fitting models showed calls increasing a week before laboratory specimen dates. Daily surveillance of these calls can provide early warning of seasonal rises in influenza and RSV, contributing to the national respiratory surveillance programme.

  20. Respiratory symptoms and acute painful episodes in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Eufemia; Sockrider, Marianna M; Dinu, Marlen; Acosta, Monica; Mueller, Brigitta U

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and determined whether respiratory symptoms were associated with prevalence of chest pain and number of acute painful episodes in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Participants (N = 93; 44 females, 49 males; mean age 9.8 +/- 4.3 years) reported coughing in the morning (21.5%), at night (31.2%), and during exercise (30.1%). Wheezing occurred both when they had a cold or infection (29.0%) and when they did not have (23.7%) a cold or infection. Sleep was disturbed by wheezing in 20.4%. Among the 76 patients who were school-age (>5 years), 19.7% of patients missed more than 4 days of school because of respiratory symptoms. The majority of patients reported having acute painful episodes (82.8%), and most (66.7%) reported having chest pain during acute painful episodes in the previous 12 months. Participants with acute pain episodes greater than 3 during the previous 12 months had significantly higher reports of breathing difficulties (P = .01) and chest pain (P = .002). The high number of respiratory symptoms (cough and wheeze) among patients with sickle cell disease may trigger acute painful episodes. Early screening and recognition, ongoing monitoring, and proactive management of respiratory symptoms may minimize the number of acute painful episodes.

  1. Respiratory care management information systems.

    PubMed

    Ford, Richard M

    2004-04-01

    Hospital-wide computerized information systems evolved from the need to capture patient information and perform billing and other financial functions. These systems, however, have fallen short of meeting the needs of respiratory care departments regarding work load assessment, productivity management, and the level of outcome reporting required to support programs such as patient-driven protocols. The respiratory care management information systems (RCMIS) of today offer many advantages over paper-based systems and hospital-wide computer systems. RCMIS are designed to facilitate functions specific to respiratory care, including assessing work demand, assigning and tracking resources, charting, billing, and reporting results. RCMIS incorporate mobile, point-of-care charting and are highly configurable to meet the specific needs of individual respiratory care departments. Important and substantial benefits can be realized with an RCMIS and mobile, wireless charting devices. The initial and ongoing costs of an RCMIS are justified by increased charge capture and reduced costs, by way of improved productivity and efficiency. It is not unusual to recover the total cost of an RCMIS within the first year of its operation. In addition, such systems can facilitate and monitor patient-care protocols and help to efficiently manage the vast amounts of information encountered during the practitioner's workday. Respiratory care departments that invest in RCMIS have an advantage in the provision of quality care and in reducing expenses. A centralized respiratory therapy department with an RCMIS is the most efficient and cost-effective way to monitor work demand and manage the hospital-wide allocation of respiratory care services.

  2. [Pathophysiology of respiratory muscle weakness].

    PubMed

    Windisch, W

    2008-03-01

    The respiratory system consists of two parts which can be impaired independently from each other, the lungs and the respiratory pump. The latter is a complex system covering different anatomic structures: the breathing centre, the peripheral nervous system, the respiratory muscles, and the thorax. According to this complexity several underlying conditions can cause insufficiency of the respiratory pump, i. e. ventilatory failure. Disturbances of the breathing centre, different neuromuscular disorders, impairments of the mechanics, such as thoracic deformities or hyperinflation, and airway obstruction are example conditions responsible for ventilatory failure. Main characteristic of ventilatory failure is the occurrence of hypercapnia which is in contrast to pulmonary failure where diffusion disturbances typically not cause hypercapnia. Both acute and chronic ventilatory failure presenting with hypercapnia can develop. In acute ventilatory failure respiratory acidosis develops, but in chronic respiratory failure pH is normalized as a consequence of metabolic retention of bicarbonate. However, acute on chronic ventilatory failure can present with a combined picture, i. e. elevated bicarbonate levels, acidosis, and often severe hypercapnia. Clinical signs such as tachypnea, features of the underlying disease or hypercapnia are important diagnostic tools in addition to the measurement of pressures generated by the respiratory muscles. Non-invasive and widely available techniques, such as the assessment of the maximal ins- and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax, PEmax), should be used as screening instruments, but the reliability of these measurements is reduced due to the volitional character of the tests and due to the impossibility to define normal values. Inspiratory pressures can be assessed more accurately and independently from the patients' effort: with or without the insertion of oesophageal and gastric balloon catheters. However, this technique is more invasive

  3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Seasonality - United States, 2014-2017.

    PubMed

    Rose, Erica Billig; Wheatley, Alexandra; Langley, Gayle; Gerber, Susan; Haynes, Amber

    2018-01-19

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in young children worldwide (1-3). In the United States, RSV infection results in >57,000 hospitalizations and 2 million outpatient visits each year among children aged <5 years (3). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of RSV in adults as well as children (4). CDC reported RSV seasonality nationally, by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regions* and for the state of Florida, using a new statistical method that analyzes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratory detections reported to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) (https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/nrevss/index.html). Nationally, across three RSV seasons, lasting from the week ending July 5, 2014 through July 1, 2017, the median RSV onset occurred at week 41 (mid-October), and lasted 31 weeks until week 18 (early May). The median national peak occurred at week 5 (early February). Using these new methods, RSV season circulation patterns differed from those reported from previous seasons (5). Health care providers and public health officials use RSV circulation data to guide diagnostic testing and to time the administration of RSV immunoprophylaxis for populations at high risk for severe respiratory illness (6). With several vaccines and other immunoprophlyaxis products in development, estimates of RSV circulation are also important to the design of clinical trials and future vaccine effectiveness studies.

  4. Complications of acromegaly: cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Pivonello, Rosario; Auriemma, Renata S; Grasso, Ludovica F S; Pivonello, Claudia; Simeoli, Chiara; Patalano, Roberta; Galdiero, Mariano; Colao, Annamaria

    2017-02-01

    Acromegaly is associated with an enhanced mortality, with cardiovascular and respiratory complications representing not only the most frequent comorbidities but also two of the main causes of deaths, whereas a minor role is played by metabolic complications, and particularly diabetes mellitus. The most prevalent cardiovascular complications of acromegaly include a cardiomyopathy, characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic and systolic dysfunction together with arterial hypertension, cardiac rhythm disorders and valve diseases, as well as vascular endothelial dysfunction. Biochemical control of acromegaly significantly improves cardiovascular disease, albeit completely recovering to normal mainly in young patients with short disease duration. Respiratory complications, represented mainly by sleep-breathing disorders, particularly sleep apnea, and respiratory insufficiency, frequently occur at the early stage of the disease and, although their severity decreases with disease control, this improvement does not often change the indication for a specific therapy directed to improve respiratory function. Metabolic complications, including glucose and lipid disorders, are variably reported in acromegaly. Treatments of acromegaly may influence glucose metabolism, and the presence of diabetes mellitus in acromegaly may affect the choice of treatments, so that glucose homeostasis is worth being monitored during the entire course of the disease. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of acromegaly, aimed at obtaining a strict control of hormone excess, are the best strategy to limit the development or reverse the complications and prevent the premature mortality.

  5. Our great forgotten, chronic respiratory sufferers

    PubMed

    Bordejé Laguna, María Luisa

    2017-05-08

    Lung’s own properties make that nutritional support, besides covering the requirements can modulate its infl ammatory response. Lung tissue has a low glucose stock. Fatty acids are the main energy producer of type II pneumocytes, which use them in order to form phospholipids, essential for surfactant whose creation and release decrease in acute lung injury (ALI). Glutamine is a good substratum for endocrine cells and type II pneumocytes. Due to high nutritional risk, it is important its assessments in disorders as COPD and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ADRS). Indirect calorimetry values the effect of ventilation and nutritional support, avoiding overfeeding. Hypophosphatemia and refeeding syndrome are frequent and need to be avoided because of their morbidity. In critically ill patients, malnutrition can lead to respiratory failure and increasing mechanical ventilation time. To avoid hypercapnia in weaning, glucose levels should be controlled. High lipids/carbohydrates ratio do not show usefulness in COPD neither mechanical ventilation removal. ALI patients beneficiate from an early start and the volume administered. Enteral nutrition with high fatty acids ratio (EPA, DHA and γ-linolenic acid) and antioxidants do not show any superiority. Omega-3 fatty acid in parenteral nutrition could modulate infl ammation and immunosuppression in a positive manner. The use of glutamine, vitamins or antioxidants in these patients could be justified.

  6. Respiratory mechanics in brain injury: A review.

    PubMed

    Koutsoukou, Antonia; Katsiari, Maria; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Daganou, Maria; Kyriakopoulou, Magdalini; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Rovina, Nikoletta

    2016-02-04

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that lung injury occurs shortly after brain damage. The responsible mechanisms involve neurogenic pulmonary edema, inflammation, the harmful action of neurotransmitters, or autonomic system dysfunction. Mechanical ventilation, an essential component of life support in brain-damaged patients (BD), may be an additional traumatic factor to the already injured or susceptible to injury lungs of these patients thus worsening lung injury, in case that non lung protective ventilator settings are applied. Measurement of respiratory mechanics in BD patients, as well as assessment of their evolution during mechanical ventilation, may lead to preclinical lung injury detection early enough, allowing thus the selection of the appropriate ventilator settings to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this review is to explore the mechanical properties of the respiratory system in BD patients along with the underlying mechanisms, and to translate the evidence of animal and clinical studies into therapeutic implications regarding the mechanical ventilation of these critically ill patients.

  7. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  8. High-Flow Nasal Cannula versus Conventional Oxygen Therapy in Children with Respiratory Distress.

    PubMed

    Sitthikarnkha, Punthila; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Prapphal, Nuanchan; Deerojanawong, Jitladda; Sritippayawan, Suchada

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the clinical efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy compared with conventional oxygen therapy in children presented with respiratory distress. This was a randomized controlled study. Infants and children aged between 1 month to 5 years who were admitted to our tertiary referral center for respiratory distress (July 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015) and met the inclusion criteria were recruited. Infants and children hospitalized with respiratory distress were randomized into two groups of interventions. All clinical data, for example, respiratory score, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were recorded. The results were subsequently analyzed. A total of 98 respiratory distress children were enrolled during the study period. Only 4 children (8.2%) failed in HFNC therapy, compared with 10 children (20.4%) in conventional oxygen therapy group ( P = 0.09). After adjusted for body weight, underlying diseases, and respiratory distress score, there was an 85% reduction in the odds of treatment failure in HFNC therapy group (adjusted odds ratio 0.15, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.66, P = 0.01). Most children in HFNC therapy group had significant improvement in clinical respiratory score, heart rate, and respiratory rate at 240, 360, and 120 min compared with conventional oxygen therapy ( P = 0.03, 0.04, and 0.03). HFNC therapy revealed a potential clinical advantage in management children hospitalized with respiratory distress compared with conventional respiratory therapy. The early use of HFNC in children with moderate-to-severe respiratory distress may prevent endotracheal tube intubation. TCTR 20170222007.

  9. Management of hypoxaemic respiratory failure in a Respiratory High-dependency Unit.

    PubMed

    Hukins, Craig; Wong, Mimi; Murphy, Michelle; Upham, John

    2017-07-01

    There are limited data on outcomes of hypoxaemic respiratory failure (HRF), especially in non-intensive care unit (ICU) settings. To assess outcomes in HRF (without multi-system disease and not requiring early intubation) of patients directly admitted to a Respiratory High-dependency Unit (R-HDU). This is a retrospective cohort study of HRF compared to hypercapnic respiratory failure (HCRF) in a R-HDU (2007-2011). Patient characteristics (age, gender, pre-morbid status, diagnoses) and outcomes (non-invasive ventilation (NIV) use, survival, ICU admission) were assessed. There were 1207 R-HDU admissions in 2007-2011, 205 (17%) with HRF and 495 (41%) with HCRF. The proportion with HRF increased from 12.2% in 2007 to 20.1% in 2011 (P < 0.05). HRF patients were younger, more often male and had better pre-morbid performance. Compared to HCRF, HRF was more frequently associated with lung consolidation (61% vs 15%, P < 0.001), interstitial lung disease (12% vs 1%, P < 0.001) and pulmonary hypertension (7% vs 0%, P < 0.001) and less frequently with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (24% vs 65%, P < 0.001) and obstructive sleep apnoea (8% vs 26%, P < 0.001). Fewer patients with HRF were treated with NIV (28% vs 87%, P < 0.001), but NIV was discontinued early more often (28% vs 7%, P < 0.001). A total of 18% with HRF was transferred to ICU compared to 6% with HCRF (P = 0.06). More patients with HRF died (19.5% vs 12.3%, P = 0.02). Interstitial lung disease, consolidation, shock, malignancy and poorer pre-morbid function were associated with increased mortality. Initial R-HDU management is an effective option in selected HRF to reduce ICU demand, although mortality and clinical deterioration despite NIV are more common than in HCRF. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  10. Airborne transmission of respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Baker, S A

    1995-01-01

    In surveys during the past decade, CEs and BMETs have reported an increasing frequency of respiratory illnesses they believed to be acquired as a result of their occupation. These illnesses varied from mild to severe in terms of long-term prognosis. With the increasing numbers of cases of drug-resistant organisms, respiratory infections are a growing concern for healthcare workers, employers, and government officials. Armed with a better knowledge base about symptoms, transmission and prevention, CEs and BMETs will be more aware of potential biohazardous situations and the necessary personal protective measures to be employed. Both the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP) have issued guidelines for preventing airborne transmission of infectious diseases. This paper addresses the respiratory illnesses reported by CEs and BMETs as occupational concerns, as well as briefly discussing potential epidemic pulmonary conditions.

  11. [Respiratory treatments in neuromuscular disease].

    PubMed

    Martínez Carrasco, C; Cols Roig, M; Salcedo Posadas, A; Sardon Prado, O; Asensio de la Cruz, O; Torrent Vernetta, A

    2014-10-01

    In a previous article, a review was presented of the respiratory pathophysiology of the patient with neuromuscular disease, as well as their clinical evaluation and the major complications causing pulmonary deterioration. This article presents the respiratory treatments required to preserve lung function in neuromuscular disease as long as possible, as well as in special situations (respiratory infections, spinal curvature surgery, etc.). Special emphasis is made on the use of non-invasive ventilation, which is changing the natural history of many of these diseases. The increase in survival and life expectancy of these children means that they can continue their clinical care in adult units. The transition from pediatric care must be an active, timely and progressive process. It may be slightly stressful for the patient before the adaptation to this new environment, with multidisciplinary care always being maintained. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  13. A reversible component of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction in apoptosis can be rescued by exogenous cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    Mootha, Vamsi K.; Wei, Michael C.; Buttle, Karolyn F.; Scorrano, Luca; Panoutsakopoulou, Vily; Mannella, Carmen A.; Korsmeyer, Stanley J.

    2001-01-01

    Multiple apoptotic pathways release cytochrome c from the mitochondrial intermembrane space, resulting in the activation of downstream caspases. In vivo activation of Fas (CD95) resulted in increased permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane and depletion of cytochrome c stores. Serial measurements of oxygen consumption, NADH redox state and membrane potential revealed a loss of respiratory state transitions. This tBID-induced respiratory failure did not require any caspase activity. At early time points, re-addition of exogenous cytochrome c markedly restored respiratory functions. Over time, however, mitochondria showed increasing irreversible respiratory dysfunction as well as diminished calcium buffering. Electron microscopy and tomographic reconstruction revealed asymmetric mitochondria with blebs of herniated matrix, distended inner membrane and partial loss of cristae structure. Thus, apoptogenic redistribution of cytochrome c is responsible for a distinct program of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, in addition to the activation of downstream caspases. PMID:11179211

  14. Treatment of Adenoviral Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Using Cidofovir With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhyeok; Kim, Seulgi; Kwon, Oh Jung; Kim, Ji Hye; Jeong, Inbeom; Son, Ji Woong; Na, Moon Jun; Yoon, Yoo Sang; Park, Hyun Woong; Kwon, Sun Jung

    2017-03-01

    Adenovirus infections are associated with respiratory (especially upper respiratory) infection and gastrointestinal disease and occur primarily in infants and children. Although rare in adults, severe lower respiratory adenovirus infections including pneumonia are reported in specific populations, such as military recruits and immunocompromised patients. Antiviral treatment is challenging due to limited clinical experience and lack of well-controlled randomized trials. Several previously reported cases of adenoviral pneumonia showed promising efficacy of cidofovir. However, few reports discussed the efficacy of cidofovir in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We experienced 3 cases of adenoviral pneumonia associated with ARDS and treated with cidofovir and respiratory support, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). All 3 patients showed a positive clinical response to cidofovir and survival at 28 days. Cidofovir with early ECMO therapy may be a therapeutic option in adenoviral ARDS. A literature review identified 15 cases of adenovirus pneumonia associated with ARDS.

  15. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

    PubMed

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation.

  16. Thresholds in chemical respiratory sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Stella A; Arts, Josje H E; Ehnes, Colin; Hindle, Stuart; Hollnagel, Heli M; Poole, Alan; Suto, Hidenori; Kimber, Ian

    2015-07-03

    There is a continuing interest in determining whether it is possible to identify thresholds for chemical allergy. Here allergic sensitisation of the respiratory tract by chemicals is considered in this context. This is an important occupational health problem, being associated with rhinitis and asthma, and in addition provides toxicologists and risk assessors with a number of challenges. In common with all forms of allergic disease chemical respiratory allergy develops in two phases. In the first (induction) phase exposure to a chemical allergen (by an appropriate route of exposure) causes immunological priming and sensitisation of the respiratory tract. The second (elicitation) phase is triggered if a sensitised subject is exposed subsequently to the same chemical allergen via inhalation. A secondary immune response will be provoked in the respiratory tract resulting in inflammation and the signs and symptoms of a respiratory hypersensitivity reaction. In this article attention has focused on the identification of threshold values during the acquisition of sensitisation. Current mechanistic understanding of allergy is such that it can be assumed that the development of sensitisation (and also the elicitation of an allergic reaction) is a threshold phenomenon; there will be levels of exposure below which sensitisation will not be acquired. That is, all immune responses, including allergic sensitisation, have threshold requirement for the availability of antigen/allergen, below which a response will fail to develop. The issue addressed here is whether there are methods available or clinical/epidemiological data that permit the identification of such thresholds. This document reviews briefly relevant human studies of occupational asthma, and experimental models that have been developed (or are being developed) for the identification and characterisation of chemical respiratory allergens. The main conclusion drawn is that although there is evidence that the

  17. Activation of respiratory muscles during respiratory muscle training.

    PubMed

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Pietsch, Fabian; Walker, David Johannes; Röcker, Kai; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2018-01-01

    It is unknown which respiratory muscles are mainly activated by respiratory muscle training. This study evaluated Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Loading (IPTL), Inspiratory Flow Resistive Loading (IFRL) and Voluntary Isocapnic Hyperpnea (VIH) with regard to electromyographic (EMG) activation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM), parasternal muscles (PARA) and the diaphragm (DIA) in randomized order. Surface EMG were analyzed at the end of each training session and normalized using the peak EMG recorded during maximum inspiratory maneuvers (Sniff nasal pressure: SnPna, maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure: PImax). 41 healthy participants were included. Maximal activation was achieved for SCM by SnPna; the PImax activated predominantly PARA and DIA. Activations of SCM and PARA were higher in IPTL and VIH than for IFRL (p<0.05). DIA was higher applying IPTL compared to IFRL or VIH (p<0.05). IPTL, IFRL and VIH differ in activation of inspiratory respiratory muscles. Whereas all methods mainly stimulate accessory respiratory muscles, diaphragm activation was predominant in IPTL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vantage point - Early warning flaws.

    PubMed

    Swinden, Donna

    2014-08-28

    USING AN EARLY warning score (EWS) system should improve the detection of acutely deteriorating patients. Under such a system, a score is allocated to each of six physiological measurements including respiratory rate and oxygen saturations, which are aggregated to produce an overall score. An aggregated score of seven or higher prompts nursing staff to refer a patient for emergency assessment.

  19. Health Instruction Packages: Respiratory Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavich, Margot; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these four learning modules to teach respiratory therapy students a variety of job-related skills. The first module, "Anatomy and Physiology of the Central Controls of Respiration" by Margot Lavich, describes the functions of the five centers of the brain that control respiration and…

  20. Respiratory Therapy Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a respiratory therapy technology program. The guide contains four sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining the purpose and objectives, a program…

  1. Respiratory Therapy Assistant. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Judy A.

    This manual is one in a new series of self-contained materials for students enrolled in training with the allied health field. It includes competencies that are associated with the performance of skills by students beginning the study of respiratory therapy assistance. Intended to be used for individualized instruction under the supervision of an…

  2. Mechanical Properties of Respiratory Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Sieck, Gary C.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Reid, Michael B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Striated respiratory muscles are necessary for lung ventilation and to maintain the patency of the upper airway. The basic structural and functional properties of respiratory muscles are similar to those of other striated muscles (both skeletal and cardiac). The sarcomere is the fundamental organizational unit of striated muscles and sarcomeric proteins underlie the passive and active mechanical properties of muscle fibers. In this respect, the functional categorization of different fiber types provides a conceptual framework to understand the physiological properties of respiratory muscles. Within the sarcomere, the interaction between the thick and thin filaments at the level of cross-bridges provides the elementary unit of force generation and contraction. Key to an understanding of the unique functional differences across muscle fiber types are differences in cross-bridge recruitment and cycling that relate to the expression of different myosin heavy chain isoforms in the thick filament. The active mechanical properties of muscle fibers are characterized by the relationship between myoplasmic Ca2+ and cross-bridge recruitment, force generation and sarcomere length (also cross-bridge recruitment), external load and shortening velocity (cross-bridge cycling rate), and cross-bridge cycling rate and ATP consumption. Passive mechanical properties are also important reflecting viscoelastic elements within sarcomeres as well as the extracellular matrix. Conditions that affect respiratory muscle performance may have a range of underlying pathophysiological causes, but their manifestations will depend on their impact on these basic elemental structures. PMID:24265238

  3. Respiratory effects of borax dust.

    PubMed Central

    Garabrant, D H; Bernstein, L; Peters, J M; Smith, T J; Wright, W E

    1985-01-01

    The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. Ninety three per cent of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple bronchitis were related to exposure among non-smokers. Decrements in the FEV1 as a percentage of predicted were seen among smokers who had heavy cumulative borax exposures (greater than or equal to 80 mg/m3 years) but were not seen among less exposed smokers or among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommon and were not related to dust exposure. Borax dust appears to act as a simple respiratory irritant and perhaps causes small changes in the FEV1 among smokers who are heavily exposed. PMID:3878156

  4. Noninvasive ventilation in a child affected by achondroplasia respiratory difficulty syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, Giancarlo; Villa, Giovanna; Moscatelli, Andrea; Diana, Maria Cristina; Pavanello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Achondroplasia can result in respiratory difficulty in early infancy, from anatomical abnormalities such as mid-facial hypoplasia and/or adenotonsillar hypertrophy, leading to obstructive apnea, or to pathophysiological changes occurring in nasopharyngeal or glossal muscle tone, related to neurological abnormalities (foramen magnum and/or hypoglossal canal problems, hydrocephalus), leading to central apnea. More often, the two respiratory components (central and obstructive) are both evident in mixed apnea. Polysomnographic recording should be used during preoperative and postoperative assessment of achondroplastic children and in the subsequent follow-up to assess the adequacy of continuing home respiratory support, including supplemental oxygen, bilevel positive airway pressure, or assisted ventilation.

  5. Respiratory Care of Infants and Children with Congenital Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula and Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Sadreameli, Sara C.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite acute respiratory and chronic respiratory and gastro-intestinal complications, most infants and children with a history of oesophageal atresia / trachea-oesophageal fistula [OA/TOF] can expect to live a fairly normal life. Close multidisciplinary medical and surgical follow-up can identify important co-morbidities whose treatment can improve symptoms and optimize pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. This article will discuss the aetiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of congenital TOF, with an emphasis on post-surgical respiratory management, recognition of early and late onset complications, and long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:25800226

  6. Respiratory Care of Infants and Children with Congenital Tracheo-Oesophageal Fistula and Oesophageal Atresia.

    PubMed

    Sadreameli, Sara C; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2016-01-01

    Despite acute respiratory and chronic respiratory and gastro-intestinal complications, most infants and children with a history of oesophageal atresia / trachea-oesophageal fistula [OA/TOF] can expect to live a fairly normal life. Close multidisciplinary medical and surgical follow-up can identify important co-morbidities whose treatment can improve symptoms and optimize pulmonary and nutritional outcomes. This article will discuss the aetiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment of congenital TOF, with an emphasis on post-surgical respiratory management, recognition of early and late onset complications, and long-term clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Respiratory diseases in metallurgy production workers].

    PubMed

    Shliapnikov, D M; Vlasova, E M; Ponomareva, T A

    2012-01-01

    The authors identified features of respiratory diseases in workers of various metallurgy workshops. Cause-effect relationships are defined between occupational risk factors and respiratory diseases, with determining the affection level.

  8. Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Educators Search English Español Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum KidsHealth / For Parents / Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum What's in this article? What It ...

  9. Self-Calibrating Respiratory-Flowmeter Combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westenskow, Dwayne R.; Orr, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Dual flowmeters ensure accuracy over full range of human respiratory flow rates. System for measurement of respiratory flow employs two flowmeters; one compensates for deficiencies of other. Combination yields easily calibrated system accurate over wide range of gas flow.

  10. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    PubMed

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  11. [Instrumentation support in respiratory kinesiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vandevenne, A; Sergysels, R; Ravez, P; Worth, H; De Coster, A

    1988-01-01

    The points of impact of instrumental support in respiratory physiotherapy are numerous; they concern primarily the pulmonary expansion, bronchial drainage and function of respiratory muscles. The pulmonary expansion may be helped by incitant spirometry and either intermittent or continuous positive pressure respiration, or indirectly by the utilisation of respiration against resistance (expiratory bottles, masks with uni-directional valves and expiratory resistances etc.). These different techniques may be used in the presence of instability of the respiratory units, secondary to an alteration of surfactant or to closure of the small airways induced by a transitory reduction (in the post-operative period) or permanent reduction (such as parietal wall disease of mechanical or neuro-muscular origin) of the functional residual capacity (CRF). If the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) seems particularly helpful for the CRF to recover to the pre-operative level it also appears on the contrary as the least efficacious technique to increase trans-pulmonary pressure. The instrumental support for bronchial drainage may theoretically affect the tension activity of the transport (instrumental help in the pulmonary expansion and in hyperventilation), muco-ciliary transport (external parietal vibration or internal vibrations applied to the upper airways), the biphasic flow (expiratory assistance by negative pressure and humidifiers). The function of the respiratory muscles may in certain cases be improved by the use of abdominal pneumatic cuirasses, by hyperventilation exercises in an isocapnoeic milieu or in breathing exercises against an additional inspiratory or expiratory resistance. If the physiological foundation of mechanical support in respiratory education may be frequently identified, the clinical results reported in the literature are often contradictory.

  12. The terminal latency of the phrenic nerve correlates with respiratory symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Sung; Park, Donghwi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the electrophysiological parameters in phrenic nerve conduction studies (NCS) that sensitively reflect latent respiratory insufficiency present in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-nine patients with ALS were examined, and after exclusion, 21 patients with ALS and their phrenic NCS results were reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their respiratory sub-score in the ALS functional rating scale - revised (Group A, sub-score 12vs. Group B, sub-score 11). We compared the parameters of phrenic NCS between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics between the two groups. Using a multivariate model, we found that the terminal latency of the phrenic nerve was the only parameter that was associated with early symptoms of respiratory insufficiency (p<0.05). The optimal cutoff value for the terminal latency of the phrenic nerve was 7.65ms (sensitivity 80%, specificity 68.2%). The significantly prolonged terminal latency of the phrenic nerve in our study may reflect a profound distal motor axonal dysfunction of the phrenic nerve in patients with ALS in the early stage of respiratory insufficiency that can be used as a sensitive electrophysiological marker reflecting respiratory symptoms in ALS. The terminal latency of the phrenic nerve is useful for early detection of respiratory insufficiency in patients with ALS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Physiology of respiratory disturbances in muscular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Lo Mauro, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited myopathies characterised by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, including of the respiratory muscles. Respiratory failure, i.e. when the respiratory system fails in its gas exchange functions, is a common feature in muscular dystrophy, being the main cause of death, and it is a consequence of lung failure, pump failure or a combination of the two. The former is due to recurrent aspiration, the latter to progressive weakness of respiratory muscles and an increase in the load against which they must contract. In fact, both the resistive and elastic components of the work of breathing increase due to airway obstruction and chest wall and lung stiffening, respectively. The respiratory disturbances in muscular dystrophy are restrictive pulmonary function, hypoventilation, altered thoracoabdominal pattern, hypercapnia, dyspnoea, impaired regulation of breathing, inefficient cough and sleep disordered breathing. They can be present at different rates according to the type of muscular dystrophy and its progression, leading to different onset of each symptom, prognosis and degree of respiratory involvement. Key points A common feature of muscular dystrophy is respiratory failure, i.e. the inability of the respiratory system to provide proper oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. In the lung, respiratory failure is caused by recurrent aspiration, and leads to hypoxaemia and hypercarbia. Ventilatory failure in muscular dystrophy is caused by increased respiratory load and respiratory muscles weakness. Respiratory load increases in muscular dystrophy because scoliosis makes chest wall compliance decrease, atelectasis and fibrosis make lung compliance decrease, and airway obstruction makes airway resistance increase. The consequences of respiratory pump failure are restrictive pulmonary function, hypoventilation, altered thoracoabdominal pattern, hypercapnia, dyspnoea, impaired regulation of breathing, inefficient cough and

  14. Physiology of respiratory disturbances in muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Lo Mauro, Antonella; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited myopathies characterised by progressive skeletal muscle wasting, including of the respiratory muscles. Respiratory failure, i.e . when the respiratory system fails in its gas exchange functions, is a common feature in muscular dystrophy, being the main cause of death, and it is a consequence of lung failure, pump failure or a combination of the two. The former is due to recurrent aspiration, the latter to progressive weakness of respiratory muscles and an increase in the load against which they must contract. In fact, both the resistive and elastic components of the work of breathing increase due to airway obstruction and chest wall and lung stiffening, respectively. The respiratory disturbances in muscular dystrophy are restrictive pulmonary function, hypoventilation, altered thoracoabdominal pattern, hypercapnia, dyspnoea, impaired regulation of breathing, inefficient cough and sleep disordered breathing. They can be present at different rates according to the type of muscular dystrophy and its progression, leading to different onset of each symptom, prognosis and degree of respiratory involvement. A common feature of muscular dystrophy is respiratory failure, i.e. the inability of the respiratory system to provide proper oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination.In the lung, respiratory failure is caused by recurrent aspiration, and leads to hypoxaemia and hypercarbia.Ventilatory failure in muscular dystrophy is caused by increased respiratory load and respiratory muscles weakness.Respiratory load increases in muscular dystrophy because scoliosis makes chest wall compliance decrease, atelectasis and fibrosis make lung compliance decrease, and airway obstruction makes airway resistance increase.The consequences of respiratory pump failure are restrictive pulmonary function, hypoventilation, altered thoracoabdominal pattern, hypercapnia, dyspnoea, impaired regulation of breathing, inefficient cough and sleep disordered

  15. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitzky, Michael G.

    1984-01-01

    Relates alterations in respiratory system functions occurring with aging to changes in respiratory system structure during the course of life. Main alterations noted include loss of alveolar elastic recoil, alteration in chest wall structure and decreased respiratory muscle strength, and loss of surface area and changes in pulmonary circulation.…

  16. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... respiratory protective equipment must meet the electrical engineering requirements in subchapter J of this...

  17. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  18. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  19. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  2. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... respiratory protective equipment must meet the electrical engineering requirements in subchapter J of this...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  4. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  6. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  7. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... respiratory protective equipment must meet the electrical engineering requirements in subchapter J of this...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  9. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... respiratory protective equipment must meet the electrical engineering requirements in subchapter J of this...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  11. Respiratory Protection Performance: Impact of Helmet Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    ECBC-TR-1418 RESPIRATORY PROTECTION PERFORMANCE: IMPACT OF HELMET INTEGRATION Daniel J. Barker Corey M. Grove RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Sep 2015 – Mar 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Respiratory Protection Performance: Impact of Helmet...integrated helmet respirator on respiratory protection effectiveness as compared with a helmet and respirator worn in a traditional nonintegrated

  12. 46 CFR 197.550 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 197.550 Section 197.550 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Benzene § 197.550 Respiratory protection. (a) General. When the use of respirators in... respiratory protective equipment must meet the electrical engineering requirements in subchapter J of this...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1405 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Respiratory protection. 154.1405 Section 154.1405... Equipment § 154.1405 Respiratory protection. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have: (a) Respiratory protection equipment for each person on board that protects the...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1209 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 127.1209... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Equipment § 127.1209 Respiratory protection. Each waterfront facility handling LHG must provide equipment for respiratory protection for each employee of the...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.154 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1915.154 Section 1915.154 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... (PPE) § 1915.154 Respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for shipyard employment is covered by...

  17. Digging through the Obstruction: Insight into the Epithelial Cell Response to Respiratory Virus Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Matthew R; Bomberger, Jennifer M

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory virus infections are common but generally self-limiting infections in healthy individuals. Although early clinical studies reported low detection rates, the development of molecular diagnostic techniques by PCR has led to an increased recognition that respiratory virus infections are associated with morbidity and acute exacerbations of chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The airway epithelium is the first barrier encountered by respiratory viruses following inhalation and the primary site of respiratory viral replication. Here, we describe how the airway epithelial response to respiratory viral infections contributes to disease progression in patients with CF and other chronic lung diseases, including the role respiratory viral infections play in bacterial acquisition in the CF patient lung. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative: Objectives, design and recruitment results of a prospective cohort study investigating infant viral respiratory illness and the development of asthma and allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hartert, Tina V; Carroll, Kecia; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Woodward, Kimberly; Minton, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    The 'attack rate' of asthma following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is about 3-4 fold higher than that of the general population; however, the majority of children who develop viral LRTI during infancy do not develop asthma, and asthma incidence has been observed to continuously decrease with age. Thus, we do not understand how viral LRTI either predispose or serve as a marker of children to develop asthma. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative has been established as a longitudinal prospective investigation of infants and their biological mothers. The primary goals are to investigate both the acute and the long-term health consequences of varying severity and aetiology of clinically significant viral respiratory tract infections on early childhood outcomes. Over four respiratory viral seasons, 2004–2008, term, predominantly non-low weight previously healthy infants and their biological mothers were enrolled during an infant's acute viral respiratory illness.Longitudinal follow up to age 6 years is ongoing [corrected]. This report describes the study objectives, design and recruitment results of the over 650 families enrolled in this longitudinal investigation. The Tennessee Children's Respiratory Initiative is additionally unique because it is designed in parallel with a large retrospective birth cohort of over 95,000 mother-infant dyads with similar objectives to investigate the role of respiratory viral infection severity and aetiology in the development of asthma. Future reports from this cohort will help to clarify the complex relationship between infant respiratory viral infection severity, aetiology, atopic predisposition and the subsequent development of early childhood asthma and atopic diseases.

  19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome in a doctor working at the Prince of Wales Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wong, R S M

    2003-06-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a new disease that is highly contagious and is spreading in the local community and worldwide. This report is of a hospital medical officer with severe acute respiratory syndrome. He presented with sudden onset of fever, chills, myalgia, headache, and dizziness in early March 2003. He developed progressive respiratory symptoms and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates during the second week of his illness. Blood tests showed lymphopenia, mild thrombocytopenia, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time with normal d-dimer level. His chest condition gradually responded to ribavirin and corticosteroids, and serial chest X-ray showed resolving pulmonary infiltrates. The importance of early diagnosis lies in the potential for early treatment, leading to better response.

  20. Development and Function of the Mucosal Immune System in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Neonatal Calves.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rahwa; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Griebel, Philip

    2018-02-15

    Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development. We review the structure, development, and function of MALT in the bovine URT during the first six weeks of life and identify knowledge gaps regarding this early developmental time. This information is critical when designing vaccination programs for young calves, especially when targeting respiratory pathogens that may reside within the commensal microbiome.

  1. Rhinovirus viremia in children with respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Xatzipsalti, Maria; Kyrana, Serena; Tsolia, Mariza; Psarras, Stelios; Bossios, Apostolos; Laza-Stanca, Vasile; Johnston, Sebastian L; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2005-10-15

    Viremia has been implicated in many viral infections; however, viremia due to rhinovirus (RV; rhinoviremia) has been considered not to occur in normal individuals. To evaluate whether RV enters the bloodstream and identify the possible risk factors. Nasopharyngeal washes (NPWs) of 221 children with respiratory infections were examined for the presence of RV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Blood from 88 children, whose NPW was RV-positive, and 31 of RV-negative control subjects was subsequently examined for the presence of RV in the blood by semi-nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Rhinoviremia was then correlated with clinical characteristics of the disease. RV was detected in the blood of 10 out of 88 NPW RV-positive cases (11.4%): 7 of 28 children with asthma exacerbations (25.0%), 2 of 26 with common cold (7.7%), 1 of 25 with bronchiolitis (4.0%), and 0 of 9 with pneumonia (0%). All NPW RV-negative cases were negative in the blood. The proportion of rhinoviremia in children with asthma exacerbation was significantly higher compared with children suffering from the other diseases (25 vs. 5%, p = 0.01). Significant risk factors were: sampling respiratory infections in normal children and is rather common in the early course of acute asthma exacerbations, suggesting that rhinoviremia may be involved in asthma exacerbation pathogenesis.

  2. Respiratory tract immune response to microbial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, B N

    1982-11-15

    Effective resistance to respiratory tract infection depends principally on specific immunity on mucosal surfaces of the upper or lower respiratory tract. Respiratory tract immune response comprises antibody and cell-mediated systems and may be induced most readily by surface presentation of replicating agents but can result from parenteral or local presentation of highly immunogenic antigens. Upper and lower respiratory tract systems differ in immunologic competence, with the lungs having a greater inventory of protective mechanisms than the trachea or nose. Several effective vaccines have been developed for prevention or modification of respiratory tract diseases.

  3. The Associations between Periodontitis and Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, S A; Shirzaiy, M; Risbaf, S

    2017-01-01

    Researches have shown positive correlation between periodontitis and respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We reviewed the literature to assess the relationship between periodontitis and respiratory diseases. This study involved a review of relevant English literature published regarding periodontitis and respiratory diseases during the period of 1994-2015. The analysis of literature related to the topic showed there is association between periodontitis and respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia. It was found that periodontitis is associated with respiratory diseases due to poor oral hygiene and low immunity state.

  4. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory acidosis, or primary hypercapnia, occurs when carbon dioxide production exceeds elimination via the lung and is mainly owing to alveolar hypoventilation. Concurrent increases in Paco 2 , decreases in pH and compensatory increases in blood HCO 3 - concentration are associated with respiratory acidosis. Respiratory acidosis can be acute or chronic, with initial metabolic compensation to increase HCO 3 - concentrations by intracellular buffering. Chronic respiratory acidosis results in longer lasting increases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - . Alveolar hypoventilation and resulting respiratory acidosis may also be associated with hypoxemia, especially evident when patients are inspiring room air (20.9% O 2 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mycobacterial Aerosols and Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae, and the new species M. immunogenum, have been implicated in outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis or respiratory problems in a wide variety of settings. One common feature of the outbreaks has been exposure to aerosols. Aerosols have been generated from metalworking fluid during machining and grinding operations as well as from indoor swimming pools, hot tubs, and water-damaged buildings. Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria are present in drinking water, resistant to disinfection, able to provoke inflammatory reactions, and readily aerosolized. In all outbreaks, the water sources of the aerosols were disinfected. Disinfection may select for the predominance and growth of mycobacteria. Therefore, mycobacteria may be responsible, in part, for many outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other respiratory problems in the workplace and home. PMID:12890314

  6. Mycobacterial aerosols and respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O

    2003-07-01

    Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae, and the new species M. immunogenum, have been implicated in outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis or respiratory problems in a wide variety of settings. One common feature of the outbreaks has been exposure to aerosols. Aerosols have been generated from metalworking fluid during machining and grinding operations as well as from indoor swimming pools, hot tubs, and water-damaged buildings. Environmental opportunistic mycobacteria are present in drinking water, resistant to disinfection, able to provoke inflammatory reactions, and readily aerosolized. In all outbreaks, the water sources of the aerosols were disinfected. Disinfection may select for the predominance and growth of mycobacteria. Therefore, mycobacteria may be responsible, in part, for many outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other respiratory problems in the workplace and home.

  7. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PYOCYANINE, AN ACCESSORY RESPIRATORY ENZYME

    PubMed Central

    Friedheim, Ernst A. H.

    1931-01-01

    Pyocyanine, the blue pigment of B. pyocyaneus, can increase the respiration of living cells to a great degree (maximum observed increase 24-fold). The reversibility of its oxidation and reduction is responsible for this. The effect is non-species-specific and has been observed in varying degrees with B. pyocyaneus, Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumococcus Type III, and the red blood corpuscles of rabbits. The effect of pyocyanine is dependent on the presence of another respiratory ferment sensitive to potassium cyanide and carbon monoxide. The increase of respiration induced by pyocyanine is paralleled by an increase in the respiratory quotient. The pyocyanine catalysis is not indiscriminately effective in all oxidations, but only in the oxidation of certain substances closely associated with the bacterial body. PMID:19869911

  9. Respiratory failure due to tracheobronchomalacia.

    PubMed Central

    Collard, P.; Freitag, L.; Reynaert, M. S.; Rodenstein, D. O.; Francis, C.

    1996-01-01

    A case is described of tracheobronchomegaly progressing to extensive tracheomalacia, complicated by episodic choking, recurrent pulmonary infections, and irreversible hypercapnic respiratory failure. A Y-shaped tracheobronchial stent was placed endoscopically to splint the trachea open, with excellent clinical and physiological improvement. New stent designs may provide long term palliation in selected cases of diffuse tracheal collapse or stenosis, and offer an alternative to surgical repair. PMID:8711665

  10. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  11. Current devices of respiratory physiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hristara-Papadopoulou, A; Tsanakas, J; Diomou, G; Papadopoulou, O

    2008-01-01

    In recent years patients with respiratory diseases use various devices, which help the removal of mucus from the airways and the improvement of pulmonary function. The aim of the present study is to determine the effectiveness of the current devices of respiratory physiotherapy, as it comes from the review of literature. The current devices of physiotherapy for patients with respiratory diseases, are presented as an alternative therapy method or a supplemental therapy and they can motivate patients to apply therapy by themselves. These devices seem to increase patients' compliance to daily treatment, because they present many benefits, as independent application, full control of therapy and easy use. These devices are the Positive Expiratory Pressure, the High Frequency Chest Wall Oscillation, the Oral High Frequency Oscillation, the Intrapulmonary Percussive Ventilation, the Incentive Spirometry the Flutter and the Acapella and the Cornet. Current devices seem to be effective in terms of mucus expectoration and pulmonary function improvement, as it is shown by published studies. The choice of the suitable device for each patient is a challenge for the physiotherapist in order to achieve better compliance in daily treatment. More controlled studies are needed due to the fact that the number of published studies is limited. PMID:19158964

  12. Deployment-related Respiratory Issues.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael J; Rawlins, Frederic A; Forbes, Damon A; Skabelund, Andrew J; Lucero, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Military deployment to Southwest Asia since 2003 in support of Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn has presented unique challenges from a pulmonary perspective. Various airborne hazards in the deployed environment include suspended geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust emissions, industrial air pollution, and isolated exposure incidents. These exposures may give rise to both acute respiratory symptoms and in some instances development of chronic lung disease. While increased respiratory symptoms during deployment are well documented, there is limited data on whether inhalation of airborne particulate matter is causally related to an increase in either common or unique pulmonary diseases. While disease processes such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia and exacerbation of preexisting asthma have been adequately documented, there is significant controversy surrounding the potential effects of deployment exposures and development of rare pulmonary disorders such as constrictive bronchiolitis. The role of smoking and related disorders has yet to be defined. This article presents the current evidence for deployment-related respiratory symptoms and ongoing Department of Defense studies. Further, it also provides general recommendations for evaluating pulmonary health in the deployed military population.

  13. Respiratory physiology and pathological anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gorman, J M; Uy, J

    1987-11-01

    There has been comparatively little attention paid to the respiratory derangements in anxiety disorders. Some authorities contend, however, that indices of respiratory function may be the best objective marker of anxiety state. Furthermore, an understanding of the ventilatory status of patients with anxiety disorder has shed light on the basic pathophysiology of abnormal anxiety. For example, it is now clear that patients with a wide variety of anxiety disorders hyperventilate both chronically and acutely. Therefore, we present an explanation of the physiological changes produced by hyperventilation. In order to further study ventilatory physiology in patients with anxiety disorder, our group and others have used the carbon dioxide challenge test. The data from these experiments suggest that patients with panic disorder are hypersensitive to carbon dioxide and that carbon dioxide inhalation induces panic attacks in susceptible patients. Hyperventilation appears to be a secondary, but pathophysiologically important, event in the generation of acute panic. The implications of work in respiratory physiology for clinical management of patients with anxiety disorder are discussed.

  14. Baby swimming and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per

    2008-05-01

    To estimate the effect of baby swimming in the first 6 months of life on respiratory diseases from 6 to 18 months. We used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in children born between 1999 and 2005 followed from birth to the age of 18 months (n = 30,870). Health outcomes: lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), wheeze and otitis media between 6 and 18 months of age. baby swimming at the age of 6 months. The effect of baby swimming was estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. About 25% of the children participated in baby swimming. The prevalence of LRTI was 13.3%, wheeze 40.0% and otitis media 30.4%. Children who were baby swimming were not more likely to have LRTI, to wheeze or to have otitis media. However, children with atopic mothers who attended baby swimming had an increased risk of wheeze, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI 1.11, 1.39), but not LRTI or otitis media. This was also the case for children without respiratory diseases before 6 months aOR 1.08 (95%CI 1.02-1.15). Baby swimming may be related to later wheeze. However, these findings warrant further investigation.

  15. Pontine Mechanisms of Respiratory Control

    PubMed Central

    Dutschmann, Mathias; Dick, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Pontine respiratory nuclei provide synaptic input to medullary rhythmogenic circuits to shape and adapt the breathing pattern. An understanding of this statement depends on appreciating breathing as a behavior, rather than a stereotypic rhythm. In this review, we focus on the pontine-mediated inspiratory off-switch (IOS) associated with postinspiratory glottal constriction. Further, IOS is examined in the context of pontine regulation of glottal resistance in response to multimodal sensory inputs and higher commands, which in turn rules timing, duration, and patterning of respiratory airflow. In addition, network plasticity in respiratory control emerges during the development of the pons. Synaptic plasticity is required for dynamic and efficient modulation of the expiratory breathing pattern to cope with rapid changes from eupneic to adaptive breathing linked to exploratory (foraging and sniffing) and expulsive (vocalizing, coughing, sneezing, and retching) behaviors, as well as conveyance of basic emotions. The speed and complexity of changes in the breathing pattern of behaving animals implies that “learning to breathe” is necessary to adjust to changing internal and external states to maintain homeostasis and survival. PMID:23720253

  16. Respiratory analysis system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements.

  17. Occupational Respiratory Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  18. [Palliative surgical correction of respiratory insufficiency in diffusive pulmonary emphysema].

    PubMed

    Gorbunkov, S D; Varlamov, V V; Cherny, S M; Lukina, O V; Kiryukhina, L D; Romanikhin, A I; Zinchenko, A V; Akopov, A L

    To analyze early postoperative period in patients with diffuse pulmonary emphysema after palliative surgical correction of respiratory failure. The study included 196 patients who underwent bullectomy (n=111) and surgical reduction of pulmonary volume (n=85). Overall morbidity and mortality were 40.8% and 12.2% respectively. Among patients older than 60 years these values were significantly higher (58.0% and 22.6% respectively). It was shown that age over 60 years is associated with high risk of complications and mortality after excision of large and giant bulls. In patients <60 years morbidity is comparable after bullectomy and surgical reduction of pulmonary volume. Selection of patients for palliative surgical correction of respiratory failure is generally corresponded to that for lung transplantation. However, these methods should be considered complementary rather competing.

  19. Molecular Imaging of Influenza and Other Emerging Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, James; Paragas, Jason; Jahrling, Peter B.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the pathogenesis and therapy of influenza and other emerging respiratory viral infections would be aided by methods that directly visualize pathophysiologic processes in patients and laboratory animals. At present, imaging of diseases, such as swine-origin H1N1 influenza, is largely restricted to chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT), which can detect pulmonary structural changes in severely ill patients but are more limited in characterizing the early stages of illness, differentiating inflammation from infection or tracking immune responses. In contrast, imaging modalities, such as positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and bioluminescence imaging, which have become useful tools for investigating the pathogenesis of a range of disease processes, could be used to advance in vivo studies of respiratory viral infections in patients and animals. Molecular techniques might also be used to identify novel biomarkers of disease progression and to evaluate new therapies. PMID:21422476

  20. The weighty issue of obesity in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2017-09-01

    Some have observed that developed world is fat and getting fatter. This is even extending into the developing world, and it is important to appreciate that the consequences of childhood obesity last into adulthood and are associated with premature death. From the paediatric respiratory perspective, the deposition of excess adipose tissue in the thoraco-abdominal region begins early in life and is believed to alter diaphragm mobility and chest wall expansion, reduce lung compliance, and result in a rapid shallow breathing pattern with an increased work of breathing and reduction in maximum ventilatory capacity. This results in respiratory symptoms of exertional dyspnoea related to deconditioning which may present as exercise limitation, leading to confusion with common lung diseases such as asthma. The manifestations of the increasingly prevalent problems of overweight and obesity in young people and their interaction with common conditions of asthma and obstructive sleep apnoea will be discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Air pollution and non-respiratory health hazards for children

    PubMed Central

    Poursafa, Parinaz

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution is a global health issue with serious public health implications, particularly for children. Usually respiratory effects of air pollutants are considered, but this review highlights the importance of non-respiratory health hazards. In addition to short-term effects, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with low birth weight, increase in oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. In view of the emerging epidemic of chronic disease in low- and middle- income countries, the vicious cycle of rapid urbanization and increasing levels of air pollution, public health and regulatory policies for air quality protection should be integrated into the main priorities of the primary health care system and into the educational curriculum of health professionals. PMID:22371790

  2. Surfactant Protein D in Respiratory and Non-Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Grith L.

    2018-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a multimeric collectin that is involved in innate immune defense and expressed in pulmonary, as well as non-pulmonary, epithelia. SP-D exerts antimicrobial effects and dampens inflammation through direct microbial interactions and modulation of host cell responses via a series of cellular receptors. However, low protein concentrations, genetic variation, biochemical modification, and proteolytic breakdown can induce decomposition of multimeric SP-D into low-molecular weight forms, which may induce pro-inflammatory SP-D signaling. Multimeric SP-D can decompose into trimeric SP-D, and this process, and total SP-D levels, are partly determined by variation within the SP-D gene, SFTPD. SP-D has been implicated in the development of respiratory diseases including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, allergic asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Disease-induced breakdown or modifications of SP-D facilitate its systemic leakage from the lung, and circulatory SP-D is a promising biomarker for lung injury. Moreover, studies in preclinical animal models have demonstrated that local pulmonary treatment with recombinant SP-D is beneficial in these diseases. In recent years, SP-D has been shown to exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in various non-pulmonary organs and to have effects on lipid metabolism and pro-inflammatory effects in vessel walls, which enhance the risk of atherosclerosis. A common SFTPD polymorphism is associated with atherosclerosis and diabetes, and SP-D has been associated with metabolic disorders because of its effects in the endothelium and adipocytes and its obesity-dampening properties. This review summarizes and discusses the reported genetic associations of SP-D with disease and the clinical utility of circulating SP-D for respiratory disease prognosis. Moreover, basic research on the mechanistic links between SP-D and respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases

  3. Respiratory dyskinesia--an under-recognized side-effect of neuroleptic medications.

    PubMed

    Bhimanil, Mukesh Mohan; Bhimani, Mukesh; Khan, Murad Moosa; Khan, Muhammad Faheem Ashraf; Waris, Muhammad Shiraz

    2011-09-01

    Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognized side effect of neuroleptic administration. There are only few studies that have addressed the prevalence of respiratory dyskinesia in patients with tardive dyskinesia. Our case report highlights the need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature. Since RD is underrecognized and misdiagnosed, early detection can improve long term prognosis as treatment options are few and usually of only limited effect. A 62-year-old Asian male, retired civil engineer, had more than 20 years history of depressive illness, developed antidepressant induced hypomania, and was given risperidone upto 1 mg per day. He developed extrapyrmidal side effects as tremors, rigidity and later dyskinetic movements of lips with shortness of breathing, dyspnoea, grunting or gasping. He was referred to the pulmonologist who got the neccessary medical work up done, which was normal. A diagnosis of respiratory dyskinesia was made. Respiratory dyskinesia is an under-recognised and distressing condition that clinicians need to be aware of when treating patients with anti-psychotic medications. And also there is a need to regularly examine patients on antipsychotics for any evidence of dyskinetic movements including respiratory musculature for early diagnosis and better outcome. This case report also is worth reading for professionals of other specialties also because of the presentation of this patient, it can be easily misdiagnosed and result in poor outcome.

  4. Rehabilitation of patients admitted to a respiratory intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Nava, S

    1998-07-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation has been shown to be of benefit to clinically stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examined the effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on some physiologic variables in COPD patients recovering from an episode of acute respiratory failure. A prospective, randomized study. A respiratory intensive care unit (RICU). Eighty COPD patients recovering from an episode of acute respiratory failure were randomized in a 3:1 fashion to receive stepwise pulmonary rehabilitation (group A, n=60 patients) or standard medical therapy (group B, n=20 patients). Improvements in exercise tolerance, sense of breathlessness, respiratory muscle function, and pulmonary function test values were measured, respectively, by exercise capacity (6-minute walking distance [6MWD]), dyspnea score (Visual Analog Scale [VAS]), maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and forced vital capacity (FVC). Group A received pulmonary rehabilitation that consisted of passive mobilization (step I), early deambulation (step II), respiratory and lower skeletal muscle training (step III), and if the patients were able, complete lower extremity training on a treadmill (step IV). Group B received standard medical therapy plus a basic deambulation program. Sixty-one of 80 patients were mechanically ventilated at admission to the unit and most of them were bedridden. Twelve of the 60 group A patients and 4 of the 20 group B patients died during their RICU stay, and 9 patients required invasive mechanical ventilation at home after their discharge. The total length of RICU stay was 38+/-14 days for patients in group A versus 33.2+/-11 days for those in group B. Most patients from both groups regained the ability to walk, either unaided or aided. At discharge, 6 MWD results were significantly improved (p < .001) in Group A only. MIP improved in Group A only (p < .05), while VAS scores improved in both groups, but the

  5. Superiority of PC-SOD to other anti-COPD drugs for elastase-induced emphysema and alteration in lung mechanics and respiratory function in mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken-Ichiro; Sato, Keizo; Aoshiba, Kazutetsu; Azuma, Arata; Mizushima, Tohru

    2012-06-15

    Bronchodilators (such as ipratropium bromide), steroids (such as fluticasone propionate), and newly developed anti-inflammatory drugs (such as roflumilast) are used for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We recently reported that lecithinized superoxide dismutase (PC-SOD) confers a protective effect in mouse models of COPD. We here examined the therapeutic effect of the combined administration of PC-SOD with ipratropium bromide on pulmonary emphysema and compared the effect of PC-SOD to other types of drugs. The severity of emphysema in mice was assessed by various criteria. Lung mechanics (elastance) and respiratory function (ratio of forced expiratory volume in the first 0.05 s to forced vital capacity) were assessed. Administration of PC-SOD by inhalation suppressed elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema, alteration of lung mechanics, and respiratory dysfunction. The concomitant intratracheal administration of ipratropium bromide did not alter the ameliorating effects of PC-SOD. Administration of ipratropium bromide, fluticasone propionate, or roflumilast alone did not suppress the elastase-induced increase in the pulmonary level of superoxide anion, pulmonary inflammatory response, pulmonary emphysema, alteration of lung mechanics, or respiratory dysfunction as effectively as did PC-SOD. PC-SOD, but not the other drugs, showed a therapeutic effect even when the drug was administered after the development of emphysema. PC-SOD also suppressed the cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammatory response and increase in airway resistance. Based on these results, we consider that the inhalation of PC-SOD would be therapeutically beneficial for COPD.

  6. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  7. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    PubMed

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media.

  8. Acute Respiratory Failure in Cardiac Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Komurcu, Ozgur; Ozdemirkan, Aycan; Camkiran Firat, Aynur; Zeyneloglu, Pinar; Sezgin, Atilla; Pirat, Arash

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute respiratory failure in cardiac transplant recipients. Cardiac transplant recipients >15 years of age and readmitted to the intensive care unit after cardiac transplant between 2005 and 2015 were included. Thirty-nine patients were included in the final analyses. Patients with acute respiratory failure and without acute respiratory failure were compared. The most frequent causes of readmission were routine intensive care unit follow-up after endomyocardial biopsy, heart failure, sepsis, and pneumonia. Patients who were readmitted to the intensive care unit were further divided into 2 groups based on presence of acute respiratory failure. Patients' ages and body weights did not differ between groups. The groups were not different in terms of comorbidities. The admission sequential organ failure assessment scores were higher in patients with acute respiratory failure. Patients with acute respiratory failure were more likely to use bronchodilators and n-acetylcysteine before readmission. Mean peak inspiratory pressures were higher in patients in acute respiratory failure. Patients with acute respiratory failure developed sepsis more frequently and they were more likely to have hypotension. Patients with acute respiratory failure had higher values of serum creatinine before admission to intensive care unit and in the first day of intensive care unit. Patients with acute respiratory failure had more frequent bilateral opacities on chest radiographs and positive blood and urine cultures. Duration of intensive care unit and hospital stays were not statistically different between groups. Mortality in patients with acute respiratory failure was 76.5% compared with 0% in patients without acute respiratory failure. A significant number of cardiac transplant recipients were readmitted to the intensive care unit. Patients presenting with acute respiratory failure on readmission more frequently

  9. Woodstoves, formaldehyde, and respiratory disease

    SciT

    Tuthill, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Telephone interviews were completed in Western Massachusetts in April 1983 for 399 households (91.5 percent) in a random sample of households with elementary school children. Woodstoves were used in 64.7 percent of the homes, but such use was not associated with acute respiratory illness. However, formaldehyde exposure was significantly related, with a risk ratio of 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.7-3.4). New construction/remodeling and new upholstered furniture had additive effects. Neither woodstove use nor formaldehyde exposure were significantly associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or allergies.

  10. Computerised respiratory sounds can differentiate smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Sen, Ipek; Kahya, Yasemin P; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2017-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is often associated with the development of several respiratory diseases however, if diagnosed early, the changes in the lung tissue caused by smoking may be reversible. Computerised respiratory sounds have shown to be sensitive to detect changes within the lung tissue before any other measure, however it is unknown if it is able to detect changes in the lungs of healthy smokers. This study investigated the differences between computerised respiratory sounds of healthy smokers and non-smokers. Healthy smokers and non-smokers were recruited from a university campus. Respiratory sounds were recorded simultaneously at 6 chest locations (right and left anterior, lateral and posterior) using air-coupled electret microphones. Airflow (1.0-1.5 l/s) was recorded with a pneumotachograph. Breathing phases were detected using airflow signals and respiratory sounds with validated algorithms. Forty-four participants were enrolled: 18 smokers (mean age 26.2, SD = 7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 104.7, SD = 9) and 26 non-smokers (mean age 25.9, SD = 3.7 years; mean FEV 1 % predicted 96.8, SD = 20.2). Smokers presented significantly higher frequency at maximum sound intensity during inspiration [(M = 117, SD = 16.2 Hz vs. M = 106.4, SD = 21.6 Hz; t(43) = -2.62, p = 0.0081, d z  = 0.55)], lower expiratory sound intensities (maximum intensity: [(M = 48.2, SD = 3.8 dB vs. M = 50.9, SD = 3.2 dB; t(43) = 2.68, p = 0.001, d z  = -0.78)]; mean intensity: [(M = 31.2, SD = 3.6 dB vs. M = 33.7,SD = 3 dB; t(43) = 2.42, p = 0.001, d z  = 0.75)] and higher number of inspiratory crackles (median [interquartile range] 2.2 [1.7-3.7] vs. 1.5 [1.2-2.2], p = 0.081, U = 110, r = -0.41) than non-smokers. Significant differences between computerised respiratory sounds of smokers and non-smokers have been found. Changes in respiratory sounds are often the earliest sign of disease. Thus, computerised respiratory sounds

  11. Visual aided pacing in respiratory maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambaudi, L. R.; Rossi, E.; Mántaras, M. C.; Perrone, M. S.; Siri, L. Nicola

    2007-11-01

    A visual aid to pace self-controlled respiratory cycles in humans is presented. Respiratory manoeuvres need to be accomplished in several clinic and research procedures, among others, the studies on Heart Rate Variability. Free running respiration turns to be difficult to correlate with other physiologic variables. Because of this fact, voluntary self-control is asked from the individuals under study. Currently, an acoustic metronome is used to pace respiratory frequency, its main limitation being the impossibility to induce predetermined timing in the stages within the respiratory cycle. In the present work, visual driven self-control was provided, with separate timing for the four stages of a normal respiratory cycle. This visual metronome (ViMet) was based on a microcontroller which power-ON and -OFF an eight-LED bar, in a four-stage respiratory cycle time series handset by the operator. The precise timing is also exhibited on an alphanumeric display.

  12. Automated respiratory cycles selection is highly specific and improves respiratory mechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Vincent; Graas, Estelle; Rigo, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Selected optimal respiratory cycles should allow calculation of respiratory mechanic parameters focusing on patient-ventilator interaction. New computer software automatically selecting optimal breaths and respiratory mechanics derived from those cycles are evaluated. Retrospective study. University level III neonatal intensive care unit. Ten mins synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and assist/control ventilation recordings from ten newborns. The ventilator provided respiratory mechanic data (ventilator respiratory cycles) every 10 secs. Pressure, flow, and volume waves and pressure-volume, pressure-flow, and volume-flow loops were reconstructed from continuous pressure-volume recordings. Visual assessment determined assisted leak-free optimal respiratory cycles (selected respiratory cycles). New software graded the quality of cycles (automated respiratory cycles). Respiratory mechanic values were derived from both sets of optimal cycles. We evaluated quality selection and compared mean values and their variability according to ventilatory mode and respiratory mechanic provenance. To assess discriminating power, all 45 "t" values obtained from interpatient comparisons were compared for each respiratory mechanic parameter. A total of 11,724 breaths are evaluated. Automated respiratory cycle/selected respiratory cycle selections agreement is high: 88% of maximal κ with linear weighting. Specificity and positive predictive values are 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. Averaged values are similar between automated respiratory cycle and ventilator respiratory cycle. C20/C alone is markedly decreased in automated respiratory cycle (1.27 ± 0.37 vs. 1.81 ± 0.67). Tidal volume apparent similarity disappears in assist/control: automated respiratory cycle tidal volume (4.8 ± 1.0 mL/kg) is significantly lower than for ventilator respiratory cycle (5.6 ± 1.8 mL/kg). Coefficients of variation decrease for all automated respiratory cycle parameters in all infants. "t

  13. Advances in Remote Respiratory Assessments for People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Baroi, Sidney; McNamara, Renae J; McKenzie, David K; Gandevia, Simon; Brodie, Matthew A

    2018-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality. Advances in remote technologies and telemedicine provide new ways to monitor respiratory function and improve chronic disease management. However, telemedicine does not always include remote respiratory assessments, and the current state of knowledge for people with COPD has not been evaluated. Systematically review the use of remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD, including the following questions: What devices have been used? Can acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) be predicted by using remote devices? Do remote respiratory assessments improve health-related outcomes? The review protocol was registered (PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016049333). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and COMPENDEX databases were searched for studies that included remote respiratory assessments in people with COPD. A narrative synthesis was then conducted by two reviewers according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Forced expiratory volume assessed daily by using a spirometer was the most common modality. Other measurements included resting respiratory rate, respiratory sounds, and end-tidal carbon dioxide level. Remote assessments had high user satisfaction. Benefits included early detection of AECOPD, improved health-related outcomes, and the ability to replace hospital care with a virtual ward. Remote respiratory assessments are feasible and when combined with sufficient organizational backup can improve health-related outcomes in some but not all cohorts. Future research should focus on the early detection, intervention, and rehabilitation for AECOPD in high-risk people who have limited access to best care and investigate continuous as well as intermittent monitoring.

  14. Respiratory system involvement in Costello syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Kuo, Christin; Ananth, Amitha Lakshmi; Myers, Angela; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Stevenson, David A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne

    2016-07-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene. Respiratory system complications have been reported in individuals with CS, but a comprehensive description of the full spectrum and incidence of respiratory symptoms in these patients is not available. Here, we report the clinical course of four CS patients with respiratory complications as a major cause of morbidity. Review of the literature identified 56 CS patients with descriptions of their neonatal course and 17 patients in childhood/adulthood. We found that in the neonatal period, respiratory complications are seen in approximately 78% of patients with transient respiratory distress reported in 45% of neonates. Other more specific respiratory diagnoses were reported in 62% of patients, the majority of which comprised disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Symptoms of upper airway obstruction were reported in CS neonates but were more commonly diagnosed in childhood/adulthood (71%). Analysis of HRAS mutations and their respiratory phenotype revealed that the common p.Gly12Ser mutation is more often associated with transient respiratory distress and other respiratory diagnoses. Respiratory failure and dependence on mechanical ventilation occurs almost exclusively with rare mutations. In cases of prenatally diagnosed CS, the high incidence of respiratory complications in the neonatal period should prompt anticipatory guidance and development of a postnatal management plan. This may be important in cases involving rarer mutations. Furthermore, the high frequency of airway obstruction in CS patients suggests that otorhinolaryngological evaluation and sleep studies should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Year in Review 2015: Neonatal Respiratory Care.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Sherry E

    2016-04-01

    Neonatal respiratory care practices have changed with breathtaking speed in the past few years. It is critical for the respiratory therapist and others caring for neonates to be up to date with current recommendations and evolving care practices. The purpose of this article is to review papers of particular note that were published in 2015 and address important aspects of newborn respiratory care. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Lindsey A; Wagner, Brandie D; Ingram, David A; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Cotten, C Michael; Dagle, John; Sontag, Marci K; Mourani, Peter M; Abman, Steven H

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during early childhood after preterm birth, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of 587 preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks and birth weights between 500 and 1,250 g. Data collected included perinatal information and assessments during the neonatal intensive care unit admission and longitudinal follow-up by questionnaire until 2 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal smoking prior to preterm birth increased the odds of having an infant with BPD by twofold (P = 0.02). Maternal smoking was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory support during the neonatal intensive care unit admission. Preexisting hypertension was associated with a twofold (P = 0.04) increase in odds for BPD. Lower gestational age and birth weight z-scores were associated with BPD. Preterm infants who were exposed to maternal smoking had higher rates of late respiratory disease during childhood. Twenty-two percent of infants diagnosed with BPD and 34% of preterm infants without BPD had no clinical signs of late respiratory disease during early childhood. We conclude that maternal smoking and hypertension increase the odds for developing BPD after preterm birth, and that maternal smoking is strongly associated with increased odds for late respiratory morbidities during early childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to the BPD diagnosis at 36 weeks, other factors modulate late respiratory outcomes during childhood. We speculate that measures to reduce maternal smoking not only will lower the risk for preterm birth but also will improve late respiratory morbidities after preterm birth.

  17. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory alkalosis, or primary hypocapnia, occurs when alveolar ventilation exceeds that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by tissues. Concurrent decreases in Paco 2 , increases in pH, and compensatory decreases in blood HCO 3 - levels are associated with respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic, with metabolic compensation initially consisting of cellular uptake of HCO 3 - and buffering by intracellular phosphates and proteins. Chronic respiratory alkalosis results in longer-lasting decreases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - ; the arterial pH can approach near-normal values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory problems in children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Chetan; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2012-03-01

    Down syndrome is associated with a significant health burden, which is particularly apparent in young children who will frequently present with cardiac and respiratory problems. Respiratory presentations include problems related to structural abnormalities of the airways and lungs, glue ears, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections and obstructive sleep apnoea. These conditions are readily identifiable and able to be treated. An awareness of the breadth of respiratory problems and a plan to monitor patients with Down syndrome for their development has the potential to improve outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  19. New Metrics for Evaluating Viral Respiratory Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Baric, Ralph S.; Ferris, Martin T.

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogenesis studies in mice have relied on markers of severe systemic disease, rather than clinically relevant measures, to evaluate respiratory virus infection; thus confounding connections to human disease. Here, whole-body plethysmography was used to directly measure changes in pulmonary function during two respiratory viral infections. This methodology closely tracked with traditional pathogenesis metrics, distinguished both virus- and dose-specific responses, and identified long-term respiratory changes following both SARS-CoV and Influenza A Virus infection. Together, the work highlights the utility of examining respiratory function following infection in order to fully understand viral pathogenesis. PMID:26115403

  20. Respiratory Toxicity of Dimethyl Sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kotaro; Pokorski, Mieczyslaw; Sato, Yutaka; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Okada, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is one of the most commonly used solvents for hydrophobic substances in biological experiments. In addition, the compound exhibits a plethora of bioactivities, which makes it of potential pharmacological use of its own. The influence on respiration, and thus on arterial blood oxygenation, of DMSO is unclear, contentious, and an area of limited study. Thus, in the present investigation we set out to determine the influence on lung ventilation of cumulated doses of DMSO in the amount of 0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 7.5, and 15.5 g/kg; each dose given intraperitoneally at 1 h interval in conscious mice. Ventilation and its responses to 7 % hypoxia (N(2) balanced) were recorded in a whole body plethsymograph. We demonstrate a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of DMSO on lung ventilation and its hypoxic responsiveness, driven mostly by changes in the tidal component. The maximum safe dose of DMSO devoid of meaningful consequences for respiratory function was 3.5 g/kg. The dose of 7.5 g/kg of DMSO significantly dampened respiration, with yet well preserved hyperventilatory response to hypoxia. The highest dose of 15.5 g/kg severely impaired ventilation and its responses. The study delineates the safety profile of DMSO regarding the respiratory function which is essential for maintaining proper tissue oxygenation. Caution should be exercised concerning dose concentration of DMSO.

  1. Moxifloxacin in respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc

    2005-02-01

    Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation fluoroquinolone that has been shown to be effective against respiratory pathogens, including Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Gram-negative (Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis), and atypical strains (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae), as well as multi-drug resistant S. pneumoniae, including strains resistant to penicillin, macrolides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and some fluoroquinolones. Moxifloxacin is highly concentrated in lung tissue, and has demonstrated rapid eradication rates. The bioavailability and half-life of moxifloxacin provides potent bactericidal effects at a dose of 400mg/day. The ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to MIC of moxifloxacin is the highest among the fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae. The clinical efficacy of moxifloxacin has been shown in controlled studies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (CB) and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Moxifloxacin has demonstrated a faster resolution of symptoms in CAP and exacerbations of CB patients compared with first-line therapy. It has also demonstrated better eradication in exacerbations of CB compared with standard therapy, in particular the macrolides. Treatment guidelines should take into account the results of clinical trials with moxifloxacin in order to establish the role of this antimicrobial in the therapeutic arsenal against respiratory tract infections.

  2. Factors predicting life-threatening infections with respiratory syncytial virus in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Yoon; Kim, Taeeun; Jang, Young Rock; Kim, Min-Chul; Chong, Yong Pil; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2017-05-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of acute respiratory illness with a clinical spectrum ranging from self-limiting upper respiratory infection to severe lower respiratory infection in elderly persons as well as young children. However, there are limited data on risk factors for life-threatening infections that could guide the appropriate use of antiviral agents in adult patients with RSV. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from October 2013 to September 2015. Adult patients with RSV who visited the emergency department were enrolled. Primary outcome was life-threatening infection (admission to intensive care unit, need for ventilator care or in-hospital death). A total of 227 patients were analysed. Thirty-four (15%) were classified as having life-threatening infections. By logistic regression, lower respiratory infection, chronic lung disease and bacterial co-infection were independent predictors of life-threatening infections. We developed a simple clinical scoring system using these variables (lower respiratory tract infection = score 4, chronic respiratory disease = score 3, bacterial co-infection = score 3 and fever ≥38 °C = score 2) to predict life-threatening infection. A score of >5 differentiated life-threatening RSV from non-life-threatening RSV with 82% sensitivity (95% CI, 66-93) and 72% specificity (95% CI, 65-78). The use of a clinical scoring system based on lower respiratory infection, chronic respiratory disease, bacterial co-infection and fever appears to be useful for outcome prediction and risk stratification in order to select patients who may need early antiviral therapy.

  3. Congestive heart failure in children with pneumonia and respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Nimdet, Kachaporn; Techakehakij, Win

    2017-03-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is one of the most common cardiac complications of pneumonia in adulthood leading to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Little is known, however, of CHF and pneumonia in children. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the characteristics and factors associated with CHF in under-5 children with pneumonia and respiratory failure. A retrospective cohort was conducted in hospitalized patients aged 2-59 months with community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory failure from June 2011 to June 2014 at Suratthani Hospital, Thailand. The characteristics, therapeutic strategy, and clinical outcomes of CHF were reviewed. Baseline characteristics and basic laboratory investigations on admission were compared between the CHF and non-CHF groups. Of 135 patients, 14 (10%) had CHF. Compared with patients without CHF, the CHF group had prolonged intubation and hospital stay and high rates of associated complications such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, sepsis, shock, and 30 day mortality. CHF was significantly associated with certain characteristics, including male sex and bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia with respiratory failure is associated with CHF even in healthy children without cardiac risks. The awareness and early recognition of CHF, particularly in male, and bacterial pneumonia, is important in order to provide immediate treatment to reduce complications. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  4. Managing Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Langan, Katherine M; Kotsimbos, Tom; Peleg, Anton Y

    2015-12-01

    The current guidelines and recent clinical research in the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) are reviewed. Areas where further research is required will also be highlighted. P. aeruginosa is a key respiratory pathogen in CF. Inhaled tobramycin or colistin is recommended for early eradication to prevent establishment of chronic infection. Other antibiotic options are currently being investigated. The long-term success of eradication strategies is also now being assessed. The use of inhaled antibiotics in the management of chronic P. aeruginosa infection is an area of active investigation. Acute pulmonary exacerbations are still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Guidelines continue to recommend combination intravenous therapy but further research is required to clarify the advantage of this approach. Multidrug resistance is common and potentially more effective antipseudomonal antibiotics may soon become available. The management of P. aeruginosa respiratory infection in CF remains a challenging area, especially in the setting of multidrug resistance. The role of inhaled antibiotics continues to be expanded. Further research is required in the key areas of eradication and management of chronic infection and acute pulmonary exacerbations to identify those treatments that optimize long-term, clinical benefits.

  5. Orofacial and respiratory tardive dyskinesia: potential side effects of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol)?

    PubMed

    Haug, B A; Holzgraefe, M

    1991-01-01

    A case of essential tremor since early adultness is presented, which has been treated successfully with the acetylcholine precursor 2-dimethylaminoethanol (deanol) for 10 years. Development of a marked dyskinesia syndrome affecting predominantly orofacial and respiratory musculature has been noticed with this medication. Partial remission after discontinuation and a favorable response to anticholinergics are suggestive of an adverse drug effect.

  6. Respiratory disease, behavior, and survival of mountain goat kids

    Blanchong, Julie A.; Anderson, Christopher A.; Clark, Nicholas J.; Klaver, Robert W.; Plummer, Paul J.; Cox, Mike; Mcadoo, Caleb; Wolff, Peregrine L.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a threat to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. Bighorn sheep in the East Humboldt Mountain Range (EHR), Nevada, USA, experienced a pneumonia epizootic in 2009–2010. Testing of mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) that were captured or found dead on this range during and after the epizootic detected bacteria commonly associated with bighorn sheep pneumonia die‐offs. Additionally, in years subsequent to the bighorn sheep epizootic, the mountain goat population had low kid:adult ratios, a common outcome for bighorn sheep populations that have experienced a pneumonia epizootic. We hypothesized that pneumonia was present and negatively affecting mountain goat kids in the EHR. From June–August 2013–2015, we attempted to observe mountain goat kids with marked adult females in the EHR at least once per week to document signs of respiratory disease; identify associations between respiratory disease, activity levels, and subsequent disappearance (i.e., death); and estimate weekly survival. Each time we observed a kid with a marked adult female, we recorded any signs of respiratory disease and collected behavior data that we fit to a 3‐state discrete hidden Markov model (HMM) to predict a kid's state (active vs. sedentary) and its probability of disappearing. We first observed clinical signs of respiratory disease in kids in late July–early August each summer. We observed 8 of 31 kids with marked adult females with signs of respiratory disease on 13 occasions. On 11 of these occasions, the HMM predicted that kids were in the sedentary state, which was associated with increased probability of subsequent death. We estimated overall probability of kid survival from June–August to be 0.19 (95% CI = 0.08–0.38), which was lower than has been reported in other mountain goat populations. We concluded that respiratory disease was present in the mountain goat kids in the EHR and negatively affected their activity levels and survival

  7. Housing and respiratory health at older ages.

    PubMed

    Webb, E; Blane, D; de Vries, Robert

    2013-03-01

    A large proportion of the population of England live in substandard housing. Previous research has suggested that poor-quality housing, particularly in terms of cold temperatures, mould, and damp, poses a health risk, particularly for older people. The present study aimed to examine the association between housing conditions and objectively measured respiratory health in a large general population sample of older people in England. Data on housing conditions, respiratory health and relevant covariates were obtained from the second wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Multivariate regression methods were used to test the association between contemporary housing conditions and respiratory health while accounting for the potential effect of other factors; including social class, previous life-course housing conditions and childhood respiratory health. Older people who were in fuel poverty or who did not live in a home they owned had significantly worse respiratory health as measured by peak expiratory flow rates. After accounting for covariates, these factors had no effect on any other measures of respiratory health. Self-reported housing problems were not consistently associated with respiratory health. The housing conditions of older people in England, particularly those associated with fuel poverty and living in rented accommodation, may be harmful to some aspects of respiratory health. This has implications for upcoming UK government housing and energy policy decisions.

  8. A Guide for Respiratory Therapy Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Respiratory Therapy, Dallas, TX.

    The document presents educational criterion upon which curriculum builders can create a competency-based program of respiratory therapy education. The 11 modules presented supplement and compliment the document Delineation of Roles and Functions of Respiratory Therapy Personnel (CE 005 945) which is listed as appendix D but not included as such.…

  9. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic Nanovaccines Against Respiratory Pathogens (SYNARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    to other respiratory infections, such as pulmonary F. tularemia , and test the nanovaccines efficacy in animal models (unfunded option). Focusing on...nanovaccine platforms to other respiratory infections, such as pulmonary F. tularemia , and test the nanovaccines efficacy in animal models

  11. Middle East respiratory syndrome: knowledge to date.

    PubMed

    Alsolamy, Sami

    2015-06-01

    To provide a conceptual and clinical review of Middle East respiratory syndrome. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through searches of PubMed using the terms "Middle East respiratory syndrome," "coronavirus respiratory illness in Saudi Arabia," and "novel (beta) coronavirus and human coronavirus Erasmus Medical Center". In addition, articles were searched on the websites of the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using the terms "Middle East respiratory syndrome" and "novel coronavirus in Middle East." The reference lists of these articles and relevant review articles were also reviewed. Final references were selected for inclusion in the review on the basis of their relevance. The emerging Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus causes severe pulmonary disease with multiorgan involvement and a high fatality rate. Within months after its emergence, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus was reported in several countries worldwide in people who had traveled from the Middle East. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is considered a zoonotic virus that has crossed the species barrier to humans, but the pathogenesis and the routes of transmission are not completely understood. There is currently no recommended treatment for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, although supportive treatment has played an important role. This syndrome has raised global public health concerns about the dissemination of an emerging infectious disease and highlights the need for a coordinated global response to contain such a disease threat.

  12. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in cattle

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (bRSV) is a cause of respiratory disease in cattle world-wide. It has an integral role in enzootic pneumonia in young dairy calves and summer pneumonia in nursing beef calves. Furthermore, bRSV infection can predispose calves to secondary bacterial infection by org...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.92 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1917.92 Section 1917.92 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Personal Protection § 1917.92 Respiratory protection. (See § 1917.1(a)(2)(x...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.103 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1926.103 Section 1926.103 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1926.103 Respiratory protection. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.102 - Respiratory protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Respiratory protection. 1918.102 Section 1918.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Respiratory protection. (See § 1918.1(b)(8)). [65 FR 40946, June 30, 2000] ...

  8. Perceived Competence and Comfort in Respiratory Protection

    PubMed Central

    Burgel, Barbara J.; Novak, Debra; Burns, Candace M.; Byrd, Annette; Carpenter, Holly; Gruden, MaryAnn; Lachat, Ann; Taormina, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    In response to the Institute of Medicine (2011) report Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection: Improving Education and Training, a nationwide survey was conducted in May 2012 to assess occupational health nurses’ educational preparation, roles, responsibilities, and training needs in respiratory protection. More than 2,000 occupational health nurses responded; 83% perceived themselves as competent, proficient, or expert in respiratory protection, reporting moderate comfort with 12 respiratory program elements. If occupational health nurses had primary responsibility for the respiratory protection program, they were more likely to perceive higher competence and more comfort in respiratory protection, after controlling for occupational health nursing experience, highest education, occupational health nursing certification, industry sector, Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare membership, taking a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health spirometry course in the prior 5 years, and perceiving a positive safety culture at work. These survey results document high perceived competence and comfort in respiratory protection. These findings support the development of targeted educational programs and interprofessional competencies for respiratory protection. PMID:23429638

  9. Respiratory disability in coal miners

    SciT

    Morgan, W.K.C.; Lapp, N.L.; Seaton, D.

    1980-06-20

    It has been suggested that the assessment of ventilatory capacity alone is inadequate for the determination of disabling occupational respiratory impairment in coal miners. The Department of Labor has accepted this view and now routinely requests blood gas analyses in those claimants not meeting the ventilatory criteria. We tested the validity of this contention by selecting two groups of coal miners claiming total disability. The first consisted of 150 claimants who were referred for spirometry, while the second consisted of 50 claimants who had been referred for blood gas studies. Of those in group 1, eight met the extant criteriamore » for disability, while only two of those in group 2 satisfied the criteria, and, in both, cardiac disease was responsible. We conclude that blood gas analyses are unnecessary in the determination of pulmonary disability in coal miners.« less

  10. Linking microbiota and respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Matthias; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2016-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence indicates the relevance of microbiota for pulmonary health and disease. Independent investigations recently demonstrated that the lung harbors a resident microbiota. Therefore, it is intriguing that a lung microbiota can shape pulmonary immunity and epithelial barrier functions. Here, we discuss the ways how the composition of the microbial community in the lung may influence pulmonary health and vice versa, factors that determine community composition. Prominent microbiota at other body sites such as the intestinal one may also contribute to pulmonary health and disease. However, it is difficult to discriminate between influences of lung vs. gut microbiota due to systemic mutuality between both communities. With focuses on asthma and respiratory infections, we discuss how microbiota of lung and gut can determine pulmonary immunity and barrier functions. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. Respiratory response to microinjections of GABA and penicillin into various parts of the ventral respiratory group.

    PubMed

    Vedyasova, O A; Kovalyov, A M

    2012-06-01

    Experiments on rats showed that local injection of GABA (10(-4) M) into the rostral and caudal compartments of the ventral respiratory groups decreased the respiratory rhythm, but increased lung ventilation (especially injection into the rostral part). Penicillin (10(-7) M) injected into the rostral division increased the tidal volume and practically did not change the respiratory rate, but its injection into the caudal part reduced the tidal volume and increased respiratory rate. These results indicate that GABAergic mechanisms including GABA(A) sites play an ambiguous role in the regulation of respiration at the level of the rostral and caudal parts of the ventral respiratory group.

  12. Physical examination of the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the approach to a patient with respiratory distress, with a focus on clues obtained from the physical examination. Respiratory distress is a common reason for presentation of a companion animal to a veterinarian on an emergency basis, and thus the clinician should have a comfort level with the approach to these patients. Our discussion includes a basic review of respiratory pathophysiology and the differential diagnoses for hypoxemia. In the majority of cases, physical examination should allow localization of the cause of the respiratory problem to the upper airways, lower airways, pleural space, or pulmonary parenchyma. Such localization, coupled with signalment and historical clues, guides additional diagnostics and therapeutics based on the most likely differential diagnoses. Although managing a patient with respiratory distress can be challenging, a systematic approach such as the one presented here should ensure appropriate intervention in a timely fashion and maximize the chance of a good outcome. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Breathlessness, fatigue and the respiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Mioxham, John; Jolley, Caroline

    2009-10-01

    Breathlessness is a common symptom in respiratory, cardiovascular and malignant disease. It reduces exercise tolerance and mobility, and is an important determinant of quality of life. The multifactorial nature of the symptom often presents difficulties in understanding why individual patients are breathless, and how breathlessness should best be palliated, especially in advanced disease. However, insights into the neurophysiological factors underlying the symptom can be gained by considering the balance between the load on, and capacity of, the respiratory muscles and increased neural respiratory drive, reflecting increased respiratory effort. Mismatch between efferent neural respiratory drive and afferent feedback, reflecting the degree of neuromechanical dissociation, is also important. This paper describes mechanisms by which ventilatory load, capacity and drive may be affected by disease, and how these can be measured physiologically. The schema presented also provides a framework for understanding the mechanisms by which interventions that relieve breathlessness may have their effect.

  14. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, T; Harper-Owen, R; Bhowmik, A; Moric, I; Sanderson, G; Message, S; Maccallum, P; Meade, T W; Jeffries, D J; Johnston, S L; Wedzicha, J A

    2001-11-01

    The effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable COPD and at exacerbation. Eighty-three patients with COPD (mean [SD] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, FEV(1), 1.06 [0.61] L) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. Nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, and plasma fibrinogen and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at stable baseline and exacerbation. Sixty-four percent of exacerbations were associated with a cold occurring up to 18 d before exacerbation. Seventy-seven viruses (39 [58.2%] rhinoviruses) were detected in 66 (39.2%) of 168 COPD exacerbations in 53 (64%) patients. Viral exacerbations were associated with frequent exacerbators, colds with increased dyspnea, a higher total symptom count at presentation, a longer median symptom recovery period of 13 d, and a tendency toward higher plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Non-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respiratory viruses were detected in 11 (16%), and RSV in 16 (23.5%), of 68 stable COPD patients, with RSV detection associated with higher inflammatory marker levels. Respiratory virus infections are associated with more severe and frequent exacerbations, and may cause chronic infection in COPD. Prevention and early treatment of viral infections may lead to a decreased exacerbation frequency and morbidity associated with COPD.

  16. Early postoperative pulmonary complications after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Camkiran Firat, A; Komurcu, O; Zeyneloglu, P; Turker, M; Sezgin, A; Pirat, A

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the types, incidence, and risk factors for early postoperative pulmonary complications in heart transplant recipients. We retrospectively collected data from the records of consecutive heart transplantations from January 2003 to December 2013. A total of 83 patients underwent heart transplantation. The data collected for each case were demographic features, duration of mechanical ventilation, respiratory problems that developed during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and early postoperative mortality (<30 d). Of the 72 patients considered, 52 (72.2%) were male. The overall mean age at the time of transplantation was 32.1 ± 16.6 years. Twenty-five patients (34.7%) developed early postoperative respiratory complications. The most frequent problem was pleural effusion (n = 19; 26.4%), followed by atelectasis (n = 6; 8.3%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 5; 6.9%), pulmonary edema (n = 4; 5.6%), and pneumonia (n = 3; 4.2%). Postoperative duration of mechanical ventilation (44.2 ± 59.2 h vs 123.8 ± 190.8 h; P = .005) and the length of postoperative ICU stay (10.1 ± 5.8 h vs 19.8 ± 28.9 h; P = .03) were longer among patients who had respiratory problems. Postoperative length of stay in the hospital (22.3 ± 12.5 d vs 30.3 ± 38.3 d; P = .75) was similar in the 2 groups. The overall mortality rate was 12.5% (n = 9). The patients who had respiratory problems did not show higher mortality than those who did not have respiratory problems (16.0% vs 10.6%; P = .71). Respiratory complications were relatively common in our cohort of heart transplant recipients. However, these complications were mostly self-limiting and did not result in worse mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Respiratory system mechanics in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kallet, Richard H; Katz, Jeffrey A

    2003-09-01

    Respiratory mechanics research is important to the advancement of ARDS management. Twenty-eight years ago, research on the effects of PEEP and VT indicated that the lungs of ARDS patients did not behave in a manner consistent with homogenously distributed lung injury. Both Suter and colleagues] and Katz and colleagues reported that oxygenation continued to improve as PEEP increased (suggesting lung recruitment), even though static Crs decreased and dead-space ventilation increased (suggesting concurrent lung overdistension). This research strongly suggested that without VT reduction, the favorable effects of PEEP on lung recruitment are offset by lung overdistension at end-inspiration. The implications of these studies were not fully appreciated at that time, in part because the concept of ventilator-associated lung injury was in its nascent state. Ten years later. Gattinoni and colleagues compared measurements of static pressure-volume curves with FRC and CT scans of the chest in ARDS. They found that although PEEP recruits collapsed (primarily dorsal) lung segments, it simultaneously causes overdistension of non-dependent, inflated lung regions. Furthermore, the specific compliance of the aerated, residually healthy lung tissue is essentially normal. The main implication of these findings is that traditional mechanical ventilation practice was injecting excessive volumes of gas into functionally small lungs. Therefore, the emblematic low static Crs measured in ARDS reflects not only surface tension phenomena and recruitment of collapsed airspaces but also overdistension of the remaining healthy lung. The studies reviewed in this article support the concept that lung injury in ARDS is heterogeneously distributed, with resulting disparate mechanical stresses, and indicate the additional complexity from alterations in chest wall mechanics. Most of these studies, however, were published before lung-protective ventilation. Therefore, further studies are needed to

  18. Control and prevention of healthcare-associated tuberculosis: the role of respiratory isolation and personal respiratory protection.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, H

    2007-05-01

    Although the prevalence of tuberculosis continues to decline in most developed countries, the risk of healthcare-associated tuberculosis, remains for patients or healthcare staff. Outbreaks of healthcare-associated tuberculosis are usually associated with delays in diagnosis and treatment, or the care of patients in sub-optimal facilities. The control and prevention of tuberculosis in hospitals is best achieved by three approaches, namely administrative (early investigation diagnosis, etc.), engineering (physical facilities e.g. ventilated isolation rooms) and personal respiratory protection (face sealing masks which are filtered). Recent guidelines on the prevention of tuberculosis in healthcare facilities from Europe and the USA have many common themes. In the UK, however, negative pressure isolation rooms are recommended only for patients with suspected multi-drug resistant TB and personal respiratory protection, i.e. filtered masks, are not considered necessary unless multi-drug resistant TB is suspected, or where aerosol-generating procedures are likely. In the US, the standard of care for patients with infectious tuberculosis is a negative pressure ventilated room and the use of personal respiratory protection for all healthcare workers entering the room of a patient with suspected or confirmed tuberculosis. The absence of clinical trials in this area precludes dogmatic recommendations. Nonetheless, observational studies and mathematical modelling suggest that all measures are required for effective prevention. Even when policies and facilities are optimal, there is a need to regularly review and audit these as sometimes compliance is less than optimal. The differences in recommendations may reflect the variations in epidemiology and the greater use of BCG vaccination in the UK compared with the United States. There is a strong argument for advising ventilated facilities and personal respiratory protection for the care of all patients with tuberculosis, as

  19. Delayed but successful response to noninvasive ventilation in COPD patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Bury, Quentin; Guiot, Aurélie; Jonard, Marie; Mohammad, Usman; Van Grunderbeeck, Nicolas; Gasan, Gaelle; Thevenin, Didier; Mallat, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated a new noninvasive ventilation (NIV) protocol that allows the pursuit of NIV in the case of persistent severe respiratory acidosis despite a first NIV challenge in COPD patients with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). A prospective observational multicentric pilot study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals over a 12-month study period. A total of 155 consecutive COPD patients who were admitted for AHRF and treated by NIV were enrolled. Delayed response to NIV was defined as a significant clinical improvement in the first 48 h following NIV initiation despite a persistent severe respiratory acidosis (pH <7.30) after the first 2 h of NIV trial. NIV failed in only 10 patients (6.5%). Delayed responders to NIV (n=83, 53%) exhibited similar nutritional status, comorbidities, functional status, frailty score, dyspnea score, and severity score at admission, compared with early responders (n=62, 40%). Only age (66 vs 70 years in early responders; P =0.03) and encephalopathy score (3 [2-4] vs 3 [2-4] in early responders; P =0.015) were different among the responders. Inhospital mortality did not differ between responders to NIV (n=10, 12% for delayed responders vs n=10, 16% for early responders, P =0.49). A second episode of AHRF occurred in 20 responders (14%), equally distributed among early and delayed responders to NIV (n=9, 14.5% in early responders vs n=11, 13% in delayed responders; P =0.83), with a poor survival rate (n=1, 5%). Most of the COPD patients with AHRF have a successful outcome when NIV is pursued despite a persistent severe respiratory acidosis after the first NIV trial. The outcome of delayed responders is similar to the one of the early responders. On the contrary, the second episode of AHRF during the hospital stay carries a poor prognosis.

  20. Respiratory sound recordings for detection of sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldemark, Karina E.; Agehed, Kenneth I.; Lindblad, Thomas

    1999-03-01

    Sleep apnea is characterized by frequent prolonged interruptions of breathing during sleep. This syndrome causes severe sleep disorders and is often responsible for development of other diseases such as heart problems, high blood pressure and daytime fatigue, etc. After diagnosis, sleep apnea is often successfully treated by applying positive air pressure (CPAP) to the mouth and nose. Although effective, the (CPAP) equipment takes up a lot of space and the connected mask causes a lot of inconvenience for the patients. This raised interest in developing new techniques for treatment of sleep apnea syndrome. Several studies indicated that electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve and muscle in the tongue may be a useful method for treating patients with severe sleep apnea. In order to be able to successfully prevent the occurrence of apnea it is necessary to have some technique for early and fast on-line detection or prediction of the apnea events. This paper suggests using measurements of respiratory airflow (mouth temperature). The signal processing for this task includes the use of a window short-FFT technique and uses an artificial back propagation neural net to model or predict the occurrence of apneas. The results show that early detection of respiratory interruption is possible and that the delay time for this is small.

  1. Prevalence, Cause, and Treatment of Respiratory Insufficiency After Orthotopic Heart Transplant.

    PubMed

    Savaş Bozbaş, Şerife; Ulubay, Gaye; Öner Eyüboğlu, Füsun; Sezgin, Atilla; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-11-01

    Heart transplant is the best treatment for end-stage heart failure. Respiratory insufficiency after heart transplant is a potentially serious complication. Pulmonary complications, pulmonary hypertension, allograft failure or rejection, and structural heart defects in the donor heart are among the causes of hypoxemia after transplant. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of hypoxemia and respiratory insufficiency in patients with orthotopic heart transplant during the early postoperative period. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 45 patients who had received orthotopic heart transplant at our center. Clinical and demographic variables and laboratory data were noted. Oxygen saturation values from patients in the first week and the first month after transplant were analyzed. We also documented the cause of respiratory insufficiency and the type of treatment. Mean age was 35.3 ± 15.3 years (range, 12-61 y), with males comprising 32 of 45 patients (71.1%). Two patients had mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and 1 had asthma. Twenty-five patients (55.6%) had a history of smoking. Respiratory insufficiency was noted in 9 patients (20%) during the first postoperative week. Regarding cause, 5 of these patients (11.1%) had pleural effusion, 2 (4.4%) had atelectasis, 1 (2.2%) had pneumonia, and 1 (2.2%) had acute renal failure. Therapies administered to patients with respiratory insufficiency were as follows: 5 patients had oxygen therapy with nasal canula/mask, 3 patients had continuous positive airway pressure, and 1 patient had mechanical ventilation. One month after transplant, 2 patients (4.4%) had respiratory insufficiency 1 (2.2%) due to pleural effusion and 1 (2.2%) due to atelectasis. Respiratory insufficiency is a common complication in the first week after orthotopic heart transplant. Identification of the underlying cause is an important indicator for therapy. With appropriate care, respiratory insufficiency can be treated

  2. Prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidity by quantitative ultrasound lung texture analysis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Montse; Bonet-Carne, Elisenda; Cobo, Teresa; Perez-Moreno, Alvaro; Sabrià, Joan; Richter, Jute; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo; García-Posada, Raúl A; Bugatto, Fernando; Santisteve, Ramon; Vives, Àngels; Parra-Cordero, Mauro; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Bartha, José Luis; Carretero-Lucena, Pilar; Tan, Kai Lit; Cruz-Martínez, Rogelio; Burke, Minke; Vavilala, Suseela; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Delgado, Juan Luis; Schenone, Mauro; Vilanova, Josep; Botet, Francesc; Yeo, George S H; Hyett, Jon; Deprest, Jan; Romero, Roberto; Gratacos, Eduard

    2017-08-01

    Prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidity may be useful to plan delivery in complicated pregnancies. The limited predictive performance of the current diagnostic tests together with the risks of an invasive procedure restricts the use of fetal lung maturity assessment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of quantitative ultrasound texture analysis of the fetal lung (quantusFLM) to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity in preterm and early-term (<39.0 weeks) deliveries. This was a prospective multicenter study conducted in 20 centers worldwide. Fetal lung ultrasound images were obtained at 25.0-38.6 weeks of gestation within 48 hours of delivery, stored in Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine format, and analyzed with quantusFLM. Physicians were blinded to the analysis. At delivery, perinatal outcomes and the occurrence of neonatal respiratory morbidity, defined as either respiratory distress syndrome or transient tachypnea of the newborn, were registered. The performance of the ultrasound texture analysis test to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity was evaluated. A total of 883 images were collected, but 17.3% were discarded because of poor image quality or exclusion criteria, leaving 730 observations for the final analysis. The prevalence of neonatal respiratory morbidity was 13.8% (101 of 730). The quantusFLM predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 74.3% (75 of 101), 88.6% (557 of 629), 51.0% (75 of 147), and 95.5% (557 of 583), respectively. Accuracy was 86.5% (632 of 730) and positive and negative likelihood ratios were 6.5 and 0.3, respectively. The quantusFLM predicted neonatal respiratory morbidity with an accuracy similar to that previously reported for other tests with the advantage of being a noninvasive technique. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Developmental Regulation of Effector and Resident Memory T Cell Generation during Pediatric Viral Respiratory Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Connors, Thomas J; Baird, J Scott; Yopes, Margot C; Zens, Kyra D; Pethe, Kalpana; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Ho, Siu-Hong; Farber, Donna L

    2018-05-30

    Viral respiratory tract infections (VRTI) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and young children. In mice, optimal protection to VRTI is mediated by recruitment of effector T cells to the lungs and respiratory tract, and subsequent establishment of tissue resident memory T cells (Trm), which provide long-term protection. These critical processes of T cell recruitment to the respiratory tract, their role in disease pathogenesis, and establishment of local protective immunity remain undefined in pediatric VRTI. In this study, we investigated T cell responses in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and lower respiratory tract (LRT) of infants and young children with VRTI, revealing developmental regulation of T cell differentiation and Trm generation in situ. We show a direct concurrence between T cell responses in the URT and LRT, including a preponderance of effector CD8 + T cells that was associated with disease severity. During infant VRTI, there was an accumulation of terminally differentiated effector cells (effector memory RA + T cells) in the URT and LRT with reduced Trm in the early neonatal period, and decreased effector memory RA + T cell and increased Trm formation with age during the early years of childhood. Moreover, human infant T cells exhibit increased expression of the transcription factor T-bet compared with adult T cells, suggesting a mechanism for preferential generation of effector over Trm. The developmental regulation of respiratory T cell responses as revealed in the present study is important for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating VRTI in the critical early life stages. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. A multicentre, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial, comparing nasal high flow with nasal continuous positive airway pressure as primary support for newborn infants with early respiratory distress born in Australian non-tertiary special care nurseries (the HUNTER trial): study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Brett J; Roberts, Calum T; Arnolda, Gaston R B; Wright, Ian M R; Owen, Louise S; Dalziel, Kim M; Foster, Jann P; Davis, Peter G; Buckmaster, Adam G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nasal high-flow (nHF) therapy is a popular mode of respiratory support for newborn infants. Evidence for nHF use is predominantly from neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). There are no randomised trials of nHF use in non-tertiary special care nurseries (SCNs). We hypothesise that nHF is non-inferior to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as primary support for newborn infants with respiratory distress, in the population cared for in non-tertiary SCNs. Methods and analysis The HUNTER trial is an unblinded Australian multicentre, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Infants are eligible if born at a gestational age ≥31 weeks with birth weight ≥1200 g and admitted to a participating non-tertiary SCN, are <24 hours old at randomisation and require non-invasive respiratory support or supplemental oxygen for >1 hour. Infants are randomised to treatment with either nHF or CPAP. The primary outcome is treatment failure within 72 hours of randomisation, as determined by objective oxygenation, apnoea or blood gas criteria or by a clinical decision that urgent intubation and mechanical ventilation, or transfer to a tertiary NICU, is required. Secondary outcomes include incidence of pneumothorax requiring drainage, duration of respiratory support, supplemental oxygen and hospitalisation, costs associated with hospital care, cost-effectiveness, parental stress and satisfaction and nursing workload. Ethics and dissemination Multisite ethical approval for the study has been granted by The Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia (Trial Reference No. 34222), and by each participating site. The trial is currently recruiting in eight centres in Victoria and New South Wales, Australia, with one previous site no longer recruiting. The trial results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR

  5. Poster - Thur Eve - 11: A realistic respiratory trace generator and its application to respiratory management techniques.

    PubMed

    Quirk, S; Becker, N; Smith, W L

    2012-07-01

    Respiratory motion complicates radiotherapy treatment of thoracic and abdominal tumours. Simplified respiratory motions such as sinusoidal and single patient traces are often used to determine the impact of motion on respiratory management techniques in radiotherapy. Such simplifications only accurately model a small portion of patients, as most patients exhibit variability and irregularity beyond these models. We have preformed a comprehensive analysis of respiratory motion and developed a software tool that allows for explicit inclusion of variability. We utilize our realistic respiratory generator to customize respiratory traces to test the robustness of the estimate of internal gross target volumes (IGTV) by 4DCT and CBCT. We confirmed that good agreement is found between 4DCT and CBCT for regular breathing motion. When amplitude variability was introduced the accuracy of the estimate slightly, but the absolute differences were still < 3 mm for both modalities. Poor agreement was shown with the addition of baseline drifts. Both modalities were found to underestimate the IGTV by as much as 30% for 4DCT and 25% for CBCT. Both large and small drifts deteriorated the estimate accuracy. The respiratory trace generator was advantageous for examining the difference between 4DCT and CBCT IGTV estimation under variable motions. It provided useful implementation abilities to test specific attributes of respiratory motion and detected issues that were not seen with the regular motion studies. This is just one example of how the respiratory trace generator can be utilized to test applications of respiratory management techniques. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. Computerised Analysis of Telemonitored Respiratory Sounds for Predicting Acute Exacerbations of COPD.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Granero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Morillo, Daniel; Leon-Jimenez, Antonio

    2015-10-23

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the commonest causes of death in the world and poses a substantial burden on healthcare systems and patients' quality of life. The largest component of the related healthcare costs is attributable to admissions due to acute exacerbation (AECOPD). The evidence that might support the effectiveness of the telemonitoring interventions in COPD is limited partially due to the lack of useful predictors for the early detection of AECOPD. Electronic stethoscopes and computerised analyses of respiratory sounds (CARS) techniques provide an opportunity for substantial improvement in the management of respiratory diseases. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using: (a) a respiratory sensor embedded in a self-tailored housing for ageing users; (b) a telehealth framework; (c) CARS and (d) machine learning techniques for the remote early detection of the AECOPD. In a 6-month pilot study, 16 patients with COPD were equipped with a home base-station and a sensor to daily record their respiratory sounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) and a support v